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Sample records for factors dominating choice

  1. Social dominance theory and medical specialty choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepièce, Brice; Reynaert, Christine; van Meerbeeck, Philippe; Dory, Valérie

    2016-03-01

    Understanding how medical students select their specialty is a fundamental issue for public health and educational policy makers. One of the factors that students take into account is a specialty's prestige which hinges partly on its focus on technique rather than whole person. We examine the potential of a psychological framework, social dominance theory, to explain why some students, and not others, are drawn to more prestigious, technique-oriented specialties, based on their desire for hierarchy. We conducted a cross-sectional study among medical students at Institution X (N = 359). We examined the link between medical students' characteristics i.e. social dominance orientation (SDO), gender, age, and their career intention. We also examined level of medical students' SDO at different stages of the curriculum. SDO scores were significantly associated with technique-oriented career intentions (OR 1.56; 95 % CI [1.18, 2.06]; p = 0.001). The effect was independent of gender. Medical students' SDO scores were significantly higher in later stages of the medical curriculum (F = 6.79; p = 0. 001). SDO is a significant predictor of medical students' career intention. SDO scores are higher in students during the clinical phase of the curriculum. Medical socialization, involving the internalization of implicit and explicit norms, particularly in hospital settings, is likely to underpin our findings. This theory illuminates consistent findings in the literature on specialty prestige and the influence of medical school on career choice.

  2. Dominance of sterilization and alternative choices of contraception in India: an appraisal of the socioeconomic impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Tiago de Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The recent decline in fertility in India has been unprecedented especially in southern India, where fertility is almost exclusively controlled by means of permanent contraceptive methods, mainly female sterilization, which constitutes about two-thirds of overall contraceptive use. Many Indian women undergo sterilization at relatively young ages as a consequence of early marriage and childbearing in short birth intervals. This research aims to investigate the socioeconomic factors determining the choices for alternative contraceptive choices against the dominant preference for sterilization among married women in India. METHODS: Data for this study are drawn from the 2005-06 National Family Health Surveys focusing on a sample of married women who reported having used a method of contraception in the five years preceding the survey. A multilevel multinomial logit regression is used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic factors on contraceptive choices, differentiating temporary modern or traditional methods versus sterilization. FINDINGS: Religious affiliation, women's education and occupation had overarching influence on method choices amongst recent users. Muslim women were at higher odds of choosing a traditional or modern temporary method than sterilization. Higher level of women's education increased the odds of modern temporary method choices but the education effect on traditional method choices was only marginally significant. Recent users belonging to wealthier households had higher odds of choosing modern methods over sterilization. Exposure to family planning messages through radio had a positive effect on modern and traditional method choices. Community variations in method choices were highly significant. CONCLUSION: The persistent dominance of sterilization in the Indian family planning programme is largely determined by socioeconomic conditions. Reproductive health programmes should address the socioeconomic barriers

  3. Dominance of sterilization and alternative choices of contraception in India: an appraisal of the socioeconomic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Isabel Tiago; Dias, José G; Padmadas, Sabu S

    2014-01-01

    The recent decline in fertility in India has been unprecedented especially in southern India, where fertility is almost exclusively controlled by means of permanent contraceptive methods, mainly female sterilization, which constitutes about two-thirds of overall contraceptive use. Many Indian women undergo sterilization at relatively young ages as a consequence of early marriage and childbearing in short birth intervals. This research aims to investigate the socioeconomic factors determining the choices for alternative contraceptive choices against the dominant preference for sterilization among married women in India. Data for this study are drawn from the 2005-06 National Family Health Surveys focusing on a sample of married women who reported having used a method of contraception in the five years preceding the survey. A multilevel multinomial logit regression is used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic factors on contraceptive choices, differentiating temporary modern or traditional methods versus sterilization. Religious affiliation, women's education and occupation had overarching influence on method choices amongst recent users. Muslim women were at higher odds of choosing a traditional or modern temporary method than sterilization. Higher level of women's education increased the odds of modern temporary method choices but the education effect on traditional method choices was only marginally significant. Recent users belonging to wealthier households had higher odds of choosing modern methods over sterilization. Exposure to family planning messages through radio had a positive effect on modern and traditional method choices. Community variations in method choices were highly significant. The persistent dominance of sterilization in the Indian family planning programme is largely determined by socioeconomic conditions. Reproductive health programmes should address the socioeconomic barriers and consider multiple cost-effective strategies such as mass

  4. Dominance Weighted Social Choice Functions for Group Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ROSSI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In travel domains, decision support systems provide support to tourists in the planning of their vacation. In particular, when the number of possible Points of Interest (POI to visit is large, the system should help tourists providing recommendations on the POI that could be more interesting for them. Since traveling is, usually, an activity that involves small groups of people, the system should take simultaneously into account the preferences of each group's member. At the same time, it also should model possible intra-group relationships, which can have an impact in the group decision-making process. In this paper, we model this problem as a multi-agent aggregation of preferences by using weighted social choice functions, whereas such weights are automatically evaluated by analyzing the interactions of the group's members on Online Social Networks.

  5. Latent factors and route choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    . A reliable dataset was prepared through measures of internal consistency and sampling adequacy, and data were analyzed with a proper application of factor analysis to the route choice context. For the dataset obtained from the survey, six latent constructs affecting driver behaviour were extracted and scores...... of drivers did not minimize travel time and distance, while simulation techniques were suitable to produce realistic alternative paths in the choice set generation phase. Several route choice models were evaluated: Multinomial Logit, C-Logit, Path Size Logit, Generalized Nested Logit, Cross Nested Logit...... and Link Nested Logit. Estimates were produced from model specifications that considered level-of-service, label and facility dummy variables. Moreover, a modelling framework was designed to represent drivers’ choices as affected by the latent constructs extracted with factor analysis. Previous experience...

  6. Factors Influencing Medical Students' Choice of Specialty

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Pei-Yeh; Hung, Chih-Young; Wang, Kuei-lng; Huang, Yuan-Huei; Chang, King-Jen

    2006-01-01

    Medical school graduates are the source of a country's physicians. Determining how the graduates of these schools select their areas of specialization is the key to achieving a balanced distribution of doctors among all specialties. The purposes of this study were to determine the factors that influence medical students' choice of medical specialty, and to derive the relative weight of each factor. Methods: We constructed a two-tiered analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model which was repres...

  7. Making the Choice Clear: Partnership and Domination Examples from Nursing Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddie M Potter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Health care is in desperate need of transformation, which will require careful scrutiny of the current culture. Riane Eisler’s Cultural Transformation Theory (1987, 2007 and particularly its application in partnership-based health care (Eisler & Potter, 2014, offers nurses and other health care providers a framework to clarify choices regarding their organization’s culture. In this article, nursing leaders offer examples of common domination and partnership behaviors at play in health care today. The intent is to provide a clear choice and increase awareness of the stakes of failing to move towards partnership.

  8. Male dominance, female mate choice and intersexual conflict in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Casalini, M.; Agbali, M.; Reichard, Martin; Konečná, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Smith, C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2009), s. 366-376 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ČR KJB600930501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : female mating preference * good genes * olfactory cues * mate choice * MHC * Rhodeus ocellatus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.429, year: 2009

  9. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen...

  10. Factors in career choice among US nephrologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Gearoid M; Thomas, Lynette; Tucker, J Kevin; Lin, Julie

    2012-11-01

    There is a projected shortage of kidney specialists, and retention of trainees in nephrology is important. Determining factors that result in choosing a nephrology career could inform future strategies to attract nephrology fellows. An anonymous, internet-based survey was sent to members of the American Society of Nephrology in June 2009. Respondents answered questions about demographics, training background, and career choices. Of the 3399 members, 913 (23%) returned the survey. Mean age was 51.1 ± 10.5 years, and 46.1% were academic nephrologists. In addition, 38.4% of respondents graduated between 2000 and 2009. Interest in nephrology began early in training, with the intellectual aspects of nephrology, early mentoring, and participation in nephrology electives named as the most common reasons in choosing nephrology. Academic nephrologists were more likely to have participated in research in medical school, have a master's degree or PhD, and successfully obtained research funding during training. Academic debt was higher among nonacademic nephrologists. Research opportunities and intellectual stimulation were the main factors for academic nephrologists when choosing their first postfellowship positions, whereas geographic location and work-life balance were foremost for nonacademic nephrologists. These findings highlight the importance of exposing medical students and residents to nephrology early in their careers through involvement in research, electives, and positive mentoring. Further work is needed to develop and implement effective strategies, including increasing early exposure to nephrology in preclinical and clinical years, as well as encouraging participation in research, in order to attract future nephrology trainees.

  11. Factors influencing choice of oral hygiene products by dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several factors, such as cost, branding, packaging and family influence, had been implicated as influencing the choice of toothpastes and toothbrushes by individuals. Media advertisement is also considered a very strong factor influencing consumer's choice. Aim: To assess the extent to which some factors ...

  12. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. An application of the food choice kaleidoscope framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller Loose, S; Jaeger, S R

    2012-12-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen by whom, when and where can be helpful for manufacturers, dieticians/health care providers, and health policy makers. A descriptive framework - the food choice kaleidoscope (Jaeger et al., 2011) - was applied to self-reported 24h food recall data from a sample of New Zealand consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors. Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in the form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal specific. Furthermore, this study integrates psychographic variables into the 'person' mirror of the food choice kaleidoscope. A measure of habit in beverage choice was obtained from the inter-participant correlation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  14. Gender Differential Perception Of Factors Influencing Choice Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Differential Perception Of Factors Influencing Choice Of Profession Among Academic Staff Of Colleges Of Education In Rivers State, Nigeria. ... This is because if the wrong choice is made productivity in the world of work may be affected drastically. Male academicians on the one hand and females on the other have ...

  15. Food choices, physical activity levels and other factors associated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Food choices (healthy vs. unhealthy), PA levels, and health knowledge ... physical activity; South Africa. Food choices, physical activity levels and other factors associated with weight gain in primary school educators. 83 ...... educators that reflect fast-food intake (take-outs, pies, sausage rolls, samosas, fried foods and.

  16. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.

  17. Perceived Factors Influencing the Choice of Antenatal Care and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived Factors Influencing the Choice of Antenatal Care and Delivery Centres among Childbearing Women In Ibadan North South-Western, Nigeria. EE Ewa, CJ Lasisi, SO Maduka, AE Ita, UW Ibor, OA Anjorin ...

  18. Identifying factors affecting destination choice of medical tourists: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical tourism”, has emerged as a new source of competitive advantage all over the world. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect destination choice of medical tourists. Methods: We systematically searched relevant databases ...

  19. Factors Influencing Medical Students' Choice of Specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yeh Chang

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: This study found that personal intelligence/ability preference and career opportunities were more important factors to the current generation of students in choosing a specialty. Knowledge of these students' attitudes could form the basis for the development of strategies to enhance the attractiveness of specialties facing the problem of a shortage of manpower.

  20. Techniques Choice, Misallocation and Total Factor Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uras, R.B.; Wang, P.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a generalized production framework with endogenous “production techniques” that serve to organize raw factor inputs in an efficient manner. We establish a positive relationship between production flexibility and cost efficiency. By allowing firms to differ in technology scales,capital

  1. Techniques Choice, Misallocation and Total Factor Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uras, R.B.; Wang, P.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a generalized production framework with endogenous “production techniques” that serve to organize raw factor inputs in an efficient manner. We establish a positive relationship between production ‡exibility and cost efficiency. By allowing …firms to differ in technology scales, capital

  2. A Difficult Choice? : A study of which factors influence the choice of auditor

    OpenAIRE

    Embretzén, Johanna; Nilsson, Marie; Olofsson, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Because all joint-stock companies in Sweden need to have an auditor we thought it would be interesting to study how companies choose their auditor and which factors influence their choice. Therefore our research question is: “Which factors influence joint-stock companies in their choice of auditor?” The main purpose of the study is to get a better and deeper understanding of the subject, in order to clarify the purpose we established three sub purposes: • Establish which determinants that pla...

  3. Factors influencing career choice in anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a shortage of anaesthesiologists in India. The factors that prompt medical students to opt for anaesthesiology as their career are not known; neither do we have any mechanism to know a student′s stress-bearing ability before he/she opts for a stressful career like anaesthesiology. We conducted an anonymous, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 200 post-graduate anaesthesiology students to know various factors that they considered while opting for this speciality, and also evaluated their stress-bearing ability using Antonovsky′s 13-point sense of coherence scale. Methods: Two-hundred anaesthesiology students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the factors they considered important while opting for anaesthesiology, also enumerated in order of importance the three most important factors that led to opting this career. Students also answered the questions in Antonovsky′s sense of coherence (SOC scale. Results: Economic security was considered by maximum number of students (67.7%, while intellectual stimulation/challenge offered by anaesthesiology was rated first in order of importance. Influence of doctor−patient relationship was not considered by large number of students. The weak SOC score (55 (25 th percentile was not greatly different than the mean SOC score (60 in the survey. Conclusion: Increasing the exposure of students to anaesthesiology at undergraduate level and building public awareness about the speciality will prompt more students to opt for the speciality, while career counselling with regard to specific needs of a speciality and ability of a student will help in opting the speciality that best suits the student′s personality.

  4. Perceived factors influencing the choice of leadership styles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived factors influencing the choice of leadership styles of heads of academic libraries in Delta State. ... Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... Findings revealed that generally, all the items on perceived factors influencing heads of libraries' leadership styles were accepted.

  5. Vote Choice, Ideology, and Social Dominance Orientation Influence Preferences for Lower Pitched Voices in Political Candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse; Petersen, Michael Bang; A. Klofstad, Casey

    2015-01-01

    in modern elections with lower-pitched voices are generally more successful. As lower-pitched voices are perceived as stronger and more dominant, these findings have been taken to indicate a general preference for dispositional abilities in leaders to protect and prevail in conflicts. Here we extend upon...... among liberal Democrats. In a third study we show that preferences for lower-pitched candidate voices stem from individual differences in Social Dominance Orientation (SDO). Importantly, across all three studies subjects’ party affiliation, ideology, and SDO only predict references for male candidate...

  6. Foreign Direct Investment Location Choice Factors: Some Evidence for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana KOREZ-VIDE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the liberalization and transformation of emerging markets economies, the attractiveness of these countries for foreign direct investors has been rising in the last decades. This paper explores foreign direct investment (FDI location choice factors of German and Austrian companies in Brazilian regions. We perform a quantitative analysis, based on the Multinomial Nested Logit Model and supplement its findings by the qualitative analysis, based on the semi-structured experts’ interview. The analyses show that investor-nation specific agglomeration, industry specialization, workforce qualification and physical infrastructure were important FDI location choice factors for German and Austrian companies in Brazil. Suggestions for future research of the FDI location choice factors are discussed.

  7. FACTORS AFFECTING CITY DESTINATION CHOICE AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Tomić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to explore factors which influence city destination choice among young people in Serbia. In order to achieve this we conducted a survey consisting of 20 different items influencing the choice of city destination. Afterwards the principal component exploratory factor analysis (EFA was carried out in order to extract factors. T-test and ANOVA test were also used to determine if there is a difference between different gender and age groups in terms of which factors influence their choice of a city destination. The results indicate four motivating factors extracted by factor analysis, from which Good hospitality and restaurant service seems to be the major motivating factor. The results also show that respondents belonging to the age group of under 25 give more importance to Information and promotion as well as to Good hospitality and restaurant service than those belonging to older age groups. The same two factors are also more important to females than males.

  8. factors influencing choice of oral hygiene products by dental patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    16, 17 and coffee consumption.18 Both factors predispose to extrinsic staining, which may lead to the search for possible way(s) of removing the stains and thus the choice of harder texture of toothbrush. About 51% of the participants choose their toothbrush based on dentist advice, which is contrary to previous studies.

  9. Factors determining the choice of a place of delivery among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    85 (60.7%) chose to deliver in the hospital, while 55 (39.3%) opted for home delivery in the index pregnancy. Determinants of choice of delivery place include cost of hospital bill ... thus achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. Keywords: Factors, delivery, birth attendants, pregnant women, MDGs ...

  10. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies assessing past and current overall dietary patterns are limited in the elderly in Mauritius. To address this lack of information, a nutritional study was conducted to investigate the various possible factors and their relative importance in influencing food choices and thus food intake of the elderly people in Mauritius.

  11. What Factors Influence Vietnamese Students' Choice of University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university…

  12. Determining Factors in Secondary School Students' Choice of Physics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using survey research approach, the predictive power of certain characteristics of physics curriculum, social factors, as well as some students‟ characteristics (11 predictor variables) on choice of physics were assessed. The study involved 384 students randomly selected from 14 public senior secondary schools in Ibadan ...

  13. Career Choice Factors for BSW Students: A 10-Year Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, James G.; McCullagh, James G.

    1995-01-01

    A 10-year study of the major career choice factors of social work undergraduates (n=746) found that, although altruism remains important, students are motivated by both service to others and job self-interest. Dimensions of motivation for choosing social work have not changed significantly over this period. (Author/MSE)

  14. Personal and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Female Choice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Female Choice of Courses in the University of Ibadan, Ibadan. ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology ... Female students in six (Arts, Education, Pharmacy, Science, Social Sciences and Technology) out of nine faculties were purposively sampled.

  15. An Investigation into factors influencing the choice of business ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines critically the factors that influence the choice of Business Education in tertiary institutions with specific reference to University of Lagos and Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, Ogun State. For the study, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to100 students in University of Lagos and 75 ...

  16. Generational Approach to Factors Influencing Career Choice in Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony Hsiao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research aims to grasp which factors influence the generation Y to choose accounting as its career. A significant decline in the number of candidates willing to pursue a career as accountant has been observed abroad - USA, Australia, and Japan. However, in other countries - Brazil, Singapore, and Hong Kong - the opposite has been observed. Another issue is the decline in educational qualification of those pursuing an accounting career, contributing in a way that many talented students change their career choice. This may be explained by the fact that people tend to believe accounting is an exact science, full of calculations, boring, and not very creative, bringing an unbalance between the traits an individual should have according to the job market and those perceived by society. In order to give a contribution to literature concerning the factors that influence the generation Y in its career choice, a goal of this research was conducting an exploratory study where some hypotheses were formulated to support the discussion. We used Mannheim's Generational Theory and the literature on career choice. Data collection was carried out using a questionnaire, based on Schwartz's Portrait Value Questionnaire and Germeijs and Verschueren's Student Choice Task Inventory, adapted through focus group interview. Data were fully collected online and the sample consisted of 665 subjects. The results showed that people who chose accounting as their career were influenced by factors such as creativity, independence, challenging and dynamic environment, job security, money-making, job availability, and other significant people - friends and teachers. The subjects were not influenced by social factors, such as working with people and making contributions to society and family. They wish for more autonomy, creativity, and flexibility at work, and people still care about job security and money-making.

  17. Factors affecting adolescents’ choice of branded vs. fashionable clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Mónica Sofia Ramos

    2011-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics The aim of this project is to analyse the importance of branded and fashionable clothing, and which of them is the most important for adolescents when choosing their clothes, according with gender and age. The research analysed how three factors (peers’ influence, materialistic behaviour and self-esteem) affected adolescents’ clothing choice...

  18. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan, Yousef; Al-Fouzan, Rawan; Al-Ajlan, Sarah; Al-Saleh, Mervat

    2012-01-01

    Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression wer...

  19. OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE FACTORS OF MEDICAL DRUG CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Babanskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze the factors of medical choice in the prescription of medicinal drug (MD for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Material and methods. A questionnaire survey of 212 doctors (138 physicians and 42 general practitioners was performed in Irkutsk region and Republic of Buryatia. Questions were related to the physicians’ choice of the original or generic MD and the factors that influence this choice. Results. The majority of respondents prefer the foreign MD, while they prescribed both original and generic drugs (60.4%. The determining factor in the prescription of MD is its efficacy (91.5-95.3%. The main source of information of MD for physicians is the medical literature (78.3%. Only 23.6% of doctors choose the MD based on the results of clinical trials and information about it in specialized medical literature. A half of the respondents believe that their knowledge of cardiovascular MD is insufficient. Doctors need and are interested in information on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of MD, side effects, drug interactions and results of clinical studies. Conclusion. It is necessary to focus on the clinical pharmacology of cardiovascular MD during the training of doctors in specialized courses of continuous medical education.

  20. Factors for consumer choice of dairy products in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Hassan; Rajabpour, Shayan

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about consumers' behavior especially their choice behavior toward purchasing and consuming dairy products in developing countries. Hence, the aim of the present work is understanding the factors that affect on consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products in Iran. The study applies the theory of consumption values, which includes the functional values (taste, price, health, and body weight), social value, emotional value, conditional value and epistemic value. The sample were 1420 people (men and women). The data was collected using face to face survey in summer and fall 2015. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling is used to assess data collected. The results indicate that functional values, social value, emotional value and epistemic value have a positive impact on choosing dairy products and conditional value didn't have a positive impact. It was concluded that the main influential factors for consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products included consumers experience positive emotion (e.g. enjoyment, pleasure, comfort and feeling relaxed) and functional value-health. This study emphasized the proper pricing of dairy products by producers and sellers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors Influencing Resident Choice of Prosthodontic Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarwsky, Pandora Keala Lee; Wang, Yan; Shah, Kumar; Koka, Sreenivas

    2017-06-01

    The decision by prosthodontic residency program directors to employ the Match process highlights the need to understand applicant priorities that influence their choice of which programs to rank highly. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that were most important to residents when choosing from among nonmilitary based prosthodontics dental residency programs in the United States. Following completion of a pilot study, all currently enrolled prosthodontic residents at nonmilitary residency programs were invited to participate via the internet. The study consisted of a survey instrument asking residents to rank 26 possible factors that might impact an applicant's choice of residency program. In addition, the instrument collected other possible influencing variables including gender and debt load. Mean rank scores were compared to determine the most and least important factors. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare specific factors between the possible influencing variables. Two hundred and thirty residents completed the survey instrument, representing a 54.1% response rate of possible participants. With regard to factors influencing program choice, reputation of the residency program was the factor ranked the highest by participants, followed in descending order by the program director's personality, curriculum content, access to use of the latest digital technology, and opportunities for dental implant placement. Quality of schools for children, community outreach opportunities, and the ability to moonlight were ranked as the least important factors. Male and female residents ranked factors such as tuition/stipend, curriculum content, and community outreach opportunities significantly differently. Depending on debt load, residents ranked the factors tuition/stipend, ability to moonlight, curriculum content, and safety of the area where the program is differently. Current prosthodontic residents valued the reputation of the program as the most

  2. Physical factors controlling carbon cycling dynamics in blackwater river-dominated and particle dominated estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, A. R.; Bianchi, T. S.; Osburn, C. L.; D'Sa, E. J.; Oviedo-Vargas, D.; Ward, N. D.; Joshi, I.

    2017-12-01

    While most blue carbon habitat (wetlands, seagrass beds and mangroves) research has focused on carbon burial/stocks and habitat fragmentation of these communities, few studies have examined physical factors that control exports and losses of blue carbon sources of organic matter (OM) to adjacent coastal waters. Here, we report on spatiotemporal changes in the composition and concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen, pCO2, δ13C-DOC, δ13C-POC, δ13C-CO2, dissolved lignin-phenols (dΣ8), particulate lignin-phenols (pΣ8) and carbon normalized dissolved and particulate lignin phenol yields (dΛ8 and pΛ8) in surface waters of the Apalachicola and Barataria bays in the Gulf of Mexico. Discriminant analysis described spatial variability along canonical axis I (24.4%) while temporal variability was explained by canonical axis II (23.2%). Apalachicola Bay was low in POC concentration and characterized by high values for pCO2, DOC, C:N, dΣ8 and (Ad:Al)V. The latter three parameters indicated a clear terrestrial source of OM at Apalachicola Bay reflecting the importance of riverine DOM inputs in this system. In contrast, Barataria Bay was characterized by high values for POC, C:V, S:V, and δ13C-POC, indicating blue-carbon sources due to a lack of direct river inputs and high prevalence of wetlands, some recently submerged. Extreme weather, such as intense precipitation events in Apalachicola Bay and enhanced northerly winds in Barataria Bay were characterized by δ13C-CO2, dΛ8, C:V (Barataria), and C:N (Apalachicola). Results indicate that such physical factors can exert strong control on OM sources and sinks across the gradient of coastal wetlands and shelf waters and lead to enhanced transfer and degradation of wetland-derived blue carbon in coastal waters.

  3. What factors influence UK medical students' choice of foundation school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Pang, Karl H; Rebello, Wayne; Rubakumar, Zoe; Fung, Victoria; Venugopal, Suresh; Begum, Hena

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants' choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013-2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p =0.0001). UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware of the importance of choosing rotations based on specialties that will be undertaken. Individual foundation schools could provide a more favorable linked application system and greater choice and flexibility of specialties within their 2-year program, potentially making their institution more attractive to future applicants.

  4. What factors influence UK medical students’ choice of foundation school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Pang, Karl H; Rebello, Wayne; Rubakumar, Zoe; Fung, Victoria; Venugopal, Suresh; Begum, Hena

    2017-01-01

    Background We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Results Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p=0.0001). Conclusion UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware of the importance of choosing rotations based on specialties that will be undertaken. Individual foundation schools could provide a more favorable linked application system and greater choice and flexibility of specialties within their 2-year program, potentially making their institution more attractive to future applicants. PMID:28458589

  5. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fouzan, Rawan; Al-Ajlan, Sarah; Marwan, Yousef; Al-Saleh, Mervat

    2012-01-01

    Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students' sociodemographic and academic factors. Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7%) decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2%) students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties - 18 (12.5%), 17 (11.8%), and 16 (11.1%) students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4%) of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8%) and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3%) were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498-6.065) more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002). A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

  6. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan Al-Fouzan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results: Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7% decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2% students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%, 17 (11.8%, and 16 (11.1% students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4% of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8% and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3% were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065 more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002. Conclusion : A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

  7. The influence of kinship and dominance hierarchy on grooming partner choice in free-ranging Macaca mulatta brevicaudus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Feng; Liao, Zhi-Jie; Sueur, Cedric; Sha, John Chih Mun; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Peng

    2018-04-18

    In group-living animals, individuals do not interact uniformly with their conspecifics. Among primates, such heterogeneity in partner choice can be discerned from affiliative grooming patterns. While the preference for selecting close kin as grooming partners is ubiquitous across the primate order, the selection of higher-ranking non-kin individuals as grooming partners is less common. We studied a group of provisioned rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta brevicaudus) on Hainan Island, China, to examine rank-related benefits of grooming exchanges and the influence of kin relationships. We tested four hypotheses based on Seyfarth's model: (1) there will be kin preference in grooming relationships; (2) grooming between non-kin individuals will be directed up the dominance rank; (3) grooming between non-kin individuals will reduce aggression from higher-ranking ones; and (4) non-kin individuals will spend more time grooming with adjacent ranked ones. We found that grooming relationships between kin individuals were stronger than those between non-kin individuals. For non-kin relationships, lower-ranking individuals received less aggression from higher-ranking ones through grooming; a benefit they could not derive through grooming exchanges with individuals related by kinship. Individuals spent more time grooming adjacent higher-ranking non-kin individuals and higher-ranking individuals also received more grooming from non-kin individuals. Our results supported Seyfarth's model for predicting partner choice between non-kin individuals. For relationships between kin individuals, we found results that were not consistent with prediction for the exchanges of aggression and grooming, indicating the importance to control for the influence of kinship in future studies.

  8. Domination spaces and factorization of linear and multilinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well known that not every summability property for multilinear operators leads to a factorization theorem. In this paper we undertake a detailed study of factorization schemes for summing linear and nonlinear operators. Our aim is to integrate under the same theory a wide family of classes of mappings for which a Pietsch ...

  9. Preliminary research on the dominant factors in paranormal beliefs (2) : Effects of social-psychological factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sakata, Kiriko; Iwanaga, Makoto

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine effects of dominant social-psychological factors on paranormal belief. I focused three explanatory variables : attitude toward science, mass media use and interpersonal communication about paranormal phenomena. Four hundred and eighty-two undergraduates (225 women and 257 men) completed the paranormal belief scale, the attitude toward science scale, questions about their mass media use, and questions about their interpersonal communication about paranor...

  10. Factors controlling sulfur gas exchange in Sphagnum-dominated wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Atmosphere-peatland exchange of reduced sulfur gases was determined seasonally in fen in NH, and in an artificially-acidified fen at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Canada. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) dominated gas fluxes at rates as high as 400 nmol/m(sup -2)hr(sup -1). DMS fluxes measured using enclosures were much higher than those calculated using a stagnant-film model, suggesting that Sphagnum regulated efflux. Temperature controlled diel and seasonal variability in DMS emissions. Use of differing enclosure techniques indicated that vegetated peatlands consume atmospheric carbonyl sulfide. Sulfate amendments caused DMS and methane thiol concentrations in near-surface pore waters to increase rapidly, but fluxes of these gases to the atmosphere were not affected. However, emission data from sites experiencing large differences in rates of sulfate deposition from the atmosphere suggested that chronic elevated sulfate inputs enhance DMS emissions from northern wetlands.

  11. The role of internal and external factors on management students’ subject choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David AL Coldwell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate undergraduates’ perceptions of the comparative worth/utility of studying Business Science disciplines at a prominent South African University in terms of: (i internal factors comprising aptitudes, values and interests; and (ii external factors comprising job attractiveness (job prospects, earning potential, non-salary benefits and work-life balance, and (iii university and discipline academic reputations. The study utilises a specifically designed instrument to measure internal and external factors impinging on career choice. A purposive non-random sample, consisting of 130 second and third year students in Human Resource Management (HRM and Management, is used. Findings suggest that, while perceptions of aspects of careers, such as job and career prospects generally dominate the choice of major subjects, students studying HRM majors hold community orientated values that distinguish them from their peers. Many students are found to make choices primarily on the basis of their perceptions of ‘external factors’, rather than their interests. The findings are discussed in terms of extant theory and potential practical outcomes.

  12. Radioactivity and food choice: risk factors and perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnerts, W.T.; Hermsen, S.; Kamp, M. van der; Loyens, L.; Ruven, H.J.T.

    1986-01-01

    A preceding study revealed much difference among a selected number of radioisotopes in the passing of the food chains. The present study confirms the possibility to reduce radioactivity intake by a careful food choice. The physiology of metabolism of 131 I, 90 Sr and 137 Cs, and other radionuclides is shortly recapitulated. Discrimination and speciation are seen to be main factors in reduction or enrichment in animal food products. Several calculations are given relating intake of radioactivity and food sources. Risk factors are mentioned, as well as the psychology around them. Although it is not urgent, it seems possible to reduce the intake of radioactivity by individuals, mainly by preference for animal products (except milk during the first weeks of a nuclear incident), and by consumption of refined food instead of 'health products'. For mankind as a whole, the popular conceptions about risk and health food need to be studied first and to be redressed, eventually. 13 refs.; 1 figure; 3 tabs

  13. Factors associated with medical students' career choices regarding internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Karen E; Durning, Steven J; Kernan, Walter N; Fagan, Mark J; Mintz, Matthew; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Battistone, Michael; DeFer, Thomas; Elnicki, Michael; Harrell, Heather; Reddy, Shalini; Boscardin, Christy K; Schwartz, Mark D

    2008-09-10

    Shortfalls in the US physician workforce are anticipated as the population ages and medical students' interest in careers in internal medicine (IM) has declined (particularly general IM, the primary specialty serving older adults). The factors influencing current students' career choices regarding IM are unclear. To describe medical students' career decision making regarding IM and to identify modifiable factors related to this decision making. Web-based cross-sectional survey of 1177 fourth-year medical students (82% response rate) at 11 US medical schools in spring 2007. Demographics, debt, educational experiences, and number who chose or considered IM careers were measured. Factor analysis was performed to assess influences on career chosen. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess independent association of variables with IM career choice. Of 1177 respondents, 274 (23.2%) planned careers in IM, including 24 (2.0%) in general IM. Only 228 (19.4%) responded that their core IM clerkship made a career in general IM seem more attractive, whereas 574 (48.8%) responded that it made a career in subspecialty IM more attractive. Three factors influenced career choice regarding IM: educational experiences in IM, the nature of patient care in IM, and lifestyle. Students were more likely to pursue careers in IM if they were male (odds ratio [OR] 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.56), were attending a private school (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.26-2.83), were favorably impressed with their educational experience in IM (OR, 4.57; 95% CI, 3.01-6.93), reported favorable feelings about caring for IM patients (OR, 8.72; 95% CI, 6.03-12.62), or reported a favorable impression of internists' lifestyle (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.39-2.87). Medical students valued the teaching during IM clerkships but expressed serious reservations about IM as a career. Students who reported more favorable impressions of the patients cared for by internists, the IM practice environment, and

  14. What factors influence UK medical students’ choice of foundation school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Saiful Miah,1,2 Karl H Pang,3 Wayne Rebello,4 Zoe Rubakumar,4 Victoria Fung,5 Suresh Venugopal,6 Hena Begum4 1Division of Surgery and Interventional science, University College London, London, UK; 2Department of Urology, Charing Cross Hospital Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 3Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 4Medical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 5Department of Plastic Surgery, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK; 6Department of Urology, Chesterfield Royal Infirmary, Chesterfield, UK Background: We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2 doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Results: Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p=0.0001. Conclusion: UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware

  15. Measuring choice for adults with an intellectual disability - a factor analysis of the adapted daily choice inventory scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, M-A; Byrne, E; McCallion, P; McCarron, M

    2017-05-01

    For most people, choice making is an everyday occurrence, but for adults with an intellectual disability (ID), such opportunities are often limited, if not, absent. Defining choice, and related opportunity capacity and supports continue to feature prominently in academic, practice and policy discourse within the field of ID as reflected in the range of measures available. This paper examines the factor analytic properties of an adapted 14-item choice inventory scale. Presence and type of choice were recorded in wave 1 of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing using a choice inventory scale adapted for the Irish context for 753 participants with ID over age 40 years. Analysis included both an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Descriptive statistics on choice by type of living arrangement, type of interview (proxy, self or supported) and level of ID are presented. Exploratory factor analysis indicates good model fit when using both a 3-item and 4-item response with the 4-item version suggesting a two-factor model. Further exploration of this two-factor model through confirmatory factor analysis highlighted an improved fit for the 4-item model. Further improvement in model fit is found when four item pairs are co-varied within the model. Two broad types of choice were found to exist for adults with ID - everyday decisions and key life decisions. In addition, the factor analysis support for the inclusion of a 'no choice' response may help reduce the potential for missing data. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career. METHODS: Candidates commencing BST training during a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008 were included in a quantitative study. In addition a total of 2,536 candidates, representing all those who commenced surgical training in Ireland since 1960 were identified through the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) database and invited to complete an online survey. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 15, with p < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: During the 5-year quantitative study period there were 381 BST trainees. Gender was a significant predictor of career choice with women more likely to ultimately choose a nonsurgical career after initial surgical training (p = 0.049). Passing surgical membership examinations (MRCS) also was predictive of remaining in surgery (p = 0.005). Training region was not a significant predictor of ultimate career choice. There were 418 survey respondents. The influence of role models was most commonly cited as influencing candidates in choosing to commence surgical training. Candidates who rated "academic opportunity" (p = 0.023) and "intellectual challenge" (p = 0.047) as factors that influenced their decision to commence surgical training were more likely to ultimately continue their careers in a surgical speciality. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the career pathway of surgical trainees and confirms the importance of academic achievement in discriminating between candidates applying for surgical training schemes.

  17. Not just "getting by": factors influencing providers' choice of interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Providers consistently underutilize professional interpreters in healthcare settings even when they perceive benefits to using professional interpreters and when professional interpreters are readily available. Little is known about providers' decision-making processes that shape their use of interpreters. To understand the variety of considerations and parameters that influence providers' decisions regarding interpreters. A qualitative, semi-structured interview guide was used to explore providers' decision making about interpreter use. The author conducted 8 specialty-specific focus groups and 14 individual interviews, each lasting 60-90 minutes. Thirty-nine healthcare professionals were recruited from five specialties (i.e., nursing, mental health, emergency medicine, oncology, and obstetrics-gynecology) in a large academic medical center characterized as having "excellent" interpreter services. Audio-recorded interviews and focus groups were transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory to develop a theoretical framework for providers' decision-making processes. Four factors influence providers' choice of interpreters: (a) time constraints, (b) alliances of care, (c) therapeutic objectives, and (d) organizational-level considerations. The findings highlight (a) providers' calculated use of interpreters and interpreting modalities, (b) the complexity of the functions and impacts of time in providers' decision-making process, and (c) the importance of organizational structures and support for appropriate and effective interpreter utilization. Providers actively engage in calculated use of professional interpreters, employing specific factors in their decision-making processes. Providers' understanding of time is complex and multidimensional, including concerns about disruptions to their schedules, overburdening others' workloads, and clinical urgency of patient condition, among others. When providers make specific choices due to time pressure, they are

  18. Factors influencing the contraceptive method choice: a university hospital experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Korhan; Göç, Göksu; Taşkın, Salih; Haznedar, Pınar; Karagözlü, Selen; Kale, Burak; Kurtipek, Zeynep; Özmen, Batuhan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the factors influencing behavior of women in choosing contraceptive methods. Material and Methods A total of 4022 women who were admitted to our clinic in a year, were the subjects in this current study for contraception choices. Relationship between the current contraceptive choice and the age, marital status, educational level, gravidity and induced abortions were evaluated. Results Current users of any contraceptive methods were found to make up thirty-three percent of the entire study population. The most preferred method of contraception was an intrauterine device (46.4%), followed by, condom (19.2%), coitus interruptus (16.4%), tubal sterilization (11%), oral contraceptives (5.7%) and lastly the “other methods” that consisted of depot injectables and implants (1.2%). Among other contraceptive methods, the condom was found to be used mostly by the younger age group (OR:0.956, 95% CI:0.936–0.976, p<0.001), while tubal sterilization was preferred mainly by the elderly population (p<0.001, OR:1.091, 95% CI:1.062–1.122). Women that have a higher educational level, were found to use OC (76.3%, OR:5.970, 95% CI:3.233–11.022), tubal sterilization (59.6%, OR:4.110, 95% CI:2.694–6.271) and other methods (62.5%, OR:3.279, 95% CI:1.033–10.402) more commonly than the low educational group (p<0.001). Conclusion These results demonstrated that the rates of both contraception utilization and the usage of more effective methods of contraception need to be increased by providing better family planning systems and counselling opportunities. PMID:24592017

  19. Factors modulating social influence on spatial choice in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbing, Teagan A; Saxon, Marie; Sayde, Justin M; Brown, Michael F

    2015-07-01

    Three experiments examined the conditions under which the spatial choices of rats searching for food are influenced by the choices made by other rats. Model rats learned a consistent set of baited locations in a 5 × 5 matrix of locations, some of which contained food. In Experiment 1, subject rats could determine the baited locations after choosing 1 location because all of the baited locations were on the same side of the matrix during each trial (the baited side varied over trials). Under these conditions, the social cues provided by the model rats had little or no effect on the choices made by the subject rats. The lack of social influence on choices occurred despite a simultaneous social influence on rats' location in the testing arena (Experiment 2). When the outcome of the subject rats' own choices provided no information about the positions of other baited locations, on the other hand, social cues strongly controlled spatial choices (Experiment 3). These results indicate that social information about the location of food influences spatial choices only when those cues provide valid information that is not redundant with the information provided by other cues. This suggests that social information is learned about, processed, and controls behavior via the same mechanisms as other kinds of stimuli. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Factors influencing the food choices of Irish children and adolescents : a qualitative investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Heary, Caroline; Nixon, Elizabeth; Kelly, Colette

    2010-01-01

    Food choices established during childhood and adolescence tend to persist into adulthood with consequences for long-term health. Yet, to date, relatively little research has examined factors that influence the food choices of children and adolescents from their perspectives. In this article, previous research is extended by examining developmental differences between children's and adolescents' perceptions of factors influencing their food choices. Focus group discussi...

  1. Patient factors in referral choice for total joint replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner-Spady, Barbara L; Marshall, Deborah A; Bohm, Eric; Dunbar, Michael J; Loucks, Lynda; Hennigar, Allan W; Frank, Cy; Noseworthy, Tom W

    2014-04-01

    Although the option of next available surgeon can be found on surgeon referral forms for total joint replacement surgery, its selection varies across surgical practices. Objectives are to assess the determinants of (a) a patient's request for a particular surgeon; and (b) the actual referral to a specific versus the next available surgeon. Questionnaires were mailed to 306 consecutive patients referred to orthopedic surgeons. We assessed quality of life (Oxford Hip and Knee scores, Short Form-12, EuroQol 5D, Pain Visual Analogue Scale), referral experience, and the importance of surgeon choice, surgeon reputation, and wait time. We used logistic regression to build models for the 2 objectives. We obtained 176 respondents (response rate, 58%), 60% female, 65% knee patients, mean age of 65 years, with no significant differences between responders versus nonresponders. Forty-three percent requested a particular surgeon. Seventy-one percent were referred to a specific surgeon. Patients who rated surgeon choice as very/extremely important [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 6.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.57-16.64] and with household incomes of $90,000+ versus <$30,000 (OR, 5.74; 95% CI, 1.56-21.03) were more likely to request a particular surgeon. Hip patients (OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.18-7.78), better Physical Component Summary-12 (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02-1.63), and patients who rated surgeon choice as very/extremely important (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.56-9.70) were more likely to be referred to a specific surgeon. Most patients want some choice in the referral decision. Providing sufficient information is important, so that patients are aware of their choices and can make an informed choice. Some patients prefer a particular surgeon despite longer wait times.

  2. Factors Influencing Choice of Occupational Area among Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interest in study area; perceived availability of job opportunities related to area of specialization; simplicity of area in training and in employment; and perceived affordability of equipment for self-employment were found to influence choice of occupational area among the two groups. Keywords: Technical Education; Career ...

  3. Factors influencing the choice of surgery as a career by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 271 interns was conducted using structured self administered questionnaires. The data obtained included demographic details, details of internship rotations, choice of specialty, reasons for nonconsideration of surgery and if the interns had role models, staff advisers and first ...

  4. An Analysis of Factors Influencing the Career Choice of Librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Charles A.

    This study of full-time library students at the George Peabody College for Teachers' School of Library Science was undertaken (1) to delineate why each of the students decided upon librarianship as a career; (2) to determine what effect library-related experiences had upon that career choice; (3) to establish the personal conceptions of the…

  5. Gender Differential Perception Of Factors Influencing Choice Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Technical), Omoku and Rivers State College of Education, Rumuolumeni. Data analysis was by the use of arithmetic mean. Findings of the study revealed that there was no significant difference in the perception of males and females about choice of profession in the colleges of education under study. However, findings of ...

  6. factors influencing the choice of health care providing facility among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the health care system, patient satisfaction has emerged as an important component that determines consumer choice of a product or service.11 However, quality of care as a determinant for choosing healthcare providers is gaining grounds over the past decade.8, 10, 12-14. Several parameters have been used to measure ...

  7. Food choices, physical activity levels and other factors associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate educators' health behaviours regarding dietary intake and physical activity (PA). A survey was undertaken in 517 educators at 83 primary schools in the Western Cape. Food choices (healthy vs. unhealthy), PA levels, and health knowledge were measured by questionnaire. The six most ...

  8. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admpather

    This particular age group is most susceptible to many health risks from a nutrient ... operating for the first time in old age and those that may have influenced nutritional status many years ago (Dickerson et ... psychological, and economical changes contribute to poor nutrition among the elderly. Accordingly, the choice of food ...

  9. Factors Affecting Women's Response Choices to Dating and Social Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Viken, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a sexual victimization history, trait disinhibition, alcohol use history, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the contextual features of dating and social events (i.e., sexual activity and alcohol use) on women's response choices to a set of vignettes describing diverse social situations. A total of 170…

  10. Factors influencing the food choices of Irish children and adolescents: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Heary, Caroline; Nixon, Elizabeth; Kelly, Colette

    2010-09-01

    Food choices established during childhood and adolescence tend to persist into adulthood with consequences for long-term health. Yet, to date, relatively little research has examined factors that influence the food choices of children and adolescents from their perspectives. In this article, previous research is extended by examining developmental differences between children's and adolescents' perceptions of factors influencing their food choices. Focus group discussions were conducted with 29 young people from three age groups (9-10, 13-14 and 16-18 years). An inductive thematic analysis identified three key factors as influencing food choices. These factors included intra-individual factors: the link between food preferences and awareness of healthy eating; intra-familial factors: the role of the home food environment; and extra-familial factors: eating away from the home. Findings indicate that there were developmental differences between children's and adolescents' perceptions of factors influencing food choice. Among adolescents, parental control began to diminish and adolescents exercised increased autonomy over their food choices compared with children. To develop effective nutrition interventions, it is important to gather child and adolescent input regarding factors perceived as influencing their food choices.

  11. Factors Influencing Lunchtime Food Choices among Working Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, Heidi M.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Atienza, Audie A.; Yi, Sarah L.; Zhang, Jian; Masse, Louise C.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest in the usefulness of the workplace as a site for promotion of healthful food choices. The authors therefore analyzed data of U.S. adults (N = 1,918) who reported working outside the home and eating lunch. The majority (84.0%) of workers had a break room. About one half (54.0%) purchased lunch [greater than or equal] 2…

  12. Factors affecting food choices by birds in winter

    OpenAIRE

    Korencová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    I studied food choices of four small passerine species in winter on an artifical source of food, a bird feeder. I did experiments with two different types of food. I proposed that birds would prefer the type of food with higher contain of fat and calories. Food preferences were shown, but independently on calories contain. Greenfinches always selected sunflower seeds. I conclude, this species is affected by tradition, because it is usually fed by sunflower seeds in all bird feeders in vicinit...

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING BRAND CHOICE OF THE CONSUMERS ON SPORTS DRINKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galih Andihka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fitness centers in Indonesia has given a very good opportunity to the sports drink industry to grow. In general, a fitness center does not only provide services of sports facilities but also sell supplements and drinks to consumers for their exercises. The type of drinks highly in demand by consumers in the fitness center is sports drinks. The objective of this study was to identify the influences of brand positioning, brand image and perceived value on brand choices of sports drink products on the consumer fitness center. This study used a quantitative approach using a survey method to the customers of the fitness centers, and the data analysis method used was PLS (Partial Least Square. The results of the PLS analysis show that the perceived value, brand image and brand positioning have positive and significant influences on brand choice of drink sports drinks of the consumers of the fitness centers in Bogor. Keywords: perceived value, brand image, brand positioning, brand choice, PLS, sport drink

  14. Different reasons for one significant choice: Factors influencing homeschooling choice in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Oz; Neuman, Ari

    2017-06-01

    Homeschooling is an alternative to conventional education in many countries all over the world, though legal regulations vary. This article examines why parents opt for homeschooling. The large body of research on the topic (especially from the United States) points to a variety of reasons for making the choice to homeschool. The most common reasons are of a pedagogical nature, but in many cases they are also family-related. What has not yet been investigated in depth is the relationship between the different reasons for choosing homeschooling and the way in which homeschooling is practised. There is also a lack of research on the relationship between the reasons for choosing homeschooling and the parents' personalities, educational background and attitudes towards both homeschooling in particular and the education system in general. Using a mixed methods design in order to examine these relationships, the authors of this article questioned 62 homeschooling families in Israel. The findings indicate that some parents chose to homeschool for pedagogical reasons only and others for both pedagogical and family-related reasons. Furthermore, the latter group held more positive views of the effect of homeschooling on children - and the mothers in that group, on average, were more educated compared with those who cited pedagogical reasons alone. The reasons for choosing homeschooling were also found to be associated with the character of the homeschooling practice, with families whose reasons were pedagogical only devoting more hours, on average, specifically to studying.

  15. Exogenous Factors in the Development of Flexible Fuel Cars as a Local Dominant Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Tromboni de Souza Nascimento

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With flexible fuel technology, customers can choose among gasoline, ethanol, or any mix thereof at the fuel station pump. This paper presents the endogenous and exogenous factors that influnced the development of a flexible fuel electronic injection system by Magneti Marelli Automotive Systems Brazil – the first to the market. This software-based technological architecture, launched commercially in 2003, is now the dominant flexfuel design in the Brazilian market. This article documents the emergence of a local dominant technology (design in a specific car sub-system. It is shown how exogenous institutional factors played the major role in this process. The paper describes how this local dominant technological design emerged through the sharing of capabilities and interaction among the key market players, in the absence of a strong appropriability regime. All the main market pioneers were multinational affiliates, inviting questions concerning this technology diffusion outside Brazil.

  16. Age Group, Location or Pedagogue: Factors Affecting Parental Choice of Kindergartens in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teszenyi, Eleonora; Hevey, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Hungary has experienced significant political, economic, demographic and social changes since the end of Soviet domination in the 1990s. The gradual move towards liberal democracy has been accompanied by growing emphasis on individualism, choice and diversity. Universal kindergarten provision for five- to six-year-olds is a long established…

  17. Predicting first-year bare-root seedling establishment with soil and community dominance factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin E. Durham; Benjamin A. Zamora; Michael R. Sackschewsky; Jason C. Ritter

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of measuring community dominance factors and the soil parameters of geometric mean particle size and percent fines as predictors of first-year bare-root establishment of Wyoming big sagebrush seedlings was investigated. The study was conducted on six sandy soils in south-central Washington. Soil parameters that could affect the distribution of Sandberg’s...

  18. Quality attributes and socio-demographic factors affecting channel choices

    OpenAIRE

    Lupín, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Elsa Mirta M.

    2012-01-01

    Potato is an important staple food and horticultural crop for Argentina and it is included in almost every meal prepared by households. The annual average per capita consumption of potatoes is 40 kg. Despite the rapid rise of supermarkets, small fruit and vegetable shops still dominate horticultural retail in Argentina. The fresh potato quality is a wide and subjective notion that deals with different kinds of attributes e.g., colour, flavor, nutritional contents, added substances during the ...

  19. Factors Affecting Career Choice among Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Larissa; Pellowski, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation assessed the factors affecting career choice among 474 current undergraduate and graduate speech-language pathology and audiology students (from four universities). A 14-item questionnaire was developed that included questions related to general influence of career choice and whether or not the participants had previously been,…

  20. A Study of the Factors Influencing Parental Choice of a Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanem, Imaobong Columba

    2013-01-01

    The study discussed in this dissertation identified and examined the factors that influence parent charter school choice. The study was conducted for a rural K-8 charter school in Delaware. The survey instrument used was a parent questionnaire which contained questions that examined the reasons for parent charter school choice, the features of…

  1. Factors Affecting Students' Choice of Science and Engineering in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Maria Jose B. M.; Leite, Maria Salete S. C. P.; Woolnough, Brian E.

    This paper presents the results of a study undertaken in Portugal to determine the influence of different factors on students' (n=499) decisions to study or refuse to study in one of the physical sciences or engineering. Some influencing factors are related to what goes on in school and during science lessons, and other factors are related to the…

  2. Dominant Factors for Kampung Laut Bontang Kuala Development through Ecotourism Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idajati, Hertiari; Andastry, Fonita

    2017-07-01

    Bontang is one of the cities in East Kalimantan Province which is known oil and gas industry and condensate. Besides that, Bontang also has potential tourism that can be developed in the form of Kampung Laut Bontang Kuala. This tourism area can be a leading tourism spot based on ecotourism in Bontang. Based on these fact, conducted a study to find out how Kampung Laut Bontang Kuala can be developed. This study aims to determine the dominant factors that affect Kampung Laut Bontang Kuala development through ecotourism. This research stage begins with interviewing stakeholders related to Kampung Laut Bontang Kuala development through ecotourism. The interview results were analysed using quantitative content analysis which showed the factors that affect Kampung Laut Bontang Kuala development through ecotourism in accordance with the assessment of stakeholders. The research result showed there are 9 of dominant factors for Kampung Laut Bontang Kuala Development ecotourism development.

  3. Causes and remedies for the dominant risk factors in Enterprise System implementation projects: the consultants' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the causes of the dominant risk factors, affecting Enterprise System implementation projects and propose remedies for those risk factors from the perspective of implementation consultants. The study used a qualitative research strategy, based on e-mail interviews, semi-structured personal interviews with consultants and participant observation during implementation projects. The main contribution of this paper is that it offers viable indications of how to mitigate the dominant risk factors. These indications were grouped into the following categories: stable project scope, smooth communication supported by the project management, dedicated, competent and decision-making client team, competent and engaged consultant project manager, schedule and budget consistent with the project scope, use of methodology and procedures, enforced and enabled by the project managers, competent and dedicated consultants. A detailed description is provided for each category.

  4. A New Mechanism for Mendelian Dominance in Regulatory Genetic Pathways: Competitive Binding by Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Adam H; Johnson, Norman A; Tulchinsky, Alexander Y

    2017-01-01

    We report a new mechanism for allelic dominance in regulatory genetic interactions that we call binding dominance. We investigated a biophysical model of gene regulation, where the fractional occupancy of a transcription factor (TF) on the cis-regulated promoter site it binds to is determined by binding energy (-ΔG) and TF dosage. Transcription and gene expression proceed when the TF is bound to the promoter. In diploids, individuals may be heterozygous at the cis-site, at the TF's coding region, or at the TF's own promoter, which determines allele-specific dosage. We find that when the TF's coding region is heterozygous, TF alleles compete for occupancy at the cis-sites and the tighter-binding TF is dominant in proportion to the difference in binding strength. When the TF's own promoter is heterozygous, the TF produced at the higher dosage is also dominant. Cis-site heterozygotes have additive expression and therefore codominant phenotypes. Binding dominance propagates to affect the expression of downstream loci and it is sensitive in both magnitude and direction to genetic background, but its detectability often attenuates. While binding dominance is inevitable at the molecular level, it is difficult to detect in the phenotype under some biophysical conditions, more so when TF dosage is high and allele-specific binding affinities are similar. A body of empirical research on the biophysics of TF binding demonstrates the plausibility of this mechanism of dominance, but studies of gene expression under competitive binding in heterozygotes in a diversity of genetic backgrounds are needed. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  5. Sexual selection for male dominance reduces opportunities for female mate choice in the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Bryja, Josef; Ondračková, Markéta; Dávidová, M.; Kaniewska, P.; Smith, C.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2005), s. 1533-1542 ISSN 0962-1083 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bitterling * sexual selection * mating tactics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.301, year: 2005

  6. Stability of and Factors Related to Medical Student Specialty Choice of Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Matthew N; Williams, D Keith; Spollen, John J

    2017-09-01

    Targeted efforts are needed to increase the number of medical students choosing psychiatry, but little is known about when students decide on their specialty or what factors influence their choice. The authors examined the timing and stability of student career choice of psychiatry compared with other specialties and determined what pre- and intra-medical school factors were associated with choosing a career in psychiatry. Using survey data from students who graduated from U.S. allopathic medical schools in 2013 and 2014 (N=29,713), the authors computed rates of psychiatry specialty choice at the beginning and end of medical school and assessed the stability of that choice. A multivariate-adjusted logistic regression and recursive partitioning were used to determine the association of 29 factors with psychiatry specialty choice. Choice of psychiatry increased from 1.6% at the start of medical school to 4.1% at graduation. The stability of psychiatry specialty choice from matriculation to graduation, at just over 50%, was greater than for any other specialty. However, almost 80% of future psychiatrists did not indicate an inclination toward the specialty at matriculation. A rating of "excellent" for the psychiatry clerkship (odds ratio=2.66), a major in psychology in college (odds ratio=2.58), and valuing work-life balance (odds ratio=2.25) were the factors most strongly associated with psychiatry career choice. Students who enter medical school planning to become psychiatrists are likely to do so, but the vast majority of students who choose psychiatry do so during medical school. Increasing the percentage of medical students with undergraduate psychology majors and providing an exemplary psychiatry clerkship are modifiable factors that may increase the rate of psychiatry specialty choice.

  7. Why neurology? Factors which influence career choice in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dara V; Hoyle, Chad; Yin, Han; McCoyd, Matthew; Lukas, Rimas V

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the factors which influence the decision to pursue a career in neurology. An anonymous survey was developed using a Likert scale to rate responses. The survey was sent to adult and child neurology faculty, residents and fellows, as well as medical students applying for neurology. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the factors of influence. Respondents were subsequently categorized into pre-neurology trainees, neurology trainees, child neurologists and adult neurologists, and differences between the groups were analysed using Pearson's chi-square test. One hundred and thirty-three anonymous responses were received. The respondents were neurologists across all levels of training and practice. Across all respondents, the most common factor of high importance was intellectual content of specialty, challenging diagnostic problems, type of patient encountered and interest in helping people. Responses were similar across the groups; however, the earliest trainees cited interest in helping people as most important, while those in neurology training and beyond cite intellectual content of the specialty as most important. As trainees transition from their earliest levels of clinical experience into working as residents and faculty, there is a shift in the cited important factors. Lifestyle and financial factors seem to be the least motivating across all groups. Encouragement from peers, mentors, faculty and practicing physicians is considered high influences in a smaller number of neurologists. This may present an opportunity for practicing neurologists to make connections with medical students early in their education in an effort to encourage and mentor candidates.

  8. On the choice of translation factors for approximate molecular wavefunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1982-01-01

    A critical analysis is presented for three different methods which introduce translation factors in the molecular approach to atomic collisions. Approximate one- and many-electron wavefunctions are explicitly considered. The charge exchange cross section for He 2+ + H(1s) → He + (2s,2p) + H + is used as illustration and shows a strong origin dependence in the standard perturbed stationary states (PSS) approach. The main conclusions are: (i) that the Bates-McCarroll method, and the method of projection on atomic components, are not necessarily convergent, and are time consuming for approximate wavefunctions and (ii) that the common translation factor method is the most promising approach at present. However, before it can be used systematically in molecular calculations, more research is needed regarding its sensitivity to the analytical form of the common factor. (author)

  9. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2011-03-01

    Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.

  10. Growth factor choice is critical for successful functionalization of nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine ePinkernelle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs show new characteristics compared to the corresponding bulk material. These nanoscale properties make them interesting for various applications in biomedicine and life sciences. One field of application is the use of magnetic NPs to support regeneration in the nervous system. Drug delivery requires a functionalization of NPs with bio-functional molecules. In our study, we functionalized self-made PEI-coated iron oxide NPs with nerve growth factor (NGF and glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF. Next, we tested the bio-functionality of NGF in a rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 and the bio-functionality of GDNF in an organotypic spinal cord culture. Covalent binding of NGF to PEI-NPs impaired bio-functionality of NGF, but non-covalent approach differentiated PC12 cells reliably. Non-covalent binding of GDNF showed a satisfying bio-functionality of GDNF:PEI-NPs, but turned out to be instable in conjugation to the PEI-NPs. Taken together, our study showed the importance of assessing bio-functionality and binding stability of functionalized growth factors using proper biological models. It also shows that successful functionalization of magnetic NPs with growth factors is dependent on the used binding chemistry and that it is hardly predictable. For use as therapeutics, functionalization strategies have to be reproducible and future studies are needed.

  11. Factors Affecting School Choice: What Do Malaysian Chinese Parents Want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Poh Chua; Christina Ong, Sook Beng; Tan, Swee Mee; Sim, Chzia Poaw; Xian Thoo, Raphael Yi

    2018-01-01

    Aiming to explore factors affecting Malaysian Chinese parents in sending their children to either national secondary schools or Chinese independent schools, 494 parents were surveyed using a questionnaire. Results showed that parents who sent their children to Chinese independent schools have different priorities compared to those who sent theirs…

  12. International preferences for pork appearance: II. Factors influencing consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngapo, T.M.; Martin, J.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2007-01-01

    The preference for pork varying in its fat cover, lean colour, marbling and drip differs among countries, but the influence of socio-demographic factors is unknown. In this study of 11,717 consumers from 22 countries, more than 80% of consumers liked pork, thought that pork quality was at least

  13. Factors affecting the choice of cropping systems in Kebbi State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four variables (farming experience, asset value, risk aversion and land degradation) out of the five variables considered in this study were significant in influencing the probability of farmers practicing intercropping (reference group). It is evident that asset value, land degradation, risk are among factors which will influence ...

  14. What are the Dominant Factors of Students’ Productive Skills in Construction Services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroh, R. R.; S, Haris A.; Sugandi, R. M.; Isnandar

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study to determine the dominant factors of students’ productive skills in doing the work of concrete structures that fit the needs of construction services. Sample of the respondents is vocational high school students from several districts and cities in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Data are obtained through the performance test instruments of student. Whereas, data analysis is performed using factor analysis. The result of this research show the dominant factors of the students’ productive skills in doing the work of concrete structures that is according to the need of construction services, namely: (a) factor the working of concrete casting consists of making scaffolding from good materials and conducting concrete casting according to working method; and (b) factor the working of concrete reinforcing consists of read the working drawings for concrete reinforcement and make the concrete formwork from good material. Some of the respondent’s students in doing some concrete structure work have done well, but not yet according to working drawings, working methods and technical specifications of the work. The learning is done in accordance with the competency-oriented school curriculum but the teaching materials given have not been maximized in accordance with the needs of productive skills required construction services industry. The results have an impact on the low absorption of graduates in the implementation of the construction services industry.

  15. Analysis of dominant factors affecting fatigue caused by soft-copy reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikushima, Yoichiro; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Morishita, Junji; Honda, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the dominant factors affecting fatigue caused by soft-copy reading to identify a method for decreasing fatigue in clinical practice. Two types of fatigue-fatigue in the central nervous system and subjective visual fatigue-were evaluated using a critical fusion frequency test and a questionnaire administered to 17 male radiologists before and after soft-copy reading. Reading-induced fatigue was assumed to be affected by 20 hypothetical factors associated with personal characteristics, time required for reading, content or amount of reading, and the reading environment. We used multiple linear regression analysis with a variable selection method to detect the best combination of factors capable of expressing variations in each of the measured fatigue values. The effects of the detected (dominant) factors on fatigue were also examined based on coefficients of the dominant factors in multiple regression models. Fatigue in the central nervous system decreased with a higher corrected visual acuity and a higher ambient illuminance in the reading room and was also affected by the type of monitor used. Visual fatigue was relieved when there was a larger difference in the brightness of the monitor and the surfaces surrounding the monitor and tended to be more severe when glasses rather than contact lenses were worn. Increasing the ambient illuminance, using an appropriate type of monitor, improving the corrected visual acuity, and using contact lenses rather than eyeglasses could help decrease reading-induced fatigue in male radiologists. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Key Factors Influencing Rapid Development of Potentially Dune-Stabilizing Moss-Dominated Crusts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongfeng Bu

    Full Text Available Biological soil crusts (BSCs are a widespread photosynthetic ground cover in arid and semiarid areas. They have many positive ecological functions, such as increasing soil stability, and reducing water and wind erosion. Using artificial technology to achieve the rapid development of BSCs is expected to become a low-cost and highly beneficial ecological restoration measure. In the present study, typical moss-dominated crusts in a region characterized by mobile dunes (Mu Us Sandland, China were collected, and a 40-day cultivation experiment was performed to investigate key factors, including watering frequency, light intensity and a nutrient addition, which affect the rapid development of moss crusts and their optimal combination. The results demonstrated that watering frequency and illumination had a significant positive effect (P=0.049, three-factor ANOVA and a highly significant, complicated effect (P=0.000, three-factor ANOVA, respectively, on the plant density of bryophytes, and a highly significant positive effect on the chlorophyll a and exopolysaccharide contents (P=0.000, P=0.000; P=0.000, P=0.000; one-way ANOVA. Knop nutrient solution did not have a significant positive but rather negative effect on the promotion of moss-dominated crust development (P=0.270, three-factor ANOVA. Moss-dominated crusts treated with the combination of moderate-intensity light (6,000 lx + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days - Knop had the highest moss plant densities, while the treatment with high-intensity light (12,000 lx + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days + Knop nutrient solution had higher chlorophyll a contents than that under other treatments. It is entirely feasible to achieve the rapid development of moss crusts under laboratory conditions by regulating key factors and creating the right environment. Future applications may seek to use cultured bryophytes to control erosion in vulnerable areas with urgent needs.

  17. Factors influencing the establishment of dominance hierar-chies of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. CLEVELAND, Kari L. LAVALLI

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other balistids, grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus occur in social groups in subtropical reef assemblages and have been noted to cooperate in capturing large crustacean prey. The objective of this study were to determine the structure of dominance hierarchies of these social groups and the factors that influence hierarchies of wild-caught grey triggerfish in a naturalistic setting. From observations of four groups of triggerfish (n = 19 fish in both dyad and group (4 – 5 fish settings, we provide a description of triggerfish behaviors and coloration patterns and an explanation of the social context in which suites of behaviors are used by dominant, middle-ranking, and subordinate fish. Sixteen behaviors and nine coloration patterns were noted for grey triggerfish. Grey triggerfish groups form linear hierarchies in both dyads and groups as measured by Landau’s Index of Linearity (h = 1.0 for Groups 1, 3, and 4 and h = 0.95 for Group 2 in dyads; h = 1.0 for all groups in group settings. Dyadic hierarchies, however, were not necessarily good predictors of the hierarchies found in larger group settings, as they only predicted two of the four group hierarchies. Sex played no role in influencing status or behavior. Size had the greatest influence on dominance status, with larger fish being more dominant than smaller fish. An individual’s dominance ranking influenced both body coloration and posture. These results suggest that color patterns and body postures may also be used by observers as an indicator of an individual’s social status in groups [Current Zoology 56 (1: 18–35 2010].

  18. Specialty choice preference of medical students according to personality traits by Five-Factor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Young Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits, using the Five-Factor Model, and characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice in Korean medical students. Methods: A questionnaire survey of Year 4 medical students (n=110 in July 2015 was administered. We evaluated the personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness by using the Korean version of Big Five Inventory. Questions about general characteristics, medical specialties most preferred as a career, motivational factors in determining specialty choice were included. Data between five personality traits and general characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice were analyzed using Student t-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variance. Results: Of the 110 eligible medical students, 105 (95.4% response rate completed the questionnaire. More Agreeableness students preferred clinical medicine to basic medicine (p=0.010 and more Openness students preferred medical departments to others (p=0.031. Personal interest was the significant motivational factors in more Openness students (p=0.003 and Conscientiousness students (p=0.003. Conclusion: Medical students with more Agreeableness were more likely to prefer clinical medicine and those with more Openness preferred medical departments. Personal interest was a significant influential factor determining specialty choice in more Openness and Conscientiousness students. These findings may be helpful to medical educators or career counselors in the specialty choice process.

  19. Specialty choice preference of medical students according to personality traits by Five-Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Young; Park, So Youn

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits, using the Five-Factor Model, and characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice in Korean medical students. A questionnaire survey of Year 4 medical students (n=110) in July 2015 was administered. We evaluated the personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness by using the Korean version of Big Five Inventory. Questions about general characteristics, medical specialties most preferred as a career, motivational factors in determining specialty choice were included. Data between five personality traits and general characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice were analyzed using Student t-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variance. Of the 110 eligible medical students, 105 (95.4% response rate) completed the questionnaire. More Agreeableness students preferred clinical medicine to basic medicine (p=0.010) and more Openness students preferred medical departments to others (p=0.031). Personal interest was the significant motivational factors in more Openness students (p=0.003) and Conscientiousness students (p=0.003). Medical students with more Agreeableness were more likely to prefer clinical medicine and those with more Openness preferred medical departments. Personal interest was a significant influential factor determining specialty choice in more Openness and Conscientiousness students. These findings may be helpful to medical educators or career counselors in the specialty choice process.

  20. Development and Preliminary Testing of the Food Choice Priorities Survey (FCPS): Assessing the Importance of Multiple Factors on College Students' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaro, Melissa J; Zhou, Wenjun; Colby, Sarah E; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Riggsbee, Kristin; Olfert, Melissa D; Barnett, Tracey E; Mathews, Anne E

    2017-12-01

    Understanding factors that influence food choice may help improve diet quality. Factors that commonly affect adults' food choices have been described, but measures that identify and assess food choice factors specific to college students are lacking. This study developed and tested the Food Choice Priorities Survey (FCPS) among college students. Thirty-seven undergraduates participated in two focus groups ( n = 19; 11 in the male-only group, 8 in the female-only group) and interviews ( n = 18) regarding typical influences on food choice. Qualitative data informed the development of survey items with a 5-point Likert-type scale (1 = not important, 5 = extremely important). An expert panel rated FCPS items for clarity, relevance, representativeness, and coverage using a content validity form. To establish test-retest reliability, 109 first-year college students completed the 14-item FCPS at two time points, 0-48 days apart ( M = 13.99, SD = 7.44). Using Cohen's weighted κ for responses within 20 days, 11 items demonstrated moderate agreement and 3 items had substantial agreement. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure (9 items). The FCPS is designed for college students and provides a way to determine the factors of greatest importance regarding food choices among this population. From a public health perspective, practical applications include using the FCPS to tailor health communications and behavior change interventions to factors most salient for food choices of college students.

  1. Factors that predict treatment choice and satisfaction with the decision in men with localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Donna L; Ellis, William J; Russell, Kenneth J; Blasko, John C; Bush, Nigel; Blumenstein, Brent; Lange, Paul H

    2006-12-01

    Men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (LPC) often have the opportunity to participate in the treatment choice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate relationships between influential factors on treatment choice and the decision-related outcomes of decisional conflict and satisfaction. This report presents data from 260 men diagnosed with LPC who were identified by their clinicians as having a choice of treatments. Men completed questionnaires at home within 2 weeks of the informational clinic visit with the clinician, but before treatment. The respondent sample had a mean age of 63.2 years (standard deviation, 8.1 years); the majority were married/partnered (82.7%), working (51.5%), white (93.8%), and educated at the collegiate level (83.8%). Personal factors (information, influential people, and outcomes), treatment choice, and decisional conflict and satisfaction with the decision (SWD) were queried. Relationships between all variables and the outcomes, SWD, and treatment choice were explored using exhaustive chi(2) automatic interaction detector. The strongest predictor partition variable for SWD was the subscale "factors contributing to uncertainty" (adjusted P Internet (adjusted P = 0.0479). Men with LPC were more satisfied with their treatment choice when they reported fewer uncertainty factors; these are factors mainly relevant to information needed to understand the pros and cons and to make a decision. Consistent with this finding for treatment choice is the use of the Internet, though this factor interacted with age, the influence of their surgeon, and marital status. This study suggests that personally meaningful information communicated between patients and clinicians is paramount.

  2. A surgical career for New Zealand junior doctors? Factors influencing this choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jason; Sathanathan, Janarthanan; Naden, Gill; Child, Stephen

    2009-08-07

    To discover the level of interest in a surgical career amongst junior doctors and trainee interns in the Auckland region. Secondary aims are to identify the factors that influence career choice as well as the timing of career choice. An anonymous and structured questionnaire was distributed to all trainee interns and junior doctors in their first to fifth postgraduate years in the Auckland region. Questions were based on basic demographics, level of training, career preference and factors from previous experiences in surgery that may have influenced their career choice. Total of 87 replies with 36% expressed interest in surgery whereas 64% were interested in non-surgical specialties. Top three factors influencing career choice were similar in both groups: Lifestyle, career ambitions and family. Personal interest, practical hands-on and positive previous experiences were the top reasons why junior doctors chose surgery. Poor lifestyle, lacking of interest, limited future part-time work and previous negative experiences were the top reasons why junior doctors did not choose surgery. A significantly (pcareers earlier. Career aspirations of New Zealand junior doctors were similar to findings reported overseas. To promote surgery amongst junior doctors and medical students, attention should be paid to the key factors which may influence career choice. By improving working conditions and have better surgical education with good mentoring, team atmosphere and opportunities for early exposure will hopefully allow better recruitment and training of future surgeons.

  3. A Study of Factors Influencing International Students' Choice of Higher Education Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Akadu, Victor Abia

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the factors that influence international students’ choice of higher education institutions. The research conducted using the international students in the University of Nottingham (Malaysia Campus) and Monash University (Malaysia Campus) and survey questionnaires were mainly used to gather primary data for the purpose of this study. Findings from this research indicated that product and university based factors, cost factors, promotion, location and social influences all ...

  4. Factors Influencing Food Choices Among Older Adults in the Rural Western USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Haack, Sarah; Tarabochia, Dawn; Bates, Kate; Christenson, Lori

    2017-06-01

    Nutrition is an essential component in promoting health and quality of life into the older adults years. The purpose of this qualitative research is to explore how the rural food environment influences food choices of older adults. Four focus groups were conducted with 33 older adults (50 years of age and older) residing in rural Montana communities. Four major themes related to factors influencing food choices among rural older adults emerged from this study: perception of the rural community environment, support as a means of increasing food access, personal access to food sources, and dietary factors. The findings from this current study warrant further research and promotion of specifically tailored approaches that influence the food choices of older adults in the rural western USA, including the developing and expanding public transportation systems, increasing availability of local grocers with quality and affordable food options, increasing awareness and decreasing stigma surrounding community food programs, and increasing nutrition education targeting senior health issues.

  5. [A factor analysis method for contingency table data with unlimited multiple choice questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Hideki; Haiden, Reina; Kubo, Saori; Ikehara, Kazuya; Isobe, Yurie

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a method of factor analysis for analyzing contingency tables developed from the data of unlimited multiple-choice questions. This method assumes that the element of each cell of the contingency table has a binominal distribution and a factor analysis model is applied to the logit of the selection probability. Scree plot and WAIC are used to decide the number of factors, and the standardized residual, the standardized difference between the sample, and the proportion ratio, is used to select items. The proposed method was applied to real product impression research data on advertised chips and energy drinks. Since the results of the analysis showed that this method could be used in conjunction with conventional factor analysis model, and extracted factors were fully interpretable, and suggests the usefulness of the proposed method in the study of psychology using unlimited multiple-choice questions.

  6. Factors affecting food choice in Greek primary-school students: ELPYDES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risvas, Grigoris; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Zampelas, Antonis

    2008-06-01

    To measure factors affecting food choice in a sample of Greek schoolchildren attending 5th and 6th grade. Three self-administered questionnaires were distributed to the participants - one on nutritional knowledge, one on self-efficacy and social support for dietary change and a food-frequency questionnaire. One hundred Greek primary schools from Attica and Thessaloniki regions. In total, 2439 students in 5th and 6th grades. Principal components analysis was applied to extract the main factors affecting food choice of our subjects. Six components were derived explaining 66% of the total variation in factors affecting food choice. The first component was characterised by readiness to make the healthier choice when competitive foods are considered (explained variation 29%); the second was characterised by the impact of parents, friends and advertisements on students' choices and also the impact of taste, smell and cooking method on the consumption of vegetables (explained variation 11%); the third component was characterised by readiness to choose fresh foods instead of ready-to-eat, pre-packaged choices as a main meal and awareness of the health value of fruits and vegetables (explained variation 8%); the other components mainly expressed the interdependence of the main factors. Nutrition education and health promotion programs in Greece must include family members and activities regarding food preparation, as well as education and environmental changes in schools. Public health measures must include regulation of advertising. Moreover, the categorisation of foods as 'healthier but less tasty' and 'appealing but unhealthy' needs to be challenged in the future, since balanced nutrition is founded in variety and norm.

  7. Factors dominating 3-dimensional ozone distribution during high tropospheric ozone period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyang; Liu, Yiming; Lai, Anqi; Han, Shuangshuang; Fan, Qi; Wang, Xuemei; Ling, Zhenhao; Huang, Fuxiang; Fan, Shaojia

    2018-01-01

    Data from an in situ monitoring network and five ozone sondes are analysed during August of 2012, and a high tropospheric ozone episode is observed around the 8th of AUG. The Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and its process analysis tool were used to study factors and mechanisms for high ozone mixing ratio at different levels of ozone vertical profiles. A sensitive scenario without chemical initial and boundary conditions (ICBCs) from MOZART4-GEOS5 was applied to study the impact of stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) on vertical ozone. The simulation results indicated that the first high ozone peak near the tropopause was dominated by STE. Results from process analysis showed that: in the urban area, the second peak at approximately 2 km above ground height was mainly caused by local photochemical production. The third peak (near surface) was mainly caused by the upwind transportation from the suburban/rural areas; in the suburban/rural areas, local photochemical production of ozone dominated the high ozone mixing ratio from the surface to approximately 3 km height. Furthermore, the capability of indicators to distinguish O 3 -precursor sensitivity along the vertical O 3 profiles was investigated. Two sensitive scenarios, which had cut 30% anthropogenic NO X or VOC emissions, showed that O 3 -precursor indicators, specifically the ratios of O 3 /NOy, H 2 O 2 /HNO 3 or H 2 O 2 /NO Z , could partly distinguish the O 3 -precursor sensitivity between VOCs-sensitive and NOx-sensitive along the vertical profiles. In urban area, the O 3 -precursor relationship transferred from VOCs-sensitive within the boundary layer to NOx-sensitive at approximately 1-3 km above ground height, further confirming the dominant roles of transportation and photochemical production in high O 3 peaks at the near-ground layer and 2 km above ground height, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Religious Values and Tuition Vouchers: An Empirical Case Study of Parent Religiosity as a Factor of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether parent religiosity is a statistically significant school choice factor. The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) was administered to 215 parents in an urban, PreK-12 religious private school that participated in the Ohio Educational Choice (EdChoice) voucher program. The null hypothesis that there was…

  9. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  10. Analysis of Factors Influencing Undergraduates' Occupation Choices: An Investigation of Both Social and Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Li; Shunguo, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Based on 2006 survey data on students from three universities in western China, this study analyzes the effect of the students' family background and academic achievements on their occupation choices. Both social capital and human capital were found to be significant factors influencing their employment decisions. The more abundant the social and…

  11. Choosing the Teaching Profession: Teachers' Perceptions and Factors Influencing Their Choice to Join Teaching as Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgousti, Charalambos

    2017-01-01

    The study discovered why teachers around the world choose the Teaching profession and the factors affecting their choices. The study is meaningful to teacher education curriculum developers and teacher recruiters, for revealing the effects of teachers' perceptions on their career planning and professional growth. The findings from inferential…

  12. Functional analysis of a dominant negative mutation of interferon regulatory factor 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interferon regulatory factor (IRF family members have been implicated as critical transcription factors that function in immune response, hematopoietic differentiation and cell growth regulation. Activation of IRF-5 results in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFalpha, IL6 and IL12p40, as well as type I interferons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we identify a G202C (position relative to translation start codon missense-mutation transcript of IRF-5 in transformed B and T cell lines, which were either infected or non-infected by viruses, and peripheral blood from ATL or CLL patients. The mutated transcript encodes a novel protein in which the sixty-eighth amino acid, Alanine, is substituted by Proline (IRF-5P68 in the DNA binding domain of IRF-5. IRF-5P68 phenotype results in a complete loss of its DNA-binding activity and functions as a dominant negative molecule through interacting with wild type IRF-5. Co-expression of IRF-5P68 inhibits MyD88-mediated IRF-5 transactivation. Moreover, Toll-like receptor (TLR-dependent IL6 and IL12P40 production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, R837 or CpG ODN 1826 was reduced in IRF-5 (P68 expressing cells as compared to the control cells. CONCLUSION: IRF-5P68 acts as a dominant negative regulator that interferes with IRF-5-mediated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The functional characterization of the novel IRF-5 mutant in transformed B and T cell lines and in ATL and CLL patients may lead to a better understanding of the role of these transcriptional regulators in hematopoietic malignancies.

  13. SU-E-I-62: Investigation of Dominant Factors Affecting Fatigue in Image Reading of Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikushima, Y; Yabuuchi, H; Honda, H; Morishita, J

    2012-06-01

    To investigate dominant factors affecting fatigue in image reading of radiologists. Two kinds of fatigue were assessed in this study. One was fatigue in the central nervous system evaluated by the critical fusion frequency (CFF). The other was eye fatigue evaluated by a score determined from a questionnaire based on the oculomotor strain subscale from the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ). When fatigue increases, the CFF and the SSQ score indicate low and high values, respectively. The fatigue of seventeen radiologists was assessed before and after their daily image reading. The reading times and the numbers of images were different among the assessments, and ranged about 1.5 - 5.0 hours and 1,000 - 12,000 images, respectively. The assessments of fatigue were repeated four times for each radiologist on different days. Finally, the measurements of the two kinds of fatigue were analyzed in terms of years of experience, age, sleeping time the previous night, ambient light conditions, reading time, and the numbers of interpreted images, series, and cases. The CFF and SSQ score after image reading were significantly lower and higher than those measured before image reading, respectively. Younger and less experienced radiologists indicated a higher level of fatigue than older and more experienced radiologists in both the CFF and the SSQ score. When radiologists interpreted clinical images for longer hours, the SSQ score tended to be higher. On the other hand, there was little incremental difference in the CFF among different lengths of reading time. No obvious differences were observed in the other items. Less experience with reading images, a younger age, and a longer reading time could be dominant factors affecting fatigue in image reading. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Identification of dominating factors affecting vadose zone vulnerability by a simulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Xi, Beidou; Cai, Wutian; Yang, Yang; Jia, Yongfeng; Li, Xiang; Lv, Yonggao; Lv, Ningqing; Huan, Huan; Yang, Jinjin

    2017-04-01

    The characteristics of vadose zone vulnerability dominating factors (VDFs) are closely related to the migration and transformation mechanisms of contaminants in the vadose zone, which directly affect the state of the contaminants percolating to the groundwater. This study analyzes the hydrogeological profile of the pore water regions in the vadose zone, and conceptualizes the vadose zone as single lithologic, double lithologic, or multi lithologic. To accurately determine how the location of the pollution source influences the groundwater, we classify the permeabilities (thicknesses) of different media into clay-layer and non-clay-layer permeabilities (thicknesses), and introduce the maximum pollution thickness. Meanwhile, the physicochemical reactions of the contaminants in the vadose zone are represented by the soil adsorption and soil degradability. The VDFs are determined from the factors and parameters in groundwater vulnerability assessment. The VDFs are identified and sequenced in simulations and a sensitivity analysis. When applied to three polluted sites in China, the method improved the weighting of factors in groundwater vulnerability assessment, and increased the reliability of predicting groundwater vulnerability to contaminants.

  15. Factors determining the choice of hunting and trading bushmeat in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of illegal bushmeat trade is a major conservation challenge in Africa. We investigated what factors are most likely to induce actors in the bushmeat trade to shift to an alternative occupation by conducting a choice experiment with 325 actors in the bushmeat trade in the Kilombero Valley...... in the work option, and whether or not cows were donated to the respondent. We modeled the choice contingent on socioeconomic characteristics. The magnitude of fines and patrolling frequency had a significant but very low negative effect on the probability of choosing to engage in hunting or trading bushmeat...... compared with the salary of an alternative occupation. Donation of livestock and the price of substitute meats in the local market both affected the choice significantly in a negative and a positive direction, respectively. The wealthier a household was the more likely the respondent was to choose...

  16. Becoming a general practitioner - Which factors have most impact on career choice of medical students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loh Andreas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Germany, there is a shortage of young physicians in several specialties, the situation of general practitioners (GP being especially precarious. The factors influencing the career choice of German medical students are poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors influencing medical students' specialty choice laying a special focus on general practice. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. In 2010, students at the five medical schools in the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany filled out an online-questionnaire. On 27 items with 5-point Likert scales, the students rated the importance of specified individual and occupational aspects. Furthermore, students were asked to assign their intended medical specialty. Results 1,299 students participated in the survey. Thereof, 1,114 students stated a current choice for a specialty, with 708 students choosing a career in one of the following 6 specialties: internal medicine, surgery, gynaecology and obstetrics, paediatrics, anaesthetics and general practice. Overall, individual aspects ('Personal ambition', 'Future perspective', 'Work-life balance' were rated as more important than occupational aspects (i.e. 'Variety in job', 'Job-related ambition' for career choice. For students favouring a career as a GP individual aspects and the factor 'Patient orientation' among the occupational aspects were significantly more important and 'Job-related ambition' less important compared to students with other specialty choices. Conclusions This study confirms that future GPs differ from students intending to choose other specialties particularly in terms of patient-orientation and individual aspects such as personal ambition, future perspective and work-life balance. Improving job-conditions in terms of family compatibility and work-life balance could help to increase the attractiveness of general practice. Due to the shortage of GPs those factors should

  17. Becoming a general practitioner--which factors have most impact on career choice of medical students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiolbassa, Kathrin; Miksch, Antje; Hermann, Katja; Loh, Andreas; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Joos, Stefanie; Goetz, Katja

    2011-05-09

    In Germany, there is a shortage of young physicians in several specialties, the situation of general practitioners (GP) being especially precarious. The factors influencing the career choice of German medical students are poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors influencing medical students' specialty choice laying a special focus on general practice. The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. In 2010, students at the five medical schools in the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany) filled out an online-questionnaire. On 27 items with 5-point Likert scales, the students rated the importance of specified individual and occupational aspects. Furthermore, students were asked to assign their intended medical specialty. 1,299 students participated in the survey. Thereof, 1,114 students stated a current choice for a specialty, with 708 students choosing a career in one of the following 6 specialties: internal medicine, surgery, gynaecology and obstetrics, paediatrics, anaesthetics and general practice. Overall, individual aspects ('Personal ambition', 'Future perspective', 'Work-life balance') were rated as more important than occupational aspects (i.e. 'Variety in job', 'Job-related ambition') for career choice. For students favouring a career as a GP individual aspects and the factor 'Patient orientation' among the occupational aspects were significantly more important and 'Job-related ambition' less important compared to students with other specialty choices. This study confirms that future GPs differ from students intending to choose other specialties particularly in terms of patient-orientation and individual aspects such as personal ambition, future perspective and work-life balance. Improving job-conditions in terms of family compatibility and work-life balance could help to increase the attractiveness of general practice. Due to the shortage of GPs those factors should be made explicit at an early stage at medical school to increase

  18. Trace Elements in Dominant Species of the Fenghe River, China: Their Relations to Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhou, Zhengchao; Bai, Yanying; Jiao, Wentao; Chen, Weiping

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of trace elements (TEs) in water, sediment, riparian soil and dominant plants was investigated in the Fenghe River, Northwestern China. The Fenghe River ecosystem was polluted with Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb. There was a high pollution risk in the midstream and downstream regions and the risk level for Cd was much higher than that of the other elements. The average values of bioconcentration coefficient for Cd and Zn were 2.21 and 1.75, respectively, indicating a large accumulation of Cd and Zn in the studied species. With broad ecological amplitudes, L. Levl. et Vant. Trin., and L. had the greatest TE concentrations in aboveground and belowground biomass of the studied species and were potential biomonitors or phytoremediators for the study area. Multivariate techniques including cluster analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and canonical correspondence analysis were used to analyze the relations between TE concentrations in plants and various environmental factors. The soil element concentration is the main factor determining the accumulation of TEs in plants. The co-release behavior of common pollutants and TEs drove the accumulation of Hg, Cd, and As in the studied plants. Significant enrichment of some elements in the Fenghe River has led to a decline in the biodiversity of plants. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Dominant factors controlling glacial and interglacial variations in the treeline elevation in tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibin; Guiot, Joël; Brewer, Simon; Guo, Zhengtang; Peng, Changhui

    2007-06-05

    The knowledge of tropical palaeoclimates is crucial for understanding global climate change, because it is a test bench for general circulation models that are ultimately used to predict future global warming. A longstanding issue concerning the last glacial maximum in the tropics is the discrepancy between the decrease in sea-surface temperatures reconstructed from marine proxies and the high-elevation decrease in land temperatures estimated from indicators of treeline elevation. In this study, an improved inverse vegetation modeling approach is used to quantitatively reconstruct palaeoclimate and to estimate the effects of different factors (temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric CO(2) concentration) on changes in treeline elevation based on a set of pollen data covering an altitudinal range from 100 to 3,140 m above sea level in Africa. We show that lowering of the African treeline during the last glacial maximum was primarily triggered by regional drying, especially at upper elevations, and was amplified by decreases in atmospheric CO(2) concentration and perhaps temperature. This contrasts with scenarios for the Holocene and future climates, in which the increase in treeline elevation will be dominated by temperature. Our results suggest that previous temperature changes inferred from tropical treeline shifts may have been overestimated for low-CO(2) glacial periods, because the limiting factors that control changes in treeline elevation differ between glacial and interglacial periods.

  20. Factors promoting larch dominance in Eastern Siberia: fire versus growth performance and implications for carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, E.-D.; Wirth, C.; Mollicone, D.; von Lüpke, N.; Ziegler, W.; Achard, F.; Mund, M.; Prokushkin, A.; Scherbina, S.

    2012-01-01

    The relative roles of fire and climate in determining canopy species composition and aboveground carbon stocks were investigated. Measurements were made along a transect extending from the dark taiga zone of Central Siberia, where Picea and Abies dominate the canopy, into the Larix zone of Eastern Siberia. We test the hypotheses that the change in canopy species composition is based (1) on climate-driven performance only, (2) on fire only, or (3) on fire-performance interactions. We show that the evergreen conifers Picea obovata and Abies sibirica are the natural late-successional species both in Central and Eastern Siberia, provided there has been no fire for an extended period of time. There are no changes in the climate-driven performance of the observed species. Fire appears to be the main factor explaining the dominance of Larix. Of lesser influence were longitude, hydrology and active-layer thickness. Stand-replacing fires decreased from 300 to 50 yr between the Yenisei Ridge and the upper Tunguska. Repeated non-stand-replacing surface fires eliminated the regeneration of Abies and Picea. With every 100 yr since the last fire, the percentage of Larix decreased by 20 %. Biomass of stems of single trees did not show signs of age-related decline. Relative diameter increment was 0.41 ± 0.20 % at breast height and stem volume increased linearly over time with a rate of about 0.36 t C ha-1 yr-1 independent of age class and species. Stand volumes reached about 130 t C ha-1 (equivalent to about 520 m3 ha-1). Individual trees of Larix were older than 600 yr. The maximum age and biomass seemed to be limited by fungal rot of heart wood. 60 % of old Larix and Picea and 30 % of Pinus sibirica trees were affected by stem rot. Implications for the future role of fire and of plant diseases are discussed.

  1. Dominant Repression by Arabidopsis Transcription Factor MYB44 Causes Oxidative Damage and Hypersensitivity to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Persak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In any living species, stress adaptation is closely linked with major changes of the gene expression profile. As a substrate protein of the rapidly stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3, Arabidopsis transcription factor MYB44 likely acts at the front line of stress-induced re-programming. We recently characterized MYB44 as phosphorylation-dependent positive regulator of salt stress signaling. Molecular events downstream of MYB44 are largely unknown. Although MYB44 binds to the MBSII element in vitro, it has no discernible effect on MBSII-driven reporter gene expression in plant co-transfection assays. This may suggest limited abundance of a synergistic co-regulator. MYB44 carries a putative transcriptional repression (Ethylene responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression, EAR motif. We employed a dominant repressor strategy to gain insights into MYB44-conferred stress resistance. Overexpression of a MYB44-REP fusion markedly compromised salt and drought stress tolerance—the opposite was seen in MYB44 overexpression lines. MYB44-mediated resistance likely results from induction of tolerance-enhancing, rather than from repression of tolerance-diminishing factors. Salt stress-induced accumulation of destructive reactive oxygen species is efficiently prevented in transgenic MYB44, but accelerated in MYB44-REP lines. Furthermore, heterologous overexpression of MYB44-REP caused tissue collapse in Nicotiana. A mechanistic model of MAPK-MYB-mediated enhancement in the antioxidative capacity and stress tolerance is proposed. Genetic engineering of MYB44 variants with higher trans-activating capacity may be a means to further raise stress resistance in crops.

  2. The role of anthropic, ecological, and social factors in sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotcorne, Fany; Maslarov, Cindy; Wandia, I Nengah; Fuentes, Agustin; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2014-12-01

    When choosing their sleeping sites, primates make adaptive trade-offs between various biotic and abiotic constraints. In human-modified environments, anthropic factors may play a role. We assessed the influence of ecological (predation), social (intergroup competition), and anthropic (proximity to human settlements) factors in sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) occupying a habitat at the interface of natural forests and human-modified zones in Bali Barat National Park, Indonesia. Over the course of 56 nights, we collected data relating to physical features of sleeping trees, patterns of the use of sleeping sites within the home range, pre-sleep behavior, diurnal ranging patterns and availability of natural and human food. Overall, the macaques used 17 sleeping sites with 37 sleeping trees. When the monkeys slept in forest zones, they selected sleeping trees that had larger trunks but were not significantly taller than surrounding trees. Though the macaques rarely re-used sleeping sites on consecutive nights, they frequently re-used four sites over the study period. The group favored sleeping within the core area of its home range, despite the occurrence of frequent agonistic intergroup encounters there. Macaques preferentially selected sleeping trees located within or near human-modified zones, especially when human food was abundant and natural food was scarce. These results partially support the hypothesis that long-tailed macaques choose their sleeping sites to avoid predation; proximity to human settlements appears to be the primary factor influencing sleeping site choice in this primate species. Our results reflect the strong influence that anthropic factors have on primates, which subsist in increasingly human-dominated landscapes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Factors affecting food choices of older adults from high and low socioeconomic groups: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2015-04-01

    Healthiness, price, and convenience are typically indicated as important motives for food choices; however, it is largely unknown to what extent older adults from high and low socioeconomic groups differ in these underlying motives. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is an innovative way to elicit implicit motives for food choices. The aim was to investigate differences in food motives between socioeconomic groups by means of a DCE. A DCE was carried out during a face-to-face interview among older adults as part of the Health and Living Conditions in Eindhoven and surrounding cities (GLOBE) cohort study, The Netherlands. Participants (n = 399; mean age: 63.3 y) were offered a series of choice sets about a usual dinner at home and were asked to choose in each choice set between 2 meals and an opt-out choice, with different combinations of attribute levels. We included 5 meal attributes (taste, healthiness, preparation time, travel time to shops, and price) and 3 or 4 levels for each attribute. Data were analyzed by multinomial logit models. Healthiness, taste, price, and travel time to the grocery store proved to significantly influence older adults' meal decisions; preparation time was not significant. Healthiness was the most important attribute for all of the participants. More highly educated participants rated a healthy and less expensive meal to be more important than did less educated participants. Those with a high income rated a meal that was healthy and very tasteful to be more important than did those with a lower income. Healthiness, taste, price, and travel time to grocery shops influenced older adults' meal decisions. Higher socioeconomic groups valued health more than did lower socioeconomic groups. DCEs represent a promising method to gain insight into the relative importance of motives for food choices. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN60293770. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Factors affecting the career path choices of graduates at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinski, Murray D.; Campbell, John R.; Naylor, Jonathan M.; Lawson, Karen L.; Derkzen, Dena

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the demographics of the Class of 2006, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, and to determine which factors influenced the graduates’ career path choices. Data were collected via an on-line survey and the response rate was 95.7% (67/70). The majority (57%) of graduates were starting their veterinary career in a food animal-related (FAR) job. Two factors were significantly associated with this choice: 1) those raised in, or near, a small center (population 10 000), and 2) graduates with a bachelor of science in agriculture (BSc Ag) were 4.5 times (P = 0.04) more likely to begin their career as a FAR practitioner than were those without such a degree. However, 9 of the 16 graduates having a BSc Ag had an urban upbringing. PMID:18309746

  5. Factors influencing surgical career choices and advancement in Ireland and Britain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corrigan, Mark A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that influence the advancement and the career choices of doctors and medical students. METHODS: Using the combined databases of the iformix and surgent websites, 450 doctors and medical students were invited to complete an internet-based survey. Surgent (http:\\/\\/www.surgent.ie) and iformix (http:\\/\\/www.iformix.com) are two free internet services administered by the authors. Surgent is a medical educational website, while iformix facilitates the online submission of abstracts to surgical and medical conferences across Britain and Ireland. The combined database of these two websites is approximately 4500 entries. Four hundred and fifty users represented a 10% sample based on an expected 40%-45% response rate. This was anticipated to yield between 180 and 202 respondents, statistically sufficient to analyze the data. A detailed Likert scale assessed the importance of "academic," "clinical," and "lifestyle" factors in determining career choice and progression. Analysis included descriptive statistics and inferential testing. RESULTS: Fifty percent (N = 222) of surveys were returned; 142 men and 78 women. Thirty-seven percent of respondents were Irish, 28% British, and 35% non-European. Fifteen percent were undergraduates, 4% interns, 12% had 2-4 years of clinical experience, while 69% had completed more than 4 years. Fifty-six percent had decided upon a career in general surgery. Overall, the most important factors for career choice were intellectual challenge (95%), academic opportunities (61%), and research opportunities(54%). Doctors with more than 4 years of experience deemed duration of training (p = 0.002), lifestyle during training (p = 0.02), and stress (0.005) as less important factors when considering career choice. Correlation analyses demonstrated that prestige (p = 0.002), patient relationships (p = 0.006), and advice from friends or family (p = 0.01) were more important influencing factors

  6. Extended vector meson dominance model for the baryon octet electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.; Puckett-Truman, C.

    1996-01-01

    An unresolved issue in the present understanding of nucleon structure is the effect of hidden strangeness on electromagnetic observables such as G n E (q 2 ). Previously, we have shown that G n E (q 2 ) is sensitive to small φNN couplings. A complementary approach for understanding effects due to strangeness content and the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka (OZI) rule is to investigate the electromagnetic structure of hyperons. We apply Sakurai close-quote s universality limit of the SU(3) F symmetry relations and a prescription based on the OZI rule to calculate the electromagnetic form factors of the baryon octet states (p,n,Λ,Σ + ,Σ 0 ,Σ - ,Ξ 0 ,Ξ - ) within the framework of an extended vector meson dominance model. To provide additional motivation for experimental investigation, we discuss the possibility of extracting the ratio G M Λ (q 2 )/G M ΣΛ (q 2 ) from the Λ/Σ polarization ratio in kaon electroproduction experiments. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. Chinese multinationals and entry mode choice: institutional, transaction and firm-specific factors

    OpenAIRE

    Quer, Diego; Claver Cortés, Enrique; Rienda García, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) ownership decision is one of the most researched topics in the international business literature. However, little is known about the extent to which this knowledge can be applied to emerging-economy multinationals. Building on the institutional, transaction cost and resource-based view perspectives, this paper analyzes the determining factors of FDI mode choice between wholly-owned subsidiary (WOS) and joint venture (JV) by Chinese firms. Based on a sample of 1...

  8. Factors Influencing the Choice and Quality Assessment of Hotel Facilities in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozimek Irena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of selected factors on the choice of hotel facilities by customers. Particular attention was focused on the perception of the quality of services by consumers. The field research, the results of which are presented in the article, was conducted on a nationwide sample of 1,000 persons aged from 15 to 70 according to the author’s questionnaire.

  9. Differential effect of environmental risk factors on postural instability gait difficulties and tremor dominant Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, G O; Muller, B; Haugarvoll, K; Larsen, J P; Tysnes, O B

    2010-09-15

    Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). We have examined environmental risk factors in a Norwegian population of incident PD patients and controls, the Norwegian ParkWest study. All five neurological wards in the study area of Western Norway participated in the study. A 4-step diagnostic procedure was used to establish a representative cohort of patients with incident PD at a high level of diagnostic accuracy. 212 incident PD patients and 175 age- and gender-matched controls were included. PD patients and controls were asked for information on occupation, education, exposure to pesticides, tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Agricultural work was associated with a higher risk of PD (OR 1.75 (1.03-3.0) P = 0.009). There were no differences as to other occupations. Smoking (OR 0.63 (0.42-0.95) P = 0.016) and alcohol use (OR 0.55 P = 0.008) were associated with a lower risk for PD. Interestingly, this inverse association was only seen in postural instability gait difficulties (PIGD) PD (P = 0.046 for smoking, P = 0.07 for alcohol consumption), and not in tremor dominant (TD) PD which was similar to controls. Consumption of coffee was lower in PD patients (3.3 ± 1.8 cups per day vs. 3.8 ± 2.0 in controls P = 0.02). In the regression model including intake of alcohol, coffee, and smoke, only coffee (P = 0.007) and alcohol intake (P = 0.021) remained significant whereas smoking was no longer significant. Thus, it seems as though only coffee intake reduces the risk of PD in general while associations to alcohol and smoking differ between PIGD and TD-PD patients. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Factors Influencing the Choice of Anesthesia as a Career by Undergraduates of the University of Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Denise M; Wong, Rex; Runnels, Sean; Muhizi, Epaphrodite; McClain, Craig D

    2016-08-01

    Rwanda currently faces a severe shortage of trained medical personnel, including physician anesthesiologists. The recruitment of residents into the anesthesia program has been consistently low. This study aimed at determining the factors that influence undergraduates' decision to pursue anesthesia as a career choice. A questionnaire was created and administered to final year undergraduate medical students at the University of Rwanda. The questionnaire was created based on factors identified from literature review and key informant interviews. The questionnaire was translated, field-tested, and refined. The final survey questionnaire contains 27 4-point Likert scale items and 4 free-text questions. Seventy-nine final year undergraduate medical students responded to the survey. Only 2 students (2.5%) chose anesthesia as their top choice for postgraduate training. The most frequently named factors for not choosing anesthesiology were long work hours and high stress level, insufficient mentorship, and low job opportunity. The issues identified by our survey must be considered when making efforts toward increasing anesthesia recruitment in Rwanda. Factors such as lack of material resources and high workload will not be easily addressed. Others can be addressed through changes in medical student anesthesiology rotations and better mentorship by anesthesiologists during formative years. Focusing on factors that can be changed now may increase enrollment into anesthesiology. Future studies will include broadening the survey population and further investigating the influencing factors elucidated by this study.

  11. A Major Decision: Identifying Factors that Influence Agriculture Students’ Choice of Academic Major

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    Kristin Stair

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Colleges of Agriculture (CoAs are estimated to supply only slightly more than half of the number of graduates needed to fill job openings through 2015. The purpose of this research study was to describe the factors influencing agriculture students’ choice of major. The population for this descriptive research study consisted of full-time CoA freshmen enrolled in AGRI 1001: Introduction to Agriculture at Louisiana State University. A total of 259 students were asked to participate in the electronic survey. All students completed the survey for a 100% response rate. Consistent with the model proposed by Hodges and Karpova (2010, the factors identified in this study included personal characteristics, interpersonal factors, and environmental factors. Moreover, contextual factors unique to agriculture were identified.

  12. Adolescents' reproductive health knowledge, choices and factors affecting reproductive health choices: a qualitative study in the West Gonja District in Northern region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyilleh, Joseph Maaminu; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Konlaan, Benson Boinkum

    2018-01-24

    In Ghana, adolescents constitute about a quarter of the total population. These adolescents make reproductive health decisions and choices based on their knowledge and the availability of such choices. These reproductive health decisions and choices can either negatively or positively affect their lives. This study therefore explored adolescents' reproductive health knowledge and choices, the type of choices they make and the factors that affect these choices. This qualitative study adopted a narrative approach to qualitative enquiry. Eight focus group discussions (N = 80) were conducted among both in-school and out-of-school adolescents aged 10-19 years. The discussions were stratified by sex and studentship. In addition, nine in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders in reproductive health services and community opinion leaders. Both the focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using NVivo 11. Thematic analysis was employed in analysing data. The study found that knowledge on reproductive health choices was low among respondents with majority of them relying on their peers for information on sexual and reproductive health. Having a sexual partner(s) and engaging in premarital sex was common and viewed as normal. Adolescents engaged in unprotected sexual practices as a way of testing their fertility, assurance of love, bait for marriage and for livelihood. Inserting herbs into the vagina, drinking concoctions and boiled pawpaw leaves were identified as local methods employed by adolescents to induce abortion. Reproductive health services were available in the community but received low utilization because of perceived negative attitude of health workers, confidentiality and social norms. Adolescents in this study generally engaged in risky reproductive health choices that can negatively affect their reproductive health. Adolescents in this part of Ghana have challenges utilizing available

  13. Factors associated with the choice of general medicine as a career among Japanese medical students

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    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Japan, there is a shortage of young physicians in various specialties; the present situation of general medicine or family medicine (GM/FM in particular is risky. The factors influencing the career choice of Japanese medical students are poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors related to choosing GM/FM as a career. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Students at one medical school in Japan filled out a questionnaire. Students were asked to state their intended medical specialty, and they rated the importance of specific individual and occupational aspects using a 4-point likert scale. Factor analysis was performed on the variables. Reliability of the factor scores was estimated using Cronbach‘s alpha coefficients; biserial correlations between the factors and career choices were calculated. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis was performed using career choice (GM/FM vs. others as the criterion variable and the factors plus demographic characteristics as confounding variables. Results: Factor analysis produced six factors that explained future career plans. Medical students in this study had a positive and realistic idea about GM/FM, but only 18.8% of them chose GM/FM first as a career. The significant variables associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career were: ‘Admission from hometown’ (β=0.189, P=0.001, ‘Student preparing for the entrance exam’ (β=0.172; P=0.001, ‘Intent for rural practice’ (β=0.123, P=0.016, and ‘Work–life balance’ (β=0.126, P=0.013. While significant variables that were negatively associated with choosing GM/FM were ‘Presence of medical relatives’ (β=−0.107, P=0.037 and ‘Scientific orientation’ (β=−0.125, P=0.013. Conclusions: Strategies have been suggested, such as recruiting medical students with significant variables that were associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career. By engaging students early in their

  14. Factors associated with the choice of general medicine as a career among Japanese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, there is a shortage of young physicians in various specialties; the present situation of general medicine or family medicine (GM/FM) in particular is risky. The factors influencing the career choice of Japanese medical students are poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors related to choosing GM/FM as a career. The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Students at one medical school in Japan filled out a questionnaire. Students were asked to state their intended medical specialty, and they rated the importance of specific individual and occupational aspects using a 4-point likert scale. Factor analysis was performed on the variables. Reliability of the factor scores was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficients; biserial correlations between the factors and career choices were calculated. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis was performed using career choice (GM/FM vs. others) as the criterion variable and the factors plus demographic characteristics as confounding variables. Factor analysis produced six factors that explained future career plans. Medical students in this study had a positive and realistic idea about GM/FM, but only 18.8% of them chose GM/FM first as a career. The significant variables associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career were: 'Admission from hometown' (β=0.189, P=0.001), 'Student preparing for the entrance exam' (β=0.172; P=0.001), 'Intent for rural practice' (β=0.123, P=0.016), and 'Work-life balance' (β=0.126, P=0.013). While significant variables that were negatively associated with choosing GM/FM were 'Presence of medical relatives' (β=-0.107, P=0.037) and 'Scientific orientation' (β=-0.125, P=0.013). Strategies have been suggested, such as recruiting medical students with significant variables that were associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career. By engaging students early in their choice of career, we may be able to increase enthusiasm for this specialty.

  15. Factors of the medical career choice within the context of ukrainian healthcare reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymar, Lesia; Omelchuk, Sergii

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The article is dedicated to the motives of medical career choice studied by Ukrainian and foreign scientists, and by the authors themselves. The authors define the main motives, grouped into the pragmatic, social, scientific and professional ones, paying particular attention to the proposed reforms of the Healthcare of Ukraine "Health 2020". The aim: The study has been aimed at detection of the medical career choice factor groups and their possible correction during the medical training, defining possible influence of the Ukrainian Healthcare reformation onto alterations of the medical career choice. Materials and methods: This article is based on bibliosemantic, dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive research methods. Review and conclusion: The authors have analyzed medical career motives according to the A. Maslow hierarchy of needs, comparing the present motives with the motives to be changed after reforming the Ukrainian healthcare. The authors conclude that according to the Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the medical career choice corresponding to the first, second and third needs level would be directly related to the pragmatic, social and scientific motives, further disappointment in career, low professional performance and professional "burnout". The career choice corresponding to the last levels of the needs hierarchy is related to the professional motives and self-actualization, but, due to the applicants' age and financial status of medical specialists in Ukraine, is not likely to occur. Positive changes in medical specialists' salary rise, social protection offered by the State and state support of the profession will provide for correction of motives onto the higher level, in this way, benefiting the patients.

  16. How propeller suction is the dominant factor for ship accidents at shallow water conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Dursun; Alpar, Bedri; Ozeren, Sinan

    2017-04-01

    The laminar flow comes to the fore with the disappearance of the several other directions in the internal displacements in the water current. Due to the dominant speed direction during the straightforward motion of the ship, the underwater hull is associated with the continuous flow of laminar currents. The open marine environment acts as a compressible liquid medium because of the presence of many variables about water volume overflow boundaries where the ship is associated. Layers of water rising over the sea surface due to ship's body and the propeller's water push provides loss of liquid lifting force for the ship. These situations change the well-known sea-floor morphology and reliable depth limits, and lead to probable accidents. If the ship block coefficient for the front side is 0.7 or higher, the "squat" will be more on the bow, because the associated factor "displacement volume" causes to the low-pressure environment due to large and rapid turbulence. Thus, the bow sinks further, which faced with liquid's weaker lift force. The vessels Gerardus Mercator, Queen Elizabeth and Costa Concordia had accidents because of unified reasons of squat, fast water mass displacement by hull push and propeller suction interaction. In the case of water mass displacement from the bow side away, that accident occurred in 2005 by the vessel Gerardus Mercator with excessive longitudinal trim angularity in the shallow water. The vessel Costa Concordia (2012), voluminous water displaced from the rear left side was an important factor because of the sharp manoeuvre of that the captain made before the accident. Observations before the accident indicate that full-speed sharp turn provided listed position for the ship from left (port side) in the direction of travel before colliding and then strike a rock on the sloping side of the seabed. The reason why the ship drifted to the left depends mainly the water discharge occurred at the left side of the hull during left-hand rudder

  17. Association between Depression and Factors Affecting Career Choice among Jordanian Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Yousef

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlthough stress reaction is high among nursing staff and nursing students in the Middle East and its effect on life is known, there are scant studies reporting on these clinical and social features. In addition, there are no studies reporting on factors that influence career choice among this group.AimThis study aimed to investigate factors that influence career choice among nursing students and their possible association with depressive symptoms.MethodParticipants were 150 (84.7% response rate nursing students randomly selected from each academic year at the Nursing College/Jordan University of Science and Technology. Participants consented and completed the socio-demographic data collection sheet. The Arabic version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II Scale was used to assess participants with respect to depressive symptoms. A modified list of factors influencing career choice and a Likert scale to assess the level of sadness and the degree of religiosity were used as well.ResultsStudents ranked the most important three factors influencing their career selection as family decision, religious factors, and the desire to care for others. The prevalence of depression among the sample was 26%. Students who had a desire to care for others were less likely to suffer from depression and those who chose nursing as their career due to religious factors were significantly less depressed than those who did not. Meanwhile, students who chose nursing under family pressure or because of a lack of alternative opportunities were more depressed. The odds ratio for depressive symptoms was 0.24 when students chose nursing because of religious factors, whereas it was 4.92 when the family strongly influenced the student’s career decision and 3.61 when a nursing career was the only perceived opportunity available.ConclusionThe main factors associated with depression among this sample of nursing students were pressure from their family to choose a nursing

  18. Factors Affecting Student Choice of Career in Science and Engineering: Parallel Studies in Australia, Canada, China, England, Japan and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolnough, Brian E.; Guo, Yuying; Leite, Maria Salete; Jose de Almeida, Maria; Ryu, Tae; Wang, Zhen; Young, Deidra

    1997-01-01

    Describes studies that utilized questionnaires and interviews to explore the factors affecting the career choices of students. Reveals differences between scientists and nonscientists with regard to their preferred learning styles and relates these differences to career choice and self-perception. (DDR)

  19. Factors Influencing the Choice of a Public or Private Health Institution for Childbirth in Chandigarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trusty Khumukcham

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge of factors affecting the choice of place for delivery may help in developing a user friendly maternity program. Hence, this study aimed at finding out factors influencing women’s choice about the type of health institutions for delivery. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in selected communities of Chandigarh city in India during 2010-11. A consecutive sample of 300 women (150 in public and 150 in private institutions who had delivered a baby in previous three months were interviewed using a pre-tested interview schedule. Chi square test was used to find association of socio-demographic, maternal, and institutional factors with the type of institution selected for delivery. Results: Women from lower socio-economic status delivered more frequently in public sector institutions (47.3% than in private institutions (16.7%  (p<0.01. In private institutions 30% of the women were delivered through Caesarean Section compared to 17.3% in public institutions (p<0.05. Physical infrastructure was better in private institutions. Cost was lower in public (Rs. 4,630 than in private institutions (Rs 21,676. Most women were satisfied with quality of care received in public and private institutions. However, some reported that public institution staff needs to be more polite. Quality of infrastructure in health facility, quality of care, and socio-economic status were associated with the choice of institution for delivery. Conclusions: Public sector health institutions are a major source of maternity care in Chandigarh, hence, care providers should be trained in handling clients gently. Regulations for adherence to protocols, e.g., indications for Caesarean Section and fee structure etc. need to be implemented in private institutions.

  20. Factors associated with the choice of suicide method in Kermanshah Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Mehran; Jalilian, Abdollah; Rezaei-Zangeneh, Ramin; Salari, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Identification of factors in the choice of suicide methods is important in understanding the phenomenon. We aimed to quantify the effect of gender, age, living area, education level and marital status on the choice of suicide method among residents of Kermanshah province in the west of Iran. A cross-sectional study of all completed suicides from March 2006 to September 2013. Kermanshah Province, Iran. Data were extracted from suicide forms in the electronic files of the Forensic Medicine Organization. A total of 1901 (1138 men), suicide cases were identified. After preliminary analysis, a multinomial logistic model was fitted to the data to test and quantify the impact of each influential factor on the choice of suicide method. The relative risk of each suicide method over hanging as the reference method was estimated by calculating relative-risk ratios from the multinomial logistic model. Relative risk of suicide by self-immolation, drug and toxic poisoning and firearms. We found that women are at a higher relative risk than men for suicide by self-immolation, intentional drug poisoning and toxic poisoning. The relative risk of suicide by self-immolation and intentional drug poisoning was higher for urban residents and young individuals. On the other hand, men and rural residents were at higher relative risk of suicide by firearm. In Kermanshah province, the impact of rapid social changes on women and the availability of firearms in rural areas and drugs in urban households require more attention in any suicide prevention planning. The lack of data prevented analysis of factors that may be more influential in choosing suicide.

  1. INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR STORE FORMAT CHOICE IN THE APPAREL AND FOOTWEAR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana - Nicoleta Abrudan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The choice of retail formats has been a highly debated topic in international academic literature for a long time. In Romania, this topic has been hardly approached. This study investigates the buying habits of apparel and footwear, as well as the factors related to the purchase decision from a particular store format. Factors considered are both socio-demographic (education, occupation, net income per family member, size of discretionary income, household (family size, number of cars owned and shopping motivation. A quantitative research has been conducted using a sample of 642 urban buyers, in the second largest city in Romania. The results indicate that factors showing correlation with the frequency of purchases vary by the retail format.

  2. Risk Factors Associated with the Choice to Drink Bottled Water and Tap Water in Rural Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne McLeod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study investigated risk factors associated with choices to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan. Of 7,500 anonymous postal questionnaires mailed out, 2,065 responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Those who reported a water advisory (p < 0.001 or living in the area for £10 years (p = 0.01 were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ≤ 0.001, while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p < 0.001. Respondents who treated their water and did not use a community supply were more likely to choose bottled water (p < 0.001, while those who did not treat their water were more likely to choose bottled water regardless of whether a community supply was used (p < 0.001. A similar pattern of risk factors was associated with a decreased likelihood of consuming tap water daily; however, the use of a community water supply was not significant. Understanding the factors involved in drinking water choices could inform public health education efforts regarding water management in rural areas.

  3. Optimisation of maintenance concept choice using risk-decision factor - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Vladimir M.; Vasic, Branko M.; Rakicevic, Branislav B.; Vorotovic, Goran S.

    2012-10-01

    The design of maintenance system and the corresponding logistic support is a very complex process, during which the aim is to find the compromise solutions regarding the relations among different maintenance procedures and the ways of their implementation. As a result of this, various solutions can be adopted, since this is conditioned by a series of important factors and criteria, which can be contradictory sometimes. There are different perspectives on ways of solving practical maintenance problems, that is dilemmas when it comes to the choice of maintenance concept. The principal dilemma is how and when to decide on carrying out maintenance procedures. Should the decision be based on theoretical grounds or experience, how does one reconcile those two extremes, who is to decide upon this? In this article we have offered one, basically new solution as a possibility for maintenance concept choice, based on a significant modification of the widely used failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) method. This solution is risk-decision factor (RDF). This is a result of seven parameters (of different importance and weight) that have the key impact on the process of production and logistic support. The application of this factor is illustrated by the example of planning, organisation and functioning of the maintenance system applied in The Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins (ZIN) in Belgrade.

  4. Untangling Partnership and Domination Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Loye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Riane Eisler’s (1987 cultural transformation theory is an effective framework for understanding many of the constructs that shape society. This article uses Eisler’s theory to explain the formation of morality and the construction of conscience. It contrasts partnership morality and domination morality, and describes the factors that shape our tendency to embrace one or the other. The article helps us understand that we have a choice, and invites us to choose partnership morality.

  5. Proton electromagnetic form factor in the vector dominance model modified at short distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenkaya, S.I.; Skachkov, N.B.; Solovtsov, I.L.

    1977-01-01

    Predictions of a vector dominance model modified at short distances are compared with the experimental data available on ep elastic scattering. It is shown that the consideration of the proton central part with the radius equal to its Compton wave length give a better description

  6. Aspirations to become an anaesthetist: longitudinal study of historical trends and trajectories of UK-qualified doctors' early career choices and of factors that have influenced their choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanouil, Beatrice; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor W

    2017-07-25

    It is important to inform medical educators and workforce planners in Anaesthesia about early career choices for the specialty, factors that influence them and to elucidate how recent choices of men and women doctors relate to the overall historical trends in the specialty's popularity. We analysed longitudinal data on career choice, based on self-completed questionnaires, from national year-of-qualification cohorts of UK-trained doctors from 1974 to 2012 surveyed one, three and 5 years post-qualification. Career destination data 10 years post-qualification were used for qualifiers between 1993 and 2002, to investigate the association between early choice and later destinations. In years 1, 3 and 5 post-qualification, respectively, 59.9% (37,385), 64.6% (31,473), and 67.2% (24,971) of contactable doctors responded. There was an overall increase, from the early to the later cohorts, in the percentage of medical graduates who wished to enter anaesthesia: for instance year 1 choices rose from 4.6 to 9.4%, comparing the 1974 and 2012 cohorts. Men were more likely than women to express an early preference for a career in anaesthesia: for example, at year 3 after qualification anaesthesia was the choice of 10.1% of men and 7.9% of women. There was a striking increase in the certainty with which women chose anaesthesia as their future career specialty in recent compared to earlier cohorts, not reflected in any trends observed in men choosing anaesthesia. Sixty percent of doctors who were anaesthetists, 10 years after qualifying, had specified anaesthesia as their preferred specialty when surveyed in year 1, 80% in year 3, and 92% in year 5. Doctors working as anaesthetists were less likely than those working in other hospital specialties to have specified, as strong influences on specialty choice, 'experience of the subject' as students, 'inclinations before medical school', and 'what I really want to do'. Men anaesthetists were more influenced in their specialty

  7. Factors in the school cafeteria influencing food choices by high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Christine; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A; French, Simone A

    2002-08-01

    This study set three objectives: 1) to examine the perceived influence of health concerns, labeling and nutrition information, taste, cost, availability, and peers on adolescents' food choices, particularly in the school cafeteria; 2) to determine whether these factors vary by gender, grade level, or adolescents' health and weight concerns; and 3) to provide recommendations regarding promotion of low-fat foods in the school cafeteria based on factors associated with food choices. Data were collected from a school survey that assessed key influences on adolescents' food choices, including low-fat foods. Some 289 students in grades 10-12 from a senior high school in a metropolitan area served as subjects. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and general linear models were used for analysis. Results indicated that, when choosing foods from the school cafeteria, taste and getting a lot for their money were important to most students (93.7% and 71.7%, respectively). Females, and students who thought about their health and weight more frequently when deciding what to eat, were more likely to report greater interest in labeling and nutrition information and availability of low-fat foods in the school cafeteria. Findings suggest that efforts to promote low-fat foods to adolescents need to address the taste of low-fat foods, availability of low-fat options, and point-of-purchase labeling of low-fat foods. Focusing on the value and cost of low-fat foods may offer a key strategy for promoting low-fat foods to males.

  8. Several dominants risk factors related to obesity in urban childbearing age women in Indonesia

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    Kencana Sari

    2016-01-01

    analyze several dominant riskfactors related to obesity in childbearing age women living in urban areas in Indonesia.Methods: This analysis used a part of Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2007 data. The samples werederived from 258366 households. Riskesdas data on socio-demographic and other factors was collectedby questionnaire. Nutritional status was measured using body mass index (BMI. Cox regression withconstant time analysis was used for the analysis.Results: This analysis noted that there are 14357 (18.8% of women were obese and 62052 (81.2%normal. Compared with the respective reference groups, women aged 25-49 had a 3.5-fold greater riskof becoming obese [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 3.49; P = 0.000, and divorced or married had 2.5-foldhigher risk to be obese (RRa = 2.58; P= 0.000 and RRa = 2.62; P = 0.000, respectively. Furthermore,unemployed women had higher risk to be obese (RRa = 1.06; P = 0.000, and consuming excess proteinas well as often consume fatty foods made women had a higher risk of obesity (RRa = 1.09; P = 0.000 andRRa = 1.17; P = 0.000, respectively.Conclusion: Women aged 25-49, divorced or married, unemployed, consumed excess protein, and often consumefatty foods have a higher risk for becoming obese. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:63-8Key words: obesity, urban, women

  9. Choice Model and Influencing Factor Analysis of Travel Mode for Migrant Workers: Case Study in Xi’an, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the basic theory and methods of disaggregate choice model, the influencing factors in travel mode choice for migrant workers are analyzed, according to 1366 data samples of Xi’an migrant workers. Walking, bus, subway, and taxi are taken as the alternative parts of travel modes for migrant workers, and a multinomial logit (MNL model of travel mode for migrant workers is set up. The validity of the model is verified by the hit rate, and the hit rates of four travel modes are all greater than 80%. Finally, the influence of different factors affecting the choice of travel mode is analyzed in detail, and the inelasticity of each factor is analyzed with the elasticity theory. Influencing factors such as age, education level, and monthly gross income have significant impact on travel choice mode for migrant workers. The elasticity values of education degree are greater than 1, indicating that it on the travel mode choice is of elasticity, while the elasticity values of gender, industry distribution, and travel purpose are less than 1, indicating that these factors on travel mode choice are of inelasticity.

  10. Investigation of the Factors Affecting Occupation Choices of High School Students with Paired Comparison Method

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    Funda NALBANTOĞLU YILMAZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to determine effect sequences of factors that play a role in the professional choices of high school students. The study was conducted from 355 high school students who can give thorough and sincere information. The compositions written by students were examined and the field literature survey was done to determine the factors that play a role in the professional selection of the students. In this respect, 9 factors that affect the professional selection of the students have been determined. These factors were presented to students in pairs. And then students were asked to indicate which pair is more effective in their professional selection. Paired comparison scaling was used to determine the order of influence of the factors that affect the professional preferences of the students. According to the results of the analysis, it seems that the most important effect of professional selection of students (except 11th grade students is the interest in a profession. Also the professional selection of girls and boys are mostly influenced by their interests. At the same time, it is observed that students' university entrance examination scores substantially affect their professional selection. On the other hand, the preferences of the students are influenced by at least the environment.

  11. Influence on DNA repair inhibitors on dominant lethal factors after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engl, D.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were performed in order to test the hypothesis of a correlation between ionizing radiation and DNA repair inhibition under in vivo conditions. In a biometrically planned dominant lethal test on mice, the repair inhibition on the male gametes by butazolidine, TWEEN 80 and vitamin A was studied after gamma irradiation at 20 rad/10 min. No effect was observed in the case of butazolidine and TWEEN 80, whereas the influence of a high concentration of vitamin A (1 million IE/kg) was just at the statistical significancy threshold. (G.G.)

  12. Vegetation cover-another dominant factor in determining global water resources in forested regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Mingfang; Giles-Hansen, Krysta; Liu, Wenfei; Fan, Houbao; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Guoyi; Piao, Shilong; Liu, Shirong

    2018-02-01

    Forested catchments provide critically important water resources. Due to dramatic global forest change over the past decades, the importance of including forest or vegetation change in the assessment of water resources under climate change has been highly recognized by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); however, this importance has not yet been examined quantitatively across the globe. Here, we used four remote sensing-based indices to represent changes in vegetation cover in forest-dominated regions, and then applied them to widely used models: the Fuh model and the Choudhury-Yang model to assess relative contributions of vegetation and climate change to annual runoff variations from 2000 to 2011 in forested landscape (forest coverage >30%) across the globe. Our simulations show that the global average variation in annual runoff due to change in vegetation cover is 30.7% ± 22.5% with the rest attributed to climate change. Large annual runoff variation in response to vegetation change is found in tropical and boreal forests due to greater forest losses. Our simulations also demonstrate both offsetting and additive effects of vegetation cover and climate in determining water resource change. We conclude that vegetation cover change must be included in any global models for assessing global water resource change under climate change in forest-dominant areas. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Association Between Socioeconomic Factors and the Choice of Dentifrice and Fluoride Intake by Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carolina Castro; Oliveira, Maria José; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2011-01-01

    It is questionable whether socioeconomic factors influence the choice of marketed children’s dentifrices and whether these products are associated with greater fluoride (F) intake in children. The present cross-sectional study involving 197 children (mean age: 40.98 ± 6.62 months) was carried out in Montes Claros, Brazil. Parents completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic status and the tooth brushing habits of their children. The children brushed their teeth and saliva residues were collected for F analysis. F intake from dentifrice was determined with an ion-specific electrode. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to test whether the type of dentifrice (children’s or family) and F dose (brush brush used” (OR: 27.20; p brushing” (p ≤ 0.004) had a statistically and synergistic effect over the daily F dose. The present study found a social influence over the choice of dentifrice: children with a high socioeconomic status tend to use a children’s dentifrice. The amount of dentifrice used can strongly increase the risk of exposure to higher doses of F, regardless of the type of dentifrice. PMID:22163207

  14. Factors influencing farmers’ choices of adaptation to climate change in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi Adeola Obayelu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change poses a great threat to human security through erratic rainfall patterns and decreasing crop yields, contributing to increased hunger. The perceptions of the indigenous people about climate change and their responses to climate change have significant roles to play in addressing climate change. Therefore a critical study on farmers’ choices of adaptation to is critical for ensuring food security poverty alleviation. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 156 households in Ekiti state while descriptive statistics and multinomial logit were used to analyze the data obtained from the households. The results showed that the most widely used adaptation method by the farmers were soil and water conservation measures (67 percent. The multinomial logit analysis revealed that the factors explaining farmer’s choices of climate change adaptation include age of the farmers, gender of the household head, years of education, years of farming experience, household size, farmers information on climate change, farmers access to credit, farm income, non-farm income, livestock ownership and extension contact.

  15. Impact of the neutron detector choice on Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor for subcriticality measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Y.; Cao, Y.; Zhong, Z.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Routkovskaya, C.

    2012-01-01

    In subcritical assemblies, the Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor is used to correct the measured reactivity from different detector positions. In addition to the measuring position, several other parameters affect the correction factor: the detector material, the detector size, and the energy-angle distribution of source neutrons. The effective multiplication factor calculated by computer codes in criticality mode slightly differs from the average value obtained from the measurements in the different experimental channels of the subcritical assembly, which are corrected by the Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor. Generally, this difference is due to (1) neutron counting errors; (2) geometrical imperfections, which are not simulated in the calculational model, and (3) quantities and distributions of material impurities, which are missing from the material definitions. This work examines these issues and it focuses on the detector choice and the calculation methodologies. The work investigated the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly of Belarus, which has been operated with three different fuel enrichments in the fast zone either: high (90%) and medium (36%), medium (36%), or low (21%) enriched uranium fuel.

  16. Application of factor analysis in identification of dominant hydrogeochemical processes of some nitrogenous groundwater of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Jana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical analyses are used for reducing large datasets to a smaller number of variables, which explain main hydrogeochemical processes that control water geochemistry. Factor analysis (FA allows discovering intercorrelations inside the data matrix and grouping of similar variables, i.e. chemical parameters. In this way new variables are extracted, which are called factors, and each factor is explained by some hydrogeochemical process. Applying FA to a dataset that consists of 15 chemical parameters measured on 40 groundwater samples from Serbia, four factors were extracted, which explain 73.9% of total variance in the analyzed dataset. Interpretation of obtained factors indicated several hydrogeochemical processes: the impact of sea water intrusions and volatiles in previous geological periods, solutes diffusion from the marine clay, cation exchange and dissolution of carbonate and silicate minerals. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43004

  17. Comparisons among three types of generalist physicians: Personal characteristics, medical school experiences, financial aid, and other factors influencing career choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G; Veloski, J J; Barzansky, B; Hojat, M; Diamond, J; Silenzio, V M

    1996-01-01

    A national survey of family physicians, general internists, and general pediatricians was conducted in the US to examine differences among the three groups of generalists physicians, with particular regard to the factors influencing their choice of generalist career. Family physicians were more likely to have made their career decision before medical school, and were more likely to have come from inner-city or rural areas. Personal values and early role models play a very important role in influencing their career choice. In comparison, a higher proportion of general internists had financial aid service obligations and their choice of the specialty was least influenced by personal values. General pediatricians had more clinical experiences either in primary care or with underserved populations, and they regarded medical school experiences as more important in influencing their specialty choice than did the other two groups. Admission committees may use these specialty-related factors to develop strategies to attract students into each type of generalist career.

  18. Factors Affecting the Choice of Psychiatry as a Specialty and Satisfaction among Turkish Psychiatry Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Urun; Ceri, Veysi; Carpar, Elif; Sancak, Baris; Yildirim, Fatma

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the choice of psychiatry among psychiatry residents, identify the fulfillment of expectations, and assess their satisfaction level. Anonymous questionnaires were administered to 98 psychiatry residents, and sociodemographic and professional data were collected. Among the reasons for choosing psychiatry, the opportunity to cultivate interest in humanities, importance of social and relational issues, and intellectual challenge were most frequently selected. The opportunity for complete use of medical training, salary, and opportunity to practice psychotherapy were the expectations least met. The largest group of participants was satisfied to have chosen psychiatry (41.5%), decided on psychiatry training after medical school (35.4%), and attached importance to becoming a clinician (70.7%). Although the satisfaction level was high in this study, addressing the areas in which expectations were not met may increase the satisfaction of psychiatry residents and the selection of psychiatry as a specialty.

  19. Importance-satisfaction analysis of street food sanitation and choice factor in Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. SUBJECTS/METHODS The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were checked. Respondents' importance and satisfaction of street food hygiene and selection attributes were also measured. In order to test for the difference between groups, χ2-test and t-test were performed. ISA was also performed to analyze importance and satisfaction. RESULTS Results showed that the importance of sanitation was significantly higher than satisfaction on all items in both Korea and Taiwan, and the satisfaction with sanitation was higher in Taiwan than in Korea. According to ISA results with street food sanitation, satisfaction was low while importance was high in both Korea and Taiwan. In terms of street food choice factor, importance scores were significantly higher than satisfaction scores on all items. In addition, satisfaction scores on all items except 'taste' were significantly higher in Taiwan than in Korea. CONCLUSIONS A manual on sanitation management of street foods should be developed to change the knowledge and attitude toward sanitation by putting into practice a regularly conducted education. Considering the popularity of street foods and its potential as a tourism resource to easily publicize our food culture, thorough management measures should be prepared on sanitation so that safe street food culture should be created. PMID:26060542

  20. Importance-satisfaction analysis of street food sanitation and choice factor in Korea and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee; Yoon, Jiyoung

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were checked. Respondents' importance and satisfaction of street food hygiene and selection attributes were also measured. In order to test for the difference between groups, χ(2)-test and t-test were performed. ISA was also performed to analyze importance and satisfaction. Results showed that the importance of sanitation was significantly higher than satisfaction on all items in both Korea and Taiwan, and the satisfaction with sanitation was higher in Taiwan than in Korea. According to ISA results with street food sanitation, satisfaction was low while importance was high in both Korea and Taiwan. In terms of street food choice factor, importance scores were significantly higher than satisfaction scores on all items. In addition, satisfaction scores on all items except 'taste' were significantly higher in Taiwan than in Korea. A manual on sanitation management of street foods should be developed to change the knowledge and attitude toward sanitation by putting into practice a regularly conducted education. Considering the popularity of street foods and its potential as a tourism resource to easily publicize our food culture, thorough management measures should be prepared on sanitation so that safe street food culture should be created.

  1. Medical Specialty Choice and Related Factors of Brazilian Medical Students and Recent Doctors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Correia Lima de Souza

    Full Text Available Choosing a medical specialty is an important, complex, and not fully understood process. The present study investigated the factors that are related to choosing and rejecting medical specialties in a group of students and recent medical doctors.A cross-sectional survey of 1,223 medical students and doctors was performed in Brazil in 2012. A standardized literature-based questionnaire was applied that gathered preferable or rejected specialties, and asked questions about extracurricular experiences and the influence of 14 factors on a Likert-type scale from 0 to 4. Specialties were grouped according to lifestyle categories: controllable and uncontrollable, which were subdivided into primary care, internal medicine, and surgical specialties. Notably, the time period of rejection was usually earlier than the time period of intended choice (p < 0.0001, χ(2 = 107.2. The choice mainly occurred during the internship period in medical school (n = 466; 38.7%. An overall large frequency of participation in extracurricular activities was observed (n = 1,184; 95.8%, which were highly associated with the respective medical area. Orthopedic surgery had the highest correlation with participation in specialty-specific organized groups (OR = 59.9, 95% CI = 21.6-166.3 and psychiatry was correlated with participation in research groups (OR = 18.0, 95% CI = 9.0-36.2. With regard to influential factors in controllable lifestyle specialties, "financial reason" (mean score ± standard deviation: 2.8 ± 1.0; median = 3 and "personal time" (3.1 ± 1.3; median = 4 were important factors. In primary care, these factors were less important (1.7 ± 1.3 and 1.7 ± 1.5, respectively; median = 2 for both, and higher scores were observed for "curricular internship" (3.2 ± 1.1, median = 4 and "social commitment" (2.6 ± 1.3, median = 3.The present findings provide important insights into developing strategies to stimulate interest in specialties based on the needs of the

  2. Factors Influencing Student Choice: A Study of a Malaysian Public University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Songan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a study of the information sources employed by students to get information regarding University Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS and also the factors influencing students’ choice of UNIMAS. In addition, differences in sources of information and factors of influence based on types of faculty and selected student demographics were also examined. This crosssectional survey research was carried out with a sample consisting of 1,396 first-year students in UNIMAS. The findings of the study showed that “Word of mouth through friends and relatives” and “UNIMAS website” were the two main sources of information. Furthermore, “Academic Program Choice”, “Quality of Teaching and Academics”, “Employment Prospect” and “University Choice” were factors contributing towards students selecting UNIMAS to pursue their studies. Inferential statistical analyses consisting of independent t-tests and One-way ANOVA yielded mixed results that could have implications for UNIMAS and other public higher education institutions in employing appropriate strategies to target different segments of prospective students.

  3. Higher Education Marketing Strategies Based on Factors Impacting the Enrollees' Choice of a University and an Academic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimullin, Aydar M.; Dobrotvorskaya, Svetlana G.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of studying the stated problem is due to the fact that for increasing the efficiency of higher education marketing it is necessary to take into account several factors, namely, factors that impact the choice of a university and an academic program by enrollees, as well as socio-psychological characteristics of the latter, while…

  4. Novel role of ouabain as a cystogenic factor in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Darren P.

    2013-01-01

    The classic role of the Na-K-ATPase is that of a primary active transporter that utilizes cell energy to establish and maintain transmembrane Na+ and K+ gradients to preserve cell osmotic stability, support cell excitability, and drive secondary active transport. Recent studies have revealed that Na-K-ATPase located within cholesterol-containing lipid rafts serves as a receptor for cardiotonic steroids, including ouabain. Traditionally, ouabain was viewed as a toxin produced only in plants, and it was used in relatively high concentrations to experimentally block the pumping action of the Na-K-ATPase. However, the new and unexpected role of the Na-K-ATPase as a signal transducer revealed a novel facet for ouabain in the regulation of a myriad of cell functions, including cell proliferation, hypertrophy, apoptosis, mobility, and metabolism. The seminal discovery that ouabain is endogenously produced in mammals and circulates in plasma has fueled the interest in this endogenous molecule as a potentially important hormone in normal physiology and disease. In this article, we review the role of the Na-K-ATPase as an ion transporter in the kidney, the experimental evidence for ouabain as a circulating hormone, the function of the Na-K-ATPase as a signal transducer that mediates ouabain's effects, and novel results for ouabain-induced Na-K-ATPase signaling in cystogenesis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:23761677

  5. On the Dominant Factor Controlling Seasonal Hydrological Forecast Skill in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Tang, Qiuhong; Leng, Guoyong; Liu, Xingcai; Li, Zhe; Huang, Zhongwei

    2017-11-29

    Initial conditions (ICs) and climate forecasts (CFs) are the two primary sources of seasonal hydrological forecast skill. However, their relative contribution to predictive skill remains unclear in China. In this study, we investigate the relative roles of ICs and CFs in cumulative runoff (CR) and soil moisture (SM) forecasts using 31-year (1980–2010) ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) and reverse-ESP (revESP) simulations with the Variable Capacity Infiltration (VIC) hydrologic model. The results show that the relative importance of ICs and CFs largely depends on climate regimes. The influence of ICs is stronger in a dry or wet-to-dry climate regime that covers the northern and western interior regions during the late fall to early summer. In particular, ICs may dominate the forecast skill for up to three months or even six months during late fall and winter months, probably due to the low precipitation value and variability in the dry period. In contrast, CFs become more important for most of southern China or during summer months. The impact of ICs on SM forecasts tends to cover larger domains than on CR forecasts. These findings will greatly benefit future work that will target efforts towards improving current forecast levels for the particular regions and forecast periods.

  6. Flow Dominance and Factorization of Transverse Momentum Correlations in Pb-Pb Collisions at the LHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, J; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, S; Ahn, S U; Aiola, S; Akindinov, A; Alam, S N; Albuquerque, D S D; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; An, M; Andrei, C; Andrews, H A; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anson, C; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Anwar, R; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arnaldi, R; Arnold, O W; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Audurier, B; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Azmi, M D; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baral, R C; Barbano, A M; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barioglio, L; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartalini, P; Barth, K; Bartke, J; Bartsch, E; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batista Camejo, A; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bello Martinez, H; Bellwied, R; Beltran, L G E; Belyaev, V; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhat, I R; Bhati, A K; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Biro, G; Biswas, R; Biswas, S; Blair, J T; Blau, D; Blume, C; Bock, F; Bogdanov, A; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Bonora, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Borri, M; Botta, E; Bourjau, C; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brucken, E J; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buhler, P; Buitron, S A I; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Butt, J B; Buxton, J T; Cabala, J; Caffarri, D; Caines, H; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Capon, A A; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carnesecchi, F; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castro, A J; Casula, E A R; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cerello, P; Cerkala, J; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Chartier, M; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chauvin, A; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Cho, S; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cortese, P; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Crkovská, J; Crochet, P; Cruz Albino, R; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dahms, T; Dainese, A; Danisch, M C; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, S; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Conti, C; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Souza, R D; Degenhardt, H F; Deisting, A; Deloff, A; Deplano, C; Dhankher, P; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Di Ruzza, B; Diaz Corchero, M A; Dietel, T; Dillenseger, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Domenicis Gimenez, D; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Drozhzhova, T; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Duggal, A K; Dupieux, P; Ehlers, R J; Elia, D; Endress, E; Engel, H; Epple, E; Erazmus, B; Erhardt, F; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eulisse, G; Eum, J; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Fabbietti, L; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Feldkamp, L; Feliciello, A; Feofilov, G; Ferencei, J; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Feuillard, V J G; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Francisco, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fronze, G G; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Furs, A; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A M; Gajdosova, K; Gallio, M; Galvan, C D; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Gao, C; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Garg, K; Garg, P; Gargiulo, C; Gasik, P; Gauger, E F; Gay Ducati, M B; Germain, M; Ghosh, P; Ghosh, S K; Gianotti, P; Giubellino, P; Giubilato, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Goméz Coral, D M; Gomez Ramirez, A; Gonzalez, A S; Gonzalez, V; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Görlich, L; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Graczykowski, L K; Graham, K L; Greiner, L; Grelli, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grion, N; Gronefeld, J M; Grosa, F; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grosso, R; Gruber, L; Grull, F R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Guzman, I B; Haake, R; Hadjidakis, C; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamon, J C; Harris, J W; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Heckel, S T; Hellbär, E; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, F; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hillemanns, H; Hippolyte, B; Hladky, J; Horak, D; Hosokawa, R; Hristov, P; Hughes, C; Humanic, T J; Hussain, N; Hussain, T; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ilkaev, R; Inaba, M; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Isakov, V; Islam, M S; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Izucheev, V; Jacak, B; Jacazio, N; Jacobs, P M; Jadhav, M B; Jadlovska, S; Jadlovsky, J; Jahnke, C; Jakubowska, M J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jercic, M; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jusko, A; Kalinak, P; Kalweit, A; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karayan, L; Karpechev, E; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Keijdener, D L D; Keil, M; Mohisin Khan, M; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Khatun, A; Khuntia, A; Kielbowicz, M M; Kileng, B; Kim, D W; Kim, D J; Kim, D; Kim, H; Kim, J S; Kim, J; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, T; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Kiss, G; Klay, J L; Klein, C; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Klewin, S; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Kobdaj, C; Kofarago, M; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Kondratyuk, E; Konevskikh, A; Kopcik, M; Kour, M; Kouzinopoulos, C; Kovalenko, O; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Králik, I; Kravčáková, A; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kubera, A M; Kučera, V; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, A; Kumar, J; Kumar, L; Kumar, S; Kundu, S; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Pointe, S L; La Rocca, P; Lagana Fernandes, C; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; Lapidus, K; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Lattuca, A; Laudi, E; Lavicka, R; Lazaridis, L; Lea, R; Leardini, L; Lee, S; Lehas, F; Lehner, S; Lehrbach, J; Lemmon, R C; Lenti, V; Leogrande, E; León Monzón, I; Lévai, P; Li, S; Li, X; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Litichevskyi, V; Ljunggren, H M; Llope, W J; Lodato, D F; Loenne, P I; Loginov, V; Loizides, C; Loncar, P; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Lowe, A; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Lupi, M; Lutz, T H; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahajan, S; Mahmood, S M; Maire, A; Majka, R D; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Margutti, J; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martin, N A; Martinengo, P; Martinez, J A L; Martínez, M I; Martínez García, G; Martinez Pedreira, M; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Mastroserio, A; Mathis, A M; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzilli, M; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Melikyan, Y; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meninno, E; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Mhlanga, S; Miake, Y; Mieskolainen, M M; Mihaylov, D; Mikhaylov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Mishra, T; Miśkowiec, D; Mitra, J; Mitu, C M; Mohammadi, N; Mohanty, B; Montes, E; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moreno, L A P; Moretto, S; Morreale, A; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Mühlheim, D; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Mulligan, J D; Munhoz, M G; Münning, K; Munzer, R H; Murakami, H; Murray, S; Musa, L; Musinsky, J; Myers, C J; Naik, B; Nair, R; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Naru, M U; Natal da Luz, H; Nattrass, C; Navarro, S R; Nayak, K; Nayak, R; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Negrao De Oliveira, R A; Nellen, L; Nesbo, S V; Ng, F; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Niedziela, J; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Noris, J C C; Norman, J; Nyanin, A; Nystrand, J; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Ohlson, A; Okubo, T; Olah, L; Oleniacz, J; Oliveira Da Silva, A C; Oliver, M H; Onderwaater, J; Oppedisano, C; Orava, R; Oravec, M; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Oskarsson, A; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Ozdemir, M; Pachmayer, Y; Pacik, V; Pagano, D; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Pal, S K; Palni, P; Pan, J; Pandey, A K; Panebianco, S; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Pareek, P; Park, J; Park, W J; Parmar, S; Passfeld, A; Paticchio, V; Patra, R N; Paul, B; Pei, H; Peitzmann, T; Peng, X; Pereira, L G; Pereira Da Costa, H; Peresunko, D; Perez Lezama, E; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petrov, V; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Pezzi, R P; Piano, S; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pimentel, L O D L; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Piyarathna, D B; Płoskoń, M; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polichtchouk, B; Poljak, N; Poonsawat, W; Pop, A; Poppenborg, H; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Porter, J; Pospisil, J; Pozdniakov, V; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puccio, M; Puddu, G; Pujahari, P; Punin, V; Putschke, J; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Raha, S; Rajput, S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Rami, F; Rana, D B; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Ratza, V; Ravasenga, I; Read, K F; Redlich, K; Rehman, A; Reichelt, P; Reidt, F; Ren, X; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Ristea, C; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Røed, K; Rogochaya, E; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Ronchetti, F; Ronflette, L; Rosnet, P; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Roy, A; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Russo, R; Ryabinkin, E; Ryabov, Y; Rybicki, A; Saarinen, S; Sadhu, S; Sadovsky, S; Šafařík, K; Sahlmuller, B; Sahoo, B; Sahoo, P; Sahoo, R; Sahoo, S; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakai, S; Saleh, M A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sandoval, A; Sarkar, D; Sarkar, N; Sarma, P; Sas, M H P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schmidt, M O; Schmidt, M; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Šefčík, M; Seger, J E; Sekiguchi, Y; Sekihata, D; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senosi, K; Senyukov, S; Serradilla, E; Sett, P; Sevcenco, A; Shabanov, A; Shabetai, A; Shadura, O; Shahoyan, R; Shangaraev, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, M; Sharma, M; Sharma, N; Sheikh, A I; Shigaki, K; Shou, Q; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siddhanta, S; Sielewicz, K M; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singhal, V; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Slupecki, M; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Snellman, T W; Song, J; Song, M; Soramel, F; Sorensen, S; Sozzi, F; Spiriti, E; Sputowska, I; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stankus, P; Stenlund, E; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Suleymanov, M; Suljic, M; Sultanov, R; Šumbera, M; Sumowidagdo, S; Suzuki, K; Swain, S; Szabo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szymanski, M; Tabassam, U; Takahashi, J; Tambave, G J; Tanaka, N; Tarhini, M; Tariq, M; Tarzila, M G; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terasaki, K; Terrevoli, C; Teyssier, B; Thakur, D; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Tikhonov, A; Timmins, A R; Toia, A; Tripathy, S; Trogolo, S; Trombetta, G; Trubnikov, V; Trzaska, W H; Trzeciak, B A; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ullaland, K; Umaka, E N; Uras, A; Usai, G L; Utrobicic, A; Vala, M; Van Der Maarel, J; Van Hoorne, J W; van Leeuwen, M; Vanat, T; Vande Vyvre, P; Varga, D; Vargas, A; Vargyas, M; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vauthier, A; Vázquez Doce, O; Vechernin, V; Veen, A M; Velure, A; Vercellin, E; Vergara Limón, S; Vernet, R; Vértesi, R; Vickovic, L; Vigolo, S; Viinikainen, J; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Villatoro Tello, A; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Virgili, T; Vislavicius, V; Vodopyanov, A; Völkl, M A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S A; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vorobyev, I; Voscek, D; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Wagner, B; Wagner, J; Wang, H; Wang, M; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, Y; Weber, M; Weber, S G; Weiser, D F; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Whitehead, A M; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilk, G; Wilkinson, J; Willems, G A; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Witt, W E; Yalcin, S; Yang, P; Yano, S; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yoon, J H; Yurchenko, V; Zaccolo, V; Zaman, A; Zampolli, C; Zanoli, H J C; Zaporozhets, S; Zardoshti, N; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, Z; Zhao, C; Zhigareva, N; Zhou, D; Zhou, Y; Zhou, Z; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zimmermann, M B; Zimmermann, S; Zinovjev, G; Zmeskal, J

    2017-04-21

    We present the first measurement of the two-particle transverse momentum differential correlation function, P_{2}≡⟨Δp_{T}Δp_{T}⟩/⟨p_{T}⟩^{2}, in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=2.76  TeV. Results for P_{2} are reported as a function of the relative pseudorapidity (Δη) and azimuthal angle (Δφ) between two particles for different collision centralities. The Δϕ dependence is found to be largely independent of Δη for |Δη|≥0.9. In the 5% most central Pb-Pb collisions, the two-particle transverse momentum correlation function exhibits a clear double-hump structure around Δφ=π (i.e., on the away side), which is not observed in number correlations in the same centrality range, and thus provides an indication of the dominance of triangular flow in this collision centrality. Fourier decompositions of P_{2}, studied as a function of the collision centrality, show that correlations at |Δη|≥0.9 can be well reproduced by a flow ansatz based on the notion that measured transverse momentum correlations are strictly determined by the collective motion of the system.

  7. On the Dominant Factor Controlling Seasonal Hydrological Forecast Skill in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Initial conditions (ICs and climate forecasts (CFs are the two primary sources of seasonal hydrological forecast skill. However, their relative contribution to predictive skill remains unclear in China. In this study, we investigate the relative roles of ICs and CFs in cumulative runoff (CR and soil moisture (SM forecasts using 31-year (1980–2010 ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP and reverse-ESP (revESP simulations with the Variable Capacity Infiltration (VIC hydrologic model. The results show that the relative importance of ICs and CFs largely depends on climate regimes. The influence of ICs is stronger in a dry or wet-to-dry climate regime that covers the northern and western interior regions during the late fall to early summer. In particular, ICs may dominate the forecast skill for up to three months or even six months during late fall and winter months, probably due to the low precipitation value and variability in the dry period. In contrast, CFs become more important for most of southern China or during summer months. The impact of ICs on SM forecasts tends to cover larger domains than on CR forecasts. These findings will greatly benefit future work that will target efforts towards improving current forecast levels for the particular regions and forecast periods.

  8. Factors associated with the choice of public health service among nursing students in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaengdee, Krisada; Pudpong, Nareerut; Wisaijohn, Thunthita; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Putthasri, Weerasak; Lagarde, Mylene; Blaauw, Duane

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that public and private nursing schools have contributed significantly to the Thai health system, it is not clear whether and to what extent there was difference in job preferences between types of training institutions. This study aimed to examine attitudes towards rural practice, intention to work in public service after graduation, and factors affecting workplace selection among nursing students in both public and private institutions. A descriptive comparative cross-sectional survey was conducted among 3349 students from 36 nursing schools (26 public and 10 private) during February-March 2012, using a questionnaire to assess the association between training institution characteristics and students' attitudes, job choices, and intention to work in the public sector upon graduation. Comparisons between school types were done using ANOVA, and Bonferroni-adjusted multiple comparisons tests. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to construct a composite rural attitude index ( 14 questions). Cronbach's alpha was used to examine the internal consistency of the scales, and ANOVA was then used to determine the differences. These relationships were further investigated through multiple regression. A higher proportion of public nursing students (86.4% from the Ministry of Public Health and 74.1% from the Ministry of Education) preferred working in the public sector, compared to 32.4% of students from the private sector ( p  = public nursing schools were less motivated by financial incentive regarding workplace choices relative to students trained by private institutions. To increase nursing workforce in the public sector, the following policy options should be promoted: 1) recruiting more students with a rural upbringing, 2) nurturing good attitudes towards working in rural areas through appropriate training at schools, 3) providing government scholarships for private students in exchange for compulsory work in rural areas, and 4) providing a

  9. Association Between Socioeconomic Factors and the Choice of Dentifrice and Fluoride Intake by Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Oliveira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is questionable whether socioeconomic factors influence the choice of marketed children’s dentifrices and whether these products are associated with greater fluoride (F intake in children. The present cross-sectional study involving 197 children (mean age: 40.98 ± 6.62 months was carried out in Montes Claros, Brazil. Parents completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic status and the tooth brushing habits of their children. The children brushed their teeth and saliva residues were collected for F analysis. F intake from dentifrice was determined with an ion-specific electrode. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to test whether the type of dentifrice (children’s or family and F dose (< 0.05 and ≥0.05 mg F/Kg of body weight/day were associated with the independent variables (p < 0.05. No differences were found between children’s and family dentifrices regarding daily F intake (0.046 and 0.040 mg F/Kg/day, respectively; p = 0.513. The following were strong predictors for the use of a children’s dentifrice: studying at a private kindergarten (OR: 6.89; p < 0.001; age that the child begun to tooth brush < 2 years (OR: 2.93; p = 0.041, and the interaction between the variables “use of the same dentifrice as parents” and “type of tooth brush used” (OR: 27.20; p < 0.001. “The amount of dentifrice used” and “frequency of tooth brushing” (p ≤ 0.004 had a statistically and synergistic effect over the daily F dose. The present study found a social influence over the choice of dentifrice: children with a high socioeconomic status tend to use a children’s dentifrice. The amount of dentifrice used can strongly increase the risk of exposure to higher doses of F, regardless of the type of dentifrice.

  10. Investigating word-of-mouth (WOM factors influencing patients’ physician choice and satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Argan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to determine the word-of-mouth constructs related to physician choice and to investigate relationships between the constructs and satisfaction. Method: A questionnaire consisted of three parts was conducted on people (n=1193 living in the province of Eskisehir, Turkey. The first part contained sixteen statements related to word-of-mouth messages about choosing a physician. A traditional approach to scale development was utilized. Items in the second part were concerned with satisfaction as the dependent variable. The final part included demographic variables. Results: The results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA revealed four valid WOM constructs (communication skill, expertise, reputation and success, and institutional facilities and structural equation model (SEM indicate that these constructs have both directly and indirectly effect on patient satisfaction. The results also showed that institutional facility mediated relationship between remaining factors and satisfaction. Conclusions: The relationships between physicians and patients have an indirect effect on potential patients. By understanding sources of patients’ satisfaction and dissatisfaction, physicians can develop appropriate relationship strategies to minimize the adverse effects of negative word-of-mouth on costs, quality and patient turnover. The results of the current study provide suggestions for better health care management and further insight into the challenges of improving patient satisfaction.

  11. Amalgam or composite resin? Factors influencing the choice of restorative material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, M B; Peres, M A; Peres, K G; Horta, B L; Barros, A D; Demarco, F F

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the patient and tooth factors associated with selection of restorative material in direct posterior restorations in young adults from a population-based birth cohort. A representative sample (n=720) of all 5914 births occurring in Pelotas in 1982 were prospectively investigated, and posterior restorations were assessed in 2006, when the patients were 24 years old. Tooth-related variables (individual level) included restorative material (amalgam or composite), type of tooth, size of cavity, and estimated time in mouth. Data regarding demographic and socio-economic characteristics, oral health, and service utilization patterns during the life course were also assessed (contextual level). Logistic Regression Multilevel models showed that individuals who have accessed dental services by private insurance by age 15 [odds ratio (OR)=1.66 (0.93-2.95)] and who had a higher dental caries index at age 15 (high DMFT tertile) [OR 2.89 (1.59-5.27)] presented more amalgam restorations in the posterior teeth. From tooth-level variables, the frequency of amalgams decreases with increasing number of surfaces enrolled in the cavity preparation (pcomposite or amalgam in posterior direct restorations, showing that, independently of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, type of payment of dental services and clinical factors are associated with this choice. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Reimbursement and economic factors influencing dialysis modality choice around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Paul M; de Charro, Frank Th; Tschosik, Elizabeth A; Noe, Les L; Bhattacharyya, Samir K; Riella, Miguel C

    2008-07-01

    The worldwide incidence of kidney failure is on the rise and treatment is costly; thus, the global burden of illness is growing. Kidney failure patients require either a kidney transplant or dialysis to maintain life. This review focuses on the economics of dialysis. Alternative dialysis modalities are haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). Important economic factors influencing dialysis modality selection include financing, reimbursement and resource availability. In general, where there is little or no facility or physician reimbursement or payment for PD, the share of PD is very low. Regarding resource availability, when centre HD capacity is high, there is an incentive to use that capacity rather than place patients on home dialysis. In certain countries, there is interest in revising the reimbursement structure to favour home-based therapies, including PD and home HD. Modality selection is influenced by employment status, with an association between being employed and PD as the modality choice. Cost drivers differ for PD and HD. PD is driven mainly by variable costs such as solutions and tubing, while HD is driven mainly by fixed costs of facility space and staff. Many cost comparisons of dialysis modalities have been conducted. A key factor to consider in reviewing cost comparisons is the perspective of the analysis because different costs are relevant for different perspectives. In developed countries, HD is generally more expensive than PD to the payer. Additional research is needed in the developing world before conclusive statements may be made regarding the relative costs of HD and PD.

  13. Choice of Innovative Technologies as a Factor of Modernization of the Industrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgheniya A. Panfilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the need to develop a new type of interaction between providers of the equipment and its end-users in a changing social and cultural reality. This type of interaction is a guarantee of innovative modernization of Russian industrial facilities, as it is based on a revision of the social reality in light of new information and/or knowledge. The choice of innovative technologies that contribute to fruitful and qualitative relationships among the actors of the social process acquires significance since there have been changes in the role, objectives and potential of technology. The author focuses on the changes in perceptions of social time and space, reflection of consumers (the impact of economic, social and psychological factors on their decision to purchase, and suppliers. There is a reflection of the habitus of social actors in the context of social interaction, based on the organization of innovative practices. Today technology is also reflecting, its symbolic characteristics, contained in the codes of signification, become more important, than technical ones. The research is based on in-depth interviews with experts from the pharmaceutical industry aimed at identifying the factors influencing the decision to purchase an innovative high-quality imported equipments and machinery, which would contribute to the modernization of the existing production process. The author concludes that adequate reflection which promotes the creation and dissemination of new social practices based on close and confidential contacts and development of flexible communication tools would provide for successful modernization of Russia.

  14. Flow Dominance and Factorization of Transverse Momentum Correlations in Pb-Pb Collisions at the LHC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, J.; Adamová, Dagmar; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Brož, M.; Contreras, J. G.; Ferencei, Jozef; Hladký, Jan; Horák, D.; Křížek, Filip; Kučera, Vít; Kushpil, Svetlana; Lavička, R.; Mareš, Jiří A.; Petráček, V.; Pospíšil, Jan; Šumbera, Michal; Vaňát, Tomáš; Závada, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 16 (2017), č. článku 162302. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15052 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : ALICE collaboration * heavy ion collisions * two particle transverse momentum Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics; Particles and field physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  15. Factors influencing junior doctors' choices of future specialty: trends over time and demographics based on results from UK national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fay; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    To study trends in factors influencing junior doctors' choice of future specialty. Respondents were asked whether each of 15 factors had a great deal of influence on their career choice, a little influence or no influence on it. Percentages are reported of those who specified that a factor had a great deal of influence on their career choice. UK. A total of 15,765 UK-trained doctors who graduated between 1999 and 2012. Questions about career choices and factors which may have influenced those choices, in particular comparing doctors who qualified in 2008-2012 with those who qualified in 1999-2002. Enthusiasm for and commitment to the specialty was a greater influence on career choice in the 2008-2012 qualifiers (81%) than those of 1999-2002 (64%), as was consideration of their domestic circumstances (43% compared with 20%). Prospects for promotion were less important to recent cohorts (16%) than older cohorts (21%), as were financial prospects (respectively, 10% and 14%). Domestic circumstances and working hours were considered more important, and financial prospects less important, by women than men. Inclination before medical school was rated as important by 41% of doctors who were over 30 years old, compared with 13% of doctors who were under 21, at the time of starting medical school. The increasing importance of both domestic circumstances and enthusiasm for their specialty choice in recent cohorts suggest that today's young doctors prize both work-life balance and personal fulfilment at work more highly than did their predecessors. The differences in motivations of older and younger generations of doctors, men and women, and doctors who start medical school relatively late are worthy of note. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  16. Dominant modifiable risk factors for stroke in Ghana and Nigeria (SIREN: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayowa O Owolabi, ProfDrMed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence, prevalence, and fatality from stroke globally. Yet, only little information about context-specific risk factors for prioritising interventions to reduce the stroke burden in sub-Saharan Africa is available. We aimed to identify and characterise the effect of the top modifiable risk factors for stroke in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN study is a multicentre, case-control study done at 15 sites in Nigeria and Ghana. Cases were adults (aged ≥18 years with stroke confirmed by CT or MRI. Controls were age-matched and gender-matched stroke-free adults (aged ≥18 years recruited from the communities in catchment areas of cases. Comprehensive assessment for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was done using standard instruments. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs and population-attributable risks (PARs with 95% CIs. Findings: Between Aug 28, 2014, and June 15, 2017, we enrolled 2118 case-control pairs (1192 [56%] men with mean ages of 59·0 years (SD 13·8 for cases and 57·8 years (13·7 for controls. 1430 (68% had ischaemic stoke, 682 (32% had haemorrhagic stroke, and six (<1% had discrete ischaemic and haemorrhagic lesions. 98·2% (95% CI 97·2–99·0 of adjusted PAR of stroke was associated with 11 potentially modifiable risk factors with ORs and PARs in descending order of PAR of 19·36 (95% CI 12·11–30·93 and 90·8% (95% CI 87·9–93·7 for hypertension, 1·85 (1·44–2·38 and 35·8% (25·3–46·2 for dyslipidaemia, 1·59 (1·19–2·13 and 31·1% (13·3–48·9 for regular meat consumption, 1·48 (1·13–1·94 and 26·5% (12·9–40·2 for elevated waist-to-hip ratio, 2·58 (1·98–3·37 and 22·1% (17·8–26·4 for diabetes, 2·43 (1·81–3·26 and 18·2% (14·1–22·3 for low green leafy vegetable consumption, 1·89 (1·40–2·54 and 11·6% (6·6–16·7

  17. Seasonal variations in terpene emission factors of dominant species in four ecosystems in NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llusia, Joan; Peñuelas, Josep; Guenther, Alex; Rapparini, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    We studied the daily patterns in the rates of foliar terpene emissions by four typical species from the Mediterranean region in two days of early spring and two days of summer in 4 localities of increasing biomass cover in Northern Spain. The species studied were Thymelaea tinctoria (in Monegros), Quercus coccifera (in Garraf), Quercus ilex (in Prades) and Fagus sylvatica (in Montseny). Of the total 43 VOCs detected, 23 were monoterpenes, 5 sesquiterpenes and 15 were not terpenes. Sesquiterpenes were the main terpenes emitted from T. tinctoria. Total VOC emission rates were on average about 15 times higher in summer than in early spring. The maximum rates of emission were recorded around midday. Emissions nearly stopped in the dark. No significant differences were found for nocturnal total terpene emission rates between places and seasons. The seasonal variations in the rate of terpene emissions and in their chemical composition can be explained mainly by dramatic changes in emission factors (emission capacity) associated in some cases, such as for beech trees, with very different foliar ontogenical characteristics between spring and summer. The results show that temperature and light-standardised emission rates were on average about 15 times higher in summer than in early spring, which, corroborating other works, calls to attention when applying the same emission factor in modelling throughout the different seasons of the year.

  18. Dominant risk factors for malaria at Puskesmas Labuhan Ruku, Talawi Batu Bara, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyanoer, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Malaria is a disease which increases in number almost every year. Morbidity rate of malaria tends to decline from 4.1 to 0.85 per 1000 population at risk in 2005 to 2015. In North Sumatera alone three areas found with the highest incidences are District of Madina, Batubara, and Asahan. However such high number do not parallel with the utilization of health services in the area.This study is an analytic study withcase-controldesign to analyses the contribution of environmental and social factors that potentially cause malaria among people living in malaria-endemic areas. The recruited samples are 146 samples. All cases are registered patient at Puskesmas Labuhan Ruku while controls are from the neighboring area. The result showed that incidence of malaria is most affected by the habit of repellent used and being outside of the house in the evening.

  19. Which is the dominant factor for perception of rheumatic pain: meteorology or psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cay, Hasan Fatih; Sezer, Ilhan; Firat, Mehmet Z; Kaçar, Cahit

    2011-03-01

    It is believed that there is an association between the weather and rheumatic symptoms. We aimed to investigate what kind of association is present and what are the factors which determine the nature of this association. Fifty-six subjects with rheumatic disease (31 RA, 15 SpA, 10 OA) who live in Antalya were followed between December 2005 and July 2006. Patients were asked to fill diaries which contain questions regarding the symptoms of their rheumatic diseases everyday. In every monthly visit, disease activity measurement, laboratory assessment and Beck depression inventory assessment were recorded. The symptomatic and psychological measurements were matched with the meteorological data of Antalya Regional Directorate of Meteorological Service of Turkish State. Correlation of symptoms with weather variables was investigated. Contributory effect of weather and of psychologic factors on symptom scores were evaluated by stepwise multiple regression analysis. Eighty-four percent of subjects belive in an association between weather and rheumatism, while 57% claimed to have ability to forecast weather. The maximum correlation coefficient between weather and arthritis symptoms was -0.451 and the maximum contribution of weather on symptoms was 17.1%. Arthritis symptoms were significantly contributed by Beck depression score. The belief about presence of weather-arthritis association was found to be stronger than its statistical power. Our results did not prove or rule out the presence of weather-rheumatism association. As long as the scientific attempts result in failure, the intuitive support in favour of the presence of weather-arthritis association will go on forever.

  20. Factors influencing the choice of surgery as a career by pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... and surgeon first degree relatives on the choice of surgery as a future career pathway. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify independent predictors of young medical graduates selecting surgery as a career choice. The level of statistical significance was set at a p-value less than. 0.05.

  1. Medusa structure of the gene regulatory network: dominance of transcription factors in cancer subtype classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuchun; Feng, Ying; Trivedi, Niraj S; Huang, Sui

    2011-05-01

    Gene expression profiles consisting of ten thousands of transcripts are used for clustering of tissue, such as tumors, into subtypes, often without considering the underlying reason that the distinct patterns of expression arise because of constraints in the realization of gene expression profiles imposed by the gene regulatory network. The topology of this network has been suggested to consist of a regulatory core of genes represented most prominently by transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs, that influence the expression of other genes, and of a periphery of 'enslaved' effector genes that are regulated but not regulating. This 'medusa' architecture implies that the core genes are much stronger determinants of the realized gene expression profiles. To test this hypothesis, we examined the clustering of gene expression profiles into known tumor types to quantitatively demonstrate that TFs, and even more pronounced, microRNAs, are much stronger discriminators of tumor type specific gene expression patterns than a same number of randomly selected or metabolic genes. These findings lend support to the hypothesis of a medusa architecture and of the canalizing nature of regulation by microRNAs. They also reveal the degree of freedom for the expression of peripheral genes that are less stringently associated with a tissue type specific global gene expression profile.

  2. Five-Factor Personality Scale on Career Choice Regarding Accounting Profession: A Study About Business Department Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şuayyip Doğuş DEMİRCİ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accounting profession emerges as an important career choice for students of business administration department. By this study, the role of personality traits and some other factors on career choices regarding accountancy profession of 3rd and 4th degree undergraduate students of Business Department at the stage of discovering their careers was tried to be determined. For this purpose, survey as one of data collection techniques was applied and quantitative research methods have been utilized. In order to identify the personality traits of participants, five-factor personality scale was used. As a result of conducted statistical analysis, there were found significant differences in career choices regarding accountancy profession according to average monthly income of family, grade point average, whether having knowledge about profession, whether being interested in accounting courses of individual and responsibility dimension of personality.

  3. Factors Affecting Career Choice: Comparison Between Students from Computer and Other Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P. M.; Holmner, M.; Lotriet, H. H.; Matthee, M. C.; Pieterse, H. V.; Naidoo, S.; Twinomurinzi, H.; Jordaan, D.

    2011-06-01

    The number of student enrolments in computer-related courses remains a serious concern worldwide with far reaching consequences. This paper reports on an extensive survey about career choice and associated motivational factors amongst new students, only some of whom intend to major in computer-related courses, at two South African universities. The data were analyzed using some components of Social Cognitive Career Theory, namely external influences, self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations. The research suggests the need for new strategies for marketing computer-related courses and the avenues through which they are marketed. This can to some extent be achieved by studying strategies used by other (non-computer) university courses, and their professional bodies. However, there are also distinct differences, related to self-efficacy and career outcomes, between the computer majors and the `other' group and these need to be explored further in order to find strategies that work well for this group. It is not entirely clear what the underlying reasons are for these differences but it is noteworthy that the perceived importance of "Interest in the career field" when choosing a career remains very high for both groups of students.

  4. House owners' perceptions and factors influencing their choice of specific heating systems in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, Thomas; Menrad, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of global climate changes and several legal obligations, the target of this paper is to analyze the buying behavior of house owners in Germany with respect to heating systems and the main factors influencing choice when purchasing a specific heating system (e.g., oil heating or wood pellet heating). To investigate these issues, a Germany-wide written survey was conducted and the completed questionnaires of 775 respondents analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Of 29 different variables influencing the purchase of a heating system, 12 statistically significant variables have been identified which characterize the owners of oil heating, a heat pump, gas heating and wood pellet heating. The membership of different ecological clusters primarily segregates the owners of a specific heating system, but the assessment of the different combustibles also plays a major role in this context. Suppliers of heating systems can use the results of this study to fine-tune their marketing strategies. With respect to policy issues only limited room for additional economic incentives can be identified to promote replacement of fossil-fuel based heating systems in favor of renewable ones. -- Highlights: •Current regulations support renewable heating systems insufficiently in Germany. •We developed a model to characterize the purchasers of different heating systems. •Ecological attitudes differentiate the purchasers of the different heating systems. •Economic reasons are mainly important for owners of gas and oil heating systems

  5. Conventional, Partially Converted and Environmentally Friendly Farming in South Korea: Profitability and Factors Affecting Farmers’ Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saem Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While organic farming is well established in Europe a nd USA, it is still catching up in Asian countries. The government of South Korea has implemented environmentally friendly farming that encompasses organic farming. Despite the promotion of environmentally friendly farming, it still has a low share in South Korea and partially converted farming has emerged in some districts of South Korea. However, the partially converted farming has not yet been investigated by the government. Thus, our study implemented a financial analysis to compare the annual costs and net returns of conventional, partially converted and environmentally friendly farming in Gangwon Province. The result showed that environmentally friendly farming was more profitable with respect to farm net returns. To find out the factors affecting the adoption of environmentally friendly farming, multinomial logistic regression was implemented. The findings revealed that education and subsidy positively and significantly influenced the probability of farmers’ choice on partially converted and environmentally friendly farming. Farm size had a negative and significant relationship with only environmentally friendly farming. This study will contribute to future policy establishment for sustainable agriculture as recommended by improving the quality of fertilizers, suggesting the additional investigation associated with partially converted farmers.

  6. What factors influence Hong Kong school students in their choice of a career in nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, W; Arthur, D

    2003-01-01

    Chronic and recurrent shortages of nurses, coupled with the increasing demand for high quality and motivated nurses and competition for secondary school leavers from other professions, are issues which prompted this investigation of senior school students' career choice. Using a descriptive survey design, and a questionnaire developed for the study, 1246 Form 6 students in Hong Kong were surveyed, of these 28% respondents reported that they were interested in studying nursing. The findings indicated that students' decision to choose or not choose nursing was significantly influenced by the demographic factors: gender (chi(2) = 42.72, p perception of nursing as a career score (t = 14.21, df = 1237, p social influence: parents (chi(2) = 11.53, p = 0.001), school career masters (chi(2) = 5.52, p = 0.019) and friends (chi(2) = 4.83, p = 0.028); past experience with career activities (chi(2) = 84.479, p perception scores (p Expanding the informational sources about nursing can facilitate the recruitment process. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. Facility factors dominate the ability to achieve target haemoglobin levels in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin E; Lafayette, Richard A; Whittemore, Alice S; Hlatky, Mark A; Moran, John

    2008-09-01

    Our objective was to determine whether patient factors, processes of care and measures of erythropoietin (EPO) responsiveness were associated with successful anemia management at the individual patient level. We retrospectively reviewed laboratory and demographic data from 1499 patients receiving hemodialysis in 15 units operated by the same dialysis provider. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine predictors of an average 3-month hemoglobin level below or above the target interval of 11.0-12.5 g/dL. To explain the effect of facility on anemia performance, we calculated correlations between measures of EPO responsiveness and the probability of achieving the target interval by facility. Patients above the target hemoglobin range demonstrated an association with parathyroid hormone (PTH) (OR = 0.96 per 100 pg/mL increase), female gender (OR = 0.68), EPO protocol use (OR = 0.94 per 10% increase in use) and facility (range of OR = 0.26-2.59 for 15 participating sites). Patients below the target hemoglobin range demonstrated an association with CRP (OR = 1.10 per mg/L increase), PTH (OR = 1.07 per 100 pg/mL increase), iron deficiency (OR = 1.07 per 10% increase), EPO protocol use (OR = 0.89 per 10% increase in use), iron protocol use (OR = 0.93 per 10% increase in use) and facility (range of OR = 0.58-3.41 over 15 units). EPO index (r = 0.71), EPO dose (r = 0.73), hemoglobin (r = -0.60) and EPO per unit weight (r = 0.76) were significantly correlated with the probability of achieving the target hemoglobin by facility. The facility significantly influences the outcome of anemia management in patients with ESRD. In part, this is due to the patients' EPO responsiveness, which may be influenced by facility care patterns.

  8. Influencing Mechanism of Potential Factors on Passengers’ Long-Distance Travel Mode Choices Based on Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the public transportation users’ preferences to long-distance travel modes would contribute to reasonable developing policies and resource allocation. This paper aims to explore the influencing mechanism of potential factors on the long-distance travel mode choice. A survey was conducted to collect the data. The analysis of variance (ANOVA approach was applied to analyze the correlation relationship between potential factors and travel mode choice behavior. The results showed that, except gender, service demand for safety and departure time, all of the other factors significantly influenced the travel mode choice behavior. Specifically, passengers with higher education level and income level were more likely to choose high-speed railway (HSR and plane; passengers caring about travel expense were more likely to choose ordinary train, whereas plane and HSR may be chosen more by passengers caring more about comfort, punctuality and efficiency; the more passengers were satisfied with travel modes’ service performance, the more they would be likely to choose them; the most competitive distance ranges for coach, ordinary train, HSR and plane were below 500 km, 500–1000 km, 500–1500 km and over 1500 km, respectively. Besides, the structural equation modeling (SEM technique was applied to investigate the influencing mechanism of factors on the long-distance travel mode choice. The results revealed that travel distance was the most significant variable directly influencing passengers’ mode choices, followed by the service demand, performance evaluation, and personal attributes. Furthermore, personal attributes were verified to have an indirect effect on travel mode choice behavior by significantly affecting the service demand and performance evaluation.

  9. CD4+ T cells targeting dominant and cryptic epitopes from Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eAscough

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is an endemic infection in many countries, particularly in the developing world. The causative agent, Bacillus anthracis, mediates disease through the secretion of binary exotoxins. Until recently, research into adaptive immunity targeting this bacterial pathogen has largely focused on the humoral response to these toxins. There is, however, growing recognition that cellular immune responses involving IFNγ producing CD4+ T cells also contribute significantly to a protective memory response. An established concept in adaptive immunity to infection is that during infection of host cells, new microbial epitopes may be revealed, leading to immune recognition of so called ‘cryptic’ or ‘subdominant’ epitopes. We analysed the response to both cryptic and immunodominant T cell epitopes derived from the toxin component lethal factor and presented by a range of HLA-DR alleles. Using IFNγ-ELISPOT assays we characterised epitopes that elicited a response following immunisation with synthetic peptide and the whole protein and tested their capacities to bind purified HLA-DR molecules in vitro. We found that DR1 transgenics demonstrated T cell responses to a greater number of domain III cryptic epitopes than other HLA-DR transgenics, and that this pattern was repeated with the immunodominant epitopes, a greater proportion of these epitopes induced a T cell response when presented within the context of the whole protein. Immunodominant epitopes LF457-476 and LF467-487 were found to induce a T cell response to the peptide, as well as to the whole native LF protein in DR1 and DR15, but not in DR4 trangenics. The analysis of Domain I revealed the presence of several unique cryptic epitopes all of which showed a strong to moderate relative binding affinity to HLA-DR4 molecules. However, none of the cryptic epitopes from either domain III or I displayed notably high binding affinities across all HLA-DR alleles assayed. These responses were

  10. Magnetic field is the dominant factor to induce the response of Streptomyces avermitilis in altered gravity simulated by diamagnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Gao, Hong; Shang, Peng; Zhou, Xianlong; Ashforth, Elizabeth; Zhuo, Ying; Chen, Difei; Ren, Biao; Liu, Zhiheng; Zhang, Lixin

    2011-01-01

    Diamagnetic levitation is a technique that uses a strong, spatially varying magnetic field to simulate an altered gravity environment, as in space. In this study, using Streptomyces avermitilis as the test organism, we investigate whether changes in magnetic field and altered gravity induce changes in morphology and secondary metabolism. We find that a strong magnetic field (12T) inhibit the morphological development of S. avermitilis in solid culture, and increase the production of secondary metabolites. S. avermitilis on solid medium was levitated at 0 g*, 1 g* and 2 g* in an altered gravity environment simulated by diamagnetic levitation and under a strong magnetic field, denoted by the asterix. The morphology was obtained by electromicroscopy. The production of the secondary metabolite, avermectin, was determined by OD(245 nm). The results showed that diamagnetic levitation could induce a physiological response in S. avermitilis. The difference between 1 g* and the control group grown without the strong magnetic field (1 g), showed that the magnetic field was a more dominant factor influencing changes in morphology and secondary metabolite production, than altered gravity. We have discovered that magnetic field, rather than altered gravity, is the dominant factor in altered gravity simulated by diamagnetic levitation, therefore care should to be taken in the interpretation of results when using diamagnetic levitation as a technique to simulate altered gravity. Hence, these results are significant, and timely to researchers considering the use of diamagnetic levitation to explore effects of weightlessness on living organisms and on physical phenomena.

  11. Immigrant Parents' Choice of a Bilingual versus Monolingual Kindergarten for Second-Generation Children: Motives, Attitudes, and Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor; Leikin, Mark; Breitkopf, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how immigrant parents describe and explain their family language policy concerning their child's preschool bilingual development, and also explored the factors linked to the parents' choice of bilingual or monolingual kindergarten for their child. The study design was based on a comparison of 2 groups of parents: those who…

  12. Pharmacy students in private institutions of higher education: motivating factors when studying pharmacy and influences on university choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Jason S E; Lim, Shiao Wei; Ng, Yew Keong; Tiong, John J L

    2017-12-01

    To identify factors influencing the decisions of Malaysian first-year pharmacy undergraduate students in private higher education when choosing to pursue a degree in pharmacy as well as their choice of private university. This cross-sectional study employed a validated, self-administered questionnaire which was administered to 543 first-year pharmacy students from nine different private universities. Factor analysis was utilised to extract key factors from the responses. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. Eight factors motivating students' decision to study pharmacy emerged from the responses, accounting for 63.8% of the variance observed. Students were primarily motivated by intrinsic interests, with work conditions and profession attributes also exerting significant influence. In terms of choice of private university, nine factors were identified, accounting for 73.8% of the variance observed. The image of the school and university were most influential factors in this context, followed by university safety, programme attributes and financial factors. First-year pharmacy students in the private higher education sector are motivated by intrinsic interest when choosing to study pharmacy over other courses, while their choice of private university is influenced primarily by the image of the school and university. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Choice and constraints in floodplain occupation: the influence of structural factors on residential location in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, N W

    1995-12-01

    In Peninsular Malaysia 'structural' factors are found to influence strongly people's persistent occupation of floodplains. Thus, despite a high level of flood hazard awareness, a high level of pessimism and a high level of expectation of future floods, poorer individuals seldom attempt to leave for more advantageous locations but are instead trapped in their present locations by structural factors such as poverty, low residential and occupational mobility, low educational attainment, traditional land inheritance, government aid, and government disaster preparedness, relief and rehabilitation programmes. These forces exert a strong influence upon individuals and largely control their choice of residential location in response to flood hazards, thereby reinforcing the persistent occupation of floodplains. Structural factors such as landlessness, rural-urban migration, floodplain encroachment and squatting are also highly influential in leading people to move. Even for those who move, structural factors have largely confined their choice of residential location to urban floodplains.

  14. Factors influencing the choice of anaesthesia as a field of specialty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year students of the University of Ghana School of Medicine and ... Most of the students prioritise their choice of specialty based on interest and exposure during rotation ..... Nyssen A-S, Hansez I. Stress and burnout in anaesthesia. Curr Opin.

  15. Choice Model and Influencing Factor Analysis of Travel Mode for Migrant Workers: Case Study in Xi’an, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hong; Gan, Zuo-xian; He, Yu-ting

    2015-01-01

    Based on the basic theory and methods of disaggregate choice model, the influencing factors in travel mode choice for migrant workers are analyzed, according to 1366 data samples of Xi’an migrant workers. Walking, bus, subway, and taxi are taken as the alternative parts of travel modes for migrant workers, and a multinomial logit (MNL) model of travel mode for migrant workers is set up. The validity of the model is verified by the hit rate, and the hit rates of four travel modes are all great...

  16. Predisposition Factors of Students’ Choice in Agriculture, Fisheries and Natural Resources (AFNR Courses (Luzon Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. ROMEO C. CLEMENTE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is an inquiry into the motivational, personality, and extrinsic variables as factors affecting students’ predisposition in their career choice for agriculture, fisheries and forestry. It features empirical facts generally reflective of the recent conditions of public and private Higher Education Institutions (as NUCAFs, PIAs and PIFs identified by NAFES-CHED and DA of Luzon, Philippines vis-à-vis problems and reasons of continuous decline in the subscription of Filipino students for AFNR courses. Subsumed in the notable findings for Luzon area (i.e., most enrollees and their parents are marginalized; most mothers who are mere housekeepers heavily influence children’s disposition; most professional AFNR parents and enrollees’ siblings who are now AFNR professionals poorly influence them to take the same course; scholarship grants or free tuition fee as a prime way out to finish college education; personal ideal expectation of students for the government to provide promising local employment; common social motive to participate in addressing problems on food security for the continuously increasing population; economic motive to shorter waiting time for employment; SUCs feel obliged to expand curriculum offering to non-AFNR courses to survive institutional fiscal constraints; dearth of educationally qualified faculty and administrators; campaign for the AFNR curriculum programs as effective strategy to improve enrolment rate; low passing rate in AFNR board examinations due to low participation rate, expensive requirements of review, generic contents of examination, and deficiency on the quality and quantity of facilities/equipment and library holdings in most AFNR State Colleges/Universities served as framework of reference for the formulation of proposed education policy reforms/measures and advocacy interventions designed to spur interest in AFNR courses.

  17. Socioeconomic Status As a Risk Factor for Unintended Pregnancy in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseyemi, Abigail; Zhao, Qiuhong; McNicholas, Colleen; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the association of low socioeconomic status as an independent risk factor for unintended pregnancy. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the Contraceptive CHOICE project. Between 2007 and 2011, 9,256 participants were recruited and followed for up to 3 years. The primary outcome of interest was unintended pregnancy; the primary exposure variable was low socioeconomic status, defined as self-report of either receiving public assistance or having difficulty paying for basic necessities. Four contraceptive groups were evaluated: 1) long-acting reversible contraceptive method (hormonal or copper intrauterine device or subdermal implant); 2) depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection; 3) oral contraceptive pills, a transdermal patch, or a vaginal ring; or 4) other or no method. Confounders were adjusted for in the multivariable Cox proportional hazard model to estimate the effect of socioeconomic status on risk of unintended pregnancy. Participants with low socioeconomic status experienced 515 unintended pregnancies during 14,001 women-years of follow-up (3.68/100 women-years; 95% CI 3.37-4.01) compared with 200 unintended pregnancies during 10,296 women-years (1.94/100 women-years; 95% CI 1.68-2.23) among participants without low socioeconomic status. Women with low socioeconomic status were more likely to have an unintended pregnancy (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.2). After adjusting for age, education level, insurance status, and history of unintended pregnancy, low socioeconomic status was associated with an increased risk of unintended pregnancy (adjusted HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7). Despite the removal of cost barriers, low socioeconomic status is associated with a higher incidence of unintended pregnancy.

  18. Pregnant Adolescents, Beliefs About Healthy Eating, Factors that Influence Food Choices, and Nutrition Education Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    Healthy eating among pregnant adolescents is essential for the well-being of developing adolescent females and their fetuses, as well as for the prevention of adult chronic illness. Understanding factors that influence and prohibit healthy eating, along with preferences for nutrition education in the pregnant adolescent population, is critical when designing and implementing appropriate nutrition education programs. The purpose of this study was to collect individual viewpoints of pregnant adolescents to facilitate the development of a nutrition intervention. This qualitative study using focus group methodology was conducted among pregnant adolescents. Participants (N = 14) were recruited through and teen parenting programs in the Mid-Atlantic region. Focus groups were guided by 6 open-ended questions that were developed based on implications from a previous study that surveyed eating habits of pregnant adolescents. Data were analyzed and coded using verbatim transcripts. Transcripts were read carefully for overall content and identification of major categories and then compared for similar and contrasting data. Four recurring themes emerged that described beliefs about healthy eating, influences on food choices, and nutrition education preferences: 1) pregnant adolescents demonstrate overall knowledge of healthy foods but are unwilling to give up unhealthy foods; 2) parents, offspring, and pregnancy influence healthy eating habits; 3) pregnant adolescents choose foods based on appearance and taste, cravings, convenience, and cost; and 4) pregnancy alters eating habits. Nutrition education in this population should be peer- and adolescent-focused and incorporate preferred methods of learning and favored incentives. Pregnant adolescents are more likely to attend educational programs that are population-specific and peer-focused, and include incentives that make cooking easier, more convenient, and affordable. Program content should be available to potential

  19. Why women of lower educational attainment struggle to make healthier food choices: the importance of psychological and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Wendy; Skinner, Chas; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Barker, David; Cooper, Cyrus; Jackson, Alan; Barker, Mary

    2009-11-01

    Women of lower educational attainment are more likely to eat unhealthy diets than women of higher educational attainment. To identify influences on the food choices of women with lower educational attainment, 11 focus groups (eight with women of lower, and three with women of higher educational attainment) were held. Using a semi-structured discussion guide, environmental, social, historical and psychological factors known to be associated with food choice were explored. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Compared to women of higher educational attainment, women of lower educational attainment had less control over their families' food choices, less support for attempts to eat healthily, fewer opportunities to observe and learn good food-related practices, more negative affect, more perceived environmental constraints and more ambiguous beliefs about the consequences of eating a nutritious diet. These findings provide a starting point for taking forward the design of an intervention to improve the diets of young women.

  20. A systems theory approach to career development: Exploring factors that affect science as a career choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskey, Brian K.

    This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in

  1. Touristic resources and factor intensity: Dominant factor content of trade in tourism. The case of the municipalities of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Porto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to quantify one of the characteristics of the production function of the tourism sector in the province of Buenos Aires: the dominant factor content of their touristic resources, one simplified concept which shows the factors of production incorporated in goods. For its estimation and the touristic characterization of the different municipalities of the province, the following elements are used: the inventory of touristic resources of 134 municipalities of the province; their classification into the five categories listed by OEA; and the factor intensity of each category. One interesting result is that most municipalities with high touristic GDP show a dominant factor content of capital, the implication being that comparative advantage in the Province of Buenos Aires in Argentina is based on contemporary technical, scientific and artistic work. It may be concluded that there is place to exploit tourism in Argentina, what points to the need to accompany them with a correct design of public policies.

  2. Factors associated with the subspecialty choices of internal medicine residents in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorpe Kevin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there are more residents enrolled in cardiology training programs in Canada than in immunology, pharmacology, rheumatology, infectious diseases, geriatrics and endocrinology combined. There is no published data regarding the proportion of Canadian internal medicine residents applying to the various subspecialties, or the factors that residents consider important when deciding which subspecialty to pursue. To address the concern about physician imbalances in internal medicine subspecialties, we need to examine the factors that motivate residents when making career decisions. Methods In this two-phase study, Canadian internal medicine residents participating in the post graduate year 4 (PGY4 subspecialty match were invited to participate in a web-based survey and focus group discussions. The focus group discussions were based on issues identified from the survey results. Analysis of focus group transcripts grew on grounded theory. Results 110 PGY3 residents participating in the PGY4 subspecialty match from 10 participating Canadian universities participated in the web-based survey (54% response rate. 22 residents from 3 different training programs participated in 4 focus groups held across Canada. Our study found that residents are choosing careers that provide intellectual stimulation, are consistent with their personality, and that provide a challenge in diagnosis. From our focus group discussions it appears that lifestyle, role models, mentorship and the experience of the resident with the specialty appear to be equally important in career decisions. Males are more likely to choose procedure based specialties and are more concerned with the reputation of the specialty as well as the anticipated salary. In contrast, residents choosing non-procedure based specialties are more concerned with issues related to lifestyle, including work-related stress, work hours and time for leisure as well as the patient populations

  3. A 'cost-effective' probabilistic model to select the dominant factors affecting the variation of the component failure rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchsteiger, C.

    1992-11-01

    Within the framework of a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), the component failure rate λ is a key parameter in the sense that the study of its behavior gives the essential information for estimating the current values as well as the trends in the failure probabilities of interest. Since there is an infinite variety of possible underlying factors which might cause changes in λ (e.g. operating time, maintenance practices, component environment, etc.), an 'importance ranking' process of these factors is considered most desirable to prioritize research efforts. To be 'cost-effective', the modeling effort must be small, i.e. essentially involving no estimation of additional parameters other than λ. In this paper, using a multivariate data analysis technique and various statistical measures, such a 'cost-effective' screening process has been developed. Dominant factors affecting the failure rate of any components of interest can easily be identified and the appropriateness of current research plans (e.g. on the necessity of performing aging studies) can be validated. (author)

  4. Identifying effective factors on consumers' choice behavior toward green products: the case of Tehran, the capital of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Hassan; Rajabpour, Shayan

    2017-01-01

    The environment is increasingly turning to a vital and very important issue for all people. By increasing environmental concerns as well as legislating and regulating rules on the protection of the environment and the emergence of green consumers, implementing green marketing approach for organizations seems to be more crucial and essential. As a result, the need for ecological products and green business activities compels companies to combine environmental issues with marketing strategies. The first step in the success of companies and organizations is to identify consumers and their consumption behaviors correctly and accurately. So, the purpose of this study is to identify effective factors for the choice of consumers of green products. We used consumption values (functional value, social value, emotional value, conditional value, epistemic value, and environmental value) as the effective factor for choosing green products. The original place of this research was in Tehran, capital city of Iran, which is one of the most polluted cities in the world due to environmental issues. The results from the survey questionnaires are analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The results indicated that functional value-price, functional value-quality, social value, epistemic value, and environmental value had significantly positive effects on the choice of green products; also, conditional value and emotional value had no influence on it. It was concluded that the main influential factors for consumers' choice behavior regarding green products included environmental value and epistemic value. This study emphasized the proper pricing of green products by producers and sellers.

  5. Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet during a behavioral weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Megan A; Voils, Corrine I; Coffman, Cynthia J; Geiselman, Paula J; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Mayer, Stephanie B; Smith, Valerie A; Gaillard, Leslie; Turner, Marsha J; Yancy, William S

    2014-12-01

    Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the 'choice' arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary intake pattern, and especially by his or her dietary preferences. Research is needed to determine if congruency between food preferences and dietary approach is associated with weight loss. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The Role of Economic Factors in the Choice of Medical Providers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahavugimana

    having made these choices, patients choose the type of provider facility to visit; public, private... (Mwabu ...... showed that an increase in distance induces a payment of some extra cost to travel to the source of treatment as ... The government should explore ways of implementing a voucher scheme to boost rural incomes in ...

  7. Farm-specific factors affecting the choice between conventional and organic dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.

    2003-01-01

    Organic dairy farming in the Netherlands is a growing sector. This paper investigates the impact of a number of economic and farm-specific variables on the choice between conventional and organic farming. Based on expected utility maximization, a theoretical framework is developed that explicitly

  8. Choices of Destination for Transnational Higher Education: "Pull" Factors in an Asia Pacific Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Zamberi; Buchanan, Frederick Robert

    2016-01-01

    Traditional assumptions favouring native English language countries in transnational higher education (TNHE) overlook experiences of international students in new emerging Asian education hubs. Specifically, there has been limited research relating to international students' choice for studying in Malaysia. Drawing from the "push-pull"…

  9. Factors Influencing the Career Choice of Undergraduate Students at a Historically Disadvantaged South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Fatima; Jano, Rukhsana; van Lill, Burger

    2015-01-01

    During the apartheid years in South Africa, career guidance amongst disadvantaged learners was largely absent and, for many, career choices were limited and governed by politics. Despite South Africa having celebrated 20 years of democracy, this situation has improved only slightly. Therefore, the aims of the study were to determine the factors…

  10. Consultations for women's health problems: factors influencing women's choice of sex of general practitioner.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Bakker, D.H. de; Bensing, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    AIM. This study set out to examine the degree to which women choose to visit a woman doctor for women's health problems and the determinants of this choice. The differences between women and men doctors with regard to treating women's health problems were also studied. METHOD. Data from the Dutch

  11. The impact of design choices and market factors on brokerage firms' efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, T.; Risseeuw, P.; Wiersma, E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore how scale and scope of operations, firm age, and the choice to join a franchise formula influences brokerage firms' efficiency. Design/methodology/approach - Four-year data of 1,282 Dutch real estate brokerage firms is used to compute a relative

  12. The impact of design choices and market factors on brokerage firms' efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, T.L.C.M.; Risseeuw, P.; Wiersma, E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how scale and scope of operations, firm age, and the choice to join a franchise formula influences brokerage firms' efficiency. Design/methodology/approach: Four-year data of 1,282 Dutch real estate brokerage firms is used to compute a relative

  13. Satellite retrieval of actual evapotranspiration in the Tibetan Plateau: Components partitioning, multidecadal trends and dominated factors identifying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiguang; Li, Jinxing; Yu, Zhongbo; Ding, Yimin; Xing, Wanqiu; Lu, Wenjun

    2018-04-01

    As the only connecting term between water balance and energy budget in the earth-atmospheric system, evapotranspiration (ET) is considered the most excellent indicator for the activity for the water and energy cycle. Under the background of global change, regional ET estimates, components partitioning as well as their spatial and temporal patterns recognition are of great importance in understanding the hydrological processes and improving water management practices. This is particularly true for the Tibetan Plateau (TP), one of most sensitive and vulnerable region in response to the environment change in the earth. In this study, with flux site observation data and monthly ET data from the monthly water balance method incorporating the terrestrial water storage changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite (GRACE) production as the multiple validations, the long-term daily ET in the TP was retrieved by a modified Penman-Monteith-Leuning (PML) model with considering evapotranspiration over snow covered area during 1982-2012. The spatial and temporal changes of partitioned three components of ET, i.e., soil evaporation (Es), transpiration through the stomata of plant (Ec) and canopy interception (Ei), were investigated in the TP. Meanwhile, how the ET components contribute to ET changes and respond to the change in environmental factors in the TP was revealed and discussed. The results indicate that Es dominates ET in most areas of the TP with the mean annual ratio of 65.7%, except southeastern regions where the vegetation coverage is high. Although regional average ET and three main components all present obvious increase trends during the past decades, high spatial heterogeneity for their trends are identified in the TP. Moreover, a mixed changing pattern can be apparently found for Es in southeastern area, Ec and Ei in northwestern and southeastern area. Spatially, the ET variation are mainly attributed to change in Es, followed by Ec and Ei

  14. Factors influencing physicians' choice of workplace: systematic review of drivers of attrition and policy interventions to address them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Koussa, Maria; Atun, Rifat; Bowser, Diana; Kruk, Margaret E

    2016-12-01

    The movement of skilled physicians from the public to the private sector is a key constraint to achieving universal health coverage and is currently affecting health systems worldwide. This systematic review aims to assess factors influencing physicians' choice of workplace, and policy interventions for retaining physicians in the public sector. Five literature databases were searched. Studies were included in the review if they focused on at least one of the following criteria: (i) incentives or motivators for retaining physicians in the public sector, (ii) pull factors that encouraged physicians to move to the private sector, (iii) push factors that forced physicians to leave the public sector, (iv) policy interventions or case studies that addressed physician retention in the public sector, and (v) qualitative reviews of policy interventions that were implemented in different health system settings. Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Six major themes that affected physicians' choice of workplace were identified including: financial incentives, career development, infrastructure and staffing, professional work environment, workload and autonomy. The majority of the studies suggested that the use of financial incentives was a motivator in retaining physicians in the public sector. The review also identified policy interventions including: regulatory controls, incentives and management reforms. Regulatory controls and incentives were the two most frequently reported policy interventions. While factors affecting physicians' choice of workplace are country specific, financial incentives and professional development are core factors. Other factors are highly influenced by context, and thus, it would be useful for future cross-country research to use standardized data collection tools, allowing comparison of contextual factors as well as the examination of how context affects physician retention in the public sector.

  15. Remapping the "Landscape of Choice": Patterns of Social Class Convergence in the Psycho-Social Factors Shaping the Higher Education Choice Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettley, Nigel Charles; Whitehead, Joan M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a critique of recent Bourdieusian research into the higher education (HE) choice process. Specifically, Ball et al. (2002) maintain that class-related differences in students' psycho-social dispositions in Years 12 and 13, the "landscape of choice", shape their intentions or "decisions" to participate in HE and their selection…

  16. Knowledge of HIV-AIDS a dominant factor of antiretroviral therapeutic adherence in women with HIV-AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surilena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Antiretroviral therapy adherence (ART adherence is a factor significantly extending life expectancy of people living with HIV/AIDS. The objective of this study was determine several factors on ART adherence in women infected with HIV/AIDS. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 99 women with HIV/AIDS who were infected through their sexual partner or spouse was conducted in Dharmais Hospital between March and August 2014. The instruments used were demographic and self-esteem questionnaires, Hamilton rating scale for depression, Hamilton rating scale for anxiety, knowledge, perception of ART benefits and limitations, family support, peer support as well as assessment of ART adherence. The knowledge questionnaire has been validated with Cronbach’s alpha = 0.823. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square test and multivariate logistic regression. Results A total of 99 women with HIV/AIDS participated in the study, with an age range of 30- 60 years and mean age of 36 ± 3.72 years. A total of 57.58% of participants showed poor ART adherence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that knowledge, ART side effects, depression, peer support and ARV availability significantly affected ART adherence (p<0.05. The most dominant factor affecting ART adherence was knowledge, with OR = 64.02 (95% CI 4.99-670.12. Conclusion With good knowledge about HIV/AIDS infection, ART benefits, and possible ARV side effects, women living with HIV/AIDS are expected to carry out ART adherence according to the recommended rules.

  17. Statistical Analysis of Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity of the Distribution of Air Quality and Dominant Air Pollutants and the Effect Factors in Qingdao Urban Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has impacted people’s lives in urban China, and the analysis of the distribution and driving factors behind air quality has become a current research focus. In this study, the temporal heterogeneity of air quality (AQ and the dominant air pollutants across the four seasons were analyzed based on the Kruskal-Wallis rank-sum test method. Then, the spatial heterogeneity of AQ and the dominant air pollutants across four sites were analyzed based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test method. Finally, the copula model was introduced to analyze the effect of relative factors on dominant air pollutants. The results show that AQ and dominant air pollutants present significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the study area. AQ is worst in winter and best in summer. PM10, O3, and PM2.5 are the dominant air pollutants in spring, summer, and winter, respectively. The average concentration of dominant air pollutants presents significant and diverse daily peaks and troughs across the four sites. The main driving factors are pollutants such as SO2, NO2, and CO, so pollutant emission reduction is the key to improving air quality. Corresponding pollution control measures should account for this heterogeneity in terms of AQ and the dominant air pollutants among different urban zones.

  18. Factors influencing medical students' choice of emergency medicine as a career specialty-a descriptive study of Saudi medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaneen, Hadeel; Alhusain, Faisal; Alshahri, Khalid; Al Jerian, Nawfal

    2018-03-07

    Choosing a medical specialty is a poorly understood process. Although studies conducted around the world have attempted to identify the factors that affect medical students' choice of specialty, data is scarce on the factors that influence the choice of specialty of Saudi Arabian medical students, in particular those planning a career in emergency medicine (EM). In this study, we investigated whether Saudi medical students choosing EM are influenced by different factors to those choosing other specialties. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAUHS), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire distributed among all undergraduate and postgraduate medical students of both sexes in the second and third phases (57% were males and 43% were females). A total of 436 students answered the questionnaire, a response rate of 53.4%. EM group was most influenced by hospital orientation and lifestyle and least influenced by social orientation and prestige provided by their specialty. Unlike controllable lifestyle (CL) group and primary care (PC) group, EM reported lesser influence of social orientation on their career choice. When compared with students primarily interested in the surgical subspecialties (SS), EM group were less likely to report prestige as an important influence. Moreover, students interested in SS reported a leaser influence of medical lifestyle in comparison to EM group. When compared with CL group, EM group reported more interest in medical lifestyle. We found that students primarily interested in EM had different values and career expectations to other specialty groups. The trends in specialty choice should be appraised to meet future needs.

  19. Factors that affect the food choices made by girls and young women, from minority ethnic groups, living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J M; Devlin, E; Macaskill, S; Kelly, M; Chinouya, M; Raats, M M; Barton, K L; Wrieden, W L; Shepherd, R

    2007-08-01

    Lower birth weight, often found in infants from minority ethnic groups, may be partly because of the disproportionate representation of ethnic minority groups in low-income areas. To develop an intervention, to improve the nutritional intake of young women from populations at risk of low-birth-weight babies, which would be culturally sensitive and well received by the intended recipients, a community development approach was used to investigate factors that might influence food choice and the nutritional intake of girls and young women from ethnic minority groups. Focus group discussions were conducted across the UK, to explore factors that might affect the food choices of girls and young women of African and South Asian decent. The data was analysed using deductive content analysis (Qual. Soc. Res., 1, 2000, 1). Discussions were around the broad themes of buying and preparing food, eating food and dietary changes, and ideas for an intervention to improve diet. The focus group discussions indicated that all the communities took time, price, health and availability into consideration when making food purchases. The groups were also quite similar in their use of 'Western' foods which tended to be of the fast food variety. These foods were used when there was not enough time to prepare a 'traditional' meal. Many issues that affect the food choice of people who move to the UK are common within different ethnic groups. The idea of a practical intervention based on improving cooking skills was popular with all the groups.

  20. Factors influencing choice of chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Luigi; Vakiarou, Foteini; Zoratto, Federica; Bianchi, Loredana; Papa, Anselmo; Basso, Enrico; Verrico, Monica; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Evangelista, Salvatore; Rinaldi, Guilia; Perrone-Congedi, Francesca; Spinelli, Gian Paolo; Stati, Valeria; Caruso, Davide; Prete, Alessandra; Tomao, Silverio

    2013-01-01

    Management of metastatic colorectal cancer requires a multimodal approach and must be performed by an experienced, multidisciplinary expert team. The optimal choice of the individual treatment modality, according to disease localization and extent, tumor biology, and patient clinical characteristics, will be one that can maintain quality of life and long-term survival, and even cure selected patients. This review is an overview of the different therapeutic approaches available in metastatic colorectal cancer, for the purpose of defining personalized therapeutic algorithms according to tumor biology and patient clinical features

  1. Factors Affecting the Choice of Psychiatry as a Specialty in ‎Psychiatry Residents in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Seyed Saeed; Nayerifard‎‎, Razieh; Samimi Ardestani, Seyed Mehdi; Namjoo, Massood

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the current factors affecting the choice of ‎psychiatry as a specialty and to detect the main factors in their choice.‎ Method: This descriptive study included 75 first year psychiatry residents in the academic year of ‎‎2014/2015. A Likert-type anonymous questionnaire consisting of academic and ‎demographic data with 43 questions, which evaluated the reason for choosing ‎psychiatry as a specialty, was given to the residents.‎ Results: The participants had a positive opinion about 28 items of the questionnaire, meaning that ‎these items had a positive effect in choosing psychiatry as a specialty (questions with P ‎value less than 0.05 and a positive mean). More than 80% of the residents had a positive ‎opinion about six items of the questionnaire (amount of intellectual challenge, variety of ‎knowledge fields relevant to psychiatry, emphasis on the patient as a whole person, the ‎importance of treating mental illnesses in the future, work pressure and stress of the ‎field during residency and coordinating with the person's life style). The participants ‎had a negative opinion about two items of the questionnaire (questions with a P value ‎less than 0.05 and a negative mean). They included experiencing mental illness ‎personally through relatives or close friends as well as the income in psychiatry. ‎Moreover, 36% of the residents with a more definite opinion mentioned that they chose ‎psychiatry as a specialty because of the limitations in residency exam.‎ Conclusion: Assistants had a positive opinion about most of the questions and this positive attitude ‎seemed to be an important factor in their specialty choice. However, attending to the ‎preventing factors may increase the selection of psychiatry as a specialty.‎ PMID:27928251

  2. [Development, factor-analytical control and psychometric evaluation of a questionnaire on specialty choices among medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, K; Buchholz, A; Loh, A; Kiolbassa, K; Miksch, A; Joos, S; Götz, K

    2012-07-01

    A questionnaire was developed and validated which assesses factors influencing career choices of medical students and their perception of possibilities in general practice. The first questionnaire version, which was developed based on a systematic literature review, was checked for comprehensibility and redundancy using concurrent think aloud. The revised version was filled out by a pilot sample of medical students and the factor structure was assessed using principal component analysis (PCA). The final version was filled out in an online survey by medical students of all 5 Medical Faculties in the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The factor structure was validated with a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Reliability was assessed as internal consistency using Cronbach's α. The questionnaire comprises 2 parts: ratings of (A) the individual importance and of (B) the possibilities in general practice on 5-point scales. The first version comprising 118 items was shortened to 63 items after conducting interviews using concurrent think aloud. A further 3 items giving no information were removed after piloting the questionnaire on 179 students. The 27 items of part A were structured in 7 factors (PCA): image, personal ambition, patient orientation, work-life balance, future perspectives, job-related ambition, and variety in job. This structure had a critical fit in the CFA applied to the final version filled out by 1 299 students. Internal consistency of the factors was satisfactory to very good (Cronbach's α=0.55-0.81). The questionnaire showed good psychometric properties. Further, not assessed factors influence career choice resulting in unexplained variance in our dataset and the critical fit of the model. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. "Stop Doing That, "la Komu Skazala!"": Language Choice and Emotions in Parent-Child Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the role of emotion-related factors in language choice in bi- and multilingual families. Most of the time, factors other than emotions govern language choice and use in such families, among them language dominance, social context and linguistic competence of the interlocutors. However, quantitative and…

  4. A Structural Equation Model for Analysis of Factors Associated with the Choice of Engineering Degrees in a Technical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Hervás

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different factors are taken into account by students when choosing a degree and university. Some of these are general considerations, such as the quality of the degree course (ratio of available places/places in first choice, cut-off mark, etc., while others are subjective factors (e.g., friends doing the same course. This paper presents a partial multivariate model that considers the weight of the different variables linked to this decision, as identified in the bibliography. We analyzed four samples of first-year students (total n=1790 from different engineering degree courses at the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 academic years. All the students involved in the study had chosen this university and their courses as their first option. The overall effect shows that the structural model adjusts reasonably well to the different engineering courses analyzed. Similarly, the individual models for each engineering degree manage to identify the different effects involved. In the case of the engineering degree based on new technologies (ICT, the statistical effects are much greater and more statistically significant than in the other three branches of engineering considered. Social and individual factors were seen to have more impact on the choice of ICT degrees at the UPV.

  5. Factors influencing choice of chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi L

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Luigi Rossi, Foteini Vakiarou, Federica Zoratto, Loredana Bianchi, Anselmo Papa, Enrico Basso, Monica Verrico, Giuseppe Lo Russo, Salvatore Evangelista, Guilia Rinaldi, Francesca Perrone-Congedi, Gian Paolo Spinelli, Valeria Stati, Davide Caruso, Alessandra Prete, Silverio TomaoDepartment of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy; Oncology Unit, ICOT, Latina, ItalyAbstract: Management of metastatic colorectal cancer requires a multimodal approach and must be performed by an experienced, multidisciplinary expert team. The optimal choice of the individual treatment modality, according to disease localization and extent, tumor biology, and patient clinical characteristics, will be one that can maintain quality of life and long-term survival, and even cure selected patients. This review is an overview of the different therapeutic approaches available in metastatic colorectal cancer, for the purpose of defining personalized therapeutic algorithms according to tumor biology and patient clinical features.Keywords: metastatic colorectal cancer, patient clinical features, tumor biology, multidisciplinary approach

  6. Exercise-induced regulation of key factors in substrate choice and gluconeogenesis in mouse liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob Grunnet; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Hassing, Helle Adser

    2015-01-01

    As the demand for hepatic glucose production increases during exercise, regulation of liver substrate choice and gluconeogenic activity becomes essential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a single exercise bout on gluconeogenic protein content and regulation of enzymes...... involved in substrate utilization in the liver. Mice were subjected to 1 h of treadmill exercise, and livers were removed immediately, 4 or 10 h after exercise. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) mRNA contents in the liver increased immediately after exercise, while...... phosphorylation decreased immediately after exercise may indicate that carbohydrates rather than fatty acids are utilized for oxidation in the liver during non-exhaustive exercise....

  7. Survey material choices in haematology EQA: a confounding factor in automated counting performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Salle, Barbara

    2017-02-15

    The complete blood count (CBC) is one of the most frequently requested tests in laboratory medicine, performed in a range of healthcare situations. The provision of an ideal assay material for external quality assessment is confounded by the fragility of the cellular components of blood, the lack of commutability of stabilised whole blood material and the lack of certified reference materials and methods to which CBC results can be traced. The choice of assay material between fresh blood, extended life assay material and fully stabilised, commercially prepared, whole blood material depends upon the scope and objectives of the EQA scheme. The introduction of new technologies in blood counting and the wider clinical application of parameters from the extended CBC will bring additional challenges for the EQA provider.

  8. An investigation of factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlenga, Francis Howard

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at one of the Primary School Teachers' Colleges in Zimbabwe. A sample of two hundred and thirty-eight female student teachers was used in the study. Of these one hundred and forty-two were non-science majors who had been randomly selected, forty-one were science majors and forty-five were math majors. Both science and math majors were a convenient sample because the total enrollment of the two groups was small. All the subjects completed a survey questionnaire that had sixty-eight items. Ten students from the non-science majors were selected for individual interviews and the same was done for the science majors. A further eighteen were selected from the non-science majors and divided into three groups of six each for focus group interviews. The same was done for the science majors. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Data from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using Binary Logistic Regression which predicted factors that affected students' choice of science as a major. The transcribed interview data were analyzed used using domain, taxonomic and componential analyses. Results of the study indicated that elementary female students' choice of science as a major at college level is affected by students' attitudes toward science, teacher behavior, out-of-school experiences, role models, gender stereotyping, parental influence, peer influence, in-school experiences, and societal expectations, namely cultural and social expectations.

  9. An Investigation of Factors Determining the Study Abroad Destination Choice: A Case Study of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the field of education abroad have mainly focused on the factors influencing the mobility of international students from developing to developed countries and very few have been conducted to investigate the factors influencing the flow of international students to the Asia Pacific region. As a piece of country-specific…

  10. Further evidence of self-medication: personality factors influencing drug choice in substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Lindsey Colman; Nash, Michael R; Gottdiener, William H; Anderson, Scott E; Lambert, Warren E; Carr, Erika R

    2015-06-01

    According to Khantzian's (2003) self-medication hypothesis (SMH), substance dependence is a compensatory means to modulate affects and self-soothe in response to distressing psychological states. Khantzian asserts: (1) Drugs become addicting because they have the power to alleviate, remove, or change human psychological suffering, and (2) There is a considerable degree of specificity in a person's choice of drugs because of unique psychological and physiological effects. The SMH has received criticism for its variable empirical support, particularly in terms of the drug-specificity aspect of Khantzian's hypothesis. We posit that previous empirical examinations of the SMH have been compromised by methodological limitations. Also, more recent findings supporting the SMH have yet to be replicated. Addressing previous limitations to the research, this project tested this theory in a treatment sample of treatment-seeking individuals with substance dependence (N = 304), using more heterogeneous, personality-driven measures that are theory-congruent. Using an algorithm based on medical records, individuals were reliably classified as being addicted to a depressant, stimulant, or opiate by two independent raters. Theory-based a priori predictions were that the three groups would exhibit differences in personality characteristics and emotional-regulation strategies. Specifically, our hypotheses entailed that when compared against each other: (1) Individuals with a central nervous system (CNS) depressant as drug of choice (DOC) will exhibit defenses of repression, over-controlling anger, and emotional inhibition to avoid acknowledging their depression; (2) Individuals with an opiate as DOC will exhibit higher levels of aggression, hostility, depression, and trauma, greater deficits in ego functioning, and externalizing/antisocial behavior connected to their use; and (3) Individuals with a stimulant as DOC will experience anhedonia, paranoia, have a propensity to mania, and

  11. Factors influencing the choice of going to a dental quack practice for orthodontic treatment among the citizen of Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhyar Dyni Zakyah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Braces is the treatment of choice for malocclusion. However, in recent years malocclusion no longer serves as the reason behind the orthodontic treatment. Many people use it for the fashion purposes and some of them got it from a dental quack. The purpose of this study was to understand factors that influenced citizen of Bandung to go to dental quack practice for orthodontics treatment. Methods: Cross-sectional study with purposive sampling technique consisting of 30 samples. Inclusion criteria were subject wearing metal braces from dental quack, live within area of Bandung, and willing to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria was subjects that refused to participate in the study. Results: The study showed that 73% of the subjects use the treatment for aligning teeth over getting along with the trend or the perception of beauty from using colorful bracket rubber. 63% chose a dental quack because of the suggestions from friends who had done it before them. Low income combined with the need for orthodontics treatment and inadequate information about dental braces influencing subjects choice to go to a dental quack. The study showed that socioeconomic environment highly influenced the decision to wear braces from a dental quack. Conclusion: The low price factor was the main reason for dental quack braces highly demanded. Common people need to be educated to get proper treatment for malocclusion and to go for improper provider of dental treatment.

  12. Factors associated with food choices among Greek primary school students: a cluster analysis in the ELPYDES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risvas, Grigoris; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Chrysanthopoulou, Stavroula; Karasouli, Konstantina; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Zampelas, Antonis

    2008-09-01

    Food choice in Greece follows a westernized model. We tried to identify the characteristics of clusters regarding food choice and behaviour in a large sample of Greek primary school students, in order to acknowledge some mediating parameters that need to be addressed when planning interventions to promote healthy nutrition. Cross-sectional study in 2439 fifth and sixth grade students from the Attica and Thessaloniki regions. Three self-administered questionnaires were distributed assessing food consumption, nutrition knowledge and factors associated with dietary change. Data were analysed using principal components analysis (PCA) and K-means cluster analysis. A total of 28.4% (n = 592) of the students were identified as demonstrating 'unbalanced nutrition' whereas 44.8% (n = 1018) and 22.8% (n = 319) demonstrated 'balanced' and 'low food intake', respectively. With regards to nutrition knowledge, the clusters were as follows: medium (n = 319, 14.5%), good (n = 1788, 80.9%) and bad knowledge (n = 101, 4.57%) cluster. After analysing the results of PCA, three clusters were formed: A 'negative effect' (n = 561, 28.8%), a 'health oriented' (n = 777, 39.9%) and a 'reinforced' to eat fruits and vegetables (n = 506, 31.3%) group. The present study managed to identify clusters that correspond to food intake, nutrition knowledge and other factors associated with dietary behaviour and to describe their characteristics.

  13. Factors influencing GPs’ choice between drugs in a therapeutic drug group. A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buusman, Allan; Andersen, Morten; Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To explore how GPs choose between drugs in a therapeutic drug group. Design. A qualitative study based on semi-structured ethnographic interviews. Setting and subjects. General practitioners from the counties of both Funen and West Zealand in Denmark. A total of 15 general practitioners...... as it was a recurring theme during all interviews. External factors outside the GP's control such as governmental regulation on prescribing and the pharmaceutical industry influenced most GPs. Internal factors related to the actual consultation included characteristics of the GP and the patient, drug characteristics...

  14. Factors Influencing Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of the Athletic Training Profession and Career Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, Sarah S.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Successful athletic training programs should help students develop a desire to work within the athletic training profession while providing adequate preparation for them to enter the workforce. Understanding athletic training students' perceptions of the profession as they leave programs and the factors that influence these…

  15. Examining Factors Influencing Asian American and Latino American Students' College Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Yeung, Leilani Weichun

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines the gap in college enrollment between Asian Americans and Latino Americans regarding the effects of family and school factors, classifying them into the six ethnic/generational status groups (Asian American first generation, Asian American second generation, Asian American third generation and plus, Latino American first…

  16. The Influence of Individual and Situational Factors on Children's Choice of a Conflict Management Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Anni; Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of individual and situational factors on nursery school children's conflict management strategies. This observational study of triadic interaction was carried out among 69 children whose mean age was 48 months. The video-recorded data were coded for the type of…

  17. The effect of work-related factors on the bicycle commute mode choice in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, E.; Maat, K.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing the number of people cycling to work brings a number of benefits: it can lead to reductions in air pollution and traffic jams, and increases people’s physical activity levels. We investigated the extent to which work-related factors influence (1) whether an individual decides to cycle to

  18. Transitioning to Year-Round Education: Satisfaction and Factors of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Barbara K.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines a mid-west elementary school transitioning from a school-within-a-school calendar, offering both year-round and traditional calendars, to a year-round only calendar. The satisfaction of teachers and families with the transition, and the factors that teachers and families consider in making a calendar selection, were examined…

  19. Factors Affecting Students' Choice to Enroll at HCC: Implications for Marketing, Recruitment, and Advising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinley, John W.

    A study was conducted to analyze the factors which affect students' decisions to enroll at Harford Community College (HCC), Harford County, Maryland. An entrant follow-up survey was sent in spring 1984 to all students who were enrolled in a Maryland community college for the first time in fall 1982. The survey sought to evaluate the extent to…

  20. Corporate Choice of Banks: Decision Factors, Decision Maker, and Decision Process – First Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, S.; Tumer Alkan, G.; Vermeer, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how firms choose their banks. We focus on the role played by the decision factors, the decision maker and the decision process in determining firm-bank relationships. We have access to a unique survey that was run by a major bank in the Czech Republic. We find that

  1. Background Noise Acceptance and Personality Factors Involved in Library Environment Choices by College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Hickey, Susan; Lemley, Trey

    2012-01-01

    For decades, academic libraries made efforts to provide study environments differing in acoustic environment. The present study aimed to provide an evidence basis for this practice by comparing background noise acceptance and personality factors of two groups of college-aged students self identified as preferring quiet or background noise when…

  2. Capacity factor analysis for evaluating water and sanitation infrastructure choices for developing communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouabid, Ali; Louis, Garrick E

    2015-09-15

    40% of the world's population lacks access to adequate supplies of water and sanitation services to sustain human health. In fact, more than 780 million people lack access to safe water supplies and about 2.5 billion people lack access to basic sanitation. Appropriate technology for water supply and sanitation (Watsan) systems is critical for sustained access to these services. Current approaches for the selection of Watsan technologies in developing communities have a high failure rate. It is estimated that 30%-60% of Watsan installed infrastructures in developing countries are not operating. Inappropriate technology is a common explanation for the high rate of failure of Watsan infrastructure, particularly in lower-income communities (Palaniappan et al., 2008). This paper presents the capacity factor analysis (CFA) model, for the assessment of a community's capacity to manage and sustain access to water supply and sanitation services. The CFA model is used for the assessment of a community's capacity to operate, and maintain a municipal sanitation service (MSS) such as, drinking water supply, wastewater and sewage treatment, and management of solid waste. The assessment of the community's capacity is based on seven capacity factors that have been identified as playing a key role in the sustainability of municipal sanitation services in developing communities (Louis, 2002). These capacity factors and their constituents are defined for each municipal sanitation service. Benchmarks and international standards for the constituents of the CFs are used to assess the capacity factors. The assessment of the community's capacity factors leads to determine the overall community capacity level (CCL) to manage a MSS. The CCL can then be used to assist the community in the selection of appropriate Watsan technologies for their MSS needs. The selection is done from Watsan technologies that require a capacity level to operate them that matches the assessed CCL of the

  3. Factors influencing choice of site for rural clinical placements by final year medical students in a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nontsikelelo O. Mapukata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most of South Africa’s citizens who live in rural or underserved communities rely on the public health care sector to access quality health care. The value of rural exposure through clinical placements is well documented. Medical schools in South Africa have a responsibility to provide solutions that address the prevailing human resources challenges. Despite this commitment, medical students do not necessarily appreciate their role in resolving South Africa’s human resources challenges. This study aimed to assess the factors that influenced the choice of clinical learning sites in a self-selection process undertaken by Wits final year medical students for the compulsory 6-week integrated primary care block rotation.Methods: Qualitative data related to reasons for choice of service learning site were gathered from 524 pre-placement questionnaires completed by final year medical students entering the rotation over a 3-year period (2012–2014. Thematic analysis was performed using the MAXQDA software.Results: Eight themes emerged from the study indicating that the majority of participants were in favour of local urban underserved placement. Contextual factors, such as work commitments or family responsibilities, being compromised socially and losing academic standing were the main reasons for seeking urban placement. Good supervision, opportunistic learning, skills development and moral support were reasons for seeking rural placements. Previous voluntary exposure to rural practice or being of rural origin was a strong indicator for uptake of rural placement.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the challenges faced by coordinators in balancing personal and institutional needs with country needs and the contextual factors that must be considered when implementing medical education programmes that respond to social challenges.

  4. Evaluation of lot-to-lot repeatability and effect of assay media choice in the recombinant Factor C assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jennifer Helen; Alwis, K Udeni; Sordillo, Joanne E; Kalluri, Kesava Srinivas; Milton, Donald Kirby

    2011-06-01

    Measurement of environmental endotoxin exposures is complicated by variability encountered using current biological assay methods arising in part from lot-to-lot variability of the Limulus-amebocyte lysate (LAL) reagents. Therefore, we investigated the lot-to-lot repeatability of commercially available recombinant Factor C (rFC) kits as an alternative to LAL. Specifically, we compared endotoxin estimates obtained from rFC assay of twenty indoor dust samples, using four different extraction and assay media, to endotoxin estimates previously obtained by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay and amounts of 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFA) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using gas-chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). We found that lot-to-lot variability of the rFC assay kits does not significantly alter endotoxin estimates in house dust samples when performed using three of the four assay media tested and that choice of assay media significantly altered endotoxin estimates obtained by rFC assay of house dust samples. Our findings demonstrate lot-to-lot reproducibility of rFC assay of environmental samples and suggest that use of rFC assay performed with Tris buffer or water as the extraction and assay medium for measurement of endotoxin in dust samples may be a suitable choice for developing a standardized methodology.

  5. Factors influencing dentists' choice of amalgam and tooth-colored restorative materials for Class II preparations in younger patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidnes-Kopperud, Simen; Tveit, Anne Bjørg; Gaarden, Torunn; Sandvik, Leiv; Espelid, Ivar

    2009-01-01

    To identify factors associated with dentists' decisions on choice of restorative material in children and adolescents. In the period 2001-2004, 27 dentists in the Public Dental Health Service in Norway placed 4030 Class II restorations in 1912 patients. The reason for placement, previous caries experience (DMFT), oral hygiene, and characteristics of the cavity were recorded. The most frequently used material was resin composite (81.5%), followed by compomer (12.7%), amalgam (4.6%), and glass ionomer cement (1.2%). Tooth-colored restorations were more frequently placed than amalgam in younger patients (p=0.017). Female patients received fewer amalgam restorations than male patients (p=0.006). Amalgam was more often used in patients with high DMFT (pp=0.021). Amalgam was more frequently placed in molars than in premolars (pamalgam in more challenging restorations with respect to caries activity, lesion depth, and tooth type. The findings indicate that in a period when the use of amalgam was phasing out, resin composite was the predominant material of choice for Class II restorations in children and adolescents.

  6. Factors that affect large subunit ribosomal DNA amplicon sequencing studies of fungal communities: classification method, primer choice, and error.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita M Porter

    Full Text Available Nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA is widely used in fungal phylogenetics and to an increasing extent also amplicon-based environmental sequencing. The relatively short reads produced by next-generation sequencing, however, makes primer choice and sequence error important variables for obtaining accurate taxonomic classifications. In this simulation study we tested the performance of three classification methods: 1 a similarity-based method (BLAST + Metagenomic Analyzer, MEGAN; 2 a composition-based method (Ribosomal Database Project naïve bayesian classifier, NBC; and, 3 a phylogeny-based method (Statistical Assignment Package, SAP. We also tested the effects of sequence length, primer choice, and sequence error on classification accuracy and perceived community composition. Using a leave-one-out cross validation approach, results for classifications to the genus rank were as follows: BLAST + MEGAN had the lowest error rate and was particularly robust to sequence error; SAP accuracy was highest when long LSU query sequences were classified; and, NBC runs significantly faster than the other tested methods. All methods performed poorly with the shortest 50-100 bp sequences. Increasing simulated sequence error reduced classification accuracy. Community shifts were detected due to sequence error and primer selection even though there was no change in the underlying community composition. Short read datasets from individual primers, as well as pooled datasets, appear to only approximate the true community composition. We hope this work informs investigators of some of the factors that affect the quality and interpretation of their environmental gene surveys.

  7. Factors influencing the choice of antidepressants: A study of antidepressant prescribing practice at University psychiatric clinic in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nađa P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Antidepressants are a widely used class of drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate different aspects of antidepressant prescribing practice at University Psychiatric Clinic in Belgrade. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out by retrospective analysis of the patient's medical charts. The study included all patients with antidepressant prescribed at discharge during 2009 (n = 296. The evaluation was focused on patient- related factors (socio-demographic and illness related, psychiatrist-related factors (sex and duration of working experience and drug related factors (type of antidepressant, dose, polypharmacy and reimbursement by national health insurance. Results. Antidepressants were prescribed for unipolar depression (F32-34, ICD X either without comorbidity (46.2% or with comorbidity (24.7%, mostly as a monotherapy (91% had one antidepressant, to the patients who were 65% female, aged 50.1 ± 8.9, most of them with 12 years of education (52.6%, married (69.3% and employed (55.9%. The majority of patients had a history of two hospitalizations (Med 2; 25th-75th perc. 1-4 during nine years (Med 9; 25th-75th perc. 2-15 after the first episode of depression. Among them, 19% were found to be suicidal in a lifetime. The single most prescribed antidepressant was sertraline (20.4%, followed by fluoxetine (13.3% and maprotiline (11.7%. Utilization of antidepressants was positively correlated with the rate of reimbursement (p < 0.01. The most prescribed antidepressant group was selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI (47.8%, followed by tricyclic antidepresants (TCA (25.3% and new antidepressants - venlafaxine, tianeptine, mirtazapine, bupropion, trazodone (15.1%. Most of the drugs were prescribed in doses which are at the lower end of the recommended dose-range. Regarding severity of the actual depressive episode, TCA were prescribed for severe depression with psychotic features, while SSRI were choice for

  8. Psychological and social factors influencing the choice of strategy after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the post-accident situation in Chernobyl provides information that focuses on social and psychological factors in the management of nuclear accidents. This paper concentrates on the short term countermeasures. It presents the main conclusions of a field survey carried out in Ukraine. The issues talked are the concern about extend of post-response in Chernobyl, the worries over health, contamination, the concern over the future and the complexity of post-accident situation. In a second part, the paper analyses and models the factors that caused the 1993 post-accident situation. Finally, several advices are given concerning the public information and behaviour focusing on the social and psychological aspect of short-term decisions (a constant effort should always be, for example, limiting the element of surprise in order to reduce the stress of population). (TEC). 3 figs

  9. An analysis of factors influencing store format choice among customers in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Shujaat

    2012-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2012 Food and grocery retailing market in Pakistan has gone to dynamic changes. New foreign food and grocery chains’ coming in creating competition among all the large and small players active in the market. However, the larger share of the market is still in the hand of small traditional retail owners. The purpose of this study is to identify the important factors that affect consumer patronage behavior of urban customers t...

  10. Influencing Factors and Path Choice of Rebuilding Rural Financial Supervision System

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Wanjun; Qin, Zhen; Xiong, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of rebuilding Chinese rural financial supervision system is expounded. Rebuilding rural financial supervision system is conducive to normalizing rural financial order and forming the benign competitive situation; to clarifying the role played by rural financial organization and providing better financial services for “three agriculture†; to forming safe rural financial environment to promote the development of rural economy and national economy. The restricting factors of re...

  11. Factors influencing patients' contract choice with general practitioners in Shanghai: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Limei; Shu, Zhiqun; Sun, Xiaoming; Chiu, John F; Lou, Jiquan; Xie, Chunyan

    2015-03-01

    The general practitioner (GP) system has been widely applied around the world and experimented with in Shanghai, China. To analyze some of the influencing factors on patient-GP contracts, we developed a questionnaire and conducted site investigations in 2011 and 2012 to 1200 patients by random sampling from 6 pilot community health service (CHS) centers in Pudong, Shanghai. The t test, χ(2) test, factor analysis, and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The factors influencing patients' contract behavior were age (OR = 1.03; 95%CI = 1.02-1.04), education level (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.75-0.93), social interaction of social capital (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.15-1.56), acceptance of first contact in community (OR = 3.25; 95% CI = 2.07-5.12), the year of investigation (OR = 2.58; 95% CI = 1.92-3.47), and the exposure to publicity (OR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.39-1.85). Elderly patients formed a focus group to sign contracts with GPs. To increase trust in GPs by patients, it is recommended to improve the level of CHSs, strengthen publicity, and cultivate social capital among patients. © 2014 APJPH.

  12. Factors influencing students' choices in considering rural radiography careers at Makerere University, Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzaga, Mubuuke Aloysius; Kiguli-Malwadde, E.; Francis, Businge; Rosemary, Byanyima K.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The Faculty of Medicine, Makerere University is the oldest health professions training institution in East Africa having started in 1924. The radiography degree course started in 2001 and Makerere remains the only institution in the East African region offering this degree course. The faculty adopted a Problem based Learning/Community based education curriculum in order to stimulate students' interests to consider working in rural areas. Attracting and retaining radiographers and other health professionals in rural areas is a recognized problem in Uganda and overseas and strategic actions to enhance the rural health workforce and its ability to deliver the required services are paramount. A range of factors in different domains can be associated with recruitment and retention. By consulting students, some of these factors can be identified and addressed. Methodology: It was a descriptive exploratory study involving 31 students. Data was collected through a questionnaire and focus group discussions. Results: 58% of the students reported that they would consider rural radiography practice while 42% would not. Key motivational factors cited to work in rural areas were; attractive salaries/incentives, community based training curricular, opportunities for further training and well equipped rural health facilities. Conclusion: This study has shown that students would consider working in rural areas provided the working conditions are improved upon.

  13. An Empirical Investigation of Factors Determining the Consumers’ Choice of Mobile Service Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Gautam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After the implementation of government policies on globalization and liberalization, the consumers have become more critical about the selection of service providers. Consumers are now very much aware of the alternatives available in relation to services and the provider organizations. Expectations of consumers are rising and the provider organizations should be aware of these expectations. The objective of the present study is to examine the factors responsible for helping the consumers to choose mobile telecommunication service provider among the competitors in the market. The primary statistical techniques used in the study are Exploratory Factor Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling. The data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire consisting of different questions related to demographics, service quality, product quality and availability, promotion and price in order to study perceptions of consumers. In order to examine these above mentioned variables and to derive meaningful conclusions, use of structural equation modelling was imperative. AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structure version 16.0 was employed in the research to test the underlying hypotheses of the study. Results showed that the paths are significantly related to the casual processes. Price was found to be the most important factor followed by product quality and availability, service quality, and promotion in determining perceptions of customers towards mobile telecommunication services. It is expected that the findings of the study may provide meaningful insights to the service providers and contribute in improving their strategies and marketing operations.

  14. An empirical investigation on factors influencing choice of foreign market by media firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Farhangi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a number of factors suggested in the literature as important determinants of the foreign market selection. Key strategic factors are determined as four groups: host-country characteristics, firm-specific factors, competitive situation and content adaptation. In this study, multiple regression and path analysis are used. To test the model with modeling techniques, the necessary data from 29 media firms were used. It is based on a questionnaire, which has provided several insights into market selection elements. Our findings indicate that all components of the host country, exporting companies, competitive situation and the content adaptation could influence positively the selection of foreign market. The results also indicate that the adaptation of content was the most effective in choosing a foreign market. In addition, cross-cultural adaptation is an important component in selection of foreign markets. The results also suggest that the causal relationships between the independent variables are positive and significant, while the relationship between the content adaptation and the competitive situation has not been confirmed.

  15. Factors associated with choice of approach for Group B streptococcus screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefty, H; Klivitsky, A; Bromberg, M; Dichtiar, R; Ami, M Ben; Shohat, T; Glatman-Freedman, A

    2016-01-01

    The crude rate of early-onset Group B streptococcus disease (EOGBS) in Israel has been consistently under 0.5 for 1000 live births for the past 8 years. The Israeli Ministry of Health has adapted the risk factor based approach for preventing EOGBS and universal bacteriological screening for GBS is not recommended. In spite of this policy, there are indications that many pregnant women in Israel undergo bacteriological screening for GBS. The objective of this study is to assess the rate and characteristics of pregnant women who undergo screening for group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization in Israel. Survey of expectant mothers who came to give birth in 29 delivery rooms throughout Israel during the month of July 2012 regarding GBS screening practice and demographics. A total of 2968 pregnant women participated in the assessment. Among them, 935 women (31.5 %) had been tested for GBS colonization. About 90 % of those women had no risk factors, only 542 women (60 %) underwent testing during the recommended gestational timing (35-37 weeks) and 23 % of the tested women reported being GBS carriers. GBS screening as part of the routine pregnancy follow- up was associated with: residence district, intermediate or high socioeconomic rank, being a member of certain health maintenance organization and being Jewish. Characteristics found to be significantly associated with being a GBS carrier were: low socioeconomic rank, and having a risk factor for GBS infection. A substantial number of pregnant women in Israel undergo screening for GBS colonization despite the national policy against universal screening. While GBS colonization was more prevalent in women of lower socioeconomic status, screening is done more often in those of higher socioeconomic status, suggesting unnecessary monetary expenses.

  16. The choice of dynamic amplification factors for the ITER generic port plugs during disruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacas, Christian, E-mail: christianvacas@gmail.com [CHD, ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Rodriguez, Eduardo [Department of Construction and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Oviedo, Gijon (Spain); Guirao, Julio [Numerical Analysis Technologies S.L. (NATEC), Gijon (Spain); Iglesias, Silvia; Udintsev, Victor [CHD, ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Pak, Sunil [Diagnostic and Control Team, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Maquet, Philippe [CHD, ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Roces, Jorge [Department of Construction and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Oviedo, Gijon (Spain); Casal, Natalia [CHD, ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Dynamic amplification factor is largely influenced by the DFWs geometry and for the type of bond between DFW and DSM. • DAF were calculated by analyzing the deformed shape and not just looking at the absolute values of displacements. • Detailed transient time history non-linear analysis of an MDUP II electro magnetic event has been carried out. • Cuasi-constant damping ratio of 3% has been considered using a generalized proportional damping model. - Abstract: The purpose of this paper is present an overview of the methodology followed to calculate the dynamic amplification factors applied to the electromagnetic loads acting in the ITER generic port plugs. The methodology used for combining an EM transient event with another kind of load is based in the treated of this dynamic EM event as a static load. As first stage a transient dynamic analysis was performed, at the most demanded electromagnetic event [2], to determine the dynamic response of the port plugs. In the same way, have been solved all the time steps of the dynamic event as static loads, it means that the inertial effect has been neglected. The response of each time-step at the dynamic solution has been compared with the same time-step solved as a static load. For this purpose some control points were positioned along the structure at the most representative locations. The key of these calculations is the understanding of the deformed modes affecting the port plug in order to obtain a reasonable dynamic amplification factors that permit the characterization of these loads in a realistic way and does not derive in a too conservative approach. Additionally, the fundamental frequencies and vibration modes of the generic port plug, requested for the characterization of the damping effects at the structure, were calculated in a complementary modal analysis performed for this aim.

  17. Factors Influencing Choice of Radiology and Relationship to Resident Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Shanna A; Guenette, Jeffrey P; Smith, Stacy E; Uyeda, Jennifer W; Chua, Alicia S; Gaviola, Glenn C; Durfee, Sara M

    2018-03-20

    Identify when current radiology residents initially became interested in radiology, which factors influenced their decision to pursue a career in radiology, and which factors correlate with job satisfaction. An online survey was distributed to United States radiology residents between December 7, 2016 and March 31, 2017. Respondents identified the most appealing aspects of radiology during medical school, identified experiences most influential in choosing radiology, and scored job satisfaction on visual analog scales. Relative importance was compared with descriptive statistics. Satisfaction scores were compared across factors with analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey tests. 488 radiology residents responded (age 30.8 ± 3.2 years; 358 male, 129 female, 1 unknown; 144 PGY2, 123 PGY3, 103 PGY4, 118 PGY5). The most influential aspects in choosing radiology were the intellectual (n=187, 38%), imaging (n=100, 20%), and procedural (n=96, 20%) components and potential lifestyle (n=69, 14%). Radiology clerkship reading room shadowing (n=143, 29%), radiologist mentor (n=98, 20%), non-radiology clerkship imaging exposure (n=77, 16%), and radiology clerkship interventions exposure (n=75, 15%) were most influential. Choosing radiology because of potential lifestyle correlated with less job satisfaction than choosing radiology for intellectual (p=0.0004) and imaging (p=0.0003) components. Recruitment of medical students into radiology may be most effective when radiology clerkships emphasize the intellectual and imaging components of radiology through reading room shadowing and exposure to interventions. Choosing radiology for lifestyle correlates with less job satisfaction, at least during residency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Considering the human factors contribution to the risk in the design choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, B.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: With the increasing reliability of the modern technological systems, the human contribution to the global risk in the operation of industrial systems is becoming more and more significant: in the nuclear reactor operation for example, a recent PSA estimation of this contribution is about 25% of the risk of core melting, all situations considered. This urges the designers of future plants to consider the minimization of this Human Factor (HF) contribution, at the very early stage of their design: the experience feedback shows that this is indeed at this stage that the fundamental design options, impacting the most the human reliability in operation, are fixed. The problem is that at these early design stages, it is also quite impossible to apply formal human reliability methods to support this HF optimisation, while the precise operating conditions of the plant are not yet known in enough details. In this paper, another approach of the HF evaluation during the design, based on the functional and operational complexity assessment, is proposed. As an illustration, this approach is used to compare various concepts of nuclear reactors from the point of view of the Human Factor relevance. (authors)

  19. Key Factors Affecting a Technology Entrepreneur's Choice of Incubator or Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane A. Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Technology entrepreneurship rarely succeeds in isolation; increasingly, it occurs in interconnected networks of business partners and other organizations. For entrepreneurs lacking access to an established business ecosystem, incubators and accelerators provide a possible support mechanism for access to partners and resources. Yet, these relatively recent approaches to supporting entrepreneurship are still evolving. Therefore, it can be challenging for entrepreneurs to assess these mechanisms and to make insightful decisions on whether or not to join an incubator or accelerator, and which incubator or accelerator best meets their needs. In this article, five key factors that entrepreneurs should take into consideration about incubators and accelerators are offered. Insights are drawn from two surveys of managers and users of incubators and accelerators. An understanding of these five key success factors (stage of venture, fit with incubator’s mission, selection and graduation policies, services provided, and network of partners and potential pitfalls will help entrepreneurs confidently enter into a relationship with an incubator or accelerator.

  20. Commuter migration: work environment factors influencing nurses' decisions regarding choice of employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajacich, D; Freeman, M; Armstrong-Stassen, M; Cameron, S; Wolfe, B

    2014-06-01

    Nurse migration is of global concern for every country, and study of migration can provide critical information for managers concerned with nurse recruitment and retention. This mixed-methods research examined factors influencing registered nurses' (RNs') decisions to work in their home country, Canada, or to commute daily to a nursing position in the United States. Measures included nurses' feelings about their work environment conditions, work status congruence (the goodness of fit between employer expectations and their own regarding hours and times worked), professional development opportunities, and their perceptions of organizational support and autonomy (freedom and independence) in the workplace. All work environment variables were significantly higher for nurses working in Michigan. Qualitative results supported these survey findings, providing additional information about nurses' satisfaction. Nurses in our sample were more satisfied with all the work environment factors examined, even when stress from commuting out of country was experienced. The environmental issues examined in this study should be considered by nurse managers concerned with recruitment and retention of nurses. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  1. Factors affecting choice of specialty among first-year medical students of four universities in different regions of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikici, Mustafa Fevzi; Yaris, Fusun; Topsever, Pinar; Tuncay Muge, Filiz; Gurel, Fazil Serdar; Cubukcu, Mahcube; Gorpelioglu, Suleyman

    2008-06-01

    To determine the factors affecting medical students' choice of the specialty of family medicine. The study was conducted in the period from 2004-2006 and comprised 770 first-year medical students from Ondokuz Mayis, Karadeniz Technical, Kocaeli, and Adnan Menderes Universities, Turkey. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data and 6 "yes/no" or open-ended questions on students' career aspirations and the specialty of family medicine. The response rate was 93.1% (n=717, 54.7% male). Nearly all students (n=714, 99.6%) showed an intention to specialize after receiving the medical doctor degree. A total of 187 students (26.2%) showed an intention to work in primary care without specialization "for a temporary period" to "gain some experience." Family medicine was the least preferred specialty (n=7, 0.9%). The most important reasons for the choice of specialty were "better financial opportunities" and "prestige" (n=219, 30.5%), followed by "personal development" (n=149, 20.8%), "more benefits for the patient" (n=128, 17.9%), and "wish to work in an urban area" (n=32, 4.5%). The most preferred specialties were cardiology (n=179, 25.0%), pediatrics (n=121, 16.9%), ophthalmology (n=47, 6.6%), physical therapy and rehabilitation (n=34, 4.7%), and obstetrics and gynecology (n=32, 4.5%). Prestige, money, and personal development are important factors in career decision-making among medical students in Turkey. This should be taken into consideration when conducting reforms at the primary level.

  2. African Americans in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: Factors Affecting Career Choice, Satisfaction, and Practice Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criddle, Thalia-Rae; Gordon, Newton C; Blakey, George; Bell, R Bryan

    2017-12-01

    There are few data available on the experience of minority surgeons in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to 1) explore factors that contribute to African Americans choosing OMS as a career, 2) examine satisfaction among minority oral and maxillofacial surgeons with the residency application and training process, 3) report on practice patterns among minority oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and 4) identify perceived bias for or against minority oral and maxillofacial surgeons in an attempt to aid the efforts of OMS residency organizations to foster diversity. A 19-item survey was sent to 80 OMS practitioners by use of information from the mailing list of the National Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, an American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons-affiliated organization. All surveys were sent by mail and were followed by a reminder mailing after 8 weeks. Responses returned within 16 weeks were accepted for analysis. Of the 80 mailed surveys, 41 were returned within the 16-week parameter, representing a return rate of 51%. Most of the minority surgeon respondents were married men with a mean age of 60 years who worked as private practitioners. Most respondents practiced on the eastern and western coasts of the United States. Exposure in dental school was the most important factor in selecting OMS as a specialty. Location and prestige were the most important factors in selecting a residency program. Most respondents reported that race did not affect the success of their application to a residency program and did not currently affect the success of their practice. However, 25 to 46% of participants experienced race-related harassment, and 48 to 55% of participants believed there was a bias against African Americans in OMS. Our data suggest that a substantial number of minority oral and maxillofacial surgeons subjectively perceive race-based bias in their career, although it does not

  3. Choice of therapeutic tactics after failure of the first tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Chichasova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses whether the effect of different biological agents (BAs can be achieved in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA when they inadequately respond to therapy with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α inhibitors. It gives data on the efficacy of BAs with another mechanism of action (abatacept, tocilizumab, and rituximab and on the comparable efficacy of golimumab (GLM in this group of patients. It is shown that the effect of GLM therapy does not depend on the reasons for discontinuation of a previously used TNF-α inhibitors (inefficacy, adverse events, etc.. It is conclusion that GLM is effective after failure of one or two TNF-α inhibitors.

  4. Three-dimensional biomaterial degradation - Material choice, design and extrinsic factor considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirimer, Lara; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-01-01

    The apparent difficulty to precisely control fine-tuning of biomaterial degradation has initiated the recent paradigm shift from conventional top-down fabrication methods to more nature-inspired bottom-up assemblies. Sophistication of material fabrication techniques allows today's scientists to reach beyond conventional natural materials in order to synthesise tomorrow's 'designer material'. Material degradation into smaller components and subsequent release of encapsulated cells or cell-signalling agents have opened medically exploitable avenues, transforming the area of regenerative medicine into a dynamic and self-propagating branch of modern medicine. The aim to synthesise ever more refined scaffolding structures in order to create micro- and nanoenvironments resembling those found in natural tissues now represents an ever growing niche in the materials sciences. Recently, we have developed and conducted the world's first in-human tracheal transplantation using a non-degradable completely synthetic biomaterial. Fuelled by such clinical potential, we are currently developing a biodegradable version suitable for skin tissue engineering and paediatric applications. However, despite enormous efforts, current, as yet insurmountable challenges include precise biomaterial degradation within pre-determined spatial and temporal confines in an effort to release bio-signalling agents in such orchestrated fashion as to fully regenerate functioning tissues. In this review, the authors, almost anti-climactically, ask the readers to step out of the artificially over-constructed spiral of ever more convoluted scaffold fabrication techniques and consider the benefits of controllable bottom-up scaffold fabrication methods. It will further be investigated how scaffold designs and fabrication methods may influence degradation and subsequent release of incorporated elements. A focus will be placed on the delivery of growth factors, stem cells and therapeutic agents alone or in

  5. A systematic review of the factors affecting choice of surgery as a career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, John K; Schlachta, Christopher M; Alkhamesi, Nawar A

    2018-02-01

    Interest in surgical careers among medical students has declined over the past decade. Multiple explanations have been offered for why top students are deterred or rejected from surgical programs, though no consensus has emerged. We conducted a review of the literature to better characterize what factors affect the pursuit of a surgical career. We searched PubMed and EMBASE and performed additional reference checks. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and Newcastle-Ottawa Education scores were used to evaluate the included data. Our search identified 122 full-text, primary articles. Analysis of this evidence identified 3 core concepts that impact surgical career decision-making: gender, features of surgical education, and student "fit" in the culture of surgery. Real and perceived gender discrimination has deterred female medical students from entering surgical careers. In addition, limited exposure to surgery during medical school and differences between student and surgeon personality traits and values may deter students from entering surgical careers. We suggest that deliberate and visible effort to include women and early-career medical students in surgical settings may enhance their interest in carreers in surgery.

  6. A systematic review of the factors affecting choice of surgery as a career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, John K.; Schlachta, Christopher M.; Alkhamesi, Nawar A.

    2018-01-01

    Background Interest in surgical careers among medical students has declined over the past decade. Multiple explanations have been offered for why top students are deterred or rejected from surgical programs, though no consensus has emerged. Methods We conducted a review of the literature to better characterize what factors affect the pursuit of a surgical career. We searched PubMed and EMBASE and performed additional reference checks. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and Newcastle–Ottawa Education scores were used to evaluate the included data. Results Our search identified 122 full-text, primary articles. Analysis of this evidence identified 3 core concepts that impact surgical career decision-making: gender, features of surgical education, and student “fit” in the culture of surgery. Conclusion Real and perceived gender discrimination has deterred female medical students from entering surgical careers. In addition, limited exposure to surgery during medical school and differences between student and surgeon personality traits and values may deter students from entering surgical careers. We suggest that deliberate and visible effort to include women and early-career medical students in surgical settings may enhance their interest in carreers in surgery. PMID:29368678

  7. Pioneer factors govern super-enhancer dynamics in stem cell plasticity and lineage choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Rene C.; Yang, Hanseul; Rockowitz, Shira; Larsen, Samantha B.; Nikolova, Maria; Oristian, Daniel S.; Polak, Lisa; Kadaja, Meelis; Asare, Amma; Zheng, Deyou; Fuchs, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Adult stem cells (SCs) reside in niches which balance self-renewal with lineage selection and progression during tissue homeostasis. Following injury, culture or transplantation, SCs outside their niche often display fate flexibility1-4. Here we show that super-enhancers5 underlie the identity, lineage commitment and plasticity of adult SCs in vivo. Using hair follicle (HF) as model, we map the global chromatin domains of HFSCs and their committed progenitors in their native microenvironments. We show that super-enhancers and their dense clusters (‘epicenters’) of transcription factor (TF) binding sites change upon lineage progression. New fate is acquired by decommissioning old and establishing new super-enhancers and/or epicenters, an auto-regulatory process that abates one master regulator subset while enhancing another. We further show that when outside their niche, either in vitro or in wound-repair, HFSCs dynamically remodel super-enhancers in response to changes in their microenvironment. Intriguingly, some key super-enhancers shift epicenters, enabling them to remain active and maintain a transitional state in an ever-changing transcriptional landscape. Finally, we identify SOX9 as a crucial chromatin rheostat of HFSC super-enhancers, and provide functional evidence that super-enhancers are dynamic, dense TF-binding platforms which are acutely sensitive to pioneer master regulators whose levels define not only spatial and temporal features of lineage-status, but also stemness, plasticity in transitional states and differentiation. PMID:25799994

  8. Factors Associated with the Choice of Peritoneal Dialysis in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chun Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors associated with receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD in patients with incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD in a hospital in Southern Taiwan. Methods. The study included all consecutive patients with incident ESRD who participated in a multidisciplinary predialysis education (MPE program and started their first dialysis therapy between January 1, 2008, and June 30, 2013, in the study hospital. We provided small group teaching sessions to advanced CKD patients and their family to enhance understanding of various dialysis modalities. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of patient characteristics with the chosen dialysis modality. Results. Of the 656 patients, 524 (80% chose hemodialysis and 132 chose PD. Our data showed that young age, high education level, and high scores of activities of daily living (ADLs were positively associated with PD treatment. Patients who received small group teaching sessions had higher percentages of PD treatment (30.5% versus 19.5%; P=0.108 and preparedness for dialysis (61.1% versus 46.6%; P=0.090. Conclusion. Young age, high education level, and high ADL score were positively associated with choosing PD. Early creation of vascular access may be a barrier for PD.

  9. Patching the Leaky STEM Pipeline: Identifying Institutional Factors That Influence a STEM Qualified Female Undergraduate s Choice of Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlock, Ashley J.

    -research intensive universities, research intensive universities, and high schools in order to further understand the impact that certain factors have on female choice of institution. The authors strongly feel that if institutions which provide a more supportive environment for female undergraduates create successful recruitment initiatives, their female students may be more likely to persist as STEM majors. This could potentially patch one of the substantial leaks in the STEM pipeline for women.

  10. Evidence for shared genetic dominance between the general factor of personality, mental and physical health, and life history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Aurelio José; Rushton, J Philippe

    2009-12-01

    We reanalyze previously published data on 309 MZ and 333 DZ twin pairs aged 25 to 74 years from the MIDUS survey, a nationally representative archived sample, to examine how much of the genetic covariance between a general factor of personality (GFP), a lower-order life history factor, and a general physical and mental health factor, is of the nonadditive variety. We found nonadditive genetic effects (D) could not be ruled out as a contributor to the shared variance of these three latent factors to a Super-K Life History factor. We suggest these genetic correlations support the view that a slow (K-selected) life history strategy, good health, and the GFP coevolved and are mutually coadapted through directional selection.

  11. Patient Awareness of Local Drug Price Variation and the Factors That Influence Pharmacy Choice: A Cross-sectional Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Spencer D; Awosika, Olabola D; Eleryan, Misty G; Rengifo-Pardo, Monica; Kuang, Xiangyu; Amdur, Richard L; Ehrlich, Alison

    2017-12-01

    BACKGROUND: High out-of-pocket drug expenditures are increasingly common in dermatology. Patients may not be aware that prices vary among pharmacies and consequently may not shop for the lowest cost. OBJECTIVE: To determine what factors influence pharmacy choice and the effect of providing local prescription prices on pharmacy selection. We hypothesized that patients do not "shop around" due to lack of knowledge of price variation and would choose a pharmacy based on costs if educated on price disparity. METHODS: Between July and August 2016, we administered a cross-sectional anonymous survey to adults visiting four outpatient clinics at an academic tertiary care center in Washington, D.C. Participants answered questions before and after viewing a list of prescription drug prices from local pharmacies. RESULTS: 287 surveys were administered to a convenience sample of adults (age ≥ 18 and literate in English). Of the 287 participants, 218 fully completed the survey; 55.1% were women and 40.5% were over age 40. When considering a cost savings of $10-25, 65% would switch pharmacies if the distance were the same, and 21.3% would switch if the distance were 45-minutes further. After price education, fewer participants felt that drug price knowledge would ultimately influence pharmacy choice (P less than 0.0001). However, respondents' intended frequency of researching price online, calling a pharmacy to ask about price, and comparing price between pharmacies before filling a prescription all increased, compared to prior self-reported frequencies (P less than 0.001). Specifically, participants with $75,000-$99,999 income were more likely to compare prices than those with income below $45,000 (odds ratio [OR], 4.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-17.28). CONCLUSION: In this study, pharmacy choice was more influenced by convenience than cost prior to drug price education. However, price education ultimately impacted intent to research prescription drug prices before

  12. Factors influencing reproductive choices of HIV positive individuals attending primary health care facilities in a South African health district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Agbo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is global recognition of the reproductive health rights of people living with HIV (PLHIV. The aim of this research study was to explore the reproductive choices, and the factors influencing these choices, of HIV positive patients attending primary health care (PHC facilities in the Ekurhuleni health district of the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Methods During 2013, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Ekurhuleni health district. At each of three randomly selected community health centres, a random sample of HIV positive patients was selected. After informed consent was obtained, trained fieldworkers administered a structured questionnaire that elicited information on socio-demographics, reproductive choices and knowledge of reproductive options. Survey data were analysed using STATA® 13. Results The majority of survey participants (n = 430 were female (70% and unemployed (57%. The mean age of participants was 36.4 years (SD 8.6: 40.8 years (SD 8.7 for men and 34.5 years (SD7.8 for women. Among survey participants, 46% expressed a desire for children (95% CI: 41.4–50.9. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, predictors of desire for children were age less than 49 years, marriage or living together, and no biological children. The odds of wanting children was 16.48 [95% CI: 5.94–45.74] times higher for PLHIV without children, compared with those with two or more children, while for those less than 25 years, the odds of wanting children was 0.78 [95% CI: 0.23–2.59] compared with those older than 50 years. The PLHIV knowledge on the available reproductive options was limited, with the majority relying on the guidance of the health workers. Conclusion Health care providers at PHC level should be educated to address the reproductive health needs of PLHIV. These aspects should be reflected in provincial and national health policies.

  13. Molecular and endocrine factors involved in future dominant follicle dynamics during the induction of luteolysis in Bos indicus cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, I Y H; Santos, A P C; Bottino, M P; Orlandi, R E; Santos, G; Simões, L M S; Souza, J C; Díaza, A M G; Binelli, M; Sales, J N S

    2018-04-15

    The growth profiles of the future dominant follicle (DF) and subordinate follicle (SF) and the gene expression of the granulosa cells during luteolysis induction in Bos indicus cows were evaluated. Forty cows were synchronized with a progesterone and estradiol based protocol. After synchronization, cows with a corpus luteum (CL) were evaluated by ultrasonography every 12 h, beginning at eight days post ovulation. Cows identified with a follicle of at least 6.0 mm in diameter in the second wave were split into two groups (BD-before follicular deviation and AD-after follicular deviation. In the BD group cows received 500 μg of cloprostenol (a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin F2α) when the DF reached a mean diameter of 7.0 mm (6.5-7.5 mm). In the AD group, cows received 500 μg of cloprostenol when the DF reached a mean diameter of 8.0 mm (7.5-8.5 mm). Cows in both groups were submitted to aspiration of the DF at 96 and 72 h after prostaglandin was given. Follicular aspirations were performed to quantify IGF1R, LHR and PAPPA transcripts in the granulosa cells. The diameter of the DF at the moment of prostaglandin administration (P = 0.001) and the growth rate of the SF (P = 0.05) were greater in the AD group. There was greater abundance of LHR transcripts in BD cows (P = 0.04). The remaining variables tested were similar between the experimental groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the induction of luteolysis before follicular deviation does not interfere with dominant follicle dynamics. However, it causes granulosa cell LHR down regulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of severe accident evaluation technology (level 2 PSA) for sodium-cooled fast reactors. (5) Identification of dominant factors in ex-vessel accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Shuji; Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of accident progression outside of a reactor vessel (ex-vessel) and subsequent transfer behavior of radioactive materials is of great importance from the viewpoint of Level 2 PSA. Hence typical ex-vessel accident sequences in the JAEA Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor are qualitatively discussed in this paper and dominant behaviors or factors in the sequences are investigated through parametric calculations using the CONTAIN/LMR code. Scenarios to be focused on are, 1) sodium vapor leakage from the reactor vessel and 2) sodium-concrete reaction, which are both to be considered in the accident category of LOHRS (loss of heat removal system) and might be followed by an early containment failure due to the thermal effect of sodium combustion and hydrogen burning respectively. The calculated results clarify that the sodium vapor leak rate and the scale of sodium-concrete reaction are the important factors to dominate the ex-vessel accident progression. In addition to the understandings of the dominant factors, the analyzed results also provide the specific information such as pressure loading value to the containment and the timing of pressurization, which is indispensable as technical base in Level 2 PSA for developing event trees and for quantifying the accident consequences. (author)

  15. Factors influencing the choice of ophthalmology as a career among medical students of king saud bin abdulaziz university Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Abdullah AlSalman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Choosing a future speciality for medical students can be frightening as well as confusing. Identifying factors that influence medical students' future career choice is critical and can play an important role in shaping the future workforce. Aims: The study aims to determine factors associated with medical students' preference of Ophthalmology as a future career choice at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was carried out among Saudi students of both genders who were enrolled in KSAU-HS (clinical phase during the study. Subjects and Methods: A validated questionnaire was sent through E-mail to 302 eligible students, of which 275 participated, with a response rate of (91%. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis was carried out for all categorical variables. In addition, data were compared using Chi-square test; all tests were two-sided and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 28 students (10.2% considered Ophthalmology as their first choice, while it was the second choice for four students (1.5%. Among all the participants, factors that attracted medical students to consider Ophthalmology as a career choice included the high income (54%, private sector opportunities (40%, part-time opportunities (40% and leisure (34%. Whereas, the difficulty of getting into the Ophthalmology Residency Programme (53% was the most important factor that pushed students away from choosing Ophthalmology. Conclusions: Multiple factors influenced the KSAU-HS medical students' choice of when choosing a future speciality. Knowing these factors can help in directing work-force to choose specialities that are currently limited in Saudi Arabia.

  16. Self-reported lactose intolerance in clinic patients with functional gastrointestinal symptoms: prevalence, risk factors, and impact on food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Chu, H; Cong, Y; Deng, Y; Long, Y; Zhu, Y; Pohl, D; Fried, M; Dai, N; Fox, M

    2015-08-01

    Many patients complain of abdominal symptoms with dairy products; however, clinical and psychosocial factors associated with self-reported lactose intolerance (SLI) have not been assessed in large studies. In particular, data are lacking from lactase deficient populations. This prospective cohort study assessed the prevalence of, and risk factors for, SLI in Chinese patients attending a gastroenterology clinic. Consecutive patients completed questionnaires to assess digestive health (Rome III), psychological state (HADS), life event stress (LES), food intake, and quality-of-life (SF-8). A representative sample completed genetic studies and hydrogen breath testing (HBT) at the clinically relevant dose of 20 g lactose. SLI was present in 411/910 (45%) clinic patients with functional abdominal symptoms. The genotype in all subjects was C/C-13910. A small number of novel SNPs in lactase promoter region were identified, including C/T-13908 which appeared to confer lactase persistence. Over half of the patients (54%) completed the 20 g lactose HBT with 58% (285/492) reporting typical symptoms. Positive and negative predictive values of SLI for abdominal symptoms during HBT were 60% and 44%, respectively. Psychological state and stress were not associated with SLI in clinic patients. SLI impacted on physical quality-of-life and was associated with reduced ingestion of dairy products, legumes, and dried fruit (p ≤ 0.05). In a lactase deficient population, approximately half of patients attending clinic with functional gastrointestinal symptoms reported intolerance to dairy products; however, SLI did not predict findings on 20 g lactose HBT. Independent of psychosocial factors, SLI impacted on quality-of-life and impacted on food choices with restrictions not limited to dairy products. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Dominant factors controlling the efficiency of two-phase flow cleaning in spiral-wound membrane elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibisono, Y.; Ahmad, F.; Cornelissen, Emile; Cornelissen, E.R.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2015-01-01

    Two-phase flow cleaning has been successfully applied to control fouling in spiral wound membrane elements. This study focuses on its experimental optimization using a Taguchi Design of Experiment method (L-25 orthogonal arrays) to elucidate the influence of different factors and to reveal the

  18. Male-dominant activation of rat renal organic anion transporter 1 (Oat1 and 3 (Oat3 expression by transcription factor BCL6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waja Wegner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organic anion transporters 1 (Oat1 and 3 (Oat3 mediate the transport of organic anions, including frequently prescribed drugs, across cell membranes in kidney proximal tubule cells. In rats, these transporters are known to be male-dominant and testosterone-dependently expressed. The molecular mechanisms that are involved in the sex-dependent expression are unknown. Our aim was to identify genes that show a sex-dependent expression and could be involved in male-dominant regulation of Oat1 and Oat3. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Promoter activities of Oat1 and Oat3 were analyzed using luciferase assays. Expression profiling was done using a SurePrint G3 rat GE 8 × 60K microarray. RNA was isolated from renal cortical slices of four adult rats per sex. To filter the achieved microarray data for genes expressed in proximal tubule cells, transcription database alignment was carried out. We demonstrate that predicted androgen response elements in the promoters of Oat1 and Oat3 are not functional when the promoters were expressed in OK cells. Using microarray analyses we analyzed 17,406 different genes. Out of these genes, 56 exhibit a sex-dependent expression in rat proximal tubule cells. As genes potentially involved in the regulation of Oat1 and Oat3 expression, we identified, amongst others, the male-dominant hydroxysteroid (17-beta dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd17b1, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL6, and polymerase (RNA III (DNA directed polypeptide G (Polr3g. Moreover, our results revealed that the transcription factor BCL6 activates promoter constructs of Oat1 and Oat3. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the male-dominant expression of both transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, is possibly not directly regulated by the classical androgen receptor mediated transcriptional pathway but appears to be regulated by the transcription factor BCL6.

  19. Cooking Fuels in Lagos, Nigeria: Factors Associated with Household Choice of Kerosene or Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obianuju B. Ozoh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooking with dirty-burning fuels is associated with health risk from household air pollution. We assessed the prevalence of and factors associated with the use of cooking fuels, and attitudes and barriers towards use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. This was a cross-sectional, population-based survey conducted in 519 households in Lagos, Nigeria. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain information regarding choice of household cooking fuel and the attitudes towards the use of LPG. Kerosene was the most frequently used cooking fuel (n = 475, 91.5%; primary use n = 364, 70.1% followed by charcoal (n = 159, 30.6%; primary use n = 88, 17% and LPG (n = 86, 16.6%; primary use n = 63, 12.1%. Higher level of education, higher income and younger age were associated with LPG vs. kerosene use. Fuel expenditure on LPG was significantly lower than for kerosene ( N (Naira 2169.0 ± 1507.0 vs. N 2581.6 ± 1407.5. Over 90% of non-LPG users were willing to switch to LPG but cited safety issues and high cost as potential barriers to switching. Our findings suggest that misinformation and beliefs regarding benefits, safety and cost of LPG are important barriers to LPG use. An educational intervention program could be a cost-effective approach to improve LPG adoption and should be formally addressed through a well-designed community-based intervention study.

  20. Cooking Fuels in Lagos, Nigeria: Factors Associated with Household Choice of Kerosene or Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozoh, Obianuju B; Okwor, Tochi J; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Akinkugbe, Ayesha O; Amadi, Casmir E; Esezobor, Christopher; Adeyeye, Olufunke O; Ojo, Oluwafemi; Nwude, Vivian N; Mortimer, Kevin

    2018-03-31

    Cooking with dirty-burning fuels is associated with health risk from household air pollution. We assessed the prevalence of and factors associated with the use of cooking fuels, and attitudes and barriers towards use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This was a cross-sectional, population-based survey conducted in 519 households in Lagos, Nigeria. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain information regarding choice of household cooking fuel and the attitudes towards the use of LPG. Kerosene was the most frequently used cooking fuel ( n = 475, 91.5%; primary use n = 364, 70.1%) followed by charcoal ( n = 159, 30.6%; primary use n = 88, 17%) and LPG ( n = 86, 16.6%; primary use n = 63, 12.1%). Higher level of education, higher income and younger age were associated with LPG vs. kerosene use. Fuel expenditure on LPG was significantly lower than for kerosene ( N (Naira) 2169.0 ± 1507.0 vs. N 2581.6 ± 1407.5). Over 90% of non-LPG users were willing to switch to LPG but cited safety issues and high cost as potential barriers to switching. Our findings suggest that misinformation and beliefs regarding benefits, safety and cost of LPG are important barriers to LPG use. An educational intervention program could be a cost-effective approach to improve LPG adoption and should be formally addressed through a well-designed community-based intervention study.

  1. Sensory axon guidance with semaphorin 6A and nerve growth factor in a biomimetic choice point model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curley, J Lowry; Catig, Gary C; Horn-Ranney, Elaine L; Moore, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The direct effect of guidance cues on developing and regenerating axons in vivo is not fully understood, as the process involves a multiplicity of attractive and repulsive signals, presented both as soluble and membrane-bound ligands. A better understanding of axon guidance is critical to functional recovery following injury to the nervous system through improved outgrowth and mapping of damaged nerves. Due to their implications as inhibitors to central nervous system regeneration, we investigated the repulsive properties of semaphorin 6A and ephrin-B3 on E15 rat dorsal root ganglion explants, as well as possible interactions with soluble gradients of chemoattractive nerve growth factor (NGF). We employed a 3D biomimetic in vitro choice point model, which enabled the simple and rapid preparation of patterned gel growth matrices with quantifiable presentation of guidance cues in a specifiable manner that resembles the in vivo presentation of soluble and/or immobilized ligands. Neurites demonstrated an inhibitory response to immobilized Sema6A by lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion explants, while no such repulsion was observed for immobilized ephrin-B3 by explants at any spinal level. Interestingly, Sema6A inhibition could be partially attenuated in a concentration-dependent manner through the simultaneous presentation of soluble NGF gradients. The in vitro model described herein represents a versatile and valuable investigative tool in the quest for understanding developmental processes and improving regeneration following nervous system injury. (paper)

  2. Investigating the Relationship between Demographic Factors and Choice of Delivery Method in Pregnant Women in the City of Savojbolagh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Dadashi Eynsheykh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the increased rate of cesarean section in recent decades and natural desire of women probably due to social, economic& cultural issues in our country. While that in many cases, vaginal delivery can be replaced by unnecessary cesarean. In the absence of need the trend of cesarean section has implications for both future healthy populations and the equitable distribution of maternity resources. The aim of the present study was to investigate demographic factors associated with the choice of delivery method.In this descriptive cross- sectional study with a random sampling, 283 pregnant women who were referred for control of pregnancy to two primary health care centers two health base were interviewed by Completing the questionnaire. After gathering information data by SPSS software &via descriptive statistical indicators were analyzed.35/7% of pregnant women who were studied willing to perform cesarean section. There was a significant relationship between the having a history of cesarean section and referral place for control of pregnancy with selection of the labor type (P 0.001. The reasons for selection of cesarean section were fear of labor pain, Prevention of genital rupture & physician recommendation.The rate of selecting cesarean section is higher than acceptable World Health Organization. Therefore, careful planning should be done to raise awareness, improve attitudes and change false beliefs in pregnant women & their husbands by health service's personnel.

  3. Socio-Economic, Environmental and Personal Factors in the Choice of Country and Higher Education Institution for Studying Abroad among International Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the pull factors that influenced international students' choice of country and institution for their Master's education. Design/Methodology/ Approach: This qualitative study relied upon focus group interviews with 70 international students registered in taught Master programmes at a higher…

  4. Porter's Five Competitive Forces Framework and Other Factors That Influence the Choice of Response Strategies Adopted by Public Universities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathooko, Francis M.; Ogutu, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish the extent to which Porter's five competitive forces (PFCF) framework, among other factors drive the choice of response strategies adopted by public universities in Kenya. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study design was descriptive and utilized a cross-sectional survey of all the public…

  5. Divergence of dominant factors in soil microbial communities and functions in forest ecosystems along a climatic gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Yu, Guirui; Zhang, Xinyu; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Qiufeng; Wang, Shengzhong; Xu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Ruili; Zhao, Ning

    2018-03-01

    Soil microorganisms play an important role in regulating nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Most of the studies conducted thus far have been confined to a single forest biome or have focused on one or two controlling factors, and few have dealt with the integrated effects of climate, vegetation, and soil substrate availability on soil microbial communities and functions among different forests. In this study, we used phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) analysis to investigate soil microbial community structure and extracellular enzymatic activities to evaluate the functional potential of soil microbes of different types of forests in three different climatic zones along the north-south transect in eastern China (NSTEC). Both climate and forest type had significant effects on soil enzyme activities and microbial communities with considerable interactive effects. Except for soil acid phosphatase (AP), the other three enzyme activities were much higher in the warm temperate zone than in the temperate and the subtropical climate zones. The soil total PLFAs and bacteria were much higher in the temperate zone than in the warm temperate and the subtropical zones. The soil β-glucosidase (BG) and N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) activities were highest in the coniferous forest. Except for the soil fungi and fungi-bacteria (F/B), the different groups of microbial PLFAs were much higher in the conifer broad-leaved mixed forests than in the coniferous forests and the broad-leaved forests. In general, soil enzyme activities and microbial PLFAs were higher in primary forests than in secondary forests in temperate and warm temperate regions. In the subtropical region, soil enzyme activities were lower in the primary forests than in the secondary forests and microbial PLFAs did not differ significantly between primary and secondary forests. Different compositions of the tree species may cause variations in soil microbial communities and enzyme activities. Our results

  6. Patterns in the Physical, Chemical, and Biological Composition of Icelandic Lakes and the Dominant Factors Controlling Variability Across Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, A.; Strock, K.; Edwards, B. R.

    2017-12-01

    Fourteen lakes were sampled in the southern and western area of Iceland in June of 2017. The southern systems, within the Eastern Volcanic Zone, have minimal soil development and active volcanoes that produce ash input to lakes. Lakes in the Western Volcanic Zone were more diverse and located in older bedrock with more extensively weathered soil. Physical variables (temperature, oxygen concentration, and water clarity), chemical variables (pH, conductivity, dissolved and total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, and dissolved organic carbon concentration), and biological variables (algal biomass) were compared across the lakes sampled in these geographic regions. There was a large range in lake characteristics, including five to eighteen times higher algal biomass in the southern systems that experience active ash input to lakes. The lakes located in the Eastern Volcanic Zone also had higher conductivity and lower pH, especially in systems receiving substantial geothermal input. These results were analyzed in the context of more extensive lake sampling efforts across Iceland (46 lakes) to determine defining characteristics of lakes in each region and to identify variables that drive heterogeneous patterns in physical, chemical, and biological lake features within each region. Coastal systems, characterized by high conductivity, and glacially-fed systems, characterized by high iron concentrations, were unique from lakes in all other regions. Clustering and principal component analyses revealed that lake type (plateau, valley, spring-fed, and direct-runoff) was not the primary factor explaining variability in lake chemistry outside of the coastal and glacial lake types. Instead, lakes differentiated along a gradient of iron concentration and total nitrogen concentration. The physical and chemical properties of subarctic lakes are especially susceptible to both natural and human-induced environmental impacts. However, relatively little is known about the

  7. Factors associated with initial or subsequent choice of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yinzhu; Desai, Rishi J; Liu, Jun; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Kim, Seoyoung C

    2017-07-05

    Biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are increasingly used for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment. However, little is known based on contemporary data about the factors associated with DMARDs and patterns of use of biologic DMARDs for initial and subsequent RA treatment. We conducted an observational cohort study using claims data from a commercial health plan (2004-2013) and Medicaid (2000-2010) in three study groups: patients with early untreated RA who were naïve to any type of DMARD and patients with prevalent RA with or without prior exposure to one biologic DMARD. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of patient demographics, clinical characteristics and healthcare utilization factors on the initial and subsequent choice of biologic DMARDs for RA. We identified a total of 195,433 RA patients including 78,667 (40%) with early untreated RA and 93,534 (48%) and 23,232 (12%) with prevalent RA, without or with prior biologic DMARD treatment, respectively. Patients in the commercial insurance were 87% more likely to initiate a biologic DMARD versus patients in Medicaid (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.70-2.05). In Medicaid, African-Americans had lower odds of initiating (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.51-0.68 in early untreated RA; OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.61-0.74 in prevalent RA) and switching (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.55-0.90) biologic DMARDs than non-Hispanic whites. Prior use of steroid and non-biologic DMARDs predicted both biologic DMARD initiation and subsequent switching. Etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab were the most commonly used first-line and second-line biologic DMARDS; patients on anakinra and golimumab were most likely to be switched to other biologic DMARDS. Insurance type, race, and previous use of steroids and non-biologic DMARDs were strongly associated with initial or subsequent treatment with biologic DMARDs.

  8. What factors are critical to attracting NHS foundation doctors into specialty or core training? A discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Gillian Marion; Cleland, Jennifer; Johnston, Peter; Walker, Kim; Krucien, Nicolas; Skåtun, Diane

    2018-03-12

    Multiple personal and work-related factors influence medical trainees' career decision-making. The relative value of these diverse factors is under-researched, yet this intelligence is crucially important for informing medical workforce planning and retention and recruitment policies. Our aim was to investigate the relative value of UK doctors' preferences for different training post characteristics during the time period when they either apply for specialty or core training or take time out. We developed a discrete choice experiment (DCE) specifically for this population. The DCE was distributed to all Foundation Programme Year 2 (F2) doctors across Scotland as part of the National Career Destination Survey in June 2016. The main outcome measure was the monetary value of training post characteristics, based on willingness to forgo additional potential income and willingness to accept extra income for a change in each job characteristic calculated from regression coefficients. 677/798 F2 doctors provided usable DCE responses. Location was the most influential characteristic of a training position, followed closely by supportive culture and then working conditions. F2 doctors would need to be compensated by an additional 45.75% above potential earnings to move from a post in a desirable location to one in an undesirable location. Doctors who applied for a training post placed less value on supportive culture and excellent working conditions than those who did not apply. Male F2s valued location and a supportive culture less than female F2s. This is the first study focusing on the career decision-making of UK doctors at a critical careers decision-making point. Both location and specific job-related attributes are highly valued by F2 doctors when deciding their future. This intelligence can inform workforce policy to focus their efforts in terms of making training posts attractive to this group of doctors to enhance recruitment and retention. © Article author

  9. Domination, Eternal Domination, and Clique Covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klostermeyer William F.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eternal and m-eternal domination are concerned with using mobile guards to protect a graph against infinite sequences of attacks at vertices. Eternal domination allows one guard to move per attack, whereas more than one guard may move per attack in the m-eternal domination model. Inequality chains consisting of the domination, eternal domination, m-eternal domination, independence, and clique covering numbers of graph are explored in this paper.

  10. Determinantes de la elección del hospital por parte de los pacientes Factors determining patients' choice of hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Joaquín Mira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar cuál es la mejor forma de informar a un paciente para que elija responsablemente el centro y el servicio sanitario, e identificar los principales factores que actuarían como motivadores de esta decisión. Sujetos y método: Se elaboró la información sobre 3 hospitales ficticios y 3 procesos patológicos (cáncer de mama, hipertrofia benigna de próstata y cataratas en 4 modalidades de presentación: 1 folleto con tablas, 1 folleto con gráficos, 3 folletos con tablas y 3 folletos con gráficos, que incluían datos acerca del personal, sobre los resultados médicos y quirúrgicos, los efectos secundarios, la satisfacción de otros pacientes y familiares, y las demandas y reclamaciones efectuadas contra el hospital. La información se suministró a una muestra de 1.259 sujetos, que cumplimentaron un cuestionario con su valoración de la información recibida. Resultados: Ante la elección de tratamiento, la mayoría de los pacientes (88% preferiría que se les informara y tomar la decisión conjuntamente con el médico. Un 64% eligió el hospital con mejores resultados clínicos. La información en un solo folleto resultó más clara mediante tablas (p Objective: To identify the best way to inform patients about centers and services so that they can make a responsible choice, and to identify which factors determine patients' decisions. Subjects and methods: Data on three illnesses (breast cancer, benign prostatic hypertrophy, and cataracts in three fictitious hospitals were shown to patients. The data were presented to 1,259 subjects through four different means: a brochure including a table, a brochure with a bar graph, three brochures with tables, and three brochures with bar graphs. Data on each of the hospitals included: professional profiles, medical and surgical outcomes, side effects, patients' and relatives' satisfaction, and hospital complaints. The subjects completed a questionnaire evaluating the information

  11. Factors that influence a career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Benjamín Puertas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine which factors influence a medical student's decision to choose a career in primary care; and to establish if these factors are similar or different among students in high-, middle- and low-income countries. METHODS: An extensive search was done of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Virtual Library of Health for articles on primary care careers published in 2003-2013 in English, Spanish, and/or Portuguese. Initially, 600 records were identified; 74 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 55 were selected (42 from high-income countries; 13 from middle- and low-income. These were assessed to identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence career choice among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries. RESULTS: A comparison framework with common and specific factors that influence career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle- and low-income was developed. Factors were classified as extrinsic or intrinsic, and as facilitators or barriers. Several factors common to all countries were identified: facilitators were exposure to rural location, role models, working conditions; barriers were low income, prestige, and medical school environment. Some factors specific to middle- and low-income countries were: understanding of rural needs and intellectual challenge. Other factors specific to high-income countries were: attitude towards social problems, voluntary work, influence of family, and length of residency. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies on the subject are needed, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Identifying factors as barriers or facilitators for career choice will promote a better understanding of the reasons behind the shortage of primary care professionals and will contribute to policy building, improved training, and recruitment and retention of these professionals.

  12. Factors that influence a career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas, E Benjamín; Arósquipa, Carlos; Gutiérrez, Daniela

    2013-11-01

    To determine which factors influence a medical student's decision to choose a career in primary care; and to establish if these factors are similar or different among students in high-, middle- and low-income countries. An extensive search was done of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Virtual Library of Health for articles on primary care careers published in 2003-2013 in English, Spanish, and/or Portuguese. Initially, 600 records were identified; 74 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 55 were selected (42 from high-income countries; 13 from middle- and low-income). These were assessed to identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence career choice among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries. A comparison framework with common and specific factors that influence career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle- and low-income was developed. Factors were classified as extrinsic or intrinsic, and as facilitators or barriers. Several factors common to all countries were identified: facilitators were exposure to rural location, role models, working conditions; barriers were low income, prestige, and medical school environment. Some factors specific to middle- and low-income countries were: understanding of rural needs and intellectual challenge. Other factors specific to high-income countries were: attitude towards social problems, voluntary work, influence of family, and length of residency. Further studies on the subject are needed, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Identifying factors as barriers or facilitators for career choice will promote a better understanding of the reasons behind the shortage of primary care professionals and will contribute to policy building, improved training, and recruitment and retention of these professionals.

  13. Choices and changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    During the past 30 years, Eccles? comprehensive social-psychological Expectancy-Value Model of Motivated Behavioural Choices (EV-MBC model) has been proven suitable for studying educational choices related to Science, Technology, Engineering and/or Mathematics (STEM). The reflections of 15 students...... could be used to detect significant changes in the students? educational choice processes. An important finding was that the quantitative EV-MBC surveys and the qualitative interviews gave quite different results concerning the students? considerations about the choice of tertiary education......, and that significant changes in the students? reflections were not captured by the factors of the EV-MBC model. This questions the validity of the EV-MBC surveys. Moreover, the quantitative factors from the EV-MBC model did not sufficiently explain students? dynamical educational choice processes where students...

  14. Investigation of the Dominant Factors Influencing the ERA15 Temperature Increments at the Subtropical and Temperate Belts with a Focus over the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Hirsch-Eshkol

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A stepwise multi regression-based statistics was employed for prioritizing the influence of several factors, anthropogenic and/or natural, on the ERA15 temperature increments. The 5 factors that are defined as predictors are: topography, aerosol index (TOMS-AI, tropospheric vertical velocity along with two anthropogenic factors, population density and land use changes (Land Use Change Index (LUCI and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI trends. The seismic hazard assessment factor was also chosen as the “dummy variable” for validity. Special focus was given to the land use change factor, which was based on two different data sets; Human Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems (HITE data of historical land use/land cover data and of NDVI trends during 1982 and 1991. The increment analysis updates of temperature, increments analysis update (IAU (T, the predicted variable, was obtained from the ERA15 (1979–1993 reanalysis. The research consists of both spatial and vertical analyses, as well as the potential synergies of selected variables. The spatial geographic analysis is divided into three categories; (1 coarse region; (2 subregion analysis; and (c a “small cell” of 4° × 4° analysis covering the global domain. It is shown that the following three factors, topography, TOMS-AI and NDVI, are statistically significant (at the p < 0.05 level in the relationship with the IAU (T, which means that they are the most effective predictors of IAU (T, especially at the 700-hPa level during March–June. The 850-hPa level presents the weakest contribution to IAU (T, probably due to the contradicting influences of the various variables at this level. It was found that the land use effect, as expressed by the NDVI trends factor, shows a strong decrease with height and is one of the most influential near-surface factors over the East Mediterranean (EM, which explains up to 20% of the temperature increments in January at 700 hPa. Moreover

  15. Cognitive Factors in the Choice of Syntactic Form by Aphasic and Normal Speakers of English and Japanese: The Speaker's Impulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menn, Lise; And Others

    This study examined the role of empathy in the choice of syntactic form and the degree of independence of pragmatic and syntactic abilities in a range of aphasic patients. Study 1 involved 9 English-speaking and 9 Japanese-speaking aphasic subjects with 10 English-speaking and 4 Japanese normal controls. Study 2 involved 14 English- and 6…

  16. Factors Influencing Choices for Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Previously Unscreened African and Caucasian Americans: Findings from a Triangulation Mixed Methods Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffin, Mack T.; Creswell, John W.; Jimbo, Masahito; Fetters, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated factors that influence choice of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test and assessed the most- and least-preferred options among fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and double contrast barium enema among adults with varied race, gender, and geographic region demographics. Mixed methods data collection consisted of 10 focus group interviews and a survey of the 93 focus group participants. Participants were ≥50 years of age and reported not ha...

  17. Mathematical learning instruction and teacher motivation factors affecting science technology engineering and math (STEM) major choices in 4-year colleges and universities: Multilevel structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahlam

    2011-12-01

    Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002/06, this study examined the effects of the selected mathematical learning and teacher motivation factors on graduates' science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) related major choices in 4-year colleges and universities, as mediated by math performance and math self-efficacy. Using multilevel structural equation modeling, I analyzed: (1) the association between mathematical learning instruction factors (i.e., computer, individual, and lecture-based learning activities in mathematics) and students' STEM major choices in 4-year colleges and universities as mediated by math performance and math self-efficacy and (2) the association between school factor, teacher motivation and students' STEM major choices in 4-year colleges and universities via mediators of math performance and math self-efficacy. The results revealed that among the selected learning experience factors, computer-based learning activities in math classrooms yielded the most positive effects on math self-efficacy, which significantly predicted the increase in the proportion of students' STEM major choice as mediated by math self-efficacy. Further, when controlling for base-year math Item Response Theory (IRT) scores, a positive relationship between individual-based learning activities in math classrooms and the first follow-up math IRT scores emerged, which related to the high proportion of students' STEM major choices. The results also indicated that individual and lecture-based learning activities in math yielded positive effects on math self-efficacy, which related to STEM major choice. Concerning between-school levels, teacher motivation yielded positive effects on the first follow up math IRT score, when controlling for base year IRT score. The results from this study inform educators, parents, and policy makers on how mathematics instruction can improve student math performance and encourage more students to prepare for STEM careers. Students

  18. Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet during a behavioral weight loss intervention☆, ☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Megan A.; Voils, Corrine I.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Geiselman, Paula J.; Kolotkin, Ronette L.; Mayer, Stephanie B.; Smith, Valerie A.; Gaillard, Leslie; Turner, Marsha J.; Yancy, William S.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the ‘choice’ arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p diet preference was associated with diet choice (p = 0.001). Reported reasons for diet choice were generally similar for those choosing either diet; however, concerns about negative health effects of the unselected diet was rated as more influential among participants selecting the low-fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary intake pattern, and especially by his or her dietary preferences. Research is

  19. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  20. Motherhood: From rights to choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Salecl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Motherhood has been perceived as choice in the developed world after the liberalisation of abortion. However, this choice can be extremely anxiety provoking for women, especially in times when the ideology of choice dominates our lives in all possible ways. The paper shows how psychotherapy and psychoanalysis look at this anxiety, it reflects on how family relations are often the traumatic kernel behind this choice, and how the changes that women experience in today's times contribute to the increase of anxiety related to reproduction.

  1. Stochastic Dominance under the Nonlinear Expected Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinling Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1947, von Neumann and Morgenstern introduced the well-known expected utility and the related axiomatic system (see von Neumann and Morgenstern (1953. It is widely used in economics, for example, financial economics. But the well-known Allais paradox (see Allais (1979 shows that the linear expected utility has some limitations sometimes. Because of this, Peng proposed a concept of nonlinear expected utility (see Peng (2005. In this paper we propose a concept of stochastic dominance under the nonlinear expected utilities. We give sufficient conditions on which a random choice X stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the nonlinear expected utilities. We also provide sufficient conditions on which a random choice X strictly stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the sublinear expected utilities.

  2. The Possibilities of Reducing Food Choice to Improve the Performance of College Foodservices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirosa, Miranda; Loh, Joanne; Spence, Heather

    2016-07-01

    College administrative and management leaders, foodservice personnel, and student residents value social, nutritional, financial, and environmental sustainability in their dining expectations. Menu choice reduction looks promising as a strategy to achieve these goals. However, foodservice research about dominant attitudes across these stakeholders is limited. To identify qualitative views from all stakeholders about choice reduction to ensure that any changes to the meal service are not to the detriment of consumer satisfaction. A comprehensive list of 74 statements representing the spectrum of attitudes surrounding choice was generated by searching a variety of resources, including academic literature and Internet sites, and by conducting semistructured interviews with stakeholders. A final set of 42 statements resulted from researcher scrutiny for optimum balance, clarity, appropriateness, simplicity, and applicability. A new sample of participants was then asked to sort these 42 statements into a normal distribution grid from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree." A purposive convenience sample of stakeholders (staff n=5 and residents n=4) was used to identify statements about choice reduction. A second sample of stakeholders (staff n=6 and residents n=29) were recruited to sort the final 42 statements. Q methodology analysis techniques were used. This involved conducting a by-person factor analysis, using the centroid factor extraction method because of the permissiveness it allows for data exploration. A varimax factor rotation to enhance interpretability of the results identified shared viewpoints. Three dominant viewpoints toward the possibility of choice reduction in the meal service were identified. Factor 1 was "health driven" (in which healthiness was paramount). Factor 2 was "variety seekers" (in which choice had instrumental value). Factor 3 was "choice lovers" (in which choice had intrinsic value). Although participants could see a number of

  3. Factors Released from Endothelial Cells Exposed to Flow Impact Adhesion, Proliferation, and Fate Choice in the Adult Neural Stem Cell Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Courtney M; Piselli, Jennifer M; Kazi, Nadeem; Bowman, Evan; Li, Guoyun; Linhardt, Robert J; Temple, Sally; Dai, Guohao; Thompson, Deanna M

    2017-08-15

    The microvasculature within the neural stem cell (NSC) niche promotes self-renewal and regulates lineage progression. Previous work identified endothelial-produced soluble factors as key regulators of neural progenitor cell (NPC) fate and proliferation; however, endothelial cells (ECs) are sensitive to local hemodynamics, and the effect of this key physiological process has not been defined. In this study, we evaluated adult mouse NPC response to soluble factors isolated from static or dynamic (flow) EC cultures. Endothelial factors generated under dynamic conditions significantly increased neuronal differentiation, while those released under static conditions stimulated oligodendrocyte differentiation. Flow increases EC release of neurogenic factors and of heparin sulfate glycosaminoglycans that increase their bioactivity, likely underlying the enhanced neuronal differentiation. Additionally, endothelial factors, especially from static conditions, promoted adherent growth. Together, our data suggest that blood flow may impact proliferation, adhesion, and the neuron-glial fate choice of adult NPCs, with implications for diseases and aging that reduce flow.

  4. The Rules of Aggression: How Genetic, Chemical and Spatial Factors Affect Intercolony Fights in a Dominant Species, the Mediterranean Acrobat Ant Crematogaster scutellaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Frizzi

    Full Text Available Nest-mate recognition plays a key role in the biology of ants. Although individuals coming from a foreign nest are, in most cases, promptly rejected, the degree of aggressiveness towards non nest-mates may be highly variable among species and relies on genetic, chemical and environmental factors. We analyzed intraspecific relationships among neighboring colonies of the dominant Mediterranean acrobat ant Crematogaster scutellaris integrating genetic, chemical and behavioral analyses. Colony structure, parental relationships between nests, cuticular hydrocarbons profiles (CHCs and aggressive behavior against non nest-mates were studied in 34 nests located in olive tree trunks. Bayesian clustering analysis of allelic variation at nine species-specific microsatellite DNA markers pooled nests into 14 distinct clusters, each representing a single colony, confirming a polydomous arrangement of nests in this species. A marked genetic separation among colonies was also detected, probably due to long distance dispersion of queens and males during nuptial flights. CHCs profiles varied significantly among colonies and between nests of the same colony. No relationship between CHCs profiles and genetic distances was detected. The level of aggressiveness between colonies was inversely related to chemical and spatial distance, suggesting a 'nasty neighbor' effect. Our findings also suggest that CHCs profiles in C. scutellaris may be linked to external environmental factors rather than genetic relationships.

  5. Factors influencing the microphysics and radiative properties of liquid-dominated Arctic clouds: Insight from observations of aerosol and clouds during ISDAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Michael E.; Liu, Peter S. K.; Strapp, J. Walter; Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, Dan; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Shantz, Nicole C.; Leaitch, W. Richard

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft measurements during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) in April 2008 are used to investigate factors influencing the microphysics and radiative properties of springtime Arctic clouds. The analysis is focused on low-level, liquid-dominated clouds in two separate regimes with respect to cloud and aerosol properties: single-layer stratocumulus with below-cloud aerosol concentrations (Na) less than 250 cm-3 (clean cases); and layered stratocumulus with Na > 500 cm-3 below cloud base, associated with a biomass burning aerosol (polluted cases). For each regime, vertical profiles through cloud are used to determine cloud microphysical and radiative properties. The polluted cases were correlated with warmer, geometrically thicker clouds, with higher droplet number concentrations (Nd), liquid water paths (LWP), optical depths (τ), and albedo (A) relative to clean cases. The mean cloud droplet effective radii (reff), however, were similar (5.7 μm) for both aerosol-cloud regimes. This discrepancy resulted mainly from the higher LWP of clouds in polluted cases, which can be explained by both meteorological (temperature, dynamics) and microphysical (precipitation inhibition) factors. Adiabatic parcel model simulations demonstrate that differences in droplet activation between the aerosol-cloud regimes may play a role, as the higher Na in polluted cases limits activation to larger and/or more hygroscopic particles. The observations and analysis presented here demonstrate the complex interactions among environmental conditions, aerosol, and the microphysics and radiative properties of Arctic clouds.

  6. Endogenous interleukin-22 protects against inflammatory bowel disease but not autoimmune cholangitis in dominant negative form of transforming growth factor beta receptor type II mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G-X; Sun, Y; Tsuneyama, K; Zhang, W; Leung, P S C; He, X-S; Ansari, A A; Bowlus, C; Ridgway, W M; Gershwin, M E

    2016-08-01

    During chronic inflammation, interleukin (IL)-22 expression is up-regulated in both CD4 and CD8 T cells, exerting a protective role in infections. However, in autoimmunity, IL-22 appears to have either a protective or a pathogenic role in a variety of murine models of autoimmunity and, by extrapolation, in humans. It is not clear whether IL-22 itself mediates inflammation or is a by-product of inflammation. We have taken advantage of the dominant negative form of transforming growth factor beta receptor type II (dnTGF-βRII) mice that develop both inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune cholangitis and studied the role and the biological function of IL-22 by generating IL-22(-/-) dnTGF-βRII mice. Our data suggest that the influence of IL-22 on autoimmunity is determined in part by the local microenvironment. In particular, IL-22 deficiency exacerbates tissue injury in inflammatory bowel disease, but has no influence on either the hepatocytes or cholangiocytes in the same model. These data take on particular significance in the previously defined effects of IL-17A, IL-12p40 and IL-23p19 deficiency and emphasize that, in colitis, there is a dominant role of IL-23/T helper type 17 (Th17) signalling. Furthermore, the levels of IL-22 are IL-23-dependent. The use of cytokine therapy in patients with autoimmune disease has significant potential, but must take into account the overlapping and often promiscuous effects that can theoretically exacerbate inflammation. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  7. Dominant Leadership Style in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2006-01-01

    The dominant leadership style is defined by the situation and the kind of organizational environment and climate. This, however, does not sufficiently define the leadership qualities in school organizations. There are other factors which also determine the dominant leadership style, which are the traits and style, teachers commitments, pass out…

  8. Domination versus disjunctive domination in graphs | Henning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A dominating set in a graph G is a set S of vertices of G such that every vertex not in S is adjacent to a vertex of S. The domination number of G is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set of G. For a positive integer b, a set S of vertices in a graph G is a b-disjunctive dominating set in G if every vertex v not in S is adjacent ...

  9. The historical context of business ethics: implications for choices and challenges in wound care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, S M

    1999-08-01

    Wound care clinicians are regularly asked to make decisions of an ethical nature within their work settings. Business and business practices are influenced by a number of factors, such as history, culture, and individual choices. This article describes business practices and ultimately business ethics from an historical context, the meaning of business culture within the dominant culture, and the debate over business ethics as it relates to choices and challenges for wound care clinicians.

  10. Factors promoting larch dominance in central Siberia: fire versus growth performance and implications for carbon dynamics at the boundary of evergreen and deciduous conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, E.-D.; Wirth, C.; Mollicone, D.; von Lüpke, N.; Ziegler, W.; Achard, F.; Mund, M.; Prokushkin, A.; Scherbina, S.

    2012-04-01

    The relative role of fire and of climate in determining canopy species composition and aboveground carbon stocks were investigated. Measurements were made along a transect extending from the dark taiga zone of central Siberia, where Picea and Abies dominate the canopy, into the Larix zone of eastern Siberia. We test the hypotheses that the change in canopy species composition is based (1) on climate-driven performance only, (2) on fire only, or (3) on fire-performance interactions. We show that the evergreen conifers Picea obovata and Abies sibirica are the natural late-successional species both in central and eastern Siberia, provided there has been no fire for an extended period of time. There are no changes in performance of the observed species along the transect. Fire appears to be the main factor explaining the dominance of Larix and of soil carbon. Of lesser influence were longitude as a proxy for climate, local hydrology and active-layer thickness. We can only partially explain fire return frequency, which is not only related to climate and land cover, but also to human behavior. Stand-replacing fires decreased from 300 to 50 yrs between the Yenisei Ridge and the upper Tunguska. Repeated non-stand-replacing surface fires eliminated the regeneration of Abies and Picea. With every 100 yrs since the last fire, the percentage of Larix decreased by 20%. Biomass of stems of single trees did not show signs of age-related decline. Relative diameter increment was 0.41 ± 0.20% at breast height and stem volume increased linearly over time with a rate of about 0.36 t C ha-1 yr-1 independent of age class and species. Stand biomass reached about 130 t C ha-1(equivalent to about 520 m3 ha-1). Individual trees of Larix were older than 600 yrs. The maximum age and biomass seemed to be limited by fungal rot of heart wood. 60% of old Larix and Picea and 30% of Pinus sibirica trees were affected by stem rot. Implications for the future role of fire and of plant diseases are

  11. Cigarette price and other factors associated with brand choice and brand loyalty in Zambia: findings from the ITC Zambia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Goma, Fastone; Chelwa, Grieve; Cheng, Xi; Zulu, Richard; Kaai, Susan C; Quah, Anne C K; Thrasher, James F; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about cigarette pricing and brand loyalty in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines these issues in Zambia, analysing data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Zambia Survey. Data from Wave 1 of the ITC Zambia Survey (2012) were analysed for current smokers of factory-made (FM) cigarettes compared with those who smoked both FM and roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes, using multivariate logistic regression models to identify the predictors of brand loyalty and reasons for brand choice. 75% of FM-only smokers and 64% of FM+RYO smokers reported having a regular brand. Compared with FM-only smokers, FM+RYO smokers were, on average, older (28% vs 20% ≥40 years), low income (64% vs 43%) and had lower education (76% vs 44% brands was ZMW0.50 (US$0.08) per stick. Smokers were significantly less likely to be brand loyal (>1 year) if they were aged 15-17 years (vs 40-54 years) and if they had moderate (vs low) income. Brand choice was predicted mostly by friends, taste and brand popularity. Price was more likely to be a reason for brand loyalty among FM+RYO smokers, among ≥55-year-old smokers and among those who reported being more addicted to cigarettes. These results in Zambia document the high levels of brand loyalty in a market where price variation is fairly small across cigarette brands. Future research is needed on longitudinal trends to evaluate the effect of tobacco control policies in Zambia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Intertemporal choice in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jeffrey R; Mühlhoff, Nelly

    2012-02-01

    Different species vary in their ability to wait for delayed rewards in intertemporal choice tasks. Models of rate maximization account for part of this variation, but other factors such as social structure and feeding ecology seem to underly some species differences. Though studies have evaluated intertemporal choice in several primate species, including Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and apes, prosimians have not been tested. This study investigated intertemporal choices in three species of lemur (black-and-white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, red ruffed lemurs, Varecia rubra, and black lemurs, Eulemur macaco) to assess how they compare to other primate species and whether their choices are consistent with rate maximization. We offered lemurs a choice between two food items available immediately and six food items available after a delay. We found that by adjusting the delay to the larger reward, the lemurs were indifferent between the two options at a mean delay of 17 s, ranging from 9 to 25 s. These data are comparable to data collected from common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The lemur data were not consistent with models of rate maximization. The addition of lemurs to the list of species tested in these tasks will help uncover the role of life history and socio-ecological factors influencing intertemporal choices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Negotiating choices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    lished work tends to be ignored or under-cited. On the other hand, the absence of a high-pressure, grant-driven research environment, typical of the US, has meant that I have had considerable freedom to work on problems of my choice. The complexities of negotiating gender and professional roles tend to become most ...

  14. Interpretation of the concentrations of aldehydes in rainwater over a wide area and local areas of Japan by some dominant factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Shigeru; Murai, Keita; Takamatsu, Mizuho; Hayakawa, Yukari; Tamizu, Shinya; Kuwata, Makoto; Katayama, Yuuki; Kuramitz, Hideki; Hata, Noriko

    2012-12-01

    Rainwater pollution with formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and other aliphatic aldehydes was investigated from May 2008 to June 2011 at 19 locations over a wide area in Japan to survey the pollution level. The pollution level was remarkably controlled by the amount of precipitation. The concentrations of total aliphatic aldehydes and formaldehyde sometimes exceeded 0.6 mg L-1 and 0.2 mg L-1 when the rainfall was small, and decreased rapidly with increasing the amount of rainfall. And in larger rainfall, the concentrations were converged to ca. 0.09 mg L-1 and 0.06 mg L-1 respectively. It was found that the concentration of the pollutants collected in a bottle for a single rainfall event is expressed by an equation based on a dilution model where heavy deposition occurred only at early rainfall followed by continuous dilution of the water with less polluted rainwater. These results were interpreted that the aldehydes in air were washed out very quickly due to their high solubility in water. As progressing of rainfall, the pollution level attained to an equilibrium state between influx and outflux of the pollutants. Precise investigation through a sequential sampling of rainwater by 1 mm during a rainfall event was also performed at several sites. It was found that a break of rainfall is another dominant factor to control the pollution level. A break of rainfall quickly enhanced the pollution level of the resumed rain. Regional difference on rainwater pollution level was observed only at the early stage throughout a rainfall event. The air-pollution levels were high just before beginning rainfall, and they decreased quickly with increasing the amount of rainfall, but never converged to zero. These results suggest that continuous influx of the pollutants occurs in a wide area in Japan besides regional influx.

  15. An engineered transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) monomer that functions as a dominant negative to block TGF-β signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Kyung; Barron, Lindsey; Hinck, Cynthia S.; Petrunak, Elyse M.; Cano, Kristin E.; Thangirala, Avinash; Iskra, Brian; Brothers, Molly; Vonberg, Machell; Leal, Belinda; Richter, Blair; Kodali, Ravindra; Taylor, Alexander B.; Du, Shoucheng; Barnes, Christopher O.; Sulea, Traian; Calero, Guillermo; Hart, P. John; Hart, Matthew J.; Demeler, Borries; Hinck, Andrew P. (Texas-HSC); (NRCC); (Pitt)

    2017-02-22

    The transforming growth factor β isoforms, TGF-β1, -β2, and -β3, are small secreted homodimeric signaling proteins with essential roles in regulating the adaptive immune system and maintaining the extracellular matrix. However, dysregulation of the TGF-β pathway is responsible for promoting the progression of several human diseases, including cancer and fibrosis. Despite the known importance of TGF-βs in promoting disease progression, no inhibitors have been approved for use in humans. Herein, we describe an engineered TGF-β monomer, lacking the heel helix, a structural motif essential for binding the TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI) but dispensable for binding the other receptor required for TGF-β signaling, the TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII), as an alternative therapeutic modality for blocking TGF-β signaling in humans. As shown through binding studies and crystallography, the engineered monomer retained the same overall structure of native TGF-β monomers and bound TβRII in an identical manner. Cell-based luciferase assays showed that the engineered monomer functioned as a dominant negative to inhibit TGF-β signaling with a Ki of 20–70 nM. Investigation of the mechanism showed that the high affinity of the engineered monomer for TβRII, coupled with its reduced ability to non-covalently dimerize and its inability to bind and recruit TβRI, enabled it to bind endogenous TβRII but prevented it from binding and recruiting TβRI to form a signaling complex. Such engineered monomers provide a new avenue to probe and manipulate TGF-β signaling and may inform similar modifications of other TGF-β family members.

  16. MOTIVES FOR FOOD CHOICE AMONG SERBIAN CONSUMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Gagić, Snježana; Jovičić, Ana; Tešanović, Dragan; Kalenjuk, Bojana

    2014-01-01

    People's motives for food choice depend on a number of very complex economic, social and individual factors. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the importance of factors underlying food choice, was used to reveal the Serbian consumers' food choice motives by survey of 450 respondents of different age groups. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the motive items, using 11 factors. Previous research shows that the nutrition in Serbia is not balanced enough,...

  17. Water and Land Footprints and Economic Productivity as Factors in Local Crop Choice: The Case of Silk in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick J. Hogeboom

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In deciding what crops to grow, farmers will look at, among other things, the economically most productive use of the water and land resources that they have access to. However, optimizing water and land use at the farm level may result in total water and land footprints at the catchment level that are in conflict with sustainable resource use. This study explores how data on water and land footprints, and on economic water and land productivity can inform micro-level decision making of crop choice, in the macro-level context of sustainable resource use. For a proposed sericulture project in Malawi, we calculated water and land footprints of silk along its production chain, and economic water and land productivities. We compared these to current cropping practices, and addressed the implications of water consumption at the catchment scale. We found that farmers may prefer irrigated silk production over currently grown rain-fed staple crops, because its economic water and land productivity is higher than that for currently grown crops. However, because the water footprint of irrigated silk is higher, sericulture will increase the pressure on local water resources. Since water consumption in the catchment generally does not exceed the maximum sustainable footprint, sericulture is a viable alternative crop for farmers in the case study area, as long as silk production remains small-scale (~3% of the area at most and does not depress local food markets.

  18. Measuring social structure: a comparison of eight dominance indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayly, Karen L; Evans, Christopher S; Taylor, Alan

    2006-07-01

    Measurement of social status is an important component of many behavioural studies. A variety of techniques have been developed and adopted, but while there have been some analyses of index properties using simulated data, the rationale for selecting a method remains poorly documented. As a first step in exploring the implications of index choice, we compared the characteristics of eight popular indices by applying each to the same data set from interactions between male fowl Gallus gallus, the system in which social hierarchies were first described. Data from eight social groups, observed over four successive breeding seasons, were analysed to determine whether different indices produced consistent dominance scores. These scores were then used in tests of the relation between social status and crowing to explore whether index choice affected the results obtained. We also examined the pattern of dominance index use over the last decade to infer whether this has likely been influenced by tradition, or by taxa of study animal. Overall agreement among methods was good when groups of birds had perfectly linear hierarchies, but results diverged when social structure was more complex, with either intransitive triads or reversals. While all regression analyses revealed a positive relationship between dominance and vocal behaviour, there were substantial differences in the amount of variance accounted for, even though the original data were identical in every case. Index selection can hence perturb estimates of the importance of dominance, relative to other factors. We also found that several methods have been adopted only by particular research teams, while the use of others has been taxonomically constrained, patterns implying that indices have not always been chosen solely upon their merits. Taken together, our results read as a cautionary tale. We suggest that selection of a dominance index requires careful consideration both of algorithm properties and of the factors

  19. Decision making in the surgical treatment of breast cancer: factors influencing women’s choices for mastectomy and breast conserving surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Catherine Bellavance

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most difficult decisions a woman can be faced with when choosing breast cancer treatment is whether or not to undergo breast conserving surgery (BCS or mastectomy. The factors that influence these treatment decisions are complex and involve issues regarding access to healthcare, concerns for cancer recurrence, and the impact of surgery on body image and sexuality. Understanding these factors will help practitioners to improve patient education and to better guide patients through this decision-making process. While significant scientific and societal advances have been made in improving women’s choices for the breast cancer treatment, there are still deficits in the decision making processes surrounding the surgical treatment of breast cancer. Further research is needed to define optimal patient education and shared decision-making practices in this area.

  20. Factors influencing choice of site for rural clinical placements by final year medical students in a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nontsikelelo O. Mapukata

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the challenges faced by coordinators in balancing personal and institutional needs with country needs and the contextual factors that must be considered when implementing medical education programmes that respond to social challenges.

  1. Macro-Logistics Decision Factors and Information Measures for Scanning Global (Supply Chain) Environments in International Location Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem

    2012-01-01

    reviews and content analyses. Finally, the study employs expert opinions in order to validate these factors and information measures and to present the findings in the form of a decision hierarchy. The findings suggest the importance of 17 generic decision factors at the macro-economic (country) level......-logistics factors that pose international uncertainty in cross-border flows of goods, information, payment and ownership. Similarly, a list of information measures that are relevant in scanning against this international uncertainty is also developed. For this purpose, the study deploys integrated literature...... that pose constraints to international supply chain flows, and describe international uncertainty for firms. A catalogue of 187 information measures that aid in decisions on each relevant factor is also identified. The findings may be used by managers in different industry contexts for their scanning...

  2. Factors associated with choice of biologic among children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: results from two UK paediatric biologic registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley-Fleet, Lianne; Davies, Rebecca; Baildam, Eileen; Beresford, Michael W; Foster, Helen E; Southwood, Taunton R; Thomson, Wendy; Hyrich, Kimme L

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe patients starting first-line biologics for JIA, to describe characteristics over time among patients starting etanercept, and to describe patterns of second biologic prescribing. The British Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology Etanercept Cohort Study, and the Biologics for Children with Rheumatic Diseases study are ongoing prospective observational cohorts, collecting data on patients starting biologic therapy for JIA. Patients registered from 1 January 2010 starting their first biologic were compared between therapies. Patients starting etanercept before 2010 were included to analyse changes in etanercept prescribing. The pathway of patients starting a second biologic was recorded in all patients. To 26 August 2014, 931 patients were recruited starting a first-line biologic (142 Biologics for Children with Rheumatic Diseases; 789 British Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology Etanercept Cohort Study). From 2010, patients with systemic JIA (sJIA) were almost exclusively prescribed anakinra or tocilizumab. Choice between anti-TNF therapies was largely driven by history of chronic anterior uveitis (CAU). When investigating trends in patients starting etanercept over time, disease duration at etanercept start, patients with sJIA, a history of CAU, and those who received concomitant oral corticosteroids decreased over time. Patients who started a second biologic from 1 January 2010 showed a similar stratification. Although etanercept remains the most common biologic prescribed for JIA, there has been a clear shift towards the use of alternative biologics, largely driven by disease subtype and history of CAU. This channelling of children towards specific therapies should be considered carefully in future studies and in clinical guidelines and ongoing research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  3. Macro-logistics Decision Factors and Information Measures for Scanning Global (Supply Chain) Environments in International Location Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem

    relevant factor is also identified. The findings may be used by managers in different industry contexts for their scanning and strategic forecasting needs in relation to international risks. This may be done within the context of decision support systems that aid in global site location and other supply....../cross border logistics operations. The study applies a decision-making oriented approach in order to develop a set of macrologistics factors that pose international uncertainty in cross-border flows of goods, information, payment and ownership. Similarly, a list of information measures that are relevant...... in scanning against this international uncertainty is also developed. For this purpose, the study deploys integrated literature reviews and content analyses. Finally, the study employs expert opinions in order to validate these factors and information measures and to present the findings in the form...

  4. School Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene V Glass

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen educators and scholars discuss vouchers as a means of promoting school choice and introducing competition into education. The discussion centers around the thinking of the economist Herbert Gintis, who participated in the discussion, and his notion of market socialism as it might apply to education. In 1976, Gintis published, with Samuel Bowles, Schooling in Capitalist America; in 1994, he is arguing for competitive markets for the delivery of schooling.

  5. Diversity Exiting the Academy: Influential Factors for the Career Choice of Well-Represented and Underrepresented Minority Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Rebekah L.; Brandt, Patrick D.; Freeman, Ashalla M.; Harrell, Jessica R.; Hall, Joshua D.; Sinche, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    A national sample of PhD-trained scientists completed training, accepted subsequent employment in academic and nonacademic positions, and were queried about their previous graduate training and current employment. Respondents indicated factors contributing to their employment decision (e.g., working conditions, salary, job security). The data…

  6. Factors Affecting Gender Equity in the Choice of Science and Technology Careers among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osagie, Roseline O.; Alutu, Azuka N.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the factors affecting gender equity in science and technology among senior secondary school students. The study was carried out at the University of Benin Demonstration Secondary School in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty students of average age 15 years in their penultimate year were administered the…

  7. Which Master of Business Administration (MBA)? Factors Influencing Prospective Students' Choice of MBA Programme--An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Factors which influence students' selection of a Master of Business Administration programme are identified and the variation in their relative importance across the student population investigated. This research also identifies the features of a university which attracts students, as well as examining the students' perceptions of the management…

  8. Isolate domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sahul Hamid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A set D of vertices of a graph G is called a dominating set of G if every vertex in V(G−D is adjacent to a vertex in D. A dominating set S such that the subgraph 〈S〉 induced by S has at least one isolated vertex is called an isolate dominating set. An isolate dominating set none of whose proper subset is an isolate dominating set is a minimal isolate dominating set. The minimum and maximum cardinality of a minimal isolate dominating set are called the isolate domination number γ0 and the upper isolate domination number Γ0 respectively. In this paper we initiate a study on these parameters.

  9. Factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among 4,669 clinical medical students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbo Qing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To produce competent undergraduate-level medical doctors for rural township health centers (THCs, the Chinese government mandated that medical colleges in Central and Western China recruit rural-oriented, tuition-waived medical students (RTMSs starting in 2010. This study aimed to identify and assess factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among both RTMSs and other students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China. Methods: An internet-based self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with medical students in Guangxi province. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the attitudes toward work in a rural township health center. Results: Among 4,669 medical students, 1,523 (33% had a positive attitude and 2,574 (55% had a neutral attitude toward working in THCs. Demographic characteristics, personal job concerns, and knowledge of THCs were associated with the choice of a career in THCs. The factors related to a positive attitude included the following: three-year program, a rural-oriented medical program, being male, an expectation of working in a county or township, a focus on medical career development, some perceived difficulty of getting a job, having family support, sufficient knowledge of THCs, optimism toward THC development, seeking lower working pressure, and a lower expected monthly salary. Conclusion: Male students in a three-year program or a rural-oriented tuition-waived medical education program were more likely to work in THCs. Selecting medical students through interviews to identify their family support and intentions to work in THCs would increase recruitment and retention. Establishing favorable policies and financial incentives to improve living conditions and the social status of rural physicians is necessary.

  10. Factors affecting low-income women's food choices and the perceived impact of dietary intake and socioeconomic status on their health and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, Kristen Wiig; Smith, Chery

    2009-01-01

    To investigate factors affecting food choice and health beliefs among low-income women in the context of their weight and socioeconomic status. Two researchers conducted 14 90-minute focus groups, which were audiotaped. Libraries, homeless shelters, and a community center. Ninety-two low-income women (18-65 years) with at least 1 child aged 9-13 years in the household. Food choice and health beliefs of low-income women. Transcripts were coded and reconciled; common themes and subthemes were identified. Over 75% of participants were overweight/obese (body mass index [BMI] > or = 25), and most were in charge of purchasing and preparing food for their families. Health concerns included diabetes, hypertension, and overweight/obesity, and most felt their health status had genetic or metabolic origins. Although many would like to regularly consume healthful food (eg, fresh fruits and vegetables), such food was perceived as unaffordable. A disconnect between diet and health among low-income women calls for nutrition interventions that educate low-income families on inexpensive, healthful eating in a structured environment, and diet-disease relationships. Changes at a policy level should be considered to increase affordability and accessibility of healthful food in low-income neighborhoods and through federal food assistance programs.

  11. "Let's talk about love": An analysis of the religious and economic factors determining the choice of marital property regime in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ruiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In sociological literature, expectations about marriages' duration are generally considered to be one of the main determinants in the pooling of economic resources between spouses. According to Catholic precepts, religious marriages are indissoluble, and Italy is characterized by a Catholic religious monopoly, with an anomalously high level of religious attendance for a developed country. Objective: It may therefore be surmised that religious marriages should be characterized by a high propensity for opting for a pooled patrimonial system. Is this hypothesis confirmed by data? Methods: We studied comprehensive data on all the marriages solemnized in Italy for the period 2007‒2009. We then use multivariate logistic regressions to assess which factors are associated with a greater propensity for opting for the pooled patrimonial system. Results: We find that religious marriages are not characterized by a higher probability of wealth pooling with respect to civil marriages. Contribution: To our knowledge, this is the first work to analyze the relationship between the choice of a religious marriage and the choice of the marital patrimonial system. We conclude that religious marriages in Italy do not reflect genuine adherence to the Catholic principle of the indissolubility of marriage.

  12. Macro-Logistics Decision Factors and Information Measures for Scanning Global (Supply Chain) Environments in International Location Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem

    2012-01-01

    that pose constraints to international supply chain flows, and describe international uncertainty for firms. A catalogue of 187 information measures that aid in decisions on each relevant factor is also identified. The findings may be used by managers in different industry contexts for their scanning...... and strategic forecasting needs in relation to international risks. This may be done within the context of decision support systems that aid in global site location and other supply chain design problems. In contrast to solely utilizing widely-accepted environmental scanning indexes, managers may......-logistics factors that pose international uncertainty in cross-border flows of goods, information, payment and ownership. Similarly, a list of information measures that are relevant in scanning against this international uncertainty is also developed. For this purpose, the study deploys integrated literature...

  13. Choice of Postpartum Contraception: Factors Predisposing Pregnant Adolescents to Choose Less Effective Methods Over Long-Acting Reversible Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Mariam R; Wiemann, Constance M; Buzi, Ruth S; Kozinetz, Claudia A; Peskin, Melissa; Smith, Peggy B

    2016-06-01

    The purposes were to determine contraceptive methods pregnant adolescents intend to use postpartum and to understand factors that predispose intention to use less effective birth control than long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). Participants were 247 pregnant minority adolescents in a prenatal program. Intention was assessed by asking "Which of the following methods of preventing pregnancy do you intend to use after you deliver?" Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with intent to use nonhormonal (NH) contraception (male/female condoms, abstinence, withdrawal and no method) or short-/medium-acting hormonal (SMH) contraception (birth control pill, patch, vaginal ring, injectable medroxyprogesterone acetate) compared with LARC (implant and intrauterine device) postpartum. Twenty-three percent intended to use LARC, 53% an SMH method, and 24% an NH method. Participants who intended to use NH or SMH contraceptive methods over LARC were significantly more likely to believe that LARC is not effective at preventing pregnancy, to report that they do not make decisions to help reach their goals and that partners are not important when making contraceptive decisions. Other important factors were having a mother who was aged >19 years at first birth and had not graduated from high school, not having experienced a prior pregnancy or talked with parents about birth control options, and the perception of having limited financial resources. Distinct profiles of factors associated with intending to use NH or SMH contraceptive methods over LARC postpartum were identified and may inform future interventions to promote the use of LARC to prevent repeat pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors influencing the choice of performance measures for the oil and gas supply chain – exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menhat, Masha; Yusuf, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The current value of the oil price per barrel has severely impacted the oil and gas industry around the world. This has worsened the situation due to the fact that it has long been the backbone of the country through the energy supply, employability and also its role as the major economic contributor. Due to multiple external factors that affect this industry such as crude oil availability, oil price fluctuation, high transportation cost, as well as exposure to high uncertainties, it is sensible for the supply chain practitioner to shift their focus in managing their resources and capabilities. To maximise the potential of supply chain activities in improving overall company performance, it is important to pay extra attention on their performance management. This includes the design of meaningful performance measurement framework to assess organisational performance. This study will explore the influencing factors in choosing performance measures for the oil and gas supply chain. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with supply chain experts within the industry. Eight influencing factors have been identified through the interviews.

  15. "Latte rural": the tangible and intangible factors important in the choice of a rural practice by recent GP graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Caroline O; Williamson, Victoria; Sumner, Karen E; Fleming, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    A large of amount of literature exists on the factors that influence the recruitment and retention of rural general practitioners (GPs) in Australia and other countries. The selection of a rural practice location is known to be influenced by professional, personal and family, community and economic factors. Most of this research has been undertaken on the either the baby boomer generation or their predecessors, and this is likely to have influenced the responses gained. Generation X and Y doctors are known to have a different perception regarding workload, lifestyle and the support required to practise. The aim of this study was to explore, from a Generation X perspective, factors deemed important by general practice graduates in selecting a rural practice at completion of their training. The study also aimed to identify the process general practice graduates use to identify a potential rural practice, and when they commence this process. Semi-structured interviews were held with 15 rural pathway general practice registrars in their final year of training with 2 regional training providers in South Australia. The interview topics included source of information on potential practices, their ideal rural practice and community, the process used to select a practice, and when they commenced this process. Phenomenological hermeneutic thematic analysis of interview transcripts was undertaken to identify themes and sub-themes. For an ideal rural practice, registrars wished to work in a practice with a friendly atmosphere, good business structure, support from senior GPs and in close proximity to a hospital. They also wanted reasonable on-call arrangements, the chance to develop further skills (such as anaesthetics or obstetrics) and the freedom to practise according to their interests. They also emphasised the importance of a good team and an ethical practice. In terms of community, registrars wanted a positive living place, access to amenities such as childcare, good

  16. Reliability, factor structure, and measurement invariance of the Dominic Interactive across European countries: Cross-country utility of a child mental health self-report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Otten, R.; Vermulst, A.A.; Pez, O.; Bitfoi, A.; Carta, M.G.; Goelitz, D.; Keyes, K.M.; Koc, C.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kovess, V.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale international surveys are important to globally evaluate, monitor, and promote children's mental health. However, use of young children's self-reports in these studies is still controversial. The Dominic Interactive, a computerized DSM-IV–based child mental health self-report

  17. Tide as steering factor in structuring archaeal and bacterial ammonia-oxidizing communities in mangrove forest soils dominated by Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcos, Magali S.; Barboza, A.D.H.; Keijzer, R.M.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Mangrove species are adapted to grow at specific zones in a tidal gradient. Here we tested the hypothesis that the archaeal and bacterial ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities differ in soils dominated by the mangrove species Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle. Two of the sampling locations

  18. Tide as steering factor in structuring archaeal and bacterial ammonia-oxidizing communities in mangrove forest soils dominated by Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcos, Magali S.; Barboza, A.D.H.; Keijzer, R.M.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove species are adapted to grow at specific zones in a tidal gradient. Here we tested the hypothesis that the archaeal and bacterial ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities differ in soils dominated by the mangrove species Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle. Two of the sampling locations

  19. CHOICE THEORY OF CREEP DEFORMATION FOR EVALUATION OF LONG FINE-GRAINED AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE IN VIEW OF FACTORS CARBONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K-S. Bataev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental data on the effect of the age of autoclaved aerated concrete with and without carbonation factor to change its physical and mechanical characteristics, as well as by the amount of creep deformation and degree of reversibility. It was found that the solution of applied problems creep theory for structures of autoclaved aerated concrete, in accordance with their carbonation from the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide, it is necessary to use the theory of elastic-creeping body on the basis of function creep measures in the form proposed by prof. S.V. Alexandrovsky. 

  20. Topics on domination

    CERN Document Server

    Hedetniemi, ST

    1991-01-01

    The contributions in this volume are divided into three sections: theoretical, new models and algorithmic. The first section focuses on properties of the standard domination number &ggr;(G), the second section is concerned with new variations on the domination theme, and the third is primarily concerned with finding classes of graphs for which the domination number (and several other domination-related parameters) can be computed in polynomial time.

  1. A Comparative Study on Factors Affecting Consumer’s Choice on Purchasing a Cellular Phone across India & US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotirmoy Samanta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the hasty budding plethoric technological space, mobile technology & devices play a noteworthy role. It’s imperative to take a cognizance of the fact that mobile market is contributing substantially to global economy as well as to an individual nation’s economy. Mobile devices market is predominantly consumer driven & this research work emphasizes on cross national comparative study among mobile consumers across India & USA. The study focuses on a thirty leading factors that influence consumers principally in their buying decision making process. An empirical survey of four hundred consumers was conducted across India & USA using a questionnaire. The study reveals that ‘Price’ is the pivotal factor that an Indian consumer considers at first place whereas an American buyer stresses upon ‘Brand Name’. Furthermore, it unveils that a US consumer looks for ‘EMI options’ for buying while Indian consumers concentrates on ‘Design of the device’. This study will aid mobile manufacturing firms to frame effective marketing strategies & help marketing managers to design effective marketing communications.

  2. Molecular effects of autoimmune-risk promoter polymorphisms on expression, exon choice, and translational efficiency of interferon regulatory factor 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel N; Lambert, Jared P; Till, Rodney E; Argueta, Lissenya B; Greenhalgh, Kathryn E; Henrie, Brandon; Bills, Trieste; Hawkley, Tyson F; Roznik, Marinya G; Sloan, Jason M; Mayhew, Vera; Woodland, Loc; Nelson, Eric P; Tsai, Meng-Hsuan; Poole, Brian D

    2014-05-01

    The rs2004640 single nucleotide polymorphism and the CGGGG copy-number variant (rs77571059) are promoter polymorphisms within interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5). They have been implicated as susceptibility factors for several autoimmune diseases. IRF5 uses alternative promoter splicing, where any of 4 first exons begin the mRNA. The CGGGG indel is in exon 1A's promoter; the rs2004640 allele creates a splicing recognition site, enabling usage of exon 1B. This study aimed at characterizing alterations in IRF5 mRNA due to these polymorphisms. Cells with risk polymorphisms exhibited ~2-fold higher levels of IRF5 mRNA and protein, but demonstrated no change in mRNA stability. Quantitative PCR demonstrated decreased usage of exons 1C and 1D in cell lines with the risk polymorphisms. RNA folding analysis revealed a hairpin in exon 1B; mutational analysis showed that the hairpin shape decreased translation 5-fold. Although translation of mRNA that uses exon 1B is low due to a hairpin, increased IRF5 mRNA levels in individuals with the rs2004640 risk allele lead to higher overall protein expression. In addition, several new splice variants of IRF5 were sequenced. IRF5's promoter polymorphisms alter first exon usage and increase transcription levels. High levels of IRF5 may bias the immune system toward autoimmunity.

  3. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  4. Dominating Sets and Domination Polynomials of Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Alikhani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Let G=(V,E be a simple graph. A set S⊆V is a dominating set of G, if every vertex in V\\S is adjacent to at least one vertex in S. Let 𝒫ni be the family of all dominating sets of a path Pn with cardinality i, and let d(Pn,j=|𝒫nj|. In this paper, we construct 𝒫ni, and obtain a recursive formula for d(Pn,i. Using this recursive formula, we consider the polynomial D(Pn,x=∑i=⌈n/3⌉nd(Pn,ixi, which we call domination polynomial of paths and obtain some properties of this polynomial.

  5. Nurses in Mauritius motivated by extrinsic rewards: a qualitative study of factors determining recruitment and career choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollup, Oddvar

    2012-10-01

    International studies have shown that motivation and career considerations related to nursing reveal that the decision is determined by a multitude of factors, generally distinguishing between the extrinsic and intrinsic rewards and work values. Although changing values seem to be important with greater emphasis on personal development and a reduction in other-orientation and altruism, nursing still stress the caring component with a desire to help and care for others. To describe and analyze those factors and conditions influencing the decision to choose nursing as a career among men and women nurses in Mauritius. The objectives are to provide information on the nurses and their social background, their reasons for entering the nursing profession and to explore how nursing is perceived in a society with a different cultural and historical background. This will be compared with knowledge about recruitment to nursing in some developed as well as developing countries. A qualitative study based on in-debt, semi-structured interviews and convenience sampling. Nurses of all grades working in five government hospitals and community health centers in the central and southern part of Mauritius, a small island situated in the Indian Ocean. The data were collected over a 5-month period during 2005-2006. Individual interviews with 47 nurses, both men (27) and women nurses (20). The nurses came from different grades, age groups, religious and ethnic background. Findings revealed that nursing is attractive as a career due to extrinsic rewards such as job security, good income and government employment, with all the privileges and social status that it entails. These conditions, together with paid education and possibilities for international migration, were the most important factors explaining the recruitment of nurses from both sexes. Most of them did not want to do nursing but entered it because of financial difficulties in the family, unemployment, lacking other

  6. Food habits and preferences as a factor in the choice of meals by students in the University of Cape Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offei-Ansah, Christina

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate food habits and preferences against menu planning for heterogeneous groups in institutions and to determine to what extent these results on food habits and preferences can be applied to practical recommendations in menu planning for heterogeneous groups. This study used data from a sample of students to determine whether food habits and preferences influence students' own menu planning and that of other eating outlets. A sample of 60 students within the University of Cape Coast campus was considered for this study. Findings from the study revealed that a greater number of students have altered their food habits over the years. This was attributed greatly to health factors, change of environment and education. The recommendations made in this study include encouraging cooking competitions among young people to expose them to traditional meals/dishes, which show culinary prowess, and also holding food fairs and encouraging teaching cooking methods for traditional dishes to children.

  7. Taste-related factors and food neophobia: Are they associated with nutritional status and teenagers' food choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Previato, Helena Dória Ribeiro; Behrens, Jorge Herman

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of taste-related factors (craving for sweets, using food as a reward and pleasure) and food neophobia with nutritional status and food intake among teenagers. This was a cross-sectional study with 132 teenagers 15 to 19 y of age. Food behavior, anthropometrics, body composition, and lifestyle measurements were obtained and analyzed. Craving for sweets was associated with overweight, adiposity, meal skipping, physical inactivity, and intake of sweets (P Teenage girls had a higher craving for sweets (22.88 ± 4.77) and higher pleasure scores (21.50 ± 3.82), body fat (25.33 ± 6.60), meal skipping (63.2%), and physical inactivity (64.7%) than their male counterparts (P teenagers. However, this was a cross-sectional study and further cohort studies should be performed for in-depth investigation of a causal relationship between the findings of this research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tumor burden as the most important prognostic factor in early stage Hodgkin's disease. Relations to other prognostic factors and implications for choice of treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Nordentoft, A M; Cold, Søren

    1988-01-01

    , combining tumor size of each involved region and number of regions involved. Multivariate analyses of prognostic factors including treatment, tumor burden, histologic subtype, pathologic stage, number of involved regions, mediastinal size, systemic symptoms, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), sex......, and age were carried out. With regard to disease-free survival tumor burden was by far the most important prognostic factor for patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy as well as for patients treated with radiotherapy alone. With regard to survival from Hodgkin's disease only tumor burden and age were...

  9. Level dominance in sound source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfi, Robert A; Liu, Ching-Ju; Stoelinga, Christophe

    2008-12-01

    Impact sounds were synthesized according to standard textbook equations given for the motion of simply supported, metal plates. In a two-interval, forced-choice procedure, highly practiced listeners identified from these sounds a predefined class of target plates based on their particular material and geometric properties. The effects of two factors on identification were examined: the relative level of partials comprising the sounds and the relative amount of information (given as the difference in d(')) each partial provided for identification. In different conditions one factor was fixed while the other either increased or decreased with frequency. The effect on listener identification in each case was determined from a logistic discriminant analysis of trial-by-trial responses, yielding a vector of listener decision weights on the frequency and decay of individual partials. The weights increased proportionally with relative level, but were largely uninfluenced by relative information content--a result exactly opposite to that expected from a maximum-likelihood observer. The dominant effect of relative level was replicated for other sound sources (clamped bars and stretched membranes) and was not diminished by randomizing the relative level of partials across trials. The results are taken to underscore the importance of relative level in the identification of rudimentary sound sources.

  10. Characteristics of movement and factors affecting the choice of mode of transport of community on the bank of Musi River of Palembang City of South Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arliansyah, Joni; Hartono, Yusuf; Hastuti, Yulia; Astuti, Rinna

    2017-11-01

    Palembang City is one of the cities having the largest river in Indonesia and it should be able to take advantage of river transportation as an alternative choice. Inadequate availability of river transport facilities and infrastructures makes the people prefer other modes of land transportation rather than using river transportation. In addition, the development planning of river transportation such as the development of river taxi is less successful because it is not yet based on the movement pattern of the origin of the community travel destination. Based on the above matter, this study was conducted. The aim of the study was to find out the characteristics and factors affecting the mode choice of the community living along the bank of Musi River of Palembang City to be the basis of the development of river transportation system in Palembang City. The selected modes were motorcycles, cars, city transports, and ketek (motorized boats). Survey of home interviews was conducted to determine the origin of the destination and characteristics of travel was conducted in 30 villages located on the banks of Musi River. Field survey was conducted to determine the conditions and types of existing river transportation facilities and services. The results show that only 5.3 % of the occurrence movement used river transportation, the rest used motorcycles (69.1%), urban transport (15.9 %) and cars (9.7%), with the travel range less than10 minutes and 10 - 20 minutes as much as 43.2 % and 29 % of the total trips. From the socioeconomic profile of the community, it is found that most of the people living along the Musi River have low and middle incomes with the largest types of jobs as workers, students, shop owner, and housewives. The peak movement time for the movement of river transport occurs at 7:00 - 8:00, 10:00 - 11:00 and 16:00 - 17:00 with the movement of origin of the destination of river transportation is known to be 50% at the traditional market center of Dermaga of

  11. Understanding the factors that influence high science achievers' academic choices and intent to pursue or opt out of the hard sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quihuis, Gisell

    Drawing on Eccles and her colleagues' Expectancy-Value model of academic behavior and choice, this dissertation study set out to serve three purposes: (1) to understand how high achieving high school students who aspire to science college degrees compare, in terms of motivational beliefs and social experiences, with other high achievers who do not aspire to science college degrees; (2) to understand why some high school students who excel in the hard sciences are unsure about pursuing a science degree in college; and (3) to examine whether gender differences in motivational beliefs and social experiences found in previous research on math (see Eccles 1984) exist for science among high achieving high school students. Survey and interview data showed that gender differences previously found in Eccles' research on math exist for science among a select group of high achieving high school students. Yet, these gender differences did not explain students' aspirations for science. Motivation, classroom perceptions, science engagement, as well as other science-related experiences at home and school, including parent and teacher influences, were also important factors associated with students' aspirations for science. Results and implications for this study are encouraging because they suggest that both parents and educators can help more high achievers become interested in science. Parents can expose their children, male and female alike, to science at home early on in their childhood and teachers can help students sustain and further develop an interest in science at school. In this manner, both parents and teachers can work together as a team to encourage more high achievers to aspire to science degrees in their future. Lastly, it is important to note that this study found Eccles' model of motivation and choice helpful in understanding not only gender differences in math and the hard sciences, but also aspiration differences that cut across gender among students

  12. Do socio-demographic factors still predict the choice of place of delivery: A cross-sectional study in rural North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotiranjan Sahoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving maternal health is one of the goals to be achieved under the Millennium Development Goal (MDG, especially MDG-5. One of the predictors of maternal health is place of child birth. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of home delivery and different socio-demographic factors associated with them. This study was a community-based cross-sectional study. Women who delivered a baby in the past 1 year were included in this study. A total of 300 women responded (93.2% and gave consent to participate in the study. Prevalence of home delivery was 37.7%. Bivariate analysis showed that religion, caste, education of women and their partners, occupation of the spouse, monthly family income and socioeconomic status had a significant association with the choice of place of delivery. But multivariate regression analysis showed only religion, caste, education of spouse and monthly income to be significant factors in determining place of delivery. The findings of this study suggest that individual countries have to formulate interventions which will target marginalized or vulnerable populations with reference to caste, religion and wealth. A significant improvement in reaching the 5th MDG can be achieved if the first three MDG goals are focused on, i.e., eradication of poverty, achieving universal education and women empowerment.

  13. Comparison of the Valuations of Alternatives Based on Cumulative Prospect Theory and Almost Stochastic Dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are commonly accepted and objective decision rules, which are consistent with rationality, for example stochastic dominance rules. But, as can be seen in many research studies in behavioral economics, decision makers do not always act rationally. Rules based on cumulative prospect theory or almost stochastic dominance are relatively new tools which model real choices. Both approaches take into account some behavioral factors. The aim of this paper is to check the consistency of orders of the valuations of random alternatives based on these behavioral rules. The order of the alternatives is generated by a preference relation over the decision set. In this paper, we show that the methodology for creating rankings based on total orders can be used for the preference relations considered, because they enable comparison of all the elements in a set of random alternatives. For almost second degree stochastic dominance, this is possible due to its particular properties, which stochastic dominance does not possess. (original abstract

  14. Oral hygiene practices and factors influencing the choice of oral hygiene materials among undergraduate students at the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayamma Udo Umanah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine oral hygiene practices among university students; establish any association between oral hygiene practices and sociodemographic variables and find out the factors that may influence the choice of oral hygiene products in this group. Materials and Methods: Self-administered questionnaire containing information on age, gender, material used for tooth cleaning, and frequency of tooth cleaning was completed by the students in their hostels. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Test of significance was carried out using Chi-square and logistic regression analysis. Association was considered statistically significant when P ≤ 0.05. Results: In the present study, all the participants irrespective of the age, gender, and field of study used toothbrush and toothpaste as the oral hygiene tool. The use of dental floss, mouth rinse, and interproximal brush was not recorded in this study. About 24% of the participants reported using fluoride-containing toothpastes. Cleaning the teeth twice daily was significantly related to age (P = 0.046, gender (P = 0.01, and field of study (P = 0.032. Logistic regression analysis shows that the relationship between the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants and their frequency of tooth cleaning was statistically significant. The cost was the major factor influencing the selection of oral hygiene tools. Conclusion: The oral hygiene practices of the participants were suboptimal. Less than two-third of the sample cleaned their teeth twice daily. Age, gender, and field of study were significant determinants of oral hygiene practice. The major factor which influenced the selection of toothpaste and toothbrush was the cost.

  15. Angelina′s choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Singh Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an opinion piece on how a celebrity′s personal choice to undergo prophylactic mastectomy on discovery of an aberrant gene, when publicly promoted, carries in itself the power to influence and impact healthcare trends and decisions. When celebrities advocate causes that are universally and uniformly acceptable and indisputable as the best in the realm of healthcare and cure (e.g. no smoking, it creates well-being and awareness in society at large. But those which are personal choices made out of a repertoire of other available and effective options may, because of celebrity preference, don the mantle of a norm. They thus run the danger of being blindly replicated by others without proper awareness and knowledge of the true potential of disease, risk factors, and other existing remedial or risk-reducing measures. Society should thus be encouraged to question, debate, and understand the validity, authenticity, and reason of the choices, especially those with a medical basis. This tempering of information with intelligence and rationale and making informed choices based on facts will serve humanity as a whole.

  16. Anadromous char as an alternate food choice to marine animals: A synthesis of Hg concentrations, population features and other influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Marlene S., E-mail: marlene.evans@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon SK S7N 3H5 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Keating, Jonathan [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon SK S7N 3H5 (Canada); Wang, Xiaowa [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    and marine vertebrates in traditional diets. The known information on anadromous char is reviewed including population features, habitat, and harvests. Future Hg trend monitoring should focus on specific locations and harvest areas within these areas to better assess trends and influencing factors. - Highlights: • Mercury concentrations were very low (0.05 ± 0.02 µg/g) in anadromous char across northern Canada. • Hg concentrations increased with fish size, decreasing condition factor and cooler springs. • Hg concentrations seemed to increase on the long-term but decrease in recent times. • Char are a good food choice for those who want to maintain traditional diets while reducing Hg intake. • Anadromous char often are habitat-limited and most abundant in large lakes with ready sea access.

  17. Anadromous char as an alternate food choice to marine animals: A synthesis of Hg concentrations, population features and other influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Marlene S.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Keating, Jonathan; Wang, Xiaowa

    2015-01-01

    marine vertebrates in traditional diets. The known information on anadromous char is reviewed including population features, habitat, and harvests. Future Hg trend monitoring should focus on specific locations and harvest areas within these areas to better assess trends and influencing factors. - Highlights: • Mercury concentrations were very low (0.05 ± 0.02 µg/g) in anadromous char across northern Canada. • Hg concentrations increased with fish size, decreasing condition factor and cooler springs. • Hg concentrations seemed to increase on the long-term but decrease in recent times. • Char are a good food choice for those who want to maintain traditional diets while reducing Hg intake. • Anadromous char often are habitat-limited and most abundant in large lakes with ready sea access

  18. Factors Influencing Choices for Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Previously Unscreened African and Caucasian Americans: Findings from a Triangulation Mixed Methods Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Mack T.; Creswell, John W.; Jimbo, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    We investigated factors that influence choice of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test and assessed the most- and least-preferred options among fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and double contrast barium enema among adults with varied race, gender, and geographic region demographics. Mixed methods data collection consisted of 10 focus group interviews and a survey of the 93 focus group participants. Participants were ≥50 years of age and reported not having been screened for colorectal cancer in the last ten years. Analyses examined differences by race, gender, and geographic location. Participants had modest knowledge about CRC and there were fewer correct answers to knowledge questions by African Americans. Participants recognized value of early detection, and identified health symptoms and their doctor's recommendation as influential for obtaining CRC screening. They chose colonoscopy and FOBT as the most preferred tests, while barium enema was least preferred. The analysis revealed intra-group variations in preference, though there were no significant differences by race, gender, or location. Openness of discussing this sensitive topic, lack of knowledge about colorectal cancer and screening costs, and diversity of preferences expressed within study groups suggest the importance of patient-physician dialogue about colorectal cancer screening options. New approaches to promoting colorectal cancer screening need to explore methods to facilitate patients establishing and expressing preferences among the screening options. PMID:19082695

  19. Tough Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Explores the decision by colleges and universities to outsource or self-operate school services such as food, bookstores, and maintenance. Discusses factors influencing the decision, the pros and cons of outsourcing, and the importance of maintaining the goal of improving operations. (EV)

  20. The role of female dominance hierarchies in the mating behaviour of mosquitofish

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Therese; Beekman, Madeleine; Ward, Ashley J. W.

    2010-01-01

    While studies of sexual selection focus primarily on female choice and male–male competition, males should also exert mate choice in order to maximize their reproductive success. We examined male mate choice in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, with respect to female size and female dominance. We found that the number of mating attempts made by a male was predicted by the dominance rank of females in a group, with dominant females attracting more mating attempts than subordinates. The number ...

  1. The contribution of gender-role orientation, work factors and home stressors to psychological well-being and sickness absence in male- and female-dominated occupational groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Olga; Steptoe, Andrew

    2002-02-01

    The associations of work stress, types of work and gender-role orientation with psychological well-being and sickness absence were investigated in a questionnaire survey of 588 male and female nurses and 387 male and female accountants. We hypothesised that health might be impaired among women working in the male-dominated occupation (accountancy), and men in the female-dominated occupation (nursing), but that effects might be moderated by job strain (perceptions of high demand and low control), work and home hassles, and traditional male (instrumentality) and female (expressivity) psychological characteristics. Responses were analysed from 172 female and 61 male nurses, and from 53 female and 81 male commercial accountants. Female accountants were more likely than other groups to have high anxiety scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, while male nurses had the highest rates of sickness absence. Male nurses and female accountants also reported more work-related hassles than did female nurses and male accountants. Men and women in the same occupation did not differ in job strain or job social support, but nurses reported greater job strain than accountants, due to higher ratings of demands and lower skill utilisation. After adjusting for age, sex, occupation, paid work hours and a measure of social desirability bias, risk of elevated anxiety was independently associated with higher job strain, lower job social support, more work hassles, more domestic responsibility, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The association between sex and anxiety was no longer significant after instrumentality had been entered into the regression model. Sickness absence of more than three days over the past 12 months was independently associated with higher job strain, more work hassles, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The results suggest that when men and women occupy jobs in which they are in the cultural and numerical minority, there may be

  2. Consumers' store choice behavior for fresh food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Consumers' preference for fresh food stores is analyzed. In particular the choice between supermarkets and specialized shops for purchasing fresh food is analyzed. Attention is given to the factors influencing this choice. For this purpose a number of research questions with respect to store choice

  3. Language choice in bimodal bilingual development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane eLillo-Martin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual children develop sensitivity to the language used by their interlocutors at an early age, reflected in differential use of each language by the child depending on their interlocutor. Factors such as discourse context and relative language dominance in the community may mediate the degree of language differentiation in preschool age children.Bimodal bilingual children, acquiring both a sign language and a spoken language, have an even more complex situation. Their Deaf parents vary considerably in access to the spoken language. Furthermore, in addition to code-mixing and code-switching, they use code-blending – expressions in both speech and sign simultaneously – an option uniquely available to bimodal bilinguals. Code-blending is analogous to code-switching sociolinguistically, but is also a way to communicate without suppressing one language. For adult bimodal bilinguals, complete suppression of the non-selected language is cognitively demanding. We expect that bimodal bilingual children also find suppression difficult, and use blending rather than suppression in some contexts. We also expect relative community language dominance to be a factor in children’s language choices.This study analyzes longitudinal spontaneous production data from four bimodal bilingual children and their Deaf and hearing interlocutors. Even at the earliest observations, the children produced more signed utterances with Deaf interlocutors and more speech with hearing interlocutors. However, while three of the four children produced >75% speech alone in speech target sessions, they produced <25% sign alone in sign target sessions. All four produced bimodal utterances in both, but more frequently in the sign sessions, potentially because they find suppression of the dominant language more difficult.Our results indicate that these children are sensitive to the language used by their interlocutors, while showing considerable influence from the dominant

  4. Factors responsible for co-dominance of two beech species in a cool temperate forest in central Japan: interspecific comparison of spatial distribution and growth traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Ishizuka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the co-existence mechanisms of related species, the recruitment processes of Fagus crenata and F. japonica were censused during 3 and 4 years from emergence, respectively, in a cool-temperate forest in Japan. The distributional properties and the growth traits were compared between two Fagus species. To evaluate the distributional properties, the spatial abundance of seedlings was estimated by a generalized linear model (GLM, with explanatory variables such as topographic variables, light conditions, the presence of dwarf bamboo, and the abundance of the overstory. To evaluate the growth traits under herbivory pressure, both the elongated shoot length and the proportion of recovery from predation (re-growth were also compared. No spatial segregation and no species-specific differences were detected by GLM, which was consistent throughout the census period. Only F. japonica exhibited a slope-related distribution, while F. crenata exhibited no topographical dependence, indicates the distributional overlaps. For the growth traits, contrasting trends were detected, F. crenata was superior in shoot growth, whereas the proportion of re-growth was higher in F. japonica than F. crenata. We concluded that co-dominance of these species was not attributed to the spatial segregation but to the trade-off between growth and resistance to herbivory.

  5. Factors responsible for co-dominance of two beech species in a cool temperate forest in central Japan: interspecific comparison of spatial distribution and growth traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Ishizuka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To understand the co-existence mechanisms of related species,the recruitment processes of Fagus crenata and F. japonica were censused during 3 and 4 years from emergence, respectively, in a cool-temperate forest in Japan. The distributional properties and the growth traits were compared between two Fagus species. To evaluate the distributional properties, the spatial abundance of seedlings was estimated by a generalized linear model (GLM, with explanatory variables such as topographic variables, light conditions, the presence of dwarf bamboo, and the abundance of the overstory. To evaluate the growth traits under herbivory pressure, both the elongated shoot length and the proportion of recovery frompredation (re-growth were also compared. No spatial segregation and no species-specific differences were detected by GLM, which was consistent throughout the census period. Only F. japonica exhibited a slope-related distribution, while F. crenata exhibited no topographical dependence, indicates the distributional overlaps. For the growth traits, contrasting trends were detected, F. crenata was superior in shoot growth, whereas the proportion of regrowth was higher in F. japonica than F. crenata. We concluded that co-dominance of these species was not attributed to the spatial segregationbut to the trade-off between growth and resistance to herbivory.

  6. Tide as Steering Factor in Structuring Archaeal and Bacterial Ammonia-Oxidizing Communities in Mangrove Forest Soils Dominated by Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Magalí S; Barboza, Anthony D; Keijzer, Rosalinde M; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J

    2017-10-23

    Mangrove species are adapted to grow at specific zones in a tidal gradient. Here we tested the hypothesis that the archaeal and bacterial ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities differ in soils dominated by the mangrove species Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle. Two of the sampling locations were tidal locations, while the other location was impounded. Differences in the community compositions of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amoA genes and by MiSeq 16S rRNA gene-sequencing. The abundances of AOA and AOB were established by quantitative PCR of amoA genes. In addition, we analyzed the total microbial community composition based on 16S rRNA genes and explored the influence of soil physicochemical properties underneath Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle on microbial communities. AOA were always more abundant than AOB, but the effect of mangrove species on total numbers of ammonia oxidizers was location-specific. The microbial communities including the ammonia oxidizers in soils associated with A. germinans and R. mangle differed only at the tidal locations. In conclusion, potential site-specific effects of mangrove species on soil microbial communities including those of the AOA and AOB are apparently overruled by the absence or presence of tide.

  7. Enhanced expression and activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors distinguish aneurysmal from atherosclerotic aorta: IL-6- and IL-8-dominated inflammatory responses prevail in the human aneurysm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeman, J.H.N.; Abdul-Hussien, H.; Schaapherder, A.F.M.; Bockel, J.H. van; Thüsen, J.H. vonder; Roelen, D.L.; Kleemann, R.

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of an AAA (abdominal aortic aneurysm); however, the nature of the inflammatory factors and cellular response(s) involved in AAA growth is controversial. In the present study, we set out to determine the aortic levels of inflammatory cytokines in

  8. Electrostatic Forces as Dominant Interactions Between Proteins and Polyanions: an ESI MS Study of Fibroblast Growth Factor Binding to Heparin Oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsky, Burcu Baykal; Dubin, Paul L.; Kaltashov, Igor A.

    2017-04-01

    The interactions between fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) are facilitated by heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin (Hp), highly sulfated biological polyelectrolytes. The molecular basis of FGF interactions with these polyelectrolytes is highly complex due to the structural heterogeneity of HS/Hp, and many details still remain elusive, especially the significance of charge density and minimal chain length of HS/Hp in growth factor recognition and multimerization. In this work, we use electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) to investigate the association of relatively homogeneous oligoheparins (octamer, dp8, and decamer, dp10) with acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1). This growth factor forms 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 protein/heparinoid complexes with both dp8 and dp10, and the fraction of bound protein is highly dependent on protein/heparinoid molar ratio. Multimeric complexes are preferentially formed on the highly sulfated Hp oligomers. Although a variety of oligomers appear to be binding-competent, there is a strong correlation between the affinity and the overall level of sulfation (the highest charge density polyanions binding FGF most strongly via multivalent interactions). These results show that the interactions between FGF-1 and Hp oligomers are primarily directed by electrostatics, and also demonstrate the power of ESI MS as a tool to study multiple binding equilibria between proteins and structurally heterogeneous polyanions.

  9. PCR-based identification of cacao black pod causal agents and identification of biological factors possibly contributing to Phytophthora megakarya's field dominance in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the Phytophthora species that cause black pod of cacao, P. megakarya is the most virulent, posing a serious threat to cacao production in Africa. Correct identification of the species causing the black pod and understanding the virulence factors involved are important for developing sustainabl...

  10. [Perception of physicians on factors that influence the choice of a dicoumarin or a new oral anticoagulant in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita-Sánchez, Manuel; Marco-Vera, Pascual; Alonso-Moreno, Francisco J; Arribas-Ynsaurriaga, Fernando; Gállego-Culleré, Jaime; Honorato-Pérez, Jesús; Suárez-Fernández, Carmen

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of new oral anticoagulant drugs for the prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Our aim was to evaluate the factors that can influence physicians in their choice between a classic and a new anticoagulant in these patients. Several variables of interest were discussed and analysed using a Workmat TM methodology. Six regional meetings were held in Spain (East, Catalonia, Andalusia-Extremadura, Madrid, North-east, and North of Spain). Meetings were attended by 39 specialists (cardiologists, neurologists, haematologists, internists, and emergency and Primary Care physicians). Each participant graded their level of agreement, with a score from 1 to 10, on every analysed variable. A new anticoagulant drug was preferred in patients with previous failure of dicoumarin therapy (9.7±0.5), high haemorrhagic risk (8.7±1), prior bleeding (7.8±1.5), and high thrombotic risk (7.7±1.2). Dicoumarins were preferred in cases of severe (1.2±0.4) or moderate (4.2±2.5) kidney failure, good control with dicoumarins (2.3±1.5), cognitive impairment (3.2±3), and low haemorrhagic risk (4.3±3). Age, sex, weight, cost of drug, polymedication, and low thrombotic risk achieved intermediate scores. There were no differences between the different specialists or Spanish regions. The presence of a high thrombotic or haemorrhagic risk and the failure of previous dicoumarin therapy lead to choosing a new oral anticoagulant in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, while kidney failure, cognitive impairment, good control with dicoumarins, and a low bleeding risk predispose to selecting a classic dicoumarin anticoagulant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Hand dominance in orthopaedic surgeons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lui, Darren F

    2012-08-01

    Handedness is perhaps the most studied human asymmetry. Laterality is the preference shown for one side and it has been studied in many aspects of medicine. Studies have shown that some orthopaedic procedures had poorer outcomes and identified laterality as a contributing factor. We developed a questionnaire to assess laterality in orthopaedic surgery and compared this to an established scoring system. Sixty-two orthopaedic surgeons surveyed with the validated Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire (WHQ) were compared with the self developed Orthopaedic Handedness Questionnaire (OHQ). Fifty-eight were found to be right hand dominant (RHD) and 4 left hand dominant (LHD). In RHD surgeons, the average WHQ score was 44.9% and OHQ 15%. For LHD surgeons the WHQ score was 30.2% and OHQ 9.4%. This represents a significant amount of time using the non dominant hand but does not necessarily determine satisfactory or successful dexterity transferable to the operating room. Training may be required for the non dominant side.

  12. Choice certainty in Discrete Choice Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggeldahl, Kennet Christian; Jacobsen, Catrine; Lundhede, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we conduct a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) using eye tracking technology to investigate if eye movements during the completion of choice sets reveal information about respondents’ choice certainty. We hypothesise that the number of times that respondents shift their visual...... attention between the alternatives in a choice set reflects their stated choice certainty. Based on one of the largest samples of eye tracking data in a DCE to date, we find evidence in favor of our hypothesis. We also link eye tracking observations to model-based choice certainty through parameterization...... of the scale function in a random parameters logit model. We find that choices characterized by more frequent gaze shifting do indeed exhibit a higher degree of error variance, however, this effects is insignificant once response time is controlled for. Overall, findings suggest that eye tracking can provide...

  13. Overconfidence and Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jonathan F; Thöni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    People self-assess their relative ability when making career choices. Thus, confidence in their own abilities is likely an important factor for selection into various career paths. In a sample of 711 first-year students we examine whether there are systematic differences in confidence levels across fields of study. We find that our experimental confidence measures significantly vary between fields of study: While students in business related academic disciplines (Political Science, Law, Economics, and Business Administration) exhibit the highest confidence levels, students of Humanities range at the other end of the scale. This may have important implications for subsequent earnings and professions students select themselves in.

  14. Overconfidence and Career Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jonathan F.; Thöni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    People self-assess their relative ability when making career choices. Thus, confidence in their own abilities is likely an important factor for selection into various career paths. In a sample of 711 first-year students we examine whether there are systematic differences in confidence levels across fields of study. We find that our experimental confidence measures significantly vary between fields of study: While students in business related academic disciplines (Political Science, Law, Economics, and Business Administration) exhibit the highest confidence levels, students of Humanities range at the other end of the scale. This may have important implications for subsequent earnings and professions students select themselves in. PMID:26808273

  15. Mobile telecommunication networks choice among Ghanaians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boateng Henry

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the factors influencing customers choice of telecommunication network in Ghana. The survey design was employed to enable the researchers perform statistical analysis. Questionnaire consisting of Likert scale question was used to collect the primary data. Multiple regression analysis was performed to ascertain the factors influencing customers’ choice of telecommunication networks. The study found six factors that influence customers to choose a particular network. These factors include; brand awareness, brand image, perceived quality, price, convenience and brand loyalty. The study concludes that all the six factors contribute to the factors that drive consumer choice of telecommunications service in Ghana.

  16. Searching for world domination

    CERN Multimedia

    Quillen, E

    2004-01-01

    "Optimists might believe Microsoft suffered a setback last week that will impede its progress toward world domination, but I suspect the company has already found a way to prevail. At issue before the European Union was Microsoft's bundling of its Windows Media Player with its operating system" (1 page)

  17. Iron dominated magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided

  18. Autosomal dominant polycystisk nyresygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naver, Signe Vinsand; Ørskov, Bjarne; Jensen, Anja Møller

    2017-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common genetic disorder which causes end stage renal disease. In Denmark, estimated 5,000 patients are living with the disease. Most of the patients are in regular contact with physicians due to the progression of kidney failure...

  19. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...

  20. Choice Probability Generating Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel L; Bierlaire, Michel

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...

  1. Preservation of sexual function in young prostate cancer patients after radiation therapy: a positive factor in choice of a treatment modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolaou, Nicos; Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Hanks, G.E.; Hanlon, Alex

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To assess the effect of definitive radiation therapy (RT) without androgen deprivation, on the sexual function and quality of life of young prostate cancer patients as compared to age matched controls, using the Sexual Adjustment Questionnaire (SAQ), in order to assist future patients in making informed choices when deciding between surgery and radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Forty five patients between 50 and 65 years of age at time of diagnosis (mean age 60 years), were treated with RT at Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC) from 1/1/89 to 12/31/93 for biopsy proven, T1-T3 clinically localized prostatic adenocarcinoma. Mean age at time of present assessment was 63 years. Their pre- and post-treatment sexual function and quality of life were assessed and compared to 47 age matched controls (mean age 60 years) using a modified version of the SAQ. Results: Mean and median follow up of the RT group was 31 months. Potency rate was 85% ((40(47))) in controls and pre-treatment potency rate was 91% ((41(45))) in RT group. Post-treatment overall potency rate in RT group was 67% ((30(45))). Preservation of potency in initially potent patients treated with RT, was 73% ((30(41))). The RT group was significantly inferior to the control group regarding sexual arousal, function and frequency of sexual activity but not in sexual desire and enjoyment or the importance placed on sexual activity. Conclusion: (1) Sexual potency is preserved in 73% of young sexually active men treated with RT for prostate cancer which is at least as good as the best reports after never sparing prostatectomy and far superior to the 0-10% rates of sexual potency preservation after non-nerve sparing prostatectomy. (2) The 27% of patients who lose sexual potency after RT, generally retain sexual desire and enjoyment indicating a favorable situation for rehabilitation. (3) The 27% loss of sexual potency may be artificially high without a known correction factor for those who would

  2. Adaptive stated choice experiment for access and egress mode choice to train stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Paix Puello, Lissy Cesarina; Geurs, Karst Teunis

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of an adaptive stated choice experiment in the Netherlands to quantify the influence of different factors in the access and egress mode choice to railway stations. For this purpose a sample of 1524 respondents was collected. Mixed logit choice models are estimated

  3. "When I Grow up I Would Like to Be …": Factors Affecting Career Choice of Community Disability Workers in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Sarah; Kahonde, Callista; Lorenzo, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of community based rehabilitation (CBR) programmes depends on the calibre of staff recruited and employed. Therefore, this study aimed to understand how the life experiences of community disability workers (CDWs) in Malawi, Botswana and South Africa influenced their choice of career. A life history approach was used to gather…

  4. Factors influencing the surgery intentions and choices of women with early breast cancer: the predictive utility of an extended theory of planned behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivell, S.; Elwyn, G.; Edwards, A.; Manstead, A.S.; BresDex, g.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women diagnosed with early breast cancer (stage I or II) can be offered the choice between mastectomy or breast conservation surgery with radiotherapy due to equivalence in survival rates. A wide variation in the surgical management of breast cancer and a lack of theoretically guided

  5. Factors Shaping the Decision of College Students to Walk or Drive under the Influence of Alcohol: A Test of Rational Choice Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Rational Choice theory was tested to better understand the differences in behaviour regarding walking and driving under the influence of alcohol. Methods: Students at a residential college campus in Virginia were surveyed. Findings: Results show that students were less likely to walk or drive while intoxicated if they believed such behaviour…

  6. [Dominant Thalamus and Aphasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Akiko; Shimomura, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have shown that lesions of the dominant thalamus precipitate language disorders in a similar manner to transcortical aphasias, in a phenomenon known as "thalamic aphasia." In some cases, however, aphasia may not occur or may appear transiently following thalamic lesions. Furthermore, dominant thalamic lesions can produce changes in character, as observed in patients with amnesic disorder. Previous work has explored the utility of thalamic aphasia as a discriminative feature for classification of aphasia. Although the thalamus may be involved in the function of the brainstem reticular activating system and play a role in attentional network and in memory of Papez circuit or Yakovlev circuit, the mechanism by which thalamic lesion leads to the emergence of aphasic disorders is unclear. In this review, we we survey historical and recent literature on thalamic aphasia in an attempt to understand the neural processes affected by thalamic lesions.

  7. Autosomal dominant cramping disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, K; Moxley, R T

    1990-07-01

    A family was studied in which four generations (16 of 41 members) suffered from painful recurrent muscle cramping. A clear pattern of autosomal dominant inheritance was noted. The cramping first developed during adolescence or early adulthood. Electromyographic analysis indicated a neurogenic origin. The cramps seemed to be due to dysfunction of the motor neurons. The mechanisms underlying this alteration are unclear and require further investigation.

  8. Dominant optic atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenaers, Guy; Hamel, Christian; Delettre, Cécile

    2012-01-01

    DEFINITION OF THE DISEASE: Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA) is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) an......) and their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain....

  9. Public owners will dominate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, Stein Arne

    2003-01-01

    In ten years there will still be a dominating public ownership in the energy supply sector in Norway. Statkraft will be the big actor. Norway will then be integrated in an European power market through more cables and the power price will be lower and more stable. The market will be important, but within frames set by the politicians. This article quotes the views of two central figures in the energy sector on the energy supply industry in 2014

  10. Choices of texts for literary education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyggebjerg, Anna Karlskov

    . The teaching of literature has a double bind. On the one hand, there is a subject (Danish) and a curriculum with a certain type of texts with cultural and even national connotations, and the limits of the choice of texts and curriculum are decided by the state. On the other hand, there are some concrete......This paper charts the general implications of the choice of texts for literature teaching in the Danish school system, especially in Grades 8 and 9. It will analyze and discuss the premises of the choice of texts, and the possibilities of a certain choice of text in a concrete classroom situation...... readers with literary interests, competences, possibilities, needs, etc. Generally speaking the criteria for the choice of texts for teaching literature in Danish schools have been dominated by considerations for the subject and Literature in itself. The predominant view of literature comes from...

  11. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Small Text Medium Text Large Text Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease YESTERDAY Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) resulted ...

  12. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  13. Motives for food choice among Serbian consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagić Snježana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available People's motives for food choice depend on a number of very complex economic, social and individual factors. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ, an instrument that measures the importance of factors underlying food choice, was used to reveal the Serbian consumers' food choice motives by survey of 450 respondents of different age groups. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the motive items, using 11 factors. Previous research shows that the nutrition in Serbia is not balanced enough, and therefore the analysis of motives for food choice is considered a useful tool for the planning of more efficient public policies and interventions aimed at influencing healthier eating habits. Hence the results can be useful for researchers as well as for public institutions which deal with creating the strategy of public health or businessmen who produce and sell food products, because knowing consumer behaviour is necessary for product success on the market.

  14. The role of female dominance hierarchies in the mating behaviour of mosquitofish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Therese; Beekman, Madeleine; Ward, Ashley J W

    2011-06-23

    While studies of sexual selection focus primarily on female choice and male-male competition, males should also exert mate choice in order to maximize their reproductive success. We examined male mate choice in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, with respect to female size and female dominance. We found that the number of mating attempts made by a male was predicted by the dominance rank of females in a group, with dominant females attracting more mating attempts than subordinates. The number of mating attempts made by males was independent of the female size. The observed bias in the number of mating attempts towards dominant females may be driven either by straightforward male mate choice, since dominance and female fecundity are often closely related, or via the dominant females mediating male mating behaviour by restricting their access to subordinate females.

  15. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-07603Y Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  16. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  17. Sad Facial Expressions Increase Choice Blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yajie; Zhao, Song; Zhang, Zhijie; Feng, Wenfeng

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have discovered a fascinating phenomenon known as choice blindness—individuals fail to detect mismatches between the face they choose and the face replaced by the experimenter. Although previous studies have reported a couple of factors that can modulate the magnitude of choice blindness, the potential effect of facial expression on choice blindness has not yet been explored. Using faces with sad and neutral expressions (Experiment 1) and faces with happy and neutral expressi...

  18. Latent variables and route choice behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Pronello, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, a broad array of disciplines has shown a general interest in enhancing discrete choice models by considering the incorporation of psychological factors affecting decision making. This paper provides insight into the comprehension of the determinants of route choice behavior by...... results illustrate that considering latent variables (i.e., memory, habit, familiarity, spatial ability, time saving skills) alongside traditional variables (e.g., travel time, distance, congestion level) enriches the comprehension of route choice behavior....

  19. On dominator colorings in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A dominator coloring of a graph is a proper coloring of in which every vertex dominates every vertex of at least one color class. The minimum number of colors required for a dominator coloring of is called the dominator chromatic number of and is denoted by d ( G ) . In this paper we present several results on ...

  20. Optimal portfolio choice under loss aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Berkelaar (Arjan); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractProspect theory and loss aversion play a dominant role in behavioral finance. In this paper we derive closed-form solutions for optimal portfolio choice under loss aversion. When confronted with gains a loss averse investor behaves similar to a portfolio insurer. When confronted with

  1. Modeling one-choice and two-choice driving tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger

    2015-08-01

    An experiment is presented in which subjects were tested on both one-choice and two-choice driving tasks and on non-driving versions of them. Diffusion models for one- and two-choice tasks were successful in extracting model-based measures from the response time and accuracy data. These include measures of the quality of the information from the stimuli that drove the decision process (drift rate in the model), the time taken up by processes outside the decision process and, for the two-choice model, the speed/accuracy decision criteria that subjects set. Drift rates were only marginally different between the driving and non-driving tasks, indicating that nearly the same information was used in the two kinds of tasks. The tasks differed in the time taken up by other processes, reflecting the difference between them in response processing demands. Drift rates were significantly correlated across the two two-choice tasks showing that subjects that performed well on one task also performed well on the other task. Nondecision times were correlated across the two driving tasks, showing common abilities on motor processes across the two tasks. These results show the feasibility of using diffusion modeling to examine decision making in driving and so provide for a theoretical examination of factors that might impair driving, such as extreme aging, distraction, sleep deprivation, and so on.

  2. Dynamic cognitive models of intertemporal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Junyi; Pleskac, Timothy J; Pachur, Thorsten

    2018-03-24

    Traditionally, descriptive accounts of intertemporal choice have relied on static and deterministic models that assume alternative-wise processing of the options. Recent research, by contrast, has highlighted the dynamic and probabilistic nature of intertemporal choice and provided support for attribute-wise processing. Currently, dynamic models of intertemporal choice-which account for both the resulting choice and the time course over which the construction of a choice develops-rely exclusively on the framework of evidence accumulation. In this article, we develop and rigorously compare several candidate schemes for dynamic models of intertemporal choice. Specifically, we consider an existing dynamic modeling scheme based on decision field theory and develop two novel modeling schemes-one assuming lexicographic, noncompensatory processing, and the other built on the classical concepts of random utility in economics and discrimination thresholds in psychophysics. We show that all three modeling schemes can accommodate key behavioral regularities in intertemporal choice. When empirical choice and response time data were fit simultaneously, the models built on random utility and discrimination thresholds performed best. The results also indicated substantial individual differences in the dynamics underlying intertemporal choice. Finally, model recovery analyses demonstrated the benefits of including both choice and response time data for more accurate model selection on the individual level. The present work shows how the classical concept of random utility can be extended to incorporate response dynamics in intertemporal choice. Moreover, the results suggest that this approach offers a successful alternative to the dominating evidence accumulation approach when modeling the dynamics of decision making. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Israel-Stewart Approach to Viscous Dissipative Extended Holographic Ricci Dark Energy Dominated Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Chattopadhyay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study on the truncated Israel-Stewart formalism for bulk viscosity using the extended holographic Ricci dark energy (EHRDE. Under the consideration that the universe is dominated by EHRDE, the evolution equation for the bulk viscous pressure Π in the framework of the truncated Israel-Stewart theory has been taken as τΠ˙+Π=-3ξH, where τ is the relaxation time and ξ is the bulk viscosity coefficient. Considering effective pressure as a sum of thermodynamic pressure of EHRDE and bulk viscous pressure, it has been observed that under the influence of bulk viscosity the EoS parameter wDE is behaving like phantom, that is, wDE≤-1. It has been observed that the magnitude of the effective pressure peff=p+Π is decaying with time. We also investigated the case for a specific choice of scale factor; namely, a(t=(t-t0β/(1-α. For this choice we have observed that a transition from quintessence to phantom is possible for the equation of state parameter. However, the ΛCDM phase is not attainable by the state-finder trajectories for this choice. Finally it has been observed that in both of the cases the generalized second law of thermodynamics is valid for the viscous EHRDE dominated universe enveloped by the apparent horizon.

  4. Male mate choice in Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min ZHANG, Jinhua LI, Yong ZHU, Xi WANG, Su WANG

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Though females are generally more selective in mate choice, males may also benefit from mate choice if male reproductive success is limited by factors other than simply the number of female mates, and if females differ in short-term reproductive potential. We studied male mate choice in a free-ranging troop of Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China, from August 2007 to April 2008. We employed focal animal sampling and all occurrence sampling to record sexual related behaviors. Eight adult females were divided into three female quality categories according to the females’ age, rank and parity. Using male mating effort as a proxy for male mate choice, we found that males do distinguish female quality and show time-variant mating strategies. Specifically, females with dominant rank, high fecundity, and middle age attracted significantly more males. Our results suggest that female short-term reproductive potential appears to be an important variable in determining male mating effort. Male Tibetan macaques do exercise mate choice for higher quality females as well as reduce useless reproductive cost, which is consistent with the direct benefits theory of mate choice [Current Zoology 56 (2: 213–221, 2010].

  5. Risk of Japanese carriers of hyperphosphorylated paratarg-7, the first autosomal-dominantly inherited risk factor for hematological neoplasms, to develop monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, Sandra; Iida, Shinsuke; Wikowicz, Aleksandra; Preuss, Klaus-Dieter; Inagaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kazuyuki; Ziepert, Marita; Ueda, Ryuzo; Pfreundschuh, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Hyperphosphorylated paratarg-7 (pP-7) is a frequent target of paraproteins in German patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)/multiple myeloma (MM). The frequency of MGUS/MM is lower in Japan than in Europe. As pP-7, the first molecularly defined autosomal-dominant risk factor for any hematological neoplasm, is inherited in a dominant fashion, we determined the incidence of the pP-7 carrier state in a Japanese population, and compared the frequency of pP-7-specific paraproteins and the pP-7 carrier state in Japanese and German patients with MGUS/MM. Peripheral blood from 111 Japanese patients with MGUS/MM and 278 healthy blood donors was analyzed for the pP-7 carrier state by isoelectric focusing and for pP-7-specific antibodies by ELISA. The Japanese group was compared with 252 German MGUS/MM patients and 200 healthy controls. Five of 111 (4.5%) Japanese and 35/252 (13.9%) German IgA/IgG MGUS/MM patients had a pP-7-specific paraprotein (P=0.009). The prevalence of healthy pP-7 carriers in the Japanese study group was 1/278 (0.36%), whereas it was 4/200 in the German group (P=0.166). The relative risk for pP-7 carriers developing MGUS/MM had an odds ratio of 13.1 in the Japanese and 7.9 in the German group. In conclusion, the fraction of pP-7 carriers with a pP-7-specific paraprotein is lower among Japanese than in German patients with MGUS/MM, but pP-7 carriers in both ethnic groups have a high risk of developing MGUS/MM. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. The relative importance of habitual and deliberative factors in food consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Brunsø, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Rational-choice approaches to consumer behaviour neglect the influence of habitual factors. Previous research outside the food choice area has found that habitual factors tend to dominate when the target behaviour is performed often and in stable contexts, whilst deliberative factors tend...... to dominate when the target behaviour is performed rarely and in unstable contexts. In the food choice area, only little research exists that would allow a similar assessment. As part of the SEAFOODplus project, representative surveys were conducted in Belgium, Denmark, Spain, the Netherlands, and Poland......), 0.18 (Denmark), 0.10 (Spain), 0.16 (Netherlands), 0.00 (Poland). Although no general answer may exist to the question whether habitual or deliberative factors are more important in food consumer behaviour, habits appear to dominate behaviour in the domain of seafood consumption....

  7. Hand dominance in upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Varonen, Helena; Heliövaara, Markku; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2007-05-01

    To investigate the role of hand dominance in common upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSD) in a population study. The target population consisted of a representative sample of people aged 30 years or older residing in Finland during 2000-2001. Of the 7977 eligible subjects, 6254 (78.4%) were included in the study. The prevalence of UEMSD was as follows: rotator cuff tendinitis 3.8%, bicipital tendinitis 0.5%, lateral epicondylitis 1.1%, medial epicondylitis 0.3%, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) 3.8%, and surgery due to CTS 1.3%. CTS was 2.5 times as prevalent in women as men, whereas the other UEMSD were as common in both sexes. Rotator cuff and bicipital tendinitis and medial epicondylitis were more prevalent in the dominant arm only in women, whereas lateral epicondylitis was more prevalent in the dominant elbow in both sexes. The higher prevalence of rotator cuff and bicipital tendinitis in the dominant side persisted beyond working age. The prevalence of CTS did not differ by hand dominance. Dominant hand had been operated more frequently for CTS in women. Our findings show that UEMSD are more prevalent in the dominant than nondominant arm mainly in women. For shoulder tendinitis, the difference persists throughout adult age. Physical load factors may have long-lasting effects on the shoulder and they may play a greater role in women than men.

  8. Treatment Adherence as a New Choice Factor for Optimization of Oral Anticoagulation Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Hemostatic Gene Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Skirdenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate treatment adherence and prevalence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene mutations in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF and provide rationale of choice for oral anticoagulation therapy.Material and methods. Treatment adherence was evaluated in 137 AF patients (aged 35-85 years with quantitative estimation of drug therapy adherence along with compliance to medical support and lifestyle modifications. Among them 82 patients underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene polymorphisms.Results. Patients receiving anticoagulation therapy are characterized by lower level of adherence compared to patients without anticoagulants (65.2±19.3% vs 68.5±19.1%; Wald-Wolfowitz; p<0.05. Considering all studied parameters men are less adherent than women (54.7±18.6% vs 60.6±16.7%; Kolmogorov-Smirnov; p<0.05. Patients receiving new oral anticoagulants (NOAC have better compliance compared with patients of warfarin group. Mutations in CYP2C9 gene were detected in 32.9%, VKORC1 – in 68.3%, and their combination – in 21.9% of study participants. Warfarin therapy may be potentially dangerous in such patients due to low adherence.Conclusion. Considering high prevalence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene mutations treatment adherence should be estimated to optimize choice of anticoagulation therapy. NOAC treatment should be considered in patients with low adherence for prevention of thromboembolic complications.

  9. Accounting Students’ Choice on Accounting Information Technology Careers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hasanah Uswati Dewi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The important role of accounting information systems professionals, motivate researchers to analyze further the interest of students to the profession in the field of accounting information systems. The aim of this study explores the factors that influence students to choose and do not choose a profession in the field of accounting information systems.This research was conducted using questionnaires. The population was undergraduate accounting students. Sample research was done randomly.This research shows that the interest in undergraduate accounting students for a career in the field of information systems is very small and this research also appears that the academic supervisor is one of the dominant factors influencing student choice in choosing a career in the field of information systems. Beside this, this study also found that respondents are not interested in a career in accounting information systems more due to that field of information systems is not a career they aspire.

  10. Geometrical factors in the perception of sacredness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Marco; Bonetti, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    in geometrical figures differing in shape, verticality, size, and symmetry. Verticality, symmetry, and convexity were found to be important factors in the perception of sacredness. In the second test, participants had to mark the point inside geometrical surfaces that was perceived as most sacred, dominant......Geometrical and environmental factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were assessed by 137 participants in five tests. In the first test, a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm was used to test the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness......, and attractive. The top and the center areas were associated with sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness. In the third test, peaks and elevated regions in landscapes were evaluated as more sacred, dominant, and attractive than valley regions. In the fourth test, three figures sharing the same area...

  11. Constraints on food choices of women in the UK with lower educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, M; Lawrence, W T; Skinner, T C; Haslam, C O; Robinson, S M; Inskip, H M; Margetts, B M; Jackson, A A; Barker, D J P; Cooper, C

    2008-12-01

    Women of lower educational attainment have less balanced and varied diets than women of higher educational attainment. The diets of women are vital to the long-term health of their offspring. The present study aimed to identify factors that influence the food choices of women with lower educational attainment and how women could be helped to improve those choices. We conducted eight focus group discussions with women of lower educational attainment to identify these factors. We contrasted the results of these discussions with those from three focus group discussions with women of higher educational attainment. Southampton, UK. Forty-two white Caucasian women of lower educational attainment and fourteen of higher educational attainment aged 18 to 44 years. The dominant theme in discussions with women of lower educational attainment was their sense that they lacked control over food choices for themselves and their families. Partners and children exerted a high degree of control over which foods were bought and prepared. Women's perceptions of the cost of healthy food, the need to avoid waste, being trapped at home surrounded by opportunities to snack, and having limited skill and experience with food, all contributed to their sense they lacked control over their own and their family's food choices. An intervention to improve the food choices of women with lower educational attainment needs to increase their sense of control over their diet and the foods they buy. This might include increasing their skills in food preparation.

  12. On dominator colorings in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A dominator coloring of a graph G is a proper coloring of G in which every vertex dominates every vertex of at least one color class. The minimum number of colors required for a dominator coloring of G is called the dominator chromatic number of G and is denoted by χd(G). In this paper we present several results on graphs ...

  13. Differential Growth of Francisella tularensis, Which Alters Expression of Virulence Factors, Dominant Antigens, and Surface-Carbohydrate Synthases, Governs the Apparent Virulence of Ft SchuS4 to Immunized Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. Holland

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis (Ft is both a potential biological weapon and a naturally occurring microbe that survives in arthropods, fresh water amoeba, and mammals with distinct phenotypes in various environments. Previously, we used a number of measurements to characterize Ft grown in Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI broth as (1 more similar to infection-derived bacteria, and (2 slightly more virulent in naïve animals, compared to Ft grown in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB. In these studies we observed that the free amino acids in MHB repress expression of select Ft virulence factors by an unknown mechanism. Here, we tested the hypotheses that Ft grown in BHI (BHI-Ft accurately displays a full protein composition more similar to that reported for infection-derived Ft and that this similarity would make BHI-Ft more susceptible to pre-existing, vaccine-induced immunity than MHB-Ft. We performed comprehensive proteomic analysis of Ft grown in MHB, BHI, and BHI supplemented with casamino acids (BCA and compared our findings to published “omics” data derived from Ft grown in vivo. Based on the abundance of ~1,000 proteins, the fingerprint of BHI-Ft is one of nutrient-deprived bacteria that—through induction of a stringent-starvation-like response—have induced the FevR regulon for expression of the bacterium's virulence factors, immuno-dominant antigens, and surface-carbohydrate synthases. To test the notion that increased abundance of dominant antigens expressed by BHI-Ft would render these bacteria more susceptible to pre-existing, vaccine-induced immunity, we employed a battery of LVS-vaccination and S4-challenge protocols using MHB- and BHI-grown Ft S4. Contrary to our hypothesis, these experiments reveal that LVS-immunization provides a barrier to infection that is significantly more effective against an MHB-S4 challenge than a BHI-S4 challenge. The differences in apparent virulence to immunized mice are profoundly greater

  14. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate.......Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...

  15. Promoting educated consumer choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary EU food information legislation combines and balances two main consumer interests, i.e., a consumer right to information and the freedom of choice, into one single protective standard: informed choice. Although the recent legislative measures quite openly establish a link between...... informed choice and the rather abstract societal norm of “what is good for the consumer,” this does not justify the conclusion that food information legislation has become overly meddlesome in relation to EU consumers and their choice of food. Rather, there has been a gradual maturing of the EU legislator......’s perception of its task from the mere provision of food information to ensuring educated consumer choices. This development is a logical and necessary consequence of the growing complexity of food choices....

  16. Individual Vs Collective Choice In Corporate Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is meant to be an extension of the theories of choice, empirical analysis and theories concerning communication between macro-economic sub-systems and even between (sub systems. A new perception will be given to all these theories and a different meaning of the factors influencing finance decisions will be shown. Another factor is introduced taking into account one’s choice, which restructures somehow the perception of the function of individuals’ choice. I named it factor α (alpha which is a spirituality factor provoking exchanges of information between economic sub-systems. This leads to a rearrangement of the economic and social patterns of behavior and of choice directly influencing the finance decisions and re-equilibrating the inter-conditioning sub-systems of the world.

  17. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verain, M.C.D.; Dagevos, H.; Antonides, G.

    2015-01-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors

  18. Dominance hierarchy and social grooming in female lion-tailed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    This article reports the structure of dominance and its relationship with social grooming in wild lion-tailed macaque females. The strength of dominance hierarchy ... study of social organization (Thierry et al 2004). A key factor that helps understand social organization is the dominance relationships among individuals of a ...

  19. Consumer rationality in choice

    OpenAIRE

    Conlon, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and demonstrated empirically to be incompatible with actual consumer choices. In particular the complexity of the choice situation, and its various components, are found to be major determinants of the ch...

  20. Choice and reinforcement delay

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, G. David; Marr, M. Jackson

    1980-01-01

    Previous studies of choice between two delayed reinforcers have indicated that the relative immediacy of the reinforcer is a major determinant of the relative frequency of responding. Parallel studies of choice between two interresponse times have found exceptions to this generality. The present study looked at the choice by pigeons between two delays, one of which was always four times longer than the other, but whose absolute durations were varied across conditions. The results indicated th...

  1. Manipulation of choice behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Manzini, Paola; Mariotti, Marco; Tyson, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce and study the problem of manipulation of choice behavior. In a class of two-stage models of decision making, with the agent's choices determined by three "psychological variables," we imagine that a subset of these variables can be selected by a "manipulator." To what extent does this confer control of the agent's behavior? Within the specified framework, which overlaps with two existing models of choice under cognitive constraints, we provide a complete answer to this question.

  2. Choice Neighborhood Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Choice Neighborhoods grants transform distressed neighborhoods, public and assisted projects into viable and sustainable mixed-income neighborhoods by linking...

  3. Career choice motivation and value priorities of future nursery and elementary school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić-Jablanović Milica V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study that aimed to establish the nature of the link between the value orientation of future nursery and elementary school teachers and the motivation for their career choice. Two instruments were used - the Schwartz Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-21 and the Career Choice Scale. The findings suggest that the motivation for the respondents' career choice and their value orientation are relatively homogeneous, but also that two groups of students can be distinguished according to dominant motivating factors, and that these two groups also differ in their value priorities. Non-parametric correlation showed that each type of motivation reflected different values - in individuals whose dominant motivation was intrinsic, the values of benevolence, self-direction and achievement were more pronounced, while stronger altruistic motivation correlated with more pronounced values of benevolence and universalism. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation correlated with the values of hedonism and power, which the initial theoretical model locates at the opposite end to the values corresponding to altruistic motivation. The research findings are important for understanding the reasons behind nursery and elementary school teachers' career choice and the goals they are guided by in their life and work, and are also important for the career guidance process.

  4. Perfect secure domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Divya Rashmi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let $G=(V,E$ be a graph. A subset $S$ of $V$ is a dominating set of $G$ if every vertex in $Vsetminus  S$ is adjacent to a vertex in $S.$ A dominating set $S$ is called a secure dominating set if for each $vin Vsetminus S$ there exists $uin S$ such that $v$ is adjacent to $u$ and $S_1=(Ssetminus{u}cup {v}$ is a dominating set. If further the vertex $uin S$ is unique, then $S$ is called a perfect secure dominating set. The minimum cardinality of a perfect secure dominating set of $G$ is called the perfect  secure domination number of $G$ and is denoted by $gamma_{ps}(G.$ In this paper we initiate a study of this parameter and present several basic results.

  5. 以社會認知生涯理論探討影響選擇數學職業意圖的因素 Investigating the Factors on Mathematics Career-Choice Intentions with the Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    余民寧 Min-Ning Yu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available 本研究參考社會認知生涯理論的選擇模型與興趣模型,建立影響學生選擇數學職業意圖的因素結構關係模型圖,以Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study(簡稱TIMSS)2003 年國中生資料驗證之,試圖探究影響國中學生在選擇數學職業意圖的因素。本研究發現,在社會認知生涯理論的興趣模型方面,「數學學習興趣」受「數學結果期待」、「數學自我效能」的直接影響,而「數學成就」則是產生間接影響;至於社會認知生涯理論的選擇模型方面,「選擇數學職業意圖」受「數學結果期待」、「數學學習興趣」的直接影響,而「數學成就」、「數學自我效能」則是產生間接影響。上述潛在結構並無性別差異存在。最後,本研究亦根據研究結果,提出在教育實務應用與未來繼續研究上的建議。 The purpose of this study was to investigate impact factor on mathematics career-choice process used TIMSS dataset of Taiwan 8th grade students. The interest development model and career choice model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT used to establish a latent variable model. The results showed, concerning interest development model, math outcome expectations & math self-efficacy had a direct effect on math learning interests but math achievement had an indirect effect on. As to career choice model, math outcome expectations & math learning interests had a direct effect on math career-choice intentions but math achievement & math self-efficacy had an indirect effect on. The above-mentioned hadn’t sex differences in math career choice process. Finally, some conclusions and suggestions for practice applications and future researches were suggested and proposed.

  6. A singular choice for multiple choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2006-01-01

    How should multiple choice tests be scored and graded, in particular when students are allowed to check several boxes to convey partial knowledge? Many strategies may seem reasonable, but we demonstrate that five self-evident axioms are sufficient to determine completely the correct strategy. We ...

  7. Total Domination Versus Paired-Domination in Regular Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyman Joanna

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A subset S of vertices of a graph G is a dominating set of G if every vertex not in S has a neighbor in S, while S is a total dominating set of G if every vertex has a neighbor in S. If S is a dominating set with the additional property that the subgraph induced by S contains a perfect matching, then S is a paired-dominating set. The domination number, denoted γ(G, is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set of G, while the minimum cardinalities of a total dominating set and paired-dominating set are the total domination number, γt(G, and the paired-domination number, γpr(G, respectively. For k ≥ 2, let G be a connected k-regular graph. It is known [Schaudt, Total domination versus paired domination, Discuss. Math. Graph Theory 32 (2012 435–447] that γpr(G/γt(G ≤ (2k/(k+1. In the special case when k = 2, we observe that γpr(G/γt(G ≤ 4/3, with equality if and only if G ≅ C5. When k = 3, we show that γpr(G/γt(G ≤ 3/2, with equality if and only if G is the Petersen graph. More generally for k ≥ 2, if G has girth at least 5 and satisfies γpr(G/γt(G = (2k/(k + 1, then we show that G is a diameter-2 Moore graph. As a consequence of this result, we prove that for k ≥ 2 and k ≠ 57, if G has girth at least 5, then γpr(G/γt(G ≤ (2k/(k +1, with equality if and only if k = 2 and G ≅ C5 or k = 3 and G is the Petersen graph.

  8. Making Smart Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Making Smart Food Choices Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Everyday ... NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Making Smart Food Choices To maintain a healthy weight, balance the calories ...

  9. Your Genes, Your Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Your Genes, Your Choices describes the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues that are ... Nothing could be further from the truth. Your Genes, Your Choices points out how the progress of ...

  10. School Choice Marches forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    One year ago, the "Wall Street Journal" dubbed 2011 "the year of school choice," opining that "this year is shaping up as the best for reformers in a very long time." School-choice laws took great strides in 2011, both in the number of programs that succeeded across states and also in the size and scope of the adopted…

  11. Dominant Taylor Spectrum and Invariant Subspaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrozie, Calin-Grigore; Müller, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2009), s. 101-111 ISSN 0379-4024 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Taylor spectrum * Scott-Brown technique * dominant spectrum Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.580, year: 2009

  12. Dominant Taylor Spectrum and Invariant Subspaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrozie, Calin-Grigore; Müller, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2009), s. 101-111 ISSN 0379-4024 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Taylor spectrum * Scott -Brown technique * dominant spectrum Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.580, year: 2009

  13. Tough and easy choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2011-01-01

    Respondents in Stated Preference studies may be uncertain about their preferences for the good presented to them. Inspired by Wang (J Environ Econ Manag 32:219–232, 1997) we hypothesize that respondents’ stated certainty in choice increases with the utility difference between the alternative chosen...... and the best alternative to that. We test this hypothesis using data from two independent Choice Experiments both focusing on nature values. In modelling respondents’ self-reported certainty in choice, we find evidence that the stated level of certainty increases significantly as utility difference in choice...... sets increases. In addition, stated certainty increases with income. Furthermore, there is some evidence that male respondents are inherently more certain in their choices than females, and a learning effect may increase stated certainty. We find evidence of this in the first study where the good...

  14. Determinants of Recent Immigrants' Location Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a Danish spatial dispersal policy on refugees which can be regarded a natural experiment to investigate the influence of regional factors on recent immigrants' locational choices. The main push factors are lack of co-ethnics and presence of immigrants. Additional push factors...

  15. Fatores determinantes para as expectativas de primigestas acerca da via de parto Primigravid expectations about the delivery method and the causal factors for their choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Porto Tedesco

    2004-12-01

    profissionais da saúde e a paciente sobre as possíveis dificuldades, dúvidas e anseios que permeiam a escolha por determinada via de parto. Do ponto de vista ético concluímos que os obstetras devem questionar cada indicação para a realização de uma cesárea e respeitar a autonomia da escolha materna sem ignorar os verdadeiros critérios clínicos que levam à decisão médica pela via de parto.PURPOSE: to find out the preference in regard to the way of delivery among primigravidae, as well as the reasons for their choice, in order to improve the quality of the doctor-patient relationship. METHODS: a qualitative-type study was conducted through analysis of the collective subject, including primigravidae attended from September to November 2003 at the emergency rooms of the hospital of the "Faculdade de Medicina de Jundiaí". A questionnaire, specially developed to accomplish the proposed objectives was applied. An informed and free consent, signed by the pregnant woman and one of the researchers in charge was obtained. This questionnaire was based on doubts of patients attended at this hospital some months before the trial. For the purpose of sample standardization, the patients' selection followed some inclusion criteria: age above 16, primigravidae that were receiving prenatal assistance and a post-informed and free consent. Mental disorders and clinical and/or obstetric pathologies that could interfere in the patient's choice were considered exclusion criteria. RESULTS: the studied population had as prevailing profile women in the third quarter of gestation, above 21 years of age, white, married and with completed school. Most of the women (90% preferred vaginal delivery for the following main reasons: ease to be done (94% and the fear of suffering and pain during the postpartum period caused by cesarean section. There was a relationship between older and married women and the preference for vaginal delivery, with no significant difference between races. CONCLUSION

  16. Model choice in nonnested families

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Basilio de Bragança

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the problem of model choice when the statistical models are separate, also called nonnested. Chapter 1 provides an introduction, motivating examples and a general overview of the problem. Chapter 2 presents the classical or frequentist approach to the problem as well as several alternative procedures and their properties. Chapter 3 explores the Bayesian approach, the limitations of the classical Bayes factors and the proposed alternative Bayes factors to overcome these limitations. It also discusses a significance Bayesian procedure. Lastly, Chapter 4 examines the pure likelihood approach. Various real-data examples and computer simulations are provided throughout the text.

  17. Are there inequalities in choice of birthing position? Sociodemographic and labour factors associated with the supine position during the second stage of labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnders, Marlies E. B.; van Diem, Mariet Th.; Scheepers, Peer L. H.; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L. M.

    Objective: to establish which factors are associated with birthing positions throughout the second stage of tabour and at the time of birth. Design: retrospective cohort study. Setting: primary care midwifery practices in the Netherlands. Participants: 665 low-risk women who received midwife-led

  18. Career Outcomes of STEM and Non-STEM College Graduates: Persistence in Majored-Field and Influential Factors in Career Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonghong Jade

    2013-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative, longitudinal survey of college graduates, this study examines student transition from college to their chosen career paths and identifies factors influencing college graduates' choosing an occupation related to ones' undergraduate major. Within the context of expanded econometric framework a wide range…

  19. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Choice of Majors in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering at the University of Michigan. Research Report #23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manis, Jean D.; And Others

    Women have traditionally not entered the fields of science and mathematics. This study examines survey responses of University of Michigan seniors interested in science for factors associated with the attraction away from the sciences among women, and reasons why they are more attracted to other fields. The survey respondents were senior women…

  20. Higher Education or Vocational Training? Some Contributing Factors to Post-School Choices of Visually Impaired Students in Britain. Part 1, Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Meng Ee

    2004-01-01

    Two groups of visually impaired (VI) students in Britain confronting post-school transition are considered. One group aspires to enter university, the other group has decided on vocational training. Positive image, employment pragmatics and the notion of "something extra" are contributing factors shaping VI students in their post-school…

  1. The axiom of choice

    CERN Document Server

    Jech, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive in its selection of topics and results, this self-contained text examines the relative strengths and consequences of the axiom of choice. Each chapter contains several problems, graded according to difficulty, and concludes with some historical remarks.An introduction to the use of the axiom of choice is followed by explorations of consistency, permutation models, and independence. Subsequent chapters examine embedding theorems, models with finite supports, weaker versions of the axiom, and nontransferable statements. The final sections consider mathematics without choice, cardin

  2. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes that every random utility discrete choice model (RUM) has a representation that can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) with specific properties, and that every function with these specific properties is consistent with a RUM. The choice...... probabilities from the RUM are obtained from the gradient of the CPGF. Mixtures of RUM are characterized by logarithmic mixtures of their associated CPGF. The paper relates CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and reviews and extends methods for constructing generating functions for applications...

  3. Choices of texts for literary education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyggebjerg, Anna Karlskov

    literature studies at universities, where criteria concerning language and form are often more valued than criteria concerning character and content. This tendency to celebrate the formal aspects and the literariness of literature is recognized in governmental documents, teaching materials...... readers with literary interests, competences, possibilities, needs, etc. Generally speaking the criteria for the choice of texts for teaching literature in Danish schools have been dominated by considerations for the subject and Literature in itself. The predominant view of literature comes from...

  4. Dominance Hierarchies in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Murray S.; Omark, Donald R.

    1973-01-01

    This study uses the ethological approach of seeking species characteristics and phylogenetic continuities in an investigation of human behavior. Among primates a striking consistency is the presence of some form of dominance hierarchy in many species. The present study examines peer group dominance hierarchies as they are perceived by children in…

  5. Make Better Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    10 tips Nutrition Education Series make better food choices 10 tips for women’s health Fruits Grains Dairy Vegetables Protein Make yourself a priority and take time to care for yourself. ChooseMyPlate. gov ...

  6. Veterans Choice Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — If you are already enrolled in VA health care, the Choice Program allows you to receive health care within your community. Using this program does NOT impact your...

  7. Anadromous char as an alternate food choice to marine animals: a synthesis of Hg concentrations, population features and other influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Marlene S; Muir, Derek C G; Keating, Jonathan; Wang, Xiaowa

    2015-03-15

    This study was conducted to confirm sporadic measurements made over the late 1970s to the early 1990 s which determined that mercury (Hg) concentrations were low in anadromous char across Arctic and subarctic Canada including northern Québec and Labrador. Over 2004-2013, anadromous char populations across northern Canada were investigated at 20 sites for Hg concentrations and life history characteristics. Hg concentrations were extremely low in anadromous char muscle, typically Hg concentrations over the study area; longitude and latitude also were significant influencing variables. Char length, weight, age, condition factor and lipid content explained additional variance. A tendency towards higher Hg concentrations with increasing latitude may be partially related to decreasing growth of char towards the north. However, Hg concentrations in char were positively correlated with growth rates suggesting that Hg concentrations in char also were higher in the more productive study areas, including to the west where mainland riverine inputs of terrestrial carbon, nutrients, and Hg were greater. The data base for assessing time trends in char was limited by the small number of years investigated at most locations, variable fish size across years, small sample size, etc. Where temporal trends were detected, they were of increase on the long term (1970s, 1980s or early 1990 s to the present) but of decrease on the short term (early 2000s to present) with Nain (Labrador) showing the converse pattern. Higher Hg concentrations were also related to lower condition factor and cooler springs. Hg concentrations in anadromous char are compared with other terrestrial, aquatic and marine vertebrates in traditional diets. The known information on anadromous char is reviewed including population features, habitat, and harvests. Future Hg trend monitoring should focus on specific locations and harvest areas within these areas to better assess trends and influencing factors. Crown

  8. Process and Context in Choice Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Akiva, Moshe; Palma, André de; McFadden, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We develop a general framework that extends choice models by including an explicit representation of the process and context of decision making. Process refers to the steps involved in decision making. Context refers to factors affecting the process, focusing in this paper on social networks....... The extended choice framework includes more behavioral richness through the explicit representation of the planning process preceding an action and its dynamics and the effects of context (family, friends, and market) on the process leading to a choice, as well as the inclusion of new types of subjective data...

  9. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  10. Informed food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  11. Information Choice Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Hellwig; Sebastian Kohls; Laura Veldkamp

    2012-01-01

    Theories based on information costs or frictions have become increasing popular in macroeconomics and macro-finance. The literature has used various types of information choices, such as rational inattention, inattentiveness, information markets and costly precision. Using a unified framework, we compare these different information choice technologies and explain why some generate increasing returns and others, particularly those where agents choose how much public information to observe, gen...

  12. Retirement Choice 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Distribution Section at 703-824-2123. Photography Credit: Jacksonville, NC - Sergeants Major Holly and Bradley Prafke made history on July 26...retirement choice in 2016. We start by describing the $30,000 bonus as an early, partial cash-out of the servicemember’s retirement pension . This...we briefly look at the general provisions of military retirement and then focus more specifically on the two plans. Both pension choices have the

  13. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice ...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  14. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  15. Resurgence as Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A; Craig, Andrew R

    2017-08-01

    Resurgence is typically defined as an increase in a previously extinguished target behavior when a more recently reinforced alternative behavior is later extinguished. Some treatments of the phenomenon have suggested that it might also extend to circumstances where either the historic or more recently reinforced behavior is reduced by other non-extinction related means (e.g., punishment, decreases in reinforcement rate, satiation, etc.). Here we present a theory of resurgence suggesting that the phenomenon results from the same basic processes governing choice. In its most general form, the theory suggests that resurgence results from changes in the allocation of target behavior driven by changes in the values of the target and alternative options across time. Specifically, resurgence occurs when there is an increase in the relative value of an historically effective target option as a result of a subsequent devaluation of a more recently effective alternative option. We develop a more specific quantitative model of how extinction of the target and alternative responses in a typical resurgence paradigm might produce such changes in relative value across time using a temporal weighting rule. The example model does a good job in accounting for the effects of reinforcement rate and related manipulations on resurgence in simple schedules where Behavioral Momentum Theory has failed. We also discuss how the general theory might be extended to other parameters of reinforcement (e.g., magnitude, quality), other means to suppress target or alternative behavior (e.g., satiation, punishment, differential reinforcement of other behavior), and other factors (e.g., non- contingent versus contingent alternative reinforcement, serial alternative reinforcement, and multiple schedules). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Note on Isolate Domination

    OpenAIRE

    Sahul Hamid, Ismail; Balamurugan, S; Navaneethakrishnan, A

    2016-01-01

    A set $S$ of vertices of a graph $G$ such that $\\left\\langle S\\right\\rangle$ has an isolated vertex is called an \\emph{isolate set} of $G$. The minimum and maximum cardinality of a maximal isolate set are called the \\emph{isolate number} $i_0(G)$ and the \\emph{upper isolate number} $I_0(G)$ respectively. An isolate set that is also a dominating set (an irredundant set) is an $\\emph{isolate dominating set} \\ (\\emph{an isolate irredundant set})$. The \\emph{isolate domination number} $\\gamma_0(G...

  17. Domination criticality in product graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Chithra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A connected dominating set is an important notion and has many applications in routing and management of networks. Graph products have turned out to be a good model of interconnection networks. This motivated us to study the Cartesian product of graphs G with connected domination number, γc(G=2,3 and characterize such graphs. Also, we characterize the k−γ-vertex (edge critical graphs and k−γc-vertex (edge critical graphs for k=2,3 where γ denotes the domination number of G. We also discuss the vertex criticality in grids.

  18. Dominantly inherited cystoid macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, G A; Goldberg, M F; Trautmann, J C

    1979-01-01

    Four patients of Greek ancestry had dominantly inherited cystoid macular edema. Characteristics of this syndrome include the following: an early onset and prolonged course of cystoid changes in the macula, followed by atrophy of the macula in later stages. Some patients also show leakage of fluorescein from the optic disc capillaries, subnormal EOG Lp/Dt ratios, elevated rod dark adaptation thresholds, red-green and blue-yellow color deficiencies, normal ERG findings, hyperopia, peripheral pigmentary retinopathy, and vitreous opacities. Dominantly inherited cystoid macular edema is a distinct genetic trait among the dominantly inherited macular dystrophies.

  19. Physician migration at its roots: a study on the factors contributing towards a career choice abroad among students at a medical school in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Asfandyar; Naqvi, Syed Hassan Abbas; Sheikh, Kainat; Naqvi, Syed Hassan Shiraz; Bandukda, Muhammad Yasin

    2012-12-15

    Physician migration, also known as "brain drain," results from a combination of a gap in the supply and demand in developed countries and a lack of job satisfaction in developing countries. Many push and pull factors are responsible for this effect, with media and internet playing their parts. Large-scale physician migration can pose problems for both the donor and the recipient countries, with a resulting reinforcement in the economic divide between developed and developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of migration intentions in medical undergraduates, to elucidate the factors responsible and to analyze the attitudes and practices related to these intentions. This was a cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study, conducted at Dow Medical College of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, between January, 2012 and May, 2012. A total of 323 students responded completely. The questionnaire consisted of 3 sections, and was aimed at collecting demographic details, determining students' migratory intentions, evaluating reasons for and against migration and assessing attitudes and practices of students related to these intentions. Out of 323 respondents, 195 wanted to pursue their careers abroad, giving a prevalence rate of 60.4% in our sample. United States was the most frequently reported recipient country. The most common reasons given by students who wished to migrate, in descending order, were: lucrative salary abroad followed by quality of training, job satisfaction, better way of life, relatives, more opportunities, better working environment, terrorism in Pakistan, harassment of doctors in Pakistan, desire to settle abroad, more competition in Pakistan, better management, peer pressure, longer working hours in Pakistan, religious reasons, parent pressure, political reasons and favoritism in Pakistan. A considerable number of respondents had already started studying for licensing examinations, and

  20. Physician migration at its roots: a study on the factors contributing towards a career choice abroad among students at a medical school in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Physician migration, also known as “brain drain,” results from a combination of a gap in the supply and demand in developed countries and a lack of job satisfaction in developing countries. Many push and pull factors are responsible for this effect, with media and internet playing their parts. Large-scale physician migration can pose problems for both the donor and the recipient countries, with a resulting reinforcement in the economic divide between developed and developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of migration intentions in medical undergraduates, to elucidate the factors responsible and to analyze the attitudes and practices related to these intentions. Methods This was a cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study, conducted at Dow Medical College of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, between January, 2012 and May, 2012. A total of 323 students responded completely. The questionnaire consisted of 3 sections, and was aimed at collecting demographic details, determining students’ migratory intentions, evaluating reasons for and against migration and assessing attitudes and practices of students related to these intentions. Results Out of 323 respondents, 195 wanted to pursue their careers abroad, giving a prevalence rate of 60.4% in our sample. United States was the most frequently reported recipient country. The most common reasons given by students who wished to migrate, in descending order, were: lucrative salary abroad followed by quality of training, job satisfaction, better way of life, relatives, more opportunities, better working environment, terrorism in Pakistan, harassment of doctors in Pakistan, desire to settle abroad, more competition in Pakistan, better management, peer pressure, longer working hours in Pakistan, religious reasons, parent pressure, political reasons and favoritism in Pakistan. A considerable number of respondents had already started studying

  1. Physician migration at its roots: a study on the factors contributing towards a career choice abroad among students at a medical school in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Asfandyar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician migration, also known as “brain drain,” results from a combination of a gap in the supply and demand in developed countries and a lack of job satisfaction in developing countries. Many push and pull factors are responsible for this effect, with media and internet playing their parts. Large-scale physician migration can pose problems for both the donor and the recipient countries, with a resulting reinforcement in the economic divide between developed and developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of migration intentions in medical undergraduates, to elucidate the factors responsible and to analyze the attitudes and practices related to these intentions. Methods This was a cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study, conducted at Dow Medical College of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, between January, 2012 and May, 2012. A total of 323 students responded completely. The questionnaire consisted of 3 sections, and was aimed at collecting demographic details, determining students’ migratory intentions, evaluating reasons for and against migration and assessing attitudes and practices of students related to these intentions. Results Out of 323 respondents, 195 wanted to pursue their careers abroad, giving a prevalence rate of 60.4% in our sample. United States was the most frequently reported recipient country. The most common reasons given by students who wished to migrate, in descending order, were: lucrative salary abroad followed by quality of training, job satisfaction, better way of life, relatives, more opportunities, better working environment, terrorism in Pakistan, harassment of doctors in Pakistan, desire to settle abroad, more competition in Pakistan, better management, peer pressure, longer working hours in Pakistan, religious reasons, parent pressure, political reasons and favoritism in Pakistan. A considerable number of respondents

  2. Student indebtedness and practice mode choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, D C

    1992-11-01

    Student indebtedness upon graduation from optometry school has long been cited as the major factor influencing practice mode choice. A review of the literature, practice trends for optometry, medicine and dentistry, and forces affecting the health care industry reveal other factors as well.

  3. Social Dominance and Sexual Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Dickins, Thomas E.; Sergeant, Mark J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Heterosexual males are reported to display higher levels of physical aggression and lower levels of empathy than homosexual males. A characteristic linked to both aggression and empathy is social dominance orientation (SDO). A significant sex difference has been reported for SDO, with heterosexual males scoring higher than heterosexual females. The precise relationship between dominance and aggression is currently contested. Given the association between SDO, aggression and empathy, and the d...

  4. Factors influencing choice of surgical route of repair of genitourinary fistula, and the influence of route of repair on surgical outcomes: findings from a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajzyngier, V; Ruminjo, J; Asiimwe, F; Barry, TH; Bello, A; Danladi, D; Ganda, SO; Idris, S; Inoussa, M; Lynch, M; Mussell, F; Podder, DC; Barone, MA

    2012-01-01

    Objective The abdominal route of genitourinary fistula repair may be associated with longer term hospitalisation, hospital-associated infection and increased resource requirements. We examined: (1) the factors influencing the route of repair; (2) the influence of the route of repair on fistula closure 3 months following surgery; and (3) whether the influence of the route of repair on repair outcome varied by whether or not women met the published indications for abdominal repair. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Eleven health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Population The 1274 women with genitourinary fistula presenting for surgical repair services. Methods Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were generated using log-binomial and Poisson (log-link) regression. Multivariable regression and propensity score matching were employed to adjust for confounding. Main outcome measures Abdominal route of repair and fistula closure at 3 months following fistula repair surgery. Results Published indications for abdominal route of repair (extensive scarring or tissue loss, genital infibulation, ureteric involvement, trigonal, supratrigonal, vesico-uterine or intracervical location or other abdominal pathology) predicted the abdominal route [adjusted risk ratio (ARR), 15.56; 95% CI, 2.12–114.00]. A vaginal route of repair was associated with increased risk of failed closure (ARR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.05–1.88); stratified analyses suggested elevated risk among women meeting indications for the abdominal route. Conclusions Additional studies powered to test effect modification hypotheses are warranted to confirm whether the abdominal route of repair is beneficial for certain women. PMID:22900837

  5. A note on isolate domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Sahul Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A set $S$ of vertices of a graph $G$ such that $\\left\\langle S\\right\\rangle$ has an isolated vertex is called an \\emph{isolate set} of $G$. The minimum and maximum cardinality of a maximal isolate set are called the \\emph{isolate number} $i_0(G$ and the \\emph{upper isolate number} $I_0(G$ respectively. An isolate set that is also a dominating set (an irredundant set is an $\\emph{isolate dominating set} \\ (\\emph{an isolate irredundant set}$. The \\emph{isolate domination number} $\\gamma_0(G$ and the \\emph{upper isolate domination number} $\\Gamma_0(G$ are respectively the minimum and maximum cardinality of a minimal isolate dominating set while the \\emph{isolate irredundance number} $ir_0(G$ and the \\emph{upper isolate irredundance number} $IR_0(G$ are the minimum and maximum cardinality of a maximal isolate irredundant set of $G$. The notion of isolate domination was introduced in \\cite{sb} and the remaining were introduced in \\cite{isrn}. This paper further extends a study of these parameters.   

  6. Effects of Brand Awareness on Choice for a Common, Repeat-Purchase Product.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, Wayne D; Brown, Steven P

    1990-01-01

    Results of a controlled experiment on the role of brand awareness in the consumer choice process showed that brand awareness was a dominant choice heuristic among awareness-group subjects. Subjects with no brand awareness tended to sample more brands and selected the high-quality brand on the final choice significantly more often than those with brand awareness. Thus, when quality differences exist among competing brands, consumers may "pay a price" for employing simple choice heuristics such...

  7. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  8. Lifestyle dominates cardiovascular risks in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khalib A. Latiff; Khairul H. Yusof

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular problem is one of the leading cause of death in Malaysia and now invaded to the sub-urban and rural areas. To prevent and control of this problem, several main risk factors needed to be known and shall be reexamined and ranked according to the priority. The objectives of this research paper was to identify several dominant risk factor related to cardiovascular problem. A cross sectional study was carried out from March 2000 – June 2001 on a total of 8159 rural population aged 1...

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Motivations for Occupational Choice or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study attempted to determine the extent to which influences of motivational factors on occupational choice or preference differ between practising professionals and students who aspire for related occupations as well as how the influences of these motivational factors on job choice or preference differ across professions ...

  10. Lifestyle dominates cardiovascular risks in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalib A. Latiff

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular problem is one of the leading cause of death in Malaysia and now invaded to the sub-urban and rural areas. To prevent and control of this problem, several main risk factors needed to be known and shall be reexamined and ranked according to the priority. The objectives of this research paper was to identify several dominant risk factor related to cardiovascular problem. A cross sectional study was carried out from March 2000 – June 2001 on a total of 8159 rural population aged 18 and above to measure the prevalence of the common cardiovascular risk factors. Those risk factors are systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol level, obesity index, blood glucose level, smoking, physical activity and mental stress. Overall prevalence of common cardiovascular risk factors were higher, dominated by physical inactivity (65.7%, hypercholesterolemia – TC:HC (62.3%, mental stress (55.5% and obesity (53.7%. Smoking was also high at 49.9% especially among men. However systolic hypertension, diastolic hypertension and diabetes mellitus; although increased by age, its prevalence is relatively low at 23.7%, 19.2%, and 6.3% respectively. Cardiovascular risk factors related to lifestyle are much evidenced as compared to risk factors related to the biological influence. Therefore, all initiatives in community health intervention should be mobilized specifically on prevention and control of lifestyle-related risk factors. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 50-6Keywords: cardiovascular problem, community intervention, lifestyle-linked risk factors

  11. Households' portfolio choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochgürtel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents four topics on households' portfolio choices. Empirically, households do not hold well-diversified wealth portfolios. In particular, they refrain from putting their savings into risky assets. We explore several ways that might help explaining this observation. Using Dutch

  12. Consumer rationality in choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and

  13. Food choices in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, Alemayehu Dekeba; Beuving, Joost; Ruben, Ruerd

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a framed market experiment conducted to examine whether milk choices are responsive to changes in the nutritional characteristics of milk products. Using a random-effect Tobit model, we analyzed experimental data collected from 160 participants in urban Ethiopia.

  14. Retirement Choice 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    investment ? ......................... 10 How much retirement income is forgone...of the servicemember’s retirement pension . This $30,000 cash-out will be “paid back” later in the form of reduced retirement checks. By providing...though, we briefly look at the general provisions of military retirement and then focus more specifically on the two plans. Both pension choices have

  15. Project Choice: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    Project Choice began with a simple goal: to increase the number of inner-city students who graduate from high school on time and become productive members of society. To that end, Ewing M. Kauffman, his Foundation, and associates designed and implemented a program that promised postsecondary education or training to some students in the Kansas…

  16. Choice of Living Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancliffe, R. J.; Lakin, K. C.; Larson, S.; Engler, J.; Taub, S.; Fortune, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The rights to choose where and with whom to live are widely endorsed but commonly denied to adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The current study provides a contemporary benchmark on the degree of choice exercised by adult service users in the USA. Method: Data came from the National Core Indicators programme. Participants were…

  17. Choices in Pension Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.G. Alserda (Gosse)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe organization of pensions differs greatly across, and within, countries, and these differences affect the large number of stakeholders differently. The choices that underlie these differences tend to be very complicated, as they have to be balanced over the interests of different

  18. Highly dominating, highly authoritarian personalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemeyer, Bob

    2004-08-01

    The author considered the small part of the population whose members score highly on both the Social Dominance Orientation scale and the Right-Wing Authoritarianism scale. Studies of these High SDO-High RWAs, culled from samples of nearly 4000 Canadian university students and over 2600 of their parents and reported in the present article, reveal that these dominating authoritarians are among the most prejudiced persons in society. Furthermore, they seem to combine the worst elements of each kind of personality, being power-hungry, unsupportive of equality, manipulative, and amoral, as social dominators are in general, while also being religiously ethnocentric and dogmatic, as right-wing authoritarians tend to be. The author suggested that, although they are small in number, such persons can have considerable impact on society because they are well-positioned to become the leaders of prejudiced right-wing political movements.

  19. Influences on Women’s Choices of Careers in Construction: A South African Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolosa Madikizela

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available  This paper analyses the factors influencing the choices of careers in construction by South African women. The literature on challenges which influence women‟s choices of careers in construction was reviewed and questionnaires were conducted with multiple samples, including construction organisations, construction students and professional women working in construction. The study found that women have a role to play in the construction industry and that they can build successful careers within the sector. However, it was not easy given the various barriers to entry such as gender-based discrimination against them, the harsh work environment of the construction site, the lack of sufficient knowledge about the industry itself and the shortage of successful women in construction as role models. There was evidence of discrimination and sexual harassment. All these factors impacted negatively on the choices of careers in construction by South African women. This study makes a contribution to our understanding of the factors that have marginalised women in a male dominated industry and provides some indication of approaches to attract more women into the sector. It is hoped that it will stimulate debate about how the low representation of women in construction can be addressed and how construction careers for women can be promoted and encouraged and that the resource pool will be enlarged given the prevalent acute skills shortage in the industry.  

  20. Influences on Women’s Choices of Careers in Construction: A South African Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Haupt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  This paper analyses the factors influencing the choices of careers in construction by South African women. The literature on challenges which influence women‟s choices of careers in construction was reviewed and questionnaires were conducted with multiple samples, including construction organisations, construction students and professional women working in construction. The study found that women have a role to play in the construction industry and that they can build successful careers within the sector. However, it was not easy given the various barriers to entry such as gender-based discrimination against them, the harsh work environment of the construction site, the lack of sufficient knowledge about the industry itself and the shortage of successful women in construction as role models. There was evidence of discrimination and sexual harassment. All these factors impacted negatively on the choices of careers in construction by South African women. This study makes a contribution to our understanding of the factors that have marginalised women in a male dominated industry and provides some indication of approaches to attract more women into the sector. It is hoped that it will stimulate debate about how the low representation of women in construction can be addressed and how construction careers for women can be promoted and encouraged and that the resource pool will be enlarged given the prevalent acute skills shortage in the industry.

  1. Influences on Women’s Choices of Careers in Construction: A South African Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolosa Madikizela

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the factors influencing the choices of careers in construction by South African women. The literature on challenges which influence women‟s choices of careers in construction was reviewed and questionnaires were conducted with multiple samples, including construction organisations, construction students and professional women working in construction. The study found that women have a role to play in the construction industry and that they can build successful careers within the sector. However, it was not easy given the various barriers to entry such as gender-based discrimination against them, the harsh work environment of the construction site, the lack of sufficient knowledge about the industry itself and the shortage of successful women in construction as role models. There was evidence of discrimination and sexual harassment. All these factors impacted negatively on the choices of careers in construction by South African women. This study makes a contribution to our understanding of the factors that have marginalised women in a male dominated industry and provides some indication of approaches to attract more women into the sector. It is hoped that it will stimulate debate about how the low representation of women in construction can be addressed and how construction careers for women can be promoted and encouraged and that the resource pool will be enlarged given the prevalent acute skills shortage in the industry.

  2. Lexical choice in Karo narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABAS JÚNIOR Nilson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at two verbal descriptions of the Pear film and characterizes them according to the analysis proposed by Downing (1980 for factors influencing lexical choice. The two descriptions, one short and one long, were told by my Karo consultant, Mário Jorge Arara, after the exhibition of the film. Generally, the present article looks at Downing's assertion that "if the description is to be brief, words of broad referential scope are likely to be chosen (.... If the speaker opts for a more detailed description, more lexemes of narrower referential scope are likely to appear" (1980:90 and sees how this assertion applies to the two narratives. Specifically, it looks at each of the versions of the story and tries to explain the mentions of the referents by either basic or non-basic level categories in terms of cognitive, textual and contextual factors.

  3. Factors Influencing Contraceptive Choice and Discontinuation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Kenya, an area with high HIV and low contraceptive prevalence rates. Qualitative methods were used in three focus group discussions and 15 in-depth interviews to gather data from 46 HIV-positive women ages 18 to 45, purposively selected by age strata. Analysis was performed using ATLAS-ti (ATLAS-ti Center, Berlin).

  4. Factors Influencing Contraceptive Choice and Discontinuation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    This study explored perceptions towards and utilization of contraception among HIV-positive, reproduction-age women in. Kericho, Kenya, an area with high HIV and low contraceptive prevalence rates. Qualitative methods were used in three focus group discussions and 15 in-depth interviews to gather data from 46 ...

  5. Theory Choice and Social Choice: Kuhn meets Arrow

    OpenAIRE

    Okasha, S

    2011-01-01

    Kuhn’s famous thesis that there is ‘no unique algorithm’ for choosing between rival scientific theories is analysed using the machinery of social choice theory. It is shown that the problem of theory choice as posed by Kuhn is formally identical to a standard social choice problem. This suggests that analogues of well-known results from the social choice literature, such as Arrow’s impossibility theorem, may apply to theory choice. If an analogue of Arrow’s theorem does hold for theory choice...

  6. Visual dominance in olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batic, N; Gabassi, P G

    1987-08-01

    The object of the present study was to verify the emergence of a 'visual dominance' effect in memory tests involving different sensory modes (sight and smell), brought about the preattentive mechanisms which select the visual sensory mode regardless of the recall task.

  7. Vector-meson dominance revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terschlüsen Carla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of mesons with electromagnetism is often well described by the concept of vector-meson dominance (VMD. However, there are also examples where VMD fails. A simple chiral Lagrangian for pions, rho and omega mesons is presented which can account for the respective agreement and disagreement between VMD and phenomenology in the sector of light mesons.

  8. Testing for Stochastic Dominance Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); O. Linton; Y-J. Whang

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new test of the stochastic dominance efficiency of a given portfolio over a class of portfolios. We establish its null and alternative asymptotic properties, and define a method for consistently estimating critical values. We present some numerical evidence that our

  9. The choice of forest site for recreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agimass, Fitalew; Lundhede, Thomas; Panduro, Toke Emil

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the factors that can influence the site choice of forest recreation. Relevant attributes are identified by using spatial data analysis from a questionnaire asking people to indicate their most recent forest visits by pinpointing on a map. The main objectives of the s......In this paper, we investigate the factors that can influence the site choice of forest recreation. Relevant attributes are identified by using spatial data analysis from a questionnaire asking people to indicate their most recent forest visits by pinpointing on a map. The main objectives...... logit as well as a random parameter logit model. The variables that are found to affect the choice of forest site to a visit for recreation include: forest area, tree species composition, forest density, availability of historical sites, terrain difference, state ownership, and distance. Regarding...

  10. Discretionary time of Chinese college students: Activities and impact of SARS-induced constraints on choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    He Yang; Susan Hutchinson; Harry Zinn; Alan Watson

    2011-01-01

    How people make choices about activity engagement during discretionary time is a topic of increasing interest to those studying quality of life issues. Assuming choices are made to maximize individual welfare, several factors are believed to influence these choices. Constraints theory from the leisure research literature suggests these choices are heavily influenced by...

  11. Sad Facial Expressions Increase Choice Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have discovered a fascinating phenomenon known as choice blindness—individuals fail to detect mismatches between the face they choose and the face replaced by the experimenter. Although previous studies have reported a couple of factors that can modulate the magnitude of choice blindness, the potential effect of facial expression on choice blindness has not yet been explored. Using faces with sad and neutral expressions (Experiment 1 and faces with happy and neutral expressions (Experiment 2 in the classic choice blindness paradigm, the present study investigated the effects of facial expressions on choice blindness. The results showed that the detection rate was significantly lower on sad faces than neutral faces, whereas no significant difference was observed between happy faces and neutral faces. The exploratory analysis of verbal reports found that participants who reported less facial features for sad (as compared to neutral expressions also tended to show a lower detection rate of sad (as compared to neutral faces. These findings indicated that sad facial expressions increased choice blindness, which might have resulted from inhibition of further processing of the detailed facial features by the less attractive sad expressions (as compared to neutral expressions.

  12. Testing Preference Axioms in Discrete Choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Tjur, Tue

    Recent studies have tested the preference axioms of completeness and transitivity, and have detected other preference phenomena such as unstability, learning- and tiredness effects, ordering effects and dominance, in stated preference discrete choice experiments. However, it has not been explicitly...... addressed in these studies which preference models are actually being tested, and the connection between the statistical tests performed and the relevant underlying models of respondent behavior has not been explored further. This paper tries to fill that gap. We specifically analyze the meaning and role...... of the preference axioms and other preference phenomena in the context of stated preference discrete choice experiments, and examine whether or how these can be subject to meaningful (statistical) tests...

  13. The choice that disappeared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Saxe, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article criticise the notion that ethical consumerism can solve the ethical issues related to sustainability and food production through an analysis of the complexity of the concept of sustainability as related to food choices. The current trend of leaving the political discussion...... and regulation of the food area to the political consumer is shown to be problematic as shopping for sustainability might be much harder than initially believed due to the conflicting considerations entailed in the concept. Thus political consumerism may give way to fatalism as the complexity of choices become...... apparent and acts of citizenship increasingly are reduced to ethical consumerism supposed to be performed while shopping. The suggested solution is to let food policies be decided to a much higher degree through the political process engaging humans as citizens rather than consumers in the process....

  14. ParaChoice Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimer, Brandon Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Levinson, Rebecca Sobel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); West, Todd H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Analysis with the ParaChoice model addresses three barriers from the VTO Multi-Year Program Plan: availability of alternative fuels and electric charging station infrastructure, availability of AFVs and electric drive vehicles, and consumer reluctance to purchase new technologies. In this fiscal year, we first examined the relationship between the availability of alternative fuels and station infrastructure. Specifically, we studied how electric vehicle charging infrastructure affects the ability of EVs to compete with vehicles that rely on mature, conventional petroleum-based fuels. Second, we studied how the availability of less costly AFVs promotes their representation in the LDV fleet. Third, we used ParaChoice trade space analyses to help inform which consumers are reluctant to purchase new technologies. Last, we began analysis of impacts of alternative energy technologies on Class 8 trucks to isolate those that may most efficaciously advance HDV efficiency and petroleum use reduction goals.

  15. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  16. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students......Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...

  17. Fuzzy social choice theory

    CERN Document Server

    B Gibilisco, Michael; E Albert, Karen; N Mordeson, John; J Wierman, Mark; D Clark, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the social choice literature and shows, by applying fuzzy sets, how the use of fuzzy preferences, rather than that of strict ones, may affect the social choice theorems. To do this, the book explores the presupposition of rationality within the fuzzy framework and shows that the two conditions for rationality, completeness and transitivity, do exist with fuzzy preferences. Specifically, this book examines: the conditions under which a maximal set exists; the Arrow’s theorem;  the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem; and the median voter theorem.  After showing that a non-empty maximal set does exists for fuzzy preference relations, this book goes on to demonstrating the existence of a fuzzy aggregation rule satisfying all five Arrowian conditions, including non-dictatorship. While the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem only considers individual fuzzy preferences, this work shows that both individuals and groups can choose alternatives to various degrees, resulting in a so...

  18. Leisure and Travel Choice

    OpenAIRE

    María José Caride; Eduardo L. Giménez

    2003-01-01

    It is commonly recognized the relevance of transportation costs for studying recre- ational demand. However, these costs are related with travel and modal choice deci- sions. This paper o ers a theoretical explanation of the new generation of the demand for recreational goods at destiny after the introduction of a new transportation mode that is not the cheapest nor the fastest among the available modes. The main feature of the model deals with the transportation mode-dependent preferences. T...

  19. Constructive Consumer Choice Processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettman, James R; Luce, Mary Frances; Payne, John W

    1998-01-01

    Consumer decision making has been a focal interest in consumer research, and consideration of current marketplace trends ( e.g., technological change, an information explosion) indicates that this topic will continue to be critically important. We argue that consumer choice is inherently constructive. Due to limited processing capacity, consumers often do not have well-defined existing preferences, but construct them using a variety of strategies contingent on task demands. After describing c...

  20. Food choices during Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamina Rashid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed the dietary Practices of people with diabetes during Ramadan (1. A sub study of Ramadan prospective diabetes study (2 which was conducted at the outpatient department of Baqai Institute of Diabetology and endocrinology, Karachi Pakistan in 2009 analyzed the food choices of patients with diabetes during Ramadan. Several irregularities regarding dietary intake and food choices were noted among the study participants. Although, the patients were counseled regarding diet before Ramadan, many did not follow the dietary advice. All patients had taken food at Iftar but majority of them preferred fried items like samosas, pakoras (fried snack, chicken rolls etc. these deeply fried items can lead to post Iftar hyperglycemia. Patients were also opted for fruit chat, dahibara and chanachaat at Iftar, higher load of these items can also worsen glycemic control. The striking finding was almost absence of meat (protein intake at Iftar but study from India showed increment of all three macronutrients during Ramadan (3. This may result in higher intake of items from carbohydrate and fat groups resulting in hyperglycemia after iftar. Intake of vegetables at Iftar was also negligible and hence the diet was not well balanced. The food choices at sahoor included roti, paratha (fried bread, slices, khajla, pheni, meat, egg and milk. Though it is advisable to take complex carbohydrates, protein and fat at sahoor as these are slowly digestible and can prevent hypoglycemia during fasting but khajla pheni are extremely rich in fat and carbohydrate content and should be avoided (4. However, paratha in 2 teaspoon of oil can be taken at sahoor.Patients with diabetes who fast during the month of Ramadan should have pre Ramadan dietary guidance and counseling session in order to modify their food preferences and choices during the holy month of Ramadan (4.