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Sample records for factors cultural factors

  1. Cultural Factors in Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔敏

    2005-01-01

    Reading is a basic ability in learning English and reading comprehension exercise is a common way to assess this ability.Since reading is a communicative activity between author and reader in written form,there are some different rules and regulations of this communication in different countries.Therefore,cultural factors,existing in reading,decide,help,and influence the percentage of the right answers.This article attempts to analyze the effects of cultural differences in reading and the barriers in comprehension,and aims to improve students awareness of cultural differences in reading.

  2. Cultural Factors in Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇

    2015-01-01

    When it comes to the intercultural business negotiation,a correct understanding of the cultural differences between the east and the west and the appropriate approach to the cultural conflicts are the preconditions for the success.This paper aims at putting forward effective strategies to tackle cross-cultural obstacles in the business negotiation through the comparative study of cultural factors in business negotiations.

  3. Guidelines, evidence, and cultural factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaens, T.; Backer, D. de; Burgers, J.S.; Baerheim, A.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare four recent guidelines on uncomplicated cystitis and to examine how cultural factors may have affected recommendations. DESIGN: Descriptive study with a qualitative analysis of authors' reasons for recommendations. MATERIAL: Guidelines for general practitioners published

  4. Socio-Cultural Factors and International Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madara Apsalone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Socio-cultural factors – shared values, norms and attitudes are significant, but less acknowledged sources of international competitiveness. Previous studies have found socio-cultural factors positively affecting various aspects of international competitiveness – entrepreneurship, innovation, productivity and international cooperation. These factors are more sustainable and less affected by external environment changes in comparison with the traditional factors. Socio-cultural factors provide an opportunity to develop competitiveness strategies based on unique advantages. This research aims to explore the impact of socio-cultural factors on international competiveness in small, open economies. Analysing relationship between 400 socio-cultural indicators and competitiveness indicators such as productivity, economic development, business and government efficiency, innovation capacity and infrastructure in 37 countries, six socio-cultural factors have emerged: Collectivism and Hierarchy; Future, Cooperation and Performance Orientation, Self-expression, Monochronism and Rationality, Economic Orientation and Social structure. The first factor – Collectivism and Hierarchy – tends to reduce the international competitiveness; the other five affect it positively.

  5. The Violence Factors in American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董陶

    2015-01-01

    Violence symbolized the dark side of America culture. The theme of this article is to explore the causes of the violence factors in American culture. American violence exists as a result of a complex network of elements from American history, American value, various social factors such as economic inequality, racial discrimination, mass media, wide spread of guns as well as drug abuse. Besides, the governmental policy plays an essential role in American violence to some extent.

  6. Factors affecting patient education from cultural perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD REZA HEIDARI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient education is influenced by cultural factors. This study aims to find out the role of culture in patient education. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted on 23 Iranian nurses. Inclusion criteria were minimum 5 years of working experience in clinical nursing. Semistructured face to face interviews were used to collect the data. Interviews were taped, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis method. Results: The main theme of ‘cultural sensitivity’ was extracted from the interviews. Sub-themes were cultural divergence, cultural connection literacybased instruction. Conclusion: A dynamic process of patient education is influenced by various cultural factors. Nurses must be aware of the cultural norms in patient education to meet their expectations in a respectful manner.

  7. Childhood obesity : medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was a

  8. Childhood obesity: medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was

  9. Culture, cultural factors and psychiatric diagnosis: review and projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Renato D

    2009-10-01

    This paper aims to provide conceptual justifications for the inclusion of culture and cultural factors in psychiatric diagnosis, and logistic suggestions as to the content and use of this approach. A discussion of the scope and limitations of current diagnostic practice, criticisms from different quarters, and the role and relevance of culture in the diagnostic encounter, precede the examination of advantages and disadvantages of the approach. The cultural content of psychiatric diagnosis should include the main, well-recognized cultural variables, adequate family data, explanatory models, and strengths and weaknesses of every individual patient. The practical aspects include the acceptance of "cultural discordances" as a component of an updated definition of mental disorder, and the use of a refurbished cultural formulation. Clinical "telescoping" strategies to obtain relevant cultural data during the diagnostic interview, and areas of future research (including field trials on the cultural formulation and on "culture bound syndromes"), are outlined.

  10. Cross-culturally recurrent personality factors : Analyses of three factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B; Peabody, D

    2005-01-01

    This study proceeds from an earlier one that examined the 'Big Five' factors (Peabody & De Raad, 2002). That study considered the substantive nature of five factors from six European psycholexical studies. The results supported Big Five Factor III (Conscientiousness), but Factors I (Extraversion) an

  11. A Study of the Cultural Factors Influencing SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiTong; HuangRenfeng; YangWeizhong

    2004-01-01

    The cultural factors that affect Second Language Acquisition (SLA) result from many aspects, some derived from the level of the acquirer's mother language, other soriginated from the stratum of his native culture. Based on the relations between language and culture - language is the carrier of culture, while culture is the contents of language-it

  12. Fluctuating levels of reprogramming factor expression in cultured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    factors (RFs), the endogenous expression of reprogramming factors in cultured HUKs is not clear at different stages. In this ... of drugs and genes; furthermore, this approach to gene- ... the expression of exogenous RFs using virus-mediated.

  13. Cultural Factors in Tourism Interpretation of Leshan Giant Buddha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenwen

    2017-01-01

    Different cultural aspects are always involved in tourism interpretation, and the process of tourism interpretation is also cross-cultural communication. If the cultural factors can be interpreted for the foreign visitors in a better way, it's beneficial to convey the cultural connotation of the scenic spot and it can be the communication more…

  14. On the Importance of Cultural Factors in Oral English Studying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Juan

    2016-01-01

    Language communication, in some way, is cultural communication, in order to have a better ability of communicating, students have to know and understand enough culture knowledge. This paper will analyze the relationship between language and culture, emphasize the importance of cultural factors in oral English studying.

  15. Organizational Culture Factors that Can Influence Knowledge Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Pastor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to establish the correlation that exists between the types of organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer. We started from the hypothesis that organizations which have high scores for cultural factors of openness to change and innovation as well as for task-oriented organizational growth will have the tendency of being favourable to knowledge transfer. Moreover, we started from the hypothesis that organizations that have high scores for bureaucracy and competition factors will have the tendency of being unfavourable to knowledge transfer. The research reached the conclusion that there seems to be a correlation between organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer.

  16. Cultural Factors in Collegiate Eating Disorder Pathology: When Family Culture Clashes with Individual Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the validity of familial enmeshment (extreme proximity in family relationships) as a risk factor for eating disorders across cultural value orientations. They tested the hypothesis that although familial enmeshment may be a risk factor for eating disorder pathology for (1) participants of non-Asian descent or (2)…

  17. Conditioning Factors of an Organizational Learning Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Teresa Manuela; Gomes, Adelino Duarte

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between some variables (organizational structure, organizational dimension and age, human resource characteristics, the external environment, strategy and quality) and organizational learning culture and evaluate the way they interact with this kind of culture.…

  18. Cultural Competence and Related Factors Among Taiwanese Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Nu; Mastel-Smith, Beth; Alfred, Danita; Lin, Yu-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan is a multicultural and multiethnic society with a growing number of immigrants who have diverse ethnic, racial, and cultural needs. Although this diversity highlights the pressing need for culturally competent healthcare providers, cultural competence is a concept that is little understood and implemented only sporadically in Taiwan. This study investigates the cultural competence of Taiwanese nurses and the related factors of influence. An online self-report survey was used to collect data from 221 Taiwanese nurses from December 2012 through January 2013. Data from the demographic questionnaire, the Nurses' Cultural Competence Scale, and the Perceived Nurses' Cultural Competence Rating were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, independent sample t tests, and multiple regressions. The cultural competence of the participants was in the "low to moderate" range, with relatively higher mean scores for the subscales of cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity and relatively lower scores for the subscales of cultural knowledge and cultural skills. Participants generally perceived themselves as being "not culturally competent." Variables found to predict cultural competence included years of work experience, hours of continuing education related to cultural nursing care, and frequency of caring for clients from culturally and ethnically diverse backgrounds. Participating Taiwanese nurses rated their level of cultural competence as in the low-to-moderate range and self-perceived as being not culturally competent. These findings support the need to further expand and enhance cultural-competence-related continuing education and to address the topic of cultural care in the nursing curricula.

  19. Risk analysis-based food safety policy: scientific factors versus socio-cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Mauro; van Knapen, Frans; Brom, Frans W A

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the importance of socio-cultural factors in risk management and the need to incorporate these factors in a standard, internationally recognized (WTO) framework. This was achieved by analysing the relevance of these factors in three cases. It can be concluded that the pre-eminent role of science in food-related regulatory decisions is debatable. At a risk management level, other factors, such as cultural, social, or economic issues, are often more important than scientific advice in determining policy. There is a need for transparency at an international level as trade barriers are gradually being removed and these other factors are becoming more apparent. Therefore it is important that all the factors implicated in the food safety policy-making process are recognized in a standard framework.

  20. Feelings about culture scales: development, factor structure, reliability, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffini, Cara S; Wong, Y Joel

    2015-04-01

    Although measures of cultural identity, values, and behavior exist in the multicultural psychological literature, there is currently no measure that explicitly assesses ethnic minority individuals' positive and negative affect toward culture. Therefore, we developed 2 new measures called the Feelings About Culture Scale--Ethnic Culture and Feelings About Culture Scale--Mainstream American Culture and tested their psychometric properties. In 6 studies, we piloted the measures, conducted factor analyses to clarify their factor structure, and examined reliability and validity. The factor structure revealed 2 dimensions reflecting positive and negative affect for each measure. Results provided evidence for convergent, discriminant, criterion-related, and incremental validity as well as the reliability of the scales. The Feelings About Culture Scales are the first known measures to examine both positive and negative affect toward an individual's ethnic culture and mainstream American culture. The focus on affect captures dimensions of psychological experiences that differ from cognitive and behavioral constructs often used to measure cultural orientation. These measures can serve as a valuable contribution to both research and counseling by providing insight into the nuanced affective experiences ethnic minority individuals have toward culture.

  1. Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local people ... The social and economic circumstances prevailing in Tanzania today have made ... sociocultural and livelihood factors that influence community participation in ... Increased capacity for conservation skills was the most important driver of community ...

  2. Political science factor in information culture

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov G.

    2017-01-01

    The value of political science in information culture of society reveals; the main indicators of the public status of political science are investigated; the main functions of political science in the activity of actors of society are characterised.

  3. Racial and Cultural Factors and Learning Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Baldwin and Ford (1988) specifically include learner characteristics as one of three key inputs into the learning transfer process but infrequently (actually almost never) has race, ethnicity, or culture been included as a variable when describing trainee characteristics. For the most part one is left to speculate as to the potential influence…

  4. Workforce cultural factors in TQM/CQI implementation in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Z; Martin, T N

    2000-01-01

    One of the major obstacles to successful implementation of TQM/CQI in hospitals has been management's failure to consider the workforce cultural situation. This quasi-qualitative study investigates eight workforce cultural factors in seven midwestern hospitals. Results reveal only one of the seven hospitals successfully implementing TQM/CQI.

  5. Cultural Factors in Working with Southeast Asian Refugee Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Evelyn

    1988-01-01

    Presents some of the unique socio-political-cultural factors that impact upon the psychological development of Southeast Asian refugee adolescents, including adjustment problems and intercultural conflicts. Recommends clinicians working with this population assess major stresses, strengths, and culturally specific responses to mental health…

  6. Modern Youth Sub-Cultures: Characteristic Features, Forming Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D A Koltunov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing complexity of today's world, faster social and technological innovations and the resulting impossibility to explain the universe in terms of the classical, traditional systems lead to the emergence of new social and cultural patterns, behavioral standards and particular thinking which make up new sub-cultural paradigms. In this article the author attempts to identify the basic factors forming youth sub-cultures and define their peculiar features in contemporary Russian society.

  7. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2017-06-01

    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  8. Malchish-Kibalchish: cultural factors in a clinical case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivinsky, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a Jungian understanding of cultural factors influencing individual analysis is illustrated with the case of a patient suffering from panic attacks. The analysis revealed that, in addition to the patient's personal background, the collectivistic attitudes of the Soviet culture, which had a moulding effect on the patient in his childhood and obstructed his individuation, should be taken into account. The concepts of the totalitarian object and the Russian cultural complex encompassing a grandiosity pole and an inferiority pole are used to explore the patient's condition, and the crucial role of creating mutual language with the patient is outlined. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  9. Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

  10. An Investigation of Work Culture and Social Factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siroos Ahmadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research examines work culture and social factors influencing it among employees of Islamic Azad University, the largest private organization in Iran. First, it has been tried to determine a rate for work culture and then relationships between work culture and participatory management, organizational justice, job satisfaction, and demographic variables have been examined. Research method is cross-sectional survey; research population is all personnel of the Islamic Azad Universities in three provinces: Fars, Boushehr and Kohkiloye-Boyerahmad. Overall, 481 subjects were selected by means of simple random sampling. Measurement tool is questionnaire, which includes four scales. Construct validity was obtained through factor analysis; Reliability test was also performed by means of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Research findings indicate that work culture is on average among subjects. Also, there are significant relationships between work culture and participatory management, organizational justice, job satisfaction, age and years of employment. Using regression analysis, it appears that of all independent variables, job satisfaction and years of employment are strongest predictors of work culture. Taken together, they explain 18% of the variance of work culture.

  11. Socio-Cultural Factors and Intention towards Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Loon KOE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to rectify environmental degradation, government has encouraged sustainable management among businesses. In addition, researchers have also suggested a new breed of study called “sustainable entrepreneurship”, which links sustainability management to entrepreneurial activities. However, the participation of entrepreneurial firms in sustainability management is still far from satisfactory. Past studies also have found that SMEs are less active in sustainabilty initiatives and many issues related to the intention of firms for sustainability entrepreneurship is still unanswered. Therefore, this study was carried out to examine the influence of socio-cultural factors on intention towards sustainable entrepreneurship among SMEs. A total of 404 SMEs in Malaysia were surveyed by using questionnaire. Based on the statistical analyses performed, this study found that three socio-cultural factors, namely time orientation, sustainability orientation and social norm significantly influenced intention towards sustainable entrepreneurship among SMEs. Thus, in order to develop true sustainable entrepreneurs in the country, the effects of non-economic factors such as socio-cultural factors should not be underestimated. Lastly, some recommendations for future researchers have also been put forth in this paper.

  12. Violent cultural factors and serial homicide by males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFronzo, James; Prochnow, Jane

    2004-02-01

    Explaining the phenomenon of male serial homicide has usually been approached from a psychiatric perspective. However, recent integrative theory suggests that cultural factors may play a role in shaping the psychology of young males with particular psychiatric and possibly neurological vulnerabilities in such ways as to facilitate converting the motivation to kill into actual behavior. Present results indicated that 34-45% of the interstate variation in rates of serial killer activity could be accounted for by three dimensions of local culture. Higher rates of male serial killer activity were associated with a local state culture supportive of game hunting and military training and a local culture supportive of punitive violence. The findings must be viewed with caution since societal variables are complex and the results are based on correlations which cannot be causally interpreted without more direct evidence of validity.

  13. Culture and Consumer Behavior: The Role of Horizontal and Vertical Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavitt, Sharon; Cho, Hyewon

    2016-01-01

    We examine the influence of culture on consumer behavior with a particular focus on horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Cultures vary in their propensity to emphasize hierarchy, a distinction captured by examining horizontal/vertical cultural orientations or contexts. These cultural factors pattern personal values and goals, power concepts, and normative expectations applied to the exercise of power. We review implications for how consumers respond to brands in the marketplace, service providers, and each others' needs. PMID:28083559

  14. Culture and Consumer Behavior: The Role of Horizontal and Vertical Cultural Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavitt, Sharon; Cho, Hyewon

    2016-04-01

    We examine the influence of culture on consumer behavior with a particular focus on horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Cultures vary in their propensity to emphasize hierarchy, a distinction captured by examining horizontal/vertical cultural orientations or contexts. These cultural factors pattern personal values and goals, power concepts, and normative expectations applied to the exercise of power. We review implications for how consumers respond to brands in the marketplace, service providers, and each others' needs.

  15. Legal culture as a factor of social stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Akulich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines legal culture as a factor of stability in developing societies referring to the concepts of culture proposed by P.A. Sorokin, L.N. Kogan, M.T. Iovchuk and other famous sociologists. The authors state that in the modern sociological literature legal culture is studied mainly from the theoretical rather than empirical standpoint: the sociology has accumulated a lot of data on the legal culture, although its study in the context of agreements and conflicts, stability and destructiveness is not enough. Legal culture should be regarded as a regulator and stabilizer of social interactions and relationships in both specific countries and the global space. Thus, identifying regional and global aspects of legal culture has become an important theoretical problem of the sociological studies nowadays as well as considering legal culture in relation to moral, economic and political values and priorities. The authors argue that it is not possible to build a state of law and civil society without raising the level of legal culture, and present the results of the sociological study of the legal culture in the south of the Tyumen region conducted in 2013. This survey revealed an average level of following the law in 55% of the local population, although 90% consider themselves law-abiding citizens. At the same time, 46% believe in the possibility to manipulate the law, and 60% approve the principle of equity of the law. The authors conclude that the identified average level of legal culture among the local population is an indicator of a quite stable and successful development of the region under study.

  16. Social and cultural factors in the successful control of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, A J; Garro, L C

    1992-01-01

    The burden of tuberculosis on the public health is staggering. Worldwide, annual incidence of new cases is estimated to be about 8 million. Almost 3 million deaths occur yearly. Early case identification and adherence to treatment regimens are the remaining barriers to successful control. In many nations, however, fewer than half those with active disease receive a diagnosis, and fewer than half those beginning treatment complete it. The twin problems of delay in seeking treatment and abandonment of a prescribed regimen derive from complex factors. People's confusion as to the implications of the tuberculosis symptoms, costs of transportation to clinic services, the social stigma that attaches to tuberculosis, the high cost of medication, organizational problems in providing adequate followup services, and patients' perception of clinic facilities as inhospitable all contribute to the complexity. Sociocultural factors are emphasized in this report because hitherto they have not been adequately explored. Salient among those sociocultural factors is the health culture of the patients. That is, the understanding and information people have from family, friends, and neighbors as to the nature of a health problem, its cause, and its implications. A knowledge of the health culture of their patients has become a critical tool if tuberculosis control programs are to be successful. Several anthropological procedures are recommended to help uncover the health culture of people served by tuberculosis clinics.

  17. Diagnostic yield of stool culture and predictive factors for positive culture in patients with diarrheal illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Young; Cho, Sun Young; Hwang, Hannah Sun Hae; Ryu, Ja Young; Lee, Jongjin; Song, In Do; Kim, Beom Jin; Kim, Jeong Wook; Chang, Sae Kyung; Choi, Chang Hwan

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to investigate the diagnostic yield of stool cultures and identify predictive factors for positive cultures in patients with diarrheal illness.A total of 13,327 patients who underwent stool cultures due to diarrheal illness were reviewed. Stool cultures were performed for enteric pathogens, including Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Yersinia. The culture-positive group was compared with the culture-negative group who were randomly selected from culture negative patients.A total of 196 patients (1.47%) were diagnosed with positive stool culture. In 196 culture positive patients, Salmonella spp. (75.0%) was detected most commonly, followed by Vibrio (19.4%). Univariate analyses showed fever (>37.8°C), vomiting, duration and frequency of diarrhea, and high C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly associated with positive stool culture. Multivariate analysis showed fever (odds ratio [OR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-4.35; P = .008), ≥5/day of diarrhea (OR, 3.52; 95% CI, 1.93-6.44; P 50 mg/L of CRP (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.18-4.36; P = .014) were independent predictors for positive stool culture. OR in patients with all 3 factors was 6.55 (95% CI, 2.56-16.75; P factor.Diagnostic yield of stool culture in patients with diarrheal illness is very low. Fever, frequency of diarrhea, and high CRP are predictors for positive stool cultures. These findings may lead to more discerning and cost-effective utilization of stool culture by clinicians.

  18. Transforming growth factor-beta as a differentiating factor for cultured smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawaziuk, J P; X; Sheikh, F; Cheng, Z-Q; Cattini, P A; Stephens, N L

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the development of supercontractile smooth muscle cells, contributing to the nonspecific hyperreactivity of airways in asthmatic patients, is due to transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. In cultured smooth muscle cells starved by removal of 10% foetal bovine serum for 7 days, growth arrest was seen; 30% became elongated and demonstrated super contractility. Study of conditioned medium suggested that the differentiating factor was TGF-beta. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was carried out on conditioned medium from the arrested cells. Two protein bands were identified as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and TGF-beta1. To determine second messenger signalling by SMAD2, Western blotting and confocal microscopy were employed. Conditioned medium from arrested cultures showed the presence of MMP-2 and TGF-beta1, as revealed by SDS-PAGE; 68- and 25-kDa bands were seen. Differentiation was confirmed by upregulation of marker proteins, smooth muscle type myosin heavy chain and myosin light chain kinase. Confirmation was obtained by downregulating these proteins with decorin treatment, which reduces the levels of active TGF-beta and an adenoviral dominant-negative vector coding for a mutated type II TGF-beta-receptor. Activation of second messenger signalling was demonstrated immunocytochemically by the presence of phosphorylated SMAD2 and SMAD4. Transforming growth factor-beta is likely to be the differentiating factor responsible for the development of these supercontractile smooth muscle cells. The development of such cells in vivo after cessation of an asthmatic attack could contribute to the nonspecific hyperreactivity of airways seen in patients.

  19. Social relationships in an electronic environment. Cultural factors and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine CLEMENTE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within certain cultural and social limits, some behaviours linked to the use of new technology, gaming, physical exercise or work are useful practices with a positive social value for both individuals and society. As these practices are commonly and socially accepted, the trend is to underestimate the risks and not to perceive them as deviances even when they start to be compulsive. This paper focuses on the concept of new non-substance addictions and on how some social factors influence, on the one side, this new interaction between man and technology and, on the other side, social relationships in the electronic environment.

  20. Risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance in ocular cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junsung; Choi, Sangkyung

    2015-02-01

    To identify the risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in patients undergoing cataract surgery. A total of 1,125 patients (1,125 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery at Veterans Health Service Medical Center from May 2011 to July 2012 were enrolled in this study. Conjunctival cultures were obtained from the patients on the day of surgery before instillation of any ophthalmic solutions. The medical records of patients with positive coagulase negative staphylococcus (CNS) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) cultures were reviewed to determine factors associated with fluoroquinolone resistance. Of 734 CNS and S. aureus cultures, 175 (23.8%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, or moxifloxacin. Use of fluoroquinolone within 3 months and within 1 year before surgery, topical antibiotic use other than fluoroquinolone, systemic antibiotic use, recent hospitalization, ocular surgery, intravitreal injection and use of eyedrops containing benzalkonium chloride were significantly more frequent in resistant isolates than in susceptible isolates. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, ocular surgery (odds ratio [OR], 8.457), recent hospitalization (OR, 6.646) and use of fluoroquinolone within 3 months before surgery (OR, 4.918) were significant predictors of fluoroquinolone resistance, along with intravitreal injection (OR, 2.976), systemic antibiotic use (OR, 2.665), use of eyedrops containing benzalkonium chloride (OR, 2.323), use of fluoroquinolone within 1 year before surgery (OR, 1.943) and topical antibiotic use other than fluoroquinolone (OR, 1.673). Recent topical fluoroquinolone use, hospitalization and ocular surgery were significantly associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in CNS and S. aureus isolates from ocular culture.

  1. Cultural and biological factors modulate spatial biases over development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, Luisa; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Grossi, Giuseppe; Arduino, Lisa S

    2017-11-01

    Increasing evidence supports the contribution of both biological and cultural factors to visuospatial processing. The present study adds to the literature by exploring the interplay of perceptual and linguistic mechanisms in determining visuospatial asymmetries in adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2). In particular, pre-schoolers (3 and 5 year-olds), school-aged children (8 year-old), and adult participants were required to bisect different types of stimuli, that is, lines, words, and figure strings. In accordance with the literature, results yielded a leftward bias for lines and words and a rightward bias for figure strings, in adult participants. More critically, different biases were found for lines, words, and figure strings in children as a function of age, reflecting the impact of both cultural and biological factors on the processing of different visuospatial materials. Specifically, an adult-like pattern of results emerged only in the older group of children (8 year-old), but not in pre-schoolers. Results are discussed in terms of literacy, reading habits exposure, and biological maturation.

  2. Culture-General and Culture-Specific Factors in the Discrimination of Melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of a culture-general factor, pattern redundancy, on the discrimination of five-tone melodies that differed in their adherence to Western tonal conventions, among 9-month olds, 5-year olds, and adults. Increasing exposure seemed to attenuate the effects of the pattern redundancy while amplifying the influence of…

  3. Study identifies socio-cultural factors affecting demographic behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is undertaking a project that will produce a state-of-the-art paper on sociocultural factors affecting demographic behavior. Particular emphasis will be placed on reproductive behavior in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Arab states region. The extent to which this information is incorporated in current population policies and programs will also be examined, and recommendations will be made. The factors to be studied include family and kinship structure; gender status and role; patterns of sexual relations and procreation in general and adolescent sexual behavior and fertility; religion, beliefs, customs, and traditions concerned with sexual relations and procreation; child rearing, socialization, and education; status and role of women; and sociocultural change, change agents, and influentials. The literature search will provide an inventory of methodologies. Guidelines on the use of the methodologies will be drafted for use by project personnel. These will later be tested in pilot studies in rural and urban communities in selected developing countries. The goal is to design programs that will accelerate contraceptive acceptance and sustain contraceptive practice by being sensitive to the sociocultural influences on the reproductive behavior of different subpopulations.

  4. Some cultural factors affecting costs of fertility regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, M

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a framework of the costs or constraints in the use of fertility regulation, reviews the existing knowledge on the subject in a cross-cultural context, and indicates the need for further studies. It is suggested that the apparent contradiction noted in fertility surveys between a couple's desire to have no more children or to postpone the next birth and actual behavior can be explained by the costs involved in the use of fertility regulation methods. The costs of fertility regulation can be broadly classified into 4 categories: 1) physical/health (disruption of menstrual cycle, side effects and health hazards of contraceptive methods, perceived health hazards based on ethno-physical concepts, and sacrifice of sexual pleasure); 2) psychic (violation of sexual modesty and human dignity, conflict with religious beliefs; 3) social opinion (challenges to spouse and sex role expectations, challenges to social influence group); and 4) economic (money, time). The economic costs of fertility regulation to individuals vary greatly according to the presence or absence of public sector family planning programs. A substantial part of these costs could be eliminated by national and international programs. So far, no study has focused on the costs of fertility regulation and factors affecting them. A methodology that combines elements of both a questionnaire survey and anthropological investigation and collects data on both the individual and community levels may be most amenable to assessing the impact of costs on the use or nonuse of fertility regulation.

  5. Socio-Demographic Factors Affecting Levels of Cultural and Non-Cultural Prejudice: Comparing Korean, Chinese, and Japanese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young; Lee, Jeeyon

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how socio-demographic factors related to the levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice among college students from Korea, China, and Japan. We used data collected from the Asian Value Survey. The main findings are as follows. First, Chinese students showed the lowest levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice. Second,…

  6. Establishing in Malaysia : The Impact of Cultural Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Dohlnér, Lisa; Grom, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia is one of the developing countries in the world that is on the verge to become de-veloped (Internationella Programkontoret, 2003). In 2004, Malaysia had a growth rate around 7% (United Nation Statistic Division, 2005) and it is implied that the Malaysian market is continuously growing. One factor that can increase the growth rate in Malaysia is foreign direct investments (FDI), which is, according to Chino (2004), one factor of sus-tainable growth. It has been noticed that the world ...

  7. An exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Asgari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, there has been a growing trend on knowledge-based organizations. Innovation, on the other hand, plays essential role on building competitive business units. In this paper, we present an exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations. We detect important factors influencing innovation culture in construction industry based on the implementation of factor analysis. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 experts who are involved in construction industry. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.779, which validates the overall questionnaire. The results of factor analysis have indicated that six factors of building cultural infrastructures, education, organizational vision, established culture, strategic culture and flexible culture are the most important items influencing innovation culture.

  8. Factors Contribute to Safety Culture in the Manufacturing Industry in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ong Choon Hee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of safety culture in the manufacturing industry in Malaysia and identify factors contribute to safety culture. It is suggested in this study that leadership support, management commitment and safety management system are important factors that contribute to safety culture. This study also provides theoretical implications to guide future research and offers practical implications to the managers in the development of safety culture. Given that ...

  9. Church and Cultural Conflict in Nigeria, 1870-1930: A Factor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Church and Cultural Conflict in Nigeria, 1870-1930: A Factor for Religio-Cultural ... of human relations that face us today in respect of mission and culture. ... to our understanding of the basic social and cultural institutions which, everywhere, ...

  10. The factor of local cultural specificity and process of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnev, Viacheslav

    2012-12-01

    , especially farming traditions in small-scale, non-industrial societies, has been based not only on the technologies that are "friendly" to Nature, but also (and first of all) on the perception that soil (earth) is the source of all life. This sort of perception was particularly widespread among peoples of pre-industrial societies. The problem of searching for a way to increase long-term productivity in food grain production is complicated. This problem is of global importance for today and the future. The active interest of Modern society in the Folk experiences of using the Nature to achieve sustainable economies is yet to come, but we have much to learn from these small-scale non-industrial societies. Food production needs to be increased. At the same time, the fertility of the soil must be maintained. Achieving a balance between these two necessities is the problem. Changing the present modern human outlook from its egocentric position to one that understands and respects the natural environment, based on ideas of "ecological ethics", looks especially complex, and is directly connected with the problem of forming a new culture. Actually, the global ecological crisis and related ecological problems take priority and the transition to a new model of thinking promises to be accelerated. In this context, making use of Folk heritage, Folk knowledge and experience in observing Nature and using Nature to achieve harmonious interrelations in a "Nature - Society" system, and for the elaboration of a change of attitudes is quite important for modern society on a Global level to achieve ways of Sustainability. Lucius Seneca maintains that subjugation of a Nature is possible only if obeying to Nature. Modern epoch of Globalization in economy and Financial systems creating a potential of high risks for mankind on the Global level. Special attention to local factors (local experience in Nature using, local Folk experience in Life-support activity) in context of globalization problems

  11. Corruption Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Polterovich, Victor

    1998-01-01

    Among the factors that give rise to corruption, it is suggested that three groups be distinguished: fundamental factors rooted in the imperfection of economic institutions and economic policy, organizational factors ("weakness of the government"), and societal factors that depend on the prehistory and are connected with the mass culture and norms of bureaucratic behavior. A model in which corruption equilibrium is supported by non-optimum tax policy or by slow technical progress is compared w...

  12. AN ANALYSIS TOWARDS CULTURAL FACTORS IN ENGLISH AND CHINESE TRANSLATION IN THE MATERIAL FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Ying

    2008-01-01

    Language is the carrier of culture, and translation is a cultural information exchanging process in which the connotation of one language is expressed in the other one, namely, translation is not only the process of language exchanging but also the process of culture exchanging. To a great extent, the transform of culture information is restricted by culture factors. Therefore, in order to reappear the original flavor naturally and properly during the process of translation, one must think highly of the fact that culture factors affect translation activities a lot. This thesis transilluminates the culture factors in E/C translation through the translation comparison among the Chinese and English set phrases, idioms, allusions, sayings, and colloquialism; It also tries to analyze the way of cultural information transaction in E/C translation and put forward the opinion to it.

  13. Effect of transmembrane pressure on Factor VIII yield in ATF perfusion culture for the production of recombinant human Factor VIII co-expressed with von Willebrand factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Chul; An, Sora; Kim, Hyun-Ki; Park, Beom-Soo; Na, Kyu-Heum; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated three cell retention devices, an alternating tangential flow (ATF) system, a spin-filter, and a Centritech Lab III centrifuge, for the production of recombinant human Factor VIII co-expressed with von Willebrand factor. From the results, it was found that the FVIII activity in bioreactor was significantly higher in the ATF perfusion culture than two other perfusion cultures. Moreover, the FVIII activity yield was unexpectedly low in the ATF perfusion culture. We have, therefore, studied the reasons for this low FVIII activity yield. It was revealed that the inactivation and the surface adsorption of FVIII onto the harvest bag were not the main reasons for the low yield in the ATF perfusion culture. The FVIII activity yield was not increased by the use of a hollow fiber filter with 0.5 μm pore size instead of 0.2 μm pore size. Additionally, the retention of FVIII molecules by the hollow fiber filter was a dominant factor in the low FVIII activity yield in the ATF perfusion culture. We demonstrated that FVIII yield was significantly improved by controlling transmembrane pressure (TMP) across the hollow fiber filter membrane. Taken together, these results suggest that TMP control could be an efficient method for the enhancement of FVIII yield in an ATF perfusion culture.

  14. Factors Influencing Social Media Marketing In Different Culture Context.

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Juwayria

    2014-01-01

    Social media has gained precedence in today‟s business environment, and consumers themselves are more receptive to this marketing media. This study aims to identify the factors affecting users‟ attitudes towards social media marketing. From the literature review, a conceptual model was proposed, and five hypotheses were developed. The model studies the effect of several independent variables on attitude towards social media marketing. A questionnaire was completed by students from Norway and ...

  15. Factors Influencing Social Media Marketing In Different Culture Context.

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Juwayria

    2014-01-01

    Social media has gained precedence in today‟s business environment, and consumers themselves are more receptive to this marketing media. This study aims to identify the factors affecting users‟ attitudes towards social media marketing. From the literature review, a conceptual model was proposed, and five hypotheses were developed. The model studies the effect of several independent variables on attitude towards social media marketing. A questionnaire was completed by students from Norway and ...

  16. Culture as an Influencing Factor in Adolescent Grief and Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Culture is a complex and important consideration in the process of helping others. In clinical practice, we must view the individual within the context of their culture in order for assessment or treatment to be effective. Further, to overlook or negate culture, a practitioner may possibly operate from faulty cultural assumptions or…

  17. Viability and growth of feline preantral follicles in vitro cultured with insulin growth factor and epidermal growth factor supplemented medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, A E; Padilha-Nakaghi, L C; Pires-Butler, E A; Apparicio, M; Silva, Nam; Motheo, T F; Vicente, Wrr; Luvoni, G C

    2017-04-01

    In vitro culture of ovarian preantral follicles has emerged as a reproductive technology aimed at obtaining large amount of oocytes for in vitro embryo production. The addition of growth factors (GF) in the in vitro culture of preantral follicles of different species has provided superior results of follicular development, antrum formation and proliferation of granulosa cells. However, there are only few reports regarding the use of these factors on feline preantral follicle in vitro culture. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a combination of IGF-1 and EGF on in vitro viability and growth of preantral follicles and enclosed oocytes collected from domestic cats. A total of 64 follicles characterized by multilayer granulosa cells were isolated and individually cultured for 6 days (T6) in minimum essential medium supplemented with IGF-1+ EGF (100 ng/ml each) or without (control). A higher percentage of follicles were viable after culture with GF than without, and an increase in size when IGF-1+ EGF were added to the medium (170 ± 32.4 μm (T0) vs. 201 ± 22.3 μm (T6); p  .05). These data suggest that the addition of IGF-1 and EGF to the culture medium promotes the in vitro development of preantral follicles of cats. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Factor analysis of processes of corporate culture formation at industrial enterprises of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illiashenko Sergii

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Authors have analyzed and synthesized the features of formation and development of the corporate culture at industrial enterprises of Ukraine and on this basis developed recommendations for application in the management of strategic development. During the research authors used the following general scientific methods: at research of patterns of interaction national culture, corporate culture and the culture of the individual authors used logical generalization method; for determining factors influencing corporate culture formation with the level of occurrence authors used factor analysis; for trend analysis of the corporate culture development at appropriate levels authors used comparative method. Results of the analysis showed that macro- and microfactors are external and mezofaktors (adaptability of business and corporate governance, corporate ethics, corporate social responsibility and personnel policies, corporate finance are internal for an enterprise. Authors have identified areas for each of the factors, itemized obstacles to the establishment and development of corporate culture at Ukrainian industrial enterprises and proposed recommendations for these processes management.

  19. The Teaching Methods of Cultural Factors in The Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Mengyang

    2014-01-01

    Culture knowledge plays an important role in linguistic proficiency and currently most teaching activities are stil happened inthe traditionalclassroom. So this paper introducedsome ofthe practicalteachingmethods ofChinese culture inthe Chinese language classroom.

  20. Innovations as a development factor for the contemporary culture in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviatlana Buloichyk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultural institutions, being the subjects of management on one hand, and creating economic conditions on the other hand, have a significant impact on the development of the economy. However, cultural institutions themselves need to be developed. Certain economic innovations can become a development factor in the work of cultural institutions.

  1. Vulnerability factors in OCD symptoms: cross-cultural comparisons between Turkish and Canadian samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorulmaz, Orçun; Gençöz, Tülin; Woody, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings have suggested some potential psychological vulnerability factors for development of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, including cognitive factors of appraisal and thought control, religiosity, self-esteem and personality characteristics such as neuroticism. Studies demonstrating these associations usually come from Western cultures, but there may be cultural differences relevant to these vulnerability factors and OC symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between putative vulnerability factors and OC symptoms by comparing non-clinical samples from Turkey and Canada, two countries with quite different cultural characteristics. The findings revealed some common correlates such as neuroticism and certain types of metacognition, including appraisals of responsibility/threat estimation and perfectionism/need for certainty, as well as thought-action fusion. However, culture-specific factors were also indicated in the type of thought control participants used. For OC disorder symptoms, Turkish participants were more likely to utilize worry and thought suppression, while Canadian participants tended to use self-punishment more frequently. The association with common factors supports the cross-cultural validity of some factors, whereas unique factors suggest cultural features that may be operative in cognitive processes relevant to OC symptoms.

  2. Impact on quality culture of total quality management practices factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faihan Mosaad Saud Alotaibi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated total quality management practices and quality culture of Saudi Arabian contractors. Improving the quality can be achieved through implementation of total quality management although studies and researches work regarding this improvement is still lacking. A quantitative approach using the survey method was employed. With assistance from the Saudi Arabia Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, survey questionnaires were distributed to selected contractors in Saudi Arabia. The collected data were analysed using correlation, and multiple regression analyses. The key findings were the confirmation of significant relationships between all total quality management practices and quality culture and a positive relationship between quality management practices and quality culture. Furthermore, total quality management practices were found to be able to explain 68.1% of the variance in quality culture, while quality culture explained 12.5% of the variance in competitiveness. Quality culture was found to only partially mediate the relationship between total quality management practices and competitiveness.

  3. Critical Factors in Cultural Immersion: A Synthesis of Relevant Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Sejal M.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    This synthesis of the literature on cross-cultural immersion experiences gives emphasis to the need for effective pedagogy for enhancing multicultural counseling competency, with cultural immersion being a potentially valuable training tool. The authors examine the empirical literature towards identifying both helpful and hindering structural and…

  4. CULTURAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL FACTORS RELATING TO LEARNING DEVELOPMENT. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACCOBY, MICHAEL; MODIANO, NANCY

    THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO COMPARE CULTURAL AND CHARACTER VARIABLES AND RELATE THEM TO THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF MEXICAN PEASANT CHILDREN. THE CULTURAL VARIABLES STUDIED INCLUDE ECONOMIC LEVELS, MORAL AND AFFECTIVE JUDGMENTS, AND THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PARENTS AND CHILDREN. MODES OF ASSIMILATION, SOCIAL RELATIONS, FIXATIONS,…

  5. Organizational Culture as a Factor Leaning Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Walczak

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses subject of the organizational culture and understanding the strong role it plays in organizations from the point of view in regard to the human capital management. Basically, culture is comprised of the assumptions, values, norms and tangible signs (artifacts of organization members and their behaviors. It encourages employees to identify their goals with company goals, promotes knowledge sharing lead to increased competencies and teams effectiveness. The most significant thesis of the article says that organizational culture plays an important role in the process of knowledge management. Main conceptions of corporate culture as understanding, meaning, the most important aspects indicated changes which should be stimulated by transformation of organizational culture and ways of shaping, were shown.

  6. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AS SIGNIFICANT FACTOR IN IMPLEMENTATION OF TQM - EXPERIENCE IN SERBIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikolić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The theory has confirmed the view that the appropriate organizational culture enables success in implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM. Conducted research points on characteristics of organizational culture in the relevant sample of enterprises in Serbia. The factors of the organization that affect on shaping the organizational culture of the business system were separated by using analytical approach. This creates the basis for the designing model of necessary changes in the organizational culture that ensures successful implementation of TQM.

  7. Cultural Factors in Systems Design Decision Making and Action

    CERN Document Server

    Proctor, Robert W; Yih, Yuehwern

    2011-01-01

    This book brings together an interdisciplinary group of experts to provide increased understanding of the ways in which cultural differences may influence decision making and action. It brings together current knowledge about decision processes, culture and cognition, design of products and interfaces for human interaction with machines and organizational processes culled from a wide variety of sources and puts them into one comprehensive resource. It examines how to design systems used by individuals from different cultures and accommodate the varied backgrounds that affect the users' decisio

  8. Finding Color in Conformity: A Commentary on Culturally Specific Risk Factors for Violence in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Stephane M

    2015-11-01

    This article outlines the current utility of Indigenous culturally specific risk factors for violence and the ramifications for cross-cultural risk prediction. The Indigenous culturally specific violence risk factor literature has provided a rich body of contextual information outlining Indigenous patterns of criminal behaviour. This information has the capacity to facilitate offender responsivity and treatment targets in addition to assisting clinicians identify the presence of risk markers among Indigenous clients. However, if intended for inclusion in risk prediction models, culturally specific risk items then require further quantitative analysis to establish robust associations and probability estimates for recidivistic outcome.

  9. Culture–bound syndromes and the neglect of cultural factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maintained by culture specific psychological factors such as beliefs ... The West African sub-region occupies about 20% of Africa. ... pain and tearfulness in the eyes; cognitive impairments such ... measurement of the intensity of the syndrome.

  10. Temporal and Spatial Development of Red Deer Harvesting in Europe: Biological and Cultural Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jos M. Milner; Christophe Bonenfant; Atle Mysterud; Jean-Michel Gaillard; Sándor Csányi; Nils Chr. Stenseth

    2006-01-01

    1. Deer numbers have increased dramatically throughout Europe and North America over the last century, but empirical analyses of variation in harvesting and the influence of biological and cultural factors are lacking. 2...

  11. Clarivate Analytics: Continued Omnia vanitas Impact Factor Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Bernès, Sylvain

    2017-02-23

    This opinion paper takes aim at an error made recently by Clarivate Analytics in which it sent out an email that congratulated academics for becoming exclusive members of academia's most cited elite, the Highly Cited Researchers (HCRs). However, that email was sent out to an undisclosed number of non-HCRs, who were offered an apology shortly after, through a bulk mail, which tried to down-play the importance of the error, all the while praising the true HCRs. When Clarivate Analytics senior management was contacted, the company declined to offer an indication of the number of academics who had been contacted and erroneously awarded the HCR status. We believe that this regrettable blunder, together with the opacity offered by the company, fortify the corporate attitude about the value of the journal impact factor (JIF), and what it represents, namely a marketing tool that is falsely used to equate citations with quality, worth, or influence. The continued commercialization of metrics such as the JIF is at the heart of their use to assess the "quality" of a researcher, their work, or a journal, and contributes to a great extent to driving scientific activities towards a futile endeavor.

  12. Measurement of Blood Coagulation Factor Synthesis in Cultures of Human Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Stefan; Braspenning, Joris

    2015-01-01

    An important function of the liver is the synthesis and secretion of blood coagulation factors. Within the liver, hepatocytes are involved in the synthesis of most blood coagulation factors, such as fibrinogen, prothrombin, factor V, VII, IX, X, XI, XII, as well as protein C and S, and antithrombin, whereas liver sinusoidal endothelial cells produce factor VIII and von Willebrand factor. Here, we describe methods for the detection and quantification of most blood coagulation factors in hepatocytes in vitro. Hepatocyte cultures indeed provide a valuable tool to study blood coagulation factors. In addition, the generation and expansion of hepatocytes or hepatocyte-like cells may be used in future for cell-based therapies of liver diseases, including blood coagulation factor deficiencies.

  13. Integrating social factors into cross-cultural medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alexander R; Betancourt, Joseph R; Carrillo, J Emilio

    2002-03-01

    The field of cross-cultural medical education has blossomed in an environment of increasing diversity and increasing awareness of the effect of race and ethnicity on health outcomes. However, there is still no standardized approach to teaching doctors in training how best to care for diverse patient populations. As standards are developed, it is crucial to realize that medical educators cannot teach about culture in a vacuum. Caring for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds is inextricably linked to caring for patients of diverse social backgrounds. In this article, the authors discuss the importance of social issues in caring for patients of all cultures, and propose a practical, patient-based approach to social analysis covering four major domains--(1) social stress and support networks, (2) change in environment, (3) life control, and (4) literacy. By emphasizing and expanding the role of the social history in cross-cultural medical education, faculty can better train medical students, residents, and other health care providers to care for socioculturally diverse patient populations.

  14. Cultural Factors in the Flow of International News: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai Takuya

    2017-01-01

    This paper offers a review of the literature of international news flow, and surveys how the previous studies have attempted to capture “cultural factors” influencing the flow. The factors are grouped into four types of variables: language, former colonial tie, ethnicity, and geographical proximity. This paper argues that cultural factors cannot be significant without economic interests in the era of post-Cold War, that the structure of international news is imbalanced because a few powerful ...

  15. Impact of cultural factors on attitude toward using ERP systems in public hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Escobar-Rodríguez; Lourdes Bartual-Sopena

    2015-01-01

    The main problems that arise in adopting most enterprise resources planning (ERP) strategies come from organizational, rather than technical, issues, for example, social and cultural barriers, and user resistance. This paper analyzes the impact of cultural factors on user attitudes toward ERP use in public hospitals and identifying influencing factors. The theoretical grounding for this research is the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The proposed model has six constructs (“resistance to be...

  16. Physical culture and sport as factors of socializations to personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamaeva E.V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of publications is resulted on the topic of research. Essence of physical culture and sport is exposed and its place is certain in the system of public relations. The socializing function of sport is considered. Pedagogical facilities of forming personality of sportsman are exposed. A few determinations of concept of socialization are given. The basic institutes of socialization are presented. Influence of physical culture and sport is investigational on the process of socialization of personality. It is well-proven that efficiency of socialization in sport depends on the level of coincidence of values of sport and values of society and personality.

  17. Social and Cultural Factors Influencing Family Violence in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Bashiri Khatibi

    2013-07-01

    In the present research which is of correlation one with quantitative method, the Survey method has Utilized in order to determine family violence rate and collection of necessary data to test hypothesizes that is cross-sectional and blind as well as to the domain, Small and of operational type. Statistical society and sampling method: The statistical society of the present research, is persons above 15 years old resident in Tabriz that based on latest statihstic of Iran statistical center were 733.208 persons in midyear 1384. The Sample selection method based on mass i.e pps was Used to Sampling which is multistep cluster sompling as called sampling with probability according mass. (Beby, 1384: 460. Sample mass determination : The Cocran formula with estimation accuracy d=0.05 and variance maximum has Used to Calclate Sample mass and about 384 persons was selected as sample. (Rafie poor, 1377, 383 Data collection method: In the present research, the documental studies (taking card has used to review resume problem nature and related descriptions as well as the necessary data has collector on utilized theory frames and hypothesizes test by questionnaire. Discussion of Result & Conclution The main aim was demonstration of family violence and review of effective social factors role on it. Thus, in the findings of the present research which was conducted as survey was determind that the violenve rate among foregoing persons oquals to 27.74 with standard deviation of 20.90 that was obtained of data which were minimum zero to maximum 96.06 from 100. While such violence rate is so lower than moderate on, it could be said that, violence is in optimum level within Tabriz families. Also, the resultant findings indicate that, the highest violence within Tabriz families was related to economical violence at 34.04 with standard deviation 27.41 (from minimum zero to maximum 100 and it’s lowest related to regional Violence at 15.53 with standard deviation (from minimum zero to

  18. WORKPLACE MOTIVATION IN ROMANIA: WHAT ARE THE MAIN FACTORS AND THEIR CULTURAL BACKGROUND?

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren?iu HAUSER

    2014-01-01

    Workplace motivation strongly depends on local cultural values. But while there is a large number of studies that focus on the US-American and Western European background, the specifically Romanian factors still remain in the shadow. This text aims to explain the main factors that form the „typically Romanian” set of social employee needs and their origin.

  19. School Violence in Taiwan: Examining How Western Risk Factors Predict School Violence in an Asian Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2010-01-01

    The current study explores whether theorized risk factors in Western countries can be used to predict school violence perpetration in an Asian cultural context. The study examines the associations between risk factors and school violence perpetration in Taiwan. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 14,022 students from…

  20. Design Factors Affect User Experience for Different Cultural Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sauman

    2016-01-01

    With increasing changes in our demographic populations and new immigrants settling in the US, there is an increasing need for visual communications that address the diversity of our populations. This paper draws from the results of the researcher's several past research and teaching projects that worked with different cultural populations. These…

  1. Social and Cultural Factors That Effect University Women Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hasan; Sabo, Helena Maria; Siyli, Nese Aysin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, social and cultural effects of the low rate of woman managers at universities are tried to be identified. Women have been increasingly appearing in every field of business; on the other hand, although women compared to men constitute majority in educational organisations, they appear in the positions other than management. We will…

  2. Key Factors for Developing a Cross-Cultural Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Keeyung; Chung, Sock H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: As universities and colleges face an increasingly global environment, internationalization is viewed as a critical aspect of education, a fact that has significant academic and economic implications for higher educational institutions worldwide which need to be current with cultural education to adapt to change. Learning from other…

  3. Digital Divide among Youth: Socio-Cultural Factors and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parycek, Peter; Sachs, Michael; Schossbock, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine socio-cultural differences in internet use (Digital Divide) among 14-year-old Austrian pupils, in particular usage scenarios and research competences. It is based on a paper presented at the International Association for the Development of the Information Society e-Society conference, 10-13 March 2011, Spain…

  4. Cultural Diversity in Military Teams: Which Factors Influence Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Effectiveness. Dependent var Unstand. coeff SE B P Long vs short term 0.117 0.087 0.166 0.182 Masculinity/ feminity 0.041 0.091 0.056 0.657 Uncertainty...Creating hybrid team cultures: An empirical test of transnational team functioning. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 26-49. Edwards. J.E.; Rosenfeld

  5. Studying the Relationship between Individual and Organizational Factors and Nurses' Perception of Patient Safety Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Abdolahzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safety culture is considered as an important factor in improving patient safety. Therefore, identifying individual and organizational factors affecting safety culture is crucial. This study was carried out to determine individual and organizational factors associated with nurses' perception of patient safety culture. Methods: The present descriptive study included 940 nurses working in four training hospitals affiliated with Urmia University of Medical Sciences (Iran. Data was collected through the self-report questionnaire of patient safety culture. Descriptive (number, percent, mean, and standard deviation and inferential (t-test and analysis of variance statistics were used to analyze the data in SPSS. Results: Nurses' perception of patient safety culture was significantly correlated with marital status, workplace, and overtime hours. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that some individual and organizational factors can impact on nurses' perception of patient safety culture. Nursing authorities should thus pay more attention to factors which promote patient safety culture and ultimately the safety of provided services.

  6. Nerve growth factor enhances DNA synthesis in cultured cerebellar neuroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confort, C; Charrasse, S; Clos, J

    1991-10-01

    The cerebellar neuroblasts in primary cultures from five-day-old rats bore NGF receptor immunoreactivity, suggesting a potential responsive to NGF. At low plating density, NGF was found to enhance DNA synthesis in these cells in a dose-dependent manner. As these cells synthesize NGF, one possibility to account for the lack of response of neuroblasts plated at high density is that the amount of endogenous trophic agent produced in this culture condition is sufficient to ensure an optimal effect. The results demonstrate that premitotic neuroblasts in the CNS, as well postmitotic neurons, are responsive to NGF. At the early stage of its development, the cerebellum therefore appears to be a very good autocrine model of NGF action.

  7. On the Culture Factor in the Translation of Political Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程镇球

    2001-01-01

    @@ As in many other types of translation, culture plays an important part in the translation of political writings. This is of course a very general statement. And according to Edmund Keeley, professor of English and creative writing at Princeton University, "any discussion of translation in broad terms is dangerous" ① Let's then avoid generalizations and get down to specifics by citing a couple of examples.

  8. Impact on quality culture of total quality management practices factors

    OpenAIRE

    Faihan Mosaad Saud Alotaibi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated total quality management practices and quality culture of Saudi Arabian contractors. Improving the quality can be achieved through implementation of total quality management although studies and researches work regarding this improvement is still lacking. A quantitative approach using the survey method was employed. With assistance from the Saudi Arabia Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, survey questionnaires were distributed to selected contractors i...

  9. Effects of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor and Insulin-like Growth Factor on Cultured Cartilage Cells from Skate Raja porasa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊廷俊; 晋凌云; 汪小锋

    2003-01-01

    Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) on cartilage cells from proboscis of skate, Raja porasa Günther, were investigated in this study. The cartilage cells were cultured in 20% FBS-supplemented MEM medium at 24℃. Twelve hours after culture initiation, the cartilage cells were treated with bFGF and IGF-II at different concentration combinations. It was found that 20 ng/ml of bFGF or 80 ng/ml of IGF-II was enough to have obvious stimulating effect on the growth and division of skate cartilage cells. Test of bFGF and IGF-II together, revealed that 20 ng/ml of bFGF and 80 ng/ml of IGF-II together had the best stimulating effect on the growth and division of skate cartilage cells. The cartilage cells cultured could form a monolayer at day 7.

  10. Influences of external factors on the energy conversion and productivity of Scenedesmus sp. in mass culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselius, J.C.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments about the influence of external factors on the energy conversion in mass cultures of Scenedesmus are described in this thesis. Several types of culture vessels were used in the laboratory as well as in the open. Demonstration models of Miele washing

  11. Influences of external factors on the energy conversion and productivity of Scenedesmus sp. in mass culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselius, J.C.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments about the influence of external factors on the energy conversion in mass cultures of Scenedesmus are described in this thesis. Several types of culture vessels were used in the laboratory as well as in the open. Demonstration models of Miele washing machines with a volume of 50 l were us

  12. Influences of external factors on the energy conversion and productivity of Scenedesmus sp. in mass culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselius, J.C.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments about the influence of external factors on the energy conversion in mass cultures of Scenedesmus are described in this thesis. Several types of culture vessels were used in the laboratory as well as in the open. Demonstration models of Miele washing machine

  13. Cultural Protective and Risk Factors: Professional Perspectives about Child Sexual Abuse in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Carol A.; Njuguna, Wambui

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore perspectives on cultural risks and protective factors among professionals in Kenya. Method: An exploratory/descriptive survey of Kenyan professionals working to prevent or intervene with child sexual abuse was undertaken to determine their perspectives on how tribal culture impacts vulnerability to…

  14. Corneal organ cultures in tyrosinemia release chemotactic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, K M; Hyndiuk, R A; Hatchell, D L; Kurth, C E

    1985-05-01

    Corneal inflammation with subsequent scarring and blindness occurs in the inherited human metabolic disease tyrosinemia type II, yet putative inflammatory mediators in this disorder and in the avascular cornea in general are poorly defined. In a Tyr-fed rat model of tyrosinemia type II, intracellular crystals, presumably Tyr, are hypothesized to be responsible for the increased lysosomal activity observed in corneal epithelial lesions. Because polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are seen only at the site of these lesions, we used this model to study humoral mediators released from Tyr-fed rat corneal organ cultures. Only Tyr-fed rats developed stromal edema and linear granular opacities in gray edematous corneal epithelium, compatible with a noninfectious keratitis. Electron micrographs confirmed epithelial edema and showed focal epithelial necrosis with PMN invasion of the stroma. Only Tyr-fed rat corneal culture supernatants contained chemotactic activity that was heat labile and moderately trypsin sensitive. Four peaks with varying amounts of chemotactic activity were found on Sephadex G-75 chromatography. Although the identity of these peaks of activity has not yet been established, we suggest that they may be responsible for the PMN infiltration observed in this model of corneal inflammation.

  15. Cultural factors influencing Eastern and Western engineering students' choice of university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hua-Li; Eika Sandnes, Frode; Huang, Yo-Ping; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2010-05-01

    Insight into factors that affect students' choice of university is useful when designing study programmes, especially in global competition for students. This study focuses on Taiwanese and Norwegian students' preferences for university, study programme, course qualities and future career qualities. Hofstede's model was used to predict culture-related differences. A pair-wise decision questionnaire was used to conduct measurements. Cultural differences were observed in relation to choice of university, course qualities and future careers. Discipline of study had only minor impact on students' preferences. The results suggest that a career-relevant curriculum is culture-neutral. Moreover, personal advice is the most preferred factor among Taiwanese students when choosing university.

  16. A social work study on measuring the effects of culturing factors influencing consumerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golnari Abbasi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study to measure the impact of various cultural factors on consumerism in city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study uses clustering technique to choose a sample of 300 families out of 70,000 residences of this city. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among participants. Cronbach alpha have been calculated as 0.85 and 0.92 for cultural factors and consumerism, respectively. The results of Pearson correlation ratios indicate that there are statistically meaningful relationships between consumerism and four components of culture including religious believes, tendency to luxuries, using different multi medias and adherence to traditions.

  17. Cultural Factors in the Flow of International News: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakurai Takuya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a review of the literature of international news flow, and surveys how the previous studies have attempted to capture “cultural factors” influencing the flow. The factors are grouped into four types of variables: language, former colonial tie, ethnicity, and geographical proximity. This paper argues that cultural factors cannot be significant without economic interests in the era of post-Cold War, that the structure of international news is imbalanced because a few powerful countries dominate the international news market, and that international news reduces cultural varieties to the singular international realities disseminated by the media of such countries.

  18. Organotypic Cultures of Intervertebral Disc Cells: Responses to Growth Factors and Signaling Pathways Involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Pratsinis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc (IVD degeneration is strongly associated with low back pain, a major cause of disability worldwide. An in-depth understanding of IVD cell physiology is required for the design of novel regenerative therapies. Accordingly, aim of this work was the study of IVD cell responses to mitogenic growth factors in a three-dimensional (3D organotypic milieu, comprising characteristic molecules of IVD’s extracellular matrix. In particular, annulus fibrosus (AF cells were cultured inside collagen type-I gels, while nucleus pulposus (NP cells in chondroitin sulfate A (CSA supplemented collagen gels, and the effects of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF, and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I were assessed. All three growth factors stimulated DNA synthesis in both AF and NP 3D cell cultures, with potencies similar to those observed previously in monolayers. CSA supplementation inhibited basal DNA synthesis rates, without affecting the response to growth factors. ERK and Akt were found to be phosphorylated following growth factor stimulation. Blockade of these two signaling pathways using pharmacologic inhibitors significantly, though not completely, inhibited growth factor-induced DNA synthesis. The proposed culture systems may prove useful for further in vitro studies aiming at future interventions for IVD regeneration.

  19. Evaluation and optimization of hepatocyte culture media factors by design of experiments (DoE) methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jia; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Lübberstedt, Marc; Urbaniak, Thomas; Nüssler, Andreas K N; Knobeloch, Daniel; Gerlach, Jörg C; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2008-07-01

    Optimization of cell culture media based on statistical experimental design methodology is a widely used approach for improving cultivation conditions. We applied this methodology to refine the composition of an established culture medium for growth of a human hepatoma cell line, C3A. A selection of growth factors and nutrient supplements were systematically screened according to standard design of experiments (DoE) procedures. The results of the screening indicated that the medium additives hepatocyte growth factor, oncostatin M, and fibroblast growth factor 4 significantly influenced the metabolic activities of the C3A cell line. Surface response methodology revealed that the optimum levels for these factors were 30 ng/ml for hepatocyte growth factor and 35 ng/ml for oncostatin M. Additional experiments on primary human hepatocyte cultures showed high variance in metabolic activities between cells from different individuals, making determination of optimal levels of factors more difficult. Still, it was possible to conclude that hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and oncostatin M had decisive effects on the metabolic functions of primary human hepatocytes.

  20. [Food habits and culture factors in pregnant adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Suárez, Claudia Carolina; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Romo-Huerta, Hiliana P; García De Alba García, Javier E; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the food habits of pregnant adolescents and their perception about which, of her cultural concepts, have higher influence. 54 subjects between 12 and 19 years old from Guadalajara City were included and socioeconomic, dietetic data, as food frequency consumption and cultural concepts about feeding were also explored. Chi square was used for identifying association between variables. The fat intake was lower in late vs. Early and middle stage of adolescence (57 vs. 71 g/d, p = 0.05). The iron, calcium and zinc intake was also deficient in the early/middle stage; meanwhile, the folic acid consumption was very low in the late stage of adolescence. Corn tortillas were the most consumed cereal and food (93-96%); junk food and sodas (62 and 55%) prevailed in the early/middle stage. About local costumes, "tacos", "pozole" and burgers were the most referred (74.1%). They also mentioned that fat (36.7%), junk food (30%), chili (26.7%), sodas (23.3%), processed meals (26.7%) and salt (10%) were harmful. They also believed that vegetables (77%), fruits (60 %), milk (21%), broths (17%), and meat (12.5%) were beneficial; and, 96% considered that chicken and bean broths were nutritious (myth). There were some prohibited foods (taboos) during pregnancy: chili (48%), junk food (20%), and salt (16%). Prejudices were more common among later adolescents (60.9%) (p = 0.03). The erratic food habits and the conceptual confusion of these adolescents cause a low intake of nutrients and place them in a nutritional risk.

  1. Assessment of awareness of connectedness as a culturally-based protective factor for Alaska native youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohatt, Nathaniel V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Burket, Rebekah; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2011-10-01

    Research with Native Americans has identified connectedness as a culturally based protective factor against substance abuse and suicide. Connectedness refers to the interrelated welfare of the individual, one's family, one's community, and the natural environment. We developed an 18-item quantitative assessment of awareness of connectedness and tested it with 284 Alaska Native youth. Evaluation with confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory identified a 12-item subset that functions satisfactorily in a second-order four-factor model. The proposed Awareness of Connectedness Scale (ACS) displays good convergent and discriminant validity, and correlates positively with hypothesized protective factors such as reasons for living and communal mastery. The measure has utility in the study of culture-specific protective factors and as an outcomes measure for behavioral health programs with Native American youth.

  2. Assessment of Awareness of Connectedness as a Culturally-based Protective Factor for Alaska Native Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohatt, Nathaniel V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Burket, Rebekah; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2011-01-01

    Research with Native Americans has identified connectedness as a culturally-based protective factor against substance abuse and suicide. Connectedness refers to the interrelated welfare of the individual, one’s family, one’s community, and the natural environment. We developed an 18-item quantitative assessment of awareness of connectedness and tested it with 284 Alaska Native youth. Evaluation with confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory identified a 12-item subset that functions satisfactorily in a second-order, four-factor model. The proposed Awareness of Connectedness Scale displays good convergent and discriminant validity and correlates positively with hypothesized protective factors such as reasons for living and communal mastery. The measure has utility in the study of culture-specific protective factors and as an outcomes measure for behavioral health programs with Native American youth. PMID:21988583

  3. Assessing culturally sensitive factors in the learning environment of science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Darrell L.; Waldrip, Bruce G.

    1997-03-01

    As schools are becoming increasingly diverse in their scope and clientele, any examination of the interaction of culturally sensitive factors of students' learning environments with learning science assumes critical importance. The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop an instrument to assess learning environment factors that are culturally sensitive, to provide initial validation information on the instrument and to examine associations between students' perceptions of their learning environments and their attitudes towards science and achievement of enquiry skills. A measure of these factors of science student's learning environment, namely the Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ), was developed from past learning environment instruments and influenced by Hofstede's four dimensions of culture (Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism, and Masculinity/Femininity). The reliability and discriminant validity for each scale were obtained and associations between learning environment, attitude to science and enquiry skills achievement were found.

  4. Psychometric properties of the AHRQ Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture: a factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboneh, Ephrem A; Look, Kevin A; Stone, Jamie A; Lester, Corey A; Chui, Michelle A

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) developed a hospital patient safety culture survey in 2004 and has adapted this survey to other healthcare settings, such as nursing homes and medical offices, and most recently, community pharmacies. However, it is unknown whether safety culture dimensions developed for hospitals can be transferred to community pharmacies. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture. The survey was administered to 543 community pharmacists in Wisconsin, USA. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of our data with the proposed AHRQ model. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the underlying factor structure. Internal consistency reliabilities were calculated. A total of 433 usable surveys were returned (response rate 80%). Results from the confirmatory factor analysis showed inadequate model fit for the original 36 item, 11-factor structure. Exploratory factor analysis showed that a modified 27-item, four-factor structure better reflected the underlying safety culture dimensions in community pharmacies. The communication openness factor, with three items, dropped in its entirety while six items dropped from multiple factors. The remaining 27 items redistributed to form the four-factor structure: safety-related communication, staff training and work environment, organisational response to safety events, and staffing, work pressure and pace. Cronbach's α of 0.95 suggested good internal consistency. Our findings suggest that validation studies need to be conducted before applying safety dimensions from other healthcare settings into community pharmacies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Are indigenous personality dimensions culture specific? Philippine inventories and the five-factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katigbak, Marcia S; Church, A Timothy; Guanzon-Lapeña, Ma Angeles; Carlota, Annadaisy J; del, PilarGregorioH

    2002-01-01

    The authors addressed the culture specificity of indigenous personality constructs, the generalizability of the 5-factor model (FFM), and the incremental validity of indigenous measures in a collectivistic culture. Filipino college students (N = 508) completed 3 indigenous inventories and the Filipino version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). On the basis of the factor and regression analyses, they concluded that (a) most Philippine dimensions are well encompassed by the FFM and thus may not be very culture specific: (b) a few indigenous constructs are less well accounted for by the FFM: these constructs are not unknown in Western cultures, but they may be particularly salient or composed somewhat differently in the Philippines; (c) the structure of the NEO-PI-R FFM replicates well in the Philippines: and (d) Philippine inventories add modest incremental validity beyond the FFM in predicting selected culture-relevant criteria.

  6. Latino cultural values as protective factors against sexual risks among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mindy; Malcolm, Lydia R; Diaz-Albertini, Kristine; Klinoff, Vera A; Leeder, Elisa; Barrientos, Sohani; Kibler, Jeffrey L

    2014-12-01

    The study objective was to examine the associations between cultural values and sexual risk factors among Latino youth. A sample of 226 Latino adolescents ages 13-16 completed a survey on cultural and sexual variables. Results indicate higher levels of Latino cultural orientation were related to greater sexual self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners for female adolescents and greater condom use self-efficacy for both males and females. Greater endorsement of simpatia (belief in interpersonal relationship harmony) was associated with sexual abstinence and greater sexual self-efficacy for all adolescents, and with being older at sexual debut for females. Stronger endorsement of respeto (respect towards parents and other authority figures) was correlated with a lower intention to have sex during secondary school and greater condom use self-efficacy. American cultural orientation was associated with less condom use. Our findings indicate Latino cultural values may serve as protective factors against sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth.

  7. Evaluation of Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Consumer Buying Behaviour of Clothes in Borno State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawan A. Lawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available his study assesses cultural factors influencing consumer buying behaviour of clothes in Borno state, Nigeria. It was specifically carried out to examine consumer buying decision making process and assess cultural, economic as well as personal factors influencing clothes buying behavior. Data for the study were gathered through structured questionnaire administered by the researcher with the help of two research assistants, on a sample of 192 clothes buyers, out of which, 174 were duly filled and returned. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi square, Analysis of variance and multi-stage regression. Findings revealed a highly significant influence of cultural factors (T=14.83, P<0.000 on consumer buying behaviour of which the relative regression coefficient influences equivalence of societal norms (24.6% was the highest. The findings also indicated a highly significant influence of economic factors (T=11.89, P<0.000 factor on consumer buying behaviour with the highest relative regression coefficient influence equivalence exerted by income (20%. The study further revealed that age was the sole personal (endogenous factor variable influencing buying behaviour with the highest relative regression coefficient influence equivalence of over 65%. The study concluded that culture, either acting independently or in conjunction with economic and personal factors significantly influences buying behaviour of clothes. It was recommended that marketing managers should take cognizance of the fact that socio-cultural factors are some of the fundamental determinants of a person’s want and behavior and should therefore be considered when designing clothes for their markets.

  8. Glutamate enhances the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in cultured SD rat astrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of glutamate on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein in cultured rat astrocytes. Methods Cultured rat astrocytes were randomly divided into 6 groups:control group (C),glutamate group (G),QA group (Q),DCG-IV group (D),L-AP4 group (L) and glutamate+MCPG group (G+M). Cells were cultured under nomoxic condition (95% air,5% CO2). RT-PCR and ELISA methods were used to detect the expression of VEGF mRNA and protein in cultured astrocytes,respect...

  9. Cultural factors influencing dietary and fluid restriction behaviour: perceptions of older Chinese patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xiaoshan; Peng, Youqing; Yu, Hai-Ping; Li, Dan

    2017-03-01

    To explore the cultural factors related to dietary and fluid restriction behaviours among older Chinese patients. Excess dietary sodium and fluid intake are risk factors contributing to the worsening and rehospitalisation for heart failure in older patients. Managing the complex fluid and diet requirements of heart failure patients is challenging and is made more complicated by cultural variations in self-management behaviours in response to a health threat. Qualitative study using semi-structured in interviews and framework analysis. The design of this study is qualitative descriptive. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 heart failure patients. Data were analysed through content analysis. Seven cultural themes emerged from the qualitative data: the values placed on health and illness, customary way of life, preference for folk care and the Chinese healthcare system, and factors related to kinship and social ties, religion, economics and education. Dietary change and management in response to illness, including heart failure, is closely related to individuals' cultural background. Healthcare providers should have a good understanding of cultural aspects that can influence patients' conformity to medical recommendations. Heart failure patients need support that considers their cultural needs. Healthcare providers must have a good understanding of the experiences of people from diverse cultural backgrounds. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Growth inhibitory factors in bovine faeces impairs detection of Salmonella Dublin by conventional culture procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Nielsen, L.R.; Sørensen, Gitte

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To analyse the relative importance of different biological and technical factors on the analytical sensitivity of conventional culture methods for detection of Salmonella Dublin in cattle faeces. Methods and Results: Faeces samples collected from six adult bovines from different salmonella-...... by focusing on the strain variations and the ecology of the faecal sample. Detailed investigation of the faecal flora (pathogens and normal flora) and the interaction with chemical factors may result in developing an improved method for detection of S. Dublin....

  11. Secretion of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor in co-culture of four cell types in cerebrospinal fluid-containing medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanjiang Feng; Minghua Zhuang; Rui Wu

    2012-01-01

    The present study co-cultured human embryonic olfactory ensheathing cells, human Schwann cells, human amniotic epithelial cells and human vascular endothelial cells in complete culture medium- containing cerebrospinal fluid. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor secretion in the supernatant of co-cultured cells. Results showed that the number of all cell types reached a peak at 7–10 days, and the expression of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor peaked at 9 days. Levels of secreted nerve growth factor were four-fold higher than brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which was three-fold higher than glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Increasing concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid (10%, 20% and 30%) in the growth medium caused a decrease of neurotrophic factor secretion. Results indicated co-culture of human embryonic olfactory ensheathing cells, human Schwann cells, human amniotic epithelial cells and human vascular endothelial cells improved the expression of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The reduction of cerebrospinal fluid extravasation at the transplant site after spinal cord injury is beneficial for the survival and secretion of neurotrophic factors from transplanted cells.

  12. Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

  13. IMMUNOELECTRON MICROSCOPIC LOCALIZATION OFGROWTH FACTORS AND OTHER MARKERS IN HUMAN LONG-TERM BONE MARROW CULTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰文; WynterEde; TestaNG; DxterTM; AllenTD

    1996-01-01

    Ultrastructural immunocytochemical characterization of human long-term bone marrow cultures hasshown positive localization for growth factors on cell surface and on extracellular matrix (ECM). In somecases double-labelling indicated co-locallzation of growth factors and specific cell surface labels. Specific markers for endothelial cells and fibroblasts showed that growth factor (GM-CSF, G-CSF and b-FGF) were present at the surface of these cell types. Both scanning and transmision electron micrcscopy indicated intense labelling for growth factors on the extracellular matrix. Double-labelling of heparan sulphate proteoglycans and GM-CSF showed a co-localization of the labelling, which indicated thebinding of growth factor to the extracellular matrix.

  14. Stimulation of DNA and Collagen Synthesis by Autologous Growth Factor in Cultured Fetal Rat Calvaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canalis, Ernesto; Peck, William A.; Raisz, Lawrence G.

    1980-11-01

    Conditioned medium derived from organ or cell cultures prepared from 19- to 21-day fetal rat calvaria stimulated the incorporation of [3H]proline into collagen and of [3H]thymidine into DNA in organ cultures of the same tissue. Addition of cortisol enhanced the effect on collagen but not on DNA synthesis. These effects appeared to be due to a nondialyzable and heat-stable growth factor.

  15. Factors influencing students’ receptivity to formative feedback emerging from different assessment cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, CJ; Könings, KD; Dannefer, EF; Schuwirth, LWT; Wass, V; van der Vleuten, CPM

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Feedback after assessment is essential to support the development of optimal performance, but often fails to reach its potential. Although different assessment cultures have been proposed, the impact of these cultures on students' receptivity to feedback is unclear. This study aimed to explore factors which aid or hinder receptivity to feedback. METHODS: Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the authors conducted six focus groups in three medical schools, in three sep...

  16. The impact of cultural factors on the U.S. drama subtitle translation and strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓燕

    2013-01-01

    With globalization,the U.S.dramas spread quickly through the network,constituting a special contemporary cultural land-scape.This article elaborates on the status of the U.S.drama subtitle translation,and uses specific instances to analyze the problems of subtitle translation and propose solutions to improve the quality of U.S.drama subtitle translation from the point of view of the cultural factors.

  17. Variation of correlations between factors and culturable airborne bacteria and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min; Yan, Xu; Qiu, Tianlei; Han, Meilin; Wang, Xuming

    2016-03-01

    Bioaerosols, including their characteristics and overall changes correlated with environmental factors, have the potential to impact human health and influence atmospheric dynamics. In this study, the varying interrelationship between the concentration and diameter of culturable bioaerosols and twelve factors including PM2.5 (AQI), PM10 (AQI), sampling time, sampling season, temperature, relative humidity, dew, pressure, wind, O3, NO2, and SO2 is determined for twelve months during non-haze and haze days in Beijing. Results of principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the influence of factors on culturable bioaerosols is mainly associated with haze levels, sampling time, and season. Multiple linear regressions showed that the correlation between PM10 (AQI) or temperature and culturable bioaerosols varied at different haze levels. The seasonal influence of PM2.5 (AQI) was observed in culturable bioaerosol concentrations, but not their diameters. A temporal relationship between PM10 (AQI) and culturable bioaerosol concentration was detected during rush hour. SO2 and NO2 show positive and negative correlations with culturable bioaerosol concentrations in the morning/evening and mid-day, respectively. These results are useful for accurately evaluating the health effects of exposure to bioaerosols.

  18. [Spanish adaptation and factor structure of the Denison Organizational Culture Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonavia, Tomás; Prado Gasco, Vicente J; Barberá Tomás, David

    2009-11-01

    This article presents a Spanish adaptation of the Denison Organizational Culture Survey, a questionnaire designed to evaluate organizational culture. This survey consists of 60 items, grouped in 12 subscales, which identify 4 cultural dimensions. These dimensions have been widely studied and their influence in organizational effectiveness has been accepted. This adaptation was applied to 488 participants, and analysed with confirmatory factor analysis. Results show adequate psychometric properties, so it can be concluded that the Spanish adaptation almost completely replicates the structure of the original version in English.

  19. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS IN MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT. MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT SERIES, NUMBER 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland).

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF PAPERS PRESENTED AT A 1965 MEETING OF THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE (ILO), ON SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS IN MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, THE PROBLEMS OF ADAPTING AND TRANSPLANTING MANAGEMENT THEORIES AND PRACTICES FROM HIGHLY INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS TO DEVELOPING NATIONS ARE STRESSED. AN OUTLINE OF THE ROLE OF THE ILO AND THE…

  20. Education-Related Factors in Cultural Intelligence Development: A Colombian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Ardila, Cristina; Aguilar-Barrientos, Sara; Román-Calderón, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study inquiring about the role of education-related factors in the development of cultural intelligence. Five hundred fifty-seven students of a Colombian international business (IB) undergraduate program participated in the study. The psychometric properties of the measures were assessed by conducting…

  1. socio-cultural factors influencing male involvement in home-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 88 No. 8 August ... Objective: To investigate socio-cultural factors that influence male involvement in ... 59.7% of the respondents had not received formal training on home-based care. Those.

  2. Socio-cultural factors influencing male involvement in home-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-cultural factors influencing male involvement in home-based care for people living with HIV and ... East African Medical Journal ... of close relatives and 59.7% of the respondents had not received formal training on home-based care.

  3. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  4. Assessment of cultivation factors that affect biomass and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco cell suspension cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Vasilev

    Full Text Available A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ∼ 5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources.

  5. Stress and Tobacco Use among African-American Adolescents: The Buffering Effect of Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Johnson, Jessica; Nguyen, Anh; Hood, Kristina; Tademy, Raymond; Clark, Trenette; Nasim, Aashir

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality and a primary reason for health disparities among African Americans. In this study we explore the role of stress in smoking and cultural factors that protect against stress among African-American adolescents. Our sample consisted of 239 youth who were recruited into the study while…

  6. Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simón, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    KeyWord:Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella

  7. Psychological and social-cultural factors of the origination and treatment of anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The paper provides and overview of modern literature on psychological and social-cultural factors of anorexy etiology and psychotherapy. Nutrition problems are pointed out, which are necessary to be solved before any psychotherapeutic intervention, and it also provides the overview of our therapeutic approach efficiency.

  8. Psychological and social-cultural factors of the origination and treatment of anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Dušanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides and overview of modern literature on psychological and social-cultural factors of anorexy etiology and psychotherapy. Nutrition problems are pointed out, which are necessary to be solved before any psychotherapeutic intervention, and it also provides the overview of our therapeutic approach efficiency.

  9. Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simón, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    KeyWord:Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella

  10. Entrepreneurial Skills and Socio-Cultural Factors: An Empirical Analysis in Secondary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosique-Blasco, Mario; Madrid-Guijarro, Antonia; García-Pérez-de-Lema, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how entrepreneurial skills (such as creativity, proactivity and risk tolerance) and socio-cultural factors (such as role model and businessman image) affect secondary education students' propensity towards entrepreneurial options in their future careers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of…

  11. Cross-cultural training as critical factor of cultural intelligence in the hospitality industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotsaga, Effrosyni

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses cultural awareness in the workplace. It is important for employees to be cultural aware because they may have to interact with people from other countries. Cultural Intelligence (CQ) examines individuals' abilities to interact with people with different cultural backgrounds. C

  12. Direct induction of chondrogenic cells from human dermal fibroblast culture by defined factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetatsu Outani

    Full Text Available The repair of large cartilage defects with hyaline cartilage continues to be a challenging clinical issue. We recently reported that the forced expression of two reprogramming factors (c-Myc and Klf4 and one chondrogenic factor (SOX9 can induce chondrogenic cells from mouse dermal fibroblast culture without going through a pluripotent state. We here generated induced chondrogenic (iChon cells from human dermal fibroblast (HDF culture with the same factors. We developed a chondrocyte-specific COL11A2 promoter/enhancer lentiviral reporter vector to select iChon cells. The human iChon cells expressed marker genes for chondrocytes but not fibroblasts, and were derived from non-chondrogenic COL11A2-negative cells. The human iChon cells formed cartilage but not tumors in nude mice. This approach could lead to the preparation of cartilage directly from skin in human, without going through pluripotent stem cells.

  13. Socio-cultural and economic factors affecting food consumption patterns in the Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, A O

    1993-04-01

    Several factors have been found to determine the dietary habits of the people in the Arab world. Food consumption pattern has dramatically changed in some Arab countries as a result of sudden increase in income from oil revenue. It is believed that food subsidy policy has adversely affected the food habits in the Gulf states by encouraging the intake of fat, sugar, rice, wheat flour and meat. Socio-cultural factors such as religion, beliefs, food preferences, gender discrimination, education and women's employment all have a noticeable influence on food consumption patterns in this region. Mass media, especially televised food advertisements, play an important role in modifying the dietary habits. The migration movement, particularly that which was carried out during the 70s has a great impact on the food practices in many Arab countries. Comprehensive studies on social, cultural and economic factors associated with food consumption patterns in the Arab region are highly recommended.

  14. Analysis of cultural development of Isfahan city Using Factor analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionCultural spaces are consideredas one of the main factors for development. Cultural development is a qualitative and valuable process that for assessing it, quantitative indicators in cultural planning are used to obtain development objectives in the pattern of goods and services. The aim of the study is to determine and analyze cultural development level and regional inequality of different districts of Isfahan using factor analysis technique. The statistical population of the study is 14 districts of Isfahan municipality. The dominant approach ofthis study is quantitative – description and analytical. In this study, 35 indices have been summarized by factor analysis method and have been reduced to 5 factors and combined in significant ones and delivered.2 – Theoretical basesThe most important objectives of spatial planning, considering limitation of resources, are optimum distributions of facilities and services among different locations in which people live. To do this,there is a need to identify different locations in terms of having different facilities and services, so that developed locations are specified and planners can proceed to do something for spatial equilibrium and reducing privileged distance between districts.The present study has been conducted to reach to an equal development in Isfahan urban districts following identifying the situation and the manner of distributing development facilities cultural selected indices in different districts.3 – DiscussionCultural development of societies is evaluated by considering the changes and improvement of its indices and measured by quantitative frames. Cultural development indices are the most important tools for cultural planning in a special district in a society. In this study, cultural development indices have been used to determine the levels of districts. By using factor analysis model, the share of influential factors in the cultural

  15. Factors associated with positive blood cultures in outpatients with suspected bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildi, K; Tschudin-Sutter, S; Dell-Kuster, S; Frei, R; Bucher, H C; Nüesch, R

    2011-12-01

    Blood cultures are routinely taken in outpatients with fever and suspected bacterial infections. However, in the majority of cases, they are not informative and of limited value for clinical decision making. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate factors associated with positive blood cultures in outpatients presenting to an outpatient clinic and emergency room. This was a case-control study of all outpatients with positive blood cultures from January 1, 2006 to October 31, 2007 and matched control patients with negative blood cultures in the same time period. Microbiology results and medical charts were reviewed to determine factors associated with positive blood cultures. The presence of a systemic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS) (OR 2.7, 95% Cl 1.0-7.2) and increased C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR 1.1 per 10 mg/l, 95% Cl 1.0-1.2) were the most powerful predictive values for the development of positive blood cultures. In positive cases serum albumin was lower (35 mg/l versus 39 mg/l) than in controls. SIRS, increasing CRP and low albumin were associated with positive blood cultures in outpatients. With simple clinical assessment and few laboratory tests indicative of infection, it is possible to define a group at higher risk for bacteremia in outpatients.

  16. Cultural factors behind the different business cultures of Iceland and Norway, a comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Rostrup, Hanne Ragnhild Hjemlestad, 1976-

    2010-01-01

    Even though Iceland and Norway are both Nordic countries originating from the same culture, the countries’ business cultures have developed different characteristics over the years. In light of the increasing emigration from Iceland to Norway following the financial crisis in 2008, this study will establish the difference between Norwegian and Icelandic business cultures so that Icelanders can prepare themselves for the different national culture and business culture in Norway. Moreover th...

  17. Cultural Factors in Translation%翻译中的文化因素探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏

    2014-01-01

    语言和文化是一个互为依存、密不可分的整体。翻译不仅是语际的翻译,其实更是文化的翻译。本文通过讲述语言和文化、文化和翻译之间的关系来具体分析中国人和英美人在思维方式之间存在的差异,从而进一步阐明了文化因素在翻译过程中的重要性。%Language and culture are interdependent and inseparable. Translation is not only interlingual, but also cultural. This paper describes the relationship between language and culture, culture and translation, as well as differences on ways of thinking between Chinese and westerners, thus further clarifies the importance of cultural factors in translation process.

  18. An Analysis on the Cultural Factors that Affect People’s Perceptions:A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this present paper is to explore the relationship between culture and perception and the cultural fac⁃tors that affect people’s perceptions from different cultural backgrounds. This study is based on a case, which is a news report about the cultural conflict between an old Chinese father and her daughter who has been living in Canada for eight years. De⁃tailed information has been acquired by the author using relative books, journals as well as her own understanding and interpreta⁃tion. It is concluded that to be aware of the cultural factors is of great importance to understand why people from different cul⁃tures have quite different perceptions toward the same thing, which can help to reduce the conflicts and misunderstandings in in⁃tercultural communication.

  19. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-verbal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter Lipi, Afia; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Mathias

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.

  20. Cultural and socio-economic factors on changes in aging among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin

    2014-02-28

    The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed using the recommended method by Corbin and Straus (1998 and 2008). The factors were formed from 6 subcategories: cultural and socio-economic status in the past, urban/rural life, companionship status, beliefs and attitudes, higher responsibilities of women and women's financial capability. This study explained the various aspects of cultural and socio-economic changes in the elderly participants based on their real experiences.

  1. Fibroblast growth factor-1 is a mesenchymal stromal cell-secreted factor stimulating proliferation of osteoarthritic chondrocytes in co-culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Ling; Leijten, Jeroen; Blitterswijk, van Clemens A.; Karperien, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we showed that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in co-culture with primary chondrocytes secrete soluble factors that increase chondrocyte proliferation. The objective of this study is to identify these factors. Human primary chondrocytes (hPCs) isolated from late-stage osteoarthritis pat

  2. Differential Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Growth Factors by Embryoid Bodies in Hydrodynamic and Static Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridley, Krista M.; Nair, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    During development, cell fate specification and tissue development are orchestrated by the sequential presentation of soluble growth factors (GF) and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Similarly, differentiation of stem cells in vitro relies upon the temporal presence of extracellular cues within the microenvironment. Hydrodynamic culture systems are not limited by volume restrictions and therefore offer several practical advantages for scalability over static cultures; however, hydrodynamic cultures expose cells to physical parameters not present in static culture, such as fluid shear stress and mass transfer through convective forces. In this study, the differences between static and hydrodynamic culture conditions on the expression of ECM and GF molecules during the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells were examined at both the gene and protein level. The expression of ECM and GF genes exhibited an early decrease in static cultures based on heat map and hierarchical clustering analysis and a relative delayed increase in hydrodynamic cultures. Although the temporal patterns of specific ECM and GF protein expression were comparable between static and hydrodynamic cultures, several notable differences in the magnitudes of expression were observed at similar time points. These results describe the establishment of an analytical framework that can be used to examine the expression patterns of ECM and GF molecules expressed by pluripotent stem cells undergoing differentiation as 3D multicellular aggregates under different culture conditions, and suggest that physical parameters of stem cell microenvironments can alter endogenous ECM and GF expression profiles that may, in turn, influence cell fate decisions. PMID:25423310

  3. Orf virus interleukin-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor-E modulate gene expression in cultured equine dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Lyn M; Bodaan, Christa J; Mercer, Andrew A; Riley, Christopher B; Theoret, Christine L

    2016-10-01

    Wounds in horses often exhibit sustained inflammation and inefficient vascularization, leading to excessive fibrosis and clinical complications such as "proud flesh". Orf virus-derived proteins, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-E and interleukin (ovIL)-10, enhance angiogenesis and control inflammation and fibrosis in skin wounds of laboratory animals. The study aimed to determine if equine dermal cells respond to VEGF-E and ovIL-10. Equine dermal cells are expected to express VEGF and IL-10 receptors, so viral protein treatment is likely to alter cellular gene expression and behaviour in a manner conducive to healing. Skin samples were harvested from the lateral thoracic wall of two healthy thoroughbred horses. Equine dermal cells were isolated using a skin explant method and their phenotype assessed by immunofluorescence. Cells were treated with recombinant proteins, with or without inflammatory stimuli. Gene expression was examined using standard and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Cell behaviour was evaluated in a scratch assay. Cultured cells were half vimentin(+ve) fibroblasts and half alpha smooth muscle actin(+ve) and vimentin(+ve) myofibroblasts. VEGF-E increased basal expression of IL-10 mRNA, whereas VEGF-A and collagenase-1 mRNA expression was increased by ovIL-10. In cells exposed to inflammatory stimulus, both treatments dampened tumour necrosis factor mRNA expression, and ovIL-10 exacerbated expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein. Neither viral protein influenced cell migration greatly. This study shows that VEGF-E and ovIL-10 are active on equine dermal cells and exert anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects that may enhance skin wound healing in horses. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. Factors limiting deceased organ donation: focus groups' perspective from culturally diverse community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P

    2010-06-01

    In-depth understanding of cultural and religious factors limiting organ donation of three ethnic populations (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) in Southeast Asia is lacking. Identification of factors limiting organ donation among these three ethnic groups will provide insights into culturally appropriate strategies to promote acceptance of organ donation in a multiethnic Asian community. A total of 17 focus group discussions (105 participants) were conducted between September and December 2008. Participants were members of the general public aged 18 to 60 years, recruited through convenient sampling around the Klang Valley area of Malaysia. Although the majority had favorable attitudes toward deceased organ donation and transplantation, a diversity of myths and misinformation were unearthed from the discussions across the ethnic groups. These include perceived religious prohibition, cultural myths and misperceptions, fear of disfigurement, fear of surgery, distrust of the medical system, and family disapproval. Culture and religious beliefs played important prohibitive roles among those opposed to organ donations. There were distinctive ethnic differences in cultural and religious concerns regarding organ donation. Less-educated and rural groups appeared to have more misconceptions than the well-educated and the urban groups. Our findings may assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach diverse sociodemographic and ethnic communities with culture-specific information about organ donation. The involvement of community and religious leaders is critical in organ donation requests.

  5. Cultural Factors in High School Student Motivation to Study Less Commonly Taught Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Nunn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Learning less commonly taught languages (LCTLs such as Japanese can be challenging for American students. Due to the difficulty of learning LCTLs, more effort is required of the learners to become proficient as compared to European languages. Motivation contributes to the learners’ academic success. In the socio-cultural perspective, the learners’ cultural background mediates their cognitive process. This study examines the motivational differences and similarities among two culturally diverse groups of high school learners of Japanese: Asians excluding Japanese-Americans and non-Asians. One hundred forty two students completed a survey. Factor analysis yielded six factors: integrative motivation, instrumental motivation, intrinsic motivation (doing activities for enjoyment, self-efficacy (a belief in one’s ability to succeed, goal specificity, and goal strategy. The motivational differences were confirmed in intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. Implications of these findings for LCTL teachers suggest practical steps that can be taken on motivational factors that influence students from different cultural backgrounds.

  6. Cultural institutions’ re-branding strategies: Social factors and creative trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Antonova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers new practices of cultural institutions re-branding. The authors are interested in these new practices from two points of view - as a way of creating and changing the image of a brand and as a technology of creative development of public institutions that supposes their adaptation to the modern life and its contemporary trends. The requirements to the infrastructure of the modern creative city are tightening and the culture houses of the Soviet type are losing their relevance among nowadays interactive platforms and entertainment centers. Thus, the article examines the role of the creative platforms in the socio-cultural urban space of Moscow focusing on the transformations of the culture houses that are taking place according to the cultural policy of the city management that uses technologies and methods of new creative industries. The authors state that the main problem today is that it is hard for the society to accept the new cultural centers as an alternative to the familiar leisure sites for they are strongly identified with the state, outdated and uninteresting places. Such new cultural centers and brands require a special approach focusing on the social factors - the authors show the way of its empirical application on the example of the re-branding of the cultural center ‘ZIL’.

  7. CULTURAL AND LEGAL FACTORS OF OPTIMIZATION OF THE IDEOLOGY OF STATE-BUILDING IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Krasnokutskyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose is to investigate the legal cultural phenomenon in the riches of the contours of its essence, raising the level of this phenomenon as part of the system of determinants of the optimization of ideology of state-building in modern Ukraine. Methodology. The study is based on the principles of materialist dialectics and the principles of historicism, social determinism, complexity. The scientific novelty. The cultural and legal factors of optimization of the ideology of state-building are conceptually considered for the first time in modern Ukraine; three methodological points that should be targeted in the definition of «legal culture» are outlined; the definition of legal culture is improved; a working template program of improvement and increase of the level of legal culture in contemporary Ukrainian society is developed; four key conceptual areas of the program are outlined. Conclusions. Legal culture can be defined as a separate category to mark the legal system which was historically formed and the institutions of a state-organized society that are correlated with it, and also the legal knowledge and motives, forms, techniques and methods of legal activities, values, estimates with the necessity inherent to every people, class, nation, community groups, to the individual person at a certain stage of their development. Rise of the level of legal awareness is one of the leading systematic factors, cultural and code keys to optimizing the development of state-building ideology in the conditions of today's Ukraine. The program for the improvement and enhancement of legal culture in contemporary Ukrainian society is composed of four major conceptual areas: the growth of basic legal literacy; the rise of their legal awareness; the increase of theoretical justification of the existing legal reality, the prospects for its future development, the increase of the efficiency of the legal theory; progressive formation of legal ideology.

  8. Nuclear Factor-kappaB controls the reaggregation of 3D neurosphere cultures in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Widera

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The approach of reaggregation involves the regeneration and self-renewal of histotypical 3D spheres from isolated tissue kept in suspension culture. Reaggregated spheres can be used as tumour, genetic, biohybrid and neurosphere models. In addition the functional superiority of 3D aggregates over conventional 2D cultures developed the use of neurospheres for brain engineering of CNS diseases. Thus 3D aggregate cultures created enormous interest in mechanisms that regulate the formation of multicellular aggregates in vitro. Here we analyzed mechanisms guiding the development of 3D neurosphere cultures. Adult neural stem cells can be cultured as self-adherent clusters, called neurospheres. Neurospheres are characterised as heterogeneous clusters containing unequal stem cell sub-types. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- alpha is one of the crucial inflammatory cytokines with multiple actions on several cell types. TNF- alpha strongly activates the canonical Nuclear Factor Kappa-B (NF-kappaB pathway. In order to investigate further functions of TNF in neural stem cells (NSCs we tested the hypothesis that TNF is able to modulate the motility and/or migratory behaviour of SVZ derived adult neural stem cells. We observed a significantly faster sphere formation in TNF treated cultures than in untreated controls. The very fast aggregation of isolated NSCs (<2h is a commonly observed phenomenon, though the mechanisms of 3D neurosphere formation remain largely unclear. Here we demonstrate for the first time, increased aggregation and enhanced motility of isolated NSCs in response to the TNF-stimulus. Moreover, this phenomenon is largely dependent on activated transcription factor NF-kappaB. Both, the pharmacological blockade of NF-kappaB pathway by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC or Bay11-7082 and genetic blockade by expression of a transdominant-negative super-repressor IkappaB-AA1 led to decreased aggregation.

  9. Factors affecting the accumulation of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in callus cultures of Eurycoma longifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Rosli; M. Maziah; K. L. Chan; S. Sreeramanan

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to improve 9-methoxycanthin-6-one productivity (potential anti-tumour compound) from callus cultures of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali). Several factors affecting 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production in callus cultures such as different medium compositions and physical factors were investigated and analyzed. Results show that a higher production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (3.84 mg(g-1 DW (Dry Weight)) is obtained from callus cultured in 1/4 MS basal media. At fructose of 2% (w/v), the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (4.59 mg(g-1 DW) is promoted to gain the highest yield, compared to other carbon sources tested. The addition of 2.0-mg(L-1 dicamba also increases 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production (12.3 mg(g-1 DW). Higher production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one was obtained at pH 5.5 (1.53 mg(g-1 DW). Production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (2.34 mg(g-1 DW) in callus cultures is also increased when the medium is added with 1(10-1 μM phenylalanine. This study suggests that the successful production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in vitro cultures has a potential in large-scale production using bioreactor technology.

  10. Mortality and prognostic factors of patients who have blood cultures performed in the emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prier Lindvig, Katrine; Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Henriksen, Daniel P;

    2016-01-01

    : This was a hospital-based cohort study including all adult (≥15 years old) blood-cultured patients at the MED at Odense University Hospital between 1 August 2009 and 31 August 2011. RESULTS: During the study period, 5499/11 988 (45.9%) patients had blood cultures performed within 72 h of arrival and were included.......6 (95% CI 3.6-6.0)], at least two organ failure [HR 3.6 (2.9-4.5)], bacteraemia [HR 1.4 (1.1-1.8)], Charlson Comorbidity Index of at least 2 h [HR 1.7 (1.3-2.0)], SIRS [HR 1.5 (1.2-1.7)], a history of alcohol dependency [HR 1.7 (1.3-2.3)] and late drawing of blood cultures 24-48 h after arrival [HR 1.......7 (1.3-2.2)] were found to be prognostic factors of mortality among blood-cultured patients in the MED. CONCLUSION: Among blood-cultured patients in the MED, we found an 11.0% overall 30-day mortality. Factors associated with 30-day mortality were age more than 80 years, at least two organ failure...

  11. Human factors research in Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry creation of safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, Yasuo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    To prevent accident of nuclear power plant, Human Factors Center was built in the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in July 1987. It developed an evaluation method of human error cases and an application method of human factors information. Now it continues analysis and application of human factors information, development of training/work support tools and research/experiment of human behavior. Japan-Human Performance Evaluation System (J-HPES) was developed as an analytical system for analysis and evaluation of human factors related to the trouble and for using the result as the common property by storage the analytical results. J-HPES has a standard procedure consisted of collecting and analyzing data and proposing the countermeasures. The analytical results are arranged by 4 kinds of charts by putting into the form of a diagram. Moreover, it tries to find the causes with indirect and potential causes. Two kinds of materials, Caution Report and Human Factors Precept by means of Illustrations, are published. People can gain access to HFC database by URL http://criepi.denken.or.jp/CRIEPI/HFC/DB. To prevent these accidents, creation of human factors culture has been required. Five kinds of teaching materials and the training method are developed. (S.Y.)

  12. Organizational factors, organizational culture, job satisfaction and entrepreneurial orientation in public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos M. Karyotakis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper outlines the critical role and influence of organizational culture and job satisfaction on the relationship between organizational factors and entrepreneurial orientation (EO in the public sector through generating the theoretical framework. Upon examining these terms, a model that reflects their mutual relationships has been suggested. The amalgam of internal work environment, work discretion and rewards/recognition in combination with the appropriate degree of organizational boundaries, such as formalization, centralization, technology routines and connectedness, are crucial for fostering organizational culture and job satisfaction that lead to EO through innovativeness, proactiveness and risk taking.

  13. Expression of Transforming Growth Factor-β in Cultured Normal Human Lens Epithelia Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄渝侃; 魏厚仁

    2004-01-01

    Summary: In order to investigate whether cultured normal human lens epithelial cells (LEC) express transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) and immunohistochemical methods were used for detection of TGF-β mRNA and protein in cultured normal human LEC. The results showed that a single RT-PCR amplified product about 310bp was obtained, and the sequence was homologous to the known sequence. TGF-β immunostain was positive in the plasma of LEC. It was suggested that normal human LEC could produce TGF-β, and LEC could be affected by TGF-β through autocrine action.

  14. Impact of cultural factors on attitude toward using ERP systems in public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Escobar-Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main problems that arise in adopting most enterprise resources planning (ERP strategies come from organizational, rather than technical, issues, for example, social and cultural barriers, and user resistance. This paper analyzes the impact of cultural factors on user attitudes toward ERP use in public hospitals and identifying influencing factors. The theoretical grounding for this research is the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. The proposed model has six constructs (“resistance to be controlled”, “resistance to change”, “perceived risks”, “perceived usefulness”, “perceived ease of use”, and “attitude toward using”, and nine hypotheses have been generated from the connections between these six constructs. Results suggest important practical implications for attitude toward using ERP and to develop an understanding about how to improve this attitude in hospitals.

  15. The Relationship of Workplace Culture With Nursing-Sensitive Organizational Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahtela, Nina; McCormack, Brendan; Paavilainen, Eija; Slater, Paul; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relations of workplace culture on nursing-sensitive organizational factors. The need for standardized and valid measures for nursing-sensitive organizational outcomes has already been recognized in the literature. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 21 inpatient acute care units in 9 organizations at the municipal primary healthcare level was conducted. Participants included licensed practical nurses, registered nurses, and nurse managers. Workplace culture, especially the overarching factor of stress, correlated with the use of supplemental nursing staff and patients' length of stay. It is essential to find and test workplace-sensitive indicators so that managers will have a wider range of methods to plan and evaluate nursing outcomes.

  16. Turnour necrosis factor stimulates endothelin-1 gene expression in cultured bovine endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Orisio

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the effect of human recombinant tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α on gene expression and production of endothelin-1 in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. TNF-α (10 and 100 ng ml−1 increased in a time dependent manner the preproendothelin-1 mRNA levels in respect to unstimulated endothelial cells. TNF-α induced endothelin-1 gene expression was associated with a parallel increase in the release of the corresponding peptide in the culture medium. These findings suggest that the enhanced synthesis and release of endothelin-1 occurring in conditions of increased generation of TNF, may act as a modulatory factor that counteracts the hypotensive effect and the excessive platelet aggregation and adhesion induced by TNF.

  17. Key Factors in the Success of an Organization's Information Security Culture: A Quantitative Study and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This research study reviewed relative literature on information security and information security culture within organizations to determine what factors potentially assist an organization in implementing, integrating, and maintaining a successful organizational information security culture. Based on this review of literature, five key factors were…

  18. Key Factors in the Success of an Organization's Information Security Culture: A Quantitative Study and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This research study reviewed relative literature on information security and information security culture within organizations to determine what factors potentially assist an organization in implementing, integrating, and maintaining a successful organizational information security culture. Based on this review of literature, five key factors were…

  19. Extracellular-like matrices and leukaemia inhibitory factor for in vitro culture of human primordial follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Assiel J; Lerer-Serfaty, Galit; Stav, Dana; Sabbah, Bethsabee; Shochat, Tzippy; Kessler-Icekson, Gania; Zahalka, Muayad A; Shachar-Goldenberg, Michal; Ben-Haroush, Avi; Fisch, Benjamin; Abir, Ronit

    2017-02-01

    The possibility of maturing human primordial follicles in vitro would assist fertility restoration without the danger of reseeding malignancies. Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and certain culture matrices may promote human follicular growth. The present study compared human primordial follicular growth on novel culture matrices, namely human recombinant vitronectin (hrVit), small intestine submucosa (SIS), alginate scaffolds and human recombinant virgin collagen bioengineered in tobacco plant lines (CollPlant). The frozen-thawed ovarian samples that were used had been obtained from girls or young women undergoing fertility preservation. In the first part of the study, 20 samples were cultured for 6 days on hrVit or SIS with basic culture medium alone or supplemented with one of two concentrations of LIF (10ngmL-1 and 100ngmL-1), with and without LIF-neutralising antibody. In the second part of the study, 15 samples were cultured for 6 days on alginate scaffolds or CollPlant matrices with basic culture medium. Follicular development was assessed by follicular counts and classification, Ki67 immunohistochemistry and 17β-oestradiol and anti-Müllerian hormone measurements in spent media samples. Primordial follicular growth was not enhanced by LIF. Despite some significant differences among the four matrices, none appeared to have a clear advantage, apart from significantly more Ki67-stained follicles on alginate and CollPlant matrices. Further studies of other culture matrices and medium supplements are needed to obtain an optimal system.

  20. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-Verbal Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes....... The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.......The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes...... of agent's non-verbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture...

  1. El turismo cultural como factor estratégico de desarrollo: el Camino de Santiago

    OpenAIRE

    Precedo Ledo, Andrés; Revilla Bonín, Arturo; Míguez Iglesias, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to study one of the strategies of territorial marketing of greater success: the promotion of the Way of Santiago and the mark of the Xacobeo. The approach of the study attack from the perspective of its contribution to the territorial, as much rural development (the Galician section of the Way) like urban (the city of Santiago de Compostela). The departure hypothesis is that, in both cases, the cultural tourism has worked like a complementary factor of d...

  2. Cultural and Socio-Economic Factors on Changes in Aging among Iranian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simulta...

  3. Parvalbumin immunoreactivity is enhanced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in organotypic cultures of rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, D W

    1999-11-15

    The rodent retina undergoes considerable postnatal neurogenesis and phenotypic differentiation, and it is likely that diffusible neurotrophic factors contribute to this development and to the subsequent formation of functional retinal circuitry. Accordingly, perturbation of specific neurotrophin ligand-receptor interactions has provided valuable information as to the fundamental processes underlying this development. In the present studies we have built upon our previous observation that suppression of expression of trk(B), the high-affinity receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in the postnatal rat retina results in the alteration of a specific interneuron in the rod pathway-the parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive AII amacrine cell. Here, we isolated retinas from newborn rats and maintained them in organotypic culture for up to 14 days (approximating the time of eye opening, in vivo) in the presence of individual neurotrophins [BDNF or nerve growth factor (NGF)]. We then examined histological sections of cultures for PV immunoreactivity. In control cultures, only sparse PV-immunostained cells were observed. In cultures supplemented with NGF, numerous lightly immunostained somata were present in the inner nuclear layer (INL) at the border of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Many of these cells had rudimentary dendritic arborizations in the IPL. Cultures supplemented with BDNF displayed numerous well-immunostained somata at the INL/IPL border that gave rise to elaborate dendritic arborizations that approximated the morphology of mature AII amacrine cells in vivo. These observations indicate that neurotrophins have specific effects upon the neurochemical and, perhaps, morphological differentiation of an important interneuron in a specific functional retinal circuit.

  4. Beginning elementary school teachers' perceptions of structural and cultural context factors impacting their science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Hillary A.

    Science maintains low status in many elementary classrooms. Beginning teachers find it difficult to teach science effectively. The Teacher-Centered Systemic Reform Model suggests there are personal, structural, and cultural factors that impact teaching practices. The questions that drove this study were: (a) How do beginning teachers perceive structural and cultural factors of the TCSR model as affecting their science teaching practices? (b) How do those perceptions compare between beginning teachers who teach science and those who do not? (c) How do beginning teachers' perceptions compare to those of principals and veteran teachers? The model was used to collect and analyze data on the perceptions of factors that influenced beginning teachers' science teaching practices. A case study involved six beginning teachers from three elementary schools in the southwestern United States during the 2005--2006 school year. Through an initial survey, two groups of beginning teachers were first identified as (a) those who taught and liked science, and (b) those who did not teach or like science. Three teachers from each group were selected to participate in the study that consisted of semi-structured interviews, observations, and review of artifacts. These data were compared with interview data from three veteran teachers and three principals. The findings of this study supported the TCSR model and confirmed that the beginning teachers did perceive certain structural context factors (e.g., curriculum, materials, time, professional development, district requirements, classroom management), and cultural context factors (e.g., district-wide low priority of science) as having an impact on their science teaching. The veteran teachers' perceptions more closely matched those of the beginning teachers' than did those of the principals. Despite the contextual influences, the beginning teachers' perceptions ultimately differed in teacher thinking (i.e., those who taught science had

  5. Risk Factors for Neonatal Sepsis and Method for Reduction of Blood Culture Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajčinović, S S; Doronjski, A; Barišić, N; Stojanović, V

    2015-03-01

    False-positive blood cultures findings may lead to a falsely increased morbidity and increased hospital costs. The survey was conducted as retrospective - prospective study and included 239 preterm infants (born before 37 weeks of gestation) who were treated in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Institute for Child and Youth Health Care of Vojvodina during one year (January 1st, 2012 to December 31st, 2012). The retrospective part of the study focused on examination of incidence of neonatal sepsis and determination of risk factors. In the prospective part of the study infants were sub-divided into two groups: Group 1- infants hospitalized in NICU during the first 6 months of the study; blood cultures were taken by the "clean technique" and checklists for this procedure were not taken. Group 2- neonates hospitalized in NICU during last 6 months of the study; blood cultures were taken by "sterile technique" and checklists for this procedure were taken. The main risk factors for sepsis were prelabor rupture of membranes, low gestational age, low birth weight, mechanical ventilation, umbilical venous catheter placement, and abdominal drainage. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus were the most frequently isolated microorganisms in false-positive blood samples. Education of employees, use of checklists and sterile sets for blood sampling, permanent control of false positive blood cultures, as well as regular and routine monthly reports are crucial for successful reduction of contamination rates.

  6. Imaging-guided percutaneous needle biopsy for infectious spondylitis: Factors affecting culture positivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Si Yoon; Kwon, Jong Won [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    To evaluate the variable factors affecting the results of percutaneous needle biopsies for infectious spondylitis. In all, 249 patients who underwent both MRI and percutaneous needle biopsies due to a suspicion of infectious spondylitis were evaluated with respect to the following factors: the usage of antibiotics before the procedure, the location of the biopsy, the guiding equipment used, the experience level of the operators, and the number of biopsies performed. The positivity of culture in cases of treated with antibiotics (16.3%) before the biopsy was lower than in the untreated cases (30.5%) (p = 0.004). Biopsies performed at the abscess (43.5%) and with fluoroscopic guidance (27.8%) showed higher culture positivity as well. The experience level of the operators and the number of biopsies had no effect on culture positivity. The usage of antibiotics before the biopsy, the biopsy's location, and the guiding equipment used affect the culture positivity, while the experience levels of the operators and the number of biopsies do not have an effect.

  7. Managerial factor of ethnic minority cultural space: changes (1990 – 2000 – years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Pekarchuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of archival, statistical materials, analytical inputs predecessors considered the place and role of management factor in the development of cultural space Ethnic minorities during 1990 - 2000 - ies. Nonfiction includes problems of participation of public authorities in the cultural renaissance of ethnic minorities in part addresses the issue of directions, principles, nature management decisions involving relevant administrative instruments regarding implementation in practice of the basics of cultural - artistic policy. Importance designated problem caused primarily by the need to have a clear understanding of the mechanisms of decision independent state problems of interethnic relations, promoting the principles of many cultural, ethnic and national tolerance and harmony. Fundamental approaches to the creation of prerequisites cooperation executive authorities and representative bodies of national - cultural society, the maintenance of ethnic and cultural needs of ethnic groups in Ukraine. We considered the prospect of continuity and management activities in the direction of improving the principles of such support. Considerable attention is paid to the current management mechanism (mosaic bodies involved in financing, material support, investment projects. At first, in the historiography on the basis of specific methodological tools to analyze conformity issued by the President of Ukraine, the Cabinet of Ministers, Ministry departments strategic objectives - development of social and cultural environment Ethnic minorities of Ukraine. Particular attention is given to explaining the problems of social - political participation of ethnic minorities, ethnic consolidation of the principles of conservation of space. Stressed that the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine actively promoted satisfaction ethno-cultural needs of ethnic groups, the revival of their customs and traditions. A significant part of the articl is devoted to clarify

  8. Assessing an organizational culture instrument based on the Competing Values Framework: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohr David C

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Competing Values Framework (CVF has been widely used in health services research to assess organizational culture as a predictor of quality improvement implementation, employee and patient satisfaction, and team functioning, among other outcomes. CVF instruments generally are presented as well-validated with reliable aggregated subscales. However, only one study in the health sector has been conducted for the express purpose of validation, and that study population was limited to hospital managers from a single geographic locale. Methods We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the underlying structure of data from a CVF instrument. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a work environment survey conducted in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA. The study population comprised all staff in non-supervisory positions. The survey included 14 items adapted from a popular CVF instrument, which measures organizational culture according to four subscales: hierarchical, entrepreneurial, team, and rational. Results Data from 71,776 non-supervisory employees (approximate response rate 51% from 168 VHA facilities were used in this analysis. Internal consistency of the subscales was moderate to strong (α = 0.68 to 0.85. However, the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales had higher correlations across subscales than within, indicating poor divergent properties. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors, comprising the ten items from the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales loading on the first factor, and two items from the hierarchical subscale loading on the second factor, along with one item from the rational subscale that cross-loaded on both factors. Results from confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the two-subscale solution provides a more parsimonious fit to the data as compared to the original four-subscale model. Conclusion This study suggests that there may be problems

  9. [Effects of cultural factors on yield of Linum usitatissimum (Tianya 9)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Zhang, Jin; Du, Yan-bin; Cui, Tong-xia; Wang, Li-jun

    2016-02-01

    Cultural factors influencing high yield and good quality Linum usitatissimum (Tianya 9) were investigated. The correlations between these factors and its yield were analyzed. Path coefficient and principal component analysis were conducted, adopting uniform design of the 8 cultivating factors, i.e. planting density (X1), base nitrogen quantity (X2), base phosphorus quantity (X3), base potassium quantity (X4), foliar fertilizer (potassium dihydrogen phosphate, X5), foliar fertilizer (boron fertilizer, X6), growth regulator (multi-effect azole, X7) and growth duration irrigation amount (X8), aiming at exploring better cultivating plan of L. usitatissimum for Gansu Province. The results indicated that the factors influencing the yield of L. usitatissimum were X1, X7, X2, X3, X5 and X4 in a descending order. Simulation and optimization of the highest yield was further implemented. Frequency analysis showed that the cultivating factors resulting in yield higher than 173.58 kg . hm-2 were 4. 68 - 4. 92 kg . hm-2 (X1) , 11. 59 - 14. 75 kg . hm-2 (X2), 17.26- 21.95 kg . hm-2 (X3), 7.00-12.50 kg . hm-2 (X4) , 1.41-1.81 kg . hm-2 (X5) and 751.74- 954.04 g . hm-2 (X7).

  10. A lipochito-oligosaccharide, Nod factor, induces transient calcium influx in soybean suspension-cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, T; Kobayashi, N; Kouchi, H; Minamisawa, K; Kaku, H; Tsuchiya, K

    2000-04-01

    Lipochito-oligosaccharides (Nod factors) produced by Rhizobium or Bradyrhizobium are the key signal molecules for eliciting nodulation in their corresponding host legumes. To elucidate the signal transduction events mediated by Nod factors, we investigated the effects of Nod factors on the cytosolic [Ca2+] of protoplasts prepared from roots and suspension-cultured cells of soybean (Glycine max and G. soja) using a fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, Fura-PE3. NodBj-V (C18:1, MeFuc), which is a major component of Nod factors produced by Bradyrhizobium japonicum, induces transient elevation of cytosolic [Ca2+] in the cells of soybean within a few minutes. This effect is specific to soybean cells and was not observed in the tobacco BY-2 cells. Furthermore, NodBj-V without MeFuc did not induce any cytosolic [Ca2+] elevation in soybean cells. Exclusion of Ca2+ from the medium, as well as pre-treatment of the cells with an external Ca2+ chelator or with a plasma membrane voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel inhibitor, suppressed the Nod factor-dependent cytosolic [Ca2+] elevation. These results indicate that transient Ca2+ influx from extracellular fluid is one of the earliest responses of soybean cells to NodBj-V (C18:1, MeFuc) in a host-specific manner.

  11. Socio-cultural factors of formation of musical preferences of Ukrainian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Nesterenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of social and cultural factors on the musical preferences of students in Ukraine has been analysed in the article. The following factors have been selected: the type of society and social change in the polical fields of economy, culture, technology, students, musical paradigm. The urgency of the analysis of the genesis, development and change of musical preferences of students has been proven, the necessity to study the influence of sociocultural factors on the formation of musical preferences in modern society has been grounded. This allowed characterising the musical preferences as a socio-cultural phenomenon that present signs and society, and culture of the society. It has been found that the development of technology, such as the invention and use of the gramophone, phonograph, cinema, radio, television, and later a tape recorder, computer, Internet, mobile communications and the latest gadgets, has enhanced the formation of musical preferences.It has contributed meeting the needs and inquiries of students, which are studying musical art, the use of individual trajectories of formation of formal and informal musical preferences. Formal preferences are associated with the activities of social institutions and social organizations. In this context, the musical preferences and those recommended “from above” have been considered to be two different ways of formation of musical preferences in a totalitarian society. The variety of musical preferences has been determined. State-formed musical preferences have been identified and characterized by a second method of forming a musical preferences, which is based on the perception of diversity and is not approved by the musical culture of the individually selected samples, “from below” groups, which are defined as individual and personal, or informal, musical preferences. The musical preferences of students, related to situations of social changes that have occurred in the spheres

  12. Analysis of IL-2-like factor in lymphocyte culture supernatant of olive flounder, Paralichthys oliveaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Riqin; ZHANG Peijun; LI Jun; XU Yongli

    2005-01-01

    To study immune mechanism of fish lymphocyte we performed a proliferation assay and ELISA using monoclonal antibody against human IL-2. The result showed that an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-like factor was detected in the supernatant of plant haemoglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte culture from peripheral blood,spleen and head kidney of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The quantities of IL-2-1ike factor in the supematant from different lymphoid tissues were quite different. The IL-2 like factor in the supernatant from cultured head kidney lymphocytes was much higher than those of peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen lymphocytes (P<0.01). The IL-2 activity was found in either mouse thymocyte proliferation assay or flounder head kidney lymphocyte proliferation assay and shown to have obvious enhancing effect on proliferation of the above two types of cell. The recombinant human IL-2 (rhIL-2) was able to stimulate flounder thymocyte proliferation and used to detect the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) on the surface of flounder lymphocyte. The cross-reaction between the lymphocytes of flounder peripheral blood and CD25(IL-2R) was detected with flow cytometry and shown that the percentage of CD25-positive cell in peripheral blood was 7.74± 0.67%.

  13. Factors influencing the contamination rate of human organ-cultured corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Daniel; Wude, Johanna; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U; Yoeruek, Efdal; Thaler, Sebastian; Röck, Tobias

    2017-03-21

    To assess the influence of donor, environment and storage factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas, to consider the microbiological species causing corneal contamination and to investigate the corresponding sensitivities. Data from 1340 consecutive donor corneas were analysed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the influence of different factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas for transplantation. The mean annual contamination rate was 1.8 ± 0.4% (range: 1.3-2.1%); 50% contaminations were of fungal origin with exclusively Candida species, and 50% contaminations were of bacterial origin with Staphylococcus species being predominant. The cause of donor death including infection and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome increased the risk of bacterial or fungal contamination during organ culture (p = 0.007 and p = 0.014, respectively). Differentiating between septic and aseptic donors showed an increased risk of contamination for septic donors (p = 0.0020). Mean monthly temperature including warmer months increased the risk of contamination significantly (p = 0.0031). Sex, donor age, death to enucleation, death to corneoscleral disc excision and storage time did not increase the risk of contamination significantly. The genesis of microbial contamination in organ-cultured donor corneas seems to be multifactorial. The main source of fungal or bacterial contamination could be resident species from the skin flora. The rate of microbial contamination in organ-cultured donor corneas seems to be dependent on the cause of donor death and mean monthly temperature. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Role of soluble factors and three-dimensional culture in in vitro differentiation of intestinal macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tanja Spoettl; Martin Hausmann; Katrin Menzel; Heidi Piberger; Hans Herfarth; Juergen Schoelmerich; Frauke Bataille; Gerhard Rogler

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To examine the factor(s)involved in differentiation of intestinal macrophages(IMACs)using a recently established in vitro model.METHODS:To test whether soluble or membrane bound factors induce IMAC-differentiation,freshly elutriated monocytes(MO)were incubated with conditioned media or cell membranes of intestinal epithelial cells(IEC)or cultured with IEC in transwell systems.To determine the importance of an active migration of MO,threedimensional aggregates from a 1:1-mixture of MO and IEC were examined by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry.Apoptosis was examined by caspase-3 Western blots.Extracellular matrix production in differentiation models was compared by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS:IMAC differentiation was observed in a complex three-dimensional co-culture model(multicellular spheroid,MCS)with IEC after migration of MO into the spheroids.By co-culture of MO with conditioned media or membrane preparations of IEC no IMAC differentiation was induced.Co-culture of MO with IEC in transwellcultures,with the two cell populations separated by a membrane also did not result in intestinal-like differentiation of MO.In contrast to IEC-spheroids with immigrating MO in mixed MCS of IEC and MO only a small subpopulation of MO was able to survive the seven day culture period.CONCLUSION:Intestinal-like differentiation of MO in vitro is only induced in the complex three-dimensional MCS model after immigration of MO indicating a role of cell-matrix and/or cell-cell interactions during the differentiation of IMACs.

  15. The influence of culture as a marketing factor on costumer's behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đelošević Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The social factor that has the widest impact on customer's behavior is culture. The aim of this work is that through the elements and dimensions of culture explains habits, customs and tendencies of people in consumption .According to the broad and pervasive nature of culture, its study requires a thorough examination of the character of the entire society, including elements such as language, laws, customs, religion, art, technology, business partners, products and other elements that give the society a distinctive taste. Understanding the similarities and differences among costumers is very important for multinational tenderer. If there is a greater similarity between the costumers they will use similar strategies but if the beliefs and customs are different, then each country uses individual marketing strategy. In international marketing error may occur if the promotional message of a company presents in a language that is not understandable to customers in a given country and which means something completely different and unacceptable by customers. Differences in cultural values can be described in various dimensions - individualism, masculinity, power distance, avoidance of uncertainty and long-term orientation. Market segments in developing countries offer great opportunities but the creation of values in those segments means that the nuances of the culture must be understood.

  16. Glutamate enhances the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in cultured SD rat astrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong-xiao Liu; Yong Liu; Wei Shi; Xin-lin Chen; Xin-li Xiao; Ling-yu Zhao; Yu-mei Tian; Jun-feng Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of glutamate on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein in cultured rat astrocytes. Methods Cultured rat astrocytes were randomly divided into 6 groups: control group (C), glutamate group (G), QA group (Q), DCG-IV group (D), L-AP4 group (L) and glutanmte-FMCPG gronp (G+M). Cells were cultured under nomoxic condition (95% air, 5% CO2). RT-PCR and ELISA methods were used to detect the expression of VEGF mRNA and protein in cultured astrocytes, respectively. G+ M group was preincubated with lmM MCPG for 30 min prior to the stimulation with glutamate. There were 7 time points at 0,4,8,12,16,24 and 48 h in each group except G+M group. Results The expression of VEGF mRNA and protein did not differ significantly among D group, L group and C group. Different from that in C group, the expression of VEGF mRNA and protein could be enhanced both in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in G group and Q group. Meanwhile, the enhanced expression of VEGF mRNA and protein in G group was completely suppressed by MCPG after 24 h. Conclusion Glutamate can increase the expression of VEGF mRNA and protein in cultured astrocytes, which may be due to the activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in astrocytes.

  17. Post-transcriptional regulation of neurofibromin level in cultured human melanocytes in response to growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, J; Kaufmann, D; Maier, B; Mailhammer, R; Kuehl, P; Krone, W

    1997-03-01

    Among the symptoms that characterize neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are pigmentation anomalies such as cafe au lait spots. It has been suggested that the reduction of the neurofibromin level in the epidermis of NF1 patients is responsible for the observed signs such as altered melanogenesis and altered density of melanocytes. Our studies show that in cultured normal human melanocytes, the neurofibromin level can be varied in vitro over a wide range by using different culture conditions. The influence of factors that control differentiation and proliferation of melanocytes on neurofibromin levels was studied. Immunoprecipitation followed by western blotting showed a 3- to 4-fold increase of neurofibromin after stimulation by PMA or bFGF, respectively, and a 1.5-fold increase in cells stimulated with steel factor. The increase of neurofibromin was not paralleled by a higher NF1 mRNA level as proved by northern blotting. Pulse-chase experiments with 35S-labeled melanocytes revealed an approximately 3-fold increase in the half-life of neurofibromin in bFGF- or PMA-stimulated cells compared to controls. These results indicate that the neurofibromin level of cultured melanocytes can be regulated by a mechanism independent of NF1 gene transcription and translation, which might influence the degradation rate of the protein.

  18. Socio-cultural factors as correlates of maternal mortality in Edo South Senatorial District, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinwe Lucy Marchie

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the socio-cultural factors that contribute to Maternal Mortality in Edo South Senatorial District. Methods:The population of the study was made up of 2 157 females of reproductive age and multi-stage random sampling technique was used. The instrument for data collection was a self developed structured and validated questionnaire with a reliability of 0.82. Focus group discussion (FGD) and in-depth interview guide were employed to complement the instrument. Inferential statistics of multiple regressions were also employed to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Results:The results showed that the socio-cultural variables when taken together contributed positively to maternal mortality [R2=0.32;CV=16.5;df=7). The finding further revealed that six, out of seven of the independent variables in the study significantly contributed to maternal mortality in Edo South Senatorial District. The implications of these findings in maternal and child health care were highlighted. Conclusions:The study had shown that in addition to medical causes of maternal mortality, there are socio-cultural factors that contribute to women dying during pregnancy, labour and pueperium.

  19. Online newspapers: the impact of culture, sex, and age on the perceived importance of specified quality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley G. Hope

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a proliferation of online newspapers over recent years. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, factors affecting the quality of online newspapers remain only partially understood. Based on a two-factor model of hygiene and motivator factors, this paper examines quality for online newspapers giving attention to differences across culture, sex, and age. Hygiene factors are essential requirements whose absence causes dissatisfaction, while motivators are desirable elements that add value and increase user satisfaction. The paper presents findings from an empirical study of eighty-four Web users. Results show that hygiene factors for our respondents were: Timeliness, Content attractiveness, Content coverage, Usefulness, and Navigation, while motivators were: Writing style, Layout, Archives, Services, Interactivity, and Multimedia presentation. Four factors were borderline: Journalism ethics, Ease of use, Front page and headlines, and Locating information. However, the research reveals some differences in classification of factors across culture, sex, and age.

  20. [Patient safety culture and related factors in a network of Spanish public hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Zenewton André da Silva; Oliveira, Adriana Catarina de Souza; Hernández, Pedro Jesus Saturno

    2013-02-01

    The objectives were to describe Patient Safety Culture (PSC) in a regional network of public hospitals, according to the perceptions of health professionals, and analyze the influence of socio-professional factors. A survey was conducted with 1,113 professionals from eight Spanish hospitals, using a questionnaire that explores 12 dimensions of PSC. Perceptions were described through the Percentage of Positive (PPR) and Negative Responses (PNR) by dimension, and the association of factors was analyzed using multivariate linear regression. The dimension "Teamwork within the same Unit" had the highest PPR (73.5), and "Staffing" the highest PNR (61). The variables "Service" (Pharmacy, Surgical Center) and "Profession" (Nurses) were significantly associated to positive assessments. Thus, strategies to improve PSC should prioritize rational distribution of human resources, and take advantage of the positive perceived relationship within Units. Moreover, pharmaceutical and surgical services, as well as nurses should probably be benchmarked by other services and professionals.

  1. Psychosocial and Cultural Factors Related to Risky Sexual Behavior Leading to HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Kiylioglu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from adolescence, importance of sexuality increases in the lives of young people. When done without necessary prevention measures, sexuality may lead to deadly infections in health. Of them, perhaps the most important is HIV/AIDS. Although resulting from sexual behavior the probability of HIV transmission is low, AIDS can be deadly. The aim of this study is to review psycho-social and cultural factors claimed to explain and related with risky sexual behavior that can lead to HIV/AIDS. These factors are gender roles, religiosity, sexual sensation seeking, self-efficacy for AIDS prevention, and HIV/AIDS knowledge. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 367-379

  2. Lipid-mediated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfer to cultured porcine ventral mesencephalic tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Matthias; Meyer, Morten; Brevig, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    -mediated transfer of the gene for human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to embryonic (E27/28) porcine VM tissue kept as organotypic explant cultures. Treatment of the developing VM with two mitogens, basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor, prior to transfection significantly...... numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the cultured VM tissue. We conclude that lipid-mediated gene transfer employed on embryonic pig VM explant cultures is a safe and effective method to improve survival of dopaminergic neurons and may become a valuable tool to improve allo...

  3. The Activities and Culture of Teachers: the Interdependent Factors of Their Development

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    Alexander Mishchenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The object of the experimental research is teachers of the vocational schools and colleges of Saint Petersburg. 583 teachers were questioned on experiment. Authors’ positional and semantic paradigm of the research was established, which allows us to fully explore the very pinch of its activity and professional culture. We analyzed factors, which are closely connected with the development of the content of the activity and professional culture of the teaching stuff. The subject of the sociological research is social, educational (organizational and personal factors of development of teacher’s activity and professional development as subjects of the education. The main research method is correlation and statistical analysis of sociological survey data, taken by author’s multi-criteria modular type form. In the paper, the educational organization is shown as crossing field of social and economical, organizational and personal factors of development of teacher’s activity and professional development. They show multidiscipline (social, economical, organizational, competence-based and personal aspects of intercommunion of activity and professional development of the subjects of education. Thereupon we conclude, that intercommunions of this facts, peculiar to teachers of the vocational schools and colleges, can be learned in a consistent manner only on the ground of studying: regularities of productive labour, as the expression of the system of social and economical relations in society; tendencies in the development of the secondary vocational education system; modernization process of educational institution of the secondary vocational education; the evolution of relation system between teachers and pupils in educational institution; teacher’s personality as subject of the education process. These aspects of the scientific analysis allow to cover the intercommunion of activity and professional culture of the teaching stuff in the context of

  4. Shades of truth: cultural and psychological factors affecting communication in pediatric palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Yutaka; Yamada, Miwa; Fukui, Kenji

    2011-02-01

    Communication with children who have life-threatening illnesses is a major challenge. Communication practices are greatly influenced by factors such as the child's age, the parents' wishes, and the cultural norms. This article presents the case of a 12-year-old Japanese boy with advanced hepatoblastoma. The patient also was diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome, which impairs interpersonal communication. The case is discussed from the perspective of clinical ethics, especially with regard to truth telling. The health care team faced an ethical dilemma because of the complications involved. Physicians treating children with cancer should be aware of these issues to be able to effectively communicate with their patients.

  5. Institutional, Financial, Legal, and Cultural Factors in a Distance Learning Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeman, Rachel; Haseley, Dennis

    2015-06-01

    As psychoanalytic institutes evolve, adapting to the contemporary financial and social environment, the integration of new technologies into psychoanalytic education presents opportunities for expansion to candidates residing beyond the usual geographic boundaries. While the teaching of analytic content through distance learning programs appears to be relatively straightforward, factors including legalities, traditional mind-sets, and cross-cultural issues need to be considered as complicating the situation, as illustrated by one U.S. institute's distance learning initiative with a group in South Korea. © 2015 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  6. Responsiveness of fetal rat brain cells to glia maturation factor during neoplastic transformation in cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugen, A; Laerum, O D; Bock, E

    1981-01-01

    The effect of partially purified extracts from adult pig brains containing a glia maturation protein factor (BE) has been investigated on neural cells during carcinogenesis. Pregnant BD IX-rats were given a single transplacental dose of the carcinogen ethylnitrosourea (EtNU) on the 18th day of ge...... on GFA-content was seen any longer, although some few weakly GFA positive cells could be observed in all permanent cell lines. Fetal rat brain cells therefore seem to become less responsive to this differentiation inducer during neoplastic transformation in cell culture....

  7. Regulation of Liver Enriched Transcription Factors in Rat Hepatocytes Cultures on Collagen and EHS Sarcoma Matrices.

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    Jürgen Borlak

    Full Text Available Liver-enriched transcription factors (LETF play a crucial role in the control of liver-specific gene expression and for hepatocytes to retain their molecular and cellular functions complex interactions with extra cellular matrix (ECM are required However, during cell isolation ECM interactions are disrupted and for hepatocytes to regain metabolic competency cells are cultured on ECM substrata. The regulation of LETFs in hepatocytes cultured on different ECM has not been studied in detail. We therefore compared two common sources of ECM and evaluated cellular morphology and hepatocyte differentiation by investigating DNA binding activity of LETFs at gene specific promoters and marker genes of hepatic metabolism. Furthermore, we studied testosterone metabolism and albumin synthesis to assess the metabolic competence of cell cultures. Despite significant difference in morphological appearance and except for HNF1β (p<0.001 most LETFs and several of their target genes did not differ in transcript expression after Bonferroni adjustment when cultured on collagen or Matrigel. Nonetheless, Western blotting revealed HNF1β, HNF3α, HNF3γ, HNF4α, HNF6 and the smaller subunits of C/EBPα and C/EBPβ to be more abundant on Matrigel cultured cells. Likewise, DNA binding activity of HNF3α, HNF3β, HNF4α, HNF6 and gene expression of hepatic lineage markers were increased on Matrigel cultured hepatocytes. To further investigate hepatic gene regulation, the effects of Aroclor 1254 treatment, e.g. a potent inducer of xenobiotic defense were studied in vivo and in vitro. The gene expression of C/EBP-α increased in rat liver and hepatocytes cultured on collagen and this treatment induced DNA binding activity of HNF4α, C/EBPα and C/EBPβ and gene expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in vivo and in vitro. Taken collectively, two sources of ECM greatly affected hepatocyte morphology, activity of liver enriched transcription factors, hepatic gene expression and

  8. Exploring socio-cultural factors that mediate, facilitate, & constrain the health and empowerment of refugee youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Sara; Newbold, K Bruce; McKeary, Marie

    2014-09-01

    Studies on youth health and well-being are predominantly quantitative and expert-driven with less attention given to how youth understand what it means to be healthy themselves and the role of socio-cultural factors in shaping this. Knowledge on the perceptions and experiences of refugee youth is particularly lacking and notable given their unique stressors related to migratory, settlement and integration experiences. We contribute a better understanding of how refugee youth themselves define and contextualize health, with particular emphasis given to socio-cultural factors that enable or constrain health promotion efforts and individual health agency. This research was undertaken at a downtown drop-in centre in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada that provided settlement and integration services to newcomer youth. We employ a grounded theory approach and draw upon participant observation, focus groups and in-depth interviews. Twenty-six youth (age 18-25 years), representing 12 different countries of origin participated. The youth defined health very broadly touching upon many typical determinants of health (e.g. education, income, etc.). Yet factors of most importance (as demonstrated by the frequency and urgency in which they were discussed by youth) included a sense of belonging, positive self-identity, emotional well-being, and sense of agency or self-determination. We conceptualize these as "mediating" factors given the youth argued they enabled or constrained their ability to cope with adversities related to other health determinant categories. The youth also discussed what we interpret as "facilitators" that encourage mediating factors to manifest positively (e.g. informal, non-biomedical settings and programs that nurture trust, break down access barriers, and promote a sense of community amongst peers, mentors, and health professionals). When creating health promotion strategies for refugee youth (and perhaps youth more generally) it is important to understand the

  9. Analysis of the Determinant Factors Development of Maintenance Culture in Malaysian Local Authorities

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    Sani S.I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a fast growing developing country and its vision is becoming a developed country with a first class infrastructure. Towards this vision, the assets and facilities were developed, owned or leased by public sector especially buildings, constructions and infrastructures to fulfill administrative and social needs as well as economic responsibilities to general public. In Malaysia, public asset and facilities is owned by three major levels of government, which are the federal government, state government and the local government also known as local authority. Between these three forms of government, Local Authorities hold a large number of facilities that place demands on resources. They have a responsibility to use and maintain a wide range of property assets including classified and heritage buildings, single purpose facilities and state of the art multipurpose facilities. Over the years, the local authorities in Malaysia currently have been soundly criticized by public caused poor maintenance culture. The assets especially public buildings and infrastructures are not maintained properly. Thus, developing the maintenance culture is essential to increase the awareness about maintenance activity on public facilities and assets in Malaysian Local Authorities. Regarding this scenario, the purpose of this study is to determine the determinant factors affecting development of maintenance culture identified based on the review of previous research. As a guide to achieve the research objective, a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the significance of ten determinant factors identified in the research study and their related affecting to development of maintenance culture in local authority as a respondent in this research. The collected data was then analyzed using quantitative approaches such as mean analysis, relative important index as well as others.

  10. Topical fluoroquinolone use as a risk factor for in vitro fluoroquinolone resistance in ocular cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintelmann, Robert E; Hoskins, Eliza N; Lietman, Thomas M; Keenan, Jeremy D; Gaynor, Bruce D; Cevallos, Vicky; Acharya, Nisha R

    2011-04-01

    To determine whether recent use of topical fluoroquinolones is a risk factor for in vitro fluoroquinolone resistance in Staphylococcus aureus ocular isolates. Disk diffusion susceptibility testing for ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin was performed for all ocular isolates of S aureus at the Francis I. Proctor Foundation microbiology laboratory from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2008. The medical records of patients with positive S aureus cultures were reviewed to determine topical or systemic fluoroquinolone use within the 3 months prior to culture. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the proportion of patients who used topical fluoroquinolones in the past 3 months among fluoroquinolone-sensitive and -resistant cases. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance. Of 200 S aureus cultures, 41 were resistant to ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin (20.5%). Fluoroquinolone-resistant S aureus isolates were from older patients (mean [SD] age, 65.5 [25.0] years) compared with fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolates (mean [SD] patient age, 52.1 [22.1] years) (P = .003). Use of fluoroquinolones within the 3 months before testing was more frequent in resistant isolates (29%) than in susceptible isolates (11%) (P = .005), as was recent hospitalization (22% of resistant isolates, 0% of susceptible isolates) (P fluoroquinolone use within 3 months was a significant predictor of fluoroquinolone resistance (P = .046), along with age, systemic immunosuppression, and topical fluoroquinolone use between 3 and 6 months before testing. Recent topical fluoroquinolone use is significantly associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in S aureus isolates from ocular cultures.

  11. [Peculiarities of growth and development of cultured mucosal cells from the upper respiratory tract stimulated by growth factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekan, V L; Kvacheva, Z B; Petrova, L G

    2009-01-01

    Specific features of growth and development of cultured mucosal cells from the upper respiratory tract were studied during their in vitro stimulation by keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Phenotypic composition and quantitative characteristics of cultured epithelial cells was investigated with the use of monoclonal CD49F antibodies and flow cytofluorometry. The culture technique makes it possible to obtain a large amount of cells for the evaluation of their pathological changes. Moreover, cell cultures can be used to restore lesioned mucosa of the upper respiratory tract both in experiment and under clinical conditions.

  12. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta on long-term human cord blood monocyte cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orcel, P.; Bielakoff, J.; De Vernejoul, M.C. (INSERM U18, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France))

    1990-02-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) modulates growth and differentiation in many cell types and is abundant in bone matrix. We recently showed that human cord blood monocytes cultured in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 acquire some features of osteoclast precursors. Since TGF-beta has been shown to influence bone resorption in organ culture, we have studied the effect of TGF-beta (1-1,000 pg/ml) on cord blood monocyte cultures. These cells were cultured on plastic substrate during 3 weeks in the presence of 20% horse serum and 10(-9) M 1,25(OH)2D3. TGF-beta, from a concentration of 10 pg/ml in the culture medium, decreased in a dose dependent manner the formation of multinucleated cells. At a concentration of TGF-beta of 1 ng/ml, the multinucleated cells were reduced to 2.1% +/- 0.3%, compared to 19.3% +/- 1.5% in control cultures. TGF-beta inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the proliferation of cord blood monocytes as assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation at 7 and 14 days of culture. The fusion index was also decreased by 3 weeks of treatment with TGF-beta. Indomethacin did not reverse the inhibitory effects of TGF-beta. The expression of the osteoclastic phenotype was assessed using two different antibodies: 23C6, a monoclonal antibody directed against the vitronectin receptor, which is highly expressed by osteoclasts but not by adult monocytes, and an antibody to HLA-DR, which is not present on osteoclast. TGF-beta decreased the expression of HLA-DR and increased in a dose-dependent manner the proportion of 23C6-labeled cells; these results suggest that TGF-beta could modulate a differentiation effect to the osteoclastic phenotype. However, when cord blood monocytes were cultured on devitalized rat calvariae prelabeled with 45Ca, TGF-beta did not induce any 45Ca release from bone cultured with monocytes.

  13. Web-culture as a factor of company’s competitiveness enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Illiashenko

    2014-09-01

    commands that perform particular tasks; the creation of virtual enterprises. It is shown that Web-culture is one of the factors that allow to create and develop a competitive advantage of the organization from transferring its activities (partly or wholly in the Internet. The basic competitive advantages of an organization that is active in the Internet are allocated. They are: cost reduction; rapid penetration of the most distant markets; borrowing at a high level of communication with economic partners; rapid response to changes in the macro-and micro-environment; attract qualified freelancers; opportunity to form a flexible and adaptive organizational and governance structures; formation and promote the image of the organization. Methodical approach which allows to assess the competitive advantages of formalized organization, depending on the state of its Web-culture is developed and tested on practice. Conclusions and directions of futher researches. The results that are obtained reveal the role and place of Web-culture as part of its corporate culture to ensure the competitiveness of the organization, which is active in the Internet. Future research should be directed towards the development of organizational and economic mechanism of Web-culture forming at the organization as an intangible factor of improving its competitiveness.

  14. El turismo cultural como factor estratégico de desarrollo: el Camino de Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Precedo Ledo, Andrés

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation is to study one of the strategies of territorial marketing of greater success: the promotion of the Way of Santiago and the mark of the Xacobeo. The approach of the study attack from the perspective of its contribution to the territorial, as much rural development (the Galician section of the Way like urban (the city of Santiago de Compostela. The departure hypothesis is that, in both cases, the cultural tourism has worked like a complementary factor of development being necessary to insert it in a model of integrated development to optimize its potential of share capital.

    El objetivo de esta investigación es estudiar una de las estrategias de marketing territorial de mayor éxito: la promoción del Camino de Santiago y la marca del Xacobeo. El enfoque del estudio se aborda desde la perspectiva de su contribución al desarrollo territorial, tanto rural (el tramo gallego del Camino como urbano (la ciudad de Santiago de Compostela. La hipótesis de partida es que, en ambos casos, el turismo cultural ha funcionado como un factor complementario de desarrollo siendo necesario insertarlo en un modelo de desarrollo integrado para optimizar su potencial de capital social.

  15. Isolation of transcription factor complexes from Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures by tandem affinity purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leene, Jelle; Eeckhout, Dominique; Persiau, Geert; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Geerinck, Jan; Van Isterdael, Gert; Witters, Erwin; De Jaeger, Geert

    2011-01-01

    Defining protein complexes is critical to virtually all aspects of cell biology because most cellular processes are regulated by stable or more dynamic protein interactions. Elucidation of the protein-protein interaction network around transcription factors is essential to fully understand their function and regulation. In the last decade, new technologies have emerged to study protein-protein interactions under near-physiological conditions. We have developed a high-throughput tandem affinity purification (TAP)/mass spectrometry (MS) platform for cell suspension cultures to analyze protein complexes in Arabidopsis thaliana. This streamlined platform follows an integrated approach comprising generic Gateway-based vectors with high cloning flexibility, the fast generation of transgenic suspension cultures, TAP adapted for plant cells, and tandem matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization MS for the identification of purified proteins. Recently, we evaluated the GS tag, originally developed to study mammalian protein complexes, that combines two IgG-binding domains of protein G with a streptavidin-binding peptide, separated by two tobacco etch virus cleavage sites. We found that this GS tag outperforms the traditional TAP tag in plant cells, regarding both specificity and complex yield. Here, we provide detailed protocols of the GS-based TAP platform that allowed us to characterize transcription factor complexes involved in signaling in response to the plant phytohormone jasmonate.

  16. Bacillus cereus from blood cultures: virulence genes, antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors for blood stream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Toshinobu; Notake, Shigeyuki; Tamai, Kiyoko; Yanagisawa, Hideji

    2011-11-01

    We characterized the profiles of virulence genes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus cereus isolates from blood cultures as well as the risk factors for blood stream infections (BSIs). The diversity of virulence gene patterns was found to be wide among 15 B. cereus isolates from BSIs and also among 11 isolates from contaminated blood cultures. The MicroScan broth microdilution method yielded results corresponding with those of the agar dilution (reference) method for levofloxacin, linezolid, and vancomycin, while the Etest results were consistent with the reference results for clindamycin, gentamicin, imipenem, levofloxacin, and linezolid. Compared with the reference values, however, some isolates showed marked differences of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for ampicillin and clindamycin when determined using the MicroScan method, or the MICs for ampicillin, meropenem, and vancomycin when determined using the Etest method. Significantly more patients were treated with antimicrobials for more than 3 days during the 3-month period before isolation in the BSI group. Prior antimicrobial therapy may be a risk factor for BSIs due to B. cereus.

  17. Investigating the effects of Iranian cultural factors on brand equity for strategic management of market share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jahandoost

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Brand is a symbol, logo and indicator of the specific identity of a product manufacturer and the services they render which can create value for both the manufacturer itself and the customers of those products and services. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between Iranian cultural factors with those creating brand value in this industry. The proposed study chooses Philpa System Co. as statistical population and the subject for our case study. The study chooses 56 people who had some past purchase experience from Philpa System as samples. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among the participants. The validity of which was confirmed through depth interviews made with experts of the pertinent industry and its reliability was also calculated using Cronbach's alpha test and was shown to be 82.4 %, which indicated the good reliability of these questionnaires. The data obtained from these questionnaires were analyzed using path analysis and structural equation modeling methods. The results gained from the investigations showed that different aspects of Iranian cultural factors, specifically customer honoring, had the greatest effect on the quality of customers’ perception from the brand; it was also shown that promotion in any of the other aspects presented in Aaker’s brand equity model will directly influence and increase the perceived quality of the brand.

  18. Identifying and Quantifying Cultural Factors That Matter to the IT Workforce: An Approach Based on Automated Content Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiedel, Theresa; Müller, Oliver; Debortoli, Stefan;

    2016-01-01

    builds on 112,610 online reviews of Fortune 500 IT companies collected from Glassdoor, an online platform on which current and former employees can anonymously review companies and their management. We perform an automated content analysis to identify cultural factors that employees emphasize...... of culture and the success of companies, the validity of this approach is often discussed and researchers call for new ways of studying culture. Therefore, our research goal is to present an alternative approach to culture analysis for examining which cultural factors matter to the IT workforce. Our study...... in their reviews. Through a regression analysis on numerical employee satisfaction ratings, we find that a culture of learning and performance orientation contributes to employee motivation, while a culture of assertiveness and gender inegalitarianism has a strong negative influence on employees’ satisfaction...

  19. Identifying and Quantifying Cultural Factors That Matter to the IT Workforce: An Approach Based on Automated Content Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiedel, Theresa; Müller, Oliver; Debortoli, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    builds on 112,610 online reviews of Fortune 500 IT companies collected from Glassdoor, an online platform on which current and former employees can anonymously review companies and their management. We perform an automated content analysis to identify cultural factors that employees emphasize...... of culture and the success of companies, the validity of this approach is often discussed and researchers call for new ways of studying culture. Therefore, our research goal is to present an alternative approach to culture analysis for examining which cultural factors matter to the IT workforce. Our study...... in their reviews. Through a regression analysis on numerical employee satisfaction ratings, we find that a culture of learning and performance orientation contributes to employee motivation, while a culture of assertiveness and gender inegalitarianism has a strong negative influence on employees’ satisfaction...

  20. Factors Involved in the In Vitro Fermentability of Short Carbohydrates in Static Faecal Batch Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Gietl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research has focused on the positive effects of prebiotics on intestinal health and gut microbiota. The relationship between their chemical structure and their fermentation pattern by human intestinal microbiota is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of this relationship and identify factors that may be used to design galactooligosaccharides that reach more distal regions than commercial prebiotics which mainly target the proximal colon. The following factors were investigated: monomer type, linkage, substitution, and degree of polymerisation. Total organic acid production from sugars by faecal bacteria was fitted to a model which allowed an estimate of the time when half of the maximal organic acid concentration was reached (T50 in static faecal batch cultures. The different factors can be grouped by their effectiveness at prolonging fermentation time as follows: substitution is most effective, with methylgalactose, β-galactose-pentaacetate, D-fucose, and galactitol fermented more slowly than D-galactose. Monomers and linkage also influence fermentation time, with L rhamnose, arabinose, melezitose, and xylose being fermented significantly slower than D-glucose (P<0.05, maltose, isomaltose, cellobiose, and gentiobiose showing that Glcα1-6Glc and Glcβ1-4Glc were utilised slowest. Chain length had the smallest effect on fermentation time.

  1. Honorary Authorship Practices in Environmental Science Teams: Structural and Cultural Factors and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kevin C; Settles, Isis H; Montgomery, Georgina M; Brassel, Sheila T; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Soranno, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    Overinclusive authorship practices such as honorary or guest authorship have been widely reported, and they appear to be exacerbated by the rise of large interdisciplinary collaborations that make authorship decisions particularly complex. Although many studies have reported on the frequency of honorary authorship and potential solutions to it, few have probed how the underlying dynamics of large interdisciplinary teams contribute to the problem. This article reports on a qualitative study of the authorship standards and practices of six National Science Foundation-funded interdisciplinary environmental science teams. Using interviews of the lead principal investigator and an early-career member on each team, our study explores the nature of honorary authorship practices as well as some of the motivating factors that may contribute to these practices. These factors include both structural elements (policies and procedures) and cultural elements (values and norms) that cross organizational boundaries. Therefore, we provide recommendations that address the intersection of these factors and that can be applied at multiple organizational levels.

  2. Generation of hyaline cartilaginous tissue from mouse adult dermal fibroblast culture by defined factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Kunihiko; Sasagawa, Satoru; Outani, Hidetatsu; Nakagawa, Kanako; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tsumaki, Noriyuki

    2011-01-01

    Repair of cartilage injury with hyaline cartilage continues to be a challenging clinical problem. Because of the limited number of chondrocytes in vivo, coupled with in vitro de-differentiation of chondrocytes into fibrochondrocytes, which secrete type I collagen and have an altered matrix architecture and mechanical function, there is a need for a novel cell source that produces hyaline cartilage. The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has provided a tool for reprogramming dermal fibroblasts to an undifferentiated state by ectopic expression of reprogramming factors. Here, we show that retroviral expression of two reprogramming factors (c-Myc and Klf4) and one chondrogenic factor (SOX9) induces polygonal chondrogenic cells directly from adult dermal fibroblast cultures. Induced cells expressed marker genes for chondrocytes but not fibroblasts, i.e., the promoters of type I collagen genes were extensively methylated. Although some induced cell lines formed tumors when subcutaneously injected into nude mice, other induced cell lines generated stable homogenous hyaline cartilage–like tissue. Further, the doxycycline-inducible induction system demonstrated that induced cells are able to respond to chondrogenic medium by expressing endogenous Sox9 and maintain chondrogenic potential after substantial reduction of transgene expression. Thus, this approach could lead to the preparation of hyaline cartilage directly from skin, without generating iPS cells. PMID:21293062

  3. Investigaton of Social and Cultural Factors Influenced on Feeling of Societal Security in Yasouj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mokhtari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The porpuse of this study was to determine effective social and cultural factors on the feeling of societal security in Yasouj. Resent statistics have representative of increasing crime and collective conflicts in Yasouj. Loss or impairment in security has outcomes and dangerous reflections for people and the government. Undoubtedly the feeling of security and safety is effected by various factors that some of these factors pay attentioned in this study. Research method was survey and data was collected by using a researcher-made questionnaire. Population of this study were all people over 18 years in Yasouj that 380 of them was selected as a sample. The results showed that there was significant different between young people and older people, between single and married people, the Lurs and other relatives, about sense of social security. Also there was significant correlation between independent variables as: social-economic status, social trust, religious degree, attitudes toward the police performance and the dependent variable. In the study, social trust, with 32 percent, had greater share in the explination of feeling of societal security. Using a linear combination Variance of independent variables was explained 41/7% of the variance of feeling of societal security

  4. Socio-cultural factors and school engagement : A study among Turkish, Moroccan, Assyrian and native Dutch youth in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, I.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the impact of socio-cultural factors on school engagement of minority students in Dutch secondary schools. This question was raised because studies that focus on the impact of structural or institutional factors were often left with an 'ethnic residual'. This ethnic fact

  5. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mediates the activity-dependent regulation of inhibition in neocortical cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, L C; DeWan, A; Lauer, H M; Turrigiano, G G

    1997-06-15

    The excitability of cortical circuits is modulated by interneurons that release the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. In primate and rodent visual cortex, activity deprivation leads to a decrease in the expression of GABA. This suggests that activity is able to adjust the strength of cortical inhibition, but this has not been demonstrated directly. In addition, the nature of the signal linking activity to GABA expression has not been determined. Activity is known to regulate the expression of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and BDNF has been shown to influence the phenotype of GABAergic interneurons. We use a culture system from postnatal rat visual cortex to test the hypothesis that activity is regulating the strength of cortical inhibition through the regulation of BDNF. Cultures were double-labeled against GABA and the neuronal marker MAP2, and the percentage of neurons that were GABA-positive was determined. Blocking spontaneous activity in these cultures reversibly decreased the number of GABA-positive neurons without affecting neuronal survival. Voltage-clamp analysis of inhibitory currents demonstrated that activity blockade also decreased GABA-mediated inhibition onto pyramidal neurons and raised pyramidal neuron firing rates. All of these effects were prevented by incubation with BDNF during activity blockade, but not by neurotrophin 3 or nerve growth factor. Additionally, blockade of neurotrophin signaling mimicked the effects of activity blockade on GABA expression. These data suggest that activity regulates cortical inhibition through a BDNF-dependent mechanism and that this neurotrophin plays an important role in the control of cortical excitability.

  6. Cultural factors related to the maintenance of health behaviours in Algonquin women with a history of gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, S; Michaud, C

    2012-06-01

    Though the cultural factors that may contribute to the diabetes epidemic in First Nations are frequently discussed, little is known about the factors that may help prevent it. In this ethnonursing study, we explore the cultural factors that help maintain health behaviours in Algonquin women who had received a diagnosis of gestational diabetes 2 to 10 years before this study. The data were collected in two Algonquin communities through semi-structured interviews with key informants (n = 7) and general informants (n = 8) and through cultural immersion, with detailed observations being recorded into logbooks. The cultural factors that are likely to affect the prevention of diabetes are the importance of family and social ties, the possibility of preserving cultural values, the opportunity to learn behaviours through educational resources adapted to needs and culture, the chance of saving money through better diet and access to blood sugar data as a means of control. In the long term, these cultural factors could influence health behaviours and thus help prevent type 2 diabetes.

  7. Flavonoids Induce the Synthesis and Secretion of Neurotrophic Factors in Cultured Rat Astrocytes: A Signaling Response Mediated by Estrogen Receptor

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    Sherry L. Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotrophic factors are playing vital roles in survival, growth, and function of neurons. Regulation of neurotrophic factors in the brain has been considered as one of the targets in developing drug or therapy against neuronal disorders. Flavonoids, a family of multifunctional natural compounds, are well known for their neuronal beneficial effects. Here, the effects of flavonoids on regulating neurotrophic factors were analyzed in cultured rat astrocytes. Astrocyte is a major secreting source of neurotrophic factors in the brain. Thirty-three flavonoids were screened in the cultures, and calycosin, isorhamnetin, luteolin, and genistein were identified to be highly active in inducing the synthesis and secretion of neurotrophic factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF, glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. The inductions were in time- and dose-dependent manners. In cultured astrocytes, the phosphorylation of estrogen receptor was triggered by application of flavonoids. The phosphorylation was blocked by an inhibitor of estrogen receptor, which in parallel reduced the flavonoid-induced expression of neurotrophic factors. The results proposed the role of flavonoids in protecting brain diseases, and therefore these flavonoids could be developed for health food supplement for patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Developmental Outcomes of Toddlers of Young Latina Mothers: Cultural, Family, and Parenting Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia; Smith, Erin N.; Silberman, Stephanie G.; Wood, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for poor developmental outcomes. This study is among the first to examine how cultural, family, and parenting factors prospectively predict the cognitive and language development of children of young Latina mothers (N=170; Mage = 17.9 years). Mothers were interviewed and observed interacting with their children at 18 months (W1). Children were tested at 18 (W1) and 24 (W2) months. Mothers’ cultural orientation (W1) was related to aspects of the childrearing environment (W1), which in turn had implications for the children's development (W2). Specifically, a stronger orientation toward American culture was related to higher mother-reported engagement in parenting by their own mothers (grandmothers), which in turn predicted stronger gains in cognitive and expressive language functioning from W1 to W2. A stronger Latino orientation related to the display of more directiveness and greater mother-reported engagement by the children's biological fathers; directiveness, in turn, predicted fewer gains in cognitive functioning only when father engagement was low and did not predict expressive language development. Finally, mothers’ display of more positive affect, a stronger American orientation, and higher grandmother engagement uniquely predicted gains in W2 expressive language functioning. Implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:26454205

  9. Developmental outcomes of toddlers of young Latina mothers: Cultural, family, and parenting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Josefina M; Duran, Petra A; Castellanos, Patricia; Smith, Erin N; Silberman, Stephanie G; Wood, Lauren E

    2015-11-01

    Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for poor developmental outcomes. This study is among the first to examine how cultural, family, and parenting factors prospectively predict the cognitive and language development of children of young Latina mothers (N=170; Mage=17.9 years). Mothers were interviewed and observed interacting with their children at 18 months (W1). Children were tested at 18 (W1) and 24 (W2) months. Mothers' cultural orientation (W1) was related to aspects of the childrearing environment (W1), which in turn had implications for the children's development (W2). Specifically, a stronger orientation toward American culture was related to higher mother-reported engagement in parenting by their own mothers (grandmothers), which in turn predicted stronger gains in cognitive and expressive language functioning from W1 to W2. A stronger Latino orientation related to the display of more directiveness and greater mother-reported engagement by the children's biological fathers; directiveness, in turn, predicted fewer gains in cognitive functioning only when father engagement was low and did not predict expressive language development. Finally, mothers' display of more positive affect, a stronger American orientation, and higher grandmother engagement uniquely predicted gains in W2 expressive language functioning. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  10. Geometric correction factor for transepithelial electrical resistance measurements in transwell and microfluidic cell cultures

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    Yeste, J.; Illa, X.; Gutiérrez, C.; Solé, M.; Guimerà, A.; Villa, R.

    2016-09-01

    Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements are regularly used in in vitro models to quantitatively evaluate the cell barrier function. Although it would be expected that TEER values obtained with the same cell type and experimental setup were comparable, values reported in the literature show a large dispersion for unclear reasons. This work highlights a possible error in a widely used formula to calculate the TEER, in which it may be erroneously assumed that the entire cell culture area contributes equally to the measurement. In this study, we have numerically calculated this error in some cell cultures previously reported. In particular, we evidence that some TEER measurements resulted in errors when measuring low TEERs, especially when using Transwell inserts 12 mm in diameter or microfluidic systems that have small chamber heights. To correct this error, we propose the use of a geometric correction factor (GCF) for calculating the TEER. In addition, we describe a simple method to determine the GCF of a particular measurement system, so that it can be applied retrospectively. We have also experimentally validated an interdigitated electrodes (IDE) configuration where the entire cell culture area contributes equally to the measurement, and it also implements minimal electrode coverage so that the cells can be visualized alongside TEER analysis.

  11. Establishment of forskolin yielding transformed cell suspension cultures of Coleus forskohlii as controlled by different factors.

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    Mukherjee, S; Ghosh, B; Jha, S

    2000-01-07

    Suspension cultures derived from gall calli which were obtained following infection with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (C58) were established in Coleus forskohlii. Cell line selection following single cell cloning or cell aggregate cloning was carried out to select cell lines capable of fast growth and for producing high level of forskolin. A fast growing cell line (GSO-5/7) thus selected was found to accumulate 0.021% forskolin in 42 days. The effect of cultural conditions on cell growth was studied to identify factors influencing biomass yield. Cell growth in suspension was found to be influenced significantly by carbon source, initial cell density and light or dark condition. Optimal cell growth (20 fold increase in biomass in a 42 day period) was obtained when the cells were grown in dark condition in B5O media containing 3% sucrose as sole carbon source with an initial cell density of 1.5 x 10(5) cells per ml. Forskolin accumulation was maximum (0.021%) in the stationary phase of cell growth. These suspension cultures showed continuous and stable production of forskolin.

  12. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AS ONE OF THE MAIN FACTORS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL SAFETY MANAGEMENT

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    Snežana Živković

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to establish the influence of organizational culture on the system of safety and health at work. The research sample included 556 respondents of various activities in Russia. Based on the results, it can be concluded that there is a statistically significant connection of the Attitude towards occupational safety with 5 out of 7 aspects of organizational culture, as well as with the general factor of Usefulness of the manner of management. In addition, there is a statistically significant connection to age, total years of service and qualifications. Through a comparative analysis of results acquired in the Republic of Serbia and Russia, differences in attitudes towards safety and health activities at work were acquired i.e. there is a difference between the average answers of respondents from Serbia and Russia in the Attitude towards occupational safety which is on average slightly more prominent in respondents from Serbia. In relation to organizational culture aspects, there are differences in Vision, Credibility, Feedback and recognition as well as Responsibility. Respondents from Serbia have higher average values on all these measures, but all the differences are small (all effect sizes are below 0.2.

  13. Cultural Factors Associated with Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in Korean American Women in the US: An Integrative Literature Review

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    Shin-Young Lee, PhD

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Theories focusing on interpersonal relationships and standardized, reliable, and valid instruments to measure cultural concepts are needed to breast and cervical cancer screening research in KA women. Traditional cultural factors associated with cancer screening should be considered for practical implications and future research with KA women.

  14. Cultural Factors Associated with Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in Korean American Women in the US: An Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin-Young

    2015-06-01

    This study examined current research theories and methods, cultural factors, and culturally relevant interventions associated with breast and cervical cancer screening in Korean American (KA) women. Based on Ganong's guidelines, the literature on cultural factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening in KA women was searched using MEDLINE and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. Sixty-eight articles on breast cancer screening and 66 articles on cervical cancer screening were retrieved from both databases, and a total of 22 articles were included in the literature review based on the selection criteria. Of the 22 studies reviewed, 14 (63.6%) were descriptive and 8 (36.4%) were interventional. Many studies have used individual focused cognitive theories such as health belief model and different types of operationalization for measures of cultural beliefs. Cultural factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening in KA women that were identified in descriptive quantitative and qualitative studies included family, embarrassment, preventive health orientation, fatalism, and acculturation. Most culturally relevant interventional studies used education programs, and all education was conducted by bilingual and bicultural health educators at sociocultural sites for KA women. Theories focusing on interpersonal relationships and standardized, reliable, and valid instruments to measure cultural concepts are needed to breast and cervical cancer screening research in KA women. Traditional cultural factors associated with cancer screening should be considered for practical implications and future research with KA women. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal

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    Adhikari Ramesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (β = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal

  16. Comparative usefulness of inflammatory markers to indicate bacterial infection-analyzed according to blood culture results and related clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hirokazu; Shirano, Michinori; Kasamatsu, Yu; Morimura, Ayumi; Iida, Ko; Kishi, Tomomi; Goto, Tetsushi; Okamoto, Saki; Ehara, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    To assess relationships of inflammatory markers and 2 related clinical factors with blood culture results, we retrospectively investigated inpatients' blood culture and blood chemistry findings that were recorded from January to December 2014 using electronic medical records and analyzed the data of 852 subjects (426 culture-positive and 426 culture-negative). Results suggested that the risk of positive blood culture statistically increased as inflammatory marker levels and the number of related factors increased. Concerning the effectiveness of inflammatory markers, when the outcome definition was also changed for C-reactive protein (CRP), the odds ratio had a similar value, whereas when the outcome definition of blood culture positivity was used for procalcitonin (PCT), the greatest effectiveness of that was detected. Therefore, the current results suggest that PCT is more useful than CRP as an auxiliary indication of bacterial infection.

  17. Time as a cultural factor and its socioeconomic importance: State of the art and future research lines

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    Ramon Cladellas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is analyzing the economic concept of time based on historical and cultural factors. The manuscript presents the historical evolution of the concept of time, highlighting its conceptualization since ancient times until now. Subsequently, the paper analyzes the economic value of time down through the history of no-time (leisure time and its cultural contextualization (occidental culture/linear conception vs. oriental culture/cyclical conception. Finally, the contemporary state of the concepts of time and money, and suggests the need to establish a new culture of time, which should be taught from an early age.

  18. Genotypic analysis of meningococcal factor h-binding protein from non-culture clinical specimens.

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    Stephen A Clark

    Full Text Available Factor H-Binding Protein (fHbp is an outer membrane protein antigen included in two novel meningococcal group B vaccines and, as such, is an important typing target. Approximately 50% of meningococcal disease cases in England and Wales are confirmed using real-time PCR on non-culture clinical specimens only. Protocols for typing fHbp from this subset of cases have not yet been established. Here we present a nested PCR-based assay designed to amplify and sequence fHbp from non-culture clinical specimens. From analytical sensitivity experiments carried out using diluted DNA extracts, an estimated analytical sensitivity limit of 6 fg/µL of DNA (<3 genome copies/µL was calculated. The sensitivity of the assay was shown to be comparable to the ctrA-directed real-time PCR assay currently used to confirm invasive disease diagnoses from submitted clinical specimens. A panel of 96 diverse, patient-matched clinical specimen/isolate pairs from invasive disease cases was used to illustrate the breadth of strain coverage for the assay. All fHbp alleles sequenced from the isolates matched those derived from previous whole genome analyses. The first-round PCR primer binding sites are highly conserved, however an exceptional second-round PCR primer site mismatch in one validation isolate prevented amplification. In this case, amplification from the corresponding clinical specimen was achieved, suggesting that the use of a nested PCR procedure may compensate for any minor mismatches in round-two primer sites. The assay was successful at typing 91/96 (94.8% of the non-culture clinical specimens in this study and exhibits sufficient sensitivity to type fHbp from the vast majority of non-culture clinical specimens received by the Meningococcal Reference Unit, Public Health England.

  19. The relationship between culture, gender, structural factors, abuse, trauma, and HIV/AIDS for Latinas.

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    Moreno, Claudia L

    2007-03-01

    The study, in which the author aim to understand the contextual risks of HIV-positive serostatus and intimate partner violence (IPV) of 32 Latina women, involved focus groups, in-depth face-to-face narratives, and community meetings. The data emerged into four themes: histories of trauma, living with HIV, vulnerability, and la suerte (luck). In addition to the themes, women in this study talked about how structural and cultural factors such as machismo, marianismo, and fatalism are implicated in the risk for HIV and IPV. Women in the study reconceptualized the notion of IPV to denote a form of situational abuse, such as threats of deportation, that is exacerbated by their HIV status.

  20. Location Patterns And Location Factors In Cultural And Creative Industries1

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    Tomczak Paulina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses spatial and locational aspects of cultural and creative industries (CCI taking into consideration the internal heterogeneity of this group of activities. Emphasis is put on similarities and differences in those aspects found for the sector as a whole and for its individual branches. On the basis of the proposed criteria the paper tries to exemplify a set of CCI characteristics, on the one hand to highlight their diversity, and on the other, to select the best criteria for analysing spatial and locational aspects of CCIs. A detailed analysis of CCI location patterns and location factors is also carried out, and on this basis two groups of models of the spatial aspects of CCIs are proposed: those of CCI location and those of the range of CCI markets.

  1. Longitudinal dating violence victimization among Latino teens: Rates, risk factors, and cultural influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Cotignola-Pickens, Heather M

    2016-02-01

    This study uses data from two waves of the Dating Violence Among Latino Adolescents (DAVILA) study and focuses on the 1) rates of dating violence victimization by gender, 2) risk of experiencing dating violence victimization over time, 3) association of dating violence victimization with other forms of victimization, and 4) association of immigrant status, acculturation, and familial support with dating violence victimization over time. A total of 547 Latino adolescents, from across the USA, aged 12-18 at Wave 1 participated in both waves of the study. Rates of dating violence were around 19% across waves. Dating violence at Wave 1 and non-dating violence victimization were associated with an elevated risk of dating violence during Wave 2. Cultural factors did not distinguish between dating violence trajectories, except for immigrant status and familial support being associated with no dating violence victimization. Overall, dating violence affects a large number of Latino teens and tends to continue over time.

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE CULTURAL FACTOR IN THE FORMING OF FURNITURE IN THE CASES OF TRADITIONAL TURKISH AND JAPANESE HOUSES

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    Gözde Altıparmakoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of culture can be defined as all abstract and concrete features and values that shape the life of various communities. Societies have reflected these features and values into their living spaces by being inspired from their social structure and the environment. Therefore culture stands out as an important factor in the forming of living spaces that meet the basic requirement of housing and the furnishings inside. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the cultural factor on the forming of furniture, in the cases of traditional Turkish and Japanese house furniture. In this context, in the first section of the study the definition of culture is made and based on this, the relation between culture and lifestyle and the interaction between culture and furniture is discussed. In the next section, the "culture" factor in the forming of furniture, the main subject of the study is discussed with the relation between Traditional Turkish and Japanese house furniture and the culture and lifestyle of both societies. In the conclusion section, similar and different features are identified and analyzed in the forming of furniture in both cultures, using the information obtained from the study.

  3. Enhanced expression of the recombinant lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis by Fed-Batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P; Sahai, V; Bhatnagar, R

    2001-07-27

    High cell density cultivation has been one of the most effective ways to increase cell as well as the product yields. The structural gene for the 90-kDa lethal factor (LF) isolated from Bacillus anthracis was expressed as fusion protein with 6x histidine residues under the transcriptional regulation of the T5 promoter in Escherichia coli. Various strategies were tried to scale up the expression of the recombinant lethal factor by bioprocess optimization using fed batch culture technique in a 14 litre fermentor. The media, a defined mixture of salts, trace elements, vitamins, etc. along with a specified carbon source was used for the growth. The pH of the media was maintained at 6.8 while the temperature was changed from 37 to 28 degrees C during the cultivation. During the growth and induction phases, the DO was maintained above 20% by automatic control of agitation. The specific growth rate was controlled by utilizing an exponential feeding profile determined from mass balance equations. As a result of control of specific growth rate at two different levels, there was about twenty five fold increase in biomass compared to the biomass in the shake flask. E. coli cells yielded a soluble cytosolic protein with an apparent molecular mass of 90 kDa. The protein was purified to homogeneity using metal chelate affinity chromatography, followed by anion exchange on FPLC using Mono-Q column. In solution, trypsin cleaved protective antigen bound to native and recombinant LF with comparable affinity. The recombinant LF resembled the LF purified from B. anthracis in the macrophage lysis assay, using a murine macrophage cell line J774A.1 sensitive to anthrax toxin. It was possible to achieve a yield of 50 mg of the purified protein from 1 litre culture broth. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Maternal Health in Rural Gambia: An Exploratory Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mat; Chen, Duan-Rung; Huang, Song-Lih

    2016-01-01

    Background The high rate of maternal mortality reported in The Gambia is influenced by many factors, such as difficulties in accessing quality healthcare and facilities. In addition, socio-cultural practices in rural areas may limit the resources available to pregnant women, resulting in adverse health consequences. The aim of this study is to depict the gender dynamics in a rural Gambian context by exploring the social and cultural factors affecting maternal health. Methods and Findings Five focus group discussions that included 50 participants (aged 15–30 years, with at least one child) and six in-depth interviews with traditional birth attendants were conducted to explore perceptions of maternal health issues among rural women. The discussion was facilitated by guides focusing on issues such as how the women perceived their own physical health during pregnancy, difficulties in keeping themselves healthy, and health-related problems during pregnancy and delivery. The data resulting from the discussion was transcribed verbatim and investigated using a qualitative thematic analysis. In general, rural Gambian women did not enjoy privileges in their households when they were pregnant. The duties expected of them required pregnant women to endure heavy workloads, with limited opportunities for sick leave and almost nonexistent resources to access prenatal care. The division of labor between men and women in the household was such that women often engaged in non-remunerable field work with few economic resources, and their household duties during pregnancy were not alleviated by either their husbands or the other members of polygamous households. At the time of delivery, the decision to receive care by trained personnel was often beyond the women’s control, resulting in birth-related complications. Conclusions Our findings suggest that despite women’s multiple roles in the household, their positions are quite unfavorable. The high maternal morbidity and mortality

  5. Dynamic, large-scale profiling of transcription factor activity from live cells in 3D culture.

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    Michael S Weiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extracellular activation of signal transduction pathways and their downstream target transcription factors (TFs are critical regulators of cellular processes and tissue development. The intracellular signaling network is complex, and techniques that quantify the activities of numerous pathways and connect their activities to the resulting phenotype would identify the signals and mechanisms regulating tissue development. The ability to investigate tissue development should capture the dynamic pathway activity and requires an environment that supports cellular organization into structures that mimic in vivo phenotypes. Taken together, our objective was to develop cellular arrays for dynamic, large-scale quantification of TF activity as cells organized into spherical structures within 3D culture. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: TF-specific and normalization reporter constructs were delivered in parallel to a cellular array containing a well-established breast cancer cell line cultured in Matrigel. Bioluminescence imaging provided a rapid, non-invasive, and sensitive method to quantify luciferase levels, and was applied repeatedly on each sample to monitor dynamic activity. Arrays measuring 28 TFs identified up to 19 active, with 13 factors changing significantly over time. Stimulation of cells with β-estradiol or activin A resulted in differential TF activity profiles evolving from initial stimulation of the ligand. Many TFs changed as expected based on previous reports, yet arrays were able to replicate these results in a single experiment. Additionally, arrays identified TFs that had not previously been linked with activin A. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This system provides a method for large-scale, non-invasive, and dynamic quantification of signaling pathway activity as cells organize into structures. The arrays may find utility for investigating mechanisms regulating normal and abnormal tissue growth, biomaterial design, or as a

  6. Factores culturales, económicos y sociales de la preservación documental digital Cultural, economic and social factors of documentary digital preservation

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    Juan Voutssas M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la problemática actual de la enorme producción y acumulación mundial de información en forma de documentos electrónicos o digitales, y el problema derivado de la pérdida de esa información, así como su posible preservación. Se estudian y establecen con detalle los factores que inciden en la preservación de documentos digitales a largo plazo; en particular los factores culturales, económicos y sociales.The current problem of the huge global production and accumulation of information in the form of electronic or digital documents, and the problem caused by the loss of that information and the possible preservation are analyzed. Factors that affect the preservation of long-term digital documents are established and studied in detail, in particular the cultural, economic and social ones.

  7. Imipramine induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in cultured astrocytes.

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    Takano, Katsura; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Kawabe, Kenji; Moriyama, Mitsuaki; Nakamura, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and livelihood-threatening forms of mental illnesses and the neural circuitry underlying depression remains incompletely understood. Recent studies suggest that the neuronal plasticity involved with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the recovery from depression. Some antidepressants are reported to induce BDNF expression in vivo; however, the mechanisms have been considered solely in neurons and not fully elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of imipramine, a classic tricyclic antidepressant drug, on BDNF expression in cultured rat brain astrocytes. Imipramine dose-dependently increased BDNF mRNA expression in astrocytes. The imipramine-induced BDNF increase was suppressed with inhibitors for protein kinase A (PKA) or MEK/ERK. Moreover, imipramine exposure activated transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that imipramine induced BDNF expression through CREB activation via PKA and/or ERK pathways. Imipramine treatment in depression might exert antidepressant action through BDNF production from astrocytes, and glial BDNF expression might be a target of developing novel antidepressants.

  8. Cultural and economic factors that (mis)shape antibiotic use: the nonpharmacologic basis of therapeutics.

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    Avorn, J; Solomon, D H

    2000-07-18

    The use of antibiotics in both ambulatory and inpatient settings is heavily shaped by cultural and economic factors as well as by microbiological considerations. These nonpharmacologic factors are relevant to clinicians and policymakers because of the clinical and fiscal toll of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, including excessive use, preventable adverse effects, and the increasing prevalence of resistant organisms. An understanding of the determinants of antibiotic consumption is critical to explain current patterns of use and to devise programs to reduce inappropriate use. Patient motivations include the desire for a tangible product of the clinical encounter coupled with incorrect perceptions of the effectiveness of antibiotics, particularly in viral infections. Physician behavior can be explained by such factors as lack of information, a desire to satisfy patient demand, and pressure from managed care organizations to speed throughput. Marketing campaigns directed at both physicians and patients further serve to increase demand, especially for newer, costlier products. Studies of antibiotic use patterns in inpatient and outpatient care consistently demonstrate considerable inappropriate prescribing, which is likely to exacerbate the emergence of resistant organisms. Several approaches have been shown to improve the rationality of antibiotic use. Computer-based algorithms or reminders can prompt physicians to improve antibiotic choices at the time of prescribing; paper-based order entry forms can achieve the same goal. Interactive educational outreach ("academic detailing") is a practical implementation of social marketing principles to improve antibiotic use. Public education programs directed at consumers can help to reduce the inappropriate patient demand that helps to drive much improper antibiotic prescribing.

  9. POTENTIAL FOR COOPERATION WITHIN BRICS AND THE CULTURAL-CIVILIZATIONAL FACTOR

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    S. I. Lunev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of development of relations in the format of RIC, BRIC and BRICS, the scale and the scope of cooperation, the direction of activity are still relatively vague. However, there are significant prerequisites for a substantial rapprochement of states, and the main of them is the rejection of the establishment of a unipolar world. The BRICS could become for its participants a key factor both for strengthening positions in the world economic system, and for realization of concrete projects. The economic relations in the triangle Russia — China — India should be mentioned especially as the implementation of such projects is facilitated by the neighborhood of the countries in Eurasia. It is also very important to develop comprehensively cultural subsystem, first of all, the cooperation in the educational sphere (the strong increase in Chinese and Indian student enrollments to Russian universities, and medicine and natural science should be priority directions; the strengthening of the ties in the sphere of higher education and science. Cultural activities should also be dramatically expanded. The BRICS countries are not interested in a radical breaking of international political and economic relations, but are obliged to contribute to sharp strengthening of their positions in the world system.

  10. El factoring

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    Alberto Rosenthal

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El artículo  presenta, una conceptualización general de lo que es el factoring, el origen del mismo, su evolución y hace una clasificación de los distintos tipos de factoring.

  11. Experimental Methodology used by Cell Cultures Laboratory from INRMFB to assess the therapeutic effect of natural factors

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    Munteanu Constantin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The experimental study design on cell cultures allows the direct biological evaluation at the cellular level, of the therapeutic effect that natural factors can play over the organism.Techniques for obtaining cell cultures requires a complex and laborious task that starts from live tissue sampling, continuous with isolation of cells and their preparation for sowing a culture plate. This preparation involves mechanical and enzymatic action from the researcher on biological material. Derived cell cultures are monitored morphologically by high-performance inverted biological microscope, with video camera for image acquisition. In the final stage, the cells are scraped, and through biochemical and molecular techniques, the therapeutic efficiency hypothesis of the investigated natural factor is verified experimentally. The cell cultures can be crioconservated in special containers with liquid nitrogen.

  12. Traditional living and cultural ways as protective factors against suicide: perceptions of Alaska Native university students

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    Christopher R. DeCou

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Native peoples living in Alaska have one of the highest rates of suicide in the world. This represents a significant health disparity for indigenous populations living in Alaska. This research was part of a larger study that explored qualitatively the perceptions of Alaska Native university students from rural communities regarding suicide. This analysis explored the resilience that arose from participants’ experiences of traditional ways, including subsistence activities. Previous research has indicated the importance of traditional ways in preventing suicide and strengthening communities. Method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 university students who had migrated to Fairbanks, Alaska, from rural Alaskan communities. An interview protocol was developed in collaboration with cultural and community advisors. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Participants were asked specific questions concerning the strengthening of traditional practices towards the prevention of suicide. Transcripts were analysed using the techniques of grounded theory. Findings. Participants identified several resilience factors against suicide, including traditional practices and subsistence activities, meaningful community involvement and an active lifestyle. Traditional practices and subsistence activities were perceived to create the context for important relationships, promote healthy living to prevent suicide, contrast with current challenges and transmit important cultural values. Participants considered the strengthening of these traditional ways as important in suicide prevention efforts. However, subsistence and traditional practices were viewed as a diminishing aspect of daily living in rural Alaska. Conclusions. Many college students from rural Alaska have been affected by suicide but are strong enough to cope with such tragic events. Subsistence living and traditional practices were perceived as important social and

  13. Higher Anti-Liver Fibrosis Effect of Cordyceps militaris-Fermented Product Cultured with Deep Ocean Water via Inhibiting Proinflammatory Factors and Fibrosis-Related Factors Expressions

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    Yu-Ping Hung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep ocean water (DOW has been shown to enhance the functional components of fungi, resulting in increased health benefits. Therefore, using DOW for culturing fungi can enhance the cordycepin and adenosine of Cordyceps militaris (CM and its protective effects on the liver. In this study, the antiliver fibrosis effects and mechanisms of ultrapure water-cultured CM (UCM, DOW-cultured CM (DCM, synthetic water-cultured CM, DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine were compared in the liver fibrosis mice induced by intraperitoneal injections of thioacetamide (TAA. The results indicated that DCM exhibited superior performance in reducing liver collagen accumulation, mitigating liver injuries, inhibiting proinflammatory factors and fibrosis-related factor (TGF-β1, Smad2/3, α-SMA, COL1A1 expression compared with UCM. DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine also performed antiliver fibrosis effect. Therefore, because DCM is rich in DOW and functional components, it can achieve anti-liver fibrosis effects through multiple pathways. These ameliorative effects are considerably superior to those of UCM.

  14. Higher Anti-Liver Fibrosis Effect of Cordyceps militaris-Fermented Product Cultured with Deep Ocean Water via Inhibiting Proinflammatory Factors and Fibrosis-Related Factors Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Ping; Lee, Chun-Lin

    2017-06-08

    Deep ocean water (DOW) has been shown to enhance the functional components of fungi, resulting in increased health benefits. Therefore, using DOW for culturing fungi can enhance the cordycepin and adenosine of Cordyceps militaris (CM) and its protective effects on the liver. In this study, the antiliver fibrosis effects and mechanisms of ultrapure water-cultured CM (UCM), DOW-cultured CM (DCM), synthetic water-cultured CM, DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine were compared in the liver fibrosis mice induced by intraperitoneal injections of thioacetamide (TAA). The results indicated that DCM exhibited superior performance in reducing liver collagen accumulation, mitigating liver injuries, inhibiting proinflammatory factors and fibrosis-related factor (TGF-β1, Smad2/3, α-SMA, COL1A1) expression compared with UCM. DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine also performed antiliver fibrosis effect. Therefore, because DCM is rich in DOW and functional components, it can achieve anti-liver fibrosis effects through multiple pathways. These ameliorative effects are considerably superior to those of UCM.

  15. Robust factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Fisker, Rune; Åström, Kalle;

    2002-01-01

    Factorization algorithms for recovering structure and motion from an image stream have many advantages, but they usually require a set of well-tracked features. Such a set is in generally not available in practical applications. There is thus a need for making factorization algorithms deal...... effectively with errors in the tracked features. We propose a new and computationally efficient algorithm for applying an arbitrary error function in the factorization scheme. This algorithm enables the use of robust statistical techniques and arbitrary noise models for the individual features....... These techniques and models enable the factorization scheme to deal effectively with mismatched features, missing features, and noise on the individual features. The proposed approach further includes a new method for Euclidean reconstruction that significantly improves convergence of the factorization algorithms...

  16. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in combination with insulin-like growth factor 1 and basic fibroblast growth factor promote in vitro culture of goat spermatogonial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadorani, M; Hosseini, S M; Abedi, P; Abbasi, H; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2015-01-01

    Growth factors are increasingly considered as important regulators of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). This study investigated the effects of various growth factors (GDNF, IGF1, bFGF, EGF and GFRalpha-1) on purification and colonization of undifferentiated goat SSCs under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Irrespective of the culture condition used, the first signs of developing colonies were observed from day 4 of culture onwards. The number of colonies developed in GDNF + IGF1 + bFGF culture condition was significantly higher than the other groups (p cells (vimentin, alpha-inhibin and α-SMA) and spermatogonial cells (PLZF, THY 1, VASA, alpha-1 integrin, bet-1 integrin and DBA) revealed that both cell types existed in developing colonies, irrespective of the culture condition used. Even though, the relative abundance of VASA, FGFR3, OCT4, PLZF, BCL6B and THY1 transcription factors in GDNF + IGF1 + bFGF treatment group was significantly higher than the other groups (p cell depleted recipient mice following xenotransplantation. Obtained results demonstrated that combination of GDNF with IGF1 and bFGF promote in vitro culture of goat SSCs while precludes uncontrolled proliferation of somatic cells.

  17. A Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Factors Related to Help-Seeking Attitudes for Psychological Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hirai, Michiyo

    1999-01-01

    It has been reported that Asian people have negative views of mental illness, including beliefs that it is incurable and shameful. Asian people also tend to attribute causes of mental disorders to factors less susceptible to personal influence such as supernatural factors, and are likely to have an external health locus of control which reflects beliefs that health outcomes are a product of external factors such as luck. In the present study, each of the above constructs were compared between...

  18. Knowledge and Cultural Beliefs of Mothers Regarding the Risk Factors of Infant Hearing Loss and Awareness of Audiology Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Samantha M.; Khan, Nasim Banu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to describe the knowledge of mothers in Durban, South Africa, regarding risk factors of hearing loss in infants and their awareness of audiology services, and to describe their cultural beliefs about the risk factors for hearing loss in infants. A descriptive survey design with quantitative methods of analysis were used. Conveniently sampled mothers (n=102) receiving postnatal care for their infants from eight provincial clinics within Durban consented to participate, yielding a response rate of 48%. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and the Cronbach α was calculated yielding a score of 0.835, indicating good internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire. Sixty percent of the mothers were aware of risk factors, such as middle ear infections, ototoxic medication and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Seventy percent were unaware that NICU/mechanical ventilation for more than 5 days, prematurity, rubella and jaundice are considered risk factors for hearing loss, implying a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding such risk factors. Sixty percent (n=62) believed that bewitchment and ancestral curses can cause hearing loss. Cultural beliefs were associated with hearing loss, therefore, health professionals need to demonstrate cultural competence when providing audiology services, especially in a culturally and linguistically diverse countries such as South Africa. Although the mothers had an average knowledge about risk factors, two thirds did not know which professional to seek help from. There is a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding the risk factors of infant hearing loss as well as audiology services in order to facilitate early detection and intervention. There is a need for health professionals to demonstrate cultural competence when working with their patients. PMID:28890772

  19. Social and cultural factors underlying generational differences in overweight: a cross-sectional study among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Nierkens Vera; van Valkengoed Irene; Nicolaou Mary; Hosper Karen; Stronks Karien

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight appears to vary in people of first and second generation ethnic minority groups. Insight into the factors that underlie these weight differences might help in understanding the health transition that is taking place across generations following migration. We studied the role of social and cultural factors associated with generational differences in overweight among young Turkish and Moroccan men and women in the Netherlands. Methods Cross-secti...

  20. El factoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rosenthal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se presenta la segunda parte del artículo aparecido en  el número 6 de la revista EAN. Su contenido es complementario a lo expuesto en dicho número, en está aparecen las ventajas del factoring, conveniencias, limitaciones así como la forma  de efectuar un factor en Colombia,  su necesidad, incidencia económica, etc.

  1. Factors Affecting the Biomass and Lipid Production from Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 under Mixotrophic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ariful HAQUE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of media compositions on biomass and lipid accumulation of the isolate Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 were investigated under a Plackett-Burman experimental design with mixotrophic cultivation conditions. Under this experimental design there were 15 different runs with ten factors-yeast extract, KH2PO4, MgSO4, FeSO4, MnCl2, CuSO4, Na2MoO4, H3BO3, ZnSO4 and pH. Cultures were grown mixotrophically under 16 h light and 8 h dark regime at 30 ºC for a period of 7 days. During the light regime, the light intensity at the surface of the vessels and agitation speed were set to 67.5 µmol photons m-2s-1 and 150 rpm, respectively. Initial cell concentration was set to an absorbance (A540 of 0.5. For high biomass production (2.2 g/L, run no. 6, the most effective and significant factors were yeast extract, KH2PO4, FeSO4 and ZnSO4 at concentrations 0.3 g/L, 0.3 g/L, 3 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. Whereas for high lipid accumulation (19.59 %DCW, run no. 2, these were KH2PO4, pH and yeast extract, at a level of 1.7 g/L, 6.0 and 0.1 g/L, respectively. No significant factors were obtained for higher lipid content. The best treatment for biomass and lipid content was run no. 6, whose medium formula consisted of 0.3 g/L yeast extract, 1.7 g/L KH2PO4, 1.7 g/L MgSO4, 1 mg/L FeSO4, 0.9 mg/L MnCl2, and pH 7.0, together with fixed concentrations of glucose, NaHCO3 and KNO3 at 5 g/L, 0.05 g/L and 0.5 g/L, respectively.

  2. Discoordinate regulation of different K channels in cultured rat skeletal muscle by nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigdor-Alboim, S; Rothman, C; Braiman, L; Bak, A; Langzam, L; Yosef, O; Sterengarz, B B; Nawrath, H; Brodie, C; Sampson, S R

    1999-05-01

    We investigated the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) on expression of K+ channels in cultured skeletal muscle. The channels studied were (1) charybdotoxin (ChTx)-sensitive channels by using a polyclonal antibody raised in rabbits against ChTx, (2) Kv1.5 voltage-sensitive channels, and (3) apamin-sensitive (afterhyperpolarization) channels. Crude homogenates were prepared from cultures made from limb muscles of 1-2-day-old rat pups for identification of ChTx-sensitive and Kv1.5 channels by Western blotting techniques. Apamin-sensitive K+ channels were studied by measurement of specific [125I]-apamin binding by whole cell preparations. ChTx-sensitive channels display a fusion-related increase in expression, and NGF downregulates these channels in both myoblasts and myotubes. Voltage-dependent Kv1.5 channel expression is low in myoblasts and increases dramatically with fusion; NGF induces early expression of these channels and causes expression after fusion to increase even further. NGF downregulates apamin-sensitive channels. NGF increases the rate of fall of the action potential recorded intracellularly from single myotubes with intracellular microelectrodes. The results confirm and extend those of previous studies in showing a functional role for NGF in the regulation of membrane properties of skeletal muscle. Moreover, the findings demonstrate that the different K+ channels in this preparation are regulated in a discoordinate manner. The divergent effects of NGF on expression of different K+ channels, however, do not appear sufficient to explain the NGF-induced increase in the rate of fall of the action potential. The changes during the falling phase may rather be due to increases in channel properties or may result from an increased driving force on the membrane potential secondary to the NGF-induced hyperpolarization.

  3. Sex-specific genetic diversity is shaped by cultural factors in Inner Asian human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Nina; Hegay, Tatyana; Mennecier, Philippe; Georges, Myriam; Laurent, Romain; Whitten, Mark; Endicott, Philipp; Aldashev, Almaz; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Nasyrova, Firuza; Chichlo, Boris; Ségurel, Laure; Heyer, Evelyne

    2017-04-01

    Sex-specific genetic structures have been previously documented worldwide in humans, even though causal factors have not always clearly been identified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ethnicity, geography and social organization on the sex-specific genetic structure in Inner Asia. Furthermore, we explored the process of ethnogenesis in multiple ethnic groups. We sampled DNA in Central and Northern Asia from 39 populations of Indo-Iranian and Turkic-Mongolic native speakers. We focused on genetic data of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. First, we compared the frequencies of haplogroups to South European and East Asian populations. Then, we investigated the genetic differentiation for eight Y-STRs and the HVS1 region, and tested for the effect of geography and ethnicity on such patterns. Finally, we reconstructed the male demographic history, inferred split times and effective population sizes of different ethnic groups. Based on the haplogroup data, we observed that the Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-Mongolic-speaking populations have distinct genetic backgrounds. However, each population showed consistent mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups patterns. As expected in patrilocal populations, we found that the Y-STRs were more structured than the HVS1. While ethnicity strongly influenced the genetic diversity on the Y chromosome, geography better explained that of the mtDNA. Furthermore, when looking at various ethnic groups, we systematically found a genetic split time older than historical records, suggesting a cultural rather than biological process of ethnogenesis. This study highlights that, in Inner Asia, specific cultural behaviors, especially patrilineality and patrilocality, leave a detectable signature on the sex-specific genetic structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Cultural factors impacting student motivation at a health sciences college in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Lutfi Abdul Razzak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a reflection on students’ levels and types of motivation at a college of health sciences in Saudi Arabia and highlights the social and cultural factors possibly contributing to the differences in motivation among those students. The results of this study, which followed a mixed-methods approach, indicate a multiplicity of contributing factors and values, namely: gender stereotyping, appreciation of early graduation, stereotypes regarding career status, family background, and parents’ educational levels, value attributed to education, ultra-conservatism, and social image and prestige. From these factors, a number of key implications and recommendations are deduced, some of which are general while others are more college specific.

  5. Psychological, Cultural and Family Factors in Incest and Family Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews clinical experience and research evidence about father-daughter incest and family sexual abuse, and suggests six factors important in its etiology: the personal characteristics of the offender; the role of the mother; a milieu of abandonment; subcultural isolation; poor family sexual boundaries; and opportunity factors. (Author)

  6. Optimisation of the Factor VIII yield in mammalian cell cultures by reducing the membrane bound fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Mille Petersen; Nørby, Peder Lisby; Berchtold, Martin Werner

    2011-01-01

    and forms the tenase complex together with clotting Factor IX. In vitro, during serum free production of recombinant FVIII (rFVIII), production cells also expose PS, and since vWF is not present to hinder interaction of secreted rFVIII with PS, rFVIII is partly associated with the cell membrane...... of active membrane bound rFVIII to the culture medium. Moreover, the attachment of rFVIII to cell membranes of un-transfected HEK293 cells was studied in the presence of compounds that competes for interactions between rFVIII and PS. Competitive assays between iodinated rFVIII (¹²5I-rFVIII) and annexin V...... or ortho-phospho-L-serine (OPLS) demonstrated that annexin V and OPLS were able to reduce the membrane bound fraction of rFVIII by 70% and 30%, respectively. Finally, adding OPLS to CHO cells stably expressing FVIII increased the yield by 50%. Using this new knowledge, the recovery of rFVIII could...

  7. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Induced Ototoxicity in Mouse Cochlear Organotypic Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wu

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α is a cytokine involved in acute inflammatory phase reactions, and is the primary upstream mediator in the cochlear inflammatory response. Treatment of the organ of Corti with TNF-α can induce hair cell damage. However, the resulting morphological changes have not been systematically examined. In the present study, cochlear organotypic cultures from neonatal mice were treated with various concentrations and durations of TNF-α to induce inflammatory responses. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate the condition of hair cells and supporting cells following immunohistochemical staining. In addition, the ultrastructure of the stereocilia bundle, hair cells, and supporting cells were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. TNF-α treatment resulted in a fusion and loss of stereocilia bundles in hair cells, swelling of mitochondria, and vacuolation and degranulation of the endoplasmic reticulum. Disruption of tight junctions between hair cells and supporting cells was also observed at high concentrations. Hair cell loss was preceded by apoptosis of Deiters' and pillar cells. Taken together, these findings detail the morphological changes in the organ of Corti after TNF-α treatment, and provide an in vitro model of inflammatory-induced ototoxicity.

  8. Effects of Forskolin on Trefoil factor 1 expression in cultured ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia; Ducray, A D; Widmer, H R;

    2015-01-01

    in the absence (controls) or presence of either glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), Forskolin or the combination. No TFF1-ir cells were identified at day 5 and only a few at day 7, whereas TH was markedly expressed at both time points. At day 10, several TFF1-ir cells were detected......, and their numbers were significantly increased after the addition of GDNF (2.2-fold) or Forskolin (4.1-fold) compared to controls. Furthermore, the combination of GDNF and Forskolin had an additive effect and increased the number of TFF1-ir cells by 5.6-fold compared to controls. TFF1 expression was restricted...... to neuronal cells, and the percentage of TH/TFF1 co-expressing cells was increased to the same extent in GDNF and Forskolin-treated cultures (4-fold) as compared to controls. Interestingly, the combination of GDNF and Forskolin resulted in a significantly increased co-expression (8-fold) of TH/TFF1, which...

  9. Nerve growth factor modulate proliferation of cultured rabbit corneal endothelial cells and epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinyu; Li, Zhongguo; Qiu, Liangxiu; Zhao, Changsong; Hu, Zhulin

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on the proliferation of rabbit corneal endothelial cells and epithelial cells, the in vitro cultured rabbit corneal endothelial cells and epithelial cells were treated with different concentrations of NGF. MTT assay was used to examine the clonal growth and proliferation of the cells by determining the absorbency values at 570 nm. The results showed that NGF with three concentrations ranging from 5 U/mL to 500 U/mL enhanced the proliferation of rabbit corneal endothelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner. 50 U/mL and 500 U/mL NGF got more increase of proliferation than that of 5 U/mL NGF did. Meanwhile, 50 U/mL and 500 U/mL NGF could promote the proliferation of the rabbit corneal epithelial cells significantly in a concentration-dependent manner. However, 5 U/mL NGF did not enhance the proliferation of epithelial cells. It was suggested that exogenous NGF can stimulate the proliferation of both rabbit corneal endothelial and epithelial cells, but the extent of modulation is different.

  10. Induction of vascular endothelial growth factor by nitric oxide in cultured human articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpaev, K; Litvinov, D; Dubovaya, V; Panasyuk, A; Ivanov, D; Prassolov, V

    2001-06-01

    We investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the control of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) gene expression in cultured human articular chondrocytes. Cell treatment with the NO-generating compound nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) caused a significant accumulation of 4.4 kb VEGF mRNA, a major VEGF mRNA isoform expressing in chondrocytes. This is the first demonstration that NO can induce VEGF mRNA expression in chondrocytes. VEGF mRNA level was not affected in cells exposed to dibutyryl cGMP, a non-hydrolyzable analog of cGMP, suggesting that the cGMP system is not involved in NO-dependent transcriptional activation of VEGF gene. The GSNO-stimulated induction of VEGF mRNA was slightly attenuated by MAP protein kinase inhibitors PD98058 and SB203580, but was completely blocked in cells incubated with GSNO in the presence of catalase and superoxide dismutase, enzymes scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), or in the presence of thiol-containing antioxidants, N-acetyl cysteine and reduced glutathione. These results suggest that in articular chondrocytes the GSNO-induced VEGF gene transcriptional activation is dependent on endogenous ROS production and oxidative thiol modifications.

  11. Is bad living better than good death? Impact of demographic and cultural factors on health state preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuejing; Liu, Gordon Guoen; Luo, Nan; Li, Hongchao; Guan, Haijing; Xie, Feng

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of demographic and cultural factors on health preferences among Chinese general population. The Chinese EQ-5D-5L valuation study was conducted between December 2012 and January 2013. A total of 1296 participants were recruited from the general public at Beijing, Chengdu, Guiyang, Nanjing, and Shenyang. Each participant was interviewed to measure preferences for ten EQ-5D-5L health states using composite time trade-off and seven pairs of states using discrete choice experiment (data were not included in this study). At the end of the interview, each participant was also asked to provide their demographic information and answers to two questions about their attitudes towards whether bad living is better than good death (LBD) and whether they believe in an afterlife. Generalized linear model and random effects logistic models were used to examine the impact of demographic and cultural factors on health preferences. Participants who had serious illness experience received college or higher education, or agree with LBD were more likely to value health states positively and have a narrower score range. Participants at Beijing were more likely to be non-traders, value health states positively, less likely to reach the lowest possible score, and have narrower score range compared with all other four cities after controlling for all other demographic and culture factors. Health state preference is significantly affected by factors beyond demographics. These factors should be considered in achieving a representative sample in valuation studies in China.

  12. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Dorst, A.G. van; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex educa

  13. The Relevance of Cultural Factors in Predicting Condom-Use Intentions among Immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, P. L.; van Dorst, A. G.; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power…

  14. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Dorst, A.G. van; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex

  15. Identifying Socio-Cultural Factors That Impact the Use of Open Educational Resources in Local Public Administrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Stoffregen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to define relevant barriers to the exchange of Open Educational Resources in local public administrations. Building upon a cultural model, eleven experts were interviewed and asked to evaluate several factors, such as openness in discourse, learning at the workplace, and superior support, among others. The result is a set of socio-cultural factors that shape the use of Open Educational Resources in public administrations. Significant factors are, in this respect, the independent choice of learning resources, the spirit of the platform, the range of available formats and access to technologies. Practitioners use these factors to elaborate on the readiness of public administrations towards the use of open e-Learning systems. To academic debates on culture in e-Learning, the results provide an alternative model that is contextualized to meet the demands of public sector contexts. Overall, the paper contributes to the lack of research about open e-Learning systems in the public sector, as well as regarding culture in the management of learning and knowledge exchange.

  16. Socio-Economic and Cultural Factors Influencing Access and Success of Women in Political Leadership in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluyu, Veronicah

    2015-01-01

    In the 21st century, women and leadership have been a global topical issue, especially with countries trying to interpret and implement the millennium development goals, and with increased awareness of human rights. In Africa, political leadership among women has had its own challenges that range from social, cultural and even economic factors. In…

  17. Are time-trends of smoking among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden determined by cultural or socioeconomic factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moussa, K.; Ostergren, P.O.; Eek, F.; Kunst, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The widening socioeconomic gap in smoking during pregnancy remains a challenge to the Swedish antenatal care services. However, the influence of cultural factors in explaining the socioeconomic differences in smoking during pregnancy is not clear among the immigrant women. The

  18. Evaluation of crucial factors for implementing shed-microspore culture of Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.; Muswita, W.; Suharsono, S.; Custers, J.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed in Wageningen for producing doubled haploid plants in several genotypes of Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). For transfer of technology to Indonesia, three factors were studied that appeared crucial for successful implementation in practice.

  19. Perceptions of the Acceptability of Parent Training among Chinese Immigrant Parents: Contributions of Cultural Factors and Clinical Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Judy; Yeh, May; McCabe, Kristen; Lau, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Parent training (PT) is well established for reducing child externalizing problems; however, lower rates of engagement in PT among ethnic minority/immigrant families have been found. We assessed PT acceptability among Chinese immigrant parents and explored clinical and cultural factors that may be associated with acceptability. Participants were a…

  20. Breast Cancer Screening among Dominican Latinas: A Closer Look at Fatalism and Other Social and Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F.; Martins, Mariana Cunha; Shelton, Rachel C.; Flórez, Karen R.

    2015-01-01

    With the marked increase of the Latino population in the United States during the past 20 years, there has been growing interest in the social, cultural, and structural factors that may impede breast cancer screening among Latino women, especially among those subgroups that have been understudied. Acculturation and fatalism are central cultural…

  1. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Dorst, A.G. van; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex educa

  2. The Relevance of Cultural Factors in Predicting Condom-Use Intentions among Immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, P. L.; van Dorst, A. G.; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power…

  3. Are time-trends of smoking among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden determined by cultural or socioeconomic factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moussa, K.; Ostergren, P.O.; Eek, F.; Kunst, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The widening socioeconomic gap in smoking during pregnancy remains a challenge to the Swedish antenatal care services. However, the influence of cultural factors in explaining the socioeconomic differences in smoking during pregnancy is not clear among the immigrant women. The

  4. Breast Cancer Screening among Dominican Latinas: A Closer Look at Fatalism and Other Social and Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F.; Martins, Mariana Cunha; Shelton, Rachel C.; Flórez, Karen R.

    2015-01-01

    With the marked increase of the Latino population in the United States during the past 20 years, there has been growing interest in the social, cultural, and structural factors that may impede breast cancer screening among Latino women, especially among those subgroups that have been understudied. Acculturation and fatalism are central cultural…

  5. Factors affecting the gene expression of in vitro cultured human preimplantation embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, E.; Jonker, M.J.; Wong, K.M.; van Montfoort, A.P.A.; de Jong, M.; Breit, T.M.; Repping, S.; Mastenbroek, S.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the relative effect of common environmental and biological factors on transcriptome changes during human preimplantation development? SUMMARY ANSWER: Developmental stage and maternal age had a larger effect on the global gene expression profile of human preimplantation

  6. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, Pl; van Dorst, Ag; Schaalma, H

    2006-04-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power relationships is addressed. The study was conducted among 346 Dutch Antilleans from a random sample of an Antillean population aged 15-50 years. The response rate was 37.8%. The results showed that condom-use intentions were primarily determined by perceived subjective norms, the perceived taboo on discussing sex, machismo attitudes, gender, age and educational background. Moreover, the respondent's opinion regarding machismo was an effect modificator for the association between condom-use intentions and subjective social norm. It is concluded that, in predicting condom-use intentions, factors specific to the culture of a population contribute significantly to the determinants drawn from the general social-cognition models. It is recommended that future research should use measurement instruments that are adapted to culture-specific beliefs, and should explore the influence of cultural factors on actual condom use. Moreover, interventions promoting condom use among migrant populations should target the cultural correlates of condom use.

  7. Cultural attitudes are stronger predictors of bushmeat consumption and preference than economic factors among urban Amazonians from Brazil and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Morsello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bushmeat consumption persists in urban areas in the Neotropics, yet knowledge of its scale and the relative importance of cultural and economic factors in determining consumption and preference remain elusive. Moreover, the roles of cultural beliefs, social norms, and attitudes in driving urban bushmeat consumption are rarely evaluated. Therefore, we explored in this article the factors that influence consumption and preference for bushmeat in Amazonian towns. Given the availability of other sources of animal protein and the cultural and social importance of bushmeat in the region, we hypothesized that cultural attributes should be better predictors than economic factors of bushmeat consumption and preference. Data analysis involved fitting two-level mixed-effects regressions (random intercepts to a structured sample of 227 individuals (99 households from four towns in the Brazilian (Tabatinga and Atalaia do Norte and Colombian (Leticia and Puerto Nariño Amazon. The results indicate that a third of the interviewees had consumed bushmeat in the past month, which had primarily been harvested by the family or received as a gift rather than obtained through trade. In general, both economic and cultural factors predicted bushmeat consumption and preference, but the objective proxy for culture, individual origin, was unimportant. Among the tested indicators, the strongest predictor was the importance of bushmeat to social relations. Moreover, informal social norms, such as the greater importance attributed to taboos, tended to decrease the average number of wild species that a person would eat, whereas attitudes toward the illegality of hunting were less important. The two economic indicators, increased income and wealth, tended to decrease preference for bushmeat and the likelihood of consumption. Our findings highlight the importance of human beliefs, attitudes, and social norms to the understanding of bushmeat consumption and preference and may

  8. Increased Contractile Response to Noradrenaline Induced By Factors Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome in Cultured Small Mesenteric Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blædel, Martin; Sams, Anette; Boonen, Harrie C M

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: This study investigated the effect of the metabolic syndrome associated risk factors hyperglycemia (glucose [Glc]), hyperinsulinemia (insulin [Ins]) and low-grade inflammation (tumor necrosis factor α [TNFα]) on the vasomotor responses of resistance arteries. Isolated small mesenteric...... arteries from 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats, were suspended for 21-23 h in tissue cultures containing either elevated Glc (30 mmol/l), Ins (100 nmol/l), TNFα (100 ng/ml) or combinations thereof. After incubation, the vascular response to noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine, isoprenaline and NA...... in the presence of propranolol (10 µmol/l) was measured by wire myography. RESULTS: Arteries exposed only to combinations of the risk factors showed a significant 1.6-fold increase in the contractile NA sensitivity, which suggests that complex combinations of metabolic risk factors might lead to changes...

  9. Mitogenic properties of insulin-like growth factors I and II, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and epidermal growth factor on human breast stromal cells in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Karen S; Wilkinson, Darcy; Edin, Glenn; Emerman, Joanne T

    2004-03-01

    Insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) are growth factors implicated in both normal mammary gland development and breast cancer. We have previously reported on the effects of components of the IGF system on breast epithelial cells. Since data suggests that stromal-epithelial interactions play a crucial role in breast cancer, we have now investigated the mitogenic properties of IGF-I, IGF-II, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) on human breast stromal cells in primary culture. We show that, under serum-free conditions, stromal cells are stimulated to grow in response to IGF-I and IGF-II in a dose-dependent manner. IGF-I and EGF, a potent stimulator of human breast epithelial cell growth in primary culture and also associated with breast cancer, appear to stimulate stromal cell growth in a synergistic manner. IGFBP-3 does not inhibit the stimulation of growth by IGF-I, or IGF-I plus EGF. However, IGFBP-3 does inhibit the stimulation of growth by IGF-II. In contrast to our previous results with human breast epithelial cells, IGFBP-3 does not have an IGF-independent inhibitory effect on stromal cell growth. This study is the first to address the effects of IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 alone and in combination with EGF on human breast stromal cell growth in primary culture. Characterizing the role of the IGF system in both normal breast epithelial cells and stromal cells will aid in our understanding of the mechanisms behind the role of the IGF system in breast cancer.

  10. Mitogenic properties of insulin-like growth factors I and II, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and epidermal growth factor on human breast epithelial cells in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Karen S; Wilkinson, Darcy; Emerman, Joanne T

    2002-10-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) are growth factors implicated in mammary gland development and are believed to be involved in breast cancer. However, the interactions between components of the IGF system and breast epithelial cells, which give rise to breast cancer, are not well understood. We have investigated the mitogenic properties of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) on human breast epithelial cells (HBEC) in primary culture. We show that, under serum-free conditions, HBEC are stimulated to grow in response to IGF-I and IGF-II in a dose-dependent manner. IGF-I and EGF, a potent stimulator of HBEC growth in primary culture and also associated with breast cancer, appear to stimulate HBEC in a synergistic manner. IGFBP-3 inhibits the stimulation by IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF-I plus EGE In addition, it appears that IGFBP-3 has an inhibitory effect on HBEC growth that is IGF-independent. This study is the first to address the effects of IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 alone and in combination with EGF on HBEC growth in primary culture. Characterizing the role of the IGF system in normal breast biology is significant because the system has been implicated in breast cancer and a number of the anti-estrogens used in treatment are believed to function through the IGF system.

  11. The role of basic fibroblast growth factor in glioblastoma multiforme and glioblastoma stem cells and in their in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Elizabeth M; Kim, Yonghyun

    2014-04-28

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant form of central nervous system tumor, and current therapies are largely ineffective at treating the cancer. Developing a more complete understanding of the mechanisms controlling the tumor is important in order to explore new possible treatment options. It is speculated that the presence of glioblastoma stem or stem-like cells (GSCs), a rare type of pluripotent cancer cell that possesses the ability to self-renew and generate tumors, could be an important factor contributing to the resistance to treatment and deadliness of the cancer. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms controlling the expression and properties of GSCs is currently lacking, and one promising area for further exploration is in the influence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) on GSCs. Recent studies reveal that FGF-2 plays a significant part in regulating GBM, and the growth factor is commonly included as a supplement in media used to culture GSCs in vitro. However, the particular role that FGF-2 plays in GSCs has not been as extensively explored. Therefore, understanding how FGF-2 is involved in GSCs and in GBMs could be an important step towards a more complete comprehension of the managing the disease. In this review, we look at the structure, signaling pathways, and specific role of FGF-2 in GBM and GSCs. In addition, we explore the use of FGF-2 in cell culture and using its synthetic analogs as a potential alternative to the growth factor in culture medium.

  12. Work Factors, Work-Family Conflict, the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Healthy Intentions: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukri, Madihah; Jones, Fiona; Conner, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The present study examined the roles of work factors (i.e. job demands and job resources), work-family conflicts and culture on predictors of healthy intentions (fruit and vegetable consumption, low-fat diet and physical activity) within the framework of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Employees from the United Kingdom (N = 278) and Malaysia (N = 325) participated in the study. Results indicated that higher job demands were significantly related to lower intentions to eat a low-fat diet. Women reported higher intentions to eat a low-fat diet than men did, while participants from the United Kingdom had lower intentions to engage in physical activity compared with those from Malaysia. The efficacy of TPB variables in explaining intentions was verified, with perceived behavioural control (i.e. self-efficacy), attitudes and descriptive norms combined with past behaviour predictive across the samples. The results also suggest the roles of culture and work interference with family variables in moderating TPB-intention relationships and confirm that TPB variables mediate the effects of job demands and job resources on intentions. Practically, to promote health, identifying strategies to reduce stress factors; specifying important cognitive factors affecting work factors and thus, healthy intentions; and acknowledging cultural-specific determinants of healthy intentions are recommended. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Behavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, D T; Lussi, A

    2006-01-01

    During and after an erosive challenge, behavioral factors play a role in modifying the extent of erosive tooth wear. The manner that dietary acids are introduced into the mouth (gulping, sipping, use of a straw) will affect how long the teeth are in contact with the erosive challenge. The frequency and duration of exposure to an erosive agent is of paramount importance. Night-time exposure (e.g. baby bottle-feeding) to erosive agents may be particularly destructive because of the absence of salivary flow. Health-conscious individuals tend to ingest acidic drinks and juices more frequently and tend to have higher than average oral hygiene. While good oral hygiene is of proven value in the prevention of periodontal disease and dental caries, frequent toothbrushing with abrasive oral hygiene products may enhance erosive tooth wear. Unhealthy lifestyles such as consumption of designer drugs, alcopops and alcohol abuse are other important behavioral factors.

  14. Factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsuch, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive and comprehensible, this classic covers the basic and advanced topics essential for using factor analysis as a scientific tool in psychology, education, sociology, and related areas. Emphasizing the usefulness of the techniques, it presents sufficient mathematical background for understanding and sufficient discussion of applications for effective use. This includes not only theory but also the empirical evaluations of the importance of mathematical distinctions for applied scientific analysis.

  15. Cholinergic neurons regulate secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor by skeletal muscle cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianney, John-Mary; Spitsbergen, John M

    2011-05-16

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been identified as a potent survival factor for both central and peripheral neurons. GDNF has been shown to be a potent survival factor for motor neurons during programmed cell death and continuous treatment with GDNF maintains hyperinnervation of skeletal muscle in adulthood. However, little is known about factors regulating normal production of endogenous GDNF in skeletal muscle. This study aimed to examine the role that motor neurons play in regulating GDNF secretion by skeletal muscle. A co-culture of skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) and cholinergic neurons, glioma×neuroblastoma hybrid cells (NG108-15) were used to create nerve-muscle interactions in vitro. Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on nerve-myotube co-cultures were blocked with alpha-bungarotoxin (α-BTX). GDNF protein content in cells and in culture medium was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and western blotting. GDNF localization was examined by immunocytochemistry. The nerve-muscle co-culture study indicated that the addition of motor neurons to skeletal muscle cells reduced the secretion of GDNF by skeletal muscle. The results also showed that blocking AChRs with α-BTX reversed the action of neural cells on GDNF secretion by skeletal muscle. Although ELISA results showed no GDNF in differentiated NG108-15 cells grown alone, immunocytochemical analysis showed that GDNF was localized in NG108-15 cells co-cultured with C2C12 myotubes. These results suggest that motor neurons may be regulating their own supply of GDNF secreted by skeletal muscle and that activation of AChRs may be involved in this process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Does Chinese culture influence psychosocial factors for heroin use among young adolescents in China? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little empirical research has examined how cultural factors influence psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. The objectives of the study were to investigate the levels of individualism and collectivism among young adolescents and how cultural differences were associated with the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and other psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among young adolescents in an HIV and heroin-stricken area in China. The Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI was used to measure cultural norms and values in the context of three social groups: family members, close friends, and classmates. Results A total of 220 boys and 241 girls were recruited and participated in an interview. Compared to boys, girls reported higher levels of the three specific-relationship ICIAIs, as well as higher levels of perceived behavioral control for heroin use, perceived peer control, and communication with parent about heroin use, but a lower level of favorable attitude towards heroin use. The levels of descriptive and subjective norms of heroin use were low in both girls and boys. Among boys, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control, and friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control and communication with parent. Among girls, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control and communication with parents about heroin use, but negatively with favorable attitudes to heroin use; friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control, and classmate ICIAI was negatively associated with favorable attitudes toward heroin use. Conclusions This study documents that collectivistic aspects of Chinese culture may influence psychosocial factors for heroin use, although the patterns are varied by gender. Findings provide an empirical basis for the development of

  17. Revisiting the IFN-γ release assay: Whole blood or PBMC cultures? - And other factors of influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Sofie Bruun; Emnéus, Jenny; Wolff, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    . However, there is no consensus whether to use whole blood cultures or purified PBMCs for the assay, and both cell populations are being used and results compared. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare different culture settings using immune cells from previously vaccinated calves, and to shed...... light on external factors that could influence the read out in terms of IFN-γ levels. It was found that optimal culture conditions varied between individual animals; when polyclonal activated, cells from whole blood cultures were most responsive, but when activated specifically, the optimal cell...... concentration/population varied with whole blood, 10 × 106 cells/ml PBMC and 5 × 106 cells/ml PBMC being the highest performing conditions. A further investigation of the distribution of cell populations in PBMCs compared to whole blood was conducted, and a significant (p

  18. Culture of human oocytes with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor has no effect on embryonic chromosomal constitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Inge; Loft, Anne; Hald, Finn;

    2010-01-01

    The effect on ploidy rate in donated human oocytes after in-vitro culture with recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF; 2 ng/ml) from fertilization until day 3 was examined in a multicentre, prospective placebo-controlled and double-blinded study including 73......) and number of normally developed embryos evaluated morphologically on day 3. The cytogenetic analyses demonstrated non-inferiority and therefore the chromosomal constitution of human embryos cultured in vitro in the presence of 2 ng/ml GM-CSF was no worse than the control group cultured without GM-CSF. In-vitro...... women donating 86 oocytes. The primary endpoint was to investigate the chromosomal constitution of human embryos (fluorescence in-situ hybridization analysis for chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21, 22, X and Y) cultured with or without GM-CSF. The secondary endpoints were number of top-quality embryos (TQE...

  19. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degboe Arnold N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and

  20. Factors affecting the gene expression of in vitro cultured human preimplantation embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, E.; Jonker, M.J.; Wong, K.M.; van Montfoort, A.P.A.; de Jong, M.; Breit, T.M.; Repping, S.; Mastenbroek, S.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the relative effect of common environmental and biological factors on transcriptome changes during human preimplantation development? SUMMARY ANSWER: Developmental stage and maternal age had a larger effect on the global gene expression profile of human preimplantation embryo

  1. Popular Criteria for the Welfare Deservingness of Disability Pensioners: The Influence of Structural and Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeene, Marjolein; van Oorschot, Wim; Uunk, Wilfred

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that several criteria underlie people's opinions about the welfare deservingness of benefit recipients. However, it remains unknown which factors are associated with the emphasis that people place on such criteria. Using a 2006 Dutch national survey on the welfare deservingness of disability pension recipients, we study the…

  2. Brazil and USA Cross-Cultural Study of Sport as Motivational Factor in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Antonio Jose

    2014-01-01

    In every country, school is considered an essential factor in the development of children, citizens, and the country as a whole. In developing countries such as Brazil, however, the number of school dropouts is very high. In developed countries such as the United States, there is an urgent need for pedagogical improvements. Participants were…

  3. Integrating Two Cultures Successfully: Factors Influencing Acculturation Attitude of International Postgraduate Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaei, Azadeh; Abd Razak, Nordin; Nejati, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Based on Berry's seminal work on the acculturation process, this study examines the pattern of acculturation attitude among international postgraduate students in Malaysia, an emerging education hub in Asia. It also investigates the influence of several demographic factors (gender, geographical region, marital status, and education level) and…

  4. A cross-cultural study of organizational factors on safety: Japanese vs. Taiwanese oil refinery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Lee, Chun-Chia; Wu, Muh-Cherng; Takano, Kenichi

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to identify idiosyncrasies of organizational factors on safety and their influence mechanisms in Taiwan and Japan. Data were collected from employees of Taiwanese and Japanese oil refinery plants. Results show that organizational factors on safety differ in the two countries. Organizational characteristics in Taiwanese plants are highlighted as: higher level of management commitment to safety, harmonious interpersonal relationship, more emphasis on safety activities, higher devotion to supervision, and higher safety self-efficacy, as well as high quality of safety performance. Organizational characteristics in Japanese plants are highlighted as: higher level of employee empowerment and attitude towards continuous improvement, more emphasis on systematic safety management approach, efficient reporting system and teamwork, and high quality of safety performance. The casual relationships between organizational factors and workers' safety performance were investigated using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results indicate that the influence mechanisms of organizational factors in Taiwan and Japan are different. These findings provide insights into areas of safety improvement in emerging countries and developed countries respectively.

  5. Cultural Factors Influencing Eastern and Western Engineering Students' Choice of University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hua-Li; Sandnes, Frode Eika; Huang, Yo-Ping; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2010-01-01

    Insight into factors that affect students' choice of university is useful when designing study programmes, especially in global competition for students. This study focuses on Taiwanese and Norwegian students' preferences for university, study programme, course qualities and future career qualities. Hofstede's model was used to predict…

  6. Integrating Two Cultures Successfully: Factors Influencing Acculturation Attitude of International Postgraduate Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaei, Azadeh; Abd Razak, Nordin; Nejati, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Based on Berry's seminal work on the acculturation process, this study examines the pattern of acculturation attitude among international postgraduate students in Malaysia, an emerging education hub in Asia. It also investigates the influence of several demographic factors (gender, geographical region, marital status, and education level) and…

  7. Popular Criteria for the Welfare Deservingness of Disability Pensioners: The Influence of Structural and Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeene, Marjolein; van Oorschot, Wim; Uunk, Wilfred

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that several criteria underlie people's opinions about the welfare deservingness of benefit recipients. However, it remains unknown which factors are associated with the emphasis that people place on such criteria. Using a 2006 Dutch national survey on the welfare deservingness of disability pension recipients, we study the…

  8. Growth hormone-releasing factor induces c-fos expression in cultured primary pituitary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; Mitchell, R L; Vale, W;

    1987-01-01

    GH-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin regulates the secretion and biosynthesis of GH as well as the proliferation of GH-producing cells. In order to further characterize the mitogenic effect of GRF, we studied the expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos in primary pituitary cells. Maximal...

  9. How Creativity Was Affected by Environmental Factors and Individual Characteristics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lifang; Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Yanyun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how environmental factors (family environment and school education) and individual characteristics (personality, creative attitudes, and divergent thinking) collectively affect creative achievement of American and Chinese college students. Data were collected from 378 college students in the United States…

  10. A Framework for Integrating Cultural Factors in Military Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    information sharing (Veiga & Lubatkin, 2000). Results have revealed many causes that affect business and commerce competitiveness in transnational settings...Autocratic vs. consultative Individualism-Collective I-C) r4 Factors) Individual vs. team Uncertainty Avoidance A: high, Low (UA) G: Feminity

  11. Cross-cultural invariance of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire across Spanish and American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Compton, Michael T; Tone, Erin B; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Fumero, Ascensión; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín

    2014-12-30

    The main goal of this study was to examine the cross-cultural invariance of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) (Raine, 1991) in two large samples of Spanish and American young adults. The final sample was made up of 2313 college students (508 men, 22%). Their mean age was 20.5 years (S.D.=3.2). The results indicated that the Stefanis et al. (2004) four-factor model yielded the best goodness-of-fit indices compared to alternative models. Moreover, the results support configural, metric, and partial measurement invariance of the covariances of the SPQ across the two samples. The finding of measurement equivalence across cultures provides essential evidence of construct validity for the schizotypy dimensions and of the cross-cultural validity of SPQ scores. The finding of comparable dimensional structures in cross-cultural samples lends further support to the continuum model of schizotypy and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Future studies should continue to examine the validity of scores on the SPQ and other schizotypy measures and their variation or consistency across cultures.

  12. Are Cancer Patients' Socioeconomic and Cultural Factors Associated with Contact to General Practitioners in the Last Phase of Life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, M A; Olesen, Frede; Sondergaard, J;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in end of life care, which should be offered regardless of socioeconomic position and cultural factors. The aim was to analyse associations between GP contacts at the end of life and socioeconomic and cultural characteristics...... of Danish cancer patients. Method. Population-based study identifying 599 adults who died of cancer from March to November 2006, in Aarhus County, Denmark. Associations between health register-based data on "total GP face-to-face contacts" and "GP home visits" during the last 90 days of life and patients...

  13. Expression and Purification of Recombinant Human Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Fusion Proteins and Their Uses in Human Stem Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imsoonthornruksa, Sumeth; Pruksananonda, Kamthorn; Parnpai, Rangsun; Rungsiwiwut, Ruttachuk; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the cost of cytokines and growth factors in stem cell research, a simple method for the production of soluble and biological active human basic fibroblast growth factor (hbFGF) fusion protein in Escherichia coli was established. Under optimal conditions, approximately 60-80 mg of >95% pure hbFGF fusion proteins (Trx-6xHis-hbFGF and 6xHis-hbFGF) were obtained from 1 liter of culture broth. The purified hbFGF proteins, both with and without the fusion tags, were biologically active, which was confirmed by their ability to stimulate proliferation of NIH3T3 cells. The fusion proteins also have the ability to support several culture passages of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells and induce pluripotent stem cells. This paper describes a low-cost and uncomplicated method for the production and purification of biologically active hbFGF fusion proteins.

  14. Social and cultural factors underlying generational differences in overweight: a cross-sectional study among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nierkens Vera

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight appears to vary in people of first and second generation ethnic minority groups. Insight into the factors that underlie these weight differences might help in understanding the health transition that is taking place across generations following migration. We studied the role of social and cultural factors associated with generational differences in overweight among young Turkish and Moroccan men and women in the Netherlands. Methods Cross-sectional data were derived from the LASER-study in which information on health-related behaviour and socio-demographic factors, level of education, occupational status, acculturation (cultural orientation and social contacts, religious and migration-related factors was gathered among Turkish and Moroccan men (n = 334 and women (n = 339 aged 15-30 years. Participants were interviewed during a home visit. Overweight was defined as a Body Mass Index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Using logistic regression analyses, we tested whether the measured social and cultural factors could explain differences in overweight between first and second generation ethnic groups. Results Second generation women were less often overweight than first generation women (21.8% and 45.0% respectively, but this association was no longer significant when adjusting for the socioeconomic position (i.e. higher level of education of second generation women (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.77, 95%, Confidence Interval (CI 0.40-1.46. In men, we observed a reversed pattern: second generation men were more often overweight than first generation men (32.7% and 27.8%. This association (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.09-3.24 could not be explained by the social and cultural factors because none of these factors were associated with overweight among men. Conclusions The higher socio-economic position of second generation Turkish and Moroccan women may partly account for the lower prevalence of overweight in this group compared to first

  15. A randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effect of granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in embryo culture medium for in vitro fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebe, Søren; Loft, Anne; Povlsen, Betina B.;

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in embryo culture medium on ongoing implantation rate (OIR).......To evaluate the effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in embryo culture medium on ongoing implantation rate (OIR)....

  16. [総説]Suicide in Okinawa from an international perspective : A consideration of socio-cultural factors

    OpenAIRE

    Naka, Koichi; Willcox, D. Craig; Todoriki, Hidemi; Kageyama, Takayuki; Department of Cli花ical Psychology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Department of Anthropology and Institute for Human Development, Life Course and Aging, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Urban Environment and Health Project, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan

    1998-01-01

    In studies of suicide, a common problem is an over-focus on psychopathology of individual suicidal acts. As a result, the social determinants of suicide are often obscured. In order to rectify this situation, in this paper, we took a Durkheimian approach and focused on social factors that may be linked to suicide. We reviewed research on suicide in Okinawa from an international perspective and reconsidered suicide as a socio-cultural phenomenon. We also compared suicide in Okinawa to trends i...

  17. Expression of a synthetic gene encoding human insulin-like growth factor I in cultured mouse fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Bayne, M L; Cascieri, M A; Kelder, B; Applebaum, J; Chicchi, G; Shapiro, J A; Pasleau, F.; Kopchick, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    A synthetic gene encoding human insulin-like growth factor I (hIGF-I) was assembled and inserted into an expression vector containing the cytomegalovirus immediate early (CMV-IE) transcriptional regulatory region and portions of the bovine growth hormone gene. The recombinant plasmid encodes a 97 amino acid fusion protein containing the first 27 amino acids of the bovine growth hormone precursor and the 70 amino acids of hIGF-I. This plasmid, when transiently introduced into cultured mouse fi...

  18. Influencing Factors for Developing Managerial Behaviours That Encourage a Work-Family Culture in the University Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Álvarez-Pérez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article develops and tests a theoretical model to find out which factors influence the behaviour of supervisors in terms of promoting a work-family culture. This model explains to what extent the factors studied are relevant to encourage deans to promote this type of culture at Spanish universities. The hypotheses were tested using linear regression analysis. Data were obtained through a questionnaire to deans. The results yield five key factors: (1 the personal work-family conflict of managers; (2 the transformational leadership style of managers; (3 the identification with subordinates in need of work-family cares; (4 the perceived institutional support; and (5 the perceived support from other supervisors in the centre. The findings have practical implications for human resources management (HRM practices. Human resources management practices such as (a providing deans and other supervisors with training about the importance of work-family programs; (b promoting deans’ training in order to develop transformational leadership skills; or (c increasing institutional support can be useful when implementing a work-family culture in Spanish universities.

  19. Substance abuse In Middle Eastern adolescents living in two different countries: spiritual, cultural, family and personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Taha, Asma; Dee, Vivien

    2014-08-01

    It is estimated that the percentage of students using illicit substances by sixth grade has tripled over the last decade not only in developed countries but in developing countries as well probably due to the transition to a more Western society. Although much has been done to understand the mechanisms underlying substance abuse, few studies have been conducted with minority ethnic and religious groups such as Middle Eastern Youth. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether there are differences in factors contributing to substance abuse in adolescents from Lebanon versus the U.S.A. and to decipher the role of spirituality, religion, and culture among other factors that may influence substance abuse. A correlational cross-sectional design was used with adolescents living in two different countries: Los Angeles, California and Beirut, Lebanon. Muslim adolescents had significantly less rates of alcohol and substance use than Christians in both Lebanon and Los Angeles. More years lived in the U.S.A. increases the likelihood of abuse for both Muslims and Christians. Attachment to God and family was negatively associated with substance abuse. These results among others facilitate a better understanding of the influence of culture, religion, family and personal factors on substance abuse. Culturally sensitive interventions could benefit from the findings of this pilot study.

  20. Environmental, Behavioral, and Cultural Factors That Influence Healthy Eating in Rural Women of Childbearing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Mabry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing recognition of the role nutrition plays in the health of current and future generations, many women struggle to eat healthy. We used the PhotoVoice method to engage 10 rural women in identifying perceived barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in their homes and community. They took 354 photographs, selected and wrote captions for 62 images, and explored influential factors through group conversation. Using field notes and participant-generated captions, the research team categorized images into factors at the individual, relational, community/organizational, and societal levels of a socioecological model. Barriers included limited time, exposure to marketing, and the high cost of food. Facilitators included preparing food in advance and support from non-partners; opportunities to hunt, forage, and garden were also facilitators, which may be amplified in this rural environment. Nutritional interventions for rural women of childbearing age should be multi-component and focus on removing barriers at multiple socioecological levels.

  1. Inhibitors of nuclear factor kappa B cause apoptosis in cultured macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Mannick

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise role of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF- κB in the regulation of cell survival and cell death is still unresolved and may depend on cell type and position in the cell cycle. The aim of this study was to determine if three pharmacologic inhibitors of NF-κB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, N-tosyl-L-lysl chloromethyl ketone and calpain I inhibitor, induce apoptosis in a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 at doses similar to those required for NF-κB inhibition. We found that each of the three inhibitors resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in morphologic indices of apoptosis in unstimulated, LPS-stimulated and TNF-stimulated cells. Lethal doses were consistent with those required for NF- κB inhibition. We conclude that nuclear NF-κB activation may represent an important survival mechanism in macrophages.

  2. Parental, socio and cultural factors associated with adolescents' sports participation in four Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard-Støckel, J; Nielsen, G A; Ibsen, B;

    2011-01-01

    Despite the well-documented health effects of physical activity, few studies focus on the correlates of leisure-time sports and exercise participation. The present study examined correlations between adolescent sports participation and demographic factors, socioeconomic status (SES......) and sociocultural factors. A school-based cross-sectional cluster sample including 6356 Danish fifth- and ninth-grade adolescents from four municipalities were included. Age (younger) and gender (boy) were associated with adolescents' sports participation. Girls were half as likely [odds ratio (OR) 0.49 95......% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.55] to participate in sports than boys. Adolescents were more likely to participate in sports if they perceived their parents as active in exercise or sports. Adolescents with one or two unemployed parents were 0.75 (95% CI: 0.62-0.89) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0...

  3. Environmental, Behavioral, and Cultural Factors That Influence Healthy Eating in Rural Women of Childbearing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Mabry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing recognition of the role nutrition plays in the health of current and future generations, many women struggle to eat healthy. We used the PhotoVoice method to engage 10 rural women in identifying perceived barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in their homes and community. They took 354 photographs, selected and wrote captions for 62 images, and explored influential factors through group conversation. Using field notes and participant-generated captions, the research team categorized images into factors at the individual, relational, community/organizational, and societal levels of a socioecological model. Barriers included limited time, exposure to marketing, and the high cost of food. Facilitators included preparing food in advance and support from non-partners; opportunities to hunt, forage, and garden were also facilitators, which may be amplified in this rural environment. Nutritional interventions for rural women of childbearing age should be multi-component and focus on removing barriers at multiple socioecological levels.

  4. Two Important Factors That Effects Patient Satisfaction In A Public Hospital: Communication And Patient Safety Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Vural, Fisun; AYDIN, Ayşe; FİL, Şükran; Torun, Sebahat; Vural, Birol

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of patient satisfaction in health care services is an important measure of quality service provision. The aim of this study was to determine hospitalized patient satisfaction in a public hospital and the related factors affecting satisfaction. Patient satisfaction survey was applied to 120 hospitalized patients during face to face interviews. The major components of healthcare satisfaction were analysed separately as: the personal characteristics of patients, healthcare staffs...

  5. Explanatory models of mental distress and influencing factors in a multi-cultural setting, Khartoum, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Haugum, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Background: It has been recognized that explanatory models (EMs) of mental distress play an important role in how people perceive causes of mental illness, how these illnesses are presented and where treatment is sought. The main objective of this study was to explore EMs within a non-clinical sample in a low-income and multicultural setting and to identify the most common category of EMs. The secondary objectives were to assess the influence of demographic factors, perceived accessibility of...

  6. Growth factor PDGF-BB stimulates cultured cardiomyocytes to synthesize the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan.

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    Urban Hellman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyaluronan (HA is a glycosaminoglycan located in the interstitial space which is essential for both structural and cell regulatory functions in connective tissue. We have previously shown that HA synthesis is up-regulated in a rat model of experimental cardiac hypertrophy and that cardiac tissue utilizes two different HA synthases in the hypertrophic process. Cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts are two major cell types in heart tissue. The fibroblasts are known to produce HA, but it has been unclear if cardiomyocytes share the same feature, and whether or not the different HA synthases are activated in the different cell types. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study shows, for the first time that cardiomyocytes can produce HA. Cardiomyocytes (HL-1 and fibroblasts (NIH 3T3 were cultivated in absence or presence of the growth factors FGF2, PDGF-BB and TGFB2. HA concentration was quantified by ELISA, and the size of HA was estimated using dynamic light scattering. Cardiomyocytes synthesized HA but only when stimulated by PDGF-BB, whereas fibroblasts synthesized HA without addition of growth factors as well as when stimulated by any of the three growth factors. When fibroblasts were stimulated by the growth factors, reverse dose dependence was observed, where the highest dose induced the least amount of HA. With the exception of TGFB2, a trend of reverse dose dependence of HA size was also observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Co-cultivation of cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts (80%/20% increased HA concentration far more that can be explained by HA synthesis by the two cell types separately, revealing a crosstalk between cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts that induces HA synthesis. We conclude that dynamic changes of the myocardium, such as in cardiac hypertrophy, do not depend on the cardiomyocyte alone, but are achieved when both cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts are present.

  7. Quality management and safety culture in medicine - Do standard quality reports provide insights into the human factor of patient safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischet, Werner; Schusterschitz, Claudia

    2009-12-15

    In 1999 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published the landmark report "To err is human: building a safer healthcare system" highlighting critical deficiencies within the area of patient safety. As a consequence, safety culture evolved as a core component of quality management in medicine. Purpose of the investigation at hand was to find out to what extent this is reflected in standard quality reports issued by German hospitals providing maximum medical care. Reports issued for the year 2006 were analysed with respect to the appearance of indicators for the presence of a safety culture. Results suggest that despite the huge awareness for patient safety caused by the IOM report, the topic of safety culture does not get the anticipated attention within the quality reports. This may indicate that the current requirements for the quality reports do not facilitate transparency when it comes to the human factor of patient safety.

  8. The influence of sociocultural factors on the eating attitudes of Lebanese and Cypriot students: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeni, N; Gharibeh, N; Katsounari, I

    2013-07-01

    The present comparative cross-cultural study aimed to explore the relationship between eating behaviour and sociocultural influences with respect to appearance and body image in female university students from two cultural contexts, namely Cyprus and Lebanon. The Dutch Eating Behavior questionnaire (DEBQ) and the Perceived Sociocultural Influences on Body Image and Body Change Questionnaire were used to assess sociocultural influences and body image, respectively, in 200 students from each country. The results indicated that the Lebanese students were more likely to engage in emotional and external eating and their body image was impacted to a larger extent by sociocultural agents, including media influences, compared to the Cypriot students. Also, a positive relationship was found between emotional and external eating in both cultures. Finally, sociocultural influences correlated positively with external eating only in the Cypriot sample. Culture-specific factors, such as the societal values and norms, as well as the Westernisation history of each country, are discussed as underpinnings for the differences found. These findings are significant for understanding the rise of eating pathology in these two cultures and provide evidence for a need to consider cultural environment when designing public health policies addressing the negative aspects of nutrition transition. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide and nerve growth factor use the proteasome to rescue nerve growth factor-deprived sympathetic neurons cultured from chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przywara, D A; Kulkarni, J S; Wakade, T D; Leontiev, D V; Wakade, A R

    1998-11-01

    Removal of nerve growth factor (NGF) from sympathetic neurons initiates a neuronal death program and apoptosis. We show that pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) prevents apoptosis in NGF-deprived sympathetic neurons. PACAP (100 nM) added to culture medium at the time of plating failed to support neuronal survival. However, in neurons grown for 2 days with NGF and then deprived of NGF, PACAP prevented cell death for the next 24-48 h. Uptake of [3H]norepinephrine ([3H]NE) was used as an index of survival and decreased >50% in NGF-deprived cultures within 24 h. PACAP (1-100 nM) restored [3H]NE uptake to 92 +/- 8% of that of NGF-supported controls. Depolarization-induced [3H]NE release in neurons rescued by PACAP was the same as that in NGF-supported neurons. PACAP rescue was not mimicked by forskolin or 8-bromo-cyclic AMP and was not blocked by the protein kinase A inhibitor Rp-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate. Mobilization of phosphatidylinositol by muscarine failed to support NGF-deprived neurons. Thus, PACAP may use novel signaling to promote survival of sympathetic neurons. The apoptosis-associated caspase CPP32 activity increased approximately fourfold during 6 h of NGF withdrawal (145 +/- 40 versus 38 +/- 17 nmol of substrate cleaved/min/mg of protein) and returned to even below the control level in NGF-deprived, PACAP-rescued cultures (14 +/- 7 nmol/min/mg of protein). Readdition of NGF or PACAP to NGF-deprived cultures reversed CPP32 activation, and this was blocked by lactacystin, a potent and specific inhibitor of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that NGF and PACAP target CPP32 for destruction by the proteasome. As PACAP is a preganglionic neurotransmitter in autonomic ganglia, we propose a novel function for this transmitter as an apoptotic rescuer of sympathetic neurons when the supply of NGF is compromised.

  10. Anion-exchange purification of recombinant factor IX from cell culture supernatant using different chromatography supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daniel A; Passos, Douglas F; Ferraz, Helen C; Castilho, Leda R

    2013-11-01

    Both recombinant and plasma-derived factor IX concentrates are used in replacement therapies for the treatment of haemophilia B. In the present work, the capture step for a recombinant FIX (rFIX) purification process was investigated. Different strong anion-exchange chromatography media (the resins Q Sepharose(®) FF and Fractogel(®) TMAE, the monolith CIM(®) QA and the membrane adsorber Sartobind(®) Q) were tested for their rFIX binding capacity under dynamic conditions. In these experiments, crude supernatant from CHO cells was used, thus in the presence of supernatant contaminants and mimicking process conditions. The highest dynamic binding capacity was obtained for the monolith, which was then further investigated. To study pseudoaffinity elution of functional rFIX with Ca(2+) ions, a design of experiments to evaluate the effects of pH, NaCl and CaCl2 on yield and purification factor was carried out. The effect of pH was not statistically significant, and a combination of no NaCl and 45mM CaCl2 yielded a good purification factor combined with a high yield of active rFIX. Under these conditions, activity yield of rFIX was higher than the mass yield, confirming selective elution of functional, γ-carboxylated rFIX. Scaling-up of this process 8 fold resulted in very similar process performance. Monitoring of the undesired activated FIX (FIXa) revealed that the FIXa/FIX ratio (1.94%) was higher in the eluate than in the loaded sample, but was still within an acceptable range. HCP and DNA clearances were high (1256 and 7182 fold, respectively), indicating that the proposed process is adequate for the intended rFIX capture step. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Global Factor Trade with Differentiated Factor Prices and Factor Intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-kwong Kwok

    2004-01-01

    Relaxing the assumption of internationally identical factor intensity techniques in the HOV model creates two challenges. First, computing actual factor intensity techniques of different countries requires detailed input-output tables and factor usage data, which are not always available. Second, determinants of the factor intensity technique differences across countries need to be identified. This paper explores the role of relative factor price differences in the determination of factor int...

  12. Impact of environmental factors on the culturability and viability of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions encountered in food processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overney, Anaïs; Jacques-André-Coquin, Joséphine; Ng, Patricia; Carpentier, Brigitte; Guillier, Laurent; Firmesse, Olivier

    2017-03-06

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to adhere to and persist on surfaces for months or even years may be responsible for its transmission from contaminated surfaces to food products. Hence the necessity to find effective means to prevent the establishment of L. monocytogenes in food processing environments. The aim of this study was to assess, through a fractional experimental design, the environmental factors that could affect the survival of L. monocytogenes cells on surfaces to thereby prevent the persistence of this pathogen in conditions mimicking those encountered in food processing plants: culture with smoked salmon juice or meat exudate, use of two materials with different hygiene status, biofilm of L. monocytogenes in pure-culture or dual-culture with a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain, application of a drying step after cleaning and disinfection (C&D) and comparison of two strains of L. monocytogenes. Bacterial survival was assessed by culture, qPCR to quantify total cells, and propidium monoazide coupled with qPCR to quantify viable cells and highlight viable but non-culturable (VBNC) cells. Our results showed that failure to apply C&D causes cell persistence on surfaces. Moreover, the sanitation procedure leads only to a loss of culturability and appearance of VBNC populations. However, an additional daily drying step after C&D optimises the effectiveness of these procedures to reduce culturable populations. Our results reinforce the importance to use molecular tools to monitor viable pathogens in food processing plants to avoid underestimating the amounts of cells using only methods based on cell culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Culture Is the Essential Factor in the Translation of Tang Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董陶

    2013-01-01

    Tang poems are the gem of Chinese literature and the precious culture heritage of the Chinese language and the valuable treasure of Chinese culture. Tang Poems in English version could help to introduce the Chinese culture and literature to the whole world. Thus,the translation of Tang Poems is tightly related to the understanding of the background and ideology of the original text. Thus,culture plays a very important role in the translation of Tang Poems.

  14. Factors of Compliance of a Child with Rules in a Russian Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayanova, Larisa F.; Mustafin, Timur R.

    2016-01-01

    The article covers the analysis of the child's psychology compliance with culture rules--the cultural congruence. The description of the technique aimed to detect the cultural congruence of five- to six-year-old children is presented. The technique is made on the basis of the revealed range of rules of a child's and adult's interaction in a social…

  15. Ecological and socio-cultural factors influencing in situ conservation of crop diversity by traditional Andean households in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Milla, Dora; Casas, Alejandro; Torres-Guevara, Juan; Cruz-Soriano, Aldo

    2011-12-06

    The Peruvian Andean region is a main center of plant domestication of the world. There, several tuber species were domesticated and the area lodges one of the most important reservoirs of their varieties and wild relatives. It is also the setting of traditional cultures using and conserving them. However, crop genetic erosion has been reported in the region since several decades ago; therefore, understanding factors influencing both loss and maintenance of crop variation is relevant to design conservation policies. Previous researches have examined factors influencing agrobiodiversity conservation in the region but additional case studies are recognized to be still necessary for a deeper understanding of causes of genetic erosion and for policy design to prevent and remedy it. Our study focused on analyzing (1) variation in richness of traditional varieties of tubers cultivated among households, (2) changes in varieties richness occurred in four consecutive agricultural cycles, and (3) ecological, social, and cultural factors influencing loss and conservation of varieties. Richness of farmer varieties of tuber species cultivated by 28 peasant households was monitored in communities of Cajamarca and Huánuco, Peru during four consecutive agricultural cycles (from 2001 to 2005). In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 of the households with higher reputation as conservationists, in order to document farmers' perception of tubers qualities in ecological, social, economic, technological and culinary aspects and how these influence their decisions of conservation priorities. Traditional varieties were identified according to their local names, which were then confronted among farmers and with scientific catalogues in order to identify synonyms. Based on the information documented, indexes of ecological and socio-cultural factors affecting agricultural practices were designed, and their linear correlations and multivariate relations with varieties richness managed per

  16. Ecological and socio-cultural factors influencing in situ conservation of crop diversity by traditional Andean households in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velásquez-Milla Dora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Peruvian Andean region is a main center of plant domestication of the world. There, several tuber species were domesticated and the area lodges one of the most important reservoirs of their varieties and wild relatives. It is also the setting of traditional cultures using and conserving them. However, crop genetic erosion has been reported in the region since several decades ago; therefore, understanding factors influencing both loss and maintenance of crop variation is relevant to design conservation policies. Previous researches have examined factors influencing agrobiodiversity conservation in the region but additional case studies are recognized to be still necessary for a deeper understanding of causes of genetic erosion and for policy design to prevent and remedy it. Our study focused on analyzing (1 variation in richness of traditional varieties of tubers cultivated among households, (2 changes in varieties richness occurred in four consecutive agricultural cycles, and (3 ecological, social, and cultural factors influencing loss and conservation of varieties. Methods Richness of farmer varieties of tuber species cultivated by 28 peasant households was monitored in communities of Cajamarca and Huánuco, Peru during four consecutive agricultural cycles (from 2001 to 2005. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 of the households with higher reputation as conservationists, in order to document farmers' perception of tubers qualities in ecological, social, economic, technological and culinary aspects and how these influence their decisions of conservation priorities. Traditional varieties were identified according to their local names, which were then confronted among farmers and with scientific catalogues in order to identify synonyms. Based on the information documented, indexes of ecological and socio-cultural factors affecting agricultural practices were designed, and their linear correlations and multivariate

  17. The studying of ukrainian philosophy as the factor of the creation of national culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Валеріївна Шакун

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of Ukrainian philosophy in the system of national culture creation has been investigated. The specificity of Ukrainian philosophy has been discovered through its main mental principles such as: existentiality, national and cultural identity, anthropocentrism, ethnocentrism, autochthonous.  There has been defined the methodology of studying of Ukrainian philosophy as the form of theoretical outlook and the component of national culture. The role of principles of Ukrainian philosophy in adaptation of national culture to global cultural space has been analyzed

  18. CORPORATE CULTURE IN SLOVAK ENTERPRISES AS A FACTOR OF HRM QUALITY - CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lorincová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate culture as a unique set of opinions, value systems and standards of behaviour is specific for each organisation. It can be observed in behaviour, mutual interaction, self-actualisation. It is necessary to familiarize with its principles and individual levels in order to understand this multilateral phenomenon. We want to mention the differences in corporate culture in medium-sized enterprises (up to 250 employees and large businesses (more than 250 employees in Slovakia in the year 2016 using the methodology OCAI. Following the results we define the level of corporate culture as a part of human resource management. Pursuant to the analysis of the sampling unit consisting of 108 medium-sized enterprises we found out that the dominant corporate culture in enterprises nowadays is the clan culture. On the other hand, hierarchical corporate culture is the most common corporate culture in large businesses (41 businesses with the number of employees over 250.

  19. Establishment of a 2-week canine skin organ culture model and its pharmacological modulation by epidermal growth factor and dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramo, Francesca; Pirone, Andrea; Lenzi, Carla; Vannozzi, Iacopo; Della Valle, Maria Federica; Miragliotta, Vincenzo

    2016-09-01

    Although canine skin models are already available as either monocellular or organotypic cultures, they only partly recapitulate normal skin morphological features and function. The objective of this study was to establish a canine serum-free skin organ culture model and verify whether dexamethasone could rescue epidermal growth factor-induced changes. The study of morphological changes as a response to pharmacological substances may indeed help to investigate skin physiology and pathology. Normal skin was obtained from five client-owned dogs subjected to surgical procedures unrelated to dermatological conditions. Two experimental designs were performed: (i) two-week viability of the skin culture; (ii) dexamethasone (DMS) inhibition of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced effects. Serum-free submerged organ cultures were established in Williams' E medium supplemented with penicillin-streptomycin, insulin, hydrocortisone and l-glutamine. General morphological features of skin anatomical structures were well maintained up to day 14, scattered pyknotic nuclei were visible in the epidermis from day 7. Normal keratinocyte differentiation was confirmed by cytokeratin (K) 10, K14 and loricrin immunostaining. Epidermal thickness did not decrease throughout the study. A decrease in keratinocyte proliferation was observed at day 7 and 14. Treatment with EGF induced both keratinocyte proliferation and thickening of the epidermis; both responses were counteracted by DMS. Treatment with EGF increased the length of epithelial tongues at the edge of the skin explants; this effect was further enhanced by DMS supplementation. Our findings demonstrate the potential use of a full-thickness canine skin organ culture model for the study of skin physiology and pharmacological response to exogenous compounds, especially in the field of re-epithelialisation and keratinization disorders.

  20. Factores que limitan la participación cultural. Una mirada desde la economía de la cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Aguado Quintero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En su trabajo seminal Baumol y Bowen (1966 se preguntan ¿por qué la participación cultural se sitúa en un reducido segmento de la población total? En este artículo se rastrean las respuestas ofrecidas al interrogante anterior a partir de una cuidadosa revisión de la literatura teórica y empírica producida desde la economía de la cultura. La principal conclusión del artículo es que la participación cultural está determinada en forma conjunta, tanto por las variables típicas de los modelos de expectativas racionales –‘adicción racional’ y ‘aprendizaje a través del consumo’–, como por un entramado de factores vinculados más con aspectos institucionales y tecnológicos que condicionan la valoración social y económica de la participación cultural. El artículo contribuye a la literatura de la economía de la cultura al integrar el enfoque tradicional de entender los determinantes de la participación cultural con factores que en este artículo se denominan estructurales, sobre los cuales se ha puesto poco énfasis para ponerlos en el centro del debate de la política cultural para incentivar la participación.

  1. Influence of risk factors and cultural assets on Latino adolescents' trajectories of self-esteem and internalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul Richard; Rose, Roderick A; Bacallao, Martica

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we examined longitudinal, person-centered trajectories of acculturation, internalizing symptoms, and self-esteem in 349 Latino adolescents. We compared acculturation measures (time in the US, culture-of-origin involvement, US cultural involvement, for both parents and adolescents); acculturation stressors (perceived discrimination, acculturation conflicts); and family dynamics (parent-adolescent conflict, familism). Results indicated that, over time, Latino adolescents' internalizing problems decreased and their self-esteem increased. However, we showed that increased length of time living in the US was significantly related to lower self-esteem among adolescents. Parent-adolescent conflict was a strong risk factor, which not only directly heightened internalizing symptoms and lowered self-esteem, but also mediated the effects of acculturation conflicts and perceived discrimination on these outcomes. Our findings revealed familism as a cultural asset associated with fewer internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Internalizing symptoms were also minimized by the adolescent's involvement in the US culture whereas bicultural adolescents with high culture-of-origin involvement reported higher self-esteem. We discussed the limitations and implications of this study for future research and practice.

  2. Acculturation and adjustment in Latino adolescents: how cultural risk factors and assets influence multiple domains of adolescent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul; Buchanan, Rachel L; Bacallao, Martica L

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among risk factors, cultural assets, and Latino adolescent mental health outcomes. We extend past research by using a longitudinal design and evaluating direct and moderated acculturation effects across a range of internalizing, externalizing, and academic engagement outcomes. The sample consisted of 281 Latino/a youths and one of their parents in metropolitan, small town, and rural areas within North Carolina and Arizona. The length of time the adolescent was in the U.S. was positively related to humiliation, aggression, and school bonding. Adolescent U.S. cultural involvement and parent culture of origin involvement were not significantly related to adolescent mental health or school bonding. Parent U.S. involvement had an inverse association with adolescent social problems, aggression, and anxiety. Adolescent culture of origin involvement was positively related to adolescent self-esteem 1 year later. Inverse relationships were found for the link between adolescent culture of origin involvement and hopelessness, social problems, and aggression 1 year later. Implications for prevention programming and policy development are discussed.

  3. VERSHINA – A POLISH VILLAGE IN SIBERIA. FACTORS INFLUENCING LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE UNDER CHANGING SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Głuszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses factors influencing language maintenance under changing social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Polish minority in Siberia. The village of Vershina was founded in 1910 by Polish voluntary settlers from Little Poland.During its first three decades Vershina preserved Polish language,traditions, farming methods and machines and also the Roman Catholic religion. The changes came to a village in taiga in the1930s. Vershina lost its ethnocultural homogeneity because of Russian and Buryat workers in the local kolkhoz. Nowadays the inhabitants of Vershina regained their minority rights: religious, educational and cultural. However, during the years of sovietization and ateization, their culture and customs became much more similar to other Siberian villages. Polish language in Vershina is under strong influence of Russian, which is the language of education,administration, and surrounding villages. Children from Polish-Russian families become monolingual and use Polish very rare, only asa school subject and in contacts with grandparents. The process of abandoning mother tongue in Vershina is growing rapidly. However,there are some factors which may hinder the actual changes:the activity of local Polish organisations and Roman Catholic parish as well as folk group “Jazhumbek”.

  4. Association of regional and cultural factors with the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in the Mexican population: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Montoya, José; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Sanin, Luz Helena; Pérez-Barbosa, Lorena; Trejo-Valdivia, Belem; Santana, Natalia; Goycochea-Robles, Maria Victoria; Cardiel, Mario Humberto; Riega-Torres, Janeth; Maradiaga, Marco; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris

    2015-03-01

    The overall estimated prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Mexico is 1.6%, but there are major variations in different geographic areas of the country. This study aimed to determine the impact of individual and regional variables on the geographic distribution of RA in Mexico. This multilevel analysis used data from a cross-sectional study that investigated the prevalence of RA among 19,213 individuals older than 18 years throughout 5 geographic regions in Mexico. Logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of RA, including individual and regional variables as well as cultural factors. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined. The prevalence of RA varied from 0.77% to 2.8% across the 5 regions. Individual factors associated with RA were sex (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.74-3.07), previous medical diagnosis of RA ( OR 3.3, 95%CI: 2919–5.1 [corrected]), disability (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.48-2.93), and the 56- to 65-year age group (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.08-3.74). The regional factor of speaking an indigenous language had an OR of 2.27 (95% CI, 1.13-4.55). Various individual and regional factors were associated with variations in the prevalence of RA in the Mexican population.

  5. Brewing Business vs Brewers' Identities (Culture - Equilibrium Factor between European Identity and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Frosin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available If ever rough or severe, this title got right to the bottom of the question of the cultural diversity and the world nation’s identity, it points at the very truth: the businessmen and the financial oligarchy think they can get away with anything! They don’t give a damn about culture of the European or every other identity… We choose an example about how they make fun of these very serious questions, and we gave our commentary on this difficult (or tricky? problem. A text enacted by UNESCO contradicts itself because of a blunder, that we shall reveal in our report. Finally, they betray themselves, since they speak of (just for a laugh… cultural goods, cultural industry or cultural products and so on… Naturally, a question arises: do they have anything to do with the Culture?!

  6. Implementation and adoption of mechanical patient lift equipment in the hospital setting: The importance of organizational and cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Myers, Douglas J; Pompeii, Lisa A; Lipscomb, Hester J

    2011-12-01

    Work focused on understanding implementation and adoption of interventions designed to prevent patient-handling injuries in the hospital setting is lacking in the injury literature and may be more insightful than more traditional evaluation measures. Data from focus groups with health care workers were used to describe barriers and promoters of the adoption of patient lift equipment and a shift to a "minimal-manual lift environment" at two affiliated hospitals. Several factors influencing the adoption of the lift equipment and patient-handling policy were noted: time, knowledge/ability, staffing, patient characteristics, and organizational and cultural aspects of work. The adoption process was complex, and considerable variability by hospital and across units was observed. The use of qualitative data can enhance the understanding of factors that influence implementation and adoption of interventions designed to prevent patient-handling injuries among health care workers. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cultural property, museums and Tourism: analysis of the public factor in the Museum of Caceres (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Marcos Arévalo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work exposes the interim analysis of the results obtained so far on the ongoing research carried on over the Social Anthropology final Master´s degree project at the University of Extremadura entitled "Analysis of public factor at the Cáceres’ Museum". The research aims to establish a profile of each one of the Caceres Museum Visitors and also to aknowledge the perceptions, representation and the connection the Museum neighborhood residents have towards the institution with the idea of using this previously mentioned gathered information in order to contribute to the planification of activities and to generate links between the Museum and its public. In order to accomplish this objective, Anthropology own data recollection techniques such as the participant observation and surveys have been used at the first instance and in-depth interviews at the later stage.

  8. Cryopreservation of Quercus suber and Quercus ilex embryonic axes: in vitro culture, desiccation and cooling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benito, M Elena; Prieto, Roberto-Moreno; Herradon, Esther; Martin, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    This study examines different factors included in the cryopreservation protocols for Quercus ilex and Q. suber embryonic axes. In vitro incubation temperature played an important role in the appropriate development of Q. ilex axes, as 15 degrees C was superior to 25 degrees C. Q. suber axes proved to be more sensitive to desiccation and cooling. Poor survival (35%) was observed when axes were included into cryovials and then in liquid nitrogen, and none when immersed in sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (-210 degrees C). Q. ilex axes showed poorly organised development in vitro (c. 50% of non-cooled axes showed shoot development). However, c. 80% survival was observed after cryopreservation (either in liquid nitrogen or sub-cooled liquid nitrogen at 0.34 g water / g dry weight), of which c. 15% showed shoot development.

  9. Socio-cultural factors and marriage among Jenukuruba and Kadukuruba tribes of Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutharayappa, R

    1993-03-01

    This study examines the differences in marriage, multiple marriage, and mate selection and factors influencing divorce, separation, and remarriage among the Jenukuruba and Kadukuruba tribes of Karnataka state, India. The sample includes 600 tribal households for each tribe. 1133 ever married women are included in in-depth interviews. Findings indicate that both tribes have a low age at marriage for males and females, and both sanction divorce, separation, and remarriage with the consent of spouses. Virginity is not valued among tribals. Marriage age is dependent upon the age at puberty. The tribes exhibit sociocultural differences. Elopement marriages are common among the Jenukuruba, and arranged marriage is prevalent among the Kadukuruba. There are more nuclear families among the Jenukuruba. 83% of the Kadukuruba and 97% of the Jenukuruba belong to nuclear families. The custom that men and women must not eat cooked food at the house of their married sister or brother and other taboos reinforce the formation of families separate from Jenukuruba kin. Consanguineous groups have a higher incidence of divorce, separation, and remarriage than nonconsanguineous groups. Separation is more common among the Jenukuruba. Divorce is more common among the Kadukuruba. 25% of ever married Jenukuruba women and 16% of ever married Kadukuruba women are married twice. Second marriages are common among women who eloped the first time. 77.3% of Jenukuruba tribes have consanguineous marriages, while only 22.83% of Kadukuruba do so. The Kadukuruba identify descent through the male line and have many clan or patri-sib groups. Cross cousin marriages are preferred among both tribes. The Jenukuruba avoid parallel cousin marriages, unless on the maternal side and with the blessings of the gods. The Jenukuruba do not have much, if any clan organization. Knowledge of blood relatives, if known at all, does not go back more than one or two generations. The conclusion is drawn that tribes living

  10. International projects and cross-cultural adjustments of British expatriates in Middle East: A qualitative investigation of influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Konanahalli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased globalisation within the British AEC (Architectural Engineering and Construction sector has increased the need for companies to transfer their staff to manage their overseas operations. To be able to perform abroad, expatriates must harmonise themselves to the conditions prevailing in the host country. These include getting accustomed to living, working and interacting with the host country nationals. The process is commonly referred to as ‘cross-cultural adjustment’. Various factors influence the process of adjustment. In order to identify these issues, a qualitative study was undertaken, which mainly comprised of a comprehensive literature review and interviews with British expatriates working on international AEC assignments in Middle Eastern countries. The current study focuses on exploring the role of the organisation, host country, work related factors and their ability to dictate a British expatriate's adjustment. The findings suggest that success of expatriation does not entirely rest on an expatriate's ability but also on organisational support and assistance that expatriates receive prior to and during the assignment. Organisational factors such as, selection mechanisms, job design, training, logistical and social support, mentoring, etc., influence various aspects of expatriate adjustment. Striking cultural contrasts between British and Arab culture both in work and non work situations also dictate the level of support required by the expatriate, suggesting that expatriate relocation to less developed, remote or politically unstable regions, demands additional support and consideration by the parent company. This study is relevant to the AEC companies employing British expatriates, who need to be cognisant of the issues highlighted above to make rational and informed decisions when handling international assignments in the Middle East.

  11. International projects and cross-cultural adjustments of British expatriates in Middle East: A qualitative investigation of influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Konanahalli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Increased globalisation within the British AEC (Architectural Engineering and Construction sector has increased the need for companies to transfer their staff to manage their overseas operations. To be able to perform abroad, expatriates must harmonise themselves to the conditions prevailing in the host country. These include getting accustomed to living, working and interacting with the host country nationals. The process is commonly referred to as ‘cross-cultural adjustment’. Various factors influence the process of adjustment. In order to identify these issues, a qualitative study was undertaken, which mainly comprised of a comprehensive literature review and interviews with British expatriates working on international AEC assignments in Middle Eastern countries. The current study focuses on exploring the role of the organisation, host country, work related factors and their ability to dictate a British expatriate's adjustment. The findings suggest that success of expatriation does not entirely rest on an expatriate's ability but also on organisational support and assistance that expatriates receive prior to and during the assignment. Organisational factors such as, selection mechanisms, job design, training, logistical and social support, mentoring, etc., influence various aspects of expatriate adjustment. Striking cultural contrasts between British and Arab culture both in work and non work situations also dictate the level of support required by the expatriate, suggesting that expatriate relocation to less developed, remote or politically unstable regions, demands additional support and consideration by the parent company. This study is relevant to the AEC companies employing British expatriates, who need to be cognisant of the issues highlighted above to make rational and informed decisions when handling international assignments in the Middle East.

  12. Factors influencing voluntary premarital medical examination in Zhejiang province, China: a culturally-tailored health behavioral model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Premarital medical examination (PME) compliance rate has dropped drastically since it became voluntary in China in 2003. This study aimed to establish a prediction model to be a theoretic framework for analyzing factors affecting PME compliance in Zhejiang province, China. Methods A culturally-tailored health behavioral model combining the Health Behavioral Model (HBM) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) was established to analyze the data from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey (n = 2,572) using the intercept method at the county marriage registration office in 12 counties from Zhejiang in 2010. Participants were grouped by high (n = 1,795) and low (n = 777) social desirability responding tendency (SDRT) by Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS). A structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to evaluate behavioral determinants for their influences on PME compliance in both high and low SDRT groups. Results 69.8% of the participants had high SDRT and tended to overly report benefits and underreport barriers, which may affect prediction accuracy on PME participation. In the low SDRT group, the prediction model showed the most influencing factor on PME compliance was behavioral intention, with standardized structural coefficients (SSCs) being 0.75 (P social environmental factors. The verified prediction model was tested to be an effective theoretic framework for the prediction of factors affecting voluntary PME compliance. It also should be noted that internationally available behavioral theories and models need to be culturally tailored to adapt to particular populations. This study has provided new insights for establishing a theoretical model to understand health behaviors in China. PMID:24972866

  13. Social, Cultural and Linguistic Factors Affecting the Teaching of Physical Education in the Inner City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Harold

    The work of the inner city student differs markedly from that of the middle class teacher, resulting in communication problems between teachers and students. The major problem appears to be the clash of cultures that is sustained by the dissimilar value system of the two groups. For instance, the cultural environment of most inner city students is…

  14. Racial and Ethnic Cultural Factors in the Process of Acceptance of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizock, Lauren; Russinova, Zlatka

    2013-01-01

    Acceptance of mental illness is essential to promoting recovery and is uniquely impacted by issues of culture, race, and ethnicity. Qualitative case narrative methodology was used to identify themes related to the cultural facilitators and barriers in the acceptance process. Five participant narratives are presented to assist practitioners in…

  15. A cross-cultural comparison of brand extension success factors: A meta-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henseler, Jörg; Horvath, Csilla; Sarstedt, Marko; Zimmermann, Lorenz

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we examine the influence of cross-cultural traits on brand extension success. Drawing on prior brand extension studies from different countries, we conduct a comprehensive meta-analysis, complementing the data sets with Hofstede's cultural dimensions values. Our results show that al

  16. Corporate Culture and Employee Mentality Capital Agree with Influencing Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    In the enterprise development process, many companies put on the corporate culture and employee knowledge of psychological capital to stay in their respective functional areas, and can not really establish a humanistic ideas, nor will it recognize employees of psychological capital in the building of enterprise culture in the transmission and…

  17. Expression and purification of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in fed-batch culture of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Kyu; Choi, Jun-Ha; Lee, Seung-Bae; Lee, Sang-Mahn; Oh, Jae-Wook

    2014-03-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a cytokine that has multiple roles in hematopoietic cells such as the regulation of proliferation and differentiation. Here, we describe fed-batch culture, refolding, and purification of rhG-CSF. The suitability of urea or sarcosine for solubilizing inclusion bodies (IBs) was tested. It was observed that urea is more efficient for solubilizing and refolding IBs than sarcosine is. The purity of rhG-CSF and the removal percentage of the rhG-CSF isoforms during purification were increased by pH 5.5 precipitation. The purity and the yield of purified rhG-CSF were 99% and 0.5 g of protein per liter culture broth, respectively. Our protocols of recombinant protein purification using ion exchange chromatography and semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography of pH-precipitated refolded solution may be informative to the industrial scale production of biopharmaceuticals.

  18. Dexamethasone effects on creatine kinase activity and insulin-like growth factor receptors in cultured muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Stuart, Charles A.; Huls, M. H.; Sams, Clarence F.; Cintron, Nitza M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of dexamethasone on the activity of creatine kinase (CK) and the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) binding were investigated using skeletal- and cardiac-muscle-derived cultured cell lines (mouse, C2C12; rat, L6 and H9c2). It was found that, in skeletal muscle cells, dexamethasone treatment during differentiation of skeletal-muscle cells caused dose-dependent increases in CK activity and increases in the degree of myotube formation, whereas cardiac cells (H9c2) exhibited very low CK activity during culture or dexamethasone treatment. Results for IGF-I binding were similar in all three cell lines. The IGF-I binding to dexamethasone-treated cells (50 nM for 24 hr on the day prior to confluence) resulted in an increased number of available binding sites, with no effect on the binding affinities.

  19. OCT4 and downstream factors are expressed in human somatic urogenital epithelia and in culture of epididymal spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audouze, Karine Marie Laure; Brunak, Søren; Kristensen, DM;

    2010-01-01

    promoter. In culture, human primary epididymis cells formed spheres that continued to express the investigated genes for at least 20 days. Transcriptomic analysis of cultured cells showed up-regulation of CD29, CD44, and CD133 that are normally associated with sphere-forming cancer stem cells. Furthermore......The transcription factor OCT4 plays a crucial role in the earliest differentiation of the mammalian embryo and in self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. However, it remains controversial whether this gene is also expressed in somatic tissues. Here we use a combination of RT-PCR on whole......, stimulation with retinoic acid resulted in down-regulation of OCT4 expression, however, without multilineage differentiation. Our results show that OCT4 and associated genes are expressed in somatic epithelial cells from the urogenital tract and that these cells can form spheres, a general marker of stem cell...

  20. Dexamethasone effects on creatine kinase activity and insulin-like growth factor receptors in cultured muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Stuart, Charles A.; Huls, M. H.; Sams, Clarence F.; Cintron, Nitza M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of dexamethasone on the activity of creatine kinase (CK) and the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) binding were investigated using skeletal- and cardiac-muscle-derived cultured cell lines (mouse, C2C12; rat, L6 and H9c2). It was found that, in skeletal muscle cells, dexamethasone treatment during differentiation of skeletal-muscle cells caused dose-dependent increases in CK activity and increases in the degree of myotube formation, whereas cardiac cells (H9c2) exhibited very low CK activity during culture or dexamethasone treatment. Results for IGF-I binding were similar in all three cell lines. The IGF-I binding to dexamethasone-treated cells (50 nM for 24 hr on the day prior to confluence) resulted in an increased number of available binding sites, with no effect on the binding affinities.

  1. In vitro culture of immature embryos of Cinnamomum tamala Nees.--the role of different factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Madhabi S; Jamir, N S; Deb, Chitta Ranjan

    2014-10-01

    Seed characteristics and in vitro culture of C. tamala embryos were studied. Embryos desiccated below 50% (fresh weight) exhibited poor morphogenetic response in vitro and confirmed the recalcitrant nature of seeds. The immature embryos of various developmental ages (4-16 week after flowering, WAF) were cultured on different strengths of MS medium. Morphogenesis responses were recorded after 10 days of culture. The best culture responses were achieved from the immature embryos of 12 WAF on MS medium with sucrose (3%, w/v), polyvinyl pyrollidone (100 mg L(-1)) and benzyl adenine (12 microM). Under optimum condition -60% explants responded; and -7.3 shoots buds developed per explants after 35 days of culture initiation. The shoot buds could be converted into micro-shoots on MS medium with sucrose (3%) and kinetin (3 microM). About 5.3 micro-shoots/shoot buds sprouted per sub-culture. The micro-shoots were rooted by maintaining them on MS medium with alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (3 microM) where within 6-8 wk of culture -8-10 roots developed. The rooted plantlets were acclimatized in vitro before they were transferred to community potting mix and maintained in the poly-shade ca 75% shading. The transplants registered -70% survival after two months of transfer.

  2. Pop-culture as a factor of Socialization: the Opportunities for Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I V Trotsuk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article offers the systematic analysis of the issues related to the sociological research of popular culture at theoretical and empirical levels. The former level of analysis deals with the definitions of pop-culture in comparison with the closely related concept of mass culture as well as interdisciplinary endeavours to conceptualize the range of topics related to popular culture. Furthermore, the functions of popular culture as well as its socialization opportunities (both positive and negative are outlined. As far as the empirical analysis is concerned, the above-mentioned issues have yet received little attention. The sociological analysis tools usually comprise nothing but youth leisure preferences and value orientations theme-based modules which are not infrequently supposed to confirm the negative influence of television on socialization. The authors put forward another approach to the empirical study of the impact of popular culture with the focus on the analysis of identification models represented in «texts» of popular culture. An example illustrating the application of the given approach (the content-analysis of the youth magazine «Molotok» is provided in this very item.

  3. Synthesis of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 in vitro in human articular cartilage cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eviatar, Tamar; Kauffman, Hannah; Maroudas, Alice

    2003-02-01

    To quantify the rate of synthesis of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) by in vitro cultures of normal and osteoarthritic (OA) human articular cartilage. Levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in media from in vitro cultures of human cartilage were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). IGFBPs were characterized by immunoblots and ligand blots. Ultrafiltration and RIA analysis of synovial fluid (SF) samples and washings of cartilage samples ex vivo were used to calculate partition coefficients and to estimate the amount of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in cartilage in vivo. OA cartilage synthesized 150 ng of IGFBP-3 per gm of cartilage per day, compared with 50 ng synthesized by normal cartilage. The surface zone of normal cartilage produced more IGFBP-3 than did the deep zone. Immunoblots and ligand blots confirmed the presence of IGFBP-3. IGFBP-3 synthesis was stimulated by exogenous IGF-1. No freshly synthesized IGF-1 was detected. The quantities of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 present ex vivo were 11.3 and 78.7 ng/gm of cartilage in normal cartilage and 21.6 and 225.4 ng/gm in OA cartilage. The results show that while IGFBP-3 is synthesized in explant cultures, IGF-1 is not. The rate of IGFBP-3 synthesis is 3 times higher in OA than in normal cartilage. Both IGFBP-3 and IGF-1 penetrate into cartilage from SF in vivo. We estimate that the quantities of IGFBP-3 produced in culture by human cartilage are small compared with the amount supplied in the form of "small complexes" from the circulation. The high value of the partition coefficient of IGFBP-3 implies binding to the matrix.

  4. Organizational culture - a factor of potential positive influence on the collectivities of any organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Andreea MIHALACHE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture is a relatively new and rapidly expanding concept, but partly invisible and therefore very difficult analyze, offering in the same time the possibility to carry out complex studies. This paper was drawn up into two different organizations - Pentalog Romania, an IT service provider, and House of Dracula Hotel, a tourist unit - and it is based on a research carried out in order to highlight the importance of organizational culture within any entity. Considered a powerful strategic tool, the organizational culture can be used for focusing companies and their staff on joint goals, for mobilizing the initiatives, ensuring loyalty and facilitating intercommunication.

  5. Autonomy and Submissiveness as Cognitive and Cultural Factors Influencing Eating Disorders in Italy and Sweden: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sassaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the correlation between cultural and psychological factors in relation to predicting eating disorders in two different non-clinical Italian (n = 61 and Swedish (n = 31 female populations, thought to have different cultures and lifestyles. The Swedish sample would reflect an emancipated model of women pursuing autonomy and freedom but also an ideal of thinness, while the Italian sample would reflect a difficult transition from traditional submissiveness to modern autonomy. Both groups completed self-report instruments assessing cultural values (e.g., collectivism and individualism and features of eating disorders (e.g., drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, parental criticism and perfectionism. Swedish women were found to display higher levels of bulimia, perfectionism, and individualism than Italian women, while regression analysis showed that in the Italian sample high levels of collectivism were correlated with measures of EDs. The results support the hypothesis that EDs are linked with both modern values of autonomy, independence and emancipation, and situations of cultural transition in which women are simultaneously exposed to traditional models of submission and opportunities for emancipation and autonomy.

  6. Exposing the culture of silence: Inhibiting factors in the prevention, treatment, and mitigation of sexual abuse in the Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, Rohan D; Quinn, Camille R; Alexis, Jicinta M

    2017-04-01

    This article features a study that explored the presence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including childhood sexual abuse and neglect, among women associated with Partnership for Peace (PfP), the first and only culturally adapted domestic violence diversion program for men in the Eastern Caribbean. Within a multiyear evaluative study that assessed the impact of the PfP intervention in reducing domestic violence in Grenada in the West Indies, life-history interviews were collected from a subsample of women (N=9) associated with men enrolled in the PfP program between 2009 and 2011. We found that the exposure to sexual abuse and neglect during childhood was evident in the histories of the women. Most perpetrators were trusted family or community members who suffered from a common set of behavioral patterns, most prominently alcohol use. Our findings reflect an evidence-based connection, as one causative factor, of a culture of silence that is related to child sexual abuse and its management. The apparent lasting effects of these traumatic childhood exposures reflect cycles of abuse in the life histories collected during the domestic violence evaluation study. Our study identified three key structural deficiencies (insufficient research, ineffective policy, and lack of public-health interventions) and one embedded cultural norm (the culture of silence) that together "inhibit current attempts to address ACEs as a means of curbing domestic violence in the Caribbean." Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Autonomy and Submissiveness as Cognitive and Cultural Factors Influencing Eating Disorders in Italy and Sweden: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassaroli, Sandra; Veronese, Guido; Nevonen, Lauri; Fiore, Francesca; Centorame, Franceso; Favaretto, Ettore; Ruggiero, Giovanni Maria

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the correlation between cultural and psychological factors in relation to predicting eating disorders in two different non-clinical Italian (n = 61) and Swedish (n = 31) female populations, thought to have different cultures and lifestyles. The Swedish sample would reflect an emancipated model of women pursuing autonomy and freedom but also an ideal of thinness, while the Italian sample would reflect a difficult transition from traditional submissiveness to modern autonomy. Both groups completed self-report instruments assessing cultural values (e.g., collectivism and individualism) and features of eating disorders (e.g., drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, parental criticism and perfectionism). Swedish women were found to display higher levels of bulimia, perfectionism, and individualism than Italian women, while regression analysis showed that in the Italian sample high levels of collectivism were correlated with measures of EDs. The results support the hypothesis that EDs are linked with both modern values of autonomy, independence and emancipation, and situations of cultural transition in which women are simultaneously exposed to traditional models of submission and opportunities for emancipation and autonomy.

  8. ¿Especies náufragas: patrimonio cultural y factor de desarrollo económico y social?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván J. Rodríguez Aguilar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Con su sentencia del año 2007, a través de la cual se puso fin a una disputa jurídica de muchos años en torno a lo que se presume son los restos del galeón San José, la Corte Suprema de Justicia de Colombia resolvió dar protección al patrimonio cultural, histórico, artístico y arqueológico de Colombia. Se asegura que en el mar Caribe Colombiano se encuentran sumergidos más de mil galeones, los cuales, según la ley colombiana, son considerados especies náufragas con valor cultural, histórico, artístico y arqueológico. En el año 2001, la UNESCO adoptó la Convención sobre la Protección del Patrimonio Cultural Subacuático con el propósito, entre otros, de que los Estados pudieran mejorar la protección de su patrimonio cultural subacuático, tales como los galeones sumergidos hace cientos de años en el mar Caribe Colombiano. Una forma como los Estados pueden proteger su patrimonio cultural subacuático es mediante la organización de museos in situ a través de los cuales se puede generar desarrollo económico y social. Mediante del presente ensayo se pretende demostrar la posibilidad de que el patrimonio cultural subacuático puede ser una factor de desarrollo económico y social.

  9. Revisiting the IFN-γ release assay: Whole blood or PBMC cultures? - And other factors of influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Sofie Bruun; Emnéus, Jenny; Wolff, Anders; Jungersen, Gregers

    2016-07-01

    The interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) is a widely used test for the presence of a cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in vitro. This measure is used to test for infection with intracellular pathogens or for validating vaccine efficacy, and it is a widely used test for both human as well as cattle. However, there is no consensus whether to use whole blood cultures or purified PBMCs for the assay, and both cell populations are being used and results compared. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare different culture settings using immune cells from previously vaccinated calves, and to shed light on external factors that could influence the read out in terms of IFN-γ levels. It was found that optimal culture conditions varied between individual animals; when polyclonal activated, cells from whole blood cultures were most responsive, but when activated specifically, the optimal cell concentration/population varied with whole blood, 10×10(6)cells/ml PBMC and 5×10(6)cells/ml PBMC being the highest performing conditions. A further investigation of the distribution of cell populations in PBMCs compared to whole blood was conducted, and a significant (pcultures from five calves. Six plates (a-f) were tested and no significant difference in absolute levels of IFN-γ was detected in the six plates when cells were polyclonal and specifically activated. However, we observed a significant (pculture population, the concentration of cells being cultured, and the plastic ware used for the in vitro culture. These findings stress the importance of documenting the precise assay conditions when publishing results of in vitro IFN-γ release assays.

  10. THE NIGHT OF MUSEUMS - A BOOST FACTOR FOR THE CULTURAL DIMENSION OF TOURISM IN BUCHAREST

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniela Dumbraveanu; Anca Tudoricu; Ana Craciun

    2014-01-01

      The Night of Bucharest Museums has initially been a quite isolated, museum focussed and rather individualistic event which has progressively developed over the past ten years into a cultural process...

  11. The Role of Cultural Factors in Chinese non-English Majors' EFL Learning and Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红英; 谢秋恩

    2007-01-01

    This article aims at the discussion of cultural interferences in foreign language teaching and learning for Chinese non-English majors. It also calls for more attention from teachers, textbook compilers, and students themselves.

  12. Web-culture as a factor of company’s competitiveness enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Illiashenko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to analyze the role and place of Web-culture in the sphere of competitiveness as a component of intellectual capital of the active organization which works in the Internet environment. The results of the analysis. Web-culture of the organization is considered by the author as a set of knowledge, skills, experience, beliefs, behavioral characteristics and relationships of staff, motivation of their behavior, organization and management, whic...

  13. Comparative Study of English and Chinese Taboos in Recent Times by Social Cultural Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宜华

    2014-01-01

    A taboo is something you should avoid doing or saying because a society thinks it is offensive, embarrassing or wrong.Different cultures do not all agree on what taboo is and what should be tabooed in a given context.Both Chinese and English have taboos on such things as sex,death, religion, superstition and so forth, but they follow different cultural norms.This thesis incorporates some anthropological and sociolinguistic ideas to analyze linguistic taboos in Chinese and English.

  14. Nurses' perceptions of and factors promoting patient safety culture in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Emine; Baykal, Ulku; Intepeler, Seyda Seren; Altuntas, Serap

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive and cross-sectional study included 561 nurses in hospitals located in Istanbul, Turkey. The Patient Safety Questionnaire was used for data collection. The type of hospital and the amount of education nurses obtained about patient safety and quality improvement were positively associated with patient safety culture. Conversely, the type of work unit negatively affected workers' behaviors and adverse event reporting in terms of patient safety culture.

  15. Effect of Organizational Culture Factors on Knowledge Management Processes Implementation in Technology & Deputy Tax Planning Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Rahimian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was a case study to evaluate the effect of organizational culture on knowledge management processes implementation in Technology & Deputy Tax Planning Agency was done by Survey Method. Population of the study was experts in Technology & Deputy Tax planning of the organization. Research tools included two questionnaires: the organizational culture profile and the processes of knowledge management. The first questionnaire has surveyed the seven components of organizational culture (competitiveness, social responsibility, supportiveness, innovation, emphasis on rewards, performance orientation, and stability. The second has explored six processes such as creation, capture, organization, storage, dissemination and application of knowledge. The results of this research showed that according to the experts the components of organizational culture and knowledge management were in the intermediate level. Between each of the seven components of organizational culture was 70% positive and significant relationship with knowledge management processes. Also, among each of the seven components of organizational culture was positive and significant relationship with knowledge management processes. Regression analysis gave the same result that only two components of social responsibility and performance orientation in predicting the changing role of knowledge management processes have been effective.

  16. Empresas de Base Cultural y Creativa: Identificación y Clasificación de sus Factores Críticos de Desempeño (Culture and creative based companies: identifying and classifying their critical performance factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Podestá

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El sector de las industrias culturales y creativas ha venido generando un interés creciente en la economía productiva; es por esto que la relación entre economía y cultura ocupa hoy un lugar predominante, especialmente por las altas inversiones que esta industria requiere, aunadas a las significativas ganancias que reporta. Este artículo es el resultado de un estudio realizado por la Universidad EAFIT sobre el mencionado sector, y responde a la necesidad de conocer mejor el emprendimiento en industrias que se caracterizan por conjugar la creatividad y la cultura. El estudio permitió identificar los factores críticos de desempeño que hacen que estas industrias sean viables y cumplan sus objetivos. Los resultados sirven como referente para desarrollar un marco conceptual y pedagógico dirigido, en principio, a la formación de profesionales en el campo de las empresas culturales y creativas, y se suma a los estudios que se han conducido y continúan haciéndose alrededor de este particular sector del emprendimiento empresarial.   ABSTRACT The culture and creative industry sector has generated a growing interest into productive economies; thus the relationship between economy and culture is highly regarded today due to the high investment required and the high yields resulting from this sector. This paper resulted from a research by the EAFIT university about this sector and answers the need to better known entrepreneurship in industries based in both creativity and culture. We were able to identify critical performance factors that made these industries viable and reach their goals. Results can be used to develop a conceptual and pedagogical frame to form professionals able to work in them, and also adds to previous and ongoing knowledge developed for this particular entrepreneurial sector.

  17. Assessment of Various Factors Involved in the Tissue Culture System of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaukat ALI; XUE Qing-zhong; ZHANG Xian-yin

    2004-01-01

    To optimize conditions for an efficient embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration from mature seeds of japonica rice cultivar Xiushui 11 and indica cultivar XC95, different factors such as plant growth regulators, casein hydrolysate,carbohydrate source and concentration, and various gelation conditions including gel type for callus induction and phyta gel concentration for shoot regeneration were studied in detail to determine their role in the system. Overall, induction of embryogenic callus in case of Xiushui 11 was the most efficient (67.2%) in the media supplemented with 2 mg/L 2,4-D, 3% sucrose and 0.8%agar while in case of XC95, 2 mg/L of 2,4-D combined with 0.5 mg/L of BAP and NAA generated the best result (61.2%). Inclusion of 0.3% agarose (pure form) or phyta gel further enhanced the callus induction efficiency (80%) in Xiusui 11. Higher concentration (300-500 mg/L) of casein hydrolysate was found to significantly inhibit the browning of calli in XC95. Role of cytokinin and phyta gel concentration was critical for shoot regeneration in both classes of rice. Increased strength of phyta gel was observed to enhance the shoot regeneration frequency. The optimal concentration of 2 mg/L and 3 mg/L for KT was necessary for higher differentiation frequency supplemented with 0.5% and 0.6% phyta gel in case of japonica and indica rice, respectively.

  18. Synergism between human tumor necrosis factor and human interferon-alpha: effects on cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, K; Ando, S; Kurimoto, M

    1987-08-01

    The cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of highly purified natural human tumor necrosis factor (HuTNF-alpha) and natural human interferon-alpha (HuIFN-alpha) on 23 cell lines were studied in vitro. Natural HuTNF-alpha showed cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on PC-9, KHG-2, HT-1197, KG-1 and L-929 cells, and HuIFN-alpha showed both effects on KHG-2 and Daudi cells. A mixture of HuTNF-alpha and HuIFN-alpha (1:1, by unit) showed cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on HuTNF-alpha- or HuIFN-alpha-resistant cell lines such as KB, KATO-III, HEp-2, P-4788, as well as on HuTNF-alpha- or HuIFN-alpha-susceptible cells. Thus, the combined preparation of HuTNF-alpha and HuIFN-alpha expanded the spectrum of sensitive cells. The dosage of the mixed preparation required to produce 50% inhibition of cell growth was less than 20% of that of HuTNF-alpha or HuIFN-alpha alone. These results indicate that the cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of HuTNF-alpha and HuIFN-alpha are synergistically enhanced when they are administered together.

  19. Synergism between human tumor necrosis factor and human interferon-alpha: effects on cells in culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orita,Kunzo

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available The cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of highly purified natural human tumor necrosis factor (HuTNF-alpha and natural human interferon-alpha (HuIFN-alpha on 23 cell lines were studied in vitro. Natural HuTNF-alpha showed cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on PC-9, KHG-2, HT-1197, KG-1 and L-929 cells, and HuIFN-alpha showed both effects on KHG-2 and Daudi cells. A mixture of HuTNF-alpha and HuIFN-alpha (1:1, by unit showed cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on HuTNF-alpha- or HuIFN-alpha-resistant cell lines such as KB, KATO-III, HEp-2, P-4788, as well as on HuTNF-alpha- or HuIFN-alpha-susceptible cells. Thus, the combined preparation of HuTNF-alpha and HuIFN-alpha expanded the spectrum of sensitive cells. The dosage of the mixed preparation required to produce 50% inhibition of cell growth was less than 20% of that of HuTNF-alpha or HuIFN-alpha alone. These results indicate that the cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of HuTNF-alpha and HuIFN-alpha are synergistically enhanced when they are administered together.

  20. Elongation factor 1-alpha is released into the culture medium during growth of Giardia intestinalis trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarin, Hanna; Ringqvist, Emma; Hellman, Ulf; Svärd, Staffan G

    2011-04-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis is still not fully understood but excretory-secretory products have been suggested to be important during host-parasite interactions. Here we used SDS-PAGE gels and MALDI-TOF analysis to identify proteins released by Giardia trophozoites during in vitro growth. Serum proteins (mainly bovine serum albumin) in the growth medium, bind to the parasite surface and they are continuously released, which interfere with parasite secretome characterization. However, we identified two released Giardia proteins: elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and a 58 kDa protein, identified as arginine deiminase (ADI). This is the first description of EF-1α as a released/secreted Giardia protein, whereas ADI has been identified in an earlier secretome study. Two genes encoding EF-1α were detected in the Giardia WB genome 35 kbp apart with almost identical coding sequences but with different promoter and 3' regions. Promoter luciferase-fusions showed that both genes are transcribed in trophozoites. The EF-1α protein localizes to the nuclear region in trophozoites but it relocalizes to the cytoplasm during host-cell interaction. Recombinant EF-1α is recognized by serum from giardiasis patients. Our results suggest that released EF-1α protein can be important during Giardia infections.

  1. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits tumour necrosis factor-α-induced lipolysis in murine cultured adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Bustos, Matilde; Marti, Amelia; Fernández-Galilea, Marta; Martinez, J Alfredo; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria J

    2012-03-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and insulin resistance. High levels of proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in obesity promote lipolysis in adipocytes, leading to the development of insulin resistance. Thus, the aims of the present study were to analyze the potential antilipolytic properties of EPA on cytokine-induced lipolysis and to investigate the possible mechanisms involved. The EPA effects on basal and TNF-α-induced lipolysis were determined in both primary rat and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Treatment of primary rat adipocytes with EPA (100 and 200 μM) significantly decreased basal glycerol release (Plipolysis in a dose-dependent manner (Padipocytes. However, oral supplementation with EPA for 35 days was able to partially reverse the down-regulation of HSL and ATGL messenger RNA observed in retroperitoneal adipose tissue of high-fat-diet-fed rats. These findings suggest that EPA inhibits proinflammatory cytokine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. This effect might contribute to explain the insulin-sensitizing properties of EPA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP STYLE: KEY FACTORS IN THE ORGANIZATIONAL ADAPTATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Vrdoljak Raguž

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to theorize about how the specific leadership style affects the organizational adaptation in terms of its external environment through fostering the desired organizational culture. Adaptation success, the dimensions of organizational culture and the executive leadership role in fostering the desired corporate culture conducive to the organizational adaptation process are discussed in this paper. The objective of this paper is to highlight the top executive managers’ crucial role and their leadership style in creating such an internal climate within an organization that, in turn, encourages and strengthens the implementation of changes and adaptation to its environment. The limitations of this paper lie in the consideration that this subject matter is discussed only at a theoretical level and that its validity should be proved through practical application.

  3. Cultural factors and home-brewed alcohol use in a rural community in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onya, H E; Flisher, A J; Mashamba, J T

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the relationship between cultural orientation and home- brewed alcohol use among adolescents in a rural setting. The study involved 1263 students from 30 high schools in Mankweng District in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Boys formed 48% of the sample. Means ages were 16.7 and 16.0 years for boys and girls respectively. A 16 item scale focusing on language, mass media and music preferences was constructed to measure cultural orientations. There was an integration of western and traditional/local activities by respondents who reported having used home-brewed alcohol in the past 12 months. In some respects the sample had western tendencies i.e. English newspapers were read more than no-English newspapers and funky music tended to be preferred to traditional South African music, while in others the reverse was true i.e. Radio Thobela (a radio station that uses vernacular languages) was listened to more than Radio Metro (a radio station that uses English language only). There were significant differences between boys and girls in the use of western media. Older adolescents (18 years or older) used more home brewed alcohol than the younger ones. The concept of culture and its associations with alcohol use invites a critical view on cultural values among adolescents. The positive association with home-brewed alcohol use among secondary school students in our sample has been demonstrated for an orientation towards external cultural influence. Educators and learners need to increase their consciousness on the problematic side of cultural import.

  4. Comparative Study of English and Chinese Taboos in Recent Times by Social Cultural Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宜华

    2014-01-01

    A taboo is something you should avoid doing or saying because a society thinks it is offensive,embarrassing or wrong.Different cultures do not all agree on what taboo is and what should be tabooed in a given context.Both Chinese and English have taboos on such things as sex,death,religion,superstition and so forth,but they follow different cultural norms.This thesis incorporates some anthropological and sociolinguistic ideas to analyze linguistic taboos in Chinese and English.

  5. Higher School as the Activating Factor of Inter-Cultural Collaboration: European Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iaroslav Kichuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the international cooperation within the framework of the Euroregion “Lower Danube” and the place of Budjak in this network. The author believes that its potential is insufficiently appreciated. A special place belongs to Izmail State University for Humanities as the educational and cultural centre of the region. The author presents its main educational and international activities, as well as the perspectives of the development of the project “DAC People” on the base of Izmail University, that gives the real opportunity to deep the practical cooperation in the socio-cultural framework of the Euroregion “Lower Danube”.

  6. FACTORS LIMITING BACTERIAL GROWTH : III. CELL SIZE AND "PHYSIOLOGIC YOUTH" IN BACTERIUM COLI CULTURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, A D; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1938-07-20

    1. Measurements of the rate of oxygen uptake per cell in transplants of Bacterium coli from cultures of this organism in different phases of growth have given results in essential agreement with the observations of others. 2. Correlations of viable count, centrifugable nitrogen, and turbidity, with oxygen consumption, indicate that the increased metabolism during the early portion of the growth period is quantitatively referable to increased average size of cells. 3. Indirect evidence has suggested that the initial rate of growth of transplants is not related to the phase of growth of the parent culture.

  7. Exploring cultural factors in human-robot interaction: A matter of personality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, Astrid; Evers, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an experimental study to investigate task-dependence and cultural-background dependence of the personality trait attribution on humanoid robots. In Human-Robot Interaction, as well as in Human-Agent Interaction research, the attribution of personality traits towards intelligent a

  8. Bridges and Barriers: Factors Influencing a Culture of Assessment in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Meredith Gorran; Hinchliffe, Lisa Janicke; Houk, Amy Harris

    2015-01-01

    In an environment in which libraries need to demonstrate value, illustrating how the library contributes to student learning is critical. Gathering and analyzing data to tell the library's story as well as identify areas for improvement require commitment, time, effort, and resources--all components of a culture of assessment. This paper presents…

  9. Socio-cultural factors influencing and maintaining yam and cowpea diversity in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannou, A.; Tossou, R.C.; Vodouhè, S.; Richards, P.; Struik, P.C.; Zoundjihékpon, J.; Ahanchédé, A.; Agbo, V.

    2007-01-01

    Yam and cowpea are important elements in the food culture of local communities in the Transitional Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin. Yam and cowpea serve to satisfy vital needs in households and in communities, but also play an essential role in the rituals and ceremonies of the agrarian civilizations of

  10. Cultural Factors Influencing Preschoolers' Acquisition of Self-Regulation and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Wanda

    2012-01-01

    This study used an ethnographic research design to explore the perceptions of 27 families with preschool children whose parents or guardians designated themselves as culturally diverse. Multiple data sources were collected over 9 months in the field, including transcripts of focus group meetings and individual parental interviews, preschool…

  11. Factors Affecting Children's Judgement of Culturally Deviant Acts: Findings from an International School in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuki, Aya; Tanaka, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between perceptions of culturally deviant acts and multicultural experiences of elementary-school children attending an international school in Japan. Findings indicated that children judged a Japanese harsher than a foreigner, irrespective of the children's age. It was also found that younger children were…

  12. Linking demand and supply factors in identifying cultural ecosystem services of urban green infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegetschweiler, K. Tessa; de Vries, Sjerp; Arnberger, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Urban green infrastructure provides a number of cultural ecosystem services that are greatly appreciated by the public. In order to benefit from these services, actual contact with the respective ecosystem is often required. Furthermore, the type of services offered depend on the physical...... applicability for urban management and planning...

  13. Linking demand and supply factors in identifying cultural ecosystem services of urban green infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegetschweiler, K.T.; Vries, de Sjerp; Arnberger, Arne; Bell, Simon; Brennan, Michael; Siter, Nathan; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Voigt, Annette; Hunziker, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Urban green infrastructure provides a number of cultural ecosystem services that are greatly appreciated by the public. In order to benefit from these services, actual contact with the respective ecosystem is often required. Furthermore, the type of services offered depend on the physical charact

  14. Influence of culture on curriculum development in Ghana: an undervalued factor?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gervedink Nijhuis, Chantal J.; Pieters, Jules M.; Voogt, Joke M.

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum implementation often falls short because of a lack of cultural understanding by curriculum developers and aid organizations. This paper describes a single-case study of a professional development programme for polytechnic Heads of Department in Ghana, which aimed at identifying how curric

  15. Failed culture change aimed at more service provision: A test of three agentic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, P.Y.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Headquarters managers of a medium-sized manufacturing company initiated a culture change in five of their dispersed wholesale units. The aim was for more external service quality. This paper aims to report the results of a test of three hypotheses, shedding light on the behavior of the

  16. Why Culture Should Be a Key Factor in Studying Marketing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenich, Kathryn

    Three historically significant religions of Japan and the corresponding cultural norms are examined as they affect consumer behaviors and, consequently, marketing in that country. The religions are Buddhism, Shintoism, and Confucianism. The fundamental doctrines, attitudes, and social patterns associated with each religion are outlined and their…

  17. Exploring cultural factors in human-robot interaction: A matter of personality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, Astrid; Evers, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an experimental study to investigate task-dependence and cultural-background dependence of the personality trait attribution on humanoid robots. In Human-Robot Interaction, as well as in Human-Agent Interaction research, the attribution of personality traits towards intelligent a

  18. Factors Affecting Children's Judgement of Culturally Deviant Acts: Findings from an International School in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuki, Aya; Tanaka, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between perceptions of culturally deviant acts and multicultural experiences of elementary-school children attending an international school in Japan. Findings indicated that children judged a Japanese harsher than a foreigner, irrespective of the children's age. It was also found that younger children were…

  19. Invited Reaction: Factors Affecting Cross-Cultural Adjustment--Training, Experience, and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budworth, Marie-Helene; DeGama, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, it is critical that one develops and prepares employees for working across borders in a range of cultural contexts. The organization's ability to compete will be predicated on the ability of its people to lead, manage, negotiate, and resolve conflict with clients, colleagues, and business partners around the world.…

  20. In vitro culture may be the major contributing factor for transgenic versus nontransgenic proteomic plant differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Cátia; Planchon, Sébastien; Serra, Tânia; Chander, Subhash; Saibo, Nelson J M; Renaut, Jenny; Oliveira, M Margarida; Batista, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Identification of differences between genetically modified plants and their original counterparts plays a central role in risk assessment strategy. Our main goal was to better understand the relevance of transgene presence, genetic, and epigenetic changes induced by transgene insertion, and in vitro culture in putative unintended differences between a transgenic and its comparator. Thus, we have used multiplex fluorescence 2DE coupled with MS to characterize the proteome of three different rice lines (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare): a control conventional line (C), an Agrobacterium-transformed transgenic line (Ta) and a negative segregant (NSb). We observed that Ta and NSb appeared identical (with only one spot differentially abundant--fold difference ≥ 1.5), contrasting with the control (49 spots with fold difference ≥ 1.5, in both Ta and NSb vs. control). Given that in vitro culture was the only event in common between Ta and NSb, we hypothesize that in vitro culture stress was the most relevant condition contributing for the observed proteomic differences. MS protein identification support our hypothesis, indicating that Ta and NSb lines adjusted their metabolic pathways and altered the abundance of several stress related proteins in order to cope with in vitro culture.

  1. Influence of Culture on Curriculum Development in Ghana: An Undervalued Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervedink Nijhuis, Chantal J.; Pieters, Jules M.; Voogt, Joke M.

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum implementation often falls short because of a lack of cultural understanding by curriculum developers and aid organizations. This paper describes a single-case study of a professional development programme for polytechnic Heads of Department in Ghana, which aimed at identifying how curriculum development activities were sensitive to…

  2. Influence of culture on curriculum development in Ghana: an undervalued factor?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gervedink Nijhuis, C.J.; Pieters, Julius Marie; Voogt, Joke

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum implementation often falls short because of a lack of cultural understanding by curriculum developers and aid organizations. This paper describes a single-case study of a professional development programme for polytechnic Heads of Department in Ghana, which aimed at identifying how

  3. Influence of Demographic Factors and Ownership Type upon Organizational Learning Culture in Chinese Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Baiyin; McLean, Gary N.

    2007-01-01

    This empirical study, using Western concepts incorporated into the Dimension of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) instrument and data collected from 919 employees in nine companies located in Guangdong Province, China, explored organizational learning culture in Chinese business settings. Findings suggest that the DLOQ is applicable to…

  4. Invited Reaction: Factors Affecting Cross-Cultural Adjustment--Training, Experience, and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budworth, Marie-Helene; DeGama, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, it is critical that one develops and prepares employees for working across borders in a range of cultural contexts. The organization's ability to compete will be predicated on the ability of its people to lead, manage, negotiate, and resolve conflict with clients, colleagues, and business partners around the world.…

  5. Failed culture change aimed at more service provision: A test of three agentic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, P.Y.; Wilderom, C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Headquarters managers of a medium-sized manufacturing company initiated a culture change in five of their dispersed wholesale units. The aim was for more external service quality. This paper aims to report the results of a test of three hypotheses, shedding light on the behavior of the inv

  6. Influence of Culture on Curriculum Development in Ghana: An Undervalued Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervedink Nijhuis, Chantal J.; Pieters, Jules M.; Voogt, Joke M.

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum implementation often falls short because of a lack of cultural understanding by curriculum developers and aid organizations. This paper describes a single-case study of a professional development programme for polytechnic Heads of Department in Ghana, which aimed at identifying how curriculum development activities were sensitive to…

  7. Purified human pancreatic duct cell culture conditions defined by serum-free high-content growth factor screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne A Hoesli

    Full Text Available The proliferation of pancreatic duct-like CK19+ cells has implications for multiple disease states including pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus. The in vitro study of this important cell type has been hampered by their limited expansion compared to fibroblast-like vimentin+ cells that overgrow primary cultures. We aimed to develop a screening platform for duct cell mitogens after depletion of the vimentin+ population. The CD90 cell surface marker was used to remove the vimentin+ cells from islet-depleted human pancreas cell cultures by magnetic-activated cell sorting. Cell sorting decreased CD90+ cell contamination of the cultures from 34±20% to 1.3±0.6%, yielding purified CK19+ cultures with epithelial morphology. A full-factorial experimental design was then applied to test the mitogenic effects of bFGF, EGF, HGF, KGF and VEGF. After 6 days in test conditions, the cells were labelled with BrdU, stained and analyzed by high-throughput imaging. This screening assay confirmed the expected mitogenic effects of bFGF, EGF, HGF and KGF on CK19+ cells and additionally revealed interactions between these factors and VEGF. A serum-free medium containing bFGF, EGF, HGF and KGF led to CK19+ cell expansion comparable to the addition of 10% serum. The methods developed in this work should advance pancreatic cancer and diabetes research by providing effective cell culture and high-throughput screening platforms to study purified primary pancreatic CK19+ cells.

  8. In vitro development of bovine secondary follicles in two- and three-dimensional culture systems using vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, and growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, V R; Gastal, M O; Wischral, A; Figueiredo, J R; Gastal, E L

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the development and estradiol production of isolated bovine secondary follicles in two-dimensional (2D, experiment 1) and three-dimensional (3D using alginate, experiment 2) long-term culture systems in the absence (control group; only α-MEM(+)) or presence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1, or GH alone, or a combination of all. A total of 363 isolated secondary follicles were cultured individually for 32 days at 38.5 °C in 5% CO2 in a humidified incubator with addition of medium (5 μL) every other day. In 2D culture system, follicular growth and antrum formation rates were higher (P 0.05). In summary, this study demonstrated that the benefits of using a certain type of medium supplement depended on the culture system (2D vs. 3D). Vascular endothelial growth factor was an effective supplement for the in vitro culture of bovine secondary follicles when the 2D culture system was used, whereas GH only affected estradiol production using the 3D culture system. This study sheds light on advancements in methodology to facilitate subsequent studies on bovine preantral follicle development.

  9. L-mimosine increases the production of vascular endothelial growth factor in human tooth slice organ culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, K; Cvikl, B; Müller, H-D; Nürnberger, S; Gruber, R; Moritz, A; Agis, H

    2015-03-01

    To assess the pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory capacity of the dentine-pulp complex in response to the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor L-mimosine in a tooth slice organ culture model. Human teeth were sectioned transversely into 600-μm-thick slices and cultured in medium supplemented with serum and antibiotics. Then, pulps were stimulated for 48 h with L-mimosine. Pulps were subjected to viability measurements based on formazan formation in MTT assays. In addition, histological evaluation of pulps was performed based on haematoxylin and eosin staining. Culture supernatants were subjected to immunoassays for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to determine the pro-angiogenic capacity and to immunoassays for interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 to assess the pro-inflammatory response. Interleukin-1 served as pro-inflammatory control. Echinomycin was used to inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) alpha activity. Data were analysed using Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Pulps within tooth slices remained vital upon L-mimosine stimulation as indicated by formazan formation and histological evaluation. L-mimosine increased VEGF production when normalized to formazan formation in the pulp tissue of the tooth slices (P  0.05), whilst treatment with IL-1, which served as positive control, increased IL-6 (P model whilst inducing no prominent increase in IL-6 and IL-8. Pre-clinical studies will reveal if these in vitro effects translate into dental pulp regeneration. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A Comparative Study on Effective Factors in Patient Safety Culture from the Nursing Staff Points of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Alimohammadzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient safety and its requirements fulfillment are today one of the useful valuation indicators in healthcare organizations. Thus, patient safety culture and its promotion are referred to as one of the most important issues raised in the country. The present study aims to examine the effective factors (personal and organizational in patient safety culture from the point of view of nursing staff in Bahman and Parsian private hospitals. Method: The study has an analytical cross-sectional design and is an applied research. HSOPSC (with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.82 and researcher-devised questionnaires (with Cronbach’s Alpha equal to 0.912 were the only data collection tools. Statistical population includes nursing staff of Bahman and Parsian private hospitals in north-west Tehran. A sample consisting of 150 nurse shift supervisors and head nurses was selected from the population. Necessary data for completing questionnaires were collected by interview. Data were analyzed using SPSS16 software. Given the levels of measurement for the variables, valid measures of central tendency (mean, standard deviation, correlation tests, Chi-square, t- test, and ANOVA were used. Results: The findings showed us that such factors as organizational commitment, error reporting system, management support, reward system, and employee empowerment equipment distribution have important roles in patient safety. Their P-values are reported <0.001 for all of them. Patient safety was not significantly associated with age (P=0.964, educational level (P=0.154, and work experience (P=0.888 There is no low awareness about safety culture in any hospital and their mean awareness about patient safety culture was equal to 3.13 ±0.478 and 3.68 ±0.587 in Parsian and Bahman hospitals, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion: Error reporting system and organizational commitment respectively have the most and the least effect on promoting patient safety culture

  11. Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Heart Turkish Version Study: cross-cultural adaptation, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acar S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Serap Acar,1 Sema Savci,1 Pembe Keskinoğlu,2 Bahri Akdeniz,3 Ebru Özpelit,3 Buse Özcan Kahraman,1 Didem Karadibak,1 Can Sevinc4 1School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 2Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, 4Department of Chest Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, İzmir, Turkey Purpose: Individuals with cardiac problems avoid physical activity and exercise because they expect to feel shortness of breath, dizziness, or chest pain. Assessing kinesiophobia related to heart problems is important in terms of cardiac rehabilitation. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia Swedish Version for the Heart (TSK-SV Heart is reliable and has been validated for cardiac diseases in the Swedish population. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, parallel-form validity, and exploratory factor analysis of the TSK for the Heart Turkish Version (TSK Heart Turkish Version for evaluating kinesiophobia in patients with heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension.Methods: This cross-sectional study involved translation, back translation, and cross-cultural adaptation (localization. Forty-three pulmonary arterial hypertension and 32 heart failure patients were evaluated using the TSK Heart Turkish Version. The 17-item scale, originally composed for the Swedish population, has four factors: perceived danger for heart problem, avoidance of exercise, fear of injury, and dysfunctional self. Cronbach’s alpha (internal ­consistency and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess the questionnaire’s reliability. Results of the patients in the 6-minute walk test, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Nottingham Health Profile were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation analysis with the TSK Heart Turkish Version to indicate the convergent validity.Results: Cronbach’s alpha for the TSK Heart Turkish Version was 0.75, indicating acceptable internal

  12. Factors Affecting Embryogenic Callus Production and Plant Regeneration in Anther Culture of Bupleurum chinense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Cheng-min; ZHAO Yu-kai; WEI Jian-he; ZHAO Li-zi; SUI Chun; ZHANG Zheng; CUI Lu-ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influences of the genotypes,anther developmental stages,and cultural conditions on the efficiency of embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration in the anthers culture of Bupleurum chinense.Methods The different effects such as four genotypes,plant growth regulators,and temperature condition were compared in the experiments.The histological study was performed with the process of the anther culture.Results The highest inducing rate of embryogenic calli were achieved for the genotypes Zhongcaiyihao(ZCYH),Z4,and Z5 at the early-to middle-uninucleate stages,except for genotype ZPM1 at the tetrad stage.Cold pretreatment increased the production of the embryogenic callus,in which 4-day cold pretreatment improved the production of embryogenic callus from 0% to 2.2% and 5.0% for genotypes ZPM1 and ZCYH,respectively.No embryogenic callus was induced in the medium containing less than 0.75 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D).The highest regeneration rate (34.6%)was obtained in 1/2 MS salts regeneration medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 6-benzylmaminopurine (BA).The low concentration of BA was able to promote the embryogenic callus formation and subsequent plantlet regeneration via somatic embryogenesis.Chromosome counting of regenerated plantlets showed mostly diploid plant (2n = 12)with only one haploid plant(n = 6).Because of the low rate of microspore embryo formation,we only tracked the process of embryogenesis from the connective tissue,instead of microspore by histological observations.Conclusion This study establishes an efficient system for embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration system.This is the first report on the haploid plantlet through the anther culture orB.chinense.

  13. Culture and Language as Factors Related in the Process of Learning and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Papa

    2015-01-01

    Communicative language teaching has become a familiar part of the landscape of language teaching in the last three or four decades. Teachers who perceive the objectives of teaching foreign languages associated with learning intercultural competence will be more inclined to make the process of teaching foreign languages more intercultural than teachers who perceive objectives as related to the acquisition of communicative competence. In this paper the relationship between culture and language ...

  14. The Night of Museums – a boost factor for the cultural dimension of tourism in Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dumbrăveanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several media and research sources have recently have flagged a new process of concern to tourism planners in Bucharest. The Night of Bucharest Museums has initially been a quite isolated, museum focussed and rather individualistic event has progressively developed over the past very few years into a cultural process involving several cultural institutions among which museum are still predominant. Most of the participant members into the event have developed complex and dynamic programmes comprising sections of joint institutional events. A brief comparative analysis of this progressive event development also identifies changes in the extent and dimension with particular regard to the tourism development dimension and particularly to the cultural dimension of it. This paper is mainly attempting to answer the question regarding to what extent the public of such event has become tourist. The paper also aims to focus on more specific aspects and issues concerning the main aim by sketching a brief overview regarding the attitudes and perceptions of people regularly attending an event such the European Night of Museums in Bucharest. The paper attempts to determine the profile of participant to such event trying to identify the trends of this event on the Romanian wider market but particularly on the tourism market given the fact that museum visitor are mostly tourists. The study is making use of data collected during 2013 and 2014 editions of the event. The final aim of the paper is to emphasise issues regarding the wider concept of motivation in visiting museums how they are linked with the cultural dimension of tourism highlighting several difficulties faced by a multitude of institutions and how these are attempting to use tourism to overcome problematic situations.

  15. Bureaucracy and Culture: Toward Two-Factor Theory of Organizational Control

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Olejniczak; Kishi Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article we focus on the issue of organizational control in its bureaucratic and cultural forms. Methodology: This research uses exploratory case study analysis of Matsushita Konosuke’s management style of in the early years of the Panasonic Corporation. Findings: First of all, we fi nd that despite the impressive body of knowledge accumulated over the years, some questions concerning the relationship between two modes of control and their changes over time still remain ...

  16. Osteogenic Potential of Cultured Bone Marrow Stromal CellsTransfected with Transforming Growth Factor β1 Gene in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To study the osteogenic potential of cultured bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transfected with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) gene in vitro, cultured BMSCs were transfected with the complexes of pcDNA3-TGF-β1 and Lipofectamine Reagent in vitro. The cell proliferation was detected by MTT method and the morphological features of transfected BMSCs was observed. ALP stains and PNP method were used to measure ALP activity. In addition, the collagen type Ⅰ propeptides and mineralized matrixes were examined by immunohistochemical staining and tetracycline fluorescence labeling respectively. The morphological and biological characters of the transfected BMSCs were similar to those of osteoblasts and the cell proliferation was promoted. The cell layer displayed strong positive reaction for ALP stains and immunohistochemical staining. ALP activity and collagen type Ⅰ expression increased remarkably after transfection. Mineralized matrixes formed earlier and more in transfected BMSCs as compared with control group. It is concluded that transfecting with TGF-β1 gene could promote the osteogenic potential of cultured BMSCs.

  17. A factor converting viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae to a culturable state in eukaryotic cells is a human catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Hamabata, Takashi; Takeda, Yoshifumi

    2015-08-01

    In our previous work, we demonstrated that viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 were converted to culturable by coculture with eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, we isolated a factor converting VBNC V. cholerae to culturable (FCVC) from a eukaryotic cell line, HT-29. In this study, we purified FCVC by successive column chromatographies comprising UNO Q-6 anion exchange, Bio-Scale CHT2-1 hydroxyapatite, and Superdex 200 10/300 GL. Homogeneity of the purified FCVC was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE. Nano-LC MS/MS analysis showed that the purified FCVC was a human catalase. An experiment of RNAi knockdown of catalase mRNA from HT-29 cells and treatment of the purified FCVC with a catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole confirmed that the FCVC was a catalase. A possible role of the catalase in converting a VBNC V. cholerae to a culturable state in the human intestine is discussed.

  18. STEREOTYPICAL FACTORS IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Elena ALBU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available International tourism has grown rapidly nowdays, contributing to the growth of the global economy. The purpose of this essay is to identify and analyze stereotypical factors in the development of strategies concerning the offer for the tourism industry: the image of a tourist destination, brand, country of origin and customer behaviour. Documentary study was the research method used: representative articles were analysed, as recent as possible, to determine the factors mentioned above. Professionals in the industry of tourism need to understand cultural differences between tourists, as well as those of the host country, to be able to create tourist reception offers that live up to the standards expected by clients.

  19. Cytokines and growth factors modify the upregulation of contractile endothelin ET(A) and ET(B) receptors in rat cerebral arteries after organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnstedt, H; Stenman, E; Cao, L

    2012-01-01

    Experimental cerebral ischaemia and organ culture of cerebral arteries induce an increased endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction. The aim of this study was to examine whether cytokines and growth factors, known to be activated in ischaemia, can influence the expression and function...... of endothelin receptors after organ culture....

  20. BASAL TISSUE FACTOR EXPRESSION IN ENDOTHELIAL-CELL CULTURES IS CAUSED BY CONTAMINATING SMOOTH-MUSCLE CELLS - REDUCTION BY USING CHYMOTRYPSIN INSTEAD OF COLLAGENASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, AB; BLOM, NR; SMIT, JW; RUITERS, MHJ; VANDERMEER, J; HALIE, MR; BOM, VJJ

    1995-01-01

    A discrepancy exists between basal tissue factor (TF) expression found in endothelial cell cultures and the failure to detect TF in unpertubated endothelial cells in vivo. We demonstrated that basal TF expression in endothelial cell cultures originated from contaminating cells. These cells were ultr

  1. Host and environmental risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium scophthalmi (Apicomplexa) infection in cultured turbot, Psetta maxima (L.) (Pisces, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar; Perez, Andrés; Quiroga, M Isabel; Redondo, M José; Vázquez, Sonia; Riaza, Ana; Palenzuela, Oswaldo; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Nieto, José M

    2009-11-12

    An epidemiological cohort study of Cryptosporidium scophthalmi in cultured turbot Psetta maxima L. of Northwestern Spain was conducted along a four-year period. Four different ongrowing cohorts were monitored monthly from introduction into the ongrowing tanks (10-50 g) until reaching market size (400-1400 g). The association of host and environmental factors with five categories of parasite abundance was assessed using a multivariable regression framework. Epidemiological factors assessed here were water temperature, weight, length, month of collection, season, age, origin, condition factor, water filtration, and status to the myxozoan Enteromyxum scophthalmi infection. E. scophthalmi was included into the analysis because it targets the same organ than C. scophthalmi and it was prevalent in the studied population. The multivariable analysis demonstrated the statistically significant association between several factors and parasite abundance. C. scophthalmi abundance was associated (P<0.05) with age, condition factor, season, and status to E. scophthalmi infection. Young animals, with poor condition factor, during spring or summer, and not infected with the myxozoan were most likely to be highly infected by C. scophthalmi. Inclusion of these four variables significantly (P<0.05) improved the model, compared to the model that did not include any of these epidemiological factors. Increasing levels of C. scophthalmi abundance were associated (P<0.01) with higher severity of C. scophthalmi-compatible lesions. The frequency of distribution of C. scophthalmi abundance was clearly right-skewed and fitted a negative binomial distribution, whereas the intensity of infection fitted a Poisson distribution. The quantification of the variance-to-mean ratio stratified by age demonstrated overdispersion for 8-16 months old fish, although this bivariate association is likely affected by several other factors, as suggested by the results of the multivariable analysis. The negative

  2. Inhibition effect of small interfering RNA of connective tissue growth factor on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and connective tissue growth factor in cultured human peritoneal mesothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fu-you; FU Xiao; ZHU Jian-lian; XIAO Li; PENG You-ming; DUAN Shao-bin; LIU Hong; LIU Ying-hong; LING Gui-hui; YUAN Fang; CHEN Jun-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Background The peritoneum response to peritoneal dialysis can lead to fibrosis. The transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1) plays a key role in regulating tissue repair and remodelling after injury. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF),a downstream mediator of TGF-β1 inducing fibrosis, has been implicated in peritoneal fibrosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in angiogenesis that can hasten peritoneal fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) of CTGF by pRETRO-SUPER (PRS) retrovirus vector on the expression of CTGF and VEGF in human peritoneal mesothelial cells.Methods Retrovirus producing CTGF siRNA were constructed from the inverted oligonucleotides and transferred into packaging cell line PT67 with lipofectamine, and the virus supernatant was used to infect human peritoneal mesothelial cell (HPMC). The cells were divided into seven groups: low glucose DMEM, low glucose DMEM + TGF-β1 5 ng/ml, low glucose DMEM + TGF-β1 5 ng/ml + PRS-CTGF-siRNA1-4 and low glucose DMEM + TGF-β1 5 ng/ml + PRS. The expression of CTGF and VEGF were measured by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot.Results Low levels of CTGF and VEGF were detected in confluent HPMCs. Following stimulation with TGF-β1, the levels of CTGF and VEGF were significantly upregulated (P<0.01). Introduction of PRS-CTGF-siRNA1-4 resulted in the significant reduction of CTGF mRNA and protein, and VEGF mRNA (P<0.01), especially in groups PRS-CTGF-siRNA1 and PRS-CTGF-siRNA4. The introduction of PRS void vector did not have these effects (P>0.05).Conclusions The expression of CTGF siRNA mediated by PRS retrovirus vector can effectively reduce the level of CTGF and VEGF induced by TGF-β1 in cultured HPMCs. This study may provide potential therapeutic strategies to prevent the peritoneal fibrosis.

  3. Factor II deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  4. Factor VII deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor VII is one such coagulation factor. Factor VII deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  5. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  6. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevented? Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors A risk factor is anything that ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  7. Bureaucracy and Culture: Toward Two-Factor Theory of Organizational Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Olejniczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this article we focus on the issue of organizational control in its bureaucratic and cultural forms. Methodology: This research uses exploratory case study analysis of Matsushita Konosuke’s management style of in the early years of the Panasonic Corporation. Findings: First of all, we fi nd that despite the impressive body of knowledge accumulated over the years, some questions concerning the relationship between two modes of control and their changes over time still remain unanswered. As a result of case study analysis we put forward an original model illustrating the relationship between bureaucratic and cultural modes of control over stages of the organization life cycle. Research implications and limitations: Implications of the study consist of prescriptions on how to successfully exert control by combining formal and informal measures. Main limitations of the study are related to its generalizability. Originality: Originality of the study results both from putting forward a new theoretical models and using original historical case of Panasonic Corporation.

  8. Factors Influencing A Customer-Service Culture In A Higher Education Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Liebenberg

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The higher education environment is experiencing significant changes, and the focus is moving to competitiveness and customer care. The role of organisational culture and job satisfaction in the delivery of quality customer service was investigated in this study. The indications are that a relationship should exist between organisational culture and learner satisfaction, but it transpired that the relationship between staff members’ job satisfaction and learner satisfaction was not significant. An evaluation of a proposed learner-satisfaction model revealed interesting dynamics influencing relationships between the core dimensions studied. OpsommingDie hoëronderwysomgewing is besig om betekenisvol te verander, en die fokus is besig om na mededingendheid en kliëntesorg te verskuif. Die rol van organisasiekultuur en werksbevrediging in die lewering van hoëgehaltekliëntediens is in hierdie studie ondersoek. Daar is aanduidings dat daar ’n verband tussen organisasiekultuur en leerdertevredenheid is, maar dit het geblyk dat daar nie ’n betekenisvolle verband tussen werksbevrediging en leerdertevredenheid is nie. ’n Evaluering van ’n voorgestelde leerdertevredenheidsmodel het interessante dinamika wat die verhouding tussen die kerndimensies van die studie beïnvloed, aan die lig gebring.

  9. Cox2 and β-Catenin/T-cell Factor Signaling Intestinalize Human Esophageal Keratinocytes When Cultured under Organotypic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Kong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC is rising in the United States. An important risk factor for EAC is the presence of Barrett esophagus (BE. BE is the replacement of normal squamous esophageal epithelium with a specialized columnar epithelium in response to chronic acid and bile reflux. However, the emergence of BE from squamous keratinocytes has not yet been demonstrated. Our research has focused on this. Wnt and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2 are two pathways whose activation has been associated with BE and progression to EAC, but their role has not been tested experimentally. To explore their contribution, we engineered a human esophageal keratinocyte cell line to express either a dominant-active Wnt effector CatCLef or a Cox2 complementary DNA. In a two-dimensional culture environment, Cox2 expression increases cell proliferation and migration, but neither transgene induces known BE markers. In contrast, when these cells were placed into three-dimensional organotypic culture conditions, we observed more profound effects. CatCLef-expressing cells were more proliferative, developed a thicker epithelium, and upregulated Notch signaling and several BE markers including NHE2. Cox2 expression also increased cell proliferation and induced a thicker epithelium. More importantly, we observed cysts form within the epithelium, filled with intestinal mucins including Muc5B and Muc17. This suggests that Cox2 expression in a three-dimensional culture environment induces a lineage of mucin-secreting cells and supports an important causal role for Cox2 in BE pathogenesis. We conclude that in vitro modeling of BE pathogenesis can be improved by enhancing Wnt signaling and Cox2 activity and using three-dimensional organotypic culture conditions.

  10. Cultural factors and translation strategies in business English%商务英语中的文化因素及其翻译策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张姝晴

    2016-01-01

    商务英语翻译过程中,必须要考虑的问题是文化因素。所以本文从文化根源入手,了解文化因素对英语的具体影响,以跨文化交际为背景,研究商务英语翻译方略。%Business English translation process, must consider the cultural factors. So this paper starts from the cultural roots, specifically to understand the influence of cultural factors on English, with intercultural communication as the background, study business English translation strategies.

  11. Immigration and culture as factors mediating the teaching and learning of urban science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shady, Ashraf

    In this dissertation I explore how cultural and sociohistorical dimensions of stakeholder groups (teachers, students, administrators, and researchers) mediate the interests of urban students in science. This study was conducted during the school year of 2006--2007 in a low-academically performing middle school in New York City. As an Egyptian immigrant science teacher I experienced resistance from my students in an eighth grade inclusion science class that warranted the use of cogenerative dialogue as a tool to improve teaching and learning. In the cogenerative dialogue sessions, participants (e.g., students, teachers, university researchers, and sometimes administrators) make every effort to convene as equals with goals of improving teaching and learning. By seeking the students' perspectives in cogenerative dialogue participants will be able to identify contradictions that can be addressed in an effort to improve the quality of the learning environments. Examples of such contradictions include shut down techniques that teachers use intentionally and unintentionally in order to have control over students. This authentic ethnography focused on two Black students from low-income homes, and me, a middle-aged male of Egypt's middle class. Throughout this study, the students acted in the capacity of student-researchers, assisting me to construct culturally adaptive curriculum materials, and to analyze data sources. This study utilized a sociocultural framework together with microanalysis of videotaped vignettes to obtain evidence that supports patterns of coherence and associated contradictions that emerged during the research. As the teacher-researcher, I learned along with my students how to communicate successfully in the context of structures that often act against success, including social class, ethnicity, gender, and age. The results of this study indicate that as a result of participating in cogenerative dialogues, I as well as the students learned the

  12. Suicide: a 15-year review of the sociological literature. Part I: cultural and economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, S

    2000-01-01

    Cultural and economic patterns from 130 sociological works on suicide from 1981 to 1995 are reviewed in this article. The traditional Durkheimian perspective on suicide was often questioned by research on the impact of the mass media, alcohol, class, modernization, religion, and politics. Major theoretical developments included the application of differential identification theory to Phillips's model of copycat suicide, the application of criminology's opportunity theory to suicide, and new explanations for the link between alcohol and the social suicide rate. Explanations are reviewed for the major new suicide trend: after half a century of convergence, male and female suicide rates are diverging. Finally, the review notes patterns of continued stability in suicide research findings in areas such as racial differences and economic strain.

  13. Sociocultural factors of teenage pregnancy in Latino communities: preparing social workers for culturally responsive practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Elizabeth; Pecukonis, Edward V; Zhou, Kelly

    2014-11-01

    Despite gains in reducing teenage pregnancy during the past 20 years, disparities in teenage pregnancy rates persist: The teenage pregnancy rate in Latino communities is now nearly double the average rate of teenage pregnancy in the United States. Considering the significant risks teenage pregnancy and parenting pose to both the teenager and the child, and that social workers are already often working in communities with populations at risk, this is not only a major public health issue, but one that the field of social work is well positioned to actively address. This article synthesizes pertinent literature on some of the social and cultural influences important for understanding this phenomenon. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  14. Cultural factors in the eating disorders: a study of body shape preferences of Arab students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, K A; Dolan, B M; Evans, C

    1990-01-01

    A replication of an American study of body shape preference was conducted in a group of 218 Arab students attending the American University in Cairo, Egypt. Arab female students felt their ideal shape to be significantly thinner than their current shape, while male students did not. Hence the appraisal of body shape shows gender differences in Egypt consistent with the American study. The Arab women reported a current shape similar to American women but had a smaller discrepancy between ratings of their ideal and current body shape. There was no difference for either Arab women or men between the shape thought most attractive to the opposite sex and that which the other gender actually reported as most attractive. The study shows a clear preference for thinness in the Arabic culture, inferences are made to its role in predisposing to eating disorders.

  15. ACTITUD DEL RESIDENTE HACIA EL TURISMO Y EL VISITANTE: FACTORES DETERMINANTES EN EL TURISMO Y EXCURSIONISMO RURAL-CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Royo Vela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En la literatura sobre turismo se han planteado diversos modelos con el fin de analizar los efectos directos y/o indirectos de los impactos percibidos del turismo y la valoración de dichos efectos realizada por los residentes en el destino turístico. El objetivo del estudio es analizar la actitud de los residentes en un destino turístico de naturaleza rural-cultural respecto a los visitantes, ya sean turistas o excursionistas en el destino objeto de estudio. Asimismo, se examinan los factores susceptibles de influir en la formación de dicha actitud y su potencial uso en el desarrollo turístico del destino. Como resultado de nuestro estudio, se observan actitudes hacia el turismo significativamente diferentes en función del grado de desarrollo local y del uso de recursos turísticos por parte de los residentes.

  16. A systematic review of Registered Nurses; experiences of the influence of workplace culture and climatic factors on nursing workloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Walker, Cheryl; Rogers-Clark, Cath; Pearce, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Nursing workload is an issue that effects both the recruitment and retention of nurses, and patient safety. Historically, measurement has focussed on the delivery of direct patient care and excluded workload of facilitating hands-on care and supporting the organisation via duties that reflect organisation cultural and climate needs. Qualitative research is appropriate to understand this complexity. To determine the best available evidence in relation to registered nurses experiences of workplace cultural and climatic factors that influence nursing workloads, in an acute health care setting. This review sought high quality studies which explored registered nurses' experiences of the influence of cultural and climatic factors on their workloads. Qualitative research studies and opinion-based text were considered. An extensive search of the literature was conducted to identify published and unpublished studies between January 1990 and June 2011 in English, and indexed in the following databases: CINAHL, Medline, Medline-In Process, PsychINFO, Emerald, Current Contents, TRIP, JSTOR Nursing Consult Psychology & Behavioural Sciences collections, Emerald Management Reviews, Emerald Full Text Journals, Embase, Dissertation Abstracts, ERIC, Proquest and MedNar, EBSCOhost, Science Direct, Wiley Interscience. Two independent reviewers (CRW and CRC), using appraisal tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI), assessed fifteen articles; one was excluded. Data were extracted from included papers using standardised tools developed by the JBI. Data from qualitative studies and textual/opinion papers were meta-synthesised separately using standardised instruments. Data synthesis involved the pooling of findings, then grouped into categories on the basis of similarity of meaning. The categories were further aggregated into synthesised findings. 14 papers were identified as high quality and meeting the inclusion criteria. 81 findings were identified from the 10 qualitative research

  17. Examining Socio-Cultural and Neighborhood Factors Associated with Trajectories of Mexican-Origin Mothers' Education-Related Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Sakshi; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Witherspoon, Dawn P; Pomerantz, Eva M; Robins, Richard W

    2017-01-03

    Parental involvement in education is an important determinant of youth's academic success. Yet, there is limited knowledge on how Latino parents' education-related involvement changes over time. Using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin families (mother-adolescent dyad; M age of child at Wave 1=10.4, SD = 0.60), we examined trajectories of parental involvement from 5(th) to 11(th) grade and the effects of socio-cultural (e.g., family SES and acculturation) and contextual (e.g., neighborhood) factors on these trajectories. Results showed that mothers reduced two aspects of the educational involvement: home-based involvement and academic aspirations, but increased on a third aspect of involvement, resource seeking. Furthermore, family SES, acculturation, and neighborhood context were differentially associated with mothers' involvement at 5(th) grade and predicted changes in involvement across elementary and high school.

  18. Effect of helium/neon laser irradiation on nerve growth factor synthesis and secretion in skeletal muscle cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Fidi; Brodie, Chaya; Appel, Elana; Kazimirsky, Gila; Shainberg, Asher

    2002-04-01

    Low energy laser irradiation therapy in medicine is widespread but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism by which the light might induce therapeutic effects. Skeletal muscle cultures were chosen as a target for light irradiation and nerve growth factor (NGF) was the biochemical marker for analysis. It was found that there is a transient elevation of intracellular calcium in the myotubes immediately after irradiation (Phelium/neon irradiation (633 nm) with an energy of 3 J/cm(2). In addition, helium/neon irradiation augmented the level of NGF mRNA fivefold and increased NGF release to the medium of the myotubes. Thus, it is speculated that transient changes in calcium caused by light can modulate NGF release from the myotubes and also affect the nerves innervating the muscle. The NGF is probably responsible for the beneficial effects of low-level light.

  19. The End of Television—Again! How TV Is Still Influenced by Cultural Factors in the Age of Digital Intermediaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunn Enli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the impact of convergence and digital intermediaries for television as a medium, industry and political and cultural institution. There is currently widespread debate about the future of television and the impact of technological and market changes. Our argument is that the answer to what is happening to television cannot be adequately addressed on a general level; local and contextual factors are still important, and so is the position and strategic response of existing television institutions in each national context. Based on analyses of political documents, statistics, audience research and media coverage, as well as secondary literature, the article explores the current situation for Norwegian television and point to four contexts that each plays a part in constraining and enabling existing television operators: the European context, the public service context, the welfare state context and the media ecosystem context.

  20. Cross-cultural examination of the five-factor model of drinking motives in Spanish and Canadian undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, Laura; Stewart, Sherry H; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Grant, Valerie V

    2016-06-14

    This study aims to test the cross-cultural suitability of Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (M DMQ-R) (Grant, Stewart, O'Connor, Blackwell, & Conrod, 2007). The sample included 571 Spanish and 571 Canadian undergraduates between the ages of 18 and 22 (65.8% women). The confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated factorial invariance between samples. The regression analysis showed that social, enhancement and low conformity motives were related to drinking frequency and drinking quantity in the total sample. No moderation effect of country on predicting alcohol consumption was found. The results suggest that M DMQ-R is a suitable instrument for comparing drinking motives across Spanish and Canadian undergraduates, and that motives-focused prevention and treatment programmes developed in one country could be generalised to another.

  1. Improving the efficiency of isolated microspore culture in six-row spring barley: I-optimization of key physical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Patricio; Belzile, François

    2014-06-01

    An improved isolated microspore culture protocol alleviating the recalcitrance typically observed in six-row spring barley was developed by optimizing four key physical factors to increase embryogenesis and reduce albinism. Doubled haploid (DH) plants are completely homozygous individuals that can be generated in just a few months via androgenesis in vitro. DHs are useful tools in genetic research and in plant breeding. Isolated microspore culture (IMC) is the most efficient way to produce DHs, but a strong genotype dependency imposes limitations to its wide application. Six-row, spring barley genotypes are considered as particularly recalcitrant due to a low frequency of embryogenesis and a high rate of albinism. Seeking to develop an efficient IMC protocol for this type of barley, we explored four important factors: (1) the harvest stage of immature spikes, (2) the type of pretreatment applied, (3) the osmotic potential in the induction medium, and (4) the plating density of microspores. This work was first performed using four barley genotypes: two typical six-row spring cultivars (ACCA and Léger), a two-row spring (Gobernadora) and a two-row winter (Igri) cultivar. First, by optimizing the harvest stage for each genotype we obtained a twofold to fourfold increase in the yield of embryogenic microspores. Second, two pretreatments (0.3 M mannitol for 2 days, or a combination of cold and heat over 15 days) both performed significantly better than the commonly used cold pretreatment (28 days at 4 °C). Third, an induction medium-containing mannitol (32 g/l) doubled green plant regeneration. Fourth, a plating density of 10(6) microspores/ml yielded the highest number of green regenerated plants. Our most important findings were then confirmed using sets of F1s from a six-row, spring-type breeding program.

  2. Socio-cultural factors influencing insecticide treated bed net utilization in a malaria endemic city in north-central Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jombo GTA; Akosu JT; Mbaawuaga EM; Gyuse AN; Enenebeaku MNO; Okwori EE; Peters EJ; Akpan S; Odey F; Etukumana EA

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the socio-cultural factors influencing the rate of utilization of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) in a malaria endemic city of Makurdi, north central Nigeria. Methods:The study was cross-sectional in nature using systematic sampling method to identify households. Both quantitative and qualitative data was generated from adult women using structured and semi structured questionnaires, and focused group discussions (FGDs) to obtain information on rate and patterns of utilization of ITNs. Information such as age, educational level, marital status, awareness or otherwise of the existence of malaria, and factors influencing rate of ownership and utilization of ITNs were obtained. FGDs were used to obtain qualitative information on rate of utilization of ITNs not captured in the questionnaires. Data obtained was analysed using Epi Info 6 statistical software. Results: Among the respondents interviewed, 97.0%(2 013/2 075) were aware of existence of malaria and 87.0%of these (1 751/2 013) would associate it with mosquitoes. The rate of ownership of any bed net, ITNs and untreated bed nets (UTNs) was 25.1%, 17.0%and 8.3%, respectively. Utilization of ITNs among children was 30.0%(112/373) and UTNs 12.9%(48/373). Positive contributors to ITNs utilization were literacy, enhanced economy, experience of marriage, and being gainfully employed (P<0.05);while negative contributors were ignorance, poverty and some cultural beliefs and values. Conclusions: A more synchronized advocacy should be carried out on the potential benefits of ITNs utilization and sustained. Also ITNs should be made available to the people of the community at minimal or no cost.

  3. Children and adolescents with Tourette's disorder in the USA versus Argentina: behavioral differences may reflect cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samar, Stephanie M; Moyano, María Beatriz; Braña-Berríos, Marta; Irazoqui, Gustavo; Matos, Angeles; Kichic, Rafael; Gellatly, Resham; Ibanez-Gomez, Laura; Zwilling, Amanda L; Petkova, Eva; Coffey, Barbara J

    2013-11-01

    To explore behavioral differences as possible cultural factors in presentation of psychiatric comorbidity in two clinically referred, consecutively ascertained samples of youth with Tourette's disorder (TD) from New York and Buenos Aires. Subjects were evaluated between 2002 and 2010 at the Tics and Tourette's Clinical and Research Program at the New York University Child Study Center in New York and the Interdisciplinary Center for Tourette's, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Associated Disorders (CITTTA)/Institute of Cognitive Psychology (INECO) in Buenos Aires. Demographic, diagnostic, tic severity (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale; YGTSS), clinical (Child Behavior Check List-Parent version; CBCL), and global functioning (Global Assessment of Functioning; GAF) data were compared using descriptive statistics. The sample included 111 subjects ages 6-17 years, who met DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for TD. Findings revealed that the BA sample (n = 35) was significantly older at initial evaluation at the tic specialty clinic, and had higher frequency of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), mood and non-OCD anxiety disorders than the NY sample (n = 76). There were no differences in gender distribution, age at tic onset or TD diagnosis, tic severity, proportion with current diagnoses of OCD/OC behavior or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), CBCL internalizing, externalizing, or total problems scores, YGTSS scores, or GAF scores. The observed similarities in demographic features, clinical presentation, rates of ADHD and OCD/OCB, and global impairment may reflect similar phenomenology and illness-related characteristics of TD in these referred youth. Differences in age at initial specialty clinic evaluation and rates of ODD, mood and non-OCD anxiety disorders may need further exploration before they may be considered to reflect cultural factors. Because of these limitations (e.g. small sample size), these results can be regarded only as preliminary.

  4. Socio-Cultural Factors and Experience of Chronic Low Back Pain: a Spanish and Brazilian Patients’ Perspective. A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) could be influenced by socio-cultural factors. Pain narratives are important to understand the influence of environment on patients with chronic LBP. There are few studies that have explored the experience of patients with chronic LBP in different socio-cultural environments. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of patients with chronic LBP in Spain and Brazil. Methods A qualitative phenomenology approach was implemented. Chronic LBP patients from the University Hospital of Salamanca (Spain), and/or Federal University of São Carlos (Brazil) were included, using purposeful sampling. Data were collected from 22 Spanish and 26 Brazilian patients during in-depth interviews and using researchers’ field notes and patients' personal diaries and letters. A thematic analysis was performed and the guidelines for reporting qualitative research were applied. Results Forty-eight patients with a mean age of 50.7 years (SD: ± 13.1 years) were included in the study. The themes identified included: a) ways of perceiving and expressing pain—the participants focused constantly on their pain and anything outside it was considered secondary; b) the socio-familial environment as a modulator of pain—most participants stated that no one was able to understand the pain they were experiencing; c) religion as a modulator of pain—all Brazilian patients stated that religious belief affected the experience of pain; and d) socio-economic and educational status as a modulator of pain—the study reported that economic factors influenced the experience of pain. Conclusions The influences of LBP can be determined based on the how a patient defines pain. Religion can be considered as a possible mechanism for patients to manage pain and as a form of solace. PMID:27434594

  5. SOCIAL AND HEALTH-IMPROVING SERVICES AS A FACTOR OF CULTURE HEALTH ORGANIZATION

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    Olga Alekseevna Zaplatina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available At present time mankindis entering upon a new information age, and therefore the foundations of culture health organization is considered as the perspective to distribute intellectual and information resources as ecologically sustainable development and modernizing of Russian society. Great attention in this regard is given to a higher education system, the aim of which is to prepare a specialist with fundamental knowledge, professionally important qualities, environmental culture and culture of health.Though information resources in the sphere of continuous environmental and valeological education, from the point of their socio-philosophical justification, are varied and quite extensional, these trends are just beginning to penetrate in all areas of social life (including the educational environment and are not sufficiently reflected in continuing professional education, especially technical and, as it is know, technical education is preparing professionals of new type, adequate to changing conditions.In this regard, the ecologization аnd valeologization of continuous training acquires the greatest relevance in modernization of higher education. Also one of the urgent tasks is training of specialists, having high level of ecological and valeological consciousness development and ecological thinking; all these determine the functioning of the system «society-production-environment». According to these facts, it is possible to mention the necessity to solve the problems of environmental and valeological education in professional training of specialists, by means of global process modeling directly and indirectly related to this field.Since ecological and valeological education in higher schools must be based on regulatory support, as an important tool, used by the state in order to preserve the national health, as well as balances environmental management, it is necessary to note that at the state level the most important task is to promote

  6. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM Use during Menopause in Sydney and Bologna

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    Corinne van der Sluijs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous surveys found CAM use during menopause to be popular. This paper compares the results from two surveys (Sydney and Bologna to examine factors that determine the extent and pattern of CAM use to alleviate menopausal symptoms. Methods. Women, aged 45–65 years, who were symptomatic when transitioning through menopause or asymptomatic but taking menopause-specific treatments, were recruited in Sydney (n=1,296 and Bologna (n=1,106 to complete the same voluntary, anonymous, and self-administered questionnaire. The results were reanalysed using stratified analyses to determine similarities and differences. Results. Demographics of the two cohorts differed significantly. CAM was more popular in Sydney. The most significant determinants of CAM use were the use of CAM for other conditions besides menopause and the severity of vasomotor symptoms. Occupational status was a determinant of CAM use amongst Bologna respondents only. In order to relieve symptoms, Australian and Italian women used different CAM modalities whose effectiveness was generally perceived as good. Conclusion. CAM use is popular amongst menopausal women from Sydney and Bologna. Differences in the patterns of CAM use seem to depend on CAM availability and on the educational level and professional status of users. The complex interaction between market, social, and cultural factors of CAM use seems to be more influential on women’s choice of CAM than the available evidence of their effectiveness.

  7. Real-time monitoring of nuclear factor kappaB activity in cultured cells and in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Christian E; Niers, Johanna M; Tjon-Kon-Fat, Lee-Ann; Noske, David P; Wurdinger, Thomas; Tannous, Bakhos A

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a transcription factor that plays a major role in many human disorders, including immune diseases and cancer. We designed a reporter system based on NF-kappaB responsive promoter elements driving expression of the secreted Gaussia princeps luciferase (Gluc). We show that this bioluminescent reporter is a highly sensitive tool for noninvasive monitoring of the kinetics of NF-kappaB activation and inhibition over time, both in conditioned medium of cultured cells and in the blood and urine of animals. NF-kappaB activation was successfully monitored in real time in endothelial cells in response to tumor angiogenic signaling, as well as in monocytes in response to inflammation. Further, we demonstrated dual blood monitoring of both NF-kappaB activation during tumor development as correlated to tumor formation using the NF-kappaB Gluc reporter, as well as the secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter. This NF-kappaB reporter system provides a powerful tool for monitoring NF-kappaB activity in real time in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Supplementation in Culture Media for Subfertile Women Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Technologies: A Systematic Review

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    Charalampos Siristatidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF is a cytokine/growth factor produced by epithelial cells that exerts embryotrophic effects during the early stages of embryo development. We performed a systematic review, and six studies that were performed in humans undergoing assisted reproduction technologies (ART were located. We wanted to evaluate if embryo culture media supplementation with GM-CSF could improve success rates. As the type of studies and the outcome parameters investigated were heterogeneous, we decided not to perform a meta-analysis. Most of them had a trend favoring the supplementation with GM-CSF, when outcomes were measured in terms of increased percentage of good-quality embryos reaching the blastocyst stage, improved hatching initiation and number of cells in the blastocyst, and reduction of cell death. However, no statistically significant differences were found in implantation and pregnancy rates in all apart from one large multicenter trial, which reported favorable outcomes, in terms of implantation and live birth rates. We propose properly conducted and adequately powered randomized controlled trials (RCTs to further validate and extrapolate the current findings with the live birth rate to be the primary outcome measure.

  9. [Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic maternal factors associated with dietary patterns of infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotero, Andréa Marques; Cabral, Poliana Coelho; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-12-01

    To analyze dietary patterns of infants and its association with maternal socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted with two groups of mothers of children up to 24 months (n=202) living in the city of Maceió, Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. The case group consisted of mothers enrolled in a Family Health Unit. The comparison group consisted of mothers who took their children to two private pediatric offices of the city. Dietary intake was assessed using a qualitative and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The evaluation of the FFQ was performed by a method in which the overall rate of consumption frequency is converted into a score. Children of higher income families and mothers with better education level (control group) showed the highest median of consumption scores for fruits and vegetables (p<0.01) and meat, offal, and eggs (p<0.01), when compared with children of the case group. On the other hand, the median of consumption scores of manufactured goods was higher among children in the case group (p<0.01). Maternal socioeconomic status influenced the quality of food offered to the infant. In the case group, children up to 24 months already consumed industrial products instead of healthy foods on their menu. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Motivation for physical culture as factor of students’ functional state optimization

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    Lachno O.G.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze students’ attitude to physical education classes; to compare motivation for physical education of 1 st and 4 th year students. Material: 100 students of 17 - 22 years’ age participated in the research. All they were questioned. Results: In the whole, boys have positive attitude to sport practicing but some of them can have harmful habits. The attitude to sport practicing of most of girls changes with age. It was found that biological age of students significantly exceeds passport age. Biological age of senior students it reduces to some extent, in comparison with junior students. It was also found that in process of studying at HEE students’ motivation for sport practicing changes to positive side. It witnesses about formation of student positive attitude to physical education in general. Conclusions: we have shown that there is a demand in strengthening of motivation for physical culture classes and further formation positive attitude to them with increasing of students’ knowledge about physical education.

  11. Microdrop preparation factors influence culture-media osmolality, which can impair mouse embryo preimplantation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, J E; Cabrera, L; Xu, X; Smith, G D

    2012-02-01

    Because media osmolality can impact embryo development, the effect of conditions during microdrop preparation on osmolality was examined. Various sizes of microdrops were prepared under different laboratory conditions. Drops were pipetted directly onto a dish and covered by oil (standard method) or pipetted on the dish, overlaid with oil before removing the underlying media and replaced with fresh media (wash-drop method). Drops were made at 23°C or on a heated stage (37°C) and with or without airflow. Osmolality was assessed at 5 min and 24h. The biological impact of osmolality change was demonstrated by culturing 1-cell mouse embryos in media with varying osmolality. Reduced drop volume, increased temperature and standard method were associated with a significant increase in osmolality at both 5 min and 24h (P-values media with elevated osmolality (>310mOsm/kg; P<0.05). Procedures in the IVF laboratory can alter osmolality and impact embryo development.

  12. Improving performance of high risk organizations Spanish nuclear sector from the analysis of organizational culture factors; Mejora del desempeno de las organizaciones de alto riesgo del sector nuclear espanol a partir del analisis de los factores de cultura organizativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Salabarnada, E.; German, S.; Silla, I.; Navajas, J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the research project funded by UNESA and conducted by the CISOT-CIEMAT that aims to contribute to improving the operating performance of the Spanish nuclear power plants. This paper aims to identify the factors and key organizational processes to improve efficiency, in order to advance knowledge about the influence of organizational culture on the safety of high reliability organizations.

  13. Factors controlling carbon isotopic composition of land snail shells estimated from lab culturing experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naizhong; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2014-05-01

    Carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of land snail shell carbonate is widely applied in reconstructing the C3/C4 vegetation distribution of paleo-environment, which is considered to reflect variations of some environmental parameters [1][2][3]. Land snail shell carbon has three potential sources: diet, atmospheric CO2 and ingested carbonate (limestone) [4]. However, their relative contributions to shell carbonate have not been understood well yet [4][5][6][7][8]. More researches are necessary before we could apply this tool in paleo-environment reconstruction, especially inter-lab culturing experiment. A kind of land snail species, Acusta despecta sieboldiana, was collected at Yokohama, Japan and cultured under suitable environment to lay eggs. The second generations were growing up from eggs to adults around 6-12 months at the temperature of 20°, 25° and 30°, respectively. All of the snails at 25° and 30° and most of those at 20° were fed by cabbage (C3 plant) during their life span while others were fed by corn (C4 plant). To investigate the effect of ingested carbonate, some of them were fed by Ca3(PO4)2 powder while others were fed by CaCO3 powder. δ13C of shells were analyzed by an Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Thermo Finnigan MAT 253); δ13C of food and snail tissue were measured by a Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (Picarro G1121-i). At the same time, δ13C of eggshell and new born snails were analyzed by a Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GasBench II). We confirmed that diet, atmospheric CO2 and ingested limestone could be important sources controlling shell δ13C values. And the temperature could affect shell carbonate δ13C values, too. A simple but credible frame was raised to discuss the mechanism of how each possible source and environmental parameter could affect shell carbonate δ13C values based on previous works [4][6][8] and this study. According to this frame and some reasonable assumptions, we have estimated the

  14. Comparison of growth factor signalling pathway utilisation in cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cell lines

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    Kim Ji Eun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K-PKB, mitogen activated protein kinase (MEK-ERK and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR- p70S6K, are thought to regulate many aspects of tumour cell proliferation and survival. We have examined the utilisation of these three signalling pathways in a number of cell lines derived from patients with metastatic malignant melanoma of known PIK3CA, PTEN, NRAS and BRAF mutational status. Methods Western blotting was used to compare the phosphorylation status of components of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways, as indices of pathway utilisation. Results Normal melanocytes could not be distinguished from melanoma cells on the basis of pathway utilisation when grown in the presence of serum, but could be distinguished upon serum starvation, where signalling protein phosphorylation was generally abrogated. Surprisingly, the differential utilisation of individual pathways was not consistently associated with the presence of an oncogenic or tumour suppressor mutation of genes in these pathways. Conclusion Utilisation of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways in melanoma, as determined by phosphorylation of signalling components, varies widely across a series of cell lines, and does not directly reflect mutation of genes coding these components. The main difference between cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cells is not the pathway utilisation itself, but rather in the serum dependence of pathway utilisation.

  15. Democracy as a Limiting Factor for Politicised Cultural Populism in Malawi Demokratie und politisierter Kulturpopulismus in Malawi

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    Reuben Makayiko Chirambo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Though Malawian democracy could still be described as in transition from authoritarianism, it has enabled an atmosphere for critical debate of and dissent against seemingly popular opinions, which was not possible during the authoritarian rule of former life president, Dr. H. K. Banda, 1964-1994. This article examines politicised cultural populism in Malawi under the dictatorship and democracy in comparative terms. President Banda, as a political populist, appropriated culture to legitimate and validate his political power as well as to cultivate popular support from the majority of ordinary people. Following reforms towards democracy since 1992, his successors have also tended towards populist politics by similarly appropriating culture and cultural activities, among other means, to cultivate popular support from mostly ordinary people for their regimes. Such politicised cultural populism involves adopting traditional roles, cultural symbols and images of power such as praise-titles, and participating in cultural activities such as traditional dances. This article examines the efforts of President Bingu wa Mutharika in the democratic dispensation to appropriate cultural artefacts used by Banda during a dictatorship in order to cultivate popular support for his regime. The article argues that Bingu’s efforts at politicised cultural populism are constrained, among other factors, by the nature and climate of democratic politics mainly because democracy, unlike a dictatorship, enables critical debate and the questioning of political leader’s behaviour and their motives. Auch wenn die Demokratie in Malawi sich immer noch in einem Übergangsstadium befindet, ist inzwischen eine Atmosphäre entstanden, in der eine kritische Debatte und das Äußern unpopulärer Meinungen möglich sind, was in den Jahren 1964-1994 unter dem früheren Präsidenten auf Lebenszeit, Dr. H. K. Banda, nicht denkbar war. Der Autor vergleicht die Nutzung von Elementen

  16. Comparison of angiogenesis-related factor expression in primary tumor cultures under normal and hypoxic growth conditions

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    Brower Stacey L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A localized hypoxic environment occurs during tumor growth necessitating an angiogenic response or tumor necrosis results. Novel cancer treatment strategies take advantage of tumor-induced vascularisation by combining standard chemotherapeutic agents with angiogenesis-inhibiting agents. This has extended the progression-free interval and prolonged survival in patients with various types of cancer. We postulated that the expression levels of angiogenesis-related proteins from various primary tumor cultures would be greater under hypoxic conditions than under normoxia. Methods Fifty cell sources, including both immortalized cell lines and primary carcinoma cells, were incubated under normoxic conditions for 48 hours. Then, cells were either transferred to a hypoxic environment (1% O2 or maintained at normoxic conditions for an additional 48 hours. Cell culture media from both conditions was collected and analyzed via an ELISA-based assay to determine expression levels of 11 angiogenesis-related factors: VEGF, PDGF-AA, PDGF-AA/BB, IL-8, bFGF/FGF-2, EGF, IP-10/CXCL10, Flt-3 ligand, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3. Results A linear correlation between normoxic and hypoxic growth conditions exists for expression levels of eight of eleven angiogenesis-related proteins tested including: VEGF, IL-8, PDGF-AA, PDGF-AA/BB, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, EGF, and IP-10. For VEGF, the target of current therapies, this correlation between hypoxia and higher cytokine levels was greater in primary breast and lung carcinoma cells than in ovarian carcinoma cells or tumor cell lines. Of interest, patient cell isolates differed in the precise pattern of elevated cytokines. Conclusion As linear correlations exist between expression levels of angiogenic factors under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in vitro, we propose that explanted primary cells may be used to probe the in vivo hypoxic environment. Furthermore, differential expression levels for each sample

  17. Increased atrial natriuretic factor receptor density in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells of the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, F.; Fine, B.; Kuriyama, S.; Hatori, N.; Nakamura, A.; Nakamura, M.; Aviv, A.

    1987-01-01

    To explore the role of the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) system in the pathophysiology of hypertension we examined the binding kinetics of synthetic ANF to cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) derived from the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and two normotensive controls-the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and American Wistar (W). The number of maximal binding sites (Bmax) per cell (mean +/- SEM; X10(3) were: SHR = 278.0 +/- 33.0, WKY = 28.3 +/- 7.1 and W = 26.6 +/- 4.2. The differences between the SHR and normotensive strains were significant at p less than 0.001. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd; X 10(-9)M) was higher in SHR VSMCs (0.94 +/- 0.14) than in WKY (0.22 +/- 0.09; p less than 0.01) and W (0.39 +/- 0.14; p less than 0.02) cells. The plasma levels of the immunoreactive ANF were higher in SHR than the normotensive controls. We suggest that the relatively greater ANF receptor density in cultured VSMCs of the SHR represents a response to the in vitro environment which is relatively more deficient in ANF for VSMCs of the SHR as compared with the normotensive rats. Thus, the capacity of the SHR VSMC to regulate ANF receptor density appears to be independent of the blood pressure level.

  18. Photolithographically defined deposition of attachment factors as a versatile method for patterning the growth of different cell types in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Stephan; Flückiger-Labrada, Regula; Kucera, Jan P

    2003-04-01

    Spatially defined growth of cells in culture is a useful model for studies ranging from the characterization of cellular motility to the analysis of network behaviour in structurally defined ensembles of excitable cells. Current methodological approaches for obtaining patterned growth include sophisticated modifications of surface chemistry, stamping techniques and microfluidics. The implementation of most of these techniques requires the availability of highly specialized apparatus and some of the methods are specific for certain cell types and/or substrate materials. The goal of the present study was to develop a cell-patterning technique that can be implemented by any laboratory working with cell culture and that is highly adaptable in terms of cell types and substrate materials. The method is based on a photolithographic process that permits the patterned deposition of attachment factors of choice on surfaces previously coated with agar with a spatial resolution (maximal deviation from a straight line) of +/-3 micro m. Because agar efficiently prevents cell adhesion, patterned growth obtained with this technique displays virtually no off-pattern cell attachment. The method permitted the patterning of cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts and HeLa cells on either glass substrates or polymer-coated materials with a spatial resolution of a few micrometers.

  19. Relationship between Insuline-like Growth Factor-Ⅰ and Progesterone Secretion of Cultured Human Trophoblast Cells in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-jin ZHANG; Sui-qi GUI; Lin CAO; Zu-yue SUN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of insuline-like growth factor-Ⅰ(IGF-Ⅰ) on progesterone genesis and regulation.Methods Cytotrophoblast cells were collected by trypsin-collagenase digestion and percoll gradient centrifugation for primary culture.After stimulated with different concentrations(1 00 μg/ml,10 μg/ml,1μg/ml,0.1 μg/ml) of IGF-Ⅰat the same time and with different duration(12 h, 24 h, 48 h,72 h) of IGF-Ⅰ with the same concentration, progesterone levels in the media were measured by radioimmunoassay.Simultaneously,semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to determine the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mRNA.Results Progesterone levels correlated positively with IGF-Ⅰalong with the IGF-Ⅰconcentration increasing,progesterone level began to increase at 12 h,and reached the climax at 48 h when cultured with 100 μg/L IGF-Ⅰ. The expression of LDLR mRNA was detectable in every group and accordant with variation of progesterone level.Conclusion Progesterone secretion has time- and dose-dependent effect on IGF-Ⅰ,and IGF-Ⅰcan up-regulate the expression of LDLR mRNA. IGF-Ⅰmay play an important role in promoting secretion of progesterone in trophoblast cells.

  20. Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on synapsin expression in rat spinal cord anterior horn neurons cultured in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifei Wang; Daguang Liao; Changqi Li

    2010-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF)promotes synaptic formation and functional maturation by upregulating synapsin expression in cortical and hippocampal neurons.However,it remains controversial whether BDNF affects synapsin expression in spinal cord anterior horn neurons.Wistar rat spinal cord anterior hom neurons were cultured in serum-supplemented medium containing BDNF,BDNF antibody,and Hank's solution for 3 days,and then synapsin I and synaptophysin protein and mRNA expression was detected.Under serum-supplemented conditions,the number of surviving neurons in the spinal cord anterior horn was similar among BDNF,anti-BDNF,and control groups(P > 0.05).Synapsin I and synaptophysin protein and mRNA expressions were increased in BDNF-treated neurons,but decreased in BDNF antibody-treated neurons(P< 0.01).These results indicated that BDNF significantly promotes synapsin I and synaptophysin expression in in vitro-cultured rat spinal cord anterior horn neurons.

  1. Socio-cultural factors, gender roles and religious ideologies contributing to Caesarian-section refusal in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, Nnanna U; de Kok, Bregje

    2015-08-12

    The death of women from pregnancy-related causes is a serious challenge that international development initiatives, including the Millennium Development Goals, have been trying to redress for decades. The majority of these pregnancy-related deaths occur in developing countries especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. The provision of Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC), including Caesarean section (CS) has been identified as one of the key ingredients necessary for the reduction of high maternal mortality ratios. However, it appears that creating access to EmOC facilities is not all that is required to reduce maternal mortality: socio-cultural issues in Sub-Saharan countries including Nigeria seem to deter women from accepting CS. This study seeks to explore some of the socio-cultural concerns that reinforce delays and non-acceptance of CS in a Nigerian community. This is a mixed method study that combined both qualitative and quantitative strategies of enquiry. The hospital's delivery records from 2006-2010 provided data for quantitative analysis. This quantitative data was supplemented with prospective data collected during one month. Semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions (FGD) and informal observations served as the sources of data on the qualitative end. In total, 22% of maternity clients refused CS and more than 90% of the CSs in the focal hospital were emergencies which may indicate late arrival at the hospital after seeking assistance elsewhere. The qualitative analysis reveals that socio-cultural meanings informed by gender and religious ideologies, the relational consequences of having a C-section, and the role of alternative providers are some key factors which influence when, where and whether women will accept C-section or not. There is need to find means of facilitating necessary CS by addressing the prevailing socio-cultural norms and expectations that hinder its acceptance. Engaging and guiding alternative providers (traditional birth attendants

  2. Social-Cultural Factors Affecting Maasai Women Participation In Decision Making In Tanzania. A Case Study Of Longido District

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    Carolyn Kandusi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Throughout history participation in decision making through processes like voting vying for leadership position and participation in decision making meetings has been blinded by discrimination to certain groups of community members including women. This study assessed the social cultural factors affecting Maasai womens participation in decision making a case of Longido district. Purposive sampling was used to select the districts under the study. Decision to select Longido was based on the inhabitance of pastoral community. A total of 115 respondents were obtained through simple random selection. Data were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation were used in the analysis. The results show that majority would you vote for a woman to be an MP Councilor Village Chairman in your community. A considerable proportion of men refused to be led by a woman. Furthermore women were found not to effectively participate in politics through vying for leadership positions as many respondents voted for male contestant main reasons being no female contestant. Situations in which women are involved in decision making were found mainly to be on issues pertaining women development and family matters. Findings show that women are allowed to vote in the community but often the decision for a woman to vote was found to be determined by men. The study further found that women are not regarded elders and females ideas were not taken into account as male ideas in village meetings. The main barriers for women participation in leadership were found that men do not want women to compete in leadership and women ideas not accepted by most men. The study concluded that Maasai women participation in decision making is limited by social cultural factors like social identity social acceptance social roles and limiting cultural practices. It is recommended that civic education strategy and appropriate

  3. Attributing variance in supportive care needs during cancer: culture-service, and individual differences, before clinical factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Fielding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies using the Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS report high levels of unmet supportive care needs (SCNs in psychological and less-so physical & daily living domains, interpreted as reflecting disease/treatment-coping deficits. However, service and culture differences may account for unmet SCNs variability. We explored if service and culture differences better account for observed SCNs patterns. METHODS: Hong Kong (n = 180, Taiwanese (n = 263 and Japanese (n = 109 CRC patients' top 10 ranked SCNS-34 items were contrasted. Mean SCNS-34 domain scores were compared by sample and treatment status, then adjusted for sample composition, disease stage and treatment status using multivariate hierarchical regression. RESULTS: All samples were assessed at comparable time-points. SCNs were most prevalent among Japanese and least among Taiwanese patients. Japanese patients emphasized Psychological (domain mean = 40.73 and Health systems and information (HSI (38.61 SCN domains, whereas Taiwanese and Hong Kong patients emphasized HSI (27.41; 32.92 and Patient care & support (PCS (19.70; 18.38 SCN domains. Mean Psychological domain scores differed: Hong Kong = 9.72, Taiwan = 17.84 and Japan = 40.73 (p<0.03-0.001, Bonferroni. Other SCN domains differed only between Chinese and Japanese samples (all p<0.001. Treatment status differentiated Taiwanese more starkly than Hong Kong patients. After adjustment, sample origin accounted for most variance in SCN domain scores (p<0.001, followed by age (p = 0.01-0.001 and employment status (p = 0.01-0.001. Treatment status and Disease stage, though retained, accounted for least variance. Overall accounted variance remained low. CONCLUSIONS: Health service and/or cultural influences, age and occupation differences, and less so clinical factors, differentially account for significant variation in published studies of SCNs.

  4. Efficient proliferation and maturation of fetal liver cells in three-dimensional culture by stimulation of oncostatin M, epidermal growth factor, and dimethyl sulfoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Toshie; Ehashi, Tomo; Ohshima, Norio; Miyoshi, Hirotoshi

    2009-05-01

    For the purpose of applying fetal liver cells (FLCs) as a cell source to tissue-engineered bioartificial livers, three-dimensional (3-D) cultures of FLCs using a porous polymer scaffold, as well as monolayer cultures as a control, were simultaneously performed. To achieve efficient growth and differentiation, the FLCs were cultured in the growth medium for the first 3 weeks and then cultured in the differentiation medium for 3 more weeks. In these cultures, stimulating factors (oncostatin M (OSM), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) were added to the media, and their effects were examined. When the growth medium containing OSM and EGF was used, EGF stimulated the growth of FLCs synergistically with OSM. For the differentiation of FLCs into mature hepatocytes, DMSO added to the differentiation medium remarkably enhanced albumin secretion in the 3-D and monolayer cultures, although HGF was effective only in the monolayer culture. Microscopic observation proved that FLCs exhibited hepatocyte-like morphology only in the media containing DMSO. In conclusion, successive supply of the growth medium containing EGF and OSM and the differentiation medium containing DMSO efficiently induced the growth of the 3-D cultured FLCs and their differentiation into mature hepatocytes.

  5. Stromal-epithelial interaction study: The effect of corneal epithelial cells on growth factor expression in stromal cells using organotypic culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Hara, Yuko; Kadota, Yuko; Yang, Lujun; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Shirakata, Yuji; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    Interactions between stromal and epithelial cells play important roles in the development, homeostasis, and pathological conditions of the cornea. Soluble cytokines are critical factors in stromal-epithelial interactions, and growth factors secreted from corneal stromal cells contribute to the regulation of proliferation and differentiation of corneal epithelial cells (CECs). However, the manner in which the expression of growth factors is regulated in stromal cells has not been completely determined. To study stromal-epithelial cell interactions, we used an organotypic culture model. Human or rabbit CECs (HCECs or RCECs) were cultured on amniotic membranes placed on human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) embedded in a collagen gel. The properties of the organotypic culture were examined by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence. In the organotypic culture, HCECs or RCECs were stratified into two-three layers after five days and five-seven layers after nine days. However, stratification was not observed when the HCECs were seeded on a collagen gel without fibroblasts. K3/K12 were expressed on day 9. The HCF-embedded collagen gels were collected on days 3, 5, or 9 after seeding the RCECs, and mRNA expression of growth factors FGF7, HGF, NGF, EGF, TGF-α, SCF, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 were quantified by real-time PCR. mRNA expression of the growth factors in HCFs cultured with RCECs were compared with those cultured without RCECs, as well as in monolayer cultures. mRNA expression of TGF-α was markedly increased in HCFs cultured with RCECs. However, mRNA expression of the TGF-β family was suppressed in HCFs cultured with RCECs. Principal component analysis revealed that mRNA expression of the growth factors in HCFs were generally similar when they were cultured with RCECs. In organotypic cultures, the morphological changes in the CECs and the expression patterns of the growth factors in the stromal cells clearly demonstrated stromal-epithelial cell

  6. Injustice Experience Questionnaire, Japanese Version: Cross-Cultural Factor-Structure Comparison and Demographics Associated with Perceived Injustice

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Injustice Experience Questionnaire (IEQ) assesses injury-related perceived injustice. This study aimed to (1) develop a Japanese version (IEQ-J), (2) examine its factor structure, validity, and reliability, and (3) discover which demographic variable(s) positively contributed to prediction of IEQ-J scores. Methods Data from 71 patients (33 male, 38 female; age = 20+) with injury pain were employed to investigate factor structure by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. C...

  7. Effects of Nerve Growth Factor on Proliferation and DNA Synthesis of Cultured Human Fetal Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wensheng Li; Jun Wen; Deyong Jiang; Jianguang Ding

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of nerve growth factor(NGF)on proliferation and DNAthesis of cultured human fetal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)cells in vitro.Methods: Primary culture and subculture of human fetal retinal pigment epithelium cellswere established in vitro first. Cultured RPE cells were treated with NGF by variousconcentrations 0μg/L, 50μg/L, 100μg/L, 200μg/L and 300μg/L(final concentration)for 48 hs.After 48 hs, cells proliferation was measured with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT)assay method and the amount of DNA was determined by the absorbance at 280nm of nucleic acid & protein analysis.Results: The A values of 100 μg/L, 200 μg/L, 300 μg/L NGF was(0. 213 7 ± 0. 23 3),(0. 218 8 ±0. 018 1), (0. 232 2 ±0. 016 4) as compared with(0. 189 7 ±0. 015 2) of Avalue of 0 μg/L NGF respectively, q value was 3.63,4.40, 6. 42 and P value was0. 015, 0. 000, 0. 000(q-test). The DNA concentrations of 100 μg/L, 200 μg/L, 300μg/L and 400 μg/L NGF was (981. 220 4 ± 123.535 7), (1 375. 848 4 ±244. 471 8),(1 658.707 1 ± 176. 938 1), (2 353.086 3 ±609. 906 4) μg/ml as compared with(666. 818 8 ± 141. 330 2) μg/ml of DNA concentration of 0 μg/L NGF respectively, qvalue was 3.63,8.20,11.47,19.46, P value was 0. 024,0. 000,0. 000,0. 000 (q-test).Conclusion: The data suggested that NGF could stimulate the proliferation and DNAsynthesis of cultured of hRPE cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner.

  8. Elevated D-glucose concentrations modulate TGF-beta 1 synthesis by human cultured renal proximal tubular cells. The permissive role of platelet-derived growth factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, A.O.; Steadman, R.; Topley, N; Williams, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Interstitial fibrosis is a marker of progression of renal impairment in diabetic nephropathy. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 is one of a group of pro-fibrotic cytokines and growth factors that have been associated with the development of interstitial fibrosis. We have examined the modulating influence of glucose on the production of TGF-beta 1 by cultured human proximal tubular cells. Incubation of growth-arrested human proximal tubular cells (HPTC) (72 hours in serum free medium) in...

  9. Differential regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor by hydrogen peroxide and flagellin in cultured lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Noriko; Izumi, Shunsuke; Higa-Nakamine, Sayomi; Toku, Seikichi; Kakinohana, Manabu; Sugahara, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hideyuki

    2015-02-05

    In previous studies, we found that stimulation of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) by flagellin induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAPK-2) through activation of the p38 MAPK pathway in cultured alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Our studies strongly suggested that MAPKAPK-2 phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at Ser1047. It has been reported that phosphorylation of Ser1047 after treatment with tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) induced the internalization of EGFR. In the present study, we first found that treatment of A549 cells with hydrogen peroxide induced the activation of MAPKAPK-2 and phosphorylation of EGFR at Ser1047 within 30 min. This was different from flagellin treatment because hydrogen peroxide treatment induced the phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1173 as well as Ser1047, indicating the activation of EGFR. We also found that KN93, an inhibitor of CaM kinase II, inhibited the hydrogen peroxide-induced phosphorylation of EGFR at Ser1047 through inhibition of the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway. Furthermore, we examined the internalization of EGFR by three different methods. Flow cytometry with an antibody against the extracellular domain of EGFR and biotinylation of cell surface proteins revealed that flagellin, but not hydrogen peroxide, decreased the amount of cell-surface EGFR. In addition, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase by EGF treatment was reduced by flagellin pre-treatment. These results strongly suggested that hydrogen peroxide activated the p38 MAPK pathway via activation of CaM kinase II and that flagellin and hydrogen peroxide regulate the functions of EGFR by different mechanisms.

  10. Reviewing gender and cultural factors associated with HIV/AIDS among university students in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. van Staden

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is in the midst of a catastrophic AIDS epidemic. HIV prevalence statistics in most countries indicate that up to 60% of all new infections occur among 15 to 24 year olds, whilst this group also boasts the highest incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Statistical findings among South African students predict a 10% increase in the HIV infection rate, highlighting the inability of universities to cope with societies’ demands for academically trained workers which, in the near future, will have a detrimental effect on the economy of South Africa. From the literature it is evident that HIV/AIDS is more than a health issue, it is an inter-sectoral challenge to any society. This paper explored the interplay of gender and cultural factors on South African students’ sexual behaviour by inter alia discussing the following factors that might put students at risk for HIV infection: male dominance vs. female submissiveness; age of first sexual encounter; gender-based violence; contraception; circumcision; financial status; myths and ‘othering’; demonstrating the need for effective strategies, policies and programmes to protect young people, especially females from sexual abuse/rape and its consequences, including HIV. The literature review revealed that South African students, despite adequate HIV/AIDS knowledge, demonstrated high rates of sexual practices that place them at risk for HIV infection, i.e. unprotected sex, multiple partners and ‘sugar-daddy practices’. The paper concludes with a discussion on recommendations for future HIV prevention/ intervention programmes, highlighting the fact that it acquires an inclusive approach. Such interventions should move beyond the individual level to be effective and target gender-based inequalities, human rights violations, including sexual violence and rape, as well as stigma and poverty reduction, both at community and tertiary educational level.

  11. Chios mastic fractions in experimental colitis: implication of the nuclear factor κB pathway in cultured HT29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalois, Apostolos; Gioxari, Aristea; Kaliora, Andriana C; Lymperopoulou, Aikaterini; Agrogiannis, George; Papada, Efstathia; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2012-11-01

    The Pistacia lentiscus tree gives a resinous exudate called Chios mastic (CM) rich in triterpenoids. CM can be fractionated into acidic and neutral fractions (AF and NF, respectively). Oleanolic acid (OA) is a major triterpenic acid in CM with several antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently shown that CM is beneficial in experimental colitis in the form of powder mixture with inulin, as supplied commercially. However, the bioactive fraction or compound of CM is unidentified. Thus, based on the hypothesis that terpenoids exhibit functional activities via distinguishable pathways, we fractionated CM and applied different fractions or individual OA in experimental colitis. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism underlying this effect in human colon epithelial cells. CM powder mixture (100 mg/kg of body weight) or the respective CM powder mixture components (i.e., inulin, AF, NF, or OA) were individually administered in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-treated rats. Colonic damage was assessed microscopically, and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1were measured. A model of inflammation in co-cultured human colon epithelial HT29 cells and monocytes/macrophages was established. Lactate dehydrogenase release and levels of TNF-α, IL-8, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 were measured. In vivo, histological amelioration of colitis and significant regulation in inflammation occurred with CM powder mixture, even at the mRNA level. Although no histological improvement was observed, AF and NF reduced levels of inflammatory markers. Inulin was ineffective. In vitro, CM treatment down-regulated IL-8 and NF-κB p65. Neither fractions nor OA was the bioactive component solely. Most probably, the entire CM rather than its individual fractions reduces inflammation via NF-κB regulation.

  12. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and free of ... as possible. Share: The Normal Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & ...

  13. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor but not neurotrophin-3 enhances differentiation of somatostatin neurons in hypothalamic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudes, C; Petit, F; Kordon, C; Faivre-Bauman, A

    2000-09-01

    The present work investigated whether neurotrophins could differentially affect in vitro growth and maturation of two related subsets of hypothalamic neurons, hypophysiotropic somatostatin (SRIH) neurons projecting from the periventricular area and arcuate SRIH interneurons. For this purpose, the hypothalamus of 17-day-old rat fetuses was sampled and separated into a ventral and a dorsal fragment containing respectively periventricular and arcuate regions. Each fragment was dissociated and seeded separately in defined medium. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), two important members of the neurotrophin family involved in neuronal differentiation and plasticity, were added to the cultures at seeding time. After 6 or 11 days in vitro, neurons were labeled with an anti-SRIH antiserum and submitted to morphometric analysis. In parallel, SRIH mRNA was estimated by semiquantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and neuronal SRIH content, basal and depolarisation-stimulated releases measured by radioimmunoassay. The response of control, non-labeled neurons was estimated by neuronal counts and by assaying glutamic acid decarboxylase, a marker of a large majority of hypothalamic neurons. BDNF markedly increased the size and the branching number of SRIH periventricular cell bodies. Expression of SRIH mRNA, as well as SRIH content and release into the culture medium, were also stimulated by the neurotrophin. Non-SRIH neurons were not affected by the treatment. Under the same conditions, arcuate neurons exhibited a weak, mostly transient response to BDNF. NT-3 was ineffective on either neuronal subset. Immunoneutralization of Trk receptors provided further evidence for BDNF effect specificity. The results indicate that BDNF is a selective activator of the differentiation of hypophysiotropic SRIH neurons in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus.

  15. Multi-Cultural Long Term Care Nurses’ Perceptions of Factors Influencing Patient Dignity at the End of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyakoil, Vyjeyanthi S.; Stevens, Marguerite; Kraemer, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this mixed-methods study was to characterize the perceptions of multi-cultural long-term care nurses about patient dignity at the end-of-life (EOL). The study was conducted in a large, urban long-term care (LTC) facility. The participants were forty-five long-term care nurses and 26 terminally ill nursing home patients. Nurses completed an open-ended interview about their perceptions of the concept of dying with dignity and the data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Main themes identified as promoting patient dignity at the EOL included treating them with respect, helping them prepare for their EOL, promoting shared decision making and providing high quality tenor of care. The nurses’ cultural and religious backgrounds influenced their perceptions of what constitutes dignity-conserving care. Foreign-born nurses stressed the need for end-of-life rituals but this was strikingly absent in the statements of US-born nurses. Foreign-born Catholic nurses stated that the dying experience should not be altered using analgesics to relieve suffering or by attempts to hasten death by forgoing curative therapy or by other means. Both nurses and terminally ill patients completed the Dignity Card-sort Tool (DCT). A comparison of the LTC nurses cohort to the terminally ill patient responses on the DCT revealed that the nurses felt that patient dignity was eroded when her/his wishes were not carried out and when s/he is treated without respect. In contrast, dying LTC patients felt that poor medical care and loss of ability to choose care options to be the most important factors leading to erosion of dignity. PMID:23496266

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor as an indicator of chemical neurotoxicity: an animal-free CNS cell culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woehrling, Elizabeth K; Hill, Eric J; Nagel, David; Coleman, Michael D

    2013-12-01

    Recent changes to the legislation on chemicals and cosmetics testing call for a change in the paradigm regarding the current 'whole animal' approach for identifying chemical hazards, including the assessment of potential neurotoxins. Accordingly, since 2004, we have worked on the development of the integrated co-culture of post-mitotic, human-derived neurons and astrocytes (NT2.N/A), for use as an in vitro functional central nervous system (CNS) model. We have used it successfully to investigate indicators of neurotoxicity. For this purpose, we used NT2.N/A cells to examine the effects of acute exposure to a range of test chemicals on the cellular release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). It was demonstrated that the release of this protective neurotrophin into the culture medium (above that of control levels) occurred consistently in response to sub-cytotoxic levels of known neurotoxic, but not non-neurotoxic, chemicals. These increases in BDNF release were quantifiable, statistically significant, and occurred at concentrations below those at which cell death was measureable, which potentially indicates specific neurotoxicity, as opposed to general cytotoxicity. The fact that the BDNF immunoassay is non-invasive, and that NT2.N/A cells retain their functionality for a period of months, may make this system useful for repeated-dose toxicity testing, which is of particular relevance to cosmetics testing without the use of laboratory animals. In addition, the production of NT2.N/A cells without the use of animal products, such as fetal bovine serum, is being explored, to produce a fully-humanised cellular model.

  17. Risk factors for isolation of Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus dysgalactiae from milk culture obtained approximately 6 days post calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterås, Olav; Whist, Anne Cathrine; Sølverød, Liv

    2008-02-01

    Milk culture results at approximately 6 d post calving were assessed in a 2-year retrospective single-cohort study in 178 Norwegian herds. A combined teat dipping and selective antibiotic therapy trial was performed in these herds where cows with composite milk somatic cell count (CMSCC) >100,000 cells/ml before drying-off (geometric mean of the last three CMSCC test-days) and isolation of Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus dysgalactiae were selected for either short-acting lactation antibiotic treatment or long-acting dry cow antibiotic treatment. Milk culture results at approximately 6 d post-calving were available from 437 treated cows and 3061 non-treated cows before drying-off and separate multivariable logistic regression models were ran for these two groups. Risk factors associated with isolation of Staph. aureus 6 d post calving for non-treated cows were CMSCC >400,000 cells/ml before drying-off v. 200,000 cells/ml before drying-off v. 50,000 cells/ml compared with teat disinfection (PMTD) did not influence the isolation of Staph. aureus 6 d post calvin, but it was less likely to isolate Str. dysgalactiae 6 d post calving if iodine PMTD was used regularly rather than irregularly. The external teat sealant had no effect on either of the two bacteria. This study indicates that the CMSCC limit for sampling cows before drying-off can be reduced to 50,000 cells/ml in herds with a Str. dysgalactiae problem. Iodine PMTD should also be recommended in these herds. Cows with a CMSCC > 400,000 cells/ml prior to drying-off should receive long-acting dry cow formula irrespective of the milk result.

  18. 日语语言文化的特征及形成因素分析%Analysis on the Features and Formative Factors of Japanese Language Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚敏

    2016-01-01

    一个国家的语言特征是受着多方面因素影响的,任何因素都能够追溯到文化的起源与发展,从文化的根源了解文化发展的含义.本文主要分析日语语言文化的特征及形成因素.%The language features of a country is influenced by many factors which can all be traced back to the origin and de-velopment of culture, namely, learning about the connotation of culture development from the root of culture. This paper mainly analyzes the features and formative factors of Japanese language culture.

  19. Targets for primary prevention: Cultural, social and intrapersonal factors associated with co-occurring health-related behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, E.; Klein Velderman, M.; Paulussen, T.W.G.M.; Junger, M.; Nieuwenhuijzen, M. van; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Multiple studies have identified clusters of co-occurring health-related behaviours. Little is known, however, about factors associated with such clusters. This study aims to identify these factors and to assess whether their effects are in accordance with the Theory of Triadic Influence

  20. Targets for primary prevention : Cultural, social and intrapersonal factors associated with co-occurring health-related behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, Elise; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Paulussen, Theo W. G. M.; Junger, Marianne; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Multiple studies have identified clusters of co-occurring health-related behaviours. Little is known, however, about factors associated with such clusters. This study aims to identify these factors and to assess whether their effects are in accordance with the Theory of Triadic Influence

  1. A Comparison of the Relationship between Cultural Factors and Responsibility among Youths of Ghorveh and Baneh Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Movahed

    2013-07-01

    Considering the fact that environmental factors play an important role in forming and modifying behaviors such as responsibility, it is suggested that in addition to conducting extensive research in this field, factors associated with increasing responsibility will be identified and strengthened.

  2. Case Study on Influence Factor Trend Analysis of the Accidents and Events of Nuclear Power Plants by applying Nuclear Safety Culture Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. Y.; Park, Y. W.; Park, H.G. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study 1) established the standard based on frameworks of safety culture principles that show safety culture promotion goals, 2) analyzed the linkages with the frameworks that were established by analyzing each incident cause and weak point from selected 268 cases(rating over INES grade 1) among 4,088 cases (as of April 1, 2015). The 4,088 cases were selected as a result of database analysis from 702 accidents recorded in accident and rating evaluation reports that were published in the National Nuclear Safety Commission and overseas IRS (International Reporting System for operating Experience), and 3) finally conducted a trend analysis studies with these comprehensive results. From the investigations, followings were concluded. 1) In order to analyze the safety culture, analysis methodology is required. 2) Analytical methodology for building sustainable safety culture promoting a virtuous cycle system was developed 3) Among variety of process input data, 970 domestic and overseas incidents were selected as targets and 502 accidents were classified as safety culture related events by utilizing screen filter of IAEA GS-G-3.5 Appendix I and Framework (Nuclear Safety Culture Base Frame) developed by BEES, Inc. for safety culture analysis method. 4) As a result, complex safety culture influence factors for the one reason which was difficult to separate by conventional methods was able to be analyzed. 5) The cumulative data through the system was results of virtuous trend analysis rather than temporary results. Thus, it could be unique cultural factors of the domestic industry and could derive trend differences for domestic safety culture factors accordingly.

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, but not neurotrophin-3, prevents ischaemia-induced neuronal cell death in organotypic rat hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, A K; Sundstrom, L E; Wilde, G J; Williams, L R; Iannotti, F

    1996-06-28

    We have investigated the neuroprotective actions of neurotrophins in a model of ischaemia using slice cultures. Ischaemia was induced in organotypic hippocampal cultures by simultaneous oxygen and glucose deprivation. Cell death was assessed 24 h later by propidium iodide fluorescence. Pre- but not post-ischaemic addition of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) produced a concentration-dependent reduction in neuronal damage. Neurotrophin-3 was not neuroprotective. These data suggest that BDNF may form part of an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism.

  4. The Leading Factors in Cultural Land Quality of Huixian, Henan%河南省辉县市耕地质量主导因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋富强; 王令超; 毋黎明

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the leading factors in cultural land quality helps to reveal the main problems in cultural land management and improves the efficiency of cultural land use. Based on the gradation on agriculture land quality of Huixian City,Henan Province,the leading factors of cultural land quality were analyzed by using linear regression and principal component analysis. The results showed that irrigation efficiency ,soil layer thickness and altitude were the leading factors in climate,topography,soil,cultural land conditions and socio-economic factors,which influenced the cultural land quality. This study provided the theoretical references of the cultural land quality monitoring and cultural land quality enhance measures.%耕地质量主导因素分析有助于揭示耕地管理存在的主要问题,提高耕地资源利用效率。在河南省辉县市耕地质量等别补充完善工作基础上,利用回归分析及主成分分析两种方法,探讨影响辉县市耕地质量的主导因素。结果表明:在影响耕地质量的气候、地形地貌、土壤、耕地基本条件和社会经济五方面因素中,灌溉保证率、有效土层厚度和海拔是影响耕地质量的主导因素。本研究为耕地质量监测工作的开展与耕地质量提升措施的选择提供了理论参考。

  5. Are time-trends of smoking among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden determined by cultural or socioeconomic factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eek Frida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The widening socioeconomic gap in smoking during pregnancy remains a challenge to the Swedish antenatal care services. However, the influence of cultural factors in explaining the socioeconomic differences in smoking during pregnancy is not clear among the immigrant women. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the development of smoking prevalence among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden followed the trajectory which could be expected from the stages of the global smoking epidemic model in the women's countries of origin, or not. Methods Delivery data on pregnancies in Sweden from 1982 to 2001 was collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. From a total of 2,224,469 pregnant women during this period, all immigrant pregnant women (n = 234,731 were selected to this study. A logistic regression analysis and attributable fraction were used to investigate the association between smoking during pregnancy and the socioeconomic differences among immigrant women. Results Overall, the prevalence of smoking among pregnant immigrant women decreased from 30.3% in 1982 to 11.0% in 2001, albeit with remarkable differences between educational levels and country of origin. The greatest decline of absolute prevalence was recorded among low educated women (27,9% and among other Nordic countries (17,9%. In relative terms, smoking inequalities increased between educational levels regardless of country of origin. The odds ratios for low educational level for women from other Nordic countries increased from 4.9 (95% CI 4.4-5.4 in 1982 to 13.4 (95% CI 11.2-16.2 in 2001, as compared to women with high education in the same group. Further, the total attributable fraction for educational difference increased from 55% in 1982 to 62% in 2001, demonstrating the strong effect of educational attainment. Conclusions Our hypothesis that the socioeconomic time trend of smoking based on the stage of the world wide tobacco epidemic model

  6. Are time-trends of smoking among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden determined by cultural or socioeconomic factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Kontie M; Ostergren, P-O; Eek, Frida; Kunst, Anton E

    2010-06-26

    The widening socioeconomic gap in smoking during pregnancy remains a challenge to the Swedish antenatal care services. However, the influence of cultural factors in explaining the socioeconomic differences in smoking during pregnancy is not clear among the immigrant women. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the development of smoking prevalence among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden followed the trajectory which could be expected from the stages of the global smoking epidemic model in the women's countries of origin, or not. Delivery data on pregnancies in Sweden from 1982 to 2001 was collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. From a total of 2,224,469 pregnant women during this period, all immigrant pregnant women (n = 234,731) were selected to this study. A logistic regression analysis and attributable fraction were used to investigate the association between smoking during pregnancy and the socioeconomic differences among immigrant women. Overall, the prevalence of smoking among pregnant immigrant women decreased from 30.3% in 1982 to 11.0% in 2001, albeit with remarkable differences between educational levels and country of origin. The greatest decline of absolute prevalence was recorded among low educated women (27.9%) and among other Nordic countries (17.9%). In relative terms, smoking inequalities increased between educational levels regardless of country of origin. The odds ratios for low educational level for women from other Nordic countries increased from 4.9 (95% CI 4.4-5.4) in 1982 to 13.4 (95% CI 11.2-16.2) in 2001, as compared to women with high education in the same group. Further, the total attributable fraction for educational difference increased from 55% in 1982 to 62% in 2001, demonstrating the strong effect of educational attainment. Our hypothesis that the socioeconomic time trend of smoking based on the stage of the world wide tobacco epidemic model related to country of origin of the immigrant women was not supported

  7. Production of mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by gateway technology and transgenic rice cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Kuo; Huang, Li-Fen; Ho, Shin-Lon; Liao, Chun-Yu; Liu, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Ying-Hui; Yu, Su-May; Lu, Chung-An

    2012-05-01

    To establish a production platform for recombinant proteins in rice suspension cells, we first constructed a Gateway-compatible binary T-DNA destination vector. It provided a reliable and effective method for the rapid directional cloning of target genes into plant cells through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We used the approach to produce mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) in a rice suspension cell system. The promoter for the αAmy3 amylase gene, which is induced strongly by sugar depletion, drove the expression of mGM-CSF. The resulting recombinant protein was fused with the αAmy3 signal peptide and was secreted into the culture medium. The production of rice-derived mGM-CSF (rmGM-CSF) was scaled up successfully in a 2-L bioreactor, in which the highest yield of rmGM-CSF was 24.6 mg/L. Due to post-translational glycosylation, the molecular weight of rmGM-CSF was larger than that of recombinant mGM-CSF produced in Escherichia coli. The rmGM-CSF was bioactive and could stimulate the proliferation of a murine myeloblastic leukemia cell line, NSF-60.

  8. Putative new heat-stable cytotoxic and enterotoxic factors in culture supernatant of Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteric infections caused by the ingestion of contaminated water, especially by Escherichia coli, are important to define the virulence properties of these bacteria. Due to frequent infantile diarrhea in the city of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, the phenotypic and genotypic diarrheagenic properties of E. coli isolated from drinking water were studied. The culture supernatants of 39 (40% among a total of 97 E. coli isolates from drinking water were positive by suckling mouse assay and induced cytotoxic effects on Vero cells. The enterotoxic and cytotoxic activities were present in the fraction with less than 10 kDa and were not lost when heated up to 60°C and 100°C for 30 minutes. PCR assays showed that among these 39 Vero cytotoxigenic E. coli, four (10.2% were positive for ST II (estB and two (5% positive for αHly (hlyA. Gene amplification of SLT (stx 1, stx 2, ST I (estA, LT (eltI, eltII, EAST1 (astA, EHly (enhly and plasmid-encoded enterotoxin (pet were not observed. This heat-stable cytotoxic enterotoxin of E. coli is probably a new putative diarrheagenic virulence factor, as a toxin presenting these characteristics has not yet been described.

  9. Inhibitory Activity of Yokukansankachimpihange against Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Neurite Growth in Cultured Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Murayama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pruritus is a major and distressing symptom of many cutaneous diseases, however, the treatment remains a challenge in the clinic. The traditional Chinese-Japanese medicine (Kampo medicine is a conservative and increasingly popular approach to treat chronic pruritus for both patients and medical providers. Yokukansankachimpihange (YKH, a Kampo formula has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of itching of atopic dermatitis in Japan although its pharmacological mechanism is unknown clearly. In an attempt to clarify its pharmacological actions, in this study, we focused on the inhibitory activity of YKH against neurite growth induced with nerve growth factor (NGF in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons because epidermal hyperinnervation is deeply related to itch sensitization. YKH showed approximately 200-fold inhibitory activity against NGF-induced neurite growth than that of neurotropin (positive control, a drug used clinically for treatment of chronic pruritus. Moreover, it also found that Uncaria hook, Bupleurum root and their chemical constituents rhynchophylline, hirsutine, and saikosaponin a, d showed inhibitory activities against NGF-induced neurite growth, suggesting they should mainly contribute to the inhibitory activity of YKH. Further study on the effects of YKH against epidermal nerve density in “itch-scratch” animal models is under investigation.

  10. 3D Spheroid Culture Enhances the Expression of Antifibrotic Factors in Human Adipose-Derived MSCs and Improves Their Therapeutic Effects on Hepatic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D cell culture has been reported to increase the therapeutic potentials of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. However, the action mechanisms of 3D MSCs vary greatly and are far from being thoroughly investigated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of 3D spheroids of human adipose-derived MSCs for hepatic fibrosis. Our results showed that 3D culture enhanced the expression of antifibrotic factors by MSCs, including insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF. In vitro studies indicated conditioned medium of 3D cultured MSCs protected hepatocytes from cell injury and apoptosis more effectively compared with 2D cultured cells. More importantly, when transplanted into model mice with hepatic fibrosis, 3D spheroids of MSCs were more beneficial in ameliorating hepatic fibrosis and improving liver function than 2D cultured cells. Therefore, the 3D culture strategy improved the therapeutic effects of MSCs and might be promising for treatment of hepatic fibrosis.

  11. Validating the cross-cultural factor structure and invariance property of the Insomnia Severity Index: evidence based on ordinal EFA and CFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Yi; Yang, Chien-Ming; Morin, Charles M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factor structure of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) across samples recruited from different countries. We tried to identify the most appropriate factor model for the ISI and further examined the measurement invariance property of the ISI across samples from different countries. Our analyses included one data set collected from a Taiwanese sample and two data sets obtained from samples in Hong Kong and Canada. The data set collected in Taiwan was analyzed with ordinal exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to obtain the appropriate factor model for the ISI. After that, we conducted a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs), which is a special case of the structural equation model (SEM) that concerns the parameters in the measurement model, to the statistics collected in Canada and Hong Kong. The purposes of these CFA were to cross-validate the result obtained from EFA and further examine the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the ISI. The three-factor model outperforms other models in terms of global fit indices in Taiwan's population. Its external validity is also supported by confirmatory factor analyses. Furthermore, the measurement invariance analyses show that the strong invariance property between the samples from different cultures holds, providing evidence that the ISI results obtained in different cultures are comparable. The factorial validity of the ISI is stable in different populations. More importantly, its invariance property across cultures suggests that the ISI is a valid measure of the insomnia severity construct across countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Culture, social networks, and information sharing: An exploratory study of Japanese aerospace engineers' information-seeking processes and habits in light of cultural factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuko

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of culture and language on Japanese aerospace engineers' information-seeking processes by both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The Japanese sample consisted of 162 members of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences (JSASS). U.S. aerospace engineers served as a reference point, consisting of 213 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The survey method was utilized in gathering data using self-administered mail questionnaires in order to explore the following eight areas: (1) the content and use of information resources; (2) production and use of information products; (3) methods of accessing information service providers; (4) foreign language skills; (5) studying/researching/collaborating abroad as a tool in expanding information resources; (6) scientific and technical societies as networking tools; (7) alumni associations (school/class reunions) as networking tools; and (8) social, corporate, civic and health/fitness clubs as networking tools. Nine Japanese cultural factors expressed as statements about Japanese society are as follows: (1) information is neither autonomous, objective, nor independent of the subject of cognition; (2) information and knowledge are not readily accessible to the public; (3) emphasis on groups is reinforced in a hierarchical society; (4) social networks thrive as information-sharing vehicles; (5) high context is a predominant form of communication in which most of the information is already in the person, while very little is in the coded, transmitted part of the message; (6) obligations based on mutual trust dictate social behaviors instead of contractual agreements; (7) a surface message is what is presented while a bottom-line message is true feeling privately held; (8) various religious beliefs uphold a work ethic based on harmony; (9) ideas from outside are readily assimilated into its own society. The result of the

  13. A formal anthropological view of motivation models of problematic MMO play: achievement, social, and immersion factors in the context of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Dengah, H J Francois; Lacy, Michael G; Fagan, Jesse

    2013-04-01

    Yee (2006) found three motivational factors-achievement, social, and immersion-underlying play in massively multiplayer online role-playing games ("MMORPGs" or "MMOs" for short). Subsequent work has suggested that these factors foster problematic or addictive forms of play in online worlds. In the current study, we used an online survey of respondents (N = 252), constructed and also interpreted in reference to ethnography and interviews, to examine problematic play in the World of Warcraft (WoW; Blizzard Entertainment, 2004-2013). We relied on tools from psychological anthropology to reconceptualize each of Yee's three motivational factors in order to test for the possible role of culture in problematic MMO play: (a) For achievement, we examined how "cultural consonance" with normative understandings of success might structure problematic forms of play; (b) for social, we analyzed the possibility that developing overvalued virtual relationships that are cutoff from offline social interactions might further exacerbate problematic play; and (c) in relation to immersion, we examined how "dissociative" blurring of actual- and virtual-world identities and experiences might contribute to problematic patterns. Our results confirmed that compared to Yee's original motivational factors, these culturally sensitive measures better predict problematic forms of play, pointing to the important role of sociocultural factors in structuring online play.

  14. Influence of the Cultural Identity Factors on the Process of Self-Categorization of the Russian-Speaking Groups in Chisinau and Tiraspol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Zaitzev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the impact of cultural identity in the process of self-categorization with the Russian-speaking community in the Russian-speaking groups in Chisinau and Tiraspol. The main theoretical approach of the study of Russian-speaking groups is the concept of cross-border Russian language space. Analysis of the factors is conducted in the following areas: scope of the usage of the Russian language, identification with Russian culture and willingness to impart the traditions of Russian culture and language to children.

  15. Effects of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) inhibitor SU5416 on in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Hoyer, Nils; Staalsø, Trine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is taken up by parasitized red blood cells during malaria and stimulates intra-erythrocytic growth of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. The cause and consequence of this uptake is not understood. METHODS: Plasmodium falciparum was cultured in vi...

  16. Fibroblast growth factor-1 and-2 preserve long-term repopulating ability of hematopoietic stem cells in serum-free cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeoh, Joyce S. G.; van Os, Ronald; Weersing, Ellen; Ausema, Albertina; Dontje, Bert; Vellenga, Edo; de Haan, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that extended culture of unfractionated mouse bone marrow (BM) cells, in serum-free medium, supplemented only with fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1, FGF-2, or FGF-1 + 2 preserves long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Using competitive repopulation assa

  17. A Cross-Cultural Examination of the Impact of Social, Organisational and Individual Factors on Educational Technology Acceptance between British and Lebanese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhini, Ali; Hone, Kate; Liu, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the social, organisational and individual factors that may affect students' acceptance of e-learning systems in higher education in a cross-cultural context. A questionnaire was developed based on an extended technology acceptance model (TAM). A total sample of 1173 university students from two private universities in Lebanon…

  18. Production and action of transforming growth factor-beta in human osteoblast cultures: dependence on cell differentiation and modulation by calcitriol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, M; Kveiborg, Marie; Eriksen, E F

    2000-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) plays an important role in skeletal remodelling. However, few studies have examined its effects on cultured human osteoblasts. Our aim is to characterise the biological effects of TGF-beta1 on human osteoblasts and to examine the interaction between TGF-...

  19. Effects of chronic renal failure rat serum on histone acetyltransferase p300 and activation of activating transcription factor 4 of arterial smooth muscle cells cultured in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀全

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the rat serum with chronic renal failure(CRF)on ubiquitin-proteasome pathway,histone acetyltransferase p300 and activation of activating transcription factor 4(ATF4)of rat arterial vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs)cultured in vitro,and explore the possible mechanism.Methods Objective To establish the rat model of

  20. Production and action of transforming growth factor-beta in human osteoblast cultures: dependence on cell differentiation and modulation by calcitriol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, M; Kveiborg, Marie; Eriksen, E F

    2000-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) plays an important role in skeletal remodelling. However, few studies have examined its effects on cultured human osteoblasts. Our aim is to characterise the biological effects of TGF-beta1 on human osteoblasts and to examine the interaction between TGF-...

  1. Factor V deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When certain blood clotting factors are low or missing, your blood does not clot properly. Factor V deficiency is rare. It may be caused by: A defective Factor V gene passed down through families (inherited) An antibody that interferes with normal Factor ...

  2. Foundations of factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mulaik, Stanley A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Factor Analysis and Structural Theories Brief History of Factor Analysis as a Linear Model Example of Factor AnalysisMathematical Foundations for Factor Analysis Introduction Scalar AlgebraVectorsMatrix AlgebraDeterminants Treatment of Variables as Vectors Maxima and Minima of FunctionsComposite Variables and Linear Transformations Introduction Composite Variables Unweighted Composite VariablesDifferentially Weighted Composites Matrix EquationsMulti

  3. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1 in cultured brain slices after oxygen-glucose deprivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Cui; Weijuan Han; Lijun Yang; Yanzhong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1 expressed in oligodendrocytes may trigger the repair of neuronal myelin impairment, and play a crucial role in myelin repair. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, a transcription factor, is of great significance in premature infants with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. There is little evidence of direct regulatory effects of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α on oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1. In this study, brain slices of Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured and subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation. Then, slices were transfected with hypoxia-inducible factor 1α or oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1. The expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1 were significantly up-regulated in rat brains prior to transfection, as detected by immunohistochemical staining. Eight hours after transfection of slices with hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1 expression was upregulated, and reached a peak 24 hours after transfection. Oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1 transfection induced no significant differences in hypoxia-inducible factor 1α levels in rat brain tissues with oxygen-glucose deprivation. These experimental findings indicate that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α can regulate oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1 expression in hypoxic brain tissue, thus repairing the neural impairment.

  4. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  5. Stem cell factor and stromal cell co-culture prevent apoptosis in a subculture of the megakaryoblastic cell line, UT-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesveld, J L; Harbol, A W; Abboud, C N

    1996-07-01

    The megakaryoblastic cell line, UT-7, is dependent for its growth upon interleukin-3 (IL-3), erythropoietin, or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). A subculture of this line can be maintained in recombinant human c-kit ligand [stem cell factor (SCF)] at 100 ng/ml without requirement for other growth factors. Removal of this subculture from SCF results in rapid loss of viability and decreased proliferation. Cells grown in SCF also can be maintained in GM-CSF but not vice versa. In this work, we have characterized the SCF dependence of this UT-7 subculture. Stem cell factor removal results in apoptosis and a decline in viability which can be restored partially by re-addition of SCF, GM-CSF, or co-culture with adherent marrow stromal cells. Apoptosis in the factor-starved UT-7 population has been documented by light microscopy, electron microscopy and DNA analysis, showing the typical 180 base pair laddering characteristic of apoptosis. To quantitate the degree of apoptosis in the cell populations, and to assess whether apoptosis decreased with re-exposure of starved cells to growth factors or stroma, we utilized flow cytometry. This confirmed that exposure of previously factor-starved cells to stroma decreased the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis. Co-culture with an SCF-deficient murine stromal cell line was also able to prevent apoptosis, suggesting contribution of other stromal cell factors. Experiments performed using trans-well inserts which do not allow cell passage, showed greatest viability of cells in contact with stroma, but viability was also improved in cells cultured in the presence of, but not in contact with, stromal cells compared to those cultured above plastic, suggesting a role for soluble stroma-produced substances. These data demonstrate that SCF alone can prevent apoptosis in cells dependent upon its presence for proliferation. Also, marrow stromal cells can serve as a partial substitute for growth factor in the

  6. Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Occupational Choice: The Selection of a Nursing Career by Ex-Soviet Immigrant Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagy, Shifra; Liberman, Orly

    1997-01-01

    Data from 136 Soviet immigrants to Israel identified the sociocultural factors that influenced the choice of nursing as a career. Gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnic origin had less influence than parents, peers, and academic achievement. (JOW)

  7. ISS Payload Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  8. Polarity of stimulation and secretion of transforming growth factor-beta 1 by cultured proximal tubular cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, A.O.; Steadman, R.; Morrisey, K.; Williams, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    Proximal tubular epithelial cells are the most abundant cells in the renal cortex, and recent studies suggest that they may play an important role in initiating pathological changes in renal disease. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 has been implicated as a major factor controlling the development and progression of renal fibrosis in numerous diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. We have recently demonstrated that human proximal tubular epithelial cells synthesize and secrete TGF-b...

  9. 医院患者安全文化影响因素研究进展%Research Progress of Influencing Factors of Hospital Patient Safety Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康敏; 黄照权; 石武祥

    2016-01-01

    本文阐述了国内外患者安全文化影响因素的研究现状,总结了医务人员的工作年限、职称和文化程度等个体特征以及医院规模、等级、组织管理等环境因素对患者安全文化的影响,指出了患者安全文化影响因素研究的不足及未来发展趋势,为患者安全文化建设的政策制定和进一步研究提供线索和理论依据.%This article is to review the research status on the influencing factors of hospital patient safety culture, and summarize the influ-ence of individual characteristics of the medical personnel such as working years, professionals and cultural levels and environmental factors such as hospital scale, grade, management on hospital patient safety culture.It tells about the achievements and shortcomings, and the future develop-ment trend of research on influencing factors of patient safety culture, and provides clues and theoretical basis for enriching and improving hospital patient safety culture.

  10. Adalimumab (tumor necrosis factor-blocker) reduces the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity increased by exogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha in an organotypic culture of porcine neuroretina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Bueno, I; Garcia-Gutierrez, M T; Srivastava, G K; Gayoso, M J; Gonzalo-Orden, J M; Pastor, J C

    2013-01-01

    To determine if exogenous addition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) exacerbates retinal reactive gliosis in an organotypic culture of porcine neuroretina and to evaluate if concomitant adalimumab, a TNF-blocker, diminishes it. Porcine retinal explants from 20 eyeballs were cultured. Cultures with 100 pg/ml TNFα, 10 µg/ml adalimumab, 100 pg/ml TNFα plus 10 µg/ml adalimumab, or controls without additives were maintained for 9 days. Freshly detached retinas were processed in parallel. TNFα levels in control culture supernatants were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cryostat sections were doubly immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for reactive gliosis, and cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP), a marker for Müller cells. Sections were also labeled with the isolectin IB4, a label for microglia/macrophages. TNFα in control culture supernatants was detected only at day 1. Compared to the fresh neuroretinal samples, upregulation of GFAP and downregulation of CRALBP occurred during the 9 days of culture. Exogenous TNFα stimulated glial cells to upregulate GFAP and downregulate CRALBP immunoreactivity. TNFα-treated cultures also initiated the growth of gliotic membranes and underwent retinal disorganization. Adalimumab inhibited the spontaneous increases in GFAP and maintained CRALBP. In combination with TNFα, adalimumab reduced GFAP expression and conserved CRALBP, with only slight retinal disorganization. No appreciable changes in IB4 labeling were observed under the different culture conditions. In cultured porcine neuroretina, spontaneous reactive gliosis and retinal disorganization were exacerbated by exogenous TNFα. Adalimumab reduced spontaneous changes and those induced by TNFα. Therefore, inhibiting TNFα may represent a novel approach to controlling retinal fibrosis observed in some human diseases.

  11. The Embodiment about the Cultural Factors in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language%对外汉语教学中文化因素的体现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王皓

    2013-01-01

      语言与文化不可分割的关系,决定了在对外汉语教学过程中语言知识与文化因素水乳交融的关系。语言教学的内容中体现着文化因素,手段上也需要借助于文化的传递。有效渗透文化内容不仅能使教学任务得到更加圆满的完成,教学效果也会更加优质,同时也能提高学习者对于汉语学习的兴趣。本文首先分析了语言教学内容中文化因素的体现,继而分析了文化因素在对外汉语教学手段中的体现,最后探讨了文化因素对语言教学的影响。%The relationship between language and culture are inseparable, determines the relationship between language knowledge and cultural are also inseparable in foreign language teaching process. Language teaching content includes the cultural factors, at the same time,it needs to pass with the help of culture. The cultural content not only can make the teaching tasks get done more successful, the teaching effect will be better, also can improve the learning interest in Chinese. This paper first analyzes the embodiment of cultural factors in language teaching, then analyzes the cultural factors reflected in the means of teaching Chinese as a foreign language, and finally discusses the influence of culture in language teaching.

  12. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein transcription factors in cultured human sebocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, WenChieh; Yang, Chao-Chun; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Seltmann, Holger; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2003-09-01

    Lipid synthesis and accumulation represent a major step in sebocyte differentiation and it may be of importance for sebocytes to express two families of transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (c/EBPs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which were found to play a crucial role in the differentiation of adipocytes. Using the immortalized human sebaceous gland cell line SZ95 we examined the expression of the molecules before and after treatment with testosterone, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, dexamethasone, 17beta-estradiol and genistein, at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors -alpha, -delta, -gamma1, -gamma2 and CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins-alpha, -beta, -gamma-delta in native SZ95 sebocytes. In western blot studies, high levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins-alpha and -beta, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma were expressed at 6, 24, and 12 h, respectively. Immunostaining of the cultured sebocytes showed the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins-alpha and -beta mainly localized within nuclei, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma in the cytoplasm. Strong staining of sebocytes was immunohistochemically revealed in the basal layer of sebaceous glands in human scalp and sebaceous nevus. Genistein down-regulated the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins-alpha and -beta, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma on the protein level. Treatment with linoleic acid for 48 h induced further differentiation of sebocytes leading to abundant lipid synthesis.

  13. Nuclear factor-kappa B localization and function within intrauterine tissues from term and preterm labor and cultured fetal membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusanovic Juan P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to quantify the nuclear localization and DNA binding activity of p65, the major transactivating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB subunit, in full-thickness fetal membranes (FM and myometrium in the absence or presence of term or preterm labor. Methods Paired full-thickness FM and myometrial samples were collected from women in the following cohorts: preterm no labor (PNL, N = 22, spontaneous preterm labor (PTL, N = 21, term no labor (TNL, N = 23, and spontaneous term labor (STL, N = 21. NF-kappaB p65 localization was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and DNA binding activity was evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-based method. Results Nuclear p65 labeling was rare in amnion and chorion, irrespective of clinical context. In decidua, nuclear p65 labeling was greater in the STL group relative to the TNL cohort, but there were no differences among the TNL, PTL, and PNL cohorts. In myometrium, diffuse p65 nuclear labeling was significantly associated with both term and preterm labor. There were no significant differences in ELISA-based p65 binding activity in amnion, choriodecidual, and myometrial specimens in the absence or presence of term labor. However, parallel experiments using cultured term fetal membranes demonstrated high levels of p65-like binding even the absence of cytokine stimulation, suggesting that this assay may be of limited value when applied to tissue specimens. Conclusions These results suggest that the decidua is an important site of NF-kappaB regulation in fetal membranes, and that mechanisms other than cytoplasmic sequestration may limit NF-kappaB activation prior to term.

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mediates activity-dependent dendritic growth in nonpyramidal neocortical interneurons in developing organotypic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoming; Hu, Hang; Mathers, Peter H; Agmon, Ariel

    2003-07-02

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes postnatal maturation of GABAergic inhibition in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, and its expression and release are enhanced by neuronal activity, suggesting that it acts in a feedback manner to maintain a balance between excitation and inhibition during development. BDNF promotes differentiation of cerebellar, hippocampal, and neostriatal inhibitory neurons, but its effects on the dendritic development of neocortical inhibitory interneurons remain unknown. Here, we show that BDNF mediates depolarization-induced dendritic growth and branching in neocortical interneurons. To visualize inhibitory interneurons, we biolistically transfected organotypic cortical slice cultures from neonatal mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)67 promoter. Nearly all GAD67-GFP-expressing neurons were nonpyramidal, many contained GABA, and some expressed markers of neurochemically defined GABAergic subtypes, indicating that GAD67-GFP-expressing neurons were GABAergic. We traced dendritic trees from confocal images of the same GAD67-GFP-expressing neurons before and after a 5 d growth period, and quantified the change in total dendritic length (TDL) and total dendritic branch points (TDBPs) for each neuron. GAD67-GFP-expressing neurons growing in control medium exhibited a 20% increase in TDL, but in 200 ng/ml BDNF or 10 mm KCl, this increase nearly doubled and was accompanied by a significant increase in TDBPs. Blocking action potentials with TTX did not prevent the BDNF-induced growth, but antibodies against BDNF blocked the growth-promoting effect of KCl. We conclude that BDNF, released by neocortical pyramidal neurons in response to depolarization, enhances dendritic growth and branching in nearby inhibitory interneurons.

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B is up-regulated and exogenous VEGF-B is neuroprotective in a culture model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shiling

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD results from the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the consequent deficit of dopamine released in the striatum. Current oral dopamine replacement or surgical therapies do not address the underlying issue of neurodegeneration, they neither slow nor halt disease. Neurotrophic factors have shown preclinical promise, but the choice of an appropriate growth factor as well as the delivery has proven difficult. In this study, we used a rotenone rat midbrain culture model to identify genes that are changed after addition of the neurotoxin. (1 We challenged rat midbrain cultures with rotenone (20 nM, a pesticide that has been shown to be toxic for dopaminergic neurons and that has been a well-characterized model of PD. A gene chip array analysis demonstrated that several genes were up-regulated after the rotenone treatment. Interestingly transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B was evident, while vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A levels remained unaltered. The results from the gene chip array experiment were verified with real time PCR and semi-quantitative western analysis using β-actin as the internal standard. (2 We have also found evidence that exogenously applied VEGF-B performed as a neuroprotective agent facilitating neuron survival in an even more severe rotenone culture model of PD (40 nM rotenone. VEGF-B has very recently been added to the list of trophic factors that reduce effects of neurodegeneration, as was shown in an in vivo model of motor neuron degeneration, while lacking potential adverse angiogenic activity. The data of an in vivo protective effect on motor neurons taken together with the presented results demonstrate that VEGF-B is a new candidate trophic factor distinct from the GDNF family of trophic factors. VEGF-B is activated by neurodegenerative challenges to the midbrain, and exogenous application of VEGF-B has a

  16. Growth Factors in Synaptic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Yi Nuo Poon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Synapses are increasingly recognized as key structures that malfunction in disorders like schizophrenia, mental retardation, and neurodegenerative diseases. The importance and complexity of the synapse has fuelled research into the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. In this regard, neurotrophic factors such as netrin, Wnt, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and others have gained prominence for their ability to regulate synaptic function. Several of these factors were first implicated in neuroprotection, neuronal growth, and axon guidance. However, their roles in synaptic development and function have become increasingly clear, and the downstream signaling pathways employed by these factors have begun to be elucidated. In this review, we will address the role of these factors and their downstream effectors in synaptic function in vivo and in cultured neurons.

  17. Assessment of potential risk factors for new onset disabling low back pain in Japanese workers: findings from the CUPID (cultural and psychosocial influences on disability) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Mika; Matsudaira, Ko; Sawada, Takayuki; Koga, Tadashi; Ishizuka, Akiko; Isomura, Tatsuya; Coggon, David

    2017-08-02

    Most studies of risk factors for new low back pain (LBP) have been conducted in Western populations, but because of cultural and environmental differences, the impact of causal factors may not be the same in other countries. We used longitudinal data from the Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability (CUPID) study to assess risk factors for new onset of disabling LBP among Japanese workers. Data came from a 1-year prospective follow-up of nurses, office workers, sales/marketing personnel, and transportation workers, initially aged 20-59 years, who were employed in or near Tokyo. A baseline questionnaire included items on past history of LBP, personal characteristics, ergonomic work demands, and work-related psychosocial factors. Further information about LBP was collected at follow-up. Analysis was restricted to participants who had been free from LBP during the 12 months before baseline. Logistic regression was used to assess baseline risk factors for new onset of disabling LBP (i.e. LBP that had interfered with work) during the 12 months of follow-up. Among 955 participants free from LBP during the 12 months before baseline, 58 (6.1%) reported a new episode of disabling LBP during the 12-month follow-up period. After mutual adjustment in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, which included the four factors that showed associations individually (p 3.0). When past history of LBP was excluded from the model, ORs for the remaining risk factors were virtually unchanged. Our findings suggest that among Japanese workers, as elsewhere, past history of LBP is a major risk factor for the development of new episodes of disabling back pain. They give limited support to the association with occupational lifting that has been observed in earlier research, both in Japan and in Western countries. In addition, they suggest a possible role of long working hours, which merits further investigation.

  18. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor, and the corr......This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor......, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates...

  19. Comparison of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) growth rate in culture media supplemented with or without basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdian, Narges; Ghasemi-Dehkordi, Payam; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Ganji-Arjenaki, Mahbobe; Doosti, Abbas; Amiri, Beheshteh

    2015-12-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2) is a member of the FGF family secreted by different kinds of cells like HDFs and it is an important nutritional factor for cell growth and differentiation. The HDFs release bFGF in culture media at very low. The present study aims to investigate the HDFs growth rate in culture media supplemented either with or without bFGF. In brief, HDFs were isolated from human foreskin sample and were cultured in vitro in media containing bFGF and lack of this factor. The cells growth rate was calculated by trypan blue. The karyotyping was performed using G-banding to investigate the chromosomal abnormality of HDFs in both groups. Total RNA of each groups were extracted and cDNA samples were synthesized then, real-time Q-PCR was used to measure the expression level of p27kip1 and cyclin D1 genes normalized to internal control gene (GAPDH). The karyotype analysis showed that HDFs cultured in media or without bFGF had normal karyotype (46 chromosomes, XY) and chromosomal abnormalities were not observed. The cell growth rates in both groups were normal with proliferated exponentially but the slope of growth curve in HDFs cultured in media containing bFGF was increased. Karyotyp test showed that bFGF does not affect on cytogenetic stability of cells. The survey of p27kip1 and cyclin D1 genes by real-time Q-PCR showed that the expression level of these genes were up-regulated when adding bFGF in culture media (p media with growth factor like bFGF could enhance the proliferation and differentiation capacity of cells and improve cells growth rate. Similarly, fibroblast growth factors did not induce any chromosomal abnormality in cells. Furthermore, in HDFs cultured in bFGF supplemented media, the p27kip1 and cyclin D1 genes were up-regulated and suggesting an important role for bFGF in cell-cycle regulation and progression and fibroblast division stimulation. It also suggests that the effects of bFGF on different cell types with

  20. Academic Success Factors: An IT Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aimao; Aasheim, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified causal factors for academic success. Factors vary from personal factors, such as cognitive style (McKenzie & Schweitzer, 2001), to social factors, such as culture differences (Aysan, Tanriogen, & Tanriogen, 1996). However, in these studies it is re-searchers who theorized the causal dimensions and…