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Sample records for factors branch mrfb

  1. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  2. On the contraction factors of long-chain branched macromolecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Pavel; Netopilík, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, February (2014), s. 177-181 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP205/11/J043 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : long- chain branching * contraction factor * radius of gyration Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.005, year: 2014

  3. Isolated Common Hepatic Artery Branch Thrombosis: Results and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulhossein Davoodabadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Isolated common hepatic artery branch thrombosis with severe gastric ischemia and duodenojejunal infarction is a rare condition; it usually presents with acute abdomen and may be associated with underlying thrombotic risk factors. We present a 35-year-old man admitted to our hospital with five days history of sudden abdominal pain and deteriorating epigastric pain. He was a driver and had no any past medical history. Explorative laparotomy showed: distal 2/3 gastric, duodenojejunal and papilla vater was sloughed. The stomach subtotal and sloughed duodenum and first 20 cm of jejunum were resected, continuity of the gastrointestinal was preserved with anastomosis of the proximal part of jejunum to gastric stump, pancreatic duct, and CBD repaired to the lateral side of jejunum on the guide of two 18 French feeding tube as an external drain. The patient had a good immediate postoperative recovery. Coagulation checkup after operation revealed isolated Hyperhomocysteinemia.

  4. Flexibility factors for small (d/D<1/3) branch connections with external loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1977-03-01

    A piping system analysis is accurate only to the extent that the flexibilities of all portions of the piping system are accurately known. The use of a ''conservative'' flexibility factor is not possible because such a factor cannot be defined. Branch connections require a definition of flexibility factor which is conceptually different than commonly used for curved pipe. An appropriate definition for the flexibility factors of branch connections is presented. The background of the present Code formulations of flexibility factors for branch connections is discussed. Additional theoretical data and test data are summarized. Recommendations are given for revisions to Code formulations for handling the flexibility of branch connections in a piping system analysis

  5. Control of trichome branching by Chromatin Assembly Factor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennig Lars

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin dynamics and stability are both required to control normal development of multicellular organisms. Chromatin assembly factor CAF-1 is a histone chaperone that facilitates chromatin formation and the maintenance of specific chromatin states. In plants and animals CAF-1 is essential for normal development, but it is poorly understood which developmental pathways require CAF-1 function. Results Mutations in all three CAF-1 subunits affect Arabidopsis trichome morphology and lack of CAF-1 function results in formation of trichomes with supernumerary branches. This phenotype can be partially alleviated by external sucrose. In contrast, other aspects of the CAF-1 mutant phenotype, such as defective meristem function and organ formation, are aggravated by external sucrose. Double mutant analyses revealed epistatic interactions between CAF-1 mutants and stichel, but non-epistatic interactions between CAF-1 mutants and glabra3 and kaktus. In addition, mutations in CAF-1 could partly suppress the strong overbranching and polyploidization phenotype of kaktus mutants. Conclusion CAF-1 is required for cell differentiation and regulates trichome development together with STICHEL in an endoreduplication-independent pathway. This function of CAF-1 can be partially substituted by application of exogenous sucrose. Finally, CAF-1 is also needed for the high degree of endoreduplication in kaktus mutants and thus for the realization of kaktus' extreme overbranching phenotype.

  6. The interplay of matrix metalloproteinases, morphogens and growth factors is necessary for branching of mammary epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Simian, Marina; Hirai, Yohei; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J.

    2001-01-01

    The mammary gland develops its adult form by a process referred to as branching morphogenesis. Many factors have been reported to affect this process. We have used cultured primary mammary epithelial organoids and mammary epithelial cell lines in three-dimensional collagen gels to elucidate which growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mammary morphogens interact in branching morphogenesis. Branching stimulated by stromal fibroblasts, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth fa...

  7. Motivational Factors Affecting Athletes in Selecting the Sport Branches of Athletics, Ski and Tennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Murat; Agar, Muharrem; Akyüz, Öznur; Dogru, Yeliz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to research the motivational factors affecting athletes to select the branches of athletics, ski and tennis. Within the scope of the research, the survey developed by H. Sunay in 1996 was implemented and solution for the problem of the research was searched through the findings that were obtained from the survey. SPSS…

  8. The interplay of matrix metalloproteinases, morphogens and growth factors is necessary for branching of mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simian, M.; Harail, Y.; Navre, M.; Werb, Z.; Lochter, A.; Bissell, M.J.

    2002-03-06

    The mammary gland develops its adult form by a process referred to as branching morphogenesis. Many factors have been reported to affect this process. We have used cultured primary mammary epithelial organoids and mammary epithelial cell lines in three-dimensional collagen gels to elucidate which growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mammary morphogens interact in branching morphogenesis. Branching stimulated by stromal fibroblasts, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 7, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hepatocyte growth factor was strongly reduced by inhibitors of MMPs, indicating the requirement of MMPs for three-dimensional growth involved in morphogenesis. Recombinant stromelysin 1/MMP-3 alone was sufficient to drive branching in the absence of growth factors in the organoids. Plasmin also stimulated branching; however, plasmin-dependent branching was abolished by both inhibitors of plasmin and MMPs, suggesting that plasmin activates MMPs. To differentiate between signals for proliferation and morphogenesis, we used a cloned mammary epithelial cell line that lacks epimorphin, an essential mammary morphogen. Both epimorphin and MMPs were required for morphogenesis, but neither was required for epithelial cell proliferation. These results provide direct evidence for a critical role of MMPs in branching in mammary epithelium and suggest that, in addition to epimorphin, MMP activity is a minimum requirement for branching morphogenesis in the mammary gland.

  9. The interplay of matrix metalloproteinases, morphogens and growth factors is necessary for branching of mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simian, Marina; Hirai, Yohei; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-01-01

    The mammary gland develops its adult form by a process referred to as branching morphogenesis. Many factors have been reported to affect this process. We have used cultured primary mammary epithelial organoids and mammary epithelial cell lines in three-dimensional collagen gels to elucidate which growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mammary morphogens interact in branching morphogenesis. Branching stimulated by stromal fibroblasts, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 7, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hepatocyte growth factor was strongly reduced by inhibitors of MMPs, indicating the requirement of MMPs for three-dimensional growth involved in morphogenesis. Recombinant stromelysin 1/MMP-3 alone was sufficient to drive branching in the absence of growth factors in the organoids. Plasmin also stimulated branching; however, plasmin-dependent branching was abolished by both inhibitors of plasmin and MMPs, suggesting that plasmin activates MMPs. To differentiate between signals for proliferation and morphogenesis, we used a cloned mammary epithelial cell line that lacks epimorphin, an essential mammary morphogen. Both epimorphin and MMPs were required for morphogenesis, but neither was required for epithelial cell proliferation. These results provide direct evidence for a critical role of MMPs in branching in mammary epithelium and suggest that, in addition to epimorphin, MMP activity is a minimum requirement for branching morphogenesis in the mammary gland

  10. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α regulates branching morphogenesis during kidney development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Kenji; Kitamura, Shinji; Makino, Hirofumi

    2014-04-25

    The kidneys are exposed to hypoxic conditions during development. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), an important mediator of the response to hypoxia, is believed to have an important role in development. However, the relationship between HIF and branching morphogenesis has not been elucidated clearly. In this study, we examined whether HIF regulates kidney development. We harvested kidneys from day 13 rat embryos (E13Ks) and cultured the organs under normoxic (20% O2/5% CO2) or hypoxic (5% O2/5% CO2) conditions. We evaluated the kidneys based on morphology and gene expression. E13Ks cultured under hypoxic conditions had significantly more ureteric bud (UB) branching than the E13Ks cultured under normoxic conditions. In addition, the mRNA levels of GDNF and GDNF receptor (GFR-α1), increased under hypoxic conditions in E13Ks. When we cultured E13Ks with the HIF-1α inhibitor digoxin or with siRNA targeting HIF-1α under hypoxic conditions, we did not observe increased UB branching. In addition, the expression of GDNF and GFR-α1 was inhibited under hypoxic conditions when the kidneys were treated with siRNA targeting HIF-1α. We also elucidated that hypoxia inhibited UB cell apoptosis and promoted the expression of FGF7 mRNA levels in metanephric mesenchymal (MM) cells in vitro. These findings suggest that hypoxic condition has important roles in inducing branching morphogenesis during kidney development. Hypoxia might mediate branching morphogenesis via not only GDNF/Ret but also FGF signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on retinal function after experimental branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Rasmus; Dornonville de la Cour, Morten; Kyhn, Maria Voss

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) following an induced branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs.......The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) following an induced branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs....

  12. Factors affecting branch wound occlusion and associated decay following pruning – a case study with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sheppard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pruning wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is a common silvicultural practice carried out to produce valuable timber at a veneer wood quality. Sub-optimal pruning treatments can permit un-occluded pruning wounds to develop devaluing decay. The aim of this study is to determine relevant branch, tree and pruning characteristics affecting the occlusion process of pruning wounds. Important factors influencing occlusion time for an optimised pruning treatment for valuable timber production utilising wild cherry are derived. 85 artificially pruned branches originating from ten wild cherry trees were retrospectively analysed. Branch stub length, branch diameter and radial stem increment during occlusion were found to be significant predictors for occlusion time. From the results it could be concluded that for the long term success of artificial pruning of wild cherry it is crucial to (i keep branch stubs short (while avoiding damage to the branch collar, (ii to enable the tree to maintain significant radial growth after pruning, (iii to avoid large pruning wounds (>2.5 cm by removing steeply angled and fast growing branches at an early stage.

  13. Measurement of the B → D scr(l)ν Branching Fractions and Form Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; McLean, K.W.; Marka, S.; Xu, Z.; Godang, R.; Kinoshita, K.; Lai, I.C.; Pomianowski, P.; Schrenk, S.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Greene, R.; Perera, L.P.; Zhou, G.J.; Chan, S.; Eigen, G.; Lipeles, E.; Miller, J.S.; Schmidtler, M.; Shapiro, A.; Sun, W.M.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A.J.; Wuerthwein, F.; Jaffe, D.E.; Masek, G.; Paar, H.P.; Potter, E.M.; Prell, S.; Sharma, V.; Asner, D.M.; Gronberg, J.; Hill, T.S.; Lange, D.J.; Morrison, R.J.; Nelson, H.N.; Nelson, T.K.; Roberts, D.; Behrens, B.H.; Ford, W.T.; Gritsan, A.; Krieg, H.; Roy, J.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.P.; Baker, R.; Bebek, C.; Berger, B.E.; Berkelman, K.; Boisvert, V.; Cassel, D.G.; Crowcroft, D.S.; Dickson, M.; Dombrowski, S. von; Drell, P.S.; Ecklund, K.M.; Ehrlich, R.; Foland, A.D.; Gaidarev, P.; Gibbons, L.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Hopman, P.I.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D.L.; Lee, T.; Liu, Y.; Mistry, N.B.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; Ogg, M.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Soffer, A.; Valant-Spaight, B.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.; Athanas, M.; Avery, P.; Jones, C.D.; Lohner, M.; Prescott, C.; Rubiera, A.I.; Yelton, J.; Zheng, J.; Brandenburg, G.; Briere, R.A.; Ershov, A.; Gao, Y.S.; Kim, D.Y.; Wilson, R.; Yamamoto, H.

    1999-01-01

    Using a sample of 3.3x10 6 B -meson decays collected with the CLEO detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have studied B - →D 0 ell - bar ν and bar B 0 →D + ell - bar ν decays, where ell - can be either e - or μ - . We distinguish B→D ell ν from other B semileptonic decays by examining the net momentum and energy of the particles recoiling against D-ell pairs. We find Γ(B→D ell ν)=(14.1± 1.0±1.2) ns -1 and derive branching fractions for B - →D 0 ell - bar ν and bar B 0 →D + ell - bar ν of (2.32±0.17±0.20)% and (2.20±0.16±0.19)% , respectively, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic. We also investigate the B→D ell ν form factor and the implication of the result for |V cb | . copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  14. Factorization of in-medium parton branching beyond the eikonal approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinário, Liliana; Armesto, Néstor; Milhano, José Guilherme; Salgado, Carlos A.

    2017-08-01

    The description of the in-medium modifications of partonic showers is at the forefront of current theoretical and experimental efforts in heavy-ion physics. The theory of jet quenching, a commonly used alias for the modifications of the parton branching resulting from the interactions with the QGP, has been significantly developed over the last years. Within a weak coupling approach, several elementary processes that build up the parton shower evolution, such as single gluon emissions, interference effects between successive emissions and corrections to radiative energy loss off massive quarks, have been addressed both at eikonal accuracy and beyond by taking into account the Brownian motion that high-energy particles experience when traversing a hot and dense medium. In this work, by using the setup of single gluon emission from a color correlated quark-antiquark pair in a singlet state (q- q ‾ antenna), we calculate the in-medium gluon radiation spectrum beyond the eikonal approximation. This allows to fully explore the physical interplay between broadening and coherence/decoherence effects. The results show that we are able to factorize broadening effects from the modifications of the radiation process itself. This provides a very strong indication that a probabilistic picture of parton shower evolution holds even in the presence of a QGP, a feature that is of the utmost importance for a successful future generation of Jet quenching Monte Carlos.

  15. Factors Affecting University Image Formation among Prospective Higher Education Students: The Case of International Branch Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen; Huisman, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that the images of universities formed by prospective students greatly influence their choices. With the advent of international branch campuses in several higher education hubs worldwide, many international students now attempt to construct images of these institutions when deciding where to study. The aim of this…

  16. Left bundle branch block as a risk factor for progression to heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zannad, Faiez; Huvelle, Etienne; Dickstein, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of conduction disturbances, particularly left bundle branch block (LBBB), is strongly correlated with age and with the presence of cardiovascular disease. LBBB has been reported to affect approximately 25% of the heart failure (HF) population and it is likely that the deleterious r...

  17. Manipulation of flowering time and branching by overexpression of the tomato transcription factor SlZFP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lin; Bai, Xiaodong; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xiao, Han

    2016-12-01

    Flowering of higher plants is orchestrated by complex regulatory networks through integration of various environmental signals such as photoperiod, temperature, light quality and developmental cues. In Arabidopsis, transcription of the flowering integrator gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) that several flowering pathways converge to is directly regulated by more than ten transcription factors. However, very little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the FT homolog SINGLE FLOWER TRUESS (SFT) in the day-neutral plant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Previously, we showed that the zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 plays important roles in regulation of seed germination and fruit ripening in tomato and also found that overexpression of SlZFP2 impacted flowering and branching. Here, we characterized in detail the early flowering and high branching phenotypes by overexpression of this transcription factor. Our data showed that overexpression of SlZFP2 accelerated flowering in an SFT-dependent manner as demonstrated by elevated SFT expression in the leaves and the transcription factor's binding ability to SFT promoter in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, overexpression of the SlZFP2 gene in the sft plants failed to rescue the mutant's late flowering. Through analysis of grafting phenotype, growth response of branches to auxin application and transcriptome profiling by RNA sequencing, we also showed that overexpression of SlZFP2 affected shoot apical dominance through multiple regulatory pathways. Our results suggest that the transcription factor SlZFP2 has potential applications in genetic modification of plant architecture and flowering time for tomato production and other crops as well. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Identification of the key weather factors affecting overwintering success of Apolygus lucorum eggs in dead host tree branches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of weather on insect population dynamics is crucial to simulate and forecast pest outbreaks, which is becoming increasingly important with the effects of climate change. The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is an important pest on cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and primarily lays its eggs on dead parts of tree branches in the fall for subsequent overwintering. As such, the eggs that hatch the following spring are most strongly affected by ambient weather factors, rather than by host plant biology. In this study, we investigated the effects of three major weather factors: temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, on the hatching rate of A. lucorum eggs overwintering on dead branches of Chinese date tree (Ziziphus jujuba. Under laboratory conditions, rainfall (simulated via soaking was necessary for the hatching of overwintering A. lucorum eggs. In the absence of rainfall (unsoaked branches, very few nymphs successfully emerged under any of the tested combinations of temperature and relative humidity. In contrast, following simulated rainfall, the hatching rate of the overwintering eggs increased dramatically. Hatching rate and developmental rate were positively correlated with relative humidity and temperature, respectively. Under field conditions, the abundance of nymphs derived from overwintering eggs was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the spring seasons of 2009-2013, while the same was not true for temperature and relative humidity. Overall, our findings indicate that rainfall is the most important factor affecting the hatching rate of overwintering A. lucorum eggs on dead plant parts and nymph population levels during the spring season. It provides the basic information for precisely forecasting the emergence of A. lucorum and subsequently timely managing its population in spring, which will make it possible to regional control of this insect pest widely occurring in multiple crops in

  19. Identification of the key weather factors affecting overwintering success of Apolygus lucorum eggs in dead host tree branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of weather on insect population dynamics is crucial to simulate and forecast pest outbreaks, which is becoming increasingly important with the effects of climate change. The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is an important pest on cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and primarily lays its eggs on dead parts of tree branches in the fall for subsequent overwintering. As such, the eggs that hatch the following spring are most strongly affected by ambient weather factors, rather than by host plant biology. In this study, we investigated the effects of three major weather factors: temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, on the hatching rate of A. lucorum eggs overwintering on dead branches of Chinese date tree (Ziziphus jujuba). Under laboratory conditions, rainfall (simulated via soaking) was necessary for the hatching of overwintering A. lucorum eggs. In the absence of rainfall (unsoaked branches), very few nymphs successfully emerged under any of the tested combinations of temperature and relative humidity. In contrast, following simulated rainfall, the hatching rate of the overwintering eggs increased dramatically. Hatching rate and developmental rate were positively correlated with relative humidity and temperature, respectively. Under field conditions, the abundance of nymphs derived from overwintering eggs was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the spring seasons of 2009-2013, while the same was not true for temperature and relative humidity. Overall, our findings indicate that rainfall is the most important factor affecting the hatching rate of overwintering A. lucorum eggs on dead plant parts and nymph population levels during the spring season. It provides the basic information for precisely forecasting the emergence of A. lucorum and subsequently timely managing its population in spring, which will make it possible to regional control of this insect pest widely occurring in multiple crops in summer.

  20. Risk Factors for Central and Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Meta-Analysis of Published Clinical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kolar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is a major cause of vision loss. Of the two main types of RVO, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is 4 to 6 times more prevalent than central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. A basic risk factor for RVO is advancing age. Further risk factors include systemic conditions like hypertension, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, vascular cerebral stroke, blood hyperviscosity, and thrombophilia. A strong risk factor for RVO is the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. Individuals with end-organ damage caused by diabetes mellitus and hypertension have greatly increased risk for RVO. Socioeconomic status seems to be a risk factor too. American blacks are more often diagnosed with RVO than non-Hispanic whites. Females are, according to some studies, at lower risk than men. The role of thrombophilic risk factors in RVO is still controversial. Congenital thrombophilic diseases like factor V Leiden mutation, hyperhomocysteinemia and anticardiolipin antibodies increase the risk of RVO. Cigarette smoking also increases the risk of RVO as do systemic inflammatory conditions like vasculitis and Behcet disease. Ophthalmic risk factors for RVO are ocular hypertension and glaucoma, higher ocular perfusion pressure, and changes in the retinal arteries.

  1. A new branch of advertising: reviewing factors that influence reactions to product placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reijmersdal, E.; Neijens, P.; Smit, E.G.

    2009-01-01

    This iiterature review presents a quantitative synthesis of 57 studies on product placement and shows which factors are most effective, it shows that placement characteristics, such as placement commerciality, modality, and prominence, have a strong impact on audience reactions. Audience

  2. Visual control as a key factor in a production process of a company from automotive branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Borkowski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical basis for one type of control in enterprises – visual control. It presents the meaning of visual control in the Toyota Production System and BOST researches as a tool of measure, among other things, the importance of visual control in production companies. The level of importance of visual control usage as one of the production process elements in the analysed company was indicated. The usage of visual control is a main factor in a production process of the analyzed company, the factor which provides continuous help to employees to check whether the process differs from the standard. The characteristic progression of production process elements was indicated and the SW factor (the use of visual control took the third place, PE factor (interruption of production when it detects a problem of quality turned out to be the most important one, while the least important was the EU factor (granting power of attorney down. The main tools for this evaluation: an innovative BOST survey - Toyota's management principles in questions, in particular, the Pareto-Lorenz diagram, radar graph and series of importance as graphical interpretation tools, were used to present the importance of each factor in relation to individual assessments.

  3. Branched-chain amino acids to tyrosine ratio value as a potential prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Toru

    2012-05-07

    The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) depends on tumor extension as well as hepatic function. Hepatic functional reserve is recognized as a factor affecting survival in the treatment of HCC; the Child-Pugh classification system is the most extensively used method for assessing hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic liver disease, using serum albumin level to achieve accurate assessment of the status of protein metabolism. However, insufficient attention has been given to the status of amino acid (AA) metabolism in chronic liver disease and HCC. Fischer's ratio is the molar ratio of branched-chain AAs (BCAAs: leucine, valine, isoleucine) to aromatic AAs (phenylalanine, tyrosine) and is important for assessing liver metabolism, hepatic functional reserve and the severity of liver dysfunction. Although this ratio is difficult to determine in clinical situations, BCAAs/tyrosine molar concentration ratio (BTR) has been proposed as a simpler substitute. BTR correlates with various liver function examinations, including markers of hepatic fibrosis, hepatic blood flow and hepatocyte function, and can thus be considered as reflecting the degree of hepatic impairment. This manuscript examines the literature to clarify whether BTR can serve as a prognostic factor for treatment of HCC.

  4. Sleep Patterns and Other Sleep Related Factors Affecting the Students of Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Iran

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    Namazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Adequate sleep is essential for general health. Several factors disrupt sleep patterns. The quality of sleep affects health and daily functions. Objectives The current study aimed to determine the students' sleep patterns and other sleep related factors. Patients and Methods The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 female students of the Islamic Azad University, Rasht branch (Rasht, Iran who were selected by multistage random sampling method. Data collection tool was a self-reporting questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, employing Chi-square, and Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. Results The mean age of the subjects was 22.16 ± 2.86 years. Results showed 35.7% disruption of sleep onset, 46.3% impairment of sleep continuity, and 32% awakening early in the morning. Also, 42.3% of the subjects expressed excellent sleep quality. There was a significant relationship among sleep quality with the time of going to bed, difficulty in sleeping, awakening by noise, repeated awakening at night, waking up early in the morning, fatigue, and sleepiness in classroom. Conclusions The results of the current study showed a high prevalence of sleep problems among the students. Identification and treatment of students’ sleep disorders may improve academic performance and life quality.

  5. Recruiting Faculty Abroad: Examining Factors That Induced American Faculty to Work at Branch Campuses in Qatar's Education City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laigo, Reginald H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the sustainability of international branch campuses by applying the "faculty migration" framework (Matier, 1988) from faculty recruitment literature to identify the incentives that influenced American faculty to work at branch campuses in Qatar's Education City. The purpose of this study was to determine the specific…

  6. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene inhibits hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-induced invasion and branching morphogenesis in renal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koochekpour, S; Jeffers, M; Wang, P H; Gong, C; Taylor, G A; Roessler, L M; Stearman, R; Vasselli, J R; Stetler-Stevenson, W G; Kaelin, W G; Linehan, W M; Klausner, R D; Gnarra, J R; Vande Woude, G F

    1999-09-01

    Loss of function in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene occurs in familial and most sporadic renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). VHL has been linked to the regulation of cell cycle cessation (G(0)) and to control of expression of various mRNAs such as for vascular endothelial growth factor. RCC cells express the Met receptor tyrosine kinase, and Met mediates invasion and branching morphogenesis in many cell types in response to hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). We examined the HGF/SF responsiveness of RCC cells containing endogenous mutated (mut) forms of the VHL protein (VHL-negative RCC) with that of isogenic cells expressing exogenous wild-type (wt) VHL (VHL-positive RCC). We found that VHL-negative 786-0 and UOK-101 RCC cells were highly invasive through growth factor-reduced (GFR) Matrigel-coated filters and exhibited an extensive branching morphogenesis phenotype in response to HGF/SF in the three-dimensional (3D) GFR Matrigel cultures. In contrast, the phenotypes of A498 VHL-negative RCC cells were weaker, and isogenic RCC cells ectopically expressing wt VHL did not respond at all. We found that all VHL-negative RCC cells expressed reduced levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) relative to the wt VHL-positive cells, implicating VHL in the regulation of this molecule. However, consistent with the more invasive phenotype of the 786-0 and UOK-101 VHL-negative RCC cells, the levels of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were reduced and levels of the matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 were elevated compared to the noninvasive VHL-positive RCC cells. Moreover, recombinant TIMPs completely blocked HGF/SF-mediated branching morphogenesis, while neutralizing antibodies to the TIMPs stimulated HGF/SF-mediated invasion in vitro. Thus, the loss of the VHL tumor suppressor gene is central to changes that control tissue invasiveness, and a more invasive phenotype requires additional genetic changes seen in some but not all RCC lines. These

  7. Association of branched-chain amino acids with carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery disease risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyue Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have determined that branched-chain (BCAAs and aromatic (AAAs amino acids are strongly correlated with obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia and are strong predictors of diabetes. However, it is not clear if these amino acids are capable of identifying subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD, particularly with subclinical atherosclerosis who are at risk of developing CAD. METHODS: Four hundred and seventy two Chinese subjects (272 males and 200 females, 42-97 y of age undergoing physical exams were recruited at random for participation in the cross-sectional study. Serum BCAAs and AAAs were measured using our previously reported isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Bilateral B-mode carotid artery images for carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT were acquired at end diastole and cIMT values more than 0.9 mm were categorized as increased. Correlations of BCAAs with cIMT and other CAD risk factors were analyzed. RESULTS: BCAAs and AAAs were significantly and positively associated with risk factors of CAD, e.g., cIMT, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, TG, apoB, apoB/apoAI ratio, apoCII, apoCIII and hsCRP, and were significantly and negatively associated with HDL-C and apoAI. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age (β = 0.175, P<0.001, log BCAA (β = 0.147, P<0.001 and systolic blood pressure (β = 0.141, P = 0.012 were positively and independently associated with cIMT. In the logistic regression model, the most and only powerful laboratory factor correlated with increased cIMT was BCAA (the odds ratio of the fourth quartile compared to the first quartile was 2.679; P = 0.009. CONCLUSION: BCAAs are independently correlated with increased cIMT. This correlation would open a new field of research in the mechanistic understanding and risk assessment of CAD.

  8. Structure of FabH and factors affecting the distribution of branched fatty acids in Micrococcus luteus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jose H.; Goh, Ee-Been; Keasling, Jay D.; Beller, Harry R.; Adams, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the control of the formation of branched fatty acids in Micrococcus luteus, the structure of β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III, which catalyzes the initial step of fatty-acid biosynthesis, has been determined. Micrococcus luteus is a Gram-positive bacterium that produces iso- and anteiso-branched alkenes by the head-to-head condensation of fatty-acid thioesters [coenzyme A (CoA) or acyl carrier protein (ACP)]; this activity is of interest for the production of advanced biofuels. In an effort to better understand the control of the formation of branched fatty acids in M. luteus, the structure of FabH (MlFabH) was determined. FabH, or β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III, catalyzes the initial step of fatty-acid biosynthesis: the condensation of malonyl-ACP with an acyl-CoA. Analysis of the MlFabH structure provides insights into its substrate selectivity with regard to length and branching of the acyl-CoA. The most structurally divergent region of FabH is the L9 loop region located at the dimer interface, which is involved in the formation of the acyl-binding channel and thus limits the substrate-channel size. The residue Phe336, which is positioned near the catalytic triad, appears to play a major role in branched-substrate selectivity. In addition to structural studies of MlFabH, transcriptional studies of M. luteus were also performed, focusing on the increase in the ratio of anteiso:iso-branched alkenes that was observed during the transition from early to late stationary phase. Gene-expression microarray analysis identified two genes involved in leucine and isoleucine metabolism that may explain this transition

  9. Structure of FabH and factors affecting the distribution of branched fatty acids in Micrococcus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jose H; Goh, Ee-Been; Keasling, Jay D; Beller, Harry R; Adams, Paul D

    2012-10-01

    Micrococcus luteus is a Gram-positive bacterium that produces iso- and anteiso-branched alkenes by the head-to-head condensation of fatty-acid thioesters [coenzyme A (CoA) or acyl carrier protein (ACP)]; this activity is of interest for the production of advanced biofuels. In an effort to better understand the control of the formation of branched fatty acids in M. luteus, the structure of FabH (MlFabH) was determined. FabH, or β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III, catalyzes the initial step of fatty-acid biosynthesis: the condensation of malonyl-ACP with an acyl-CoA. Analysis of the MlFabH structure provides insights into its substrate selectivity with regard to length and branching of the acyl-CoA. The most structurally divergent region of FabH is the L9 loop region located at the dimer interface, which is involved in the formation of the acyl-binding channel and thus limits the substrate-channel size. The residue Phe336, which is positioned near the catalytic triad, appears to play a major role in branched-substrate selectivity. In addition to structural studies of MlFabH, transcriptional studies of M. luteus were also performed, focusing on the increase in the ratio of anteiso:iso-branched alkenes that was observed during the transition from early to late stationary phase. Gene-expression microarray analysis identified two genes involved in leucine and isoleucine metabolism that may explain this transition.

  10. Interference by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin with cultured mouse submandibular gland branching morphogenesis involves reduced epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiukkonen, Anu; Sahlberg, Carin; Partanen, Anna-Maija; Alaluusua, Satu; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Tuomisto, Jouko; Lukinmaa, Pirjo-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to mouse embryonic teeth, sharing features of early development with salivary glands in common, involves enhanced apoptosis and depends on the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. EGF receptor signaling, on the other hand, is essential for salivary gland branching morphogenesis. To see if TCDD impairs salivary gland morphogenesis and if the impairment is associated with EGF receptor signaling, we cultured mouse (NMRI) E13 submandibular glands with TCDD or TCDD in combination with EGF or fibronectin (FN), both previously found to enhance branching morphogenesis. Explants were examined stereomicroscopically and processed to paraffin sections. TCDD exposure impaired epithelial branching and cleft formation, resulting in enlarged buds. The glands were smaller than normal. EGF and FN alone concentration-dependently stimulated or inhibited branching morphogenesis but when co-administered with TCDD, failed to compensate for its effect. TCDD induced cytochrome P4501A1 expression in the glandular epithelium, indicating activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. TCDD somewhat increased epithelial apoptosis as observed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated nick end-labeling method but the increase could not be correlated with morphological changes. The frequency of proliferating cells was not altered. Corresponding to the reduced cleft sites in TCDD-exposed explants, FN immunoreactivity in the epithelium was reduced. The results show that TCDD, comparably with EGF and FN at morphogenesis-inhibiting concentrations, impaired salivary gland branching morphogenesis in vitro. Together with the failure of EGF and FN at morphogenesis-stimulating concentrations to compensate for the effect of TCDD this implies that TCDD toxicity to developing salivary gland involves reduced EGF receptor signaling

  11. Identification of the Key Weather Factors Affecting Overwintering Success of Apolygus lucorum Eggs in Dead Host Tree Branches

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of weather on insect population dynamics is crucial to simulate and forecast pest outbreaks, which is becoming increasingly important with the effects of climate change. The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is an important pest on cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and primarily lays its eggs on dead parts of tree branches in the fall for subsequent overwintering. As such, the eggs that hatch the following spring are most strongly affected by ambient weather fac...

  12. Biological Functions of ilvC in Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis and Diffusible Signal Factor Family Production in Xanthomonas campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Huai Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In bacteria, the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs is tightly associated with branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs synthetic pathways. Although previous studies have reported on BCFAs biosynthesis, more detailed associations between BCAAs metabolism and BCFAs biosynthesis remain to be addressed. In this study, we deleted the ilvC gene, which encodes ketol-acid reductoisomerase in the BCAAs synthetic pathway, from the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc genome. We characterized gene functions in BCFAs biosynthesis and production of the diffusible signal factor (DSF family signals. Disruption of ilvC caused Xcc to become auxotrophic for valine and isoleucine, and lose the ability to synthesize BCFAs via carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, ilvC mutant reduced the ability to produce DSF-family signals, especially branched-chain DSF-family signals, which might be the main reason for Xcc reduction of pathogenesis toward host plants. In this report, we confirmed that BCFAs do not have major functions in acclimatizing Xcc cells to low temperatures.

  13. C. elegans bicd-1, homolog of the Drosophila dynein accessory factor Bicaudal D, regulates the branching of PVD sensory neuron dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Chen, Cristina; Bülow, Hannes E; Kaprielian, Zaven

    2011-02-01

    The establishment of cell type-specific dendritic arborization patterns is a key phase in the assembly of neuronal circuitry that facilitates the integration and processing of synaptic and sensory input. Although studies in Drosophila and vertebrate systems have identified a variety of factors that regulate dendrite branch formation, the molecular mechanisms that control this process remain poorly defined. Here, we introduce the use of the Caenorhabditis elegans PVD neurons, a pair of putative nociceptors that elaborate complex dendritic arbors, as a tractable model for conducting high-throughput RNAi screens aimed at identifying key regulators of dendritic branch formation. By carrying out two separate RNAi screens, a small-scale candidate-based screen and a large-scale screen of the ~3000 genes on chromosome IV, we retrieved 11 genes that either promote or suppress the formation of PVD-associated dendrites. We present a detailed functional characterization of one of the genes, bicd-1, which encodes a microtubule-associated protein previously shown to modulate the transport of mRNAs and organelles in a variety of organisms. Specifically, we describe a novel role for bicd-1 in regulating dendrite branch formation and show that bicd-1 is likely to be expressed, and primarily required, in PVD neurons to control dendritic branching. We also present evidence that bicd-1 operates in a conserved pathway with dhc-1 and unc-116, components of the dynein minus-end-directed and kinesin-1 plus-end-directed microtubule-based motor complexes, respectively, and interacts genetically with the repulsive guidance receptor unc-5.

  14. Interventions Targeting Glucocorticoid-Krüppel-like Factor 15-Branched-Chain Amino Acid Signaling Improve Disease Phenotypes in Spinal Muscular Atrophy Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Walter

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The circadian glucocorticoid-Krüppel-like factor 15-branched-chain amino acid (GC-KLF15-BCAA signaling pathway is a key regulatory axis in muscle, whose imbalance has wide-reaching effects on metabolic homeostasis. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a neuromuscular disorder also characterized by intrinsic muscle pathologies, metabolic abnormalities and disrupted sleep patterns, which can influence or be influenced by circadian regulatory networks that control behavioral and metabolic rhythms. We therefore set out to investigate the contribution of the GC-KLF15-BCAA pathway in SMA pathophysiology of Taiwanese Smn−/−;SMN2 and Smn2B/− mouse models. We thus uncover substantial dysregulation of GC-KLF15-BCAA diurnal rhythmicity in serum, skeletal muscle and metabolic tissues of SMA mice. Importantly, modulating the components of the GC-KLF15-BCAA pathway via pharmacological (prednisolone, genetic (muscle-specific Klf15 overexpression and dietary (BCAA supplementation interventions significantly improves disease phenotypes in SMA mice. Our study highlights the GC-KLF15-BCAA pathway as a contributor to SMA pathogenesis and provides several treatment avenues to alleviate peripheral manifestations of the disease. The therapeutic potential of targeting metabolic perturbations by diet and commercially available drugs could have a broader implementation across other neuromuscular and metabolic disorders characterized by altered GC-KLF15-BCAA signaling. Keywords: Spinal muscular atrophy, KLF15, Glucocorticoids, Branched-chain amino acids, Metabolism, Therapy

  15. Chronic administration of branched-chain amino acids impairs spatial memory and increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaini, Giselli; Comim, Clarissa M; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Pasquali, Matheus A B; Quevedo, João; Gelain, Daniel P; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Bogo, Maurício R; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a neurometabolic disorder that leads to the accumulation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and their α-keto branched-chain by-products. Because the neurotoxic mechanisms of MSUD are poorly understood, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic administration of a BCAA pool (leucine, isoleucine and valine). This study examined the effects of BCAA administration on spatial memory and the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF). We examined both pro-BDNF and bdnf mRNA expression levels after administration of BCAAs. Furthermore, this study examined whether antioxidant treatment prevented the alterations induced by BCAA administration. Our results demonstrated an increase in BDNF in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, accompanied by memory impairment in spatial memory tasks. Additionally, chronic administration of BCAAs did not induce a detectable change in pro-BDNF levels. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine prevented both the memory deficit and the increase in the BDNF levels induced by BCAA administration. In conclusion, these results suggest that when the brain is chronically exposed to high concentrations of BCAA (at millimolar concentrations) an increase in BDNF levels occurs. This increase in BDNF may be related to the impairment of spatial memory. In addition, we demonstrated that antioxidant treatment prevented the negative consequences related to BCAA administration, suggesting that oxidative stress might be involved in the pathophysiological mechanism(s) underlying the brain damage observed in MSUD.

  16. The bHLH transcription factor BIS1 controls the iridoid branch of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid pathway in Catharanthus roseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Moerkercke, Alex; Steensma, Priscille; Schweizer, Fabian; Pollier, Jacob; Gariboldi, Ivo; Payne, Richard; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Miettinen, Karel; Espoz, Javiera; Purnama, Purin Candra; Kellner, Franziska; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; O’Connor, Sarah E.; Rischer, Heiko; Memelink, Johan; Goossens, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Plants make specialized bioactive metabolites to defend themselves against attackers. The conserved control mechanisms are based on transcriptional activation of the respective plant species-specific biosynthetic pathways by the phytohormone jasmonate. Knowledge of the transcription factors involved, particularly in terpenoid biosynthesis, remains fragmentary. By transcriptome analysis and functional screens in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), the unique source of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA)-type anticancer drugs vincristine and vinblastine, we identified a jasmonate-regulated basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factor from clade IVa inducing the monoterpenoid branch of the MIA pathway. The bHLH iridoid synthesis 1 (BIS1) transcription factor transactivated the expression of all of the genes encoding the enzymes that catalyze the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous terpenoid precursor geranyl diphosphate to the iridoid loganic acid. BIS1 acted in a complementary manner to the previously characterized ethylene response factor Octadecanoid derivative-Responsive Catharanthus APETALA2-domain 3 (ORCA3) that transactivates the expression of several genes encoding the enzymes catalyzing the conversion of loganic acid to the downstream MIAs. In contrast to ORCA3, overexpression of BIS1 was sufficient to boost production of high-value iridoids and MIAs in C. roseus suspension cell cultures. Hence, BIS1 might be a metabolic engineering tool to produce sustainably high-value MIAs in C. roseus plants or cultures. PMID:26080427

  17. Measurements of Vcb, form factors and branching fractions in the decays B0 -> D*+l-νl and B0 -> D+l-νl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lutters, G.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rizzo, G.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, F.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Martin, E. B.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Giehl, I.; Greene, A. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; St. Denis, R.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Choi, Y.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, A. M.; Walsh, J.; Sau, Lan Wu; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.

    1997-02-01

    Two samples of exclusive semileptonic decays, 579 B0 -> D*+l-νl events and 261 B0 -> D+l-νl events, are selected from approximately 3.9 million hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP. From the reconstructed differential decay rate of each sample, the product of the hadronic form factor F(ω) at zero recoil of the D(*)+ meson and the CKM matrix element Vcb are measured to be FD*+ (1) Vcb = (31.9 +/- 1.8stat +/- 1.9syst) × 10-3,FD+ (1) Vcb = (27.8 +/- 6.8stat +/- 6.5syst) × 10-3. The ratio of the form factorsFD+ (1) and FD*+ (1) is measured to beFD+ (1)/FD*+ (1) = 0.87 +/- 0.22stat +/- 0.21syst. A value of Vcb is extracted from the two samples, using theoretical constraints on the slope and curvature of the hadronic form factors and their normalization at zero recoil, with the result Vcb = (34.4 +/- 1.6stat +/- 2.3syst +/- 1.4th) × 10-3. The branching fractions are measured from the two integrated spectra to be Br(B0 -> D*+l-νl) = (5.53 +/- 0.26stat +/- 0.52syst) %, Br(B0 -> D+l-νl) = (2.35 +/- 0.20stat +/- 0.44syst) %.

  18. Differential activity of Striga hermonthica seed germination stimulants and Gigaspora rosea hyphal branching factors in rice and their contribution to underground communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Cardoso

    Full Text Available Strigolactones (SLs trigger germination of parasitic plant seeds and hyphal branching of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi. There is extensive structural variation in SLs and plants usually produce blends of different SLs. The structural variation among natural SLs has been shown to impact their biological activity as hyphal branching and parasitic plant seed germination stimulants. In this study, rice root exudates were fractioned by HPLC. The resulting fractions were analyzed by MRM-LC-MS to investigate the presence of SLs and tested using bioassays to assess their Striga hermonthica seed germination and Gigaspora rosea hyphal branching stimulatory activities. A substantial number of active fractions were revealed often with very different effect on seed germination and hyphal branching. Fractions containing (--orobanchol and ent-2'-epi-5-deoxystrigol contributed little to the induction of S. hermonthica seed germination but strongly stimulated AM fungal hyphal branching. Three SLs in one fraction, putative methoxy-5-deoxystrigol isomers, had moderate seed germination and hyphal branching inducing activity. Two fractions contained strong germination stimulants but displayed only modest hyphal branching activity. We provide evidence that these stimulants are likely SLs although no SL-representative masses could be detected using MRM-LC-MS. Our results show that seed germination and hyphal branching are induced to very different extents by the various SLs (or other stimulants present in rice root exudates. We propose that the development of rice varieties with different SL composition is a promising strategy to reduce parasitic plant infestation while maintaining symbiosis with AM fungi.

  19. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion after antivascular endothelial growth factor treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirakata Y

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Yukari Shirakata,1 Kouki Fukuda,1 Tomoyoshi Fujita,1 Yuki Nakano,1 Hiroyuki Nomoto,2 Hidetaka Yamaji,3 Fumio Shiraga,4 Akitaka Tsujikawa1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, 2Nomoto Eye Clinic, Himeji, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Shirai Eye Hospital, Mitoyo, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the anatomic and functional outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema (ME due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO after intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF agents. Methods: Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with treatment-naive ME from BRVO were treated with intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents. Recurred ME was treated with pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling. Results: After the surgery, ME was significantly reduced at 1 month (P=0.031 and the reduction increased with time (P=0.007 at the final visit. With the reduction in ME, treated eyes showed a slow improvement in visual acuity (VA. At the final visit, improvement in VA was statistically significant compared with baseline (P=0.048. The initial presence of cystoid spaces, serous retinal detachment, or subretinal hemorrhage under the fovea, as well as retinal perfusion status, showed no association with VA improvement. However, the presence of epiretinal membrane showed a significant association with the visual recovery. Although eyes without epiretinal membrane showed visual improvement (-0.10±0.32 in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR], eyes with epiretinal membrane showed greater visual improvement (-0.38±0.12 in logMAR, P=0.012. Conclusion: For recurrent ME due to BRVO after anti-VEGF treatment, particularly when accompanied by epiretinal membrane, pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling might be a

  20. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known cause. Causes can include: Left bundle branch block Heart attacks (myocardial infarction) Thickened, stiffened or weakened ... myocarditis) High blood pressure (hypertension) Right bundle branch block A heart abnormality that's present at birth (congenital) — ...

  1. Neuro-Oncology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BTTC are experts in their respective fields. Neuro-Oncology Clinical Fellowship This is a joint program with ... can increase survival rates. Learn more... The Neuro-Oncology Branch welcomes Dr. Mark Gilbert as new Branch ...

  2. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  3. miR156-Targeted SBP-Box Transcription Factors Interact with DWARF53 to Regulate TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 and BARREN STALK1 Expression in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Cheng, Xiliu; Liu, Pan; Sun, Jiaqiang

    2017-07-01

    Genetic and environmental factors affect bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) plant architecture, which determines grain yield. In this study, we demonstrate that miR156 controls bread wheat plant architecture. We show that overexpression of tae-miR156 in bread wheat cultivar Kenong199 leads to increased tiller number and severe defects in spikelet formation, probably due to the tae-miR156-mediated repression of a group of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE ( SPL ) genes. Furthermore, we found that the expression of two genes TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 ( TaTB1 ) and BARREN STALK1 ( TaBA1 ), whose orthologous genes in diverse plant species play conserved roles in regulating plant architecture, is markedly reduced in the tae-miR156-OE bread wheat plants. Significantly, we demonstrate that the strigolactone (SL) signaling repressor DWARF53 (TaD53), which physically associates with the transcriptional corepressor TOPLESS, can directly interact with the N-terminal domains of miR156-controlled TaSPL3/17. Most importantly, TaSPL3/17-mediated transcriptional activation of TaBA1 and TaTB1 can be largely repressed by TaD53 in the transient expression system. Our results reveal potential association between miR156-TaSPLs and SL signaling pathways during bread wheat tillering and spikelet development. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Spinal arterial anatomy and risk factors for lower extremity weakness following endovascular thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair with branched stent-grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Catherine K; Chuter, Timothy A M; Reilly, Linda M; Ota, Maile K; Furtado, Andre; Bucci, Monica; Wintermark, Max; Hiramoto, Jade S

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate spinal arterial anatomy and identify risk factors for lower extremity weakness (LEW) following endovascular thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair. A retrospective review was conducted of 37 patients (27 men; mean age 74.8+/-7.1 years, range 58-86) undergoing endovascular TAAA repair with branched stent-grafts at a single academic institution from July 2005 to December 2007. Data were collected on preoperative comorbidities, duration of operation, blood loss, type of anesthesia, extent of aortic coverage, blood pressure, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and drainage, and postoperative development of LEW. Pre- and postoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomographic angiograms (CTA) in a 26-patient subset were analyzed to evaluate the number of patent intercostal and lumbar arteries before and after repair. All patients were neurologically intact at the end of the operation. Seven (19%) patients developed LEW postoperatively: 6 perioperatively and 1 after discharge. LEW was associated with postoperative hypotension, internal iliac artery (IIA) occlusion, and fewer patent segmental arteries on preoperative CTA. Lowest mean systolic blood pressure was segmental arteries in patients with or without LEW. Endovascular TAAA repair inevitably occludes direct inflow to lumbar and intercostal arteries. The distal segments of these arteries to the spine, however, are seen to remain patent through collaterals. Measures to preserve collateral pathways and increase perfusion pressure may help prevent or treat LEW.

  5. Biological Functions of ilvC in Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis and Diffusible Signal Factor Family Production in Xanthomonas campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Kai-Huai Li; Yong-Hong Yu; Hui-Juan Dong; Wen-Bin Zhang; Jin-Cheng Ma; Hai-Hong Wang

    2017-01-01

    In bacteria, the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) is tightly associated with branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) synthetic pathways. Although previous studies have reported on BCFAs biosynthesis, more detailed associations between BCAAs metabolism and BCFAs biosynthesis remain to be addressed. In this study, we deleted the ilvC gene, which encodes ketol-acid reductoisomerase in the BCAAs synthetic pathway, from the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) genome. We characte...

  6. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  7. Current perspectives on shoot branching regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunquan YUAN,Lin XI,Yaping KOU,Yu ZHAO,Liangjun ZHAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching is regulated by the complex interactions among hormones, development, and environmental factors. Recent studies into the regulatory mecha-nisms of shoot branching have focused on strigolactones, which is a new area of investigation in shoot branching regulation. Elucidation of the function of the D53 gene has allowed exploration of detailed mechanisms of action of strigolactones in regulating shoot branching. In addition, the recent discovery that sucrose is key for axillary bud release has challenged the established auxin theory, in which auxin is the principal agent in the control of apical dominance. These developments increase our understan-ding of branching control and indicate that regulation of shoot branching involves a complex network. Here, we first summarize advances in the systematic regulatory network of plant shoot branching based on current information. Then we describe recent developments in the synthesis and signal transduction of strigolactones. Based on these considerations, we further summarize the plant shoot branching regulatory network, including long distance systemic signals and local gene activity mediated by strigolactones following perception of external envi-ronmental signals, such as shading, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of plant shoot branching.

  8. Entanglement branching operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    We introduce an entanglement branching operator to split a composite entanglement flow in a tensor network which is a promising theoretical tool for many-body systems. We can optimize an entanglement branching operator by solving a minimization problem based on squeezing operators. The entanglement branching is a new useful operation to manipulate a tensor network. For example, finding a particular entanglement structure by an entanglement branching operator, we can improve a higher-order tensor renormalization group method to catch a proper renormalization flow in a tensor network space. This new method yields a new type of tensor network states. The second example is a many-body decomposition of a tensor by using an entanglement branching operator. We can use it for a perfect disentangling among tensors. Applying a many-body decomposition recursively, we conceptually derive projected entangled pair states from quantum states that satisfy the area law of entanglement entropy.

  9. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  10. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...... that perform well in the diagnosis of main renal artery stenosis may fall short when it comes to branch artery stenosis. We report 2 cases that illustrate these difficulties and show that a branch artery stenosis may be overlooked even by the gold standard method, renal angiography....

  11. Associations between branched chain amino acid intake and biomarkers of adiposity and cardiometabolic health independent of genetic factors: A twin study ?

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Amy; MacGregor, Alex; Pallister, Tess; Spector, Tim; Cassidy, Aed?n

    2016-01-01

    Background: Conflicting data exist on the impact of dietary and circulating levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) on cardiometabolic health and it is unclear to what extent these relations are mediated by genetics. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 1997 female twins we examined associations between BCAA intake, measured using food frequency-questionnaires, and a range of markers of cardiometabolic health, including DXA-measured body fat, blood pressure, HOMA-IR, highsensitivity C-r...

  12. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  13. Branching trajectory continual integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.P.; Chebotarev, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Heuristic definition of the Feynman continual integral over branching trajectories is suggested which makes it possible to obtain in the closed form the solution of the Cauchy problem for the model Hartree equation. A number of properties of the solution is derived from an integral representation. In particular, the quasiclassical asymptotics, exact solution in the gaussian case and perturbation theory series are described. The existence theorem for the simpliest continual integral over branching trajectories is proved [ru

  14. Branches of the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, Michael; O'Neil, Deva; Sun Zheng

    2005-01-01

    With respect to the question of supersymmetry breaking, there are three branches of the flux landscape. On one of these, if one requires small cosmological constant, supersymmetry breaking is predominantly at the fundamental scale; on another, the distribution is roughly flat on a logarithmic scale; on the third, the preponderance of vacua are at very low scale. A priori, as we will explain, one can say little about the first branch. The vast majority of these states are not accessible even to crude, approximate analysis. On the other two branches one can hope to do better. But as a result of the lack of access to branch one, and our poor understanding of cosmology, we can at best conjecture about whether string theory predicts low energy supersymmetry or not. If we hypothesize that are on branch two or three, distinctive predictions may be possible. We comment of the status of naturalness within the landscape, deriving, for example, the statistics of the first branch from simple effective field theory reasoning

  15. Branches of the Facial Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Geun In; Park, Hye Jin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to review the name of the branches, to review the classification of the branching pattern, and to clarify a presence percentage of each branch of the facial artery, systematically. In a PubMed search, the search terms "facial," AND "artery," AND "classification OR variant OR pattern" were used. The IBM SPSS Statistics 20 system was used for statistical analysis. Among the 500 titles, 18 articles were selected and reviewed systematically. Most of the articles focused on "classification" according to the "terminal branch." Several authors classified the facial artery according to their terminal branches. Most of them, however, did not describe the definition of "terminal branch." There were confusions within the classifications. When the inferior labial artery was absent, 3 different types were used. The "alar branch" or "nasal branch" was used instead of the "lateral nasal branch." The angular branch was used to refer to several different branches. The presence as a percentage of each branch according to the branches in Gray's Anatomy (premasseteric, inferior labial, superior labial, lateral nasal, and angular) varied. No branch was used with 100% consistency. The superior labial branch was most frequently cited (95.7%, 382 arteries in 399 hemifaces). The angular branch (53.9%, 219 arteries in 406 hemifaces) and the premasseteric branch were least frequently cited (53.8%, 43 arteries in 80 hemifaces). There were significant differences among each of the 5 branches (P < 0.05) except between the angular branch and the premasseteric branch and between the superior labial branch and the inferior labial branch. The authors believe identifying the presence percentage of each branch will be helpful for surgical procedures.

  16. VD-411 branch driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, N.V.; Karev, A.G.; Mal'tsev, Eh.I.; Morozov, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The VD-411 branch driver for CAMAC moduli control by the SM-4 computer is described. The driver realizes data exchange with moduli disposed in 28 crates grouped in 4 branches. Data exchange can be carried out either in the program regime or in the regime of direct access to the memory. Fulfilment of 11 block regimes and one program regime is provided for. A possibility of individual programming of exchange methods in block regimes is left for users for organisation of quicker and most flexible data removal from the CAMAC moduli. In the regime of direct access the driver provides data transmission at the size up to 64 Kwords placing it in the computer memory of 2 M byte. High rate of data transmission and the developed system of interruptions ensure efficient utilization of the VD-411 branch driver at data removal from facilities in high energy physics experiments

  17. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick; Park, A Young

    2010-01-01

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  18. Intermittency in branching models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Texas Univ., Austin; Hwa, R.C.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1990-01-01

    The intermittency properties of three branching models have been investigated. The factorial moments show power-law behavior as function of small rapidity width. The slopes and energy dependences reveal different characteristics of the models. The gluon model has the weakest intermittency. (orig.)

  19. State-set branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Møller; Veloso, Manuela M.; Bryant, Randal E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we present a framework called state-set branching that combines symbolic search based on reduced ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) with best-first search, such as A* and greedy best-first search. The framework relies on an extension of these algorithms from expanding a sing...

  20. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  1. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M.

    2015-01-01

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers

  2. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M., E-mail: john.dealy@mcgill.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C4 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers.

  3. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study examined in 1976-2003 free from previous myocardial infarction (MI), chronic heart failure, and left bundle branch block through registry linkage until 2009 for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. The prevalence of RBBB/IRBBB was higher in men (1.4%/4.7% in men vs. 0.......5%/2.3% in women, P block was associated with significantly...

  4. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented.\\ud \\ud We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  5. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  6. Associations between branched chain amino acid intake and biomarkers of adiposity and cardiometabolic health independent of genetic factors: A twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Amy; MacGregor, Alex; Pallister, Tess; Spector, Tim; Cassidy, Aedín

    2016-11-15

    Conflicting data exist on the impact of dietary and circulating levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) on cardiometabolic health and it is unclear to what extent these relations are mediated by genetics. In a cross-sectional study of 1997 female twins we examined associations between BCAA intake, measured using food frequency-questionnaires, and a range of markers of cardiometabolic health, including DXA-measured body fat, blood pressure, HOMA-IR, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipids. We also measured plasma concentrations of BCAA and known metabolites of amino acid metabolism using untargeted mass spectrometry. Using a within-twin design, multivariable analyses were used to compare the associations between BCAA intake and endpoints of cardiometabolic health, independently of genetic confounding. Higher BCAA intake was significantly associated with lower HOMA-IR (-0.1, P-trend 0.02), insulin (-0.5μU/mL, P-trend 0.03), hs-CRP -0.3mg/L, P-trend 0.01), systolic blood pressure (-2.3mmHg, P-trend 0.01) and waist-to-height ratio (-0.01, P-trend 0.04), comparing extreme quintiles of intake. These associations persisted in within-pair analysis for monozygotic twins for insulin resistance (PBCAA intake and plasma concentrations, although two metabolites previously associated with obesity were inversely associated with BCAA intake (alpha-hydroxyisovalerate and trans-4-hydroxyproline). Higher intakes of BCAA were associated, independently of genetics, with lower insulin resistance, inflammation, blood pressure and adiposity-related metabolites. The BCAA intake associated with our findings is easily achievable in the habitual diet. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution of degrees of polymerization in statistically branched polymers with tetrafunctional branch points: model calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš; Kratochvíl, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2006), s. 196-203 ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100500501; GA AV ČR IAA4050403; GA AV ČR IAA4050409; GA ČR GA203/03/0617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : statistical branching * tetrafunctional branch points * molecular-weight distribution Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.475, year: 2006

  8. Cravity modulation of the moss Tortula modica branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava; Kit, Nadja

    Among various abiotic factors the sensor system of plants constantly perceives light and gravitation impulses and reacts on their action by photo- and gravitropisms. Tropisms play fundamental part in ontogenesis and determination of plant forms. Essentially important question is how light initiating phototropic bending modulates gravitropism. In contrast to flower plants, red light is phototropically active for mosses, and phytochromic system controls initiation of apical growth, branching and photomorphogenesis of mosses. The aim of this investigation was to analyse cell branching of protonemata Tortula modica Zander depending on the direction of light and gravitation vector. The influence of light and gravitation on the form of protonemal turf T. modica, branching and the angle of lateral branches relative to axis of mother cell growth has been investigated. As moss protonemata is not branched in the darkness, light is necessary for branching activation. Minimally low intensity of the red light (0.2 mmol (.) m (-2) ({) .}sec (-1) ) induced branching without visual display of phototropic growth. It has been established that unidirectional action of light and gravitation intensifies branching, and, on the contrary, perpendicularly oriented vectors of factors weaken branches formation. Besides, parallel oriented vectors initiated branching from both cell sides, but oppositely directed vectors initiated branching only from one side. Clinostate rotation the change of the vector gravity and causes uniform cell branching, hence, light and gravitation mutually influence the branching system form of the protonemata cell. It has been shown that the angle of lateral branches in darkness does not depend on the direction of light and gravitation action. After lighting the local growth of the cell wall took place mainly under the angle 90 (o) to the axes of mother cell growth. Then the angle gradually decreased and in 3-4 cell divisions the lateral branch grew under the angle

  9. The branch librarians' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Rivers, Vickie

    2004-01-01

    ""Recommended""--Booklist; ""an excellent addition...highly recommended""--Public Libraries; ""clear...very sound advice...strongly recommend""--Catholic Library World; ""excellent resource...organized...well written""--Against the Grain; ""interesting...thoroughly practical...a very good book...well organized...clearly written""--ARBA. This handbook covers a wide variety of issues that the branch librarian must deal with every day. Chapters are devoted to mission statements (the Dallas Public Library and Dayton Metro Library mission statements are highlighted as examples), library systems,

  10. Modified three-pole VMD model with two-branch-point analytic structure and approved asymptotic behaviour for the pion electromagnetic form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubnicka, S.; Furdik, I.; Meshcheryakov, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    A modification of three-pole VMD model for electromagnetic pion form factor was carried out, first by means of its transformation into the pion c.m. momentum variable and subsequently by using the inverse Zhukovsky transformation into another variable. In such a procedure a common normalized factor for all three vector mesons, ρ(770), ρ'(1250) and ρ''(1600), is singled out, by means of which it is possible to settle a specific freedom in the choice of the pion form factor asymptotic behaviour. An explicit incorporation of nonzero vector meson widths creates a real analytic model, defined on the four-sheeted Riemann surface. It includes inelastic contributions effectively, depends just on the parameters with a clear physical meaning, conserves the normalization of the original VMD parametrization, and provides a perfect fit of all existing pion form factor data, in which all parameters of the model are determined and the presence of ρ'(1250) in e + e - → π + π - is again established

  11. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  12. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  13. Integrating over Higgs branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.; Shatashvili, S.

    2000-01-01

    We develop some useful techniques for integrating over Higgs branches in supersymmetric theories with 4 and 8 supercharges. In particular, we define a regularized volume for hyperkaehler quotients. We evaluate this volume for certain ALE and ALF spaces in terms of the hyperkaehler periods. We also reduce these volumes for a large class of hyperkaehler quotients to simpler integrals. These quotients include complex coadjoint orbits, instanton moduli spaces on R 4 and ALE manifolds, Hitchin spaces, and moduli spaces of (parabolic) Higgs bundles on Riemann surfaces. In the case of Hitchin spaces the evaluation of the volume reduces to a summation over solutions of Bethe ansatz equations for the non-linear Schroedinger system. We discuss some applications of our results. (orig.)

  14. Tradeoffs Between Branch Mispredictions and Comparisons for Sorting Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Branch mispredictions is an important factor affecting the running time in practice. In this paper we consider tradeoffs between the number of branch mispredictions and the number of comparisons for sorting algorithms in the comparison model. We prove that a sorting algorithm using O(dnlog n......) comparisons performs Omega(nlogd n) branch mispredictions. We show that Multiway MergeSort achieves this tradeoff by adopting a multiway merger with a low number of branch mispredictions. For adaptive sorting algorithms we similarly obtain that an algorithm performing O(dn(1+log (1+Inv/n))) comparisons must...... perform Omega(nlogd (1+Inv/n)) branch mispredictions, where Inv is the number of inversions in the input. This tradeoff can be achieved by GenericSort by Estivill-Castro and Wood by adopting a multiway division protocol and a multiway merging algorithm with a low number of branch mispredictions....

  15. The efficiency of bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Takbiri; Mohammad Mohammadi; Bahman Naderi

    2015-01-01

    Banking industry has significant contribution in development of economies of developing countries. Most banks execute their operations through different branches. Therefore it is important to measure the relative efficiencies of these branches. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is one of the most useful tools in measuring banks’ performance. The present paper aims to extract ranking pattern of banks based on performance evaluation using DEA analysis. In the present research, 120 bank branches o...

  16. Measurement of $|V_{cb}|$, form factors and branching fractions in the decays $\\overline{B}^0 \\to D^{*+}l^- \\overline{\

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Comas, P; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, F; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Martin, E B; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, A M; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1997-01-01

    Two samples of exclusive semileptonic decays, 579 B0->D*+l-nu events and 261 B0->D+l-nu events, are selected from approximately 3.9 million hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP. From the reconstructed differential decay rate of each sample, the product of the hadronic form factor F(w) at zero recoil of the D(*)+ meson and the CKM matrix element |Vcb| are measured to be FD*+(1)|Vcb| = (31.9 +/- 1.8(stat) +/- 1.9(syst) ) Mail afs archive asis auth bin boot categ cern collab comments core date dev drdspool etc export external_repno filename ftp home kadb lib lost+found mail mbox mnt nfs nsr old_archive old_drdspool old_pub opt pages pcfs pub publi publitype reconfigure ref repno sbin share sys tit tmp usr var vmunix 10**-3, FD+(1)|Vcb| = (27.8 +/- 6.8(stat) +/- 6.5(syst) ) Mail afs archive asis auth bin boot categ cern collab comments core date dev drdspool etc export external_repno filename ftp home kadb lib lost+found mail mbox mnt nfs nsr old_archive old_drdspool old_pub opt pages pcfs pub...

  17. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  18. Environmental control of branching in petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Revel S M; Janssen, Bart J; Luo, Zhiwei; Oplaat, Carla; Ledger, Susan E; Wohlers, Mark W; Snowden, Kimberley C

    2015-06-01

    Plants alter their development in response to changes in their environment. This responsiveness has proven to be a successful evolutionary trait. Here, we tested the hypothesis that two key environmental factors, light and nutrition, are integrated within the axillary bud to promote or suppress the growth of the bud into a branch. Using petunia (Petunia hybrida) as a model for vegetative branching, we manipulated both light quality (as crowding and the red-to-far-red light ratio) and phosphate availability, such that the axillary bud at node 7 varied from deeply dormant to rapidly growing. In conjunction with the phenotypic characterization, we also monitored the state of the strigolactone (SL) pathway by quantifying SL-related gene transcripts. Mutants in the SL pathway inhibit but do not abolish the branching response to these environmental signals, and neither signal is dominant over the other, suggesting that the regulation of branching in response to the environment is complex. We have isolated three new putatively SL-related TCP (for Teosinte branched1, Cycloidia, and Proliferating cell factor) genes from petunia, and have identified that these TCP-type transcription factors may have roles in the SL signaling pathway both before and after the reception of the SL signal at the bud. We show that the abundance of the receptor transcript is regulated by light quality, such that axillary buds growing in added far-red light have greatly increased receptor transcript abundance. This suggests a mechanism whereby the impact of any SL signal reaching an axillary bud is modulated by the responsiveness of these cells to the signal. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  20. A compound model of Islamic Azad University academic member’s intent to knowledge sharing with the approach of perceptual factors (Survey around North Branch of Tehran and Science and Researches Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alipour Darvishi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the perceptual factors affecting the faculty member’s knowledge sharing intention. This research has been set within the frame of Planned Behavior Theory and has been combined of the two prediction behavior models. Knowledge sharing intent is the dependent variable of model, mediator variables are including: attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control and independent variables are including: perceived relative advantage, trust in management, perceived organizational support, fear of loosing one’s unique value, perceived environmental dynamism, perceived supervisor control. This survey research was implemented within North Branch of Tehran and Science and Researches Campus including 148 stratified random samples of the faculty members. The statistical analysis of the model has been done through structural equation model with PLS software’s. All of hypothesis was confirmed and the power of model prediction for knowledge sharing intention is R ² =0.579. In order to promote of higher education development indexes, this survey results can be applied to systematic planning of encouraging academic members knowledge sharing.

  1. Dissecting Genetic Network of Fruit Branch Traits in Upland Cotton by Association Mapping Using SSR Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Mei

    Full Text Available Genetic architecture of branch traits has large influences on the morphological structure, photosynthetic capacity, planting density, and yield of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.. This research aims to reveal the genetic effects of six branch traits, including bottom fruit branch node number (BFBNN, bottom fruit branch length (BFBL, middle fruit branch node number (MFBNN, middle fruit branch length (MFBL, upper fruit branch node number (UFBNN, and upper fruit branch length (UFBL. Association mapping was conducted for these traits of 39 lines and their 178 F1 hybrids in three environments. There were 20 highly significant Quantitative Trait SSRs (QTSs detected by mixed linear model approach analyzing a full genetic model with genetic effects of additive, dominance, epistasis and their environment interaction. The phenotypic variation explained by genetic effects ranged from 32.64 ~ 91.61%, suggesting these branch traits largely influenced by genetic factors.

  2. Stochastic and deterministic causes of streamer branching in liquid dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadidian, Jouya; Zahn, Markus; Lavesson, Nils; Widlund, Ola; Borg, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Streamer branching in liquid dielectrics is driven by stochastic and deterministic factors. The presence of stochastic causes of streamer branching such as inhomogeneities inherited from noisy initial states, impurities, or charge carrier density fluctuations is inevitable in any dielectric. A fully three-dimensional streamer model presented in this paper indicates that deterministic origins of branching are intrinsic attributes of streamers, which in some cases make the branching inevitable depending on shape and velocity of the volume charge at the streamer frontier. Specifically, any given inhomogeneous perturbation can result in streamer branching if the volume charge layer at the original streamer head is relatively thin and slow enough. Furthermore, discrete nature of electrons at the leading edge of an ionization front always guarantees the existence of a non-zero inhomogeneous perturbation ahead of the streamer head propagating even in perfectly homogeneous dielectric. Based on the modeling results for streamers propagating in a liquid dielectric, a gauge on the streamer head geometry is introduced that determines whether the branching occurs under particular inhomogeneous circumstances. Estimated number, diameter, and velocity of the born branches agree qualitatively with experimental images of the streamer branching

  3. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  4. Spiral branches and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasov, A.V.

    1974-01-01

    Origin of spiral branches of galaxies and formation of stars in them are considered from the point of view of the theory of the gravitational gas condensation, one of comparatively young theories. Arguments are presented in favour of the stellar condensation theory. The concept of the star formation of gas is no longer a speculative hypothesis. This is a theory which assumes quantitative verification and explains qualitatively many facts observed. And still our knowledge on the nature of spiral branches is very poor. It still remains vague what processes give origin to spiral branches, why some galaxies have spirals and others have none. And shapes of spiral branches are diverse. Some cases are known when spiral branches spread outside boundaries of galaxies themselves. Such spirals arise exclusively in the region where there are two or some interacting galaxies. Only first steps have been made in the explanation of the galaxy spiral branches, and it is necessary to carry out new observations and new theoretical calculations

  5. Space plasma branch at NRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Naval Research Laboratory (Washington, D.C.) formed the Space Plasma Branch within its Plasma Physics Division on July 1. Vithal Patel, former Program Director of Magnetospheric Physics, National Science Foundation, also joined NRL on the same date as Associate Superintendent of the Plasma Physics Division. Barret Ripin is head of the newly organized branch. The Space Plasma branch will do basic and applied space plasma research using a multidisciplinary approach. It consolidates traditional rocket and satellite space experiments, space plasma theory and computation, with laboratory space-related experiments. About 40 research scientists, postdoctoral fellows, engineers, and technicians are divided among its five sections. The Theory and Computation sections are led by Joseph Huba and Joel Fedder, the Space Experiments section is led by Paul Rodriguez, and the Pharos Laser Facility and Laser Experiments sections are headed by Charles Manka and Jacob Grun.

  6. Coulomb branches with complex singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyres, Philip C.; Martone, Mario

    2018-06-01

    We construct 4d superconformal field theories (SCFTs) whose Coulomb branches have singular complex structures. This implies, in particular, that their Coulomb branch coordinate rings are not freely generated. Our construction also gives examples of distinct SCFTs which have identical moduli space (Coulomb, Higgs, and mixed branch) geometries. These SCFTs thus provide an interesting arena in which to test the relationship between moduli space geometries and conformal field theory data. We construct these SCFTs by gauging certain discrete global symmetries of N = 4 superYang-Mills (sYM) theories. In the simplest cases, these discrete symmetries are outer automorphisms of the sYM gauge group, and so these theories have lagrangian descriptions as N = 4 sYM theories with disconnected gauge groups.

  7. Branch prediction in the pentium family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Agner

    1998-01-01

    How the branch prediction mechanism in the Pentium has been uncovered with all its quirks, and the incredibly more effective branch prediction in the later versions.......How the branch prediction mechanism in the Pentium has been uncovered with all its quirks, and the incredibly more effective branch prediction in the later versions....

  8. Accelerator Physics Branch annual technical report, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, J.A.

    1990-08-01

    The report describes, in a series of separate articles, the achievements of the Accelerator Physics Branch for the calendar year 1989. Work in basic problems of accelerator physics including ion sources, high-duty-factor rf quadrupoles, coupling effects in standing wave linacs and laser acceleration is outlined. A proposal for a synchrotron light source for Canada is described. Other articles cover the principal design features of the IMPELA industrial electron linac prototype, the cavities developed for the HERA complex at DESY, Hamburg, West Germany, and further machine projects that have been completed

  9. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  10. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  11. Kodiak: An Implementation Framework for Branch and Bound Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Markevicius, Mantas

    2015-01-01

    Recursive branch and bound algorithms are often used to refine and isolate solutions to several classes of global optimization problems. A rigorous computation framework for the solution of systems of equations and inequalities involving nonlinear real arithmetic over hyper-rectangular variable and parameter domains is presented. It is derived from a generic branch and bound algorithm that has been formally verified, and utilizes self-validating enclosure methods, namely interval arithmetic and, for polynomials and rational functions, Bernstein expansion. Since bounds computed by these enclosure methods are sound, this approach may be used reliably in software verification tools. Advantage is taken of the partial derivatives of the constraint functions involved in the system, firstly to reduce the branching factor by the use of bisection heuristics and secondly to permit the computation of bifurcation sets for systems of ordinary differential equations. The associated software development, Kodiak, is presented, along with examples of three different branch and bound problem types it implements.

  12. Finite-size scaling of survival probability in branching processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Millan, Rosalba; Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Álvaro

    2015-04-01

    Branching processes pervade many models in statistical physics. We investigate the survival probability of a Galton-Watson branching process after a finite number of generations. We derive analytically the existence of finite-size scaling for the survival probability as a function of the control parameter and the maximum number of generations, obtaining the critical exponents as well as the exact scaling function, which is G(y)=2ye(y)/(e(y)-1), with y the rescaled distance to the critical point. Our findings are valid for any branching process of the Galton-Watson type, independently of the distribution of the number of offspring, provided its variance is finite. This proves the universal behavior of the finite-size effects in branching processes, including the universality of the metric factors. The direct relation to mean-field percolation is also discussed.

  13. The effect of crack branching on the residual lifetime of machine components containing stress corrosion cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdowski, R.M.; Uggowitzer, P.J.; Speidel, M.O.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison is presented of theoretical, numerical and experimental investigations concerning the effect of crack branching on the reduction of stress intensity at the tip of single cracks. The results indicate that the division of a single crack into n branches reduces the stress intensity at the branch tips by a factor of about 1/√n. This permits branched cracks to grow to larger depths before becoming critical. The implication is that longer residual lifetimes and longer operating times between inspections can be calculated for machine components with growing branched stress corrosion cracks. (author)

  14. Module for the organization of a branch of the universal branch driver in the CAMAC standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguen Fuk; Smirnov, V.A.; Khmelevski, E.

    1976-01-01

    A module is elaborated for the organization of a branch of the universal branch driver in the CAMAC standard for the conjugation of a control crate trunk with a branch trunk. A block diagram of the module is described; its principal specifications are given. The universal branch driver system may accomodate up to 10 branch organization modules with one control source module

  15. BDC 500 branch driver controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksman, A

    1981-01-01

    This processor has been designed for very fast data acquisition and date pre-processing. The dataway and branch highway speeds have been optimized for approximately 1.5 mu sec. The internal processor cycle is approximately 0.8 mu sec. The standard version contains the following functions (slots): crate controller type A1; branch highway driver including terminator; serial I/O port (TTY, VDU); 24 bit ALU and 24 bit program counter; 16 bit memory address counter and 4 word stack; 4k bit memory for program and/or data; battery backup for the memory; CNAFD and crate LAM display; request/grant logic for time- sharing operation of several BDCs. The free slots can be equipped with e.g. extra RAM, computer interfaces, hardware multiplier/dividers, etc. (0 refs).

  16. Branching geodesics in normed spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A O; Tuzhilin, A A

    2002-01-01

    We study branching extremals of length functionals on normed spaces. This is a natural generalization of the Steiner problem in normed spaces. We obtain criteria for a network to be extremal under deformations that preserve the topology of networks as well as under deformations with splitting. We discuss the connection between locally shortest networks and extremal networks. In the important particular case of the Manhattan plane, we get a criterion for a locally shortest network to be extremal

  17. Cash efficiency for bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello, Julia Garc?a

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks? branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank ...

  18. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  19. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  20. RAB-10 Regulates Dendritic Branching by Balancing Dendritic Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caitlin A.; Yan, Jing; Howell, Audrey S.; Dong, Xintong; Shen, Kang

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a large dendritic arbor requires robust growth and the precise delivery of membrane and protein cargoes to specific subcellular regions of the developing dendrite. How the microtubule-based vesicular trafficking and sorting systems are regulated to distribute these dendritic development factors throughout the dendrite is not well understood. Here we identify the small GTPase RAB-10 and the exocyst complex as critical regulators of dendrite morphogenesis and patterning in the C. elegans sensory neuron PVD. In rab-10 mutants, PVD dendritic branches are reduced in the posterior region of the cell but are excessive in the distal anterior region of the cell. We also demonstrate that the dendritic branch distribution within PVD depends on the balance between the molecular motors kinesin-1/UNC-116 and dynein, and we propose that RAB-10 regulates dendrite morphology by balancing the activity of these motors to appropriately distribute branching factors, including the transmembrane receptor DMA-1. PMID:26633194

  1. Dynamic Crack Branching - A Photoelastic Evaluation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    0.41 mPai and a 0.18 MPa, and predicted a theoretical kinking angle of 84°whichagreed well with experimentally measured angle. After crack kinking...Consistent crack branching’at KIb = 2.04 MPaI -i- and r = 1.3 mm verified this crack branching criterion. The crack branching angle predicted by--.’ DD

  2. Comorbidity in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan; Rosenberg, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate comorbidity before and after the diagnosis of branch retinal vein occlusion to determine whether it is a consequence of arterial thickening and therefore could serve as a diagnostic marker for other comorbidities and to evaluate the risk factors for the development of such occlusion....

  3. Controlling the branching ratio of photodissociation using aligned molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Wendt-Larsen, I.; Stapelfeldt, H.

    1999-01-01

    Using a sample of iodine molecules, aligned by a strong, linearly polarized laser pulse, we control the branching ratio of the I+I and I+I* photodissociation channels by a factor of 26. The control relies on selective photoexcitation of two potential curves that each correlate adiabatically...

  4. Branch Development of Five-Year-Old Betula alnoides Plantations in Response to Planting Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Sheng Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Branch development in the lower part of stem is critical to both early stem growth and wood quality of the most valuable section of tree, and its regulation through planting density has always been greatly concerned. Here the effect of planting density on branch development was examined in a five-year-old plantation of Betula alnoides with six planting densities (625, 833, 1111, 1250, 1667, and 2500 stems per hectare (sph in Guangdong Province, South China. Branch quantity (number, proportion, and density, morphology (diameter, length, and angle, position (height and orientation, and branch status (dead or alive were investigated for 54 dominant or co-dominant trees under six treatments of planting density after the growth of each tree was measured. Factors influencing branch development were also explored by mixed modelling. The results showed that the mean tree heights of 1250 and 1667 sph treatments were higher than those of other planting density treatments. The quantity of live branches decreased with increasing planting density. However, planting density had no significant effect on the number of all branches, and there existed no remarkable difference in branch number and proportion among four orientations. As for branch morphology, only the largest branch diameter had a significantly negative correlation with planting density. In addition, high planting density significantly increased the height of the largest branch within the crown. Mixed effects models indicated that branch diameter, length, and angle were closely correlated with each other, and they were all in positively significant correlation to the branch height at the stem section below six meters. It was concluded that properly increasing planting density will promote natural pruning, improve early branch control, and be beneficial for wood production from the most valuable section of the stem.

  5. Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Yukawa, Hideaki

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), viz., L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-valine, are essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in higher organisms and are important nutrition for humans as well as livestock. They are also valued as synthetic intermediates for pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for BCAAs in the feed and pharmaceutical industries is increasing continuously. Traditional industrial fermentative production of BCAAs was performed using microorganisms isolated by random mutagenesis. A collection of these classical strains was also scientifically useful to clarify the details of the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are tightly regulated by feedback inhibition and transcriptional attenuation. Based on this understanding of the metabolism of BCAAs, it is now possible for us to pursue strains with higher BCAA productivity using rational design and advanced molecular biology techniques. Additionally, systems biology approaches using augmented omics information help us to optimize carbon flux toward BCAA production. Here, we describe the biosynthetic pathways of BCAAs and their regulation and then overview the microorganisms developed for BCAA production. Other chemicals, including isobutanol, i.e., a second-generation biofuel, can be synthesized by branching the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are also outlined.

  6. Unusually Looped and Muzzled Branches of Right Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Guru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is the major cause of death in developed countries as it accounts on an average for 1 of every 5 deaths. Morphological variations of coronary arterial system is one of the causative factor for CAD. Anatomical knowledge of all possible variant patterns of coronary arterial system is imperative in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of CAD. We report here a rare branching pattern of right coronary artery (RCA. The origin of RCA was normal but the course and branching pattern of it were atypical. RCA was not occupying its usual position in atrioventricular (coronary sulcus and its course was incomplete. It gave a ventricular branch to right ventricle, which presented an unusual looping pattern. It terminated as right marginal artery following its muzzled appearance within the musculature of the ventricle.

  7. ACPSEM (NZ Branch) annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The 1998 annual meeting of the New Zealand Branch of the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine was held at the Christchurch School of Medicine over 26-27 November 1998, and attracted a record number of around 45 registrations. The meeting serves a number of purposes but one of the primary ones is to bring together scientists in medicine from around the country to compare notes on practices and advances, particularly in radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology physics. Following the meeting format established over recent years, separate workshops were devoted to radiotherapy physics and developments in the regional centres represented, and to practical issues relating to medical physics in diagnostic radiology. The workshops were held in parallel with presentations of scientific papers covering a wide range of topics, but with about half relating to engineering applications in medicine. (author)

  8. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  9. Cambial activity in dry and rainy season on branches from woody species growing in Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmen R. Marcati; Silvia R. Machado; Diego Sotto Podadera; Natalia O. Totti de Lara; Fabio Bosio; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal cambial activity was investigated in one- to three-year-old branch modules (branch constructional units) of ten woody species from cerrado sensu stricto, a savanna-like ecosystem, of southernBrazil. Relationships between cambial activity and environmental factors (precipitation, temperature,day length) and leaf production were tested using...

  10. An Investigation of the Impact of International Branch Campuses on Organizational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Lanford, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The authors first survey the factors related to globalization that have stimulated the creation of international branch campuses. They then contend that the viability of an international branch campus should not be solely evaluated from a rational choice perspective oriented toward economic self-interest. Rather, the organizational culture of the…

  11. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  12. Field electron emission from branched nanotubes film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Baoqing; Tian Shikai; Yang Zhonghai

    2005-01-01

    We describe the preparation and analyses of films composed of branched carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The CNTs were grown on a Ni catalyst film using chemical vapor deposition from a gas containing acetylene. From scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses, the branched structure of the CNTs was determined; the field emission characteristics in a vacuum chamber indicated a lower turn on field for branched CNTs than normal CNTs

  13. Quasiparticle branch mixing rates in superconducting aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, C.C.; Clarke, J.

    1979-01-01

    The kinetic equation is used to compute the elastic and inelastic quasiparticle branch mixing rates for a superconducting film into which quasiparticles are injected via a tunnel barrier from a second superconducting film. Representative graphs are presented of the steady-state quasiparticle distribution, the quasiparticle charge imbalance Q* versus injection current, the charge relaxation rate tau -1 /sub Q/* vs Δ/k/sub B/T/sub c/ for several values of elastic scattering rate, and the quasiparticle branch relaxation rate tau -1 /sub Q/ as a function of energy. The quasiparticle potential developed in the injection film is related to tau -1 /sub Q/, and thence to tau -1 0 , a characteristic electron-phonon scattering time. Detailed measurements of tau/sub Q/ are reported for films of superconducting Al, some of which were doped with oxygen to give a range of transition temperatures from 1.2 to 2.1 K. From the dependence of tau -1 /sub Q/* on Δ/k/sub B/T/sub c/, values are deduced for the gap anisotropy of the films. In the cleanest samples, tau 0 or approx. = 2Δ) mean-free-path measurements, but a factor of about 4 smaller than that obtained from recombination time measurements and theoretical calculations. The value of tau -1 /sub o/ in the Al films increases with the transition temperature T/sub c/ as T 5 /sub c/ or T 6 /sub c/, instead of T 3 /sub c/ as predicted by simple theory. It is suggested that the rapid increase of tau -1 0 with T/sub c/ may arise from either a strong dependence of α 2 F (ω) on T/sub c/ or from a small concentration of magnetic impurities

  14. [Branches of the National Institute of Hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromulska, Marta

    2008-01-01

    National Epidemiological Institute (National Institute of Hygiene, from 7th September 1923) was established in 1918 in Warsaw and acted at national level. Its actions in the field of diseases combat were supported by bacteriological stations and vaccine production in voivodeship cities, which were taken charge of by the state, and names "National Epidemiological Institutes". According to the ministers resolution from 6th July 1921,Epidemiological Institutes were merged to National Central Epidemiological Institutes (PZH), the epidemiological institutes outside Warsaw were named branches, which were to be located in every voivodeship city, according to the initial organizational resolutions. There were country branches of NCEI in: Cracow, Lwów, Lódź, Toruń, Lublin, and Wilno in the period 1919-1923. New branches in Poznań (1925), Gdynia(1934), Katowice (Voivodeship Institute of Hygiene (1936), Luck (1937), Stanisławów (1937), Kielce(1938), and Brześć/Bug (Municipal Station acting as branch of National Central Epidemiological Institute. Branches were subordinated to NCEI-PZH) in Warsaw where action plans and unified research and diagnostic method were established and annual meeting of the country branches managers took place. All branches cooperated with hospitals, national health services, district general practitioners and administration structure in control of infectious diseases. In 1938, the post of branch inspector was established, the first of whom was Feliks Przesmycki PhD. Branches cooperated also with University of Cracow, University of Lwów and University of Wilno. In 1935, National Institutes of Food Research was incorporated in PZH, Water Department was established, and these areas of activity began to develop in the branches accordingly. In 1938 there were 13 branches of PZH, and each had three divisions: bacteriological, food research and water research. Three branches in Cracow, Kielce and Lublin worked during World War II under German

  15. Environmental Control of Branching in Petunia1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplaat, Carla; Wohlers, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Plants alter their development in response to changes in their environment. This responsiveness has proven to be a successful evolutionary trait. Here, we tested the hypothesis that two key environmental factors, light and nutrition, are integrated within the axillary bud to promote or suppress the growth of the bud into a branch. Using petunia (Petunia hybrida) as a model for vegetative branching, we manipulated both light quality (as crowding and the red-to-far-red light ratio) and phosphate availability, such that the axillary bud at node 7 varied from deeply dormant to rapidly growing. In conjunction with the phenotypic characterization, we also monitored the state of the strigolactone (SL) pathway by quantifying SL-related gene transcripts. Mutants in the SL pathway inhibit but do not abolish the branching response to these environmental signals, and neither signal is dominant over the other, suggesting that the regulation of branching in response to the environment is complex. We have isolated three new putatively SL-related TCP (for Teosinte branched1, Cycloidia, and Proliferating cell factor) genes from petunia, and have identified that these TCP-type transcription factors may have roles in the SL signaling pathway both before and after the reception of the SL signal at the bud. We show that the abundance of the receptor transcript is regulated by light quality, such that axillary buds growing in added far-red light have greatly increased receptor transcript abundance. This suggests a mechanism whereby the impact of any SL signal reaching an axillary bud is modulated by the responsiveness of these cells to the signal. PMID:25911529

  16. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ghiringhelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients. During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  17. AVM branch vibration test equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    An inventory of the test equipment of the AVM Branch ''Acoustic and Vibratory Mechanics Analysis Methods'' group has been undertaken. The purpose of this inventory is to enable better acquaintance with the technical characteristics of the equipment, providing an accurate definition of their functionalities, ad to inform potential users of the possibilities and equipment available in this field. The report first summarizes the various experimental surveys conduced. Then, using the AVM equipment database to draw up an exhaustive list of available equipment, it provides a full-scope picture of the vibration measurement systems (sensors, conditioners and exciters) and data processing resources commonly used on industrial sites and in laboratories. A definition is also given of a mobile test unit, called 'shelter', and a test bench used for the testing and performance rating of the experimental analysis methods developed by the group. The report concludes with a description of two fixed installations: - the calibration bench ensuring the requisite quality level for the vibration measurement systems ; - the training bench, whereby know-how acquired in the field in the field of measurement and experimental analysis processes is made available to others. (author). 27 refs., 15 figs., 2 appends

  18. Geometrical scaling, furry branching and minijets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Scaling properties and their violations in hadronic collisions are discussed in the framework of the geometrical branching model. Geometrical scaling supplemented by Furry branching characterizes the soft component, while the production of jets specifies the hard component. Many features of multiparticle production processes are well described by this model. 21 refs

  19. Branching out Has So Much to Offer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joe

    2012-01-01

    In 1989 there were thirty ATM branches nationally. In January 2012 there were just twelve ATM branches with another three "proposed". How can that happen? How did it happen? Maybe the most pertinent question is: Why did it happen? There is no single answer to the last question, but perhaps it was something to do with the changes that…

  20. Conformal branching rules and modular invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Using the outer automorphisms of the affine algebra SU(n), we show how the branching rules for the conformal subalgebra SU(pq) contains SU(p) x SU(q) may be simply calculated. We demonstrate that new modular invariant combinations of SU(n) characters are obtainable from the branching rules. (orig.)

  1. Aeroacoustics of pipe systems with closed branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonon, D.; Hirschberg, A.; Golliard, J.; Ziada, S.

    2011-01-01

    Flow induced pulsations in resonant pipe networks with closed branches are considered in this review paper. These pulsations, observed in many technical applications, have been identified as self-sustained aeroacoustic oscillations driven by the instability of the flow along the closed branches. The

  2. Branching miter joints : principles and artwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, T.; Verhoeff, K.; Hart, G.W.; Sarhangi, R.

    2010-01-01

    A miter joint connects two beams, typically of the same cross section, at an angle such that the longitudinal beam edges continue across the joint. When more than two beams meet in one point, like in a tree, we call this a branching joint. In a branching miter joint, the beams’ longitudinal edges

  3. Branching bisimulation congruence for probabilistic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, N.; Georgievska, S.; Aldini, A.; Baier, C.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of branching bisimulation for the alternating model of probabilistic systems is not a congruence with respect to parallel composition. In this paper we first define another branching bisimulation in the more general model allowing consecutive probabilistic transitions, and we prove that

  4. Prebiotic branched galacto-oligosaccharides (gos)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts van Bueren-Brandt, Alica; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2018-01-01

    The invention relates to galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) compositions and the use thereof. Provided is the use of a GOS composition comprising branched and linear GOS species having a degree of polymerization (DP) of 3, wherein the branched DP3 GOS species are present in excess of linear DP3 GOS

  5. Msx2 Plays a central Role in Regulating Branching Morphogenesis During Mammary Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yi-Hsin

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the role of a transcriptional factor, Msx2, in regulating branching events in the development of the mouse mammary gland To define the function of Msx2 gene...

  6. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zagreb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaić, Zvonimir; Sain, Snjezana; Gulić, Mirjana; Mahovlić, Vjekoslav; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    The available literature shows us that "Druztvo ljeciteljah u Zagrebus (the Society of Healers in Zagreb) was founded as far back as the year 1845 by a total of thirteen members. This data allows us to follow the role of doctors and health workers in Zagreb through their everyday profession, research, organizational and social work as well as management through a period of over one hundred to seventy years. The Branch Zagreb was active before the official establishment of subsidiaries of CMA which is evident from the minutes of the regular annual assembly of the Croatian Medical Association on 21 March 1948. Until the end of 1956, there was no clear division of labor, functions and competencies between the Branch and the Main Board. Their actions were instead consolidated and the Branch operated within and under the name of Croatian Medical Association. In that year the Branch became independent. The Branch Zagreb is the largest and one of the most active branches of the Croatian Medical Association. At the moment, the Branch brings together 3621 members, regular members--doctors of medicine (2497), doctors of dental medicine (384), retired physicians (710), and associate members (30 specialists with higher education who are not doctors). The Branch is especially accomplished in its activities in the area of professional development of its members and therefore organizes a series of scientific conferences in the framework of continuous education of physicians, allowing its members to acquire necessary points for the extension of their operating license. The choir "Zagrebacki lijecnici pjevaci" (Zagreb Physicians' Choir) of the Croatian Medical Music Society of the CMA and its activities are inseparable from the Branch Zagreb. The Branch is firmly linked to the parent body, the CMA, and thus has a visible impact on the strategy and the activities of the Association as a whole. Most professional societies of the CMA have their headquarters in Zagreb and this is

  7. Numerical solution of incompressible flow through branched channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Louda, Petr; Kozel, K.; Příhoda, Jaromír; Beneš, L.; Kopáček, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 318-324 ISSN 0045-7930 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/0977; GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : channel flow * branched channel * EARSM turbulence model Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.810, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045793010003506

  8. FDTD modeling of solar energy absorption in silicon branched nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Christin; Lopez, Rene; Redwing, Joan; Melde, Kathleen

    2013-05-06

    Thin film nanostructured photovoltaic cells are increasing in efficiency and decreasing the cost of solar energy. FDTD modeling of branched nanowire 'forests' are shown to have improved optical absorption in the visible and near-IR spectra over nanowire arrays alone, with a factor of 5 enhancement available at 1000 nm. Alternate BNW tree configurations are presented, achieving a maximum absorption of over 95% at 500 nm.

  9. A particle system with cooperative branching and coalescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sturm, A.; Swart, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2015), s. 1616-1649 ISSN 1050-5164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0752 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : interacting particle system * cooperative branching * coalescence * phase transition * upper invariant law * survival * extinction Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.755, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/SI/swart-0442871.pdf

  10. Identification of candidate genes for dissecting complex branch number trait in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepak; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Das, Shouvik; Kumar, Vinod; Gowda, C L L; Sharma, Shivali; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2016-04-01

    The present study exploited integrated genomics-assisted breeding strategy for genetic dissection of complex branch number quantitative trait in chickpea. Candidate gene-based association analysis in a branch number association panel was performed by utilizing the genotyping data of 401 SNP allelic variants mined from 27 known cloned branch number gene orthologs of chickpea. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) integrating both genome-wide GBS- (4556 SNPs) and candidate gene-based genotyping information of 4957 SNPs in a structured population of 60 sequenced desi and kabuli accessions (with 350-400 kb LD decay), detected 11 significant genomic loci (genes) associated (41% combined PVE) with branch number in chickpea. Of these, seven branch number-associated genes were further validated successfully in two inter (ICC 4958 × ICC 17160)- and intra (ICC 12299 × ICC 8261)-specific mapping populations. The axillary meristem and shoot apical meristem-specific expression, including differential up- and down-regulation (4-5 fold) of the validated seven branch number-associated genes especially in high branch number as compared to the low branch number-containing parental accessions and homozygous individuals of two aforesaid mapping populations was apparent. Collectively, this combinatorial genomic approach delineated diverse naturally occurring novel functional SNP allelic variants in seven potential known/candidate genes [PIN1 (PIN-FORMED protein 1), TB1 (teosinte branched 1), BA1/LAX1 (BARREN STALK1/LIKE AUXIN1), GRAS8 (gibberellic acid insensitive/GAI, Repressor of ga13/RGA and Scarecrow8/SCR8), ERF (ethylene-responsive element-binding factor), MAX2 (more axillary growth 2) and lipase] governing chickpea branch number. The useful information generated from this study have potential to expedite marker-assisted genetic enhancement by developing high-yielding cultivars with more number of productive (pods and seeds) branches in chickpea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  11. Gibberellin Promotes Shoot Branching in the Perennial Woody Plant Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Gao, Congcong; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Pan, Bang-Zhen; Ye, Kaiqin; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2015-08-01

    Strigolactone (SL), auxin and cytokinin (CK) interact to regulate shoot branching. CK has long been considered to be the only key phytohormone to promote lateral bud outgrowth. Here we report that gibberellin also acts as a positive regulator in the control of shoot branching in the woody plant Jatropha curcas. We show that gibberellin and CK synergistically promote lateral bud outgrowth, and that both hormones influence the expression of putative branching regulators, J. curcas BRANCHED1 and BRANCHED2, which are key transcription factors maintaining bud dormancy. Moreover, treatment with paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of de novo gibberellin biosynthesis, significantly reduced the promotion of bud outgrowth by CK, suggesting that gibberellin is required for CK-mediated axillary bud outgrowth. In addition, SL, a plant hormone involved in the repression of shoot branching, acted antagonistically to both gibberellin and CK in the control of lateral bud outgrowth. Consistent with this, the expression of JcMAX2, a J. curcas homolog of Arabidopsis MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 2 encoding an F-box protein in the SL signaling pathway, was repressed by gibberellin and CK treatment. We also provide physiological evidence that gibberellin also induces shoot branching in many other trees, such as papaya, indicating that a more complicated regulatory network occurs in the control of shoot branching in some perennial woody plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  12. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C. (eds.)

    1991-11-01

    The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.

  13. Code 672 observational science branch computer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, D. W.; Shirk, H. G.

    1988-01-01

    In general, networking increases productivity due to the speed of transmission, easy access to remote computers, ability to share files, and increased availability of peripherals. Two different networks within the Observational Science Branch are described in detail.

  14. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  15. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira; Hayashi, Mayumi; Ito, Shotaro; Goseki, Raita; Higashihara, Tomoya; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic

  16. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  17. AGB [asymptotic giant branch]: Star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Asymptotic giant branch stars are red supergiant stars of low-to-intermediate mass. This class of stars is of particular interest because many of these stars can have nuclear processed material brought up repeatedly from the deep interior to the surface where it can be observed. A review of recent theoretical and observational work on stars undergoing the asymptotic giant branch phase is presented. 41 refs

  18. Multiprogrammation fast branch driver for microcomputer MICRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Josef; Lacroix, Jean.

    1975-01-01

    This branch driver allows in association with the FIFO memories of the microcomputer Micral, very fast exchanges with the 7 crates of a CAMAC branch. A CAMAC programm (command, test, read, write) is loaded in the 1K FIFO buffer of the Micral before execution time and executed in sequence at a rate of 1,5μs per CAMAC command. After programm execution, data may be transferred directly on a magnetic tape [fr

  19. Conformations and solution properties of star-branched polyelectrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borisov, O.V.; Zhulina, E.B.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Ballauff, M.; Muller, A.H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of star-like polyelectrolytes (PEs) exhibit distinctive features that originate from the topological complexity of branched macromolecules. In a salt-free solution of branched PEs, mobile counterions preferentially localize in the intramolecular volume of branched macroions.

  20. All change at the CERN UBS branch

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    UBS branches across the country are being modernised, and the CERN branch is no exception. The Bulletin brings you a preview of the project, which will get under way in January 2013.   Mock-up of the renovated UBS branch. The changes at the UBS branch in CERN's Main Building will be no simple facelift. The entire bank will be renovated, transforming the present relatively confined premises into an open and attractive area. "The renovation of the UBS branches is part of a wider campaign designed to further enhance our customer relations," explains Ezio Mangia, the head of the CERN branch.  The UBS bank currently occupies three sets of premises in CERN's Main Building (two on the ground floor and one in the basement). "By the end of the work, which is scheduled to be completed by the middle of next year, CERN customers will benefit from a new area with open-plan counters and "hole-in-the-wall" machines accessible to...

  1. DEMATEL METHOD IN ERP SYSTEMS FOR TSL BRANCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold TORBACKI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces issues concerning the implementation of key performance indicators (KPIs dedicated to the TSL (Transport-Shipping-Logistics branch. The KPIs are used in different modules of the ERP (Enterprise resource planning information systems, which support strategic decision making. Selected indicators have been used to create four perspectives of Balanced Scorecard in accordance with Balanced Scorecard methodology. Using the multi-factor method of DEMATEL (Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory analysis, the evaluation of indicators and Balanced Scorecard’s perspectives has been performed. This article can be useful to persons interested in the implementation of modern solutions in ERP applications dedicated to the TSL branch. Presented article can be useful to persons from upper management of TSL companies who are interested in modern methods of supporting strategic management and for IT system developers who are considering expanding modules of ERP software solutions dedicated to TSL industry which support strategic management and decision making.

  2. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The work of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch within the US DOE's Office of Industrial Programs is discussed and reviewed. The Branch is responsible for assisting the food and agricultural sectors of the economy in increasing their energy efficiency by cost sharing with industry the development and demonstration of technologies industry by itself would not develop because of a greater than normal risk factor, but have significant energy conservation benefits. This task is made more difficult by the diversity of agriculture and the food industry. The focus of the program is now on the development and demonstration of energy conservation technology in high energy use industry sectors and agricultural functions (e.g., sugar processing, meat processing, irrigation, and crop drying, high energy use functions common to many sectors of the food industry (e.g., refrigeration, drying, and evaporation), and innovative concepts (e.g., energy integrated farm systems. Specific projects within the program are summarized. (LCL)

  3. When the BRANCHED network bears fruit: how carpic dominance causes fruit dimorphism in Aethionema

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lenser, T.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Wilhelmsson, P.; Bennett, T.; Rensing, S. A.; Strnad, Miroslav; Theissen, G.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 2 (2018), s. 352-371 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Aethionema arabicum * auxin * branched1 * carpic dominance * cytokinin * fruit development * fruit dimorphism * molecular evolution * phytohormones * shoot branching Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2016

  4. Thermoelectric effects in disordered branched nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyak, Oleksiy; Piriatinskiy, Andrei

    2013-03-01

    We shall develop formalism of thermal and electrical transport in Si1 - x Gex and BiTe nanowires. The key feature of those nanowires is the possibility of dendrimer type branching. The branching tree can be of size comparable to the short wavelength of phonons and by far smaller than the long wavelength of conducting electrons. Hence it is expected that the branching may suppress thermal and let alone electrical conductance. We demonstrate that the morphology of branches strongly affects the electronic conductance. The effect is important to the class of materials known as thermoelectrics. The small size of the branching region makes large temperature and electrical gradients. On the other hand the smallness of the region would allow the electrical transport being ballistic. As usual for the mesoscopic systems we have to solve macroscopic (temperature) and microscopic ((electric potential, current)) equations self-consistently. Electronic conductance is studied via NEGF formalism on the irreducible electron transfer graph. We also investigate the figure of merit ZT as a measure of the suppressed electron conductance.

  5. Pulsed positive corona streamer propagation and branching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Rutgers, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    The propagation and branching of pulsed positive corona streamers in a short gap is observed with high resolution in space and time. The appearance of the pre-breakdown phenomena can be controlled by the electrode configuration, the gas composition and the impedance of the pulsed power circuit. In a point-wire gap the positive corona shows much more branching than in the parallel plane gap with a protrusion. In air, the branching is more pronounced than in argon. The pulsed power circuit appears to operate in two modes, either as an inductive circuit creating a lower number of thick streamers or as a resistive circuit giving a higher number of thin streamers. A possible cause for branching is electrostatic repulsion of two parts of the streamer head. The electric field at the streamer head is limited, the maximum values found are ∼170 kV cm -1 in air and ∼100 kV cm -1 in argon. At these maximum field strengths, the electrons have 5-10 eV energy, so the ionization is dominated by two-step processes. Differences between argon and ambient air in the field strength at which streamers propagate are ascribed to the difference in de-excitation processes in noble and molecular gases. The fact that the pulsed power circuit can control the streamer structure is important for applications, but this effect must also be taken into account in fundamental studies of streamer propagation and branching. (author)

  6. Pulsed positive corona streamer propagation and branching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhuizen, E.M. van [Department of Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)]. E-mail: e.m.v.veldhuizen@tue.nl; Rutgers, W.R. [Department of Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2002-09-07

    The propagation and branching of pulsed positive corona streamers in a short gap is observed with high resolution in space and time. The appearance of the pre-breakdown phenomena can be controlled by the electrode configuration, the gas composition and the impedance of the pulsed power circuit. In a point-wire gap the positive corona shows much more branching than in the parallel plane gap with a protrusion. In air, the branching is more pronounced than in argon. The pulsed power circuit appears to operate in two modes, either as an inductive circuit creating a lower number of thick streamers or as a resistive circuit giving a higher number of thin streamers. A possible cause for branching is electrostatic repulsion of two parts of the streamer head. The electric field at the streamer head is limited, the maximum values found are {approx}170 kV cm{sup -1} in air and {approx}100 kV cm{sup -1} in argon. At these maximum field strengths, the electrons have 5-10 eV energy, so the ionization is dominated by two-step processes. Differences between argon and ambient air in the field strength at which streamers propagate are ascribed to the difference in de-excitation processes in noble and molecular gases. The fact that the pulsed power circuit can control the streamer structure is important for applications, but this effect must also be taken into account in fundamental studies of streamer propagation and branching. (author)

  7. Computational models of airway branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D; Nelson, Celeste M

    2017-07-01

    The bronchial network of the mammalian lung consists of millions of dichotomous branches arranged in a highly complex, space-filling tree. Recent computational models of branching morphogenesis in the lung have helped uncover the biological mechanisms that construct this ramified architecture. In this review, we focus on three different theoretical approaches - geometric modeling, reaction-diffusion modeling, and continuum mechanical modeling - and discuss how, taken together, these models have identified the geometric principles necessary to build an efficient bronchial network, as well as the patterning mechanisms that specify airway geometry in the developing embryo. We emphasize models that are integrated with biological experiments and suggest how recent progress in computational modeling has advanced our understanding of airway branching morphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement of Tau Lepton Branching Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, N.

    2003-12-19

    We present {tau}{sup -} lepton branching fraction measurements based on data from the TPC/Two-Gamma detector at PEP. Using a sample of {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} events, we examine the resonance structure of the K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} system and obtain the first measurements of branching fractions for {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sub 1}{sup -}(1270) and {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sub 1}{sup -}(1400). We also describe a complete set of branching fraction measurements in which all the decays of the {tau}{sup -} lepton are separated into classes defined by the identities of the charged particles and an estimate of the number of neutrals. This is the first such global measurement with decay classes defined by the four possible charged particle species, e, {mu}, {pi}, and K.

  10. Branching time, indeterminism and tense logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical and philosophical background of the introduction of the notion of branching time in philosophical logic as it is revealed in the hitherto unpublished mail-correspondence between Saul Kripke and A.N. Prior in the late 1950s. The paper reveals that the idea...... relativity. The correspondence underpins the point that Prior’s later development of branching time may be understood as a crucial part of his attempt at the formulating a conceptual framework integrating basic human notions of time and free choice....

  11. Electronic branching ratio of the τ lepton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Davis, R.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Ro, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; Romero, V.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, P.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Sung, M.K.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Lambrecht, M.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.N.; Dominick, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Shibata, E.I.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Kroha, H.; Roberts, S.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; Goldberg, M.; Haupt, T.; Horwitz, N.; Kennett, R.; Moneti, G.C.; Playfer, S.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, P.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Thulasidas, M.; Yao, W.; Zhu, G.; Barnes, A.V.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; Letson, T.; Mestayer, M.D.; Akerib, D.S.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; Cowen, D.F.; Eigen, G.; Miller, J.S.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A.J.; Morrison, R.J.; Tajima, H.; Schmidt, D.; Sperka, D.; Procario, M.; Daoudi, M.; Ford, W.T.; Johnson, D.R.; Lingel, K.; Lohner, M.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Besson, D.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cheu, E.; Coffman, D.M.; Drell, P.S.; Ehrlich, R.; Galik, R.S.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Geiser, B.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Honscheid, K.; Jones, C.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P.C.; Kreinick, D.L.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Nandi, S.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; O'Grady, C.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Sapper, M.; Selen, M.; Worden, H.; Worris, M.; Wuerthwein, F.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Yelton, J.; Henderson, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Pipkin, F.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Wolinski, J.; Xiao, D.; Yamamoto, H.; Sadoff, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Using data accumulated by the CLEO I detector operating at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have measured the ratio R=Γ(τ→e bar ν e ν τ )/Γ 1 , where Γ 1 is the τ decay rate to final states with one charged particle. We find R=0.2231±0.0044±0.0073 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Together with the measured topological one-charged-particle branching fraction, this yields the branching fraction of the τ lepton to electrons, B e =0.192±0.004±0.006

  12. A new ripplon branch in He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanatarov, I.V.; Tanatarov, I.V.; Adamenko, I.N.; Nemchenko, K.E.; Wyatt, A.F.G.

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the dispersion relation of ripplons, on the surface of superfluid helium, using the dispersive hydrodynamics approach and find a new ripplon branch. We obtain analytical equation for the dispersion relation and analytic expressions for the limiting cases. The probabilities of decay of unstable ripplons above the roton gap into rotons are derived. A numerical solution for the ripplon dispersion curve is obtained. The new ripplon branch is found at energies just below the instability point of the bulk spectrum, and is investigated; its stability is discussed.

  13. Turing mechanism underlying a branching model for lung morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Sun, Mingzhu; Zhao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian lung develops through branching morphogenesis. Two primary forms of branching, which occur in order, in the lung have been identified: tip bifurcation and side branching. However, the mechanisms of lung branching morphogenesis remain to be explored. In our previous study, a biological mechanism was presented for lung branching pattern formation through a branching model. Here, we provide a mathematical mechanism underlying the branching patterns. By decoupling the branching model, we demonstrated the existence of Turing instability. We performed Turing instability analysis to reveal the mathematical mechanism of the branching patterns. Our simulation results show that the Turing patterns underlying the branching patterns are spot patterns that exhibit high local morphogen concentration. The high local morphogen concentration induces the growth of branching. Furthermore, we found that the sparse spot patterns underlie the tip bifurcation patterns, while the dense spot patterns underlies the side branching patterns. The dispersion relation analysis shows that the Turing wavelength affects the branching structure. As the wavelength decreases, the spot patterns change from sparse to dense, the rate of tip bifurcation decreases and side branching eventually occurs instead. In the process of transformation, there may exists hybrid branching that mixes tip bifurcation and side branching. Since experimental studies have reported that branching mode switching from side branching to tip bifurcation in the lung is under genetic control, our simulation results suggest that genes control the switch of the branching mode by regulating the Turing wavelength. Our results provide a novel insight into and understanding of the formation of branching patterns in the lung and other biological systems.

  14. The impact of switching costs on closing of service branches

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Mira G.

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the optimal location of service branches. Consumers can receive service from different firms and branches offering substitute services. The consumer chooses the firm and the branch. Examples are banking services (which firm and branch?), healthcare providers, insurance companies and their agents, brokerage firms and their branches. With the change in the accessibility of the internet, the service industry witnesses the impact of the change in technology. More customers pr...

  15. ["Long-branch Attraction" artifact in phylogenetic reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Wei; Yu, Li; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2007-06-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction among various organisms not only helps understand their evolutionary history but also reveal several fundamental evolutionary questions. Understanding of the evolutionary relationships among organisms establishes the foundation for the investigations of other biological disciplines. However, almost all the widely used phylogenetic methods have limitations which fail to eliminate systematic errors effectively, preventing the reconstruction of true organismal relationships. "Long-branch Attraction" (LBA) artifact is one of the most disturbing factors in phylogenetic reconstruction. In this review, the conception and analytic method as well as the avoidance strategy of LBA were summarized. In addition, several typical examples were provided. The approach to avoid and resolve LBA artifact has been discussed.

  16. Branch Point Withdrawal in Elongational Startup Flow by Time-Resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, N.; Auhl, D.; Bailly, C.; Lindner, P.; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W.; Wischnewski, A.; Leal, L. G.; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Richter, D.

    2016-01-01

    We present a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation of a blend composed of a dendritic polymer and a linear matrix with comparable viscosity in start-up of an elongational flow at Tg + 50. The two-generation dendritic polymer is diluted to 10% by weight in a matrix of a long well-entangled linear chains. Both components consist of mainly 1,4-cis-polyisoprene but differ in isotopic composition. The resulting scattering contrast is sufficiently high to permit time-resolved measurements of the system structure factor during the start-up phase and to follow the retraction processes involving the inner sections of the branched polymer in the nonlinear deformation response. The outer branches and the linear matrix, on the contrary, are in the linear deformation regime. The linear matrix dominates the rheological signature of the blend and the influence of the branched component can barely be detected. However, the neutron scattering intensity is predominantly that of the (branched) minority component so that its dynamics is clearly evident. In the present paper, we use the neutron scattering data to validate the branch point withdrawal process, which could not be unambiguously discerned from rheological measurements in this blend. The maximal tube stretch that the inner branches experience, before the relaxed outer arm material is incorporated into the tube is determined. The in situ scattering experiments demonstrate for the first time the leveling-off of the strain as the result of branch point withdrawal and chain retraction directly on the molecular level. We conclude that branch point motion in the mixture of architecturally complex polymers occurs earlier than would be expected in a purely branched system, presumably due to the different topological environment that the linear matrix presents to the hierarchically deep-buried tube sections. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  17. Branch Point Withdrawal in Elongational Startup Flow by Time-Resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, N.

    2016-05-27

    We present a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation of a blend composed of a dendritic polymer and a linear matrix with comparable viscosity in start-up of an elongational flow at Tg + 50. The two-generation dendritic polymer is diluted to 10% by weight in a matrix of a long well-entangled linear chains. Both components consist of mainly 1,4-cis-polyisoprene but differ in isotopic composition. The resulting scattering contrast is sufficiently high to permit time-resolved measurements of the system structure factor during the start-up phase and to follow the retraction processes involving the inner sections of the branched polymer in the nonlinear deformation response. The outer branches and the linear matrix, on the contrary, are in the linear deformation regime. The linear matrix dominates the rheological signature of the blend and the influence of the branched component can barely be detected. However, the neutron scattering intensity is predominantly that of the (branched) minority component so that its dynamics is clearly evident. In the present paper, we use the neutron scattering data to validate the branch point withdrawal process, which could not be unambiguously discerned from rheological measurements in this blend. The maximal tube stretch that the inner branches experience, before the relaxed outer arm material is incorporated into the tube is determined. The in situ scattering experiments demonstrate for the first time the leveling-off of the strain as the result of branch point withdrawal and chain retraction directly on the molecular level. We conclude that branch point motion in the mixture of architecturally complex polymers occurs earlier than would be expected in a purely branched system, presumably due to the different topological environment that the linear matrix presents to the hierarchically deep-buried tube sections. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  18. BranchAnalysis2D/3D automates morphometry analyses of branching structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Aditya; Muñoz-Estrada, Jesús; Bourgeois, Justin R; Nalwalk, Julia W; Pumiglia, Kevin M; Sheen, Volney L; Ferland, Russell J

    2018-01-15

    Morphometric analyses of biological features have become increasingly common in recent years with such analyses being subject to a large degree of observer bias, variability, and time consumption. While commercial software packages exist to perform these analyses, they are expensive, require extensive user training, and are usually dependent on the observer tracing the morphology. To address these issues, we have developed a broadly applicable, no-cost ImageJ plugin we call 'BranchAnalysis2D/3D', to perform morphometric analyses of structures with branching morphologies, such as neuronal dendritic spines, vascular morphology, and primary cilia. Our BranchAnalysis2D/3D algorithm allows for rapid quantification of the length and thickness of branching morphologies, independent of user tracing, in both 2D and 3D data sets. We validated the performance of BranchAnalysis2D/3D against pre-existing software packages using trained human observers and images from brain and retina. We found that the BranchAnalysis2D/3D algorithm outputs results similar to available software (i.e., Metamorph, AngioTool, Neurolucida), while allowing faster analysis times and unbiased quantification. BranchAnalysis2D/3D allows inexperienced observers to output results like a trained observer but more efficiently, thereby increasing the consistency, speed, and reliability of morphometric analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. ORD’s Urban Watershed Management Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a poster for the Edison Science Day, tentatively scheduled for June 10, 2009. This poster presentation summarizes key elements of the EPA Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB). An overview of the national problems posed by w...

  20. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  1. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering ampersand Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized

  2. Organizing Organoids: Stem Cells Branch Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jamie A

    2017-12-07

    In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Taguchi and Nishinakamura (2017) describe a carefully optimized method for making a branch-competent ureteric bud, a tissue fundamental to kidney development, from mouse embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells. The work illuminates embryology and has important implications for making more realistic kidney organoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Annealed star-branched polyelectrolytes in solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Wolterink, J.; Male, van J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Koopal, L.K.; Zhulina, E.B.; Borisov, O.V.

    2002-01-01

    Equilibrium conformations of annealed star-branched polyelectrolytes (polyacids) are calculated with a numerical self-consistent-field (SCF) model. From the calculations we obtain also the size and charge of annealed polyelectrolyte stars as a function of the number of arms, pH, and the ionic

  4. Branch President gives evidence at Scottish Parliament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    As the Scottish Government moves forward with its recently announced package of measures on animal health and welfare, Hayley Atkin, BVA Policy Officer, describes a busy month for the President of BVA Scottish Branch representing members in the Scottish Parliament. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni; Nano, Giovanni; Marcia, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  6. Laughter-induced left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Grant V; Desai, Dipan; Spragg, David D; Zakaria, Sammy

    2012-10-01

    We present the case of a patient with ischemic heart disease and intermittent left bundle branch block, reproducibly induced by laughter. Following treatment of ischemia with successful deployment of a drug-eluting stent, no further episodes of inducible LBBB were seen. Transient ischemia, exacerbated by elevated intrathoracic pressure during laughter, may have contributed to onset of this phenomenon. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Branching bisimulation congruence for probabilistic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andova, S.; Georgievska, S.; Trcka, N.

    2012-01-01

    A notion of branching bisimilarity for the alternating model of probabilistic systems, compatible with parallel composition, is defined. For a congruence result, an internal transition immediately followed by a non-trivial probability distribution is not considered inert. A weaker definition of

  8. Infrared studies of asymptotic giant branch stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willems, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis studies are presented of asymptotic giant branch stars, which are thought to be an important link in the evolution of the galaxy. The studies were performed on the basis of data collected by the IRAS, the infrared astronomical satelite. 233 refs.; 33 figs.; 16 tabs

  9. Semileptonic b branching fractions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Gagnon, P

    2000-01-01

    I review recent results on semileptonic branching fractions at LEP for Z/sup 0/ to bb data, for the average b hadron then for b baryons. From the inclusive BR(b to lX), one can obtain the most precise value for the CKM matrix element V/sub cb/. (14 refs).

  10. Origin of buds, branches, and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that survivor trees in rural, managed forests rebuild broken crowns with new branches and foliage after ice storm injury (Shortle et al. 2014). Veteran trees in historic parks and landscapes show repeated cycles of crown loss and recovery (Fay 2002). Crown rebuilding or reiteration from sprouts is a physiological response with architectural...

  11. High speed CAMAC differential branch highway driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, D.E.; Nelson, R.O.; Poore, R.V.; Sunier, J.W.; Ross, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    A new CAMAC branch driver is described that incorporates several unusual features which combine to give reliable, high-speed performance. These include balanced line driver/receivers, stored CAMAC command lists, 8 DMA channels, pseudo LAMS, hardware priority encoding of LAMS, and hardware-implemented Q-controlled block transfers. 3 figures

  12. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  13. Tree branching: Leonardo da Vinci's rule versus biomechanical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule.

  14. 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    González, Miguel; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Martínez, Rodrigo; Minuesa, Carmen; Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso; WBPA15

    2016-01-01

    This volume gathers papers originally presented at the 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications (WBPA15), which was held from 7 to 10 April 2015 in Badajoz, Spain (http://branching.unex.es/wbpa15/index.htm). The papers address a broad range of theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory. Further, they amply demonstrate that the theoretical research in this area remains vital and topical, as well as the relevance of branching concepts in the development of theoretical approaches to solving new problems in applied fields such as Epidemiology, Biology, Genetics, and, of course, Population Dynamics. The topics covered can broadly be classified into the following areas: 1. Coalescent Branching Processes 2. Branching Random Walks 3. Population Growth Models in Varying and Random Environments 4. Size/Density/Resource-Dependent Branching Models 5. Age-Dependent Branching Models 6. Special Branching Models 7. Applications in Epidemiology 8. Applications in Biology and Genetics Offer...

  15. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jim; Melcher, C.; Bowen, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Complex natural resource issues require understanding a web of interactions among ecosystem components that are (1) interdisciplinary, encompassing physical, chemical, and biological processes; (2) spatially complex, involving movements of animals, water, and airborne materials across a range of landscapes and jurisdictions; and (3) temporally complex, occurring over days, weeks, or years, sometimes involving response lags to alteration or exhibiting large natural variation. Scientists in the Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, investigate a diversity of these complex natural resource questions at the landscape and systems levels. This Fact Sheet describes the work of the Ecosystems Dynamics Branch, which is focused on energy and land use, climate change and long-term integrated assessments, herbivore-ecosystem interactions, fire and post-fire restoration, and environmental flows and river restoration.

  16. Photovoltaic Program Branch annual report, FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K A [ed.

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Photovoltaic (PV) Program Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. The branch is responsible for managing the subcontracted portion of SERI's PV Advanced Research and Development Project. In fiscal year (FY) 1989, this included nearly 50 subcontracts, with a total annualized funding of approximately $13.1 million. Approximately two-thirds of the subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of nearly $4 million. The six technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontracted program: Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, New Ideas, and University Participation. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1989, and future research directions. Each report will be cataloged individually.

  17. Analyzing the Problems of Ayandeh Bank Branches across the Country Using Data Mining Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Mohammadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage problems and complaints of customers and branches, many banks in the country outsource parts of their customer relationship management to companies such as call centers. Since this important unit is managed out of the banks, analyzing the data and evaluating the performance of call centers are very important. On the other hand, many banks are not able to analyze and do not know how to use hidden patterns in the data. Hence, by presenting RFS model in this paper, we have tried to cluster bank branches based on R factor (recently announced problem, F (frequency or number of difficulties and S (branches satisfaction with call center and find the relationship between these factors and mentioned problems. Moreover, call center's ability to resolve problems of branches of each cluster can be assessed using S Factor. Branches were distributed into four optimized clusters based on their behavior pattern. Finally, the results were analyzed and the recommendations were presented to improve the performance of call centers.

  18. Mass loss on the Asymptotic Giant Branch

    OpenAIRE

    Zijlstra, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Mass loss on the Asymptotic Giant Branch provides the origin of planetary nebulae. This paper reviews several relevant aspects of AGB evolution: pulsation properties, mass loss formalisms and time variable mass loss, evidence for asymmetries on the AGB, binarity, ISM interaction, and mass loss at low metallicity. There is growing evidence that mass loss on the AGB is already asymmetric, but with spherically symmetric velocity fields. The origin of the rings may be in pulsational instabilities...

  19. Bent and branched chains of nanoresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikhova, A. S.; Popov, I. Yu

    2014-10-01

    We study the spectral problem for bent and branched chains of weakly coupled conglobate resonators. At the joint points the δ-coupling is assumed. Our approach is based on the theory of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators and transfer matrix method. The structure of the spectrum is described. For the both cases it is proved that the Hamiltonian has negative eigenvalue for some values of the model parameters.

  20. COELIAC TRUNK BRANCHING PATTERN AND VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Jose Thomson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anatomical variations involving the visceral arteries are common. However, variations in coeliac trunk are usually asymptomatic, they may become important in patients undergoing diagnostic angiography for gastrointestinal bleeding or prior to an operative procedure. This study was useful for knowing the possible morphological variations before an upper abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study done by cadaveric dissection, conducted on thirty cadavers. The coeliac trunk being examined for its origin, branching pattern, distribution, and variations. Results were statistically analysed and compared with the previous studies. RESULTS In our study, 60% of the coeliac trunk shows variations and 40% have normal branching pattern. A complete absence of coeliac trunk was observed in one case. In the present study the Right inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6% and left inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 3 cases (9.9%. Both inferior phrenic arteries are arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6%. The common hepatomesenteric trunk and gastro splenic trunk was found in 1 case (3.3%. Hepatosplenic trunk was found in 2 cases (6.6%. In another 2 cases (6.6% gastric and hepatic artery originate from coeliac trunk but splenic artery has a separate origin from abdominal aorta. An absent trunk was also found in 1 case (3.3%. In 5 cases (16.7% showed trifurcation with variation in the branching pattern. CONCLUSION The branching pattern and extreme degree variability in coeliac trunk as brought out in the observations of the present study make it obvious that the present study almost falls in description with previous studies.

  1. Melatonin Inhibits Embryonic Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis by Regulating Both Epithelial Cell Adhesion and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Jiro; Sakai, Manabu; Uchida, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Wataru; Nohara, Kanji; Maruyama, Yusuke; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Sakai, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Many organs, including salivary glands, lung, and kidney, are formed by epithelial branching during embryonic development. Branching morphogenesis occurs via either local outgrowths or the formation of clefts that subdivide epithelia into buds. This process is promoted by various factors, but the mechanism of branching morphogenesis is not fully understood. Here we have defined melatonin as a potential negative regulator or “brake” of branching morphogenesis, shown that the levels of it and its receptors decline when branching morphogenesis begins, and identified the process that it regulates. Melatonin has various physiological functions, including circadian rhythm regulation, free-radical scavenging, and gonadal development. Furthermore, melatonin is present in saliva and may have an important physiological role in the oral cavity. In this study, we found that the melatonin receptor is highly expressed on the acinar epithelium of the embryonic submandibular gland. We also found that exogenous melatonin reduces salivary gland size and inhibits branching morphogenesis. We suggest that this inhibition does not depend on changes in either proliferation or apoptosis, but rather relates to changes in epithelial cell adhesion and morphology. In summary, we have demonstrated a novel function of melatonin in organ formation during embryonic development. PMID:25876057

  2. [Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat--characteristic and health properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Agata; Rutkowska, Jarosława

    2014-08-22

    This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat). For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment.

  3. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat – characteristic and health properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Adamska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat. For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of branched carbon nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharali Malik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have atomically smooth surfaces and tend not to form covalent bonds with composite matrix materials. Thus, it is the magnitude of the CNT/fiber interfacial strength that limits the amount of nanomechanical interlocking when using conventional CNTs to improve the structural behavior of composite materials through reinforcement. This arises from two well-known, long standing problems in this research field: (a inhomogeneous dispersion of the filler, which can lead to aggregation and (b insufficient reinforcement arising from bonding interactions between the filler and the matrix. These dispersion and reinforcement issues could be addressed by using branched multiwalled carbon nanotubes (b-MWCNTs as it is known that branched fibers can greatly enhance interfacial bonding and dispersability. Therefore, the use of b-MWCNTs would lead to improved mechanical performance and, in the case of conductive composites, improved electrical performance if the CNT filler was better dispersed and connected. This will provide major benefits to the existing commercial application of CNT-reinforced composites in electrostatic discharge materials (ESD: There would be also potential usage for energy conversion, e.g., in supercapacitors, solar cells and Li-ion batteries. However, the limited availability of b-MWCNTs has, to date, restricted their use in such technological applications. Herein, we report an inexpensive and simple method to fabricate large amounts of branched-MWCNTs, which opens the door to a multitude of possible applications.

  5. Cold versus hot fusion deuterium branching ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, H.; Bass, R.

    1995-01-01

    A major source of misunderstanding of the nature of cold nuclear fusion has been the expectation that the deuterium branching ratios occurring within a palladium lattice would be consistent with the gas-plasma branching ratios. This misunderstanding has led to the concept of the dead graduate student, the 1989's feverish but fruitless search for neutron emissions from cold fusion reactors, and the follow-on condemnation of the new science of cold fusion. The experimental facts are that in a properly loaded palladium lattice, the deuterium fusion produces neutrons at little above background, a greatly less-than-expected production of tritium (the tritium desert), and substantially more helium-4 than is observed in hot plasma physics. The experimental evidence is now compelling (800 reports of success from 30 countries) that cold nuclear fusion is a reality, that the branching ratios are unexpected, and that a new science is struggling to be recognized. Commercialization of some types of cold fusion devices has already begun

  6. Optimization of multi-branch switched diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2009-01-01

    A performance optimization based on the optimal switching threshold(s) for a multi-branch switched diversity system is discussed in this paper. For the conventional multi-branch switched diversity system with a single switching threshold

  7. Auxin transport in the evolution of branching forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C Jill

    2017-07-01

    Contents 545 I. 545 II. 546 III. 546 IV. 548 V. 548 VI. 549 VII. 549 Acknowledgements 549 References 549 SUMMARY: Branching is one of the most striking aspects of land plant architecture, affecting resource acquisition and yield. Polar auxin transport by PIN proteins is a primary determinant of flowering plant branching patterns regulating both branch initiation and branch outgrowth. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that PIN-mediated polar auxin transport is a conserved regulator of branching in vascular plant sporophytes. However, the mechanisms of branching and auxin transport and relationships between the two are not well known outside the flowering plants, and the paradigm for PIN-regulated branching in flowering plants does not fit bryophyte gametophytes. The evidence reviewed here suggests that divergent auxin transport routes contributed to the diversification of branching forms in distinct land plant lineages. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Sensory Neuron Fates Are Distinguished by a Transcriptional Switch that Regulates Dendrite Branch Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cody J.; O’Brien, Timothy; Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Spencer, W. Clay; Feingold-Link, Elana; Husson, Steven J.; Hori, Sayaka; Mitani, Shohei; Gottschalk, Alexander; Schafer, William R.; Miller, David M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Sensory neurons adopt distinct morphologies and functional modalities to mediate responses to specific stimuli. Transcription factors and their downstream effectors orchestrate this outcome but are incompletely defined. Here, we show that different classes of mechanosensory neurons in C. elegans are distinguished by the combined action of the transcription factors MEC-3, AHR-1, and ZAG-1. Low levels of MEC-3 specify the elaborate branching pattern of PVD nociceptors, whereas high MEC-3 is correlated with the simple morphology of AVM and PVM touch neurons. AHR-1 specifies AVM touch neuron fate by elevating MEC-3 while simultaneously blocking expression of nociceptive genes such as the MEC-3 target, the claudin-like membrane protein HPO-30, that promotes the complex dendritic branching pattern of PVD. ZAG-1 exercises a parallel role to prevent PVM from adopting the PVD fate. The conserved dendritic branching function of the Drosophila AHR-1 homolog, Spineless, argues for similar pathways in mammals. PMID:23889932

  9. Characterization of the Diameter, branch angle and longevity of axial branches of Nothofagusobliqua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Corvalán Vera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of knowledge about grow dynamics of the living tree crown of Nothofagusobliqua secondary growth forests strongly limits the objective formulation of silvicultural schemes oriented to the industrial production of high quality wood. Therefore, in this work, we described basic relationships between tree size, age and angle branches insertion and the crown. Considering a sample data of 59 dominant trees, distributed in different age conditions, we applied a combined analysis technique of stem analysis, steam taper analysis and thickest branch measurement in each decile of the total height. This approach allowed us to determine that there is a significant relationship between the steam diameter, the angle insertion and the age of the branch, as well as the size and age of the trees. Also, the thicker branches tend to have lower insertion angles, to be older, to be located at lower relative heights and to be located in larger diameter sections. Taking into consideration these relationships, it is possible to build new predicted branch models as tools for the development of silvicultural schemes to suit different log grade.

  10. Studies on the fatigue of branched connections related to the shakedown pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, T.R.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of shakedown is that regions which plastically deform during initial loading subsequently adopt an elastic mode of deformation. High strain fatigue, i.e. up to 10,000 cycles, will be eliminated. Two branches of different thickness were welded to a common cylindrical vessel and hydraulically tested, simultaneously. The test pressure was the shakedown limit for the stronger branch and about 1.5 x shakedown for the weaker branch. The thinner branch failed by penetration through the weld near the crotch corner at 3,543 cycles. The thicker branch was given 10,000 cycles when, since no cracks were apparent, a starter notch was made in the crotch corner. Leakage occurred after another 10,678 cycles. This crack was also influenced by weld defects. Using fracture mechanics and a reported relationship between crack rate and stress intensity factors, some predictions of endurance at design pressure are derived for these branches. These lives are compared with the British Standard 1515 formula for fatigue avoidance and with the curves given in Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The former is considered conservative, while the ASME Code curve requires an additional safety factor as suggested by Jettam; A multiplication factor of 2 on the nominal stress concentration factor for welds is then considered satisfactory. It is tentatively considered that such junctions manufactured to Class 1 standard are satisfactory for daily cycling for 30 years, but are marginal for twice daily cycling for that time. This conclusion is tentative, since it depends critically on the size of weld defects present

  11. Asymptotic behaviour near extinction of continuous-state branching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Berzunza, Gabriel; Pardo, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In this note, we study the asymptotic behaviour near extinction of (sub-) critical continuous state branching processes. In particular, we establish an analogue of Khintchin's law of the iterated logarithm near extinction time for a continuous state branching process whose branching mechanism satisfies a given condition and its reflected process at its infimum.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272; CAS...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty acid...

  14. Decomposition and carbon storage of hardwood and softwood branches in laboratory-scale landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoming, E-mail: wangxiaoming@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment under Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Tree branches are an important component of yard waste disposed in U.S. municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The objective of this study was to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of hardwood (HW) and softwood (SW) branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions by measuring methane (CH{sub 4}) yields, decay rates, the decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and organic carbon, as well as carbon storage factors (CSFs). Carbon conversions to CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} ranged from zero to 9.5% for SWs and 17.1 to 28.5% for HWs. When lipophilic or hydrophilic compounds present in some of the HW and SW samples were extracted, some samples showed increased biochemical methane potentials (BMPs). The average CH{sub 4} yield, carbon conversion, and CSF measured here, 59.4 mL CH{sub 4} g{sup −1} dry material, 13.9%, and 0.39 g carbon stored g{sup −1} dry material, respectively, represent reasonable values for use in greenhouse gas inventories in the absence of detailed wood type/species data for landfilled yard waste. - Highlights: • Characterized biodegradation of branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions • Observed varied biodegradation between HW and SW branches with different diameters • Inhibitory extractives were observed on boughs or twigs of some branch species. • CH{sub 4} yield and carbon storage factors presented for use in landfill related inventories.

  15. DAYLIGHTING PERFORMANCE OF HORIZONTAL LIGHT PIPE BRANCHING ON OPEN PLAN OFFICE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feny ELSIANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For daylighting purpose, office buildings should have a shallow plan and increase the ratio of surface to building’s volume. However, intensive use of air-conditioning drives office building’s plan to be deep with a minimum surface to volume ratio. This leads to the presence of areas that have insufficient daylight level at the work plane. Considering limitations of some daylighting methods in distributing daylight to these areas, Horizontal Light Pipe (HLP was selected. The aim of this research was to evaluate and explain the effect of HLP branching on daylight quantity and distribution inside open plan office space. Experimental with simulation as a tool was used as the research method. HLP branching’s uniformity ratio, illuminance and Daylight Factor were compared with unbranching HLP, simultaneously with daylighting standards. Results showed that office space with HLP-L branching had higher daylight level than HLP-T branching, 296 lux and 295 lux, HLP-L and HLP-T, respectively. However, HLP-T branching distributed daylight more evenly than HLP-L branching, with uniformity ratio as 1.49:1 and 1.50:1, HLP-T and HLP-L, respectively. Both of them met the illuminance target value and uniformity at work plane. Light’s deflection and improvement amount of opening distribution decreased average illuminance and Daylight Factor up to 3.59%. Those also decreased uniformity of daylight inside the space.

  16. Decomposition and carbon storage of hardwood and softwood branches in laboratory-scale landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2016-01-01

    Tree branches are an important component of yard waste disposed in U.S. municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The objective of this study was to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of hardwood (HW) and softwood (SW) branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions by measuring methane (CH_4) yields, decay rates, the decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and organic carbon, as well as carbon storage factors (CSFs). Carbon conversions to CH_4 and CO_2 ranged from zero to 9.5% for SWs and 17.1 to 28.5% for HWs. When lipophilic or hydrophilic compounds present in some of the HW and SW samples were extracted, some samples showed increased biochemical methane potentials (BMPs). The average CH_4 yield, carbon conversion, and CSF measured here, 59.4 mL CH_4 g"−"1 dry material, 13.9%, and 0.39 g carbon stored g"−"1 dry material, respectively, represent reasonable values for use in greenhouse gas inventories in the absence of detailed wood type/species data for landfilled yard waste. - Highlights: • Characterized biodegradation of branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions • Observed varied biodegradation between HW and SW branches with different diameters • Inhibitory extractives were observed on boughs or twigs of some branch species. • CH_4 yield and carbon storage factors presented for use in landfill related inventories.

  17. Topological analysis of long-chain branching patterns in polyolefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonchev, D; Markel, E; Dekmezian, A

    2001-01-01

    Patterns in molecular topology and complexity for long-chain branching are quantitatively described. The Wiener number, the topological complexity index, and a new index of 3-starness are used to quantify polymer structure. General formulas for these indices were derived for the cases of 3-arm star, H-shaped, and B-arm comb polymers. The factors affecting complexity in monodisperse polymer systems are ranked as follows: number of arms > arm length > arm central position approximately equal to arm clustering > total molecular weight approximately equal to backbone molecular weight. Topological indices change rapidly and then plateau as the molecular weight of branches on a polyolefin backbone increases from 0 to 5 kD. Complexity calculations relate 2-arm or 3-arm comb structures to the corresponding 3-arm stars of equivalent complexity but much higher molecular weight. In a subsequent paper, we report the application of topological analysis for developing structure/property relationships for monodisperse polymers. While the focus of the present work is on the description of monodisperse, well-defined architectures, the methods may be extended to the description of polydisperse systems.

  18. Branching habit and the allocation of reproductive resources in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Andrew B

    2012-09-01

    Correlated relationships between branch thickness, branch density, and twig and leaf size have been used extensively to study the evolution of plant canopy architecture, but fewer studies have explored the impact of these relationships on the allocation of reproductive resources. This study quantifies pollen cone production in conifers, which have similar basic reproductive biology but vary dramatically in branching habit, in order to test how differences in branch diameter influence pollen cone size and the density with which they are deployed in the canopy. Measurements of canopy branch density, the number of cones per branch and cone size were used to estimate the amount of pollen cone tissues produced by 16 species in three major conifer clades. The number of pollen grains produced was also estimated using direct counts from individual pollen cones. The total amount of pollen cone tissues in the conifer canopy varied little among species and clades, although vegetative traits such as branch thickness, branch density and pollen cone size varied over several orders of magnitude. However, branching habit controls the way these tissues are deployed: taxa with small branches produce small pollen cones at a high density, while taxa with large branches produce large cones relatively sparsely. Conifers appear to invest similar amounts of energy in pollen production independent of branching habit. However, similar associations between branch thickness, branch density and pollen cone size are seen across conifers, including members of living and extinct groups not directly studied here. This suggests that reproductive features relating to pollen cone size are in large part a function of the evolution of vegetative morphology and branching habit.

  19. RADIONUCLIDE INVENTORY AND DISTRIBUTION: FOURMILE BRANCH, PEN BRANCH, AND STEEL CREEK IOUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, R.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-29

    As a condition to the Department of Energy (DOE) Low Level Waste Disposal Federal Facility Review Group (LFRG) review team approving the Savannah River Site (SRS) Composite Analysis (CA), SRS agreed to follow up on a secondary issue, which consisted of the consolidation of several observations that the team concluded, when evaluated collectively, could potentially impact the integration of the CA results. This report addresses secondary issue observations 4 and 21, which identify the need to improve the CA sensitivity and uncertainty analysis specifically by improving the CA inventory and the estimate of its uncertainty. The purpose of the work described herein was to be responsive to these secondary issue observations by re-examining the radionuclide inventories of the Integrator Operable Units (IOUs), as documented in ERD 2001 and Hiergesell, et. al. 2008. The LFRG concern has been partially addressed already for the Lower Three Runs (LTR) IOU (Hiergesell and Phifer, 2012). The work described in this investigation is a continuation of the effort to address the LFRG concerns by re-examining the radionuclide inventories associated with Fourmile Branch (FMB) IOU, Pen Branch (PB) IOU and Steel Creek (SC) IOU. The overall approach to computing radionuclide inventories for each of the IOUs involved the following components: • Defining contaminated reaches of sediments along the IOU waterways • Identifying separate segments within each IOU waterway to evaluate individually • Computing the volume and mass of contaminated soil associated with each segment, or “compartment” • Obtaining the available and appropriate Sediment and Sediment/Soil analytical results associated with each IOU • Standardizing all radionuclide activity by decay-correcting all sample analytical results from sample date to the current point in time, • Computing representative concentrations for all radionuclides associated with each compartment in each of the IOUs • Computing the

  20. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  1. STARDUST FROM ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gail, H.-P.; Zhukovska, S. V.; Hoppe, P.; Trieloff, M.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of dust in the outflows of low- and intermediate-mass stars on the first giant branch and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is studied and the relative contributions of stars of different initial masses and metallicities to the interstellar medium (ISM) at the instant of solar system formation are derived. These predictions are compared with the characteristics of the parent stars of presolar dust grains found in primitive meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) inferred from their isotopic compositions. For this purpose, model calculations for dust condensation in stellar outflows are combined with synthetic models of stellar evolution on the first giant branch and AGB and an evolution model of the Milky Way for the solar neighborhood. The dust components considered are olivine, pyroxene, carbon, SiC, and iron. The corresponding dust production rates are derived for the solar vicinity. From these rates and taking into account dust destruction by supernova shocks in the ISM, the contributions to the inventory of presolar dust grains in the solar system are derived for stars of different initial masses and metallicities. It is shown that stars on the first giant branch and the early AGB are not expected to form dust, in accord with astronomical observations. Dust formation is concentrated in the last phase of evolution, the thermally pulsing AGB. Due to the limited lifetime of dust grains in the ISM only parent stars from a narrow range of metallicities are expected to contribute to the population of presolar dust grains. Silicate and silicon carbide dust grains are predicted to come from parent stars with metallicities not less than about Z ∼ 0.008 (0.6 x solar). This metallicity limit is higher than that inferred from presolar SiC grain isotope data. The population of presolar carbon dust grains is predicted to originate from a wider range of metallicities, down to Z ∼ 0.004. Masses of AGB stars that produce C-rich dust are in the range

  2. Technical normalization in the geoinformatics branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislava Horáková

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A basic principle of the technical normalisation is to hold the market development by developing unified technical rules for all concerned subjects. The information and communication technological industry is characterised by certain specific features contrary to the traditional industry. These features bring to the normalisation domain new demands, mainly the flexibility enabling to reflect the rapidly development market of ICT elastic way. The goal of the paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current process of technical normalization in the geoinformatic branch

  3. Organization and targets of the European Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldi, R

    1997-12-01

    After a short historical review of the formation, objectives and organization of the International Geothermal Association (IGA), this paper describes the functions, goals and activities of the IGA European Branch. In particular, the paper illustrates the plan of action established for the periods 1993-`95 and 1996-`98, and the issues dealt with by the European Forum as of August 1996. The last section of the paper outlines the main problems to be faced in the near future in order to facilitate the aggregation of efforts, the amalgamation of promotional initiatives and the coordination of the basic activities needed for the consolidation and growth of the geothermal community in Europe. (orig.)

  4. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  5. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  6. NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Hoberecht, Mark; Reid, Concha

    2010-01-01

    This presentation covers an overview of NASA Glenn's history and heritage in the development of electrochemical systems for aerospace applications. Current programs related to batteries and fuel cells are addressed. Specific areas of focus are Li-ion batteries and Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel cells systems and their development for future Exploration missions. The presentation covers details of current component development efforts for high energy and ultra high energy Li-ion batteries and non-flow-through fuel cell stack and balance of plant development. Electrochemistry Branch capabilities and facilities are also addressed.

  7. Geology of the Cane Branch and Helton Branch watershed areas, McCreary County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Erwin J.

    1957-01-01

    Cane Branch and Helton Branch in McCreary County, Kentucky, are about 1.4 miles apart (fig. 1). Can Branch, which is about 2.1 miles long, emptied into Hughes Fork of Beaver Creek. Its watershed area of about 1.5 square miles lies largely in the Wiborf 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (SW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle), but the downstream part of the area extends northward into the Hail 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (NW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle). Helton Branch, which is about 1.1 miles long, has two tributaries and empties into Little Hurricane Fork of Beaver Creek. It drains an area of about 0.8 square mile of while about 0.5 square mile is in the Hail quadrangle and the remainder in the Wilborg quadrangle. The total relief in the Can Branch area is about 500 feet and in the Helton Branch area about 400 feet. Narrow, steep-sided to canyon-like valley and winding ridges, typical of the Pottsville escarpment region, are characteristic of both areas. Thick woods and dense undergrowth cover much of the two areas. Field mapping was done on U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2-minute maps having a scale of 1:24,000 and a contour interval of 20 feet. Elevations of lithologic contacts were determined with a barometer and a hand level. Aerial photographs were used principally to trace the cliffs formed by sandstone and conglomerate ledges. Exposures, except for those of the cliff- and ledge-forming sandstone and conglomerates, are not abundant. The most complete stratigraphic sections (secs. 3 and 4, fig. 2) in the two areas are exposed in cuts of newly completed Forest Service roads, but the rick in the upper parts of the exposures is weathered. To supplement these sections, additional sections were measured in cuts along the railroad and main highways in nor near the watersheds.

  8. A new RNA branching activity: the GIR1 ribozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Steinar D

    2006-01-01

    The formation of lariat intermediates during the first step of splicing of group II introns and spliceosomal introns is a well-studied fundamental reaction in molecular biology. Apart from this prominent example, there are surprisingly few occurrences of branched nucleotides or even 2......',5'-phosphodiester bonds in biology. We recently described a new ribozyme, the GIR1 branching ribozyme, which catalyzes the formation of a tiny lariat that caps an mRNA. This new example together with work on artificial branching ribozymes and deoxyribozymes shows that branching is facile and points...... to the possibility that branching reactions could be more prevalent than previously recognized....

  9. Vertical profile of branch CO2 efflux in a Norway spruce tree: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, M.; Pavelka, M.

    2012-04-01

    Despite woody-tissue CO2 effluxes having been recognized as an important component of forest carbon budget due to the fraction of assimilates used and the dramatic increase in woody with stand development, there is limited research to determine the CO2 efflux vertical variability of woody-tissue components. For a better understanding and quantification of branch woody-tissue CO2 efflux in forest ecosystems, it is necessary to identify the environmental factors influencing it and the role of the branch distribution within the canopy. The proper assessment of this forest component will improve the knowledge of the ratio between ecosystem respiration and gross primary production at forest ecosystem. In order to achieve this goal, branch CO2 efflux of Norway spruce tree was measured in ten branches at five different whorls during the growing season 2004 (from June till October) in campaigns of 3-4 times per month at the Beskydy Mts., the Czech Republic, using a portable infrared gas analyzer operating as a closed system. Branch woody tissue temperature was measured continuously in ten minutes intervals for each sample position during the whole experiment period. On the basis of relation between CO2 efflux rate and woody tissue temperature a value of Q10 and normalized CO2 efflux rate (E10 - CO2 efflux rate at 10° C) were calculated for each sampled position. Estimated Q10 values ranged from 2.12 to 2.89 and E10 ranged from 0.41 to 1.19 ?molCO2m-2 s-1. Differences in branch CO2 efflux were found between orientations; East side branches presented higher efflux rate than west side branches. The highest branch CO2 efflux rate values were measured in August and the lowest in October, which were connected with woody tissue temperature and ontogenetic processes during these periods. Branch CO2 efflux was significantly and positively correlated with branch position within canopy and woody tissue temperature. Branches from the upper whorls showed higher respiration activity

  10. Branched chain amino acid metabolism profiles in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lake, A.D.; Novák, Petr; Shipkova, P.; Aranibar, N.; Robertson, D.G.; Reily, M.D.; Lehman-McKeeman, L.D.; Vaillancourt, R.R.; Cherrington, N.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2015), s. 603-615 ISSN 0939-4451 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Branched chain amino acid * nonalcoholic fatty liver disease * nonalcoholic steatohepatitis * metabolomics and transcriptomics Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.196, year: 2015

  11. An Examination of Interconnectedness between U.S. International Branch Campuses and Their Host Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie-Borgos, Jill

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines U. S. international branch campus (IBC) administrative leadership structures and the interconnections they have to their respective host countries. While several factors concerning the sustainability of IBCs have been cited, this study introduces "leadership networks" to the discourse on IBC…

  12. Academic Life at the Franchise: Faculty Culture in a Rural Two-Year Branch Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, John R.; Strange, C. Carney

    2003-01-01

    This case study of faculty culture focused on the dynamics of a small, rural, two-year branch campus of a large state university. It reports descriptive themes concerning the isolation and rural location of the campus, its diminutive size, faculty role perspectives, and factors related to faculty role implementation. It provides a portrait of this…

  13. Persistence-Based Branch Misprediction Bounds for WCET Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Branch prediction is an important feature of pipelined processors to achieve high performance. However, it can lead to overly pessimistic worst-case execution time (WCET) bounds when being modeled too conservatively. This paper presents bounds on the number of branch mispredictions for local...... dynamic branch predictors. To handle interferences between branch instructions we use the notion of persistence, a concept that is also found in cache analyses. The bounds apply to branches in general, not only to branches that close a loop. Furthermore, the bounds can be easily integrated into integer...... linear programming formulations of the WCET problem. An evaluation on a number of benchmarks shows that with these bounds, dynamic branch prediction does not necessarily lead to higher WCET bounds than static prediction schemes....

  14. Large branched self-assembled DNA complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosch, Paul; Waelti, Christoph; Middelberg, Anton P J; Davies, A Giles

    2007-01-01

    Many biological molecules have been demonstrated to self-assemble into complex structures and networks by using their very efficient and selective molecular recognition processes. The use of biological molecules as scaffolds for the construction of functional devices by self-assembling nanoscale complexes onto the scaffolds has recently attracted significant attention and many different applications in this field have emerged. In particular DNA, owing to its inherent sophisticated self-organization and molecular recognition properties, has served widely as a scaffold for various nanotechnological self-assembly applications, with metallic and semiconducting nanoparticles, proteins, macromolecular complexes, inter alia, being assembled onto designed DNA scaffolds. Such scaffolds may typically contain multiple branch-points and comprise a number of DNA molecules selfassembled into the desired configuration. Previously, several studies have used synthetic methods to produce the constituent DNA of the scaffolds, but this typically constrains the size of the complexes. For applications that require larger self-assembling DNA complexes, several tens of nanometers or more, other techniques need to be employed. In this article, we discuss a generic technique to generate large branched DNA macromolecular complexes

  15. Synthesis of branched naphthoquinones from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Olímpio da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The naphthoquinones are cyclic aromatic α,β-dienonas with a basic framework derived from naphthalene. They are also found in many higher plants, algae, fungi and as the product of the  metabolism  of some  bacteria  having large biologica activity described in the literature such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticancer and trypanocidal [1-3]. Castor oil is an abundant raw material in Brazil of great versatility and, it is present in biodiesel production, surfactants, cosmetics and others. Considering the importance of naphthoquinones and, the availability of the ricinoleic acid from castor oil, the aim of this study was the preparation of new branched naphthoquinones in order to test their trypanocidal activity. Castor oil was submitted to saponification with sodium hydroxide, ethanol and water under reflux for 6 h. We then carried out an acid hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid and the formed ricinoleic acid was extracted with ethyl acetate. Following, through Kochi-Anderson addition reaction it was performed the alkylation of a naphthoquinone 1 and 2, using ammonium persulfate, silver nitrate, acetonitrile and water, under heating at 70-80 ° C during 3 h, to give the branched naphthoquinones 4 and 5 (scheme 1. The naphthoquinone 3 will be similarly submitted to this procedure. The naphthoquinones 4 and 5 were purified by column chromatography on sílica gel using hexane as the eluent. The compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry and 1H and 13CNMR spectroscopy.

  16. Fixman compensating potential for general branched molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Abhinandan, E-mail: Abhi.Jain@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Kandel, Saugat; Wagner, Jeffrey; Larsen, Adrien; Vaidehi, Nagarajan, E-mail: nvaidehi@coh.org [Division of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California 91010 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    The technique of constraining high frequency modes of molecular motion is an effective way to increase simulation time scale and improve conformational sampling in molecular dynamics simulations. However, it has been shown that constraints on higher frequency modes such as bond lengths and bond angles stiffen the molecular model, thereby introducing systematic biases in the statistical behavior of the simulations. Fixman proposed a compensating potential to remove such biases in the thermodynamic and kinetic properties calculated from dynamics simulations. Previous implementations of the Fixman potential have been limited to only short serial chain systems. In this paper, we present a spatial operator algebra based algorithm to calculate the Fixman potential and its gradient within constrained dynamics simulations for branched topology molecules of any size. Our numerical studies on molecules of increasing complexity validate our algorithm by demonstrating recovery of the dihedral angle probability distribution function for systems that range in complexity from serial chains to protein molecules. We observe that the Fixman compensating potential recovers the free energy surface of a serial chain polymer, thus annulling the biases caused by constraining the bond lengths and bond angles. The inclusion of Fixman potential entails only a modest increase in the computational cost in these simulations. We believe that this work represents the first instance where the Fixman potential has been used for general branched systems, and establishes the viability for its use in constrained dynamics simulations of proteins and other macromolecules.

  17. An Anomalous Branching of Coeliac Trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav Surekha D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations of the coeliac trunk arevery common. A variation of coeliac trunk oc-curs due to the developmental abnormalities inthe ventral splanchnic arteries. Present paperhighlights a rare variation of branching patternof coeliac trunk which was observed during rou-tine dissection. In a 63 year old male cadaver,we observed a bifurcation of coeliac trunk intoshort hepato-splenic and longer hepato-gastrictrunks. The hepato-splenic trunk divided intocommon hepatic artery and splenic artery. Cys-tic artery originated from proper hepatic arteryand then proper hepatic artery divided into rightand left hepatic arteries. Hepato-gastric trunkran laterally and upward, and then it divided intotwo branches: a left gastric artery and left ac-cessory hepatic artery. Knowledge of this rarevariation is clinically very important for sur-geons, especially while performing liver trans-plantation, gastric, gallbladder surgeries andtransarterial chemoembolization for hepatictumor and during invasive procedures like an-giography and also other radiological studies.

  18. Branching pathways in the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalisky, O.; Ottolenghi, M.

    1982-01-01

    The pulsed laser photolysis of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR 570 ) is carried out between 25 C and -92 C in neutral and alkaline water-glycerol solutions. At relatively low temperatures the primary photoproduct K 610 equilibrates with a blue-shifted species, Ksub(p). Both K 610 and the new intermediate subsequently decay into another species, K'sub(p), in a process which competes with the formation of L 550 . Finally, K'sub(p) converts very slowly to L 550 . This branched pathway delays the formation of L 550 and thus of M 412 , without affecting the final yield of either species. A thermal back-reaction regenerating BR 570 takes place at the stage of L 550 , inhibiting the formation of M 412 . The reaction which also predominates at low temperatures, is relatively inefficient at high pH when the forward L 550 → M 412 step is highly catalyzed. It is the superposition of both these branching mechanisms which accounts for the complex effects of temperature and pH on the photocycle of BR 570 . The latter mechanism is accounted for by a molecular scheme in which deprotonation of a tyrosine moiety at the stage of L 550 constitutes a prerequisite for deprotonation of the retinal-lysine schiff-base as required for forming M 412 . This scheme appears to be directly related to the proton pump. (author)

  19. Short branches lead to systematic artifacts when BLAST searches are used as surrogate for phylogenetic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Amanda A; Harlow, Timothy J; Gogarten, J Peter

    2017-02-01

    Long Branch Attraction (LBA) is a well-known artifact in phylogenetic reconstruction when dealing with branch length heterogeneity. Here we show another phenomenon, Short Branch Attraction (SBA), which occurs when BLAST searches, a phenetic analysis, are used as a surrogate method for phylogenetic analysis. This error also results from branch length heterogeneity, but this time it is the short branches that are attracting. The SBA artifact is reciprocal and can be returned 100% of the time when multiple branches differ in length by a factor of more than two. SBA is an intended feature of BLAST searches, but becomes an issue, when top scoring BLAST hit analyses are used to infer Horizontal Gene Transfers (HGTs), assign taxonomic category with environmental sequence data in phylotyping, or gather homologous sequences for building gene families. SBA can lead researchers to believe that there has been a HGT event when only vertical descent has occurred, cause slowly evolving taxa to be over-represented and quickly evolving taxa to be under-represented in phylotyping, or systematically exclude quickly evolving taxa from analyses. SBA also contributes to the changing results of top scoring BLAST hit analyses as the database grows, because more slowly evolving taxa, or short branches, are added over time, introducing more potential for SBA. SBA can be detected by examining reciprocal best BLAST hits among a larger group of taxa, including the known closest phylogenetic neighbors. Therefore, one should look for this phenomenon when conducting best BLAST hit analyses as a surrogate method to identify HGTs, in phylotyping, or when using BLAST to gather homologous sequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The branching ratio ω → π ^+π ^- revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhart, C.; Holz, S.; Kubis, B.; Kupść, A.; Wirzba, A.; Xiao, C. W.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the most recent data for the pion vector form factor in the timelike region, employing a model-independent approach based on dispersion theory. We confirm earlier observations about the inconsistency of different modern high-precision data sets. Excluding the BaBar data, we find an updated value for the isospin-violating branching ratio B(ω → π ^+π ^-) = (1.46± 0.08) × 10^{-2}. As a side result, we also extract an improved value for the pion vector or charge radius, √{< r_V^2rangle } = 0.6603(5)(4) {fm}, where the first uncertainty is statistical as derived from the fit, while the second estimates the possible size of nonuniversal radiative corrections. In addition, we demonstrate that modern high-quality data for the decay η '→ π ^+π ^-γ will allow for an even improved determination of the transition strength ω → π ^+π ^-.

  1. Light Signaling in Bud Outgrowth and Branching in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Leduc

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Branching determines the final shape of plants, which influences adaptation, survival and the visual quality of many species. It is an intricate process that includes bud outgrowth and shoot extension, and these in turn respond to environmental cues and light conditions. Light is a powerful environmental factor that impacts multiple processes throughout plant life. The molecular basis of the perception and transduction of the light signal within buds is poorly understood and undoubtedly requires to be further unravelled. This review is based on current knowledge on bud outgrowth-related mechanisms and light-mediated regulation of many physiological processes. It provides an extensive, though not exhaustive, overview of the findings related to this field. In parallel, it points to issues to be addressed in the near future.

  2. Managing International Branch Campuses: Lessons Learnt from Eight Years on a Branch Campus in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christopher; Thabet, Rawy Abdelrahman

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: International branch campuses (IBCs) are complex entities and while much has been written about their expansion and development, the literature is largely from an external perspective. There have been few longitudinal studies examining the development of an IBC over time. The purpose of this paper is to review the development of one IBC…

  3. Modeling of branching density and branching distribution in low-density polyethylene polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.M.; Iedema, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene (ldPE) is a general purpose polymer with various applications. By this reason, many publications can be found on the ldPE polymerization modeling. However, scission reaction and branching distribution are only recently considered in the modeling studies due to difficulties

  4. The influence of branch order on optimal leaf vein geometries: Murray's law and area preserving branching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A Price

    Full Text Available Models that predict the form of hierarchical branching networks typically invoke optimization based on biomechanical similitude, the minimization of impedance to fluid flow, or construction costs. Unfortunately, due to the small size and high number of vein segments found in real biological networks, complete descriptions of networks needed to evaluate such models are rare. To help address this we report results from the analysis of the branching geometry of 349 leaf vein networks comprising over 1.5 million individual vein segments. In addition to measuring the diameters of individual veins before and after vein bifurcations, we also assign vein orders using the Horton-Strahler ordering algorithm adopted from the study of river networks. Our results demonstrate that across all leaves, both radius tapering and the ratio of daughter to parent branch areas for leaf veins are in strong agreement with the expectation from Murray's law. However, as veins become larger, area ratios shift systematically toward values expected under area-preserving branching. Our work supports the idea that leaf vein networks differentiate roles of leaf support and hydraulic supply between hierarchical orders.

  5. Collinear and transverse momentum dependent parton densities obtained with a parton branching method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelek, Aleksandra

    2017-10-15

    We present a solution of the DGLAP evolution equations, written in terms of Sudakov form factors to describe the branching and no-branching probabilities, using a parton branching Monte Carlo method. We demonstrate numerically that this method reproduces the semi-analytical solutions. We show how this method can be used to determine Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, in addition to the usual integrated parton distributions functions. We discuss numerical effects of the boundary of soft gluon resolution scale parameter on the resulting parton distribution functions. We show that a very good fit of the integrated TMDs to high precision HERA data can be obtained over a large range in x and Q{sup 2}.

  6. Collinear and transverse momentum dependent parton densities obtained with a parton branching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, Aleksandra

    2017-10-01

    We present a solution of the DGLAP evolution equations, written in terms of Sudakov form factors to describe the branching and no-branching probabilities, using a parton branching Monte Carlo method. We demonstrate numerically that this method reproduces the semi-analytical solutions. We show how this method can be used to determine Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, in addition to the usual integrated parton distributions functions. We discuss numerical effects of the boundary of soft gluon resolution scale parameter on the resulting parton distribution functions. We show that a very good fit of the integrated TMDs to high precision HERA data can be obtained over a large range in x and Q 2 .

  7. Progenitor outgrowth from the niche in Drosophila trachea is guided by FGF from decaying branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Krasnow, Mark A

    2014-01-10

    Although there has been progress identifying adult stem and progenitor cells and the signals that control their proliferation and differentiation, little is known about the substrates and signals that guide them out of their niche. By examining Drosophila tracheal outgrowth during metamorphosis, we show that progenitors follow a stereotyped path out of the niche, tracking along a subset of tracheal branches destined for destruction. The embryonic tracheal inducer branchless FGF (fibroblast growth factor) is expressed dynamically just ahead of progenitor outgrowth in decaying branches. Knockdown of branchless abrogates progenitor outgrowth, whereas misexpression redirects it. Thus, reactivation of an embryonic tracheal inducer in decaying branches directs outgrowth of progenitors that replace them. This explains how the structure of a newly generated tissue is coordinated with that of the old.

  8. The relative efficiency of bank branches in lending and borrowing: An application of data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G van der Westhuizen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The relative efficiency of fifty-two branches of a small South African bank was estimated using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA.  A factor responsible for the difference in efficiency between branches might be the difference in managing the asset (loans and the liability (deposit side of the balance sheet.  For this reason, the relative efficiency of the lending and borrowing activities was also estimated and compared to the relative efficiency of the combined (lending and borrowing activities.In the case of the efficiency estimates for loans and deposits, the indications are that the branches were more efficient in managing the liability side (deposits than  in managing the asset side (loans.  This means that purchased funds were not utilised efficiently.

  9. Ranking of bank branches with undesirable and fuzzy data: A DEA-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Kordrostami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks are one of the most important financial sectors in order to the economic development of each country. Certainly, efficiency scores and ranks of banks are significant and effective aspects towards future planning. Sometimes the performance of banks must be measured in the presence of undesirable and vague factors. For these reasons in the current paper a procedure based on data envelopment analysis (DEA is introduced for evaluating the efficiency and complete ranking of decision making units (DMUs where undesirable and fuzzy measures exist. To illustrate, in the presence of undesirable and fuzzy measures, DMUs are evaluated by using a fuzzy expected value approach and DMUs with similar efficiency scores are ranked by using constraints and the Maximal Balance Index based on the optimal shadow prices. Afterwards, the efficiency scores of 25 branches of an Iranian commercial bank are evaluated using the proposed method. Also, a complete ranking of bank branches is presented to discriminate branches.

  10. A Branch and Bound Algorithm for a Class of Biobjective Mixed Integer Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Andersen, Kim Allan; Dammann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    there is the complicating factor that some of the variables are required to be integral. The resulting class of problems is named multiobjective mixed integer programming (MOMIP) problems. Solving these kinds of optimization problems exactly requires a method that can generate the whole set of nondominated points (the...... Pareto-optimal front). In this paper, we first give a survey of the newly developed branch and bound methods for solving MOMIP problems. After that, we propose a new branch and bound method for solving a subclass of MOMIP problems, where only two objectives are allowed, the integer variables are binary......, and one of the two objectives has only integer variables. The proposed method is able to find the full set of nondominated points. It is tested on a large number of problem instances, from six different classes of MOMIP problems. The results reveal that the developed biobjective branch and bound method...

  11. IMPORTANCE OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR AS A BRANCH OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana TINDECHE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is an important branch of the national economy, with various functions such as: main source of business activity that uses the workforce, ecological factor for the protection of the environment, technical and cultural tradition, representing a civilization in itself. This paper shows that, in Romania, agriculture has an extremely special position, being one of the primary branches of material production, taking into account that the economic and social growth of the contemporary world is in close connection with the level of accomplishments in agriculture and it cannot exist outside a strong development of this production branch. Because the agricultural sector is currently growing, now, in 2014, we can see a considerably large migration from the urban area to the rural area. Young people choose villages and not cities being influenced also by the agricultural schemes offered by the European Union, schemes that support the needs of the agricultural field.

  12. Coronary artery disease confined to secondary branches of the left coronary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Klein, B.L.; Segal, B.L.; Kimbiris, D.; Bemis, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Among 3,000 patients studied by coronary arteriography during a 4-year period, 31 patients (1%) had coronary artery disease limited to a diagonal branch of the left anterior descending (15 patients), marginal branch of the left circumflex (10 patients), or to both branches (6 patients). Ten patients had 50-69% and twenty-one had greater than or equal to 70% diameter narrowing. The suitability for grafting was noted in 20 patients as judged by the caliber and distribution of the diseased branches. Collaterals were noted in seven patients. Disease was present in 28 men and 3 women (age range 38-70 years). At least one major coronary risk factor was present in 27 patients. Angina was noted in 27 patients; prior myocardial infarction was noted in 5 patients by history and in 4 by ECG. The left ventriculogram was normal in 22 patients and showed mild segmental asynergy in 9; ejection fraction was normal in all. Exercise ECGs were positive in 12 of 25 patients; exercise 201thallium scans were positive in 13. All patients responded to medical therapy. In conclusion, among the population of patients who undergo catheterization, coronary branch disease is rare. The clinical findings are indistinguishable from patients with major coronary disease. Prognosis remains benign and patients respond to medical therapy

  13. Effects of urbanization on streamflow, sediment loads, and channel morphology in Pheasant Branch Basin near Middleton, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, W.R.; Goddard, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 5-year, data-collection and modeling study was conducted on Pheasant Branch basin in and near Middleton, Wisconsin. The objectives of the study were to: (1) describe the streamflow characteristics, sediment transport, and stream-channel morphology in the Pheasant Branch basin; and (2) relate the above factors to changes caused by urbanization and project the effect of urbanization on the hydrology and channel morphology of the study area.

  14. Additional chain-branching pathways in the low-temperature oxidation of branched alkanes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhandong

    2015-12-31

    Chain-branching reactions represent a general motif in chemistry, encountered in atmospheric chemistry, combustion, polymerization, and photochemistry; the nature and amount of radicals generated by chain-branching are decisive for the reaction progress, its energy signature, and the time towards its completion. In this study, experimental evidence for two new types of chain-branching reactions is presented, based upon detection of highly oxidized multifunctional molecules (HOM) formed during the gas-phase low-temperature oxidation of a branched alkane under conditions relevant to combustion. The oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane (DMH) in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) was studied using synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet photoionization molecular beam mass spectrometry (SVUV-PI-MBMS). Specifically, species with four and five oxygen atoms were probed, having molecular formulas of C8H14O4 (e.g., diketo-hydroperoxide/keto-hydroperoxy cyclic ether) and C8H16O5 (e.g., keto-dihydroperoxide/dihydroperoxy cyclic ether), respectively. The formation of C8H16O5 species involves alternative isomerization of OOQOOH radicals via intramolecular H-atom migration, followed by third O2 addition, intramolecular isomerization, and OH release; C8H14O4 species are proposed to result from subsequent reactions of C8H16O5 species. The mechanistic pathways involving these species are related to those proposed as a source of low-volatility highly oxygenated species in Earth\\'s troposphere. At the higher temperatures relevant to auto-ignition, they can result in a net increase of hydroxyl radical production, so these are additional radical chain-branching pathways for ignition. The results presented herein extend the conceptual basis of reaction mechanisms used to predict the reaction behavior of ignition, and have implications on atmospheric gas-phase chemistry and the oxidative stability of organic substances. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  15. Quantification of branching in model three-arm star polyethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Ramachandran, Ramnath; Beaucage, Gregory B.; Rai, Durgesh K.; Lohse, David J.; Sun, Thomas; Tsou, Andy; Norman, Alexander Iain; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    The versatility of a novel scaling approach in quantifying the structure of model well-defined 3-arm star polyethylene molecules is presented. Many commercial polyethylenes have long side branches, and the nature and quantity of these branches varies widely among the various forms. For instance, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is typically a highly branched structure with broad distributions in branch content, branch lengths and branch generation (in hyperbranched structures). This makes it difficult to accurately quantify the structure and the inherent structure-property relationships. To overcome this drawback, model well-defined hydrogenated polybutadiene (HPB) structures have been synthesized via anionic polymerization and hydrogenation to serve as model analogues to long-chain branched polyethylene. In this article, model 3-arm star polyethylene molecules are quantified using the scaling approach. Along with the long-chain branch content in polyethylene, the approach also provides unique measurements of long-chain branch length and hyperbranch content. Such detailed description facilitates better understanding of the effect of branching on the physical properties of polyethylene. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Quantification of branching in model three-arm star polyethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Ramachandran, Ramnath

    2012-01-24

    The versatility of a novel scaling approach in quantifying the structure of model well-defined 3-arm star polyethylene molecules is presented. Many commercial polyethylenes have long side branches, and the nature and quantity of these branches varies widely among the various forms. For instance, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is typically a highly branched structure with broad distributions in branch content, branch lengths and branch generation (in hyperbranched structures). This makes it difficult to accurately quantify the structure and the inherent structure-property relationships. To overcome this drawback, model well-defined hydrogenated polybutadiene (HPB) structures have been synthesized via anionic polymerization and hydrogenation to serve as model analogues to long-chain branched polyethylene. In this article, model 3-arm star polyethylene molecules are quantified using the scaling approach. Along with the long-chain branch content in polyethylene, the approach also provides unique measurements of long-chain branch length and hyperbranch content. Such detailed description facilitates better understanding of the effect of branching on the physical properties of polyethylene. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Rac1 modulates mammalian lung branching morphogenesis in part through canonical Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danopoulos, Soula; Krainock, Michael; Toubat, Omar; Thornton, Matthew; Grubbs, Brendan; Al Alam, Denise

    2016-12-01

    Lung branching morphogenesis relies on a number of factors, including proper epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, cell polarity, and migration. Rac1, a small Rho GTPase, orchestrates a number of these cellular processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, cellular alignment, and polarization. Furthermore, Rac1 modulates both noncanonical and canonical Wnt signaling, important pathways in lung branching morphogenesis. Culture of embryonic mouse lung explants in the presence of the Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in branching. Increased cell death and BrdU uptake were notably seen in the mesenchyme, while no direct effect on the epithelium was observed. Moreover, vasculogenesis was impaired following Rac1 inhibition as shown by decreased Vegfa expression and impaired LacZ staining in Flk1-Lacz reporter mice. Rac1 inhibition decreased Fgf10 expression in conjunction with many of its associated factors. Moreover, using the reporter lines TOPGAL and Axin2-LacZ, there was an evident decrease in canonical Wnt signaling in the explants treated with the Rac1 inhibitor. Activation of canonical Wnt pathway using WNT3a or WNT7b only partially rescued the branching inhibition. Moreover, these results were validated on human explants, where Rac1 inhibition resulted in impaired branching and decreased AXIN2 and FGFR2b expression. We therefore conclude that Rac1 regulates lung branching morphogenesis, in part through canonical Wnt signaling. However, the exact mechanisms by which Rac1 interacts with canonical Wnt in human and mouse lung requires further investigation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. A pilot, short-term dietary manipulation of branched chain amino acids has modest influence on fasting levels of branched chain amino acids

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallaro, Nicole Landa; Garry, Jamie; Shi, Xu; Gerszten, Robert E.; Anderson, Ellen J.; Walford, Geoffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elevated fasting levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs: valine, isoleucine, leucine) in venous blood are associated with a variety of metabolic impairments, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Fasting BCAA levels are influenced by non-dietary factors. However, it is unknown whether fasting BCAAs can be altered through manipulation of dietary intake alone.Objective: To test whether a specific dietary intervention, using differences in BCAA intake, alters fastin...

  19. Simple statistical model for branched aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    , given that it already has bonds with others. The model is applied here to asphaltene nanoaggregates observed in molecular dynamics simulations of Cooee bitumen. The variation with temperature of the probabilities deduced from this model is discussed in terms of statistical mechanics arguments....... The relevance of the statistical model in the case of asphaltene nanoaggregates is checked by comparing the predicted value of the probability for one molecule to have exactly i bonds with the same probability directly measured in the molecular dynamics simulations. The agreement is satisfactory......We propose a statistical model that can reproduce the size distribution of any branched aggregate, including amylopectin, dendrimers, molecular clusters of monoalcohols, and asphaltene nanoaggregates. It is based on the conditional probability for one molecule to form a new bond with a molecule...

  20. [Phenolic compounds in branches of Tamarix rasissima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Li, Wei-Qi; Zheng, Ping; Wang, Rui; Yu, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Jian-Hong; Yao, Yao

    2014-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the branches of Tamarix rasissima, repeated silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and recrystallization were applied for chemical constituents isolation and purification. Ten phenolic compounds were isolated from the n-BuOH fraction and their structures were elucidated by physical properties and spectra analysis such as UV, ESI-MS and NMR as monodecarboxyellagic acid (1), ellagic acid (2), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid (3), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-alpha-D-arabinfuranoside (5), ferulic acid (6), isoferulic acid (7), caffeic acid (8), 4-O-acetyl-caffeic acid (9), and 4-methyl-1, 2-benzenediol (10). All compounds except for isoferulic acid were isolated firstly from this plant except for isoferulic acid, and compounds 5, 9 and 10 were obtained from Tamarix genus for the first time.

  1. Large Core Three Branch Polymer Power Splitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Prajzler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report about three branch large core polymer power splitters optimized for connecting standard plastic optical fibers. A new point of the design is insertion of a rectangle-shaped spacing between the input and the central part of the splitter, which will ensure more even distribution of the output optical power. The splitters were designed by beam propagation method using BeamPROP software. Acrylic-based polymers were used as optical waveguides being poured into the Y-grooves realized by computer numerical controlled engraving on poly(methyl methacrylate substrate. Measurement of the optical insertion losses proved that the insertion optical loss could be lowered to 2.1 dB at 650 nm and optical power coupling ratio could reach 31.8% : 37.3% : 30.9%.

  2. 6d, Coulomb branch anomaly matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriligator, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    6d QFTs are constrained by the analog of 't Hooft anomaly matching: all anomalies for global symmetries and metric backgrounds are constants of RG flows, and for all vacua in moduli spaces. We discuss an anomaly matching mechanism for 6d theories on their Coulomb branch. It is a global symmetry analog of Green-Schwarz-West-Sagnotti anomaly cancellation, and requires the apparent anomaly mismatch to be a perfect square, . Then Δ I 8 is cancelled by making X 4 an electric/magnetic source for the tensor multiplet, so background gauge field instantons yield charged strings. This requires the coefficients in X 4 to be integrally quantized. We illustrate this for theories. We also consider the SCFTs from N small E8 instantons, verifying that the recent result for its anomaly polynomial fits with the anomaly matching mechanism.

  3. Unquenched flavor on the Higgs branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier

    2016-01-01

    We construct the gravity duals of the Higgs branches of three-dimensional (four-dimensional) super Yang-Mills theories coupled to N_f quark flavors. The effect of the quarks on the color degrees of freedom is included, and corresponds on the gravity side to the backreaction of N_f flavor D6-branes (D7-branes) on the background of N_c color D2-branes (D3-branes). The Higgsing of the gauge group arises from the dissolution of some color branes inside the flavor branes. The dissolved color branes are represented by non-Abelian instantons whose backreaction is also included. The result is a cascading-like solution in which the effective number of color branes varies along the holographic direction. In the three-dimensional case the solution may include an arbitrary number of quasi-conformal (walking) regions.

  4. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch 2005 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 595, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2005. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including spacecraft navigation (autonomous and ground based); spacecraft trajectory design and maneuver planning; attitude analysis; attitude determination and sensor calibration; and attitude control subsystem (ACS) analysis and design. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, other government agencies, academia, and private industry.

  5. Pen Branch fault: Confirmatory drilling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, A.; Coruh, C.; Costain, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Confirmatory Drilling Project is the final investigation under the Pen Branch Fault Program initiated to determine the capability of the Pen Branch fault (PBF) to release seismic energy. This investigation focused on a small zone over the fault where previously collected seismic reflection data had indicated the fault deforms the subsurface at 150 msec (with reference to an 80 m reference datum). Eighteen drill holes, 2 to basement and the others to 300 ft, were arranged in a scatter pattern over the fault. To adequately define configuration of the layers deformed by the fault boreholes were spaced over a zone of 800 ft, north to south. The closely spaced data were to confirm or refute the existence of flat lying reflectors observed in seismic reflection data and to enable the authors to identify and correlate lithologic layers with seismic reflection data. Results suggest that deformation by the fault in sediments 300 ft deep ad shallower is subtle. Corroboration of the geologic interpretation with the seismic reflection profile is ongoing but preliminary results indicate that specific reflectors can be assigned to lithologic layers. A large amplitude package of reflections below a flat lying continuous reflection at 40 msec can be correlated with a lithology that corresponds to carbonate sediments in geologic cross-section. Further, data also show that a geologic layer as shallow as 30 ft can be traced on these seismic data over the same subsurface distance where geologic cross-section shows corresponding continuity. The subsurface structure is thus corroborated by both methods at this study site

  6. Branching pathways in the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalisky, O.; Ottolenghi, M. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry)

    1982-01-01

    The pulsed laser photolysis of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR/sub 570/) is carried out between 25 C and -92 C in neutral and alkaline water-glycerol solutions. At relatively low temperatures the primary photoproduct K/sub 610/ equilibrates with a blue-shifted species, Ksub(p). Both K/sub 610/ and the new intermediate subsequently decay into another species, K'sub(p), in a process which competes with the formation of L/sub 550/. Finally, K'sub(p) converts very slowly to L/sub 550/. This branched pathway delays the formation of L/sub 550/ and thus of M/sub 412/, without affecting the final yield of either species. A thermal back-reaction regenerating BR/sub 570/ takes place at the stage of L/sub 550/, inhibiting the formation of M/sub 412/. The reaction which also predominates at low temperatures, is relatively inefficient at high pH when the forward L/sub 550/ ..-->.. M/sub 412/ step is highly catalyzed. It is the superposition of both these branching mechanisms which accounts for the complex effects of temperature and pH on the photocycle of BR/sub 570/. The latter mechanism is accounted for by a molecular scheme in which deprotonation of a tyrosine moiety at the stage of L/sub 550/ constitutes a prerequisite for deprotonation of the retinal-lysine schiff-base as required for forming M/sub 412/. This scheme appears to be directly related to the proton pump.

  7. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Rachel Mae

    2016-01-01

    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  8. A branch point consensus from Arabidopsis found by non-circular analysis allows for better prediction of acceptor sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Niels; Rouzé, Pierre; Brunak, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Little knowledge exists about branch points in plants; it has even been claimed that plant introns lack conserved branch point sequences similar to those found in vertebrate introns. A putative branch point consensus sequence for Arabidopsis thaliana resembling the well known metazoan consensus s...... in the recognition of true acceptor sites; the false positive rate being reduced by a factor of 2. We take this as an indication that the consensus found here is the genuine one and that the branch point does play a role in the proper recognition of the acceptor site in plants.......Little knowledge exists about branch points in plants; it has even been claimed that plant introns lack conserved branch point sequences similar to those found in vertebrate introns. A putative branch point consensus sequence for Arabidopsis thaliana resembling the well known metazoan consensus...... sequence has been proposed, but this is based on search of sequences similar to those in yeast and metazoa. Here we present a novel consensus sequence found by a non-circular approach. A hidden Markov model with a fixed A nucleotide was trained on sequences upstream of the acceptor site. The consensus...

  9. Four-branched compounds coupled Si and iron-rich intermetallics in near eutectic Al-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yuying; Liu, Xiangfa; Jiang, Binggang; Bian, Xiufang

    2007-01-01

    Many four-branched compounds coupled Si and iron-rich intermetallics were observed in near eutectic Al-Si alloy modified with Al-P master alloy. Such four-branched compounds have never been reported before, but in our case it seems to be commonly observed. In this work the growth characterization of the four-branched compounds are scrutinized with a JXA-8800 electron microprobe (EPMA). More deep study of the formation of four-branched compounds is performed by SEM and TEM analysis. The characterization of the four-branched compounds is that of a primary silicon in the center with four iron-rich intermetallics around. Experimental results also show that the precipitation of primary silicon is the key factor for the formation of four-branched compounds. And WHS-theory explains the growth mechanism of the four-branched compounds. In detail, subsequent twinning within the primary silicon provides four-fold coordination sites on the surface, and then the α-Al(Fe,Mn)-Si phase nucleates on the surface of the primary silicon

  10. Petunia hybrida CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE7 is involved in the production of negative and positive branching signals in petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Revel S M; Martínez-Sánchez, N Marcela; Janssen, Bart J; Templeton, Kerry R; Simons, Joanne L; Quinn, Brian D; Karunairetnam, Sakuntala; Snowden, Kimberley C

    2009-12-01

    One of the key factors that defines plant form is the regulation of when and where branches develop. The diversity of form observed in nature results, in part, from variation in the regulation of branching between species. Two CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE (CCD) genes, CCD7 and CCD8, are required for the production of a branch-suppressing plant hormone. Here, we report that the decreased apical dominance3 (dad3) mutant of petunia (Petunia hybrida) results from the mutation of the PhCCD7 gene and has a less severe branching phenotype than mutation of PhCCD8 (dad1). An analysis of the expression of this gene in wild-type, mutant, and grafted petunia suggests that in petunia, CCD7 and CCD8 are coordinately regulated. In contrast to observations in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), ccd7ccd8 double mutants in petunia show an additive phenotype. An analysis using dad3 or dad1 mutant scions grafted to wild-type rootstocks showed that when these plants produce adventitious mutant roots, branching is increased above that seen in plants where the mutant roots are removed. The results presented here indicate that mutation of either CCD7 or CCD8 in petunia results in both the loss of an inhibitor of branching and an increase in a promoter of branching.

  11. Directing the Branching Growth of Cuprous Oxide by OH- Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Si, Yunfei; Xue, Dongfeng

    The effect of OH- ions on the branching growth of cuprous oxide microcrystals was systematically studied by a reduction route, where copper-citrate complexes were reduced by glucose under alkaline conditions. Different copper salts including Cu(NO3)2, CuCl2, CuSO4, and Cu(Ac)2 were used in this work. The results indicate that the Cu2O branching growth habit is closely correlated to the concentration of OH- ions, which plays an important role in directing the diffusion-limited branching growth of Cu2O and influencing the reduction power of glucose. A variety of Cu2O branching patterns including 6-pod, 8-pod and 24-pod branches, have been achieved without using template and surfactant. The current method can provide a good platform for studying the growth mechanism of microcrystal branching patterns.

  12. ["Habitual" left branch block alternating with 2 "disguised" bracnch block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, S; Jullien, G; Mathieu, P; Mostefa, S; Gérard, R

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of alternating left bundle branch block and "masquerading block" (with left bundle branch morphology in the stnadard leads and right bundle branch block morphology in the precordial leads) were studied by serial tracings and his bundle electrocardiography. In case 1 "the masquerading" block was associated with a first degree AV block related to a prolongation of HV interval. This case is to our knowledge the first cas of alternating bundle branch block in which his bundle activity was recorded in man. In case 2, the patient had atrial fibrilation and His bundle recordings were performed while differents degrees of left bundle branch block were present: The mechanism of the alternation and the concept of "masquerading" block are discussed. It is suggested that this type of block represents a right bundle branch block associated with severe lesions of the "left system".

  13. Induced chorioretinal venous anastomosis in experimental retinal branch vein occlusion.

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, I L; Yu, D Y; Vijayasekaran, S; Barry, C; Constable, I

    1992-01-01

    Iatrogenic retinal vein to choroidal vein anastomoses were created using laser photocoagulation in six of seven dog eyes in which a partial branch retinal vein occlusion had previously been created photochemically. A similar attempt to create an anastomosis was made in six control eyes in which no branch vein occlusion was present. In the eyes in which a branch retinal vein had been created, a venous chorioretinal anastomosis appeared to be present by 3 to 6 weeks. In three control eyes simil...

  14. An asymptotic analysis of closed queueing networks with branching populations

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, N.; Coffman, E.G.; Kogan, Y.A.

    1995-01-01

    textabstractClosed queueing networks have proven to be valuable tools for system performance analysis. In this paper, we broaden the applications of such networks by incorporating populations of {em branching customers: whenever a customer completes service at some node of the network, it is replaced by N>=0 customers, each routed independently to a next node, where N has a given, possibly node-dependent branching distribution. Applications of these branching and queueing networks focus on {e...

  15. Activities of the Development Branch. 1978-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candame de Gallo, Rita; Marrapodi, M.R.E.; Baez, L.B.

    1982-01-01

    The activities carried out by the Development Branch from 1978 through 1981 are summarized. Subjects covered include: Metallurgy, Nuclear Fuels, Instrumentation and Control, Nuclear Reactors, as well as the various projects developed during this period and the administrative and technical activities of various groups belonging to this Branch. A list of publications by personnel of this Branch during the same period is also included. (C.A.K.) [es

  16. Cadaveric Study of the Articular Branches of the Shoulder Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Maxim S; Bickelhaupt, Brittany; Fehl, Jacob; Benfield, Jonathan A; Curley, Jonathan; Rahimi, Ohmid; Nagpal, Ameet S

    This cadaveric study investigated the anatomic relationships of the articular branches of the suprascapular (SN), axillary (AN), and lateral pectoral nerves (LPN), which are potential targets for shoulder analgesia. Sixteen embalmed cadavers and 1 unembalmed cadaver, including 33 shoulders total, were dissected. Following dissections, fluoroscopic images were taken to propose an anatomical landmark to be used in shoulder articular branch blockade. Thirty-three shoulders from 17 total cadavers were studied. In a series of 16 shoulders, 16 (100%) of 16 had an intact SN branch innervating the posterior head of the humerus and shoulder capsule. Suprascapular sensory branches coursed laterally from the spinoglenoid notch then toward the glenohumeral joint capsule posteriorly. Axillary nerve articular branches innervated the posterolateral head of the humerus and shoulder capsule in the same 16 (100%) of 16 shoulders. The AN gave branches ascending circumferentially from the quadrangular space to the posterolateral humerus, deep to the deltoid, and inserting at the inferior portion of the posterior joint capsule. In 4 previously dissected and 17 distinct shoulders, intact LPNs could be identified in 14 (67%) of 21 specimens. Of these, 12 (86%) of 14 had articular branches innervating the anterior shoulder joint, and 14 (100%) of 14 LPN articular branches were adjacent to acromial branches of the thoracoacromial blood vessels over the superior aspect of the coracoid process. Articular branches from the SN, AN, and LPN were identified. Articular branches of the SN and AN insert into the capsule overlying the glenohumeral joint posteriorly. Articular branches of the LPN exist and innervate a portion of the anterior shoulder joint.

  17. Finite-size scaling of survival probability in branching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Millan, Rosalba; Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Branching processes pervade many models in statistical physics. We investigate the survival probability of a Galton-Watson branching process after a finite number of generations. We reveal the finite-size scaling law of the survival probability for a given branching process ruled by a probability distribution of the number of offspring per element whose standard deviation is finite, obtaining the exact scaling function as well as the critical exponents. Our findings prove the universal behavi...

  18. Human vagus nerve branching in the cervical region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hammer

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation is increasingly applied to treat epilepsy, psychiatric conditions and potentially chronic heart failure. After implanting vagus nerve electrodes to the cervical vagus nerve, side effects such as voice alterations and dyspnea or missing therapeutic effects are observed at different frequencies. Cervical vagus nerve branching might partly be responsible for these effects. However, vagus nerve branching has not yet been described in the context of vagus nerve stimulation.Branching of the cervical vagus nerve was investigated macroscopically in 35 body donors (66 cervical sides in the carotid sheath. After X-ray imaging for determining the vertebral levels of cervical vagus nerve branching, samples were removed to confirm histologically the nerve and to calculate cervical vagus nerve diameters and cross-sections.Cervical vagus nerve branching was observed in 29% of all cases (26% unilaterally, 3% bilaterally and proven histologically in all cases. Right-sided branching (22% was more common than left-sided branching (12% and occurred on the level of the fourth and fifth vertebra on the left and on the level of the second to fifth vertebra on the right side. Vagus nerves without branching were significantly larger than vagus nerves with branches, concerning their diameters (4.79 mm vs. 3.78 mm and cross-sections (7.24 mm2 vs. 5.28 mm2.Cervical vagus nerve branching is considerably more frequent than described previously. The side-dependent differences of vagus nerve branching may be linked to the asymmetric effects of the vagus nerve. Cervical vagus nerve branching should be taken into account when identifying main trunk of the vagus nerve for implanting electrodes to minimize potential side effects or lacking therapeutic benefits of vagus nerve stimulation.

  19. The normal distribution of thoracoabdominal aorta small branch artery ostia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, Paul; Williams, David M.; Vellody, Ranjith; Kelly, Aine Marie; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Carlos, Ruth C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the normal distribution of aortic branch artery ostia. CT scans of 100 subjects were retrospectively reviewed. The angular distributions of the aorta with respect to the center of the T3 to L4 vertebral bodies, and of branch artery origins with respect to the center of the aorta were measured. At each vertebral body level the distribution of intercostal/lumbar arteries and other branch arteries were calculated. The proximal descending aorta is posteriorly placed becoming a midline structure, at the thoracolumbar junction, and remains anterior to the vertebral bodies within the abdomen. The intercostal and lumbar artery ostia have a distinct distribution. At each vertebral level from T3 caudally, one intercostal artery originates from the posterior wall of the aorta throughout the thoracic aorta, while the other intercostal artery originates from the medial wall of the descending thoracic aorta high in the chest, posteromedially from the mid-thoracic aorta, and from the posterior wall of the aorta low in the chest. Mediastinal branches of the thoracic aorta originate from the medial and anterior wall. Lumbar branches originate only from the posterior wall of the abdominal aorta. Aortic branch artery origins arise with a bimodal distribution and have a characteristic location. Mediastinal branches of the thoracic aorta originate from the medial and anterior wall. Knowing the location of aortic branch artery ostia may help distinguish branch artery pseudoaneurysms from penetrating ulcers.

  20. Measurements of the branching fractions of [Formula: see text] decays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Abellan Beteta, C; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nisar, S; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The branching fractions of the decay [Formula: see text] for different intermediate states are measured using data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb -1 , collected by the LHCb experiment. The total branching fraction, its charmless component [Formula: see text] and the branching fractions via the resonant [Formula: see text] states η c (1 S ) and ψ (2 S ) relative to the decay via a J / ψ intermediate state are [Formula: see text] Upper limits on the B + branching fractions into the η c (2 S ) meson and into the charmonium-like states X (3872) and X (3915) are also obtained.

  1. Branched RNA: A New Architecture for RNA Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aviñó

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Branched RNAs with two and four strands were synthesized. These structures were used to obtain branched siRNA. The branched siRNA duplexes had similar inhibitory capacity as those of unmodified siRNA duplexes, as deduced from gene silencing experiments of the TNF-α protein. Branched RNAs are considered novel structures for siRNA technology, and they provide an innovative tool for specific gene inhibition. As the method described here is compatible with most RNA modifications described to date, these compounds may be further functionalized to obtain more potent siRNA derivatives and can be attached to suitable delivery systems.

  2. Spontaneous Age-Related Neurite Branching in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Elizabeth M. H.; Rodgers, Kasey E.; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of morphological changes that occur in the nervous system during normal aging could provide insight into cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disease. Previous studies have suggested that the nervous system of C. elegans maintains its structural integrity with age despite the deterioration of surrounding tissues. Unexpectedly, we observed that neurons in aging animals frequently displayed ectopic branches, and that the prevalence of these branches increased with time. Within age-matched populations, the branching of mechnosensory neurons correlated with decreased response to light touch and decreased mobility. The incidence of branching was influenced by two pathways that can affect the rate of aging, the Jun kinase pathway and the insulin/IGF-1 pathway. Loss of Jun kinase signaling, which slightly shortens lifespan, dramatically increased and accelerated the frequency of neurite branching. Conversely, inhibition of the daf-2 insulin/IGF-1-like signaling pathway, which extends lifespan, delayed and suppressed branching, and this delay required DAF-16/FOXO activity. Both JNK-1 and DAF-16 appeared to act within neurons in a cell-autonomous manner to influence branching, and, through their tissue-specific expression, it was possible to disconnect the rate at which branching occurred from the overall rate of aging of the animal. Old age has generally been associated with the decline and deterioration of different tissues, except in the case of tumor cell growth. To our knowledge, this is the first indication that aging can potentiate another form of growth, the growth of neurite branches, in normal animals. PMID:21697377

  3. Marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve: An anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Ahmad Khanfour

    2014-06-01

    Results: Results showed that the (MMBFN arises as a single branch, two branches, and three branches in 36.7%, 43.3% and 20% of specimens, respectively. In 83.3% of cases, one of the main or secondary branches of the marginal mandibular nerve crosses superficial (lateral to the facial vessels. There are communications either between the main or the secondary branches of the marginal mandibular nerve itself in 53.6% of specimens and with the buccal branch of the facial nerve in 40%, also with the anterior branch of the great auricular nerve in 3.3%, and with the transverse cervical nerve in 3.3% of specimens. The relationship of the nerve to the lower border of the mandible at a point midway between the angle of the mandible and symphysis menti is variable; it is either totally above it in most of the specimens 80%, or below it in 10% or at it in the remaining 10% of the specimens. The branches that lie above the lower border of the mandible are always deep into the superficial layer of the parotid fascia, while those branches that lie below the lower border of the mandible are intrafascially. The termination of the nerve is deep into the muscles of the ipsilateral lower lip in all specimens.

  4. A connection between the X-ray spectral branches and the radio brightness in GX17+2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penninx, Wim; Lewin, W.H.G.; Paradijs, J. van; Klis, M. van der

    1988-01-01

    GX17 + 2(4U 1813 - 14) is a bright X-ray binary in which matter is accreting on to a neutron star from a nearby companion. X-ray bursts are sometimes observed, as well as quasiperiodic oscillations in the X-ray flux. The frequencies of the quasiperiodic oscillations depend on the spectral state of the source, which manifests itself as three distinct spectral 'branches' in an X-ray colour-colour diagram. GX17 + 2 is also a variable radio source; there is no believable optical counterpart. We report here on simultaneous X-ray and radio observations which showed a connection between the spectral branches and the radio brightness. The 6-cm and 20-cm flux density increased by factors of 30±5 and 40± 10, respectively, as the X-ray state changed from the so-called 'flaring branch' to the 'horizontal branch'. (author)

  5. The Effectiveness Analysis of Waiting Processes in the Different Branches of a Bank by Queue Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah ÖZÇİL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the appreciable increase in the number of bank branches every year, nowadays queues for services don’t decrease and even become parts of our daily lives. By minimizing waiting processes the least, increasing customer satisfaction should be one of branch managers’ main goals. A quick and also customer oriented service with high quality is the most important factor for customer loyalty. In this study, Queueing theory, one of Operation Research techniques, is handled and in application, the data are obtained related to waiting in queue of customer in six different branches of two banks operating in Denizli and then they are analyzed by Queueing theory and also calculated the average effectiveness of the system. The study’s data are obtained by six branches of two banks called as A1, A2, A3, B1, B2 and B3. At the end of study it is presented to the company some advices that can bring benefits to the staff and customers. In this study, Queueing theory, one of Operation Research techniques, is handled and in application, the data are obtained related to waiting in queue of customer in three different branches of a bank operating in Denizli and then they are analyzed by Queueing theory and also calculated the average effectiveness of the system. The study’s data are obtained by three branches of the bank called A1, A2 and A3. At last it is presented to the company some advices that can bring more benefits to the staff and clients.

  6. Controls on stream network branching angles, tested using landscape evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoratos, Nikolaos; Seybold, Hansjörg; Kirchner, James W.

    2016-04-01

    Stream networks are striking landscape features. The topology of stream networks has been extensively studied, but their geometry has received limited attention. Analyses of nearly 1 million stream junctions across the contiguous United States [1] have revealed that stream branching angles vary systematically with climate and topographic gradients at continental scale. Stream networks in areas with wet climates and gentle slopes tend to have wider branching angles than in areas with dry climates or steep slopes, but the mechanistic linkages underlying these empirical correlations remain unclear. Under different climatic and topographic conditions different runoff generation mechanisms and, consequently, transport processes are dominant. Models [2] and experiments [3] have shown that the relative strength of channel incision versus diffusive hillslope transport controls the spacing between valleys, an important geometric property of stream networks. We used landscape evolution models (LEMs) to test whether similar factors control network branching angles as well. We simulated stream networks using a wide range of hillslope diffusion and channel incision parameters. The resulting branching angles vary systematically with the parameters, but by much less than the regional variability in real-world stream networks. Our results suggest that the competition between hillslope and channeling processes influences branching angles, but that other mechanisms may also be needed to account for the variability in branching angles observed in the field. References: [1] H. Seybold, D. H. Rothman, and J. W. Kirchner, 2015, Climate's watermark in the geometry of river networks, Submitted manuscript. [2] J. T. Perron, W. E. Dietrich, and J. W. Kirchner, 2008, Controls on the spacing of first-order valleys, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, F04016. [3] K. E. Sweeney, J. J. Roering, and C. Ellis, 2015, Experimental evidence for hillslope control of landscape scale, Science, 349

  7. Acute Bilateral Superior Branch Vestibular Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A. Yacovino

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid onset of a bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH is often attributed to vestibular ototoxicity. However, without any prior exposure to ototoxins, the idiopathic form of BVH is most common. Although sequential bilateral vestibular neuritis (VN is described as a cause of BVH, clinical evidence for simultaneous and acute onset bilateral VN is unknown. We describe a patient with an acute onset of severe gait ataxia and oscillopsia with features compatible with acute BVH putatively due to a bilateral VN, which we serially evaluated with clinical and laboratory vestibular function testing over the course of 1 year. Initially, bilateral superior and horizontal semicircular canals and bilateral utricles were impaired, consistent with damage to both superior branches of each vestibular nerve. Hearing was spared. Only modest results were obtained following 6 months of vestibular rehabilitation. At a 1-year follow-up, only the utricular function of one side recovered. This case is the first evidence supporting an acute presentation of bilateral VN as a cause for BVH, which would not have been observed without critical assessment of each of the 10 vestibular end organs.

  8. Introduction to the police scientific development branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botten, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Police Scientific Development Branch (Pdb) of the UK Home Office evaluates technologies, develops equipment and detection standards for the police and security communities. PSDB's guidance helps to protect critical sites, including nuclear sites, in the United Kingdom. PSDB evaluates doors, walls, fences, locks, glazing and other barrier to determine whether they meet national and European standards against conventional physical attack. PSDB also evaluates intruder-detection systems. If solutions for security problems do not exist commercially, it might help to develop them. Examples include computer machine-vision systems to guide a pan-tilt-zoom camera automatically, and to assess intruder alarms. PSDB's automatic alarm verification system (AMETHYST) is now being installed for test at a nuclear power station on England's south coast. PSDB has used its analysis of the effects of exploding bombs on building materials to influence building codes. The PSDB also evaluates technologies for crime investigation, surveillance, explosive detection and bomb search. PSDB uses its experience to help train security practitioners to select, specify, and audit security at critical sites, including sites that handle nuclear materials. PSDB's technologies and advice have helped to protect the UK against terrorist attacks. Its expertise can be made available to help meet other European needs. (author)

  9. Correlation functions of Coulomb branch operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerchkovitz, Efrat [Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Gomis, Jaume [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Ishtiaque, Nafiz [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo,Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Karasik, Avner; Komargodski, Zohar [Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2017-01-24

    We consider the correlation functions of Coulomb branch operators in four-dimensional N=2 Superconformal Field Theories (SCFTs) involving exactly one anti-chiral operator. These extremal correlators are the “minimal' non-holomorphic local observables in the theory. We show that they can be expressed in terms of certain determinants of derivatives of the four-sphere partition function of an appropriate deformation of the SCFT. This relation between the extremal correlators and the deformed four-sphere partition function is non-trivial due to the presence of conformal anomalies, which lead to operator mixing on the sphere. Evaluating the deformed four-sphere partition function using supersymmetric localization, we compute the extremal correlators explicitly in many interesting examples. Additionally, the representation of the extremal correlators mentioned above leads to a system of integrable differential equations. We compare our exact results with previous perturbative computations and with the four-dimensional tt{sup ∗} equations. We also use our results to study some of the asymptotic properties of the perturbative series expansions we obtain in N=2 SQCD.

  10. Markov branching in the vertex splitting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefánsson, Sigurdur Örn

    2012-01-01

    We study a special case of the vertex splitting model which is a recent model of randomly growing trees. For any finite maximum vertex degree D, we find a one parameter model, with parameter α element of [0,1] which has a so-called Markov branching property. When D=∞ we find a two parameter model with an additional parameter γ element of [0,1] which also has this feature. In the case D = 3, the model bears resemblance to Ford's α-model of phylogenetic trees and when D=∞ it is similar to its generalization, the αγ-model. For α = 0, the model reduces to the well known model of preferential attachment. In the case α > 0, we prove convergence of the finite volume probability measures, generated by the growth rules, to a measure on infinite trees which is concentrated on the set of trees with a single spine. We show that the annealed Hausdorff dimension with respect to the infinite volume measure is 1/α. When γ = 0 the model reduces to a model of growing caterpillar graphs in which case we prove that the Hausdorff dimension is almost surely 1/α and that the spectral dimension is almost surely 2/(1 + α). We comment briefly on the distribution of vertex degrees and correlations between degrees of neighbouring vertices

  11. Artificial Intelligence Research Branch future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Helen (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains information on the activities of the Artificial Intelligence Research Branch (FIA) at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in 1992, as well as planned work in 1993. These activities span a range from basic scientific research through engineering development to fielded NASA applications, particularly those applications that are enabled by basic research carried out in FIA. Work is conducted in-house and through collaborative partners in academia and industry. All of our work has research themes with a dual commitment to technical excellence and applicability to NASA short, medium, and long-term problems. FIA acts as the Agency's lead organization for research aspects of artificial intelligence, working closely with a second research laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and AI applications groups throughout all NASA centers. This report is organized along three major research themes: (1) Planning and Scheduling: deciding on a sequence of actions to achieve a set of complex goals and determining when to execute those actions and how to allocate resources to carry them out; (2) Machine Learning: techniques for forming theories about natural and man-made phenomena; and for improving the problem-solving performance of computational systems over time; and (3) Research on the acquisition, representation, and utilization of knowledge in support of diagnosis design of engineered systems and analysis of actual systems.

  12. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic development of miktoarm star polymers since 2000. At the present time, the almost all types of multiarmed and multicomponent miktoarm star polymers have become feasible by using recently developed iterative strategy. For example, the following well-defined stars have been successfully synthesized: 3-arm ABC, 4-arm ABCD, 5-arm ABCDE, 6-arm ABCDEF, 7-arm ABCDEFG, 6-arm ABC, 9-arm ABC, 12-arm ABC, 13-arm ABCD, 9-arm AB, 17-arm AB, 33-arm AB, 7-arm ABC, 15-arm ABCD, and 31-arm ABCDE miktoarm star polymers, most of which are quite new and difficult to synthesize by the end of the 1990s. Several new specialty functional star polymers composed of vinyl polymer segments and rigid rodlike poly(acetylene) arms, helical polypeptide, or helical poly(hexyl isocyanate) arms are introduced.

  13. The Horizontal Branch of the Sculptor Dwarf galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salaris, Maurizio; de Boer, Thomas; Tolstoy, Eline; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Cassisi, Santi

    2013-01-01

    We have performed the first detailed simulation of the horizontal branch of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy by means of synthetic modelling techniques, taking consistently into account the star formation history and metallicity evolution as determined from the main sequence and red giant branch

  14. Converging from branching to linear metrics on Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacci, Giorgio; Bacci, Giovanni; Larsen, Kim G.

    2017-01-01

    -approximant is computable in polynomial time in the size of the MC. The upper-approximants are bisimilarity-like pseudometrics (hence, branching-time distances) that converge point-wise to the linear-time metrics. This convergence is interesting in itself, because it reveals a nontrivial relation between branching...

  15. Converging from Branching to Linear Metrics on Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacci, Giorgio; Bacci, Giovanni; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    time in the size of the MC. The upper-approximants are Kantorovich-like pseudometrics, i.e. branching-time distances, that converge point-wise to the linear-time metrics. This convergence is interesting in itself, since it reveals a nontrivial relation between branching and linear-time metric...

  16. Total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume models for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume models for miombo woodlands of Malawi. Daud J Kachamba, Tron Eid. Abstract. The objective of this study was to develop general (multispecies) models for prediction of total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume including options with diameter at breast height (dbh) ...

  17. Branching of positive discharge streamers in air at varying pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briels, T.M.P.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Ebert, U.M.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of positive streamers in a 17-mm gap in air is studied at pressures varying in the range from 1010 to 100 mbar. An intensified charge coupled device camera is used to image the discharge. At high pressures, the discharge shows many branches, while at low pressure, fewer branches arise.

  18. Dorzolamide increases retinal oxygen tension after branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Michael Hove; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Scherfig, Erik

    2008-01-01

    To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs.......To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs....

  19. The International Branch Campus as Transnational Strategy in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen; Huisman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    The international branch campus is a phenomenon on the rise, but we still have limited knowledge of the strategic choices underlying the start of these ventures. The objective of this paper is to shed light on the motivations and decisions of universities to engage (or not) with the establishment of international branch campuses. As a point of…

  20. Multicriterial ranking approach for evaluating bank branch performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleskerov, F; Ersel, H; Yolalan, R

    14 ranking methods based on multiple criteria are suggested for evaluating the performance of the bank branches. The methods are explained via an illustrative example, and some of them are applied to a real-life data for 23 retail bank branches in a large-scale private Turkish commercial bank.

  1. Frosted branch angiitis associated with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Amod

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous occurrence of frosted branch angiitis and immune-mediated rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is reported. The two diseases possibly share a common immune mechanism. Patients of frosted branch angiitis should undergo complete systemic evaluation including renal function tests even if the patient is systemically asymptomatic.

  2. 33 CFR 117.927 - Coosaw River (Whale Branch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coosaw River (Whale Branch). 117.927 Section 117.927 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Whale Branch). The draw of the Seaboard System Railroad bridge, mile 5.3 at Seabrook, and the draw of...

  3. Towards an abstract parallel branch and bound machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Bruin (Arie); G.A.P. Kindervater (Gerard); H.W.J.M. Trienekens

    1995-01-01

    textabstractMany (parallel) branch and bound algorithms look very different from each other at first glance. They exploit, however, the same underlying computational model. This phenomenon can be used to define branch and bound algorithms in terms of a set of basic rules that are applied in a

  4. Chemical Analysis of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in M62

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Ferraro, F. R.; Origlia, L.; Lanzoni, B.; Massari, D.; Dalessandro, E.

    2015-01-01

    We have collected UVES-FLAMES high-resolution spectra for a sample of 6 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and 13 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) M62 (NGC 6266). Here we present the detailed abundance analysis of iron, titanium, and light elements (O, Na, Mg, and Al).

  5. Critical Age-Dependent Branching Markov Processes and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper studies: (i) the long-time behaviour of the empirical distribution of age and normalized position of an age-dependent critical branching Markov process conditioned on non-extinction; and (ii) the super-process limit of a sequence of age-dependent critical branching Brownian motions.

  6. Quinone reduction via secondary B-branch electron transfer in mutant bacterial reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Philip D; Kirmaier, Christine; Udawatte, Chandani S M; Hofman, Samuel J; Holten, Dewey; Hanson, Deborah K

    2003-02-18

    Symmetry-related branches of electron-transfer cofactors-initiating with a primary electron donor (P) and terminating in quinone acceptors (Q)-are common features of photosynthetic reaction centers (RC). Experimental observations show activity of only one of them-the A branch-in wild-type bacterial RCs. In a mutant RC, we now demonstrate that electron transfer can occur along the entire, normally inactive B-branch pathway to reduce the terminal acceptor Q(B) on the time scale of nanoseconds. The transmembrane charge-separated state P(+)Q(B)(-) is created in this manner in a Rhodobacter capsulatus RC containing the F(L181)Y-Y(M208)F-L(M212)H-W(M250)V mutations (YFHV). The W(M250)V mutation quantitatively blocks binding of Q(A), thereby eliminating Q(B) reduction via the normal A-branch pathway. Full occupancy of the Q(B) site by the native UQ(10) is ensured (without the necessity of reconstitution by exogenous quinone) by purification of RCs with the mild detergent, Deriphat 160-C. The lifetime of P(+)Q(B)(-) in the YFHV mutant RC is >6 s (at pH 8.0, 298 K). This charge-separated state is not formed upon addition of competitive inhibitors of Q(B) binding (terbutryn or stigmatellin). Furthermore, this lifetime is much longer than the value of approximately 1-1.5 s found when P(+)Q(B)(-) is produced in the wild-type RC by A-side activity alone. Collectively, these results demonstrate that P(+)Q(B)(-) is formed solely by activity of the B-branch carriers in the YFHV RC. In comparison, P(+)Q(B)(-) can form by either the A or B branches in the YFH RC, as indicated by the biexponential lifetimes of approximately 1 and approximately 6-10 s. These findings suggest that P(+)Q(B)(-) states formed via the two branches are distinct and that P(+)Q(B)(-) formed by the B side does not decay via the normal (indirect) pathway that utilizes the A-side cofactors when present. These differences may report on structural and energetic factors that further distinguish the functional

  7. Branch formation induced by microbeam irradiation of Adiantum protonemata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.

    1998-01-01

    Branches were induced in centrifuged Adiantum protonemal cells by partial irradiation with polarized red light. Nuclear behavior and microtubule pattern change during branch formation were investigated. A branch formed at any part where a red microbeam was focused along a long apical cell. The nucleus moved towards the irradiated area and remained there until a branch developed. The pattern of microtubules changed from parallel to oblique at the irradiated area and then a transverse arrangement of microtubules appeared on both sides of the area. It appeared as if the nucleus was suspended between two microtubule rings. This nuclear behavior and the changes in microtubule pattern were different from those observed during branch formation under whole cell irradiation. From the results of this work we suggest that there is an importance for precise control of experimental conditions

  8. BPP: a sequence-based algorithm for branch point prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Fan, Xiaodan; Wang, Yejun; Sun, Ming-An; Shao, Jianlin; Guo, Dianjing

    2017-10-15

    Although high-throughput sequencing methods have been proposed to identify splicing branch points in the human genome, these methods can only detect a small fraction of the branch points subject to the sequencing depth, experimental cost and the expression level of the mRNA. An accurate computational model for branch point prediction is therefore an ongoing objective in human genome research. We here propose a novel branch point prediction algorithm that utilizes information on the branch point sequence and the polypyrimidine tract. Using experimentally validated data, we demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms existing methods. Availability and implementation: https://github.com/zhqingit/BPP. djguo@cuhk.edu.hk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. 1H NMR analysis of long-chain-branched strong polyelectrolytes obtained by vinyl/divinyl monomer copolymerization in aqueous medium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podešva, Jiří; Spěváček, Jiří; Kratochvíl, Pavel; Netopilík, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 7 (2013), s. 557-565 ISSN 1023-666X Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : long-chain branching * NMR * polyelectrolytes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2013

  10. Surface effects on the red giant branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, W. H.; Themeßl, N.; Hekker, S.

    2018-05-01

    Individual mode frequencies have been detected in thousands of individual solar-like oscillators on the red giant branch (RGB). Fitting stellar models to these mode frequencies, however, is more difficult than in main-sequence stars. This is partly because of the uncertain magnitude of the surface effect: the systematic difference between observed and modelled frequencies caused by poor modelling of the near-surface layers. We aim to study the magnitude of the surface effect in RGB stars. Surface effect corrections used for main-sequence targets are potentially large enough to put the non-radial mixed modes in RGB stars out of order, which is unphysical. Unless this can be circumvented, model-fitting of evolved RGB stars is restricted to the radial modes, which reduces the number of available modes. Here, we present a method to suppress gravity modes (g-modes) in the cores of our stellar models, so that they have only pure pressure modes (p-modes). We show that the method gives unbiased results and apply it to three RGB solar-like oscillators in double-lined eclipsing binaries: KIC 8410637, KIC 9540226 and KIC 5640750. In all three stars, the surface effect decreases the model frequencies consistently by about 0.1-0.3 μHz at the frequency of maximum oscillation power νmax, which agrees with existing predictions from three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. Though our method in essence discards information about the stellar cores, it provides a useful step forward in understanding the surface effect in RGB stars.

  11. Determining Diagonal Branches in Mine Ventilation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krach, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    The present paper discusses determining diagonal branches in a mine ventilation network by means of a method based on the relationship A⊗ PT(k, l) = M, which states that the nodal-branch incidence matrix A, modulo-2 multiplied by the transposed path matrix PT(k, l ) from node no. k to node no. l, yields the matrix M where all the elements in rows k and l - corresponding to the start and the end node - are 1, and where the elements in the remaining rows are 0, exclusively. If a row of the matrix M is to contain only "0" elements, the following condition has to be fulfilled: after multiplying the elements of a row of the matrix A by the elements of a column of the matrix PT(k, l), i.e. by the elements of a proper row of the matrix P(k, l ), the result row must display only "0" elements or an even number of "1" entries, as only such a number of "1" entries yields 0 when modulo-2 added - and since the rows of the matrix A correspond to the graph nodes, and the path nodes level is 2 (apart from the nodes k and l, whose level is 1), then the number of "1" elements in a row has to be 0 or 2. If, in turn, the rows k and l of the matrix M are to contain only "1" elements, the following condition has to be fulfilled: after multiplying the elements of the row k or l of the matrix A by the elements of a column of the matrix PT(k, l), the result row must display an uneven number of "1" entries, as only such a number of "1" entries yields 1 when modulo-2 added - and since the rows of the matrix A correspond to the graph nodes, and the level of the i and j path nodes is 1, then the number of "1" elements in a row has to be 1. The process of determining diagonal branches by means of this method was demonstrated using the example of a simple ventilation network with two upcast shafts and one downcast shaft. W artykule przedstawiono metodę wyznaczania bocznic przekątnych w sieci wentylacyjnej kopalni metodą bazującą na zależności A⊗PT(k, l) = M, która podaje, że macierz

  12. Branching microtubule nucleation in Xenopus egg extracts mediated by augmin and TPX2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Sabine; Groen, Aaron C.; Ishihara, Keisuke; Mitchison, Timothy J.; Vale, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The microtubules that comprise mitotic spindles in animal cells are nucleated at centrosomes and by spindle assembly factors that are activated in the vicinity of chromatin. Indirect evidence also has suggested that microtubules might be nucleated from pre-existing microtubules throughout the spindle, but this process has not been observed directly. Here, we demonstrate microtubule nucleation from the sides of existing microtubules in meiotic Xenopus egg extracts. Daughter microtubules grow at a low branch angle and with the same polarity as mother filaments. Branching microtubule nucleation requires gamma-tubulin and augmin and is stimulated by GTP-bound Ran and its effector TPX2, factors previously implicated in chromatin-stimulated nucleation. Because of the rapid amplification of microtubule numbers and the preservation of microtubule polarity, microtubule-dependent microtubule nucleation is well suited for spindle assembly and maintenance. PMID:23415226

  13. Asymmetric variations in the tropical ascending branches of Hadley circulations and the associated mechanisms and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the variations in the tropical ascending branches (TABs) of Hadley circulations (HCs) during past decades, using a variety of reanalysis datasets. The northern tropical ascending branch (NTAB) and the southern tropical ascending branch (STAB), which are defined as the ascending branches of the Northern Hemisphere HC and Southern Hemisphere HC, respectively, are identified and analyzed regarding their trends and variability. The reanalysis datasets consistently show a persistent increase in STAB during past decades, whereas they show less consistency in NTAB regarding its decadalto multidecadal variability, which generally features a decreasing trend. These asymmetric trends in STAB and NTAB are attributed to asymmetric trends in the tropical SSTs. The relationship between STAB/NTAB and tropical SSTs is further examined regarding their interannual and decadal- to multidecadal variability. On the interannual time scale, the STAB and NTAB are essentially modulated by the eastern-Pacific type of ENSO, with a strengthened (weakened) STAB (NTAB) under an El Niño condition. On the decadal- to multidecadal time scale, the variability of STAB and NTAB is closely related to the southern tropical SSTs and the meridional asymmetry of global tropical SSTs, respectively. The tropical eastern Pacific SSTs (southern tropical SSTs) dominate the tropical SST-NTAB/STAB relationship on the interannual (decadal- to multidecadal) scale, whereas the NTAB is a passive factor in this relationship. Moreover, a cross-hemispheric relationship between the NTAB/STAB and the HC upper-level meridional winds is revealed.

  14. Electrochemical growth of nanowires in anodic alumina templates: the role of pore branching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyan, Alexey A.; Leontiev, Alexey P.; Yakovlev, Maxim V.; Roslyakov, Ilya V.; Tsirlina, Galina A.; Napolskii, Kirill S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The model of metal growth inside the anodic alumina with branched pores is developed. • Model predicts the dependence of anodic alumina filling on deposition regime. • Branched pores affect the uniformity of anodic alumina filling with electrodeposits. • Branched pores make growth front of metal nanowires inside template multimodal. - Abstract: A comparative study of electrochemical growth of nanowires in the anodic alumina templates with various degree of porous structure ordering is performed. Scanning electron microscopy and coulometric analysis are used for experimental evaluation of the average filling of pores with metal. The theoretical model of metal growth inside anodic alumina templates is proposed. The model takes into account the presence of branched channels in the real structure of anodic alumina and operates with completeness of template filling achieved at the moment when metal reaches the external surface of the oxide film. In case of the diffusion-controlled regime the strong dependence of the pore filling factor on the thickness of porous film and the degree of its structure ordering is predicted theoretically and observed experimentally. The influence of the nature of limiting current on the homogeneity and completeness of template filling is discussed.

  15. Transformational Leadership and Employee Job Satisfaction: The Case of Philippines Savings Bank Batangas Branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEIL P. RAMOS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper determined the relationship between transformational leadership of the PSBank managers in the province of Batangas and the job satisfaction of PSbank employees. Specifically, it aimed to determine the level of transformational leadership of PS Bank Managers and the level of employee satisfaction of the PS Bank Batangas branches and to test if such transformational leadership relate with their employee satisfaction. Descriptive type of research was utilized in the study. Results showed that the managers of PS Bank Batangas Branches fairly often practice the transformational leadership style. The employees of PS Bank Batangas Branches are satisfied with their job. The greatest factors that influence their satisfaction are compensation and job security. The data also show that the transformational leadership style of managers of PS Bank Batangas Branches significantly affects the employee’s satisfaction in terms of their communication with their employees. A proposed measure to enhance the transformational leadership style of the managers of PS Bank has been formulated to increase the level of job satisfaction among its employees

  16. Dissociative Recombination and Excitation of CH+5 : Absolute Cross Sections and Branching Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semaniak, J.; Larson, A.; Le Padellec, A.; Stroemholm, C.; Larsson, M.; Rosen, S.; Peverall, R.; Danared, H.; Djuric, N.; Dunn, G.H.; Datz, S.

    1998-01-01

    The heavy-ion storage ring CRYRING was used to measure the absolute dissociative recombination and dissociative excitation cross sections for collision energies below 50 eV. Deduced thermal rates coefficients are consistent with previous beams data but are lower by a factor of 3 than the rates measured by means of the flowing afterglow Langmuir probe technique. A resonant structure in dissociative recombination cross section was found at 9 eV. We have determined the branching fractions in DR of CH + 5 below 0.2 eV. The branching is dominated by three-body CH 3 + H + H and CH 2 + H 2 + H dissociation channels, which occur with branching ratios of ∼0.7 and ∼0.2, respectively; thus methane is a minor species among dissociation products. Both the measured absolute cross sections and branching in dissociative recombination of CH + 5 can have important implications for the models of dense interstellar clouds and abundance of CH 2 , CH 3 and CH 4 in these media. copyright copyright 1998. The American Astronomical Society

  17. Non-Markovian near-infrared Q branch of HCl diluted in liquid Ar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Antonio; Pérez, Justo

    2013-08-28

    By using a non-Markovian spectral theory based in the Kubo cumulant expansion technique, we have qualitatively studied the infrared Q branch observed in the fundamental absorption band of HCl diluted in liquid Ar. The statistical parameters of the anisotropic interaction present in this spectral theory were calculated by means of molecular dynamics techniques, and found that the values of the anisotropic correlation times are significantly greater (by a factor of two) than those previously obtained by fitting procedures or microscopic cell models. This fact is decisive for the observation in the theoretical spectral band of a central Q resonance which is absent in the abundant previous researches carried out with the usual theories based in Kubo cumulant expansion techniques. Although the theory used in this work only allows a qualitative study of the Q branch, we can employ it to study the unknown characteristics of the Q resonance which are difficult to obtain with the quantum simulation techniques recently developed. For example, in this study we have found that the Q branch is basically a non-Markovian (or memory) effect produced by the spectral line interferences, where the PR interferential profile basically determines the Q branch spectral shape. Furthermore, we have found that the Q resonance is principally generated by the first rotational states of the first two vibrational levels, those more affected by the action of the dissolvent.

  18. Branching ratios and CP asymmetries in the decay B → VV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.; Palmer, W.F.

    1991-06-01

    We carry out a systematic study of branching ratios, angular correlations, and CP asymmetries in the decay of neutral and charged B mesons to final states consisting of two vector mesons. The renormalization group improved effective Hamiltonian is evaluated in the vacuum insertion (factorization) approximation. OZI suppressed and annihilation terms are neglected. Current matrix elements are evaluated using the wave functions of Bauer, Stech and Wirbel. Branching ratios and angular correlations among subsequent decays of the vector mesons are calculated for 34 channels and a comparison is made with the data. As a first approximation, the calculational scheme provides a useful framework with which to organize the data. Interesting direct CP asymmetries are particularly evident in K*ω and K*ρ final states, where branching ratios are moderate. They are excellent probes of penguin term influence on decay amplitudes. Even larger direct asymmetries are present in ωρ and ρρ final states where, however, branching ratios are low and results are very model dependent. We show how B 0 -B 0 mixing phases are influenced by phases in the direct amplitudes. The effect is particularly strong for K* 0 D* 0 final states. (orig.)

  19. Abscisic acid signaling is controlled by a BRANCHED1/HD-ZIP I cascade in Arabidopsis axillary buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Grandío, Eduardo; Pajoro, Alice; Franco-Zorrilla, José M; Tarancón, Carlos; Immink, Richard G H; Cubas, Pilar

    2017-01-10

    Shoot-branching patterns determine key aspects of plant life and are important targets for crop breeding. However, we are still largely ignorant of the genetic networks controlling locally the most important decision during branch development: whether the axillary bud, or branch primordium, grows out to give a lateral shoot or remains dormant. Here we show that, inside the buds, the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF (TCP) transcription factor BRANCHED1 (BRC1) binds to and positively regulates the transcription of three related Homeodomain leucine zipper protein (HD-ZIP)-encoding genes: HOMEOBOX PROTEIN 21 (HB21), HOMEOBOX PROTEIN 40 (HB40), and HOMEOBOX PROTEIN 53 (HB53). These three genes, together with BRC1, enhance 9-CIS-EPOXICAROTENOID DIOXIGENASE 3 (NCED3) expression, lead to abscisic acid accumulation, and trigger hormone response, thus causing suppression of bud development. This TCP/HD-ZIP genetic module seems to be conserved in dicot and monocotyledonous species to prevent branching under light-limiting conditions.

  20. Upper limit for the branching ratio of KS→e+e- decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Sakeliou, L.; Aslanides, E.; Bertin, V.; Ealet, A.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Hubert, E.; Le Gac, R.; Montanet, F.; Touchard, F.; Backenstoss, G.; Leimgruber, F.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Polivka, G.; Rickenbach, R.; Schietinger, T.; Tauscher, L.; Vlachos, S.; Bargassa, P.

    1998-01-01

    A measurement of the branching ratio for K S →e + e - decay was performed with the CPLEAR detector at LEAR. Full event reconstruction together with calorimeter e/π separation allowed for powerful background rejection and high signal acceptance. The analysis on the complete set of data yields the result: BR(K S →e + e - ) -7 (90% CL), an improvement on the current experimental limit by a factor of 20

  1. Corporate Social Responsibility Program Impacts the Customer Loyalty of Bank Rakyat Indonesia Branch Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Mekel, Peggy A.; Talumepa, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    The successfulness of a firm is not just determined by its financial metrics. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) lately becomes one major concern in businesses which are indicating whether the company goes well or not. CSR program is the major concern that will be elaborate in this research. The aim of this research is to know if CSR programs of BRI branch Manado impact its customer loyalty and what are the factors that influence. This study is conducted by quantitative technique with asso...

  2. Dissociation of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BDK) from branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) by BDK inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Taro; Matsuo, Masayuki; Shimizu, Ayako; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2005-02-01

    Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BDK) phosphorylates and inactivates the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid catabolism. BDK has been believed to be bound to the BCKDC. However, recent our studies demonstrated that protein-protein interaction between BDK and BCKDC is one of the factors to regulate BDK activity. Furthermore, only the bound form of BDK appears to have its activity. In the present study, we examined effects of BDK inhibitors on the amount of BDK bound to the BCKDC using rat liver extracts. The bound form of BDK in the extracts of liver from low protein diet-fed rats was measured by an immunoprecipitation pull down assay with or without BDK inhibitors. Among the BDK inhibitors. alpha-ketoisocaproate, alpha-chloroisocaproate, and a-ketoisovalerate released the BDK from the complex. Furthermore, the releasing effect of these inhibitors on the BDK appeared to depend on their inhibition constants. On the other hand, clofibric acid and thiamine pyrophosphate had no effect on the protein-protein interaction between two enzymes. These results suggest that the dissociation of the BDK from the BCKDC is one of the mechanisms responsible for the action of some inhibitors to BDK.

  3. Optimization of multi-branch switched diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2009-10-01

    A performance optimization based on the optimal switching threshold(s) for a multi-branch switched diversity system is discussed in this paper. For the conventional multi-branch switched diversity system with a single switching threshold, the optimal switching threshold is a function of both the average channel SNR and the number of diversity branches, where computing the optimal switching threshold is not a simple task when the number of diversity branches is high. The newly proposed multi-branch switched diversity system is based on a sequence of switching thresholds, instead of a single switching threshold, where a different diversity branch uses a different switching threshold for signal comparison. Thanks to the fact that each switching threshold in the sequence can be optimized only based on the number of the remaining diversity branches, the proposed system makes it easy to find these switching thresholds. Furthermore, some selected numerical and simulation results show that the proposed switched diversity system with the sequence of optimal switching thresholds outperforms the conventional system with the single optimal switching threshold. © 2009 IEEE.

  4. Wind-Induced Reconfigurations in Flexible Branched Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Oluwafemi; Shoele, Kourosh

    2017-11-01

    Wind induced stresses are the major mechanical cause of failure in trees. We know that the branching mechanism has an important effect on the stress distribution and stability of a tree in the wind. Eloy in PRL 2011, showed that Leonardo da Vinci's original observation which states the total cross section of branches is conserved across branching nodes is the best configuration for resisting wind-induced fracture in rigid trees. However, prediction of the fracture risk and pattern of a tree is also a function of their reconfiguration capabilities and how they mitigate large wind-induced stresses. In this studies through developing an efficient numerical simulation of flexible branched trees, we explore the role of the tree flexibility on the optimal branching. Our results show that the probability of a tree breaking at any point depends on both the cross-section changes in the branching nodes and the level of tree flexibility. It is found that the branching mechanism based on Leonardo da Vinci's original observation leads to a uniform stress distribution over a wide range of flexibilities but the pattern changes for more flexible systems.

  5. Effect of reinforcement on plastic limit loads of branch junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun-Jae; Myeong, Man-Sik; Yoon, Kee-Bong

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides effects of reinforcement shape and area on plastic limit loads of branch junctions under internal pressure and in-plane/out-of-plane bending, via detailed three-dimensional finite element limit analysis assuming elastic-perfectly plastic material behaviour. It is found that reinforcement is most effective when (in-plane/out-of-plane) bending is applied to the branch pipe. When bending is applied to the run pipe, reinforcement is less effective when bending is applied to the branch pipe. The reinforcement effect is the least effective for internal pressure.

  6. Dy163-Ho163 branching: an s-process barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, H.; Walter, G.; Macklin, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of Dy163 and Er164 have been measured to analyze the s-process branching at Dy163-Ho163. The reproduction of the s-process abundance of Er164 via this branching is sensitive to temperature kT, neutron density, and electron density n/sub e/. The calculations using information from other branchings on kT and the neutron density n/sub n/ give constraints for n/sub e/ at the site of the s-process

  7. Stable isotopes in a branching coral monitor seasonal temperature variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.B.; Wellington, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    Results are reported of 18 O composition measurements of specimens of the branching reef coral Pocillopora damicornis, which have grown in the field, while seawater temperatures were continuously recorded. It is shown that seasonal temperature changes are accurately recorded by 18 O variations in branches of this reef coral and that isotopic profiles may be used to estimate growth rates of branching corals, which lack annual density banding. The method provides a technique for high resolution palaeoclimatic reconstruction of seasonal temperature ranges and accurate estimation of rates of reef carbonate production. (U.K.)

  8. Business Systems Branch Abilities, Capabilities, and Services Web Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Pena, Aida Yoguely

    2009-01-01

    During the INSPIRE summer internship I acted as the Business Systems Branch Capability Owner for the Kennedy Web-based Initiative for Communicating Capabilities System (KWICC), with the responsibility of creating a portal that describes the services provided by this Branch. This project will help others achieve a clear view ofthe services that the Business System Branch provides to NASA and the Kennedy Space Center. After collecting the data through the interviews with subject matter experts and the literature in Business World and other web sites I identified discrepancies, made the necessary corrections to the sites and placed the information from the report into the KWICC web page.

  9. Global solution branches for a nonlocal Allen-Cahn equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuto, Kousuke; Mori, Tatsuki; Tsujikawa, Tohru; Yotsutani, Shoji

    2018-05-01

    We consider the Neumann problem of a 1D stationary Allen-Cahn equation with nonlocal term. Our previous paper [4] obtained a local branch of asymmetric solutions which bifurcates from a point on the branch of odd-symmetric solutions. This paper derives the global behavior of the branch of asymmetric solutions, and moreover, determines the set of all solutions to the nonlocal Allen-Cahn equation. Our proof is based on a level set analysis for an integral map associated with the nonlocal term.

  10. On Computational Power of Quantum Read-Once Branching Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ablayev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review our current results concerning the computational power of quantum read-once branching programs. First of all, based on the circuit presentation of quantum branching programs and our variant of quantum fingerprinting technique, we show that any Boolean function with linear polynomial presentation can be computed by a quantum read-once branching program using a relatively small (usually logarithmic in the size of input number of qubits. Then we show that the described class of Boolean functions is closed under the polynomial projections.

  11. Leaf-to-branch scaling of C-gain in field-grown almond trees under different soil moisture regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Gregorio; González-Real, María M; Martin-Gorriz, Bernardo; Baille, Alain

    2014-06-01

    Branch/tree-level measurements of carbon (C)-acquisition provide an integration of the physical and biological processes driving the C gain of all individual leaves. Most research dealing with the interacting effects of high-irradiance environments and soil-induced water stress on the C-gain of fruit tree species has focused on leaf-level measurements. The C-gain of both sun-exposed leaves and branches of adult almond trees growing in a semi-arid climate was investigated to determine the respective costs of structural and biochemical/physiological protective mechanisms involved in the behaviour at branch scale. Measurements were performed on well-watered (fully irrigated, FI) and drought-stressed (deficit irrigated, DI) trees. Leaf-to-branch scaling for net CO2 assimilation was quantified by a global scaling factor (fg), defined as the product of two specific scaling factors: (i) a structural scaling factor (fs), determined under well-watered conditions, mainly involving leaf mutual shading; and (ii) a water stress scaling factor (fws,b) involving the limitations in C-acquisition due to soil water deficit. The contribution of structural mechanisms to limiting branch net C-gain was high (mean fs ∼0.33) and close to the projected-to-total leaf area ratio of almond branches (ε = 0.31), while the contribution of water stress mechanisms was moderate (mean fws,b ∼0.85), thus supplying an fg ranging between 0.25 and 0.33 with slightly higher values for FI trees with respect to DI trees. These results suggest that the almond tree (a drought-tolerant species) has acquired mechanisms of defensive strategy (survival) mainly based on a specific branch architectural design. This strategy allows the potential for C-gain to be preserved at branch scale under a large range of soil water deficits. In other words, almond tree branches exhibit an architecture that is suboptimal for C-acquisition under well-watered conditions, but remarkably efficient to counteract the impact

  12. Branch architecture in Ginkgo biloba: wood anatomy and long shoot-short shoot interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Stefan A; Jacobs, Brooke; McKechnie, Steven J; Cooper, Ranessa L; Christianson, Michael L; Jernstedt, Judith A

    2013-10-01

    Ginkgo, centrally placed in seed plant phylogeny, is considered important in many phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Shoot dimorphism of Ginkgo has been long noted, but no work has yet been done to evaluate the relationships between overall branch architecture and wood ring characters, shoot growth, and environmental conditions. • Branches, sampled from similar canopy heights, were mapped with the age of each long shoot segment determined by counting annual leaf-scar series on its short shoots. Transverse sections were made for each long shoot segment and an adjacent short shoot; wood ring thickness, number of rings, and number of tracheids/ring were determined. Using branch maps, we identified wood rings for each long shoot segment to year and developmental context of each year (distal short shoot growth only vs. at least one distal long shoot). Climate data were also analyzed in conjunction with developmental context. • Significantly thicker wood rings occur in years with distal long shoot development. The likelihood that a branch produced long shoots in a given year was lower with higher maximum annual temperature. Annual maximum temperature was negatively correlated with ring thickness in microsporangiate trees only. Annual minimum temperatures were correlated differently with ring thickness of megasporangiate and microsporangiate trees, depending on the developmental context. There were no significant effects associated with precipitation. • Overall, developmental context alone predicts wood ring thickness about as well as models that include temperature. This suggests that although climatic factors may be strongly correlated with wood ring data among many gymnosperm taxa, at least for Ginkgo, correlations with climate data are primarily due to changes in proportions of shoot developmental types (LS vs. SS) across branches.

  13. Ret and Etv4 Promote Directed Movements of Progenitor Cells during Renal Branching Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Riccio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Branching morphogenesis of the epithelial ureteric bud forms the renal collecting duct system and is critical for normal nephron number, while low nephron number is implicated in hypertension and renal disease. Ureteric bud growth and branching requires GDNF signaling from the surrounding mesenchyme to cells at the ureteric bud tips, via the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and coreceptor Gfrα1; Ret signaling up-regulates transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5, which are also critical for branching. Despite extensive knowledge of the genetic control of these events, it is not understood, at the cellular level, how renal branching morphogenesis is achieved or how Ret signaling influences epithelial cell behaviors to promote this process. Analysis of chimeric embryos previously suggested a role for Ret signaling in promoting cell rearrangements in the nephric duct, but this method was unsuited to study individual cell behaviors during ureteric bud branching. Here, we use Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers (MADM, combined with organ culture and time-lapse imaging, to trace the movements and divisions of individual ureteric bud tip cells. We first examine wild-type clones and then Ret or Etv4 mutant/wild-type clones in which the mutant and wild-type sister cells are differentially and heritably marked by green and red fluorescent proteins. We find that, in normal kidneys, most individual tip cells behave as self-renewing progenitors, some of whose progeny remain at the tips while others populate the growing UB trunks. In Ret or Etv4 MADM clones, the wild-type cells generated at a UB tip are much more likely to remain at, or move to, the new tips during branching and elongation, while their Ret-/- or Etv4-/- sister cells tend to lag behind and contribute only to the trunks. By tracking successive mitoses in a cell lineage, we find that Ret signaling has little effect on proliferation, in contrast to its effects on cell movement. Our results show that Ret

  14. Facile Conversion Synthesis of Densely-Formed Branched ZnO-Nanowire Arrays for Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woojin; Kang, Suji; Hwang, Taehyun; Kim, Kunsu; Woo, Hyungsub; Lee, Byungho; Kim, Jaewon; Kim, Jinhyun; Park, Byungwoo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •3-D hierarchically branched ZnO nanowires by a facile synthesis with seed nucleation. •Nanobranching enhances the efficiency by a factor of two compared with the bare QDSC. •Attributed to the increased sensitizer by ∼80% and decreased transmittance by ∼17%. •Optimized nanostructures correlate with the light-harvesting and carrier-collection efficiencies. -- Abstract: An effective way of synthesizing densely-formed branched ZnO-nanowire arrays was developed by a straightforward conversion reaction of ZnS into ZnO. Hierarchically structured ZnO nanowires are utilized for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), having resulted in the conversion-efficiency enhancement by a factor of two compared to the bare ZnO nanowires. This is attributed to the increased CdS-quantum-dot sensitizer by ∼80% and decreased diffused transmittance by ∼17%, induced by the densely-formed branched nanowires. The correlations between the branched nanostructures and photovoltaic performances are systematically investigated in terms of light absorption, charge-transfer resistance, and carrier lifetime. This facile and controllable branched nanowire synthesis is anticipated to be applicable to other semiconductor photoanodes for efficient light harvesting and charge collecting properties

  15. Critical evaluation of branch polarity and apical dominance as dictators of colony astogeny in a branching coral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shaish

    Full Text Available The high morphological resemblance between branching corals and trees, can lead to comparative studies on pattern formation traits, best exemplified in plants and in some cnidarians. Here, 81 branches of similar size of the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata were lopped of three different genets, their skeletons marked with alizarin red-S, and divided haphazardly into three morphometric treatment groups: (I upright position; (II horizontal position, intact tip; and (III horizontal position, cut tip. After 1 y of in-situ growth, the 45 surviving ramets were brought to the laboratory, their tissues removed and their architectures analyzed by 22 morphological parameters (MPs. We found that within 1 y, isolated branches developed into small coral colonies by growing new branches from all branch termini, in all directions. No architectural dissimilarity was assigned among the three studied genets of treatment I colonies. However, a major architectural disparity between treatment I colonies and colonies of treatments II and III was documented as the development of mirror structures from both sides of treatments II and III settings as compared to tip-borne architectures in treatment I colonies. We did not observe apical dominance since fragments grew equally from all branch sides without documented dominant polarity along branch axis. In treatment II colonies, no MP for new branches originating either from tips or from branch bases differed significantly. In treatment III colonies, growth from the cut tip areas was significantly lower compared to the base, again, suggesting lack of apical dominance in this species. Changes in branch polarity revealed genet associated plasticity, which in one of the studied genets, led to enhanced growth. Different genets exhibited canalization flexibility of growth patterns towards either lateral growth, or branch axis extension (skeletal weight and not porosity was measured. This study revealed that colony

  16. BOREAS TE-04 Branch Bag Data from Boreal Tree Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains 1996 TE-04 data of branch bag studies of photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance of boreal forest species using the open MPH-1000...

  17. News and Events - Nanodelivery Systems and Devices Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The latest news from the Nanodelivery Systems and Devices Branch and the Alliance, as well as upcoming and past events attended by the Nanodelivery Systems and Devices Branchstaff, and relevant upcoming scientific meetings.

  18. Controlling branching in streamer discharge by laser background ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, E; Kato, S; Furutani, H; Sasaki, A; Kishimoto, Y

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation with a KrF laser controlled the positive streamer branching in atmospheric argon gas. This laser irradiation changed the amount of background ionization before the streamer discharge. Measuring the ionization current allowed us to evaluate the initial electron density formed by the KrF laser. We observed characteristic feather-like branching structure and found that it was only suppressed in the irradiated region. The threshold of ionization density which can influence the branching was evaluated to be 5 x 10 5 cm -3 . The relationship between the size of avalanche head and mean distance between initial electrons explained this suppression behaviour. These experimental results support that the feather-like structure originates from the branching model of Loeb-Meek, a probabilistic merging of individual avalanches.

  19. Walker Branch Watershed Vegetation Inventory, 1967-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The original objectives of the long-term vegetation survey of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee (WBW; Curlin and Nelson 1968) was to quantify...

  20. Measurement of the τ leptonic branching fractions in DELPHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, M.

    1994-11-01

    Preliminary measurements of the τ leptonic branching fractions from the DELPHI experiment at LEP are presented. The analysis is based on about 25000 Z o →τ + τ - events observed in 1991 and 1992. 7 refs., 5 tabs

  1. Multi-Branch Fully Convolutional Network for Face Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yancheng; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Face detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision. It is still a challenging task in unconstrained conditions due to significant variations in scale, pose, expressions, and occlusion. In this paper, we propose a multi-branch fully

  2. The Coulomb Branch of 3d N= 4 Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullimore, Mathew; Dimofte, Tudor; Gaiotto, Davide

    2017-09-01

    We propose a construction for the quantum-corrected Coulomb branch of a general 3d gauge theory with N=4 supersymmetry, in terms of local coordinates associated with an abelianized theory. In a fixed complex structure, the holomorphic functions on the Coulomb branch are given by expectation values of chiral monopole operators. We construct the chiral ring of such operators, using equivariant integration over BPS moduli spaces. We also quantize the chiral ring, which corresponds to placing the 3d theory in a 2d Omega background. Then, by unifying all complex structures in a twistor space, we encode the full hyperkähler metric on the Coulomb branch. We verify our proposals in a multitude of examples, including SQCD and linear quiver gauge theories, whose Coulomb branches have alternative descriptions as solutions to Bogomolnyi and/or Nahm equations.

  3. Branch file system for nonconventional literature from the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorakova, K.

    1982-01-01

    The branch filing system collects research and study reports, translations, trip reports, literature searches and information on scientific and technical events in Czechoslovakia. The method is described of filing, processing and use of the materials. (M.D.)

  4. VT West Branch Natural Channel Design Restoration 2001-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Because of the well known problems of the river, the West Branch was identified as a restoration implementation site to be funded as part of the...

  5. VT West Branch Natural Channel Post Monitoring 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Because of the well known problems of the river, the West Branch was identified as a restoration implementation site to be funded as part of the...

  6. Employment of Veterans in the Federal Executive Branch

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — These quick facts use data from the 2011 Employment of Veterans in the Federal Executive Branch to compare Veteran employment in the Federal Government by agency,...

  7. Bi-objective branch-and-cut algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, Sune Lauth; Ehrgott, Matthias; Nielsen, Lars Relund

    Most real-world optimization problems are of a multi-objective nature, involving objectives which are conflicting and incomparable. Solving a multi-objective optimization problem requires a method which can generate the set of rational compromises between the objectives. In this paper, we propose...... are strengthened by cutting planes. In addition, we suggest an extension of the branching strategy "Pareto branching''. Extensive computational results obtained for the bi-objective single source capacitated facility location problem prove the effectiveness of the algorithms....... and compares it to an upper bound set. The implicit bound set based algorithm, on the other hand, fathoms branching nodes by generating a single point on the lower bound set for each local nadir point. We outline several approaches for fathoming branching nodes and we propose an updating scheme for the lower...

  8. Branching innovation, recombinant innovation, and endogenous technological transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.; Izquierdo, L.; Zeppini, P.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a model of technological transitions based on two different types of innovations. Branching innovations refer to technological improvements along a particular path, while recombinant innovations represent fusions of multiple paths. Recombinant innovations create "short-cuts" which reduce

  9. Quantum toboggans with two branch points

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 372, č. 5 (2008), s. 584-590 ISSN 0375-9601 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/1307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : anharmonic-oscillators * mechanics * potentials Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2008

  10. Continuous state branching processes in random environment: The Brownian case

    OpenAIRE

    Palau, Sandra; Pardo, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    We consider continuous state branching processes that are perturbed by a Brownian motion. These processes are constructed as the unique strong solution of a stochastic differential equation. The long-term extinction and explosion behaviours are studied. In the stable case, the extinction and explosion probabilities are given explicitly. We find three regimes for the asymptotic behaviour of the explosion probability and, as in the case of branching processes in random environment, we find five...

  11. Sheathotomy in complicated cases of branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafoord, S.; Karlsson, N.; Cour, M. la

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical experience and results of using a microsurgical technique to decompress the arteriovenous connection in complicated branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) combined with haemorrhage, oedema an ischaemia. Methods: We carried out a retrospective, non-randomized, interve......Purpose: To report the clinical experience and results of using a microsurgical technique to decompress the arteriovenous connection in complicated branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) combined with haemorrhage, oedema an ischaemia. Methods: We carried out a retrospective, non...

  12. Branched-chain amino acids for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Koretz, R L; Kjaergard, L L

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  13. Branch retinal vein occlusion associated with quetiapine fumarate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siang Lim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion in a young adult with bipolar mood disorder treated with quetiapine fumarate. Case Presentation A 29 years old gentleman who was taking quetiapine fumarate for 3 years for bipolar mood disorder, presented with sudden vision loss. He was found to have a superior temporal branch retinal vein occlusion associated with hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion Atypical antipsychotic drugs have metabolic side effects which require regular monitoring and prompt treatment.

  14. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model

    OpenAIRE

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tugrul, Murat; Eguiluz, Victor M.; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age $\\tau$ as $\\tau^{-\\alpha}$. Depending on the exponent $\\alpha$, the scaling of tree depth with tree size $n$ displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition ($\\alpha=1$) tree depth grows as $(\\log n)^2$. This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus p...

  15. Fast multiprogrammable branch driver for Micral mini-computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, J.; Lacroix, J.

    1975-01-01

    This branch driver allows in association with the stack memories of the minicomputer Micral, very fast exchanges with the 7 crates of a CAMAC branch. A CAMAC program (read, write and control commands) is loaded in the IK stack memory of the Micral and executed in sequence at a rate of 1,6μs per CAMAC command. After programm execution, data may be transferred directly on a magnetic tape

  16. 75 FR 13287 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for an Unmodified SF 278 Executive Branch Personnel Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Executive Branch Personnel Public Financial Disclosure Report. Form Number: SF... Executive Branch Personnel Public Financial Disclosure Report AGENCY: Office of Government Ethics (OGE... 278 Executive Branch Personnel Public Financial Disclosure Report to the Office of Management and...

  17. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN DURIAN (DURIO ZIBETHINUS L. BRANCH BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Durian (Durio zibethinus L. fruit form on the bark of branches. The aim of our research was to assess whether branches bearing different number of fruits have different nutrient contents in their bark. We determined the nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P, potassium (K, and carbon (C content in branch bark 30 days after fruit set using branches bearing different number of fruits per panicle (0, 1, 2 or >2 of two varieties (‘Otong’ and ‘Kani’. Bark was cut into 0.03 m long and 0.005 m wide segments with an average thickness of 0.00085 m. The bark of branches bearing a different number of fruits had the same N, P, K, and C content but different ratios of C/N, C/P, C/K, N/K, and P/K. The bark of ‘Otong’ branches had a higher N content but a lower C/N ratio than ‘Kani’ bark.

  18. Complexity of chemical graphs in terms of size, branching, and cyclicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, A T; Mills, D; Kodali, V; Basak, S C

    2006-08-01

    Chemical graph complexity depends on many factors, but the main ones are size, branching, and cyclicity. Some molecular descriptors embrace together all these three parameters, which cannot then be disentangled. The topological index J (and its refinements that include accounting for bond multiplicity and the presence of heteroatoms) was designed to compensate in a significant measure for graph size and cyclicity, and therefore it contains information mainly on branching. In order to separate these factors, two new indices (F and G) related with J are proposed, which allow to group together graphs with the same size into families of constitutional formulas differing in their branching and cyclicity. A comparison with other topological indices revealed that a few other topological indices vary similarly with index G, notably DN2S4 among the triplet indices, and TOTOP among the indices contained in the Molconn-Z program. This comparison involved all possible chemical graphs (i.e. connected planar graphs with vertex degrees not higher than four) with four through six vertices, and all possible alkanes with four through nine carbon atoms.

  19. Investment of Vehicle Fixed Asset Investment on improving profitability (Case study of Parahyangan Express Karawang Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Suartini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine how much influence has fixed asset investment in profitability of Parahyangan Express Karawang Branch. This research uses the descriptive method with primary data source of Parahyangan Express Karawang Branch between 2007 - 2016. The result of this research is r average investment value of Parahyangan Express in the period 2007 until 2016. Parahyangan Express in the period 2007 to 2016 tends to decline. Based on test results t comparison t arithmetic with t table showing 2.840> 2.093 t count more than t table. The percentage of influence of fixed asset investment of 30% means 30 % development of profitability. Parahyangan Express is influenced by in-kind fixed assets while 70 % is influenced by other factors not examined in this study.

  20. Reproductive success and mortality rates of Ceriodaphnia dubia maintained in water from Upper Three Runs, Pen Branch, and Fourmile Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    It is anticipated that the new SRS NPDES permit will require toxicity testing of at numerous outfalls and receiving streams, using the standard test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Because SRS surface waters differ markedly from the standard culture water that is used for Ceriodaphnia, studies were undertaken to determine if unimpacted SRS surface waters will support this species. Three SRS surface waters were evaluated; Upper Three Runs at Road 8-1, Pen Branch at Road B, and Fourmile Branch at Road F. Toxicity tests were performed monthly on each water source for eleven months. All three water sources exhibited varying degrees of toxicity to Ceriodaphnia, with Pen Branch being the least toxic and Fourmile Branch being the most toxic. These results indicate that if in-stream toxicity testing is required, it may not be possible to separate the naturally occurring toxic effects of the receiving water from possible toxic effects of SRS effluents

  1. Flow structure in a downward branch pipe with a closed end. Characteristics of flow velocity in the branch pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Koji; Nakamura, Akira; Takenaka, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Many pipes branch off from a main pipe in industrial plants. The penetration of hot water into the branch pipe causes thermal stratification. The thermal stratification layer fluctuates and causes thermal fatigue. The characteristics of velocity distributions in the branch pipe for inner diameters from D_b=21 mm to 43 mm were investigated by laser Doppler velocimetry in this paper. As for the flow in the branch pipe at L=4D_b, the mean velocity of the spiral flow was a simple forced vortex which indicated a straight velocity distribution. The maximum circumferential velocity U_θ _m_a_x and minimum axial velocity U_z _m_i_n at L=4D_b were expressed with D_b and main flow velocity. Empirical formulas were proposed for estimating the distributions of U_θ _m_a_x and U_z _m_i_n in the axial direction. (author)

  2. Branching enzyme assay: selective quantitation of the alpha 1,6-linked glucosyl residues involved in the branching points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisman, C R; Tolmasky, D S; Raffo, S

    1985-06-01

    Methods previously described for glycogen or amylopectin branching enzymatic activity are insufficiently sensitive and not quantitative. A new, more sensitive, specific, and quantitative one was developed. It is based upon the quantitation of the glucose residues joined by alpha 1,6 bonds introduced by varying amounts of branching enzyme. The procedure involved the synthesis of a polysaccharide from Glc-1-P and phosphorylase in the presence of the sample to be tested. The branched polysaccharide was then purified and the glucoses involved in the branching points were quantitated after degradation with phosphorylase and debranching enzymes. This method appeared to be useful, not only in enzymatic activity determinations but also in the study of the structure of alpha-D-glucans when combined with those of total polysaccharide quantitation, such as iodine and phenol-sulfuric acid.

  3. Branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase mutant of Staphylococcus carnosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis by a mutant strain of Staphylococcus carnosus deficient in branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (IlvE) activity was analysed. This mutant was unable to produce the appropriate branched-chain alpha-ketoacid precursors for branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis from...... in rich medium and growth in defined medium supplemented with 2-methylpropanoic acid lead to extensive alteration of the fatty acid composition in the cell membrane. In rich medium, a change from 51.7% to 17.1% anteiso-C15:0, and from 3.6% to 33.9% iso-C14:0 fatty acids as compared to the wild-type strain...... for 2-methylpropanoic acid production, revealing that the IlvE protein plays an important, but not essential role in the biosynthesis of branched-chain fatty acids and secondary metabolites in S. carnosus....

  4. Effects of a branched-chain amino acid-enriched diet on chronic hepatic encephalopathy in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, H. P.; Chamuleau, R. A.; Legemate, D. A.; Mol, J. A.; Rothuizen, J.

    1999-01-01

    A decreased ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids (AAA) is considered an important pathogenetic factor in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). A relationship between the deranged BCAA/AAA ratio and dopaminergic dysfunction through the formation of "false" neurotransmitters has

  5. RP-HPLC/MS-APCI Analysis of Branched Chain TAG Prepared by Precursor-Directed Biosynthesis with Rhodococcus erythropolis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schreiberová, O.; Krulikovská, T.; Sigler, Karel; Čejková, A.; Řezanka, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 8 (2010), s. 743-756 ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Rhodococcus erythropolis * RP-HPLC/MS-APCI * Branched chain triacylglycerols Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.151, year: 2010

  6. A Polynomial Time Construction of a Hitting Set for Read-Once Branching Programs of Width 3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jiří; Žák, Stanislav

    -, subm. 2015 (2018) ISSN 0022-0000 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061; GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : derandomization * Hitting Set * read-once branching programs * bounded width Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.678, year: 2016

  7. One rule to grow them all: a general theory of neuronal branching and its practical application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Cuntz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the principles governing axonal and dendritic branching is essential for unravelling the functionality of single neurons and the way in which they connect. Nevertheless, no formalism has yet been described which can capture the general features of neuronal branching. Here we propose such a formalism, which is derived from the expression of dendritic arborizations as locally optimized graphs. Inspired by Ramón y Cajal's laws of conservation of cytoplasm and conduction time in neural circuitry, we show that this graphical representation can be used to optimize these variables. This approach allows us to generate synthetic branching geometries which replicate morphological features of any tested neuron. The essential structure of a neuronal tree is thereby captured by the density profile of its spanning field and by a single parameter, a balancing factor weighing the costs for material and conduction time. This balancing factor determines a neuron's electrotonic compartmentalization. Additions to this rule, when required in the construction process, can be directly attributed to developmental processes or a neuron's computational role within its neural circuit. The simulations presented here are implemented in an open-source software package, the "TREES toolbox," which provides a general set of tools for analyzing, manipulating, and generating dendritic structure, including a tool to create synthetic members of any particular cell group and an approach for a model-based supervised automatic morphological reconstruction from fluorescent image stacks. These approaches provide new insights into the constraints governing dendritic architectures. They also provide a novel framework for modelling and analyzing neuronal branching structures and for constructing realistic synthetic neural networks.

  8. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Nicholas D; Seal, Marc L; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A

    2009-11-10

    Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our data suggest that MDD patients are able to perform high

  9. Simple model of inhibition of chain-branching combustion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babushok, Valeri I.; Gubernov, Vladimir V.; Minaev, Sergei S.; Miroshnichenko, Taisia P.

    2017-11-01

    A simple kinetic model has been suggested to describe the inhibition and extinction of flame propagation in reaction systems with chain-branching reactions typical for hydrocarbon systems. The model is based on the generalised model of the combustion process with chain-branching reaction combined with the one-stage reaction describing the thermal mode of flame propagation with the addition of inhibition reaction steps. Inhibitor addition suppresses the radical overshoot in flame and leads to the change of reaction mode from the chain-branching reaction to a thermal mode of flame propagation. With the increase of inhibitor the transition of chain-branching mode of reaction to the reaction with straight-chains (non-branching chain reaction) is observed. The inhibition part of the model includes a block of three reactions to describe the influence of the inhibitor. The heat losses are incorporated into the model via Newton cooling. The flame extinction is the result of the decreased heat release of inhibited reaction processes and the suppression of radical overshoot with the further decrease of the reaction rate due to the temperature decrease and mixture dilution. A comparison of the results of modelling laminar premixed methane/air flames inhibited by potassium bicarbonate (gas phase model, detailed kinetic model) with the results obtained using the suggested simple model is presented. The calculations with the detailed kinetic model demonstrate the following modes of combustion process: (1) flame propagation with chain-branching reaction (with radical overshoot, inhibitor addition decreases the radical overshoot down to the equilibrium level); (2) saturation of chemical influence of inhibitor, and (3) transition to thermal mode of flame propagation (non-branching chain mode of reaction). The suggested simple kinetic model qualitatively reproduces the modes of flame propagation with the addition of the inhibitor observed using detailed kinetic models.

  10. Microsphere preparation using highly branched dextran degraded by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Min Ho; Yoo, Sun Kyun [Joongbu Univ., Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Dextrans as noble alternative consist predominantly of linear a-1,6 glucose linkages with some degree of branching via 1,2-, 1,3-, or 1,4- linkage. Dextrans have been investigated as potential macromolecular carriers for delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longevity of therapeutic agents in the delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longevity of therapeutic agents in the circulation. In most previous researches, linear type of dextrans with molecular weight of new type of drug delivery agent. Since 1950, the clinical dextran has been manufactured by acid hydrolysis, of which processes are multi-steps and time-consumed. Therefore, the objective of this research is evaluate the microsphere synthesised by highly branched dextran degraded by a electron beam radiation. Linear type of dextran was purchased from Sigma company. Branch type of dextran was produced and purified in our lab. The branch degree of dextran was evaluated using dextranase and analyzed by TLC. The air-dry dextran and two solution dextran was irradiated at room temperature using a electrostatic beam. The electron beam energy applied was 1.0 to 2.5 MeV. Dose was 70 kGy. The molecular average weight if 11,215,000 of linear dextran and 7,413,000 was degraded to 213,000 and 112,000, respectively. Branched dextran applied by a beam still retained its branched structure. The size of microsphere was dependant of the amount of PPG added to make water to water emulsion. Swelling of microsphere of branched dextran was higher than of linear dextran.

  11. A spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney branching morphogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V.S.

    2015-08-01

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Kidney development is initiated by the outgrowth of an epithelial ureteric bud into a population of mesenchymal cells. Reciprocal morphogenetic responses between these two populations generate a highly branched epithelial ureteric tree with the mesenchyme differentiating into nephrons, the functional units of the kidney. While we understand some of the mechanisms involved, current knowledge fails to explain the variability of organ sizes and nephron endowment in mice and humans. Here we present a spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney morphogenesis in which the growth of the two key populations is described by a system of time-dependant ordinary differential equations. We assume that branching is symmetric and is invoked when the number of epithelial cells per tip reaches a threshold value. This process continues until the number of mesenchymal cells falls below a critical value that triggers cessation of branching. The mathematical model and its predictions are validated against experimentally quantified C57Bl6 mouse embryonic kidneys. Numerical simulations are performed to determine how the final number of branches changes as key system parameters are varied (such as the growth rate of tip cells, mesenchyme cells, or component cell population exit rate). Our results predict that the developing kidney responds differently to loss of cap and tip cells. They also indicate that the final number of kidney branches is less sensitive to changes in the growth rate of the ureteric tip cells than to changes in the growth rate of the mesenchymal cells. By inference, increasing the growth rate of mesenchymal cells should maximise branch number. Our model also provides a framework for predicting the branching outcome when ureteric tip or mesenchyme cells change behaviour in response to different genetic or environmental developmental stresses.

  12. Microsphere preparation using highly branched dextran degraded by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Min Ho; Yoo, Sun Kyun; Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol

    2011-01-01

    Dextrans as noble alternative consist predominantly of linear a-1,6 glucose linkages with some degree of branching via 1,2-, 1,3-, or 1,4- linkage. Dextrans have been investigated as potential macromolecular carriers for delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longevity of therapeutic agents in the delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longevity of therapeutic agents in the circulation. In most previous researches, linear type of dextrans with molecular weight of new type of drug delivery agent. Since 1950, the clinical dextran has been manufactured by acid hydrolysis, of which processes are multi-steps and time-consumed. Therefore, the objective of this research is evaluate the microsphere synthesised by highly branched dextran degraded by a electron beam radiation. Linear type of dextran was purchased from Sigma company. Branch type of dextran was produced and purified in our lab. The branch degree of dextran was evaluated using dextranase and analyzed by TLC. The air-dry dextran and two solution dextran was irradiated at room temperature using a electrostatic beam. The electron beam energy applied was 1.0 to 2.5 MeV. Dose was 70 kGy. The molecular average weight if 11,215,000 of linear dextran and 7,413,000 was degraded to 213,000 and 112,000, respectively. Branched dextran applied by a beam still retained its branched structure. The size of microsphere was dependant of the amount of PPG added to make water to water emulsion. Swelling of microsphere of branched dextran was higher than of linear dextran

  13. A spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney branching morphogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V.S.; Combes, A.N.; Short, K.M.; Lefevre, J.; Hamilton, N.A.; Smyth, I.M.; Little, M.H.; Byrne, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Kidney development is initiated by the outgrowth of an epithelial ureteric bud into a population of mesenchymal cells. Reciprocal morphogenetic responses between these two populations generate a highly branched epithelial ureteric tree with the mesenchyme differentiating into nephrons, the functional units of the kidney. While we understand some of the mechanisms involved, current knowledge fails to explain the variability of organ sizes and nephron endowment in mice and humans. Here we present a spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney morphogenesis in which the growth of the two key populations is described by a system of time-dependant ordinary differential equations. We assume that branching is symmetric and is invoked when the number of epithelial cells per tip reaches a threshold value. This process continues until the number of mesenchymal cells falls below a critical value that triggers cessation of branching. The mathematical model and its predictions are validated against experimentally quantified C57Bl6 mouse embryonic kidneys. Numerical simulations are performed to determine how the final number of branches changes as key system parameters are varied (such as the growth rate of tip cells, mesenchyme cells, or component cell population exit rate). Our results predict that the developing kidney responds differently to loss of cap and tip cells. They also indicate that the final number of kidney branches is less sensitive to changes in the growth rate of the ureteric tip cells than to changes in the growth rate of the mesenchymal cells. By inference, increasing the growth rate of mesenchymal cells should maximise branch number. Our model also provides a framework for predicting the branching outcome when ureteric tip or mesenchyme cells change behaviour in response to different genetic or environmental developmental stresses.

  14. Fruiting branch K+ level affects cotton fibre elongation through osmoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashuo eYang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K deficiency in cotton plants results in reduced fibre length. As one of the primary osmotica, K+ contributes to an increase in cell turgor pressure during fibre elongation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fibre length is affected by K deficiency through an osmotic pathway, so in 2012 and 2013, an experiment was conducted to test this hypothesis by imposing three potassium supply regimes (0, 125, 250 kg K ha-1 on a low-K-sensitive cultivar, Siza 3, and a low-K-tolerant cultivar, Simian 3. We found that fibres were longer in the later season bolls than in the earlier ones in cotton plants grown under normal growth conditions, but later season bolls showed a greater sensitivity to low-K stress, especially the low-K sensitive genotype. We also found that the maximum velocity of fibre elongation (Vmax is the parameter that best reflects the change in fibre elongation under K deficiency. This parameter mostly depends on cell turgor, so the content of the osmotically active solutes was analysed accordingly. Statistical analysis showed that K+ was the major osmotic factor affecting fibre length, and malate was likely facilitating K+ accumulation into fibres, which enabled the low-K-tolerant genotype to cope with low-K stress. Moreover, the low-K-tolerant genotype tended to have greater K+ absorptive capacities in the upper fruiting branches. Based on our findings, we suggest a fertilization scheme for Gossypium hirsutum that adds extra potash fertilizer or distributes it during the development of late season bolls to mitigate K deficiency in the second half of the growth season and to enhance fibre length in late season bolls.

  15. The Search for a Non-Superallowed Branch in the β decay of ^38mK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Kyle; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Phillips, A. A.; Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Wong, J.; Ball, G. C.; Bassiachvilli, E.; Ettenauer, S.; Hackman, G.; Morton, A. C.; Mythili, S.; Newman, O.; Pearson, C. J.; Pearson, M. R.; Savajols, H.; Leslie, J. R.; Melconian, D.; Austin, R. A. E.; Barton, C.

    2007-10-01

    The study presented is part of an experimental program exploring the properties of superallowed Fermi β decays conducted at the Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF in Vancouver, B.C. Canada. Using the 8π γ-ray spectrometer and the Scintillating Electron Positron Tagging Array (SCEPTAR), it was possible to set a new upper limit on an unobserved non-analogue branch in the decay of ^38mK. This branch is expected to be extremely weak, and the removal of contaminant isobaric decays and background radiation in the spectra was thus exceedingly important during the analysis. Our work has reduced the previous upper limit by approximately a factor of two and is approaching the theoretically predicted branching ratio.

  16. Path integral formulation and Feynman rules for phylogenetic branching models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, P D; Bashford, J D; Sumner, J G [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, GPO Box 252C, 7001 Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    2005-11-04

    A dynamical picture of phylogenetic evolution is given in terms of Markov models on a state space, comprising joint probability distributions for character types of taxonomic classes. Phylogenetic branching is a process which augments the number of taxa under consideration, and hence the rank of the underlying joint probability state tensor. We point out the combinatorial necessity for a second-quantized, or Fock space setting, incorporating discrete counting labels for taxa and character types, to allow for a description in the number basis. Rate operators describing both time evolution without branching, and also phylogenetic branching events, are identified. A detailed development of these ideas is given, using standard transcriptions from the microscopic formulation of non-equilibrium reaction-diffusion or birth-death processes. These give the relations between stochastic rate matrices, the matrix elements of the corresponding evolution operators representing them, and the integral kernels needed to implement these as path integrals. The 'free' theory (without branching) is solved, and the correct trilinear 'interaction' terms (representing branching events) are presented. The full model is developed in perturbation theory via the derivation of explicit Feynman rules which establish that the probabilities (pattern frequencies of leaf colourations) arising as matrix elements of the time evolution operator are identical with those computed via the standard analysis. Simple examples (phylogenetic trees with two or three leaves), are discussed in detail. Further implications for the work are briefly considered including the role of time reparametrization covariance.

  17. Path integral formulation and Feynman rules for phylogenetic branching models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, P D; Bashford, J D; Sumner, J G

    2005-01-01

    A dynamical picture of phylogenetic evolution is given in terms of Markov models on a state space, comprising joint probability distributions for character types of taxonomic classes. Phylogenetic branching is a process which augments the number of taxa under consideration, and hence the rank of the underlying joint probability state tensor. We point out the combinatorial necessity for a second-quantized, or Fock space setting, incorporating discrete counting labels for taxa and character types, to allow for a description in the number basis. Rate operators describing both time evolution without branching, and also phylogenetic branching events, are identified. A detailed development of these ideas is given, using standard transcriptions from the microscopic formulation of non-equilibrium reaction-diffusion or birth-death processes. These give the relations between stochastic rate matrices, the matrix elements of the corresponding evolution operators representing them, and the integral kernels needed to implement these as path integrals. The 'free' theory (without branching) is solved, and the correct trilinear 'interaction' terms (representing branching events) are presented. The full model is developed in perturbation theory via the derivation of explicit Feynman rules which establish that the probabilities (pattern frequencies of leaf colourations) arising as matrix elements of the time evolution operator are identical with those computed via the standard analysis. Simple examples (phylogenetic trees with two or three leaves), are discussed in detail. Further implications for the work are briefly considered including the role of time reparametrization covariance

  18. Fragrance Release from the Surface of Branched Poly (Amide S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Youngs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are powerful tools in organic synthesis that are able to catalyse a wide variety of selective chemical transformations under mild and environmentally friendly conditions. Enzymes such as the lipases have also found applications in the synthesis and degradation of polymeric materials. However, the use of these natural catalysts in the synthesis and the post-synthetic modification of dendrimers and hyperbranched molecules is an application of chemistry yet to be explored extensively. In this study the use of two hydrolytic enzymes, a lipase from Candida cylindracea and a cutinase from Fusarium solani pisii, were investigated in the selective cleavage of ester groups situated on the peripheral layer of two families of branched polyamides. These branched polyamides were conjugated to simple fragrances citronellol and L-menthol via ester linkages. Hydrolysis of the ester linkage between the fragrances and the branched polyamide support was carried out in aqueous buffered systems at slightly basic pH values under the optimum operative conditions for the enzymes used. These preliminary qualitative investigations revealed that partial cleavage of the ester functionalities from the branched polyamide support had occurred. However, the ability of the enzymes to interact with the substrates decreased considerably as the branching density, the rigidity of the structure and the bulkiness of the polyamide-fragrance conjugates increased.

  19. Pedicled Descending Branch Latissimus Dorsi Mini-flap for Repairing Partial Mastectomy Defect: A New Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhao Cai, M.D.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Volume loss is 1 of the major factors influencing cosmetic outcomes of breast after partial mastectomy (PM, especially for smaller breasts, and therefore, volume replacement is critical for optimizing the final aesthetic outcome. We present a novel technique of raising a pedicled descending branch latissimus dorsi (LD mini-flap for reconstruction of PM defects via an axillary incision. After PM, the LD mini-flap is harvested through the existing axillary incision of the axillary dissection or the sentinel lymph node biopsy. The descending branches of thoracodorsal vessels and nerve are carefully identified and isolated. The transverse branches are protected to maintain muscle innervation and function. The LD muscle is then undermined posteriorly and inferiorly to create a submuscular pocket and a subcutaneous pocket between LD muscle and superficial fascia. Once the submuscular plane is created, the muscle is divided along the muscle fibers from the deep surface including a layer of fat above the muscle. Finally, the LD mini-flap is transferred to the breast defect. Given the limited length and mobility of the LD mini-flap, this approach is best utilized for lateral breast defects. However, for medial defects, the lateral breast tissue is rearranged to reconstruct the medial breast defect, and an LD mini-flap is then used to reconstruct the lateral breast donor site. This technique can therefore be employed to reconstruct all quadrants of the breast and can provide aesthetic outcomes without scars on the back, with minimal dysfunction of LD muscle.

  20. Deep vein thrombus formation induced by flow reduction in mice is determined by venous side branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Moritz; Schönfelder, Tanja; Schwenk, Melanie; Becker, Christian; Jäckel, Sven; Reinhardt, Christoph; Stark, Konstantin; Massberg, Steffen; Münzel, Thomas; von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Wenzel, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between vascular wall abnormalities, inflammatory leukocytes, platelets, coagulation factors and hemorheology in the pathogenesis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is incompletely understood, requiring well defined animal models of human disease. We subjected male C57BL/6 mice to ligation of the inferior vena cava (IVC) as a flow reduction model to induce DVT. Thrombus size and weight were analyzed macroscopically and sonographically by B-mode, pulse wave (pw) Doppler and power Doppler imaging (PDI) using high frequency ultrasound. Thrombus size varied substantially between individual procedures and mice, irrespective of the flow reduction achieved by the ligature. Interestingly, PDI accurately predicted thrombus size in a very robust fashion (r2 = 0.9734, p thrombus weight (r2 = 0.5597, p thrombus formation. Occlusion of side branches prior to ligation of IVC did not increase thrombus size, probably due to patent side branches inaccessible to surgery. Venous side branches influence thrombus size in experimental DVT and might therefore prevent thrombus formation. This renders vessel anatomy and hemorheology important determinants in mouse models of DVT, which should be controlled for.

  1. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation and the immune response of long-distance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassit, Reinaldo A; Sawada, Letícia A; Bacurau, Reury F P; Navarro, Franciso; Martins, Eivor; Santos, Ronaldo V T; Caperuto, Erico C; Rogeri, Patrícia; Costa Rosa, Luís F B P

    2002-05-01

    Intense long-duration exercise has been associated with immunosuppression, which affects natural killer cells, lymphokine-activated killer cells, and lymphocytes. The mechanisms involved, however, are not fully determined and seem to be multifactorial, including endocrine changes and alteration of plasma glutamine concentration. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on the immune response of triathletes and long-distance runners. Peripheral blood was collected prior to and immediately after an Olympic Triathlon or a 30k run. Lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production by cultured cells, and plasma glutamine were measured. After the exercise bout, athletes from the placebo group presented a decreased plasma glutamine concentration that was abolished by branched-chain amino acid supplementation and an increased proliferative response in their peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Those cells also produced, after exercise, less tumor necrosis factor, interleukins-1 and -4, and interferon and 48% more interleukin-2. Supplementation stimulated the production of interleukin-2 and interferon after exercise and a more pronounced decrease in the production of interleukin-4, indicating a diversion toward a Th1 type immune response. Our results indicate that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation recovers the ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferate in response to mitogens after a long distance intense exercise, as well as plasma glutamine concentration. The amino acids also modify the pattern of cytokine production leading to a diversion of the immune response toward a Th1 type of immune response.

  2. Branch Width and Height Influence the Incorporation of Branches into Foraging Trails and Travel Speed in Leafcutter Ants Atta cephalotes (L.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, B M; Chaves-Campos, J

    2016-06-01

    Fallen branches are often incorporated into Atta cephalotes (L.) foraging trails to optimize leaf tissue transport rates and economize trail maintenance. Recent studies in lowlands show laden A. cephalotes travel faster across fallen branches than on ground, but more slowly ascending or descending a branch. The latter is likely because (1) it is difficult to travel up or downhill and (2) bottlenecks occur when branches are narrower than preceding trail. Hence, both branch height and width should determine whether branches decrease net travel times, but no study has evaluated it yet. Laden A. cephalotes were timed in relation to branch width and height across segments preceding, accessing, across, and departing a fallen branch in the highlands of Costa Rica. Ants traveled faster on branches than on cleared segments of trunk-trail, but accelerated when ascending or descending the branch-likely because of the absence of bottlenecks during the day in the highlands. Branch size did not affect ant speed in observed branches; the majority of which (22/24) varied from 11 to 120 mm in both height and width (average 66 mm in both cases). To determine whether ants exclude branches outside this range, ants were offered the choice between branches within this range and branches that were taller/wider than 120 mm. Ants strongly preferred the former. Our results indicate that A. cephalotes can adjust their speed to compensate for the difficulty of traveling on branch slopes. More generally, branch size should be considered when studying ant foraging efficiency.

  3. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Negatively Regulates KLF15 Expression via PI3K-AKT Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Yunxia Liu; Weibing Dong; Jing Shao; Yibin Wang; Meiyi Zhou; Haipeng Sun

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have linked branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) with numerous metabolic diseases. However, the molecular basis of BCAA's roles in metabolic regulation remains to be established. KLF15 (Krüppel-like factor 15) is a transcription factor and master regulator of glycemic, lipid, and amino acids metabolism. In the present study, we found high concentrations of BCAA suppressed KLF15 expression while BCAA starvation induced KLF15 expression, suggesting KLF15 expression is negatively cont...

  4. The Coin Problem  and Pseudorandomness for Branching Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua; Verbin, Elad

    2010-01-01

    in the model of emph{read-once width-$w$ branching programs}. We prove that in order to succeed in this model, $beta$ must be at least $1/ (log n)^{Theta(w)}$. For constant $w$ this is tight by considering the recursive tribes function, and for other values of $w$ this is nearly tight by considering other read...... be distinguished by small-width read-once branching programs. We suggest one application for this kind of theorems: we prove that Nisan's Generator fools width-$w$ read-once emph{regular} branching programs, using seed length $O(w^4 log n log log n + log n log (1/eps))$. For $w=eps=Theta(1)$, this seed length...

  5. Branched nanotrees with immobilized acetylcholine esterase for nanobiosensor applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risveden, Klas; Dick, Kimberly A; Bhand, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    A novel lab-on-a-chip nanotree enzyme reactor is demonstrated for the detection of acetylcholine. The reactors are intended for use in the RISFET (regional ion sensitive field effect transistor) nanosensor, and are constructed from gold-tipped branched nanorod structures grown on SiN(x)-covered w......A novel lab-on-a-chip nanotree enzyme reactor is demonstrated for the detection of acetylcholine. The reactors are intended for use in the RISFET (regional ion sensitive field effect transistor) nanosensor, and are constructed from gold-tipped branched nanorod structures grown on Si......N(x)-covered wafers. Two different reactors are shown: one with simple, one-dimensional nanorods and one with branched nanorod structures (nanotrees). Significantly higher enzymatic activity is found for the nanotree reactors than for the nanorod reactors, most likely due to the increased gold surface area...

  6. Weighted Branching Simulation Distance for Parametric Weighted Kripke Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foshammer, Louise; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mariegaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns branching simulation for weighted Kripke structures with parametric weights. Concretely, we consider a weighted extension of branching simulation where a single transitions can be matched by a sequence of transitions while preserving the branching behavior. We relax this notion...... to allow for a small degree of deviation in the matching of weights, inducing a directed distance on states. The distance between two states can be used directly to relate properties of the states within a sub-fragment of weighted CTL. The problem of relating systems thus changes to minimizing the distance...... which, in the general parametric case, corresponds to finding suitable parameter valuations such that one system can approximately simulate another. Although the distance considers a potentially infinite set of transition sequences we demonstrate that there exists an upper bound on the length...

  7. The CERN branch of the UBS has a new manager

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The staff of the UBS CERN branch (apart from Nicole Savoini, not in the picture). The new branch manager Mr Denis Mellet (fourth from the right) is standing just in front of his predecessor Mr Pierre Guyenon. Mr Pierre Guyenon, who has managed the CERN branch of the UBS for the last seven years, retired on 31 May. Pierre Guyenon was always committed to establishing a harmonious and trusting relationship between CERN, its employees and the bank. He also maintained an excellent atmosphere within his team. We would like to thank him for his work and wish him a happy retirement. Mr Denis Mellet, who has worked for the bank for many years in various capacities, has taken over from Mr Guyenon.

  8. Neutron fluctuations a treatise on the physics of branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Pazsit, Imre; Pzsit, Imre

    2007-01-01

    The transport of neutrons in a multiplying system is an area of branching processes with a clear formalism. This book presents an account of the mathematical tools used in describing branching processes, which are then used to derive a large number of properties of the neutron distribution in multiplying systems with or without an external source. In the second part of the book, the theory is applied to the description of the neutron fluctuations in nuclear reactor cores as well as in small samples of fissile material. The question of how to extract information about the system under study is discussed. In particular the measurement of the reactivity of subcritical cores, driven with various Poisson and non-Poisson (pulsed) sources, and the identification of fissile material samples, is illustrated. The book gives pragmatic information for those planning and executing and evaluating experiments on such systems. - Gives a complete treatise of the mathematics of branching particle processes, and in particular n...

  9. Anatomic variations of the branches of the aortic arch in a Peruvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huapaya, Julio Arturo; Chávez-Trujillo, Kristhy; Trelles, Miguel; Dueñas Carbajal, Roy; Ferrandiz Espadin, Renato

    2015-07-31

    Previous publications from two countries in South America found one anatomical variation not previously reported in the rest of the world, which in turn give some clues with regard to a racial difference. The objective of the present study is to describe variations in the anatomical distribution of the branches of the aortic arch in a Peruvian population. To describe variations in the anatomical distribution of the branches of the aortic arch in a Peruvian population. A descriptive study of patients who underwent a tomography angiography of the aorta was performed. We analyzed the reports that showed the description of the variations of the branches of the aortic arch based on the eight types currently described in the literature. From 361 analyzed reports, 282 patients (78.12%) had a normal aortic arch configuration (type I; aortic arch gives rise to the brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid and left subclavian arteries); followed by type II (left common carotid artery as a branch of the aorta) with 41 patients (11.36%); and type IX (common ostium for the brachiocephalic trunk and the left common carotid artery) with 25 patients (6.93%). The latter and two other types are new variations. Aortic Arch Type I, Type II and Type IX were the most frequent variations in this Peruvian study. Additionally, we also found two more new types that have not been previously described in the literature. Further investigation regarding these variations is needed in order to assess a racial factor in South America and possible relationships with clinical or surgical events.

  10. Effects of olive tree branches burning emissions on PM2.5 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, G. Z.; Megaritis, A. G.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-07-01

    An olive tree branches burning emission inventory for Greece is developed based on recently measured emission factors and the spatial distribution of olive trees. A three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM), PMCAMx, is used to estimate the corresponding impact on PM2.5 concentrations during a typical winter period. Assuming that burning of olive tree branches takes place only during days with low wind speed and without precipitation, the contribution of olive tree branches burning emissions on PM2.5 levels is more significant during the most polluted days. Increases of hourly PM2.5 exceeding 50% and locally reaching up to 150% in Crete are predicted during the most polluted periods. On a monthly-average basis, the corresponding emissions are predicted to increase PM2.5 levels up to 1.5 μg m-3 (20%) in Crete and Peloponnese, where the largest fraction of olive trees is located, and by 0.4 μg m-3 (5%) on average over Greece. OA and EC levels increase by 20% and 13% respectively on average over Greece, and up to 70% in Crete. The magnitude of the effect is quite sensitive to burning practices. Assuming that burning of olive tree branches takes place during all days results in a smaller effect of burning on PM2.5 levels (9% increase instead of 20%). These results suggest that this type of agricultural waste burning is a major source of particulate pollution in the Mediterranean countries where this practice is prevalent during winter.

  11. Selection of appropriate medial branch of the optic tract by fibres of ventral retinal origin during development and in regeneration: an autoradiographic study in Xenopus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straznicky, C.; Gaze, R.M.; Horder, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of the branches of the optic tract has been studied with the use of [ 3 H] -proline autoradiography, during development and during regeneration of the optic nerve in Xenopus with one compound ventral (VV) eye made by the embryonic fusion of two ventral eye fragments. The formation of the optic pathway was abnormal in that the lateral branch failed to develop, suggesting that fibres from a VV retina selectively entered the tectum via the medial branch during development. Three months after section of the optic nerve of a VV eye, regenerated fibres were present both in the contralateral and ipsilateral tecta. On the ipsilateral side regenerated fibres entered the tectum via the medial branch only. Retinal fibres entered the contralateral tectum through both branches in some animals and through the medial branch only in others. It is concluded that mechanical factors alone are insufficient to explain the phenomenon of selection of the appropriate medial branch fibres of ventral retinal origin either during development or in regeneration. Some form of fibre-substrate interaction seems to be necessary; and this ability of fibres from a VV eye to take the path appropriate for ventral retina argues strongly that the VV eye is not a regulated system in terms of cell specificities. 8author)

  12. Modern prospects of development of branch of solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchkina, Veronika

    2017-10-01

    Advantages of solar energy for modern companies are evident already. Article describes mechanism of the solar electricity generation. Process of production of solar modules with appliance of the modern technologies of sun energy production. The branch of solar energy “green energy” become advanced in Russia and has a stable demand. Classification of investments on the different stages of construction projects of solar power plants and calculation of their economic efficiency. Studying of introduction of these technologies allows to estimate the modern prospects of development of branch of solar power.

  13. The influence of flexible branches in flexible polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wescott, J.T.

    1998-06-01

    In this work the influence of branches in flexible polymer systems has been investigated by consideration of (1) the behaviour of isolated poly-α-olefin chains and (2) the p -T phase behaviour of poly(4-methylpentene-1)(P4MP1). Molecular dynamics simulations of isolated poly-α-olefins were performed in order to gauge directly the effect of molecular structure on chain dimensions, flexibility (via the persistence length) and shape. Under Θ-conditions the addition of short linear branches was shown to increase the flexibility of the backbone. In conditions of good solvent, however, the effect of longer and bulkier branches was to increase the persistence length and average size of the coil with the arrangement of side chain atoms making a small difference. The side branches themselves also affected the solvent conditions experienced by the backbone, behaving much like bound solvent. Consideration of ethylene-α-olefin copolymers, where the branch content was varied from 0-50%, showed that under good solvent conditions the branches increased the chain stiffness only when the gap between side branches was less than five backbone carbon atoms. The backbone torsions were also shown to play an important role in determining these trends. For comparison with the above simulations, persistence length values for polyethylene (= 7.3±0.2A) and P4MP1 (=7.6±0.3A) were measured experimentally by neutron scattering in dilute solution. A value of 6.7±0.5 for the characteristic ratio of PE was also calculated. To investigate the role of a bulky side group in crystalline phases, wide angle X-ray diffraction experiments using a Hikosaka pressure cell were performed on P4MP1. Computer modelling, utilising the experimental data obtained, determined the structure of a disordered phase produced at room temperature and a new high pressure/high temperature phase. The disordered phase was found to be due to a collapse of the backbone combined with some disordering of the side chains

  14. Vere-Jones' self-similar branching model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saichev, A.; Sornette, D.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by its potential application to earthquake statistics as well as for its intrinsic interest in the theory of branching processes, we study the exactly self-similar branching process introduced recently by Vere-Jones. This model extends the ETAS class of conditional self-excited branching point-processes of triggered seismicity by removing the problematic need for a minimum (as well as maximum) earthquake size. To make the theory convergent without the need for the usual ultraviolet and infrared cutoffs, the distribution of magnitudes m ' of daughters of first-generation of a mother of magnitude m has two branches m ' ' >m with exponent β+d, where β and d are two positive parameters. We investigate the condition and nature of the subcritical, critical, and supercritical regime in this and in an extended version interpolating smoothly between several models. We predict that the distribution of magnitudes of events triggered by a mother of magnitude m over all generations has also two branches m ' ' >m with exponent β+h, with h=d√(1-s), where s is the fraction of triggered events. This corresponds to a renormalization of the exponent d into h by the hierarchy of successive generations of triggered events. For a significant part of the parameter space, the distribution of magnitudes over a full catalog summed over an average steady flow of spontaneous sources (immigrants) reproduces the distribution of the spontaneous sources with a single branch and is blind to the exponents β,d of the distribution of triggered events. Since the distribution of earthquake magnitudes is usually obtained with catalogs including many sequences, we conclude that the two branches of the distribution of aftershocks are not directly observable and the model is compatible with real seismic catalogs. In summary, the exactly self-similar Vere-Jones model provides an attractive new approach to model triggered seismicity, which alleviates delicate questions on the role of

  15. Measurement of Tau Branching Ratios to Five Charged Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Doucet, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Stumpf, L.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1999-01-01

    The branching ratios of the decay of the tau lepton to five charged hadrons have been measured with the OPAL detector at LEP using data collected between 1991 and 1995 at e+e- centre-of-mass energies close to the Z resonance. The branching ratios are measured to be BR(tau- to 3h-2h+nutau) = 0.091+-0.014+-0.005% BR(tau- to 3h-2h+pi0nutau) = 0.027+-0.018+-0.007% where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.

  16. The CERN branch of the UBS has a new manager

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    After seven years at the helm of the CERN branch of the UBS, Mr. Denis Mellet retired on 1 October.   Denis Mellet has always striven to develop harmonious relations, in a climate of trust, between CERN and the staff of the bank. He has succeeded in maintaining a pleasant atmosphere within his team. We would like to thank him for his work and wish him a happy retirement. He is succeeded by M. Ezio Mangia, who has worked for many years in the bank’s branches department.

  17. EFTPOS Impacts on Branch Banking: an extra organisational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Shailer

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Perceptions and experiences of bank branch managers and merchant who have installed EFTPOS are surveyed to investigate the impact of EFTPOS on branch banking activities using internal and extra-organisational perspectives. Impacts are identified by reference to banking activities and interpreted as efficiency, effectiveness and competitiveness impacts. It appears that bank managers may have difficulty in isolating the impacts of EFTPOS on banking activities from concurrent changes in banking practices and might overestimate some beneficial impacts. Results indicate a much richer view can be obtained using an organisational perspective of a system's impacts.

  18. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tuğrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age τ as τ(-α). Depending on the exponent α, the scaling of tree depth with tree size n displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition (α=1) tree depth grows as (logn)(2). This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus providing a theoretical support for age-dependent speciation and associating it to the occurrence of a critical point.

  19. Branch migration and the international dispersal of families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, N; Lucas, D; Mok, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the dispersal of facilities where family members migrate to different destination countries. Terminology for internationally dispersed families is proposed, and the term branch migration is suggested for the migration of related people from the same source country to different destination countries. Data from two 1993 surveys of senior secondary students show that 22% of Sydney students and 20% of Hong Kong students have relatives in two or more other countries. The data suggest that many Asian migrant families have branched between the US, Canada, Australia and other migrant-receiving nations. The causes and implications of the international dispersal of families are discussed.

  20. Survival probabilities for branching Brownian motion with absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, John; Harris, Simon

    2007-01-01

    We study a branching Brownian motion (BBM) with absorption, in which particles move as Brownian motions with drift $-\\rho$, undergo dyadic branching at rate $\\beta>0$, and are killed on hitting the origin. In the case $\\rho>\\sqrt{2\\beta}$ the extinction time for this process, $\\zeta$, is known to be finite almost surely. The main result of this article is a large-time asymptotic formula for the survival probability $P^x(\\zeta>t)$ in the case $\\rho>\\sqrt{2\\beta}$, where $P^x$ is...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of an exact comb polyisoprene with three branches having the middle branch twice the molecular weight of the other two identical external branches

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar

    2013-01-01

    An exact comb polyisoprene (PI) with three branches, with the middle branch having twice the molecular weight of the two other identical external branches, was synthesized by using anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques and appropriate chlorosilane chemistry. The synthetic approach involves (a) the selective replacement of the two chlorines of 4-(dichloromethylsilyl) diphenylethylene (DCMSDPE, key molecule) with identical PI chains by titration with PILi, (b) the addition of sec-BuLi to the double bond of DPE followed by the polymerization of isoprene from the newly created anionic site to form a 3-arm living star PI, (c) the selective replacement of the two chlorines of trichloromethylsilane with 3-arm star PI to form an H-shape intermediate, and (d) the replacement of the remaining chlorine of trichloromethylsilane by linear PI chains with double the molecular weight. All intermediate and final products were characterized via size exclusion chromatography, temperature gradient interaction chromatography and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. As expected, due to the inability to control the exact stoichiometry of the linking reactants, the main product (exact comb PI) is contaminated by a few by-products, despite the fact that anionic polymerization is the most efficient way to produce well-defined polymers. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Three ancient hormonal cues co-ordinate shoot branching in a moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudert, Yoan; Palubicki, Wojtek; Ljung, Karin; Novak, Ondrej; Leyser, Ottoline; Harrison, C Jill

    2015-03-25

    Shoot branching is a primary contributor to plant architecture, evolving independently in flowering plant sporophytes and moss gametophytes. Mechanistic understanding of branching is largely limited to flowering plants such as Arabidopsis, which have a recent evolutionary origin. We show that in gametophytic shoots of Physcomitrella, lateral branches arise by re-specification of epidermal cells into branch initials. A simple model co-ordinating the activity of leafy shoot tips can account for branching patterns, and three known and ancient hormonal regulators of sporophytic branching interact to generate the branching pattern- auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. The mode of auxin transport required in branch patterning is a key divergence point from known sporophytic pathways. Although PIN-mediated basipetal auxin transport regulates branching patterns in flowering plants, this is not so in Physcomitrella, where bi-directional transport is required to generate realistic branching patterns. Experiments with callose synthesis inhibitors suggest plasmodesmal connectivity as a potential mechanism for transport.

  3. The sensory-motor bridge neurorraphy: an anatomic study of feasibility between sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve and deep branch of the radial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubier, Jean-Noel; Teboul, Frédéric

    2011-05-01

    Restoring elbow flexion remains the first step in the management of total palsy of the brachial plexus. Non avulsed upper roots may be grafted on the musculocutaneous nerve. When this nerve is entirely grafted, some motor fibres regenerate within the sensory fibres quota. Aiming potential utilization of these lost motor fibres, we attempted suturing the sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve onto the deep branch of the radial nerve. The objective of our study was to assess the anatomic feasibility of such direct suturing of the terminal sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve onto the deep branch of the radial nerve. The study was carried out with 10 upper limbs from fresh cadavers. The sensory branch of the musculocutaneous muscle was dissected right to its division. The motor branch of the radial nerve was identified and dissected as proximally as possible into the radial nerve. Then, the distance separating the two nerves was measured so as to assess whether direct neurorraphy of the two branches was feasible. The excessive distance between the two branches averaged 6 mm (1-13 mm). Thus, direct neurorraphy of the sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve and the deep branch of the radial nerve was possible. When the whole musculocutaneous nerve is grafted, some of its motor fibres are lost amongst the sensory fibres (cutaneous lateral antebrachial nerve). By suturing this sensory branch onto the deep branch of the radial nerve, "lost" fibres may be retrieved, resulting in restoration of digital extension. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. POST ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH BIPOLAR REFLECTION NEBULAE: RESULT OF DYNAMICAL EJECTION OR SELECTIVE ILLUMINATION?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, N.; Kwok, Sun; Steffen, W.

    2013-01-01

    A model for post asymptotic giant branch bipolar reflection nebulae has been constructed based on a pair of evacuated cavities in a spherical dust envelope. Many of the observed features of bipolar nebulae, including filled bipolar lobes, an equatorial torus, searchlight beams, and a bright central light source, can be reproduced. The effects on orientation and dust densities are studied and comparisons with some observed examples are offered. We suggest that many observed properties of bipolar nebulae are the result of optical effects and any physical modeling of these nebulae has to take these factors into consideration.

  5. Branched pectic galactan in phloem-sieve-element cell walls: implications for cell mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torode, Thomas A.; O'Neill, Rachel E.; Marcus, Susan E.

    2018-01-01

    A major question in plant biology concerns the specification and functional differentiation of cell types. This is in the context of constraints imposed by networks of cell walls that both adhere cells and contribute to the form and function of developing organs. Here, we report the identification...... is an important factor for the study of phloem unloading of sucrose. Using microarrays of synthetic oligosaccharides, the LM26 epitope has been identified as a β-1,6-galactosyl substitution of β-1,4-galactan requiring more than three backbone residues for optimized recognition. This branched galactan structure...

  6. Coil Embolization Treatment in Pulmonary Artery Branch Rupture During Swan-Ganz Catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottwalles, Yannick; Wunschel-Joseph, Marie-Eve; Hanssen, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Rupture of the pulmonary artery or one of its branches during Swan-Ganz catheterization is a complication that is rare but remains fatal in almost 50% of cases. The risk factors and mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this accident have been widely reported. Management is twofold: resuscitation procedures and specific medical or even surgical treatment. We report a case of pulmonary artery rupture occurring during Swan-Ganz catheterization that was treated by coil embolization. This technique, which is quick and simple to use, would appear to be very promising. This is the first case of successful emergency treatment of pulmonary artery rupture using an endovascular technique

  7. Population branching in the conical intersection of the retinal chromophore revealed by multipulse ultrafast optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgrablić, Goran; Novello, Anna Maria; Parmigiani, Fulvio

    2012-01-18

    The branching ratio of the excited-state population at the conical intersection between the S(1) and S(0) energy surfaces (Φ(CI)) of a protonated Schiff base of all-trans retinal in protic and aprotic solvents was studied by multipulse ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. In particular, pump-dump-probe experiments allowed to isolate the S(1) reactive state and to measure the photoisomerization time constant with unprecedented precision. Starting from these results, we demonstrate that the polarity of the solvent is the key factor influencing the Φ(CI) and the photoisomerization yield. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. 24 CFR 3280.805 - Branch circuits required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., water heater, range, and central or room air conditioner, etc.). There shall be one or more circuits of... outlets, the sum of rated amperes shall not exceed the branch-circuit rating. Motor loads or other... specified for ranges in § 3280.811(a)(5). For central air conditioning, see Article 440 of the National...

  9. Branched flow and caustics in random media with magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jakob; Fleischmann, Ragnar; Geisel, Theo

    2009-03-01

    Classical particles as well as quantum mechanical waves exhibit complex behaviour when propagating through random media. One of the dominant features of the dynamics in correlated, weak disorder potentials is the branching of the flow. This can be observed in several physical systems, most notably in the electron flow in two-dimensional electron gases [1], and has also been used to describe the formation of freak waves [2]. We present advances in the theoretical understanding and numerical simulation of classical branched flows in magnetic fields. In particular, we study branching statistics and branch density profiles. Our results have direct consequences for experiments which measure transport properties in electronic systems [3].[1] e.g. M. A. Topinka et al., Nature 410, 183 (2001), M. P. Jura et al., Nature Physics 3, 841 (2007)[2] E. J. Heller, L. Kaplan and A. Dahlen, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C09023 (2008)[3] J. J. Metzger, R. Fleischmann and T. Geisel, in preparation

  10. Pen Branch Delta and Savannah River Swamp Hydraulic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The proposed Savannah River Site (SRS) Wetlands Restoration Project area is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina on the southwestern boundary of the SRS Reservation. The swamp covers about 40.5 km2 and is bounded to the west and south by the Savannah River and to the north and east by low bluffs at the edge of the Savannah River floodplain. Water levels within the swamp are determined by stage along the Savannah River, local drainage, groundwater seepage, and inflows from four tributaries, Beaver Dam Creek, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek. Historic discharges of heated process water into these tributaries scoured the streambed, created deltas in the adjacent wetland, and killed native vegetation in the vicinity of the delta deposits. Future releases from these tributaries will be substantially smaller and closer to ambient temperatures. One component of the proposed restoration project will be to reestablish indigenous wetland vegetation on the Pen Branch delta that covers about 1.0 km2. Long-term predictions of water levels within the swamp are required to determine the characteristics of suitable plants. The objective of the study was to predict water levels at various locations within the proposed SRS Wetlands Restoration Project area for a range of Savannah River flows and regulated releases from Pen Branch. TABS-MD, a United States Army Corps of Engineer developed two-dimensional finite element open channel hydraulic computer code, was used to model the SRS swamp area for various flow conditions

  11. Intratumor Heterogeneity and Branched Evolution Revealed by Multiregion Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlinger, Marco; Rowan, Andrew J.; Horswell, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    .RESULTS: Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed branched evolutionary tumor growth, with 63 to 69% of all somatic mutations not detectable across every tumor region. Intratumor heterogeneity was observed for a mutation within an autoinhibitory domain of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, correlating with S6...

  12. Symmetry Reduction in Infinite Games with Finite Branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markey, Nicolas; Vester, Steen

    2014-01-01

    infinite-state games on graphs with finite branching where the objectives of the players can be very general. As particular applications, it is shown that the technique can be applied to reduce the state space in parity games as well as when doing modelchecking of the Alternating-time temporal logic ATL....

  13. Modelling primary branch growth based on a multilevel nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to random effects, various time series correlation structures were evaluated to account for residual autocorrelation, and the AR(1) and ARMA(1,1) structures were selected for the branch diameter and length growth models, respectively. Model validation results using an independent data set confirmed that ...

  14. Pediatric Oncology Branch - Support Services | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Support Services As part of the comprehensive care provided at the NCI Pediatric Oncology Branch, we provide a wide range of services to address the social, psychological, emotional, and practical facets of pediatric cancer and to support patients and families while they are enrolled in clinical research protocols.

  15. Pediatric Oncology Branch - training- resident electives | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resident Electives Select pediatric residents may be approved for a 4-week elective rotation at the Pediatric Oncology Branch. This rotation emphasizes the important connection between research and patient care in pediatric oncology. The resident is supervised directly by the Branch’s attending physician and clinical fellows. Residents attend daily in-patient and out-patient

  16. Investigation of branching of bromine in latent ion traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vareille, J.C.; Moliton, J.P.; Decossas, J.L.; Teyssier, J.L.; Delaunay, B.

    1981-01-01

    We show that the branching of bromide atoms is possible on chemically active sites produced by Kr 8+ , Cl 6+ and He 2+ ion irradiation on cellulose triacetate. The number of fixed atoms increases with ion fluence and atomic number. These results are in good agreement with those concerning radical yield around the ions' path. (orig.)

  17. Construction Of Bank Branches: Critical Issues For Successful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It does this using the framework of the project management body of knowledge, PMBoK. In particular, it examines branch delivery from the parameters of the project management process and the nine area of knowledge identified by the Project Management Institute. LBS Management Review Vol.6(1) 2001: 1-8 ...

  18. Prioritization of Mellat Bank's Branches in semnan by means of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banks and credit and financial institutions are one of the most effective institutions in economic system of any country, playing a great role in investments in order to advance and promote the countries' economy. The present paper uses the technique of AHP process to measure and compare the various branches of Mellat ...

  19. Branched polymeric media: Perchlorate-selective resins from hyperbranched polyethyleneimine

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Dennis P.; Yu, Changjun; Chang, ChingYu; Wan, Yanjian; Frechet, Jean; Goddard, William A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2012-01-01

    prohibitive when treating groundwater with higher concentration of ClO4 - (e.g., 100-1000 ppb). In this article, we describe a new perchlorate-selective resin with high exchange capacity. This new resin was prepared by alkylation of branched polyethyleneimine

  20. Branching in current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukrinov, Yu M; Mahfouzi, F

    2007-01-01

    We study branching in the current-voltage characteristics of the intrinsic Josephson junctions of high-temperature superconductors in the framework of the capacitively coupled Josephson junction model with diffusion current. A system of dynamical equations for the gauge-invariant phase differences between superconducting layers for a stack of ten intrinsic junctions has been numerically solved. We have obtained a total branch structure in the current-voltage characteristics. We demonstrate the existence of a 'breakpoint region' on the current-voltage characteristics and explain it as a result of resonance between Josephson and plasma oscillations. The effect of the boundary conditions is investigated. The existence of two outermost branches and correspondingly two breakpoint regions for the periodic boundary conditions is shown. One branch, which is observed only at periodic boundary conditions, corresponds to the propagating of the plasma mode. The second one corresponds to the situation when the charge oscillations on the superconducting layers are absent, excluding the breakpoint. A time dependence of the charge oscillations at breakpoints is presented

  1. Managing International Branch Campuses: What Do We Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, the growth of the international branch campus (IBC) has been one of the most striking developments in the internationalisation of higher education. There are now over 200 IBCs across the world, mostly in the Middle East and East and South-east Asia. Despite the growing numbers of IBCs and the considerable financial and…

  2. Global Expansion of International Branch Campuses: Managerial and Leadership Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jason E.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the author outlines the growth of international branch campuses (IBCs) over the past fifty years and discusses some of the major management and leadership challenges associated with creating and sustaining IBCs. Part one of the chapter provides a discussion of the global expansion of IBCs. The second part focuses on the…

  3. Evaluating Student Satisfaction of Quality at International Branch Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Zamberi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to present the determinants of students' perceptions of quality and experience of study at international branch campuses in Malaysia, a country that is set to become an academic hub in Asia. This study used a multi-method approach for data collection. The respondents comprised 245 students (both undergraduate and…

  4. Interactive Design and Visualization of Branched Covering Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Lawrence; Kumar, Prashant; Golbabaei, Sanaz; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Eugene

    2018-01-01

    Branched covering spaces are a mathematical concept which originates from complex analysis and topology and has applications in tensor field topology and geometry remeshing. Given a manifold surface and an -way rotational symmetry field, a branched covering space is a manifold surface that has an -to-1 map to the original surface except at the ramification points, which correspond to the singularities in the rotational symmetry field. Understanding the notion and mathematical properties of branched covering spaces is important to researchers in tensor field visualization and geometry processing, and their application areas. In this paper, we provide a framework to interactively design and visualize the branched covering space (BCS) of an input mesh surface and a rotational symmetry field defined on it. In our framework, the user can visualize not only the BCSs but also their construction process. In addition, our system allows the user to design the geometric realization of the BCS using mesh deformation techniques as well as connecting tubes. This enables the user to verify important facts about BCSs such as that they are manifold surfaces around singularities, as well as the Riemann-Hurwitz formula which relates the Euler characteristic of the BCS to that of the original mesh. Our system is evaluated by student researchers in scientific visualization and geometry processing as well as faculty members in mathematics at our university who teach topology. We include their evaluations and feedback in the paper.

  5. The binary branching nature of syllable constituents: the English onset

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivating evidence is drawn from other languages, specifically Italian, Spanish and Portuguese, because it is believed that, except for the coda, the binary branching nature of syllable constituents is universally imposed in the world\\'s languages. Also, no one language or dialect can exhaustively account for all linguistic ...

  6. Convergence in gradient systems with branching of equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaktionov, V A; Pohozaev, Stanislav I; Shishkov, A E

    2007-01-01

    The basic model is a semilinear elliptic equation with coercive C 1 non-linearity: Δψ+f(ψ)=0 in Ω, ψ=0 on ∂Ω, where Ω subset of R N is a bounded smooth domain. The main hypothesis (H R ) about resonance branching is as follows: if a branching of equilibria occurs at a point ψ with k-dimensional kernel of the linearized operator Δ+f'(ψ)I, then the branching subset S k at ψ is a locally smooth k-dimensional manifold. For N=1 the first result on the stabilization to a single equilibrium is due to Zelenyak (1968). It is shown that Zelenyak's approach, which is based on the analysis of Lyapunov functions, can be extended to general gradient systems in Hilbert spaces with smooth resonance branching. The case of asymptotically small non-autonomous perturbations of such systems is also considered. The approach developed here represents an alternative to Hale's stabilization method (1992) and other similar techniques in the theory of gradient systems. Bibliography: 32 titles.

  7. Symbol Tables and Branch Tables: Linking Applications Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    This document explores the computer techniques used to execute software whose parts are compiled and linked separately. The computer techniques include using a branch table or indirect address table to connect the parts. Methods of storing the information in data structures are discussed as well as differences between C and C++.

  8. Remarks on interior transmission eigenvalues, Weyl formula and branching billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshtanov, E; Vainberg, B

    2012-01-01

    This paper contains the Weyl formula for the counting function of the interior transmission problem when the latter is parameter elliptic. Branching billiard trajectories are constructed, and the second term of the Weyl asymptotics is estimated from above under some conditions on the set of periodic billiard trajectories. (paper)

  9. Synthesis and application of branched type II arabinogalactans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Christian Franch; Boos, Irene; Ruprecht, Colin

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of linear- and (1→6)-branched β-(1→3)-D-galactans, structures found in plant arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) is described. The synthetic strategy relies on iterative couplings of mono- and disaccharide thioglycoside donors, followed by a late stage glycosylation of heptagalactan bac...

  10. TÜV - Zertifizierungen in der Life Science Branche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, Peter; Gerbl-Rieger, Susanne; Kloth, Sabine; Schübel, Christian; Daxenberger, Andreas; Engler, Claus

    Life Sciences [1] (Lebenswissenschaften) sind ein globales Innovationsfeld mit Anwendungen der Bio- und Medizinwissenschaften, der Pharma-, Chemie-, Kosmetik- und Lebensmittelindustrie. Diese Branche zeichnet sich durch eine stark interdisziplinäre Ausrichtung aus, mit Anwendung wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse und Einsatz von Ausgangsstoffen aus der modernen Biologie, Chemie und Humanmedizin sowie gezielter marktwirtschaftlich orientierter Arbeit.

  11. Operational Considerations for Opening a Branch Campus Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Lawrence M.; Lammey, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Universities have been attracted to the creation of international branch campuses (IBCs) for many reasons, including cultural immersion of students and faculty and global brand recognition for a university seeking to enhance its reputation and strengthen its academic standards. This chapter provides specific advice for how IBCs can negotiate entry…

  12. Inverse parameter identification for a branching 1 D arterial network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bogaers, Alfred EJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the invertability of a branching 1 D arterial blood flow network. We limit our investigation to a single bifurcating vessel, where the material properties, unloaded areas and variables characterizing the input and output...

  13. Gas compressor with side branch absorber for pulsation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ralph E [San Antonio, TX; Scrivner, Christine M [San Antonio, TX; Broerman, III, Eugene L.

    2011-05-24

    A method and system for reducing pulsation in lateral piping associated with a gas compressor system. A tunable side branch absorber (TSBA) is installed on the lateral piping. A pulsation sensor is placed in the lateral piping, to measure pulsation within the piping. The sensor output signals are delivered to a controller, which controls actuators that change the acoustic dimensions of the SBA.

  14. The complexity of finding arc-disjoint branching flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Jensen, J.; Havet, Frédéric; Yeo, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The concept of arc-disjoint flows in networks was recently introduced in Bang-Jensen and Bessy (2014). This is a very general framework within which many well-known and important problems can be formulated. In particular, the existence of arc-disjoint branching flows, that is, flows which send on...

  15. A method of piecewise-smooth numerical branching

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ligurský, Tomáš; Renard, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 7 (2017), s. 815-827 ISSN 1521-4001 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1602 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : numerical branching * piecewise smooth * steady-state problem * contact problem * Coulomb friction Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/zamm.201600219/epdf

  16. MYOCARDIAL DEFORMATION AND COMPLETE LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Pavlyukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue Doppler imaging is evolving as a useful echocardiographic tool for quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Over the last 10 years, myocardial deformation imaging has become possible initially with tissue Doppler , and more recently with myocardial speckle-tracking using 2D echocardiography. Unlike simple tissue velocity measurements, deformation measurements are specific for the region of interest. Strain rate or strain measurements have been used as sensitive indicators for subclinical diseases, and it is the most widely used tool to assess mechanical dyssynchrony. Left bundle branch block is a frequent, etiologically heterogeneous, clinically hostile and diagnostically challenging entity. About 2% of patients underwent cardiac stress testing show stable or intermittent left bundle branch block. Presence of left bundle branch block is associated with a lower and slower diastolic coronary flow velocity especially during hyperemia. Stress echocardiography is the best option for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, albeit specificity and sensitivity reduce in patients with left bundle branch block in the territory of left anterior descending artery in presence of initial septum dyskinesia.

  17. Design of Hierarchical Ring Networks Using Branch-and-Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy; Stidsen, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    -ring is designed connecting the metro-rings, minimizing fixed link establishment costs of the federal-ring. A branch-and-price algorithm is presented for the design of the bottom layer and it is suggested that existing methods are used for the design of the federal-ring. Computational results are given...

  18. External branch spinal nerve paralysis on keloid scar | Frioui | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paralysis of the external branch of spinal nerve is very rare. It manifests clinically by a weakness and abnormal morphology of the shoulder. We must think about it in front of any simple surgery of the cervical region. We report the case of a 20 year old patient, who consulted several doctors for pain and progressive ...

  19. A measurement of the $\\tau$ leptonic branching fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bocci, V; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Daum, A; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; De Boeck, H; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Haedinger, U; Hahn, F; Hahn, M; Hahn, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Ioannou, P; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köhne, J H; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Kreuter, C; Królikowski, J; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Fernandez, A; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stepaniak, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zacharatou-Jarlskog, C; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 25000 \\Z\\rightarrow\\tt events collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP in 1991 and 1992 is used to measure the leptonic branching fractions of the \\tau lepton. The results are B(\\TEL) = (17.51 \\pm 0.39)\\% and B(\\tau\\rightarrow \\mu\

  20. The Adhesion Molecule KAL-1/anosmin-1 Regulates Neurite Branching through a SAX-7/L1CAM–EGL-15/FGFR Receptor Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Díaz-Balzac

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurite branching is essential for correct assembly of neural circuits, yet it remains a poorly understood process. For example, the neural cell adhesion molecule KAL-1/anosmin-1, which is mutated in Kallmann syndrome, regulates neurite branching through mechanisms largely unknown. Here, we show that KAL-1/anosmin-1 mediates neurite branching as an autocrine co-factor with EGL-17/FGF through a receptor complex consisting of the conserved cell adhesion molecule SAX-7/L1CAM and the fibroblast growth factor receptor EGL-15/FGFR. This protein complex, which appears conserved in humans, requires the immunoglobulin (Ig domains of SAX-7/L1CAM and the FN(III domains of KAL-1/anosmin-1 for formation in vitro as well as function in vivo. The kinase domain of the EGL-15/FGFR is required for branching, and genetic evidence suggests that ras-mediated signaling downstream of EGL-15/FGFR is necessary to effect branching. Our studies establish a molecular pathway that regulates neurite branching during development of the nervous system.

  1. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Steven CR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. Methods 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Results Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. Conclusion We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our

  2. Secondary motion in three-dimensional branching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Abhijit; Pradhan, Kaustav

    2017-06-01

    A major aim of the present work is to understand and thoroughly document the generation, the three-dimensional distribution, and the evolution of the secondary motion as the fluid progresses downstream through a branched network. Six generations (G0-G5) of branches (involving 63 straight portions and 31 bifurcation modules) are computed in one go; such computational challenges are rarely taken in the literature. More than 30 × 106 computational elements are employed for high precision of computed results and fine quality of the flow visualization diagrams. The study of co-planar vis-à-vis non-planar space-filling configurations establishes a quantitative evaluation of the dependence of the fluid dynamics on the three-dimensional arrangement of the same individual branches. As compared to the secondary motion in a simple curved pipe, three distinctive features, viz., the change of shape and size of the flow-cross-section, the division of non-uniform primary flow in a bifurcation module, and repeated switchover from clockwise to anticlockwise curvature and vice versa in the flow path, make the present situation more complex. It is shown that the straight portions in the network, in general, attenuate the secondary motion, while the three-dimensionally complex bifurcation modules generate secondary motion and may alter the number, arrangement, and structure of vortices. A comprehensive picture of the evolution of quantitative flow visualizations of the secondary motion is achieved by constructing contours of secondary velocity | v → S | , streamwise vorticity ω S , and λ 2 iso-surfaces. It is demonstrated, for example, that for in-plane configuration, the vortices on any plane appear in pair (i.e., for each clockwise rotating vortex, there is an otherwise identical anticlockwise vortex), whereas the vortices on a plane for the out-of-plane configuration may be dissimilar, and there may even be an odd number of vortices. We have formulated three new parameters

  3. Cell-based multi-parametric model of cleft progression during submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayoni Ray

    Full Text Available Cleft formation during submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis is the critical step initiating the growth and development of the complex adult organ. Previous experimental studies indicated requirements for several epithelial cellular processes, such as proliferation, migration, cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix (matrix adhesion, and cellular contraction in cleft formation; however, the relative contribution of each of these processes is not fully understood since it is not possible to experimentally manipulate each factor independently. We present here a comprehensive analysis of several cellular parameters regulating cleft progression during branching morphogenesis in the epithelial tissue of an early embryonic salivary gland at a local scale using an on lattice Monte-Carlo simulation model, the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model. We utilized measurements from time-lapse images of mouse submandibular gland organ explants to construct a temporally and spatially relevant cell-based 2D model. Our model simulates the effect of cellular proliferation, actomyosin contractility, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions on cleft progression, and it was used to test specific hypotheses regarding the function of these parameters in branching morphogenesis. We use innovative features capturing several aspects of cleft morphology and quantitatively analyze clefts formed during functional modification of the cellular parameters. Our simulations predict that a low epithelial mitosis rate and moderate level of actomyosin contractility in the cleft cells promote cleft progression. Raising or lowering levels of contractility and mitosis rate resulted in non-progressive clefts. We also show that lowered cell-cell adhesion in the cleft region and increased cleft cell-matrix adhesions are required for cleft progression. Using a classifier-based analysis, the relative importance of these four contributing cellular factors for effective cleft

  4. Branched-chain amino acid catabolism is a conserved regulator of physiological ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, Johannes; Urban, Nadine; Priebe, Steffen; Groth, Marco; Frahm, Christiane; Hartmann, Nils; Gebauer, Juliane; Ravichandran, Meenakshi; Dommaschk, Anne; Schmeisser, Sebastian; Kuhlow, Doreen; Monajembashi, Shamci; Bremer-Streck, Sibylle; Hemmerich, Peter; Kiehntopf, Michael; Zamboni, Nicola; Englert, Christoph; Guthke, Reinhard; Kaleta, Christoph; Platzer, Matthias; Sühnel, Jürgen; Witte, Otto W; Zarse, Kim; Ristow, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Ageing has been defined as a global decline in physiological function depending on both environmental and genetic factors. Here we identify gene transcripts that are similarly regulated during physiological ageing in nematodes, zebrafish and mice. We observe the strongest extension of lifespan when impairing expression of the branched-chain amino acid transferase-1 (bcat-1) gene in C. elegans, which leads to excessive levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). We further show that BCAAs reduce a LET-363/mTOR-dependent neuro-endocrine signal, which we identify as DAF-7/TGFβ, and that impacts lifespan depending on its related receptors, DAF-1 and DAF-4, as well as ultimately on DAF-16/FoxO and HSF-1 in a cell-non-autonomous manner. The transcription factor HLH-15 controls and epistatically synergizes with BCAT-1 to modulate physiological ageing. Lastly and consistent with previous findings in rodents, nutritional supplementation of BCAAs extends nematodal lifespan. Taken together, BCAAs act as periphery-derived metabokines that induce a central neuro-endocrine response, culminating in extended healthspan.

  5. Analytic properties of form factors in strictly confining models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csikor, F.

    1979-12-01

    An argument is presented showing that strict confinement implies the possible existence of an (unwanted) branch point at q 2 =0 in the form factors. In case of a bag extended to infinity in the relative time, the branch point is certainly there (provided that the form factor is non zero at q 2 =0). (author)

  6. Higher order branching of periodic orbits from polynomial isochrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Toni

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the higher order local bifurcations of limit cycles from polynomial isochrones (linearizable centers when the linearizing transformation is explicitly known and yields a polynomial perturbation one-form. Using a method based on the relative cohomology decomposition of polynomial one-forms complemented with a step reduction process, we give an explicit formula for the overall upper bound of branch points of limit cycles in an arbitrary $n$ degree polynomial perturbation of the linear isochrone, and provide an algorithmic procedure to compute the upper bound at successive orders. We derive a complete analysis of the nonlinear cubic Hamiltonian isochrone and show that at most nine branch points of limit cycles can bifurcate in a cubic polynomial perturbation. Moreover, perturbations with exactly two, three, four, six, and nine local families of limit cycles may be constructed.

  7. Behavior of Steel Branch Connections during Fatigue Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sládek A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue behavior of the branch connection made of low-alloyed steel with yield stress of 355 MPa during low-cycle bending test is investigated in the article. Numerical prediction of the stress and strain distribution are described and experimentally verified by fatigue test of the branch connection sample. Experimental verification is based on low-cycle bending testing of the steel pipes welded by manual metal arc process and loaded by external force in the appropriate distance. Stresses and displacement of the samples induced by bending moment were measured by unidirectional strain gauges and displacement transducers. Samples were loaded in different testing levels according to required stress for 2.106 cycles. Increase of the stress value was applied until the crack formation and growth was observed. Results showed a high agreement of numerical and experimental results of stress and displacement.

  8. Theoretical red-giant branches for globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VandenBerg, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors reports computations of stellar evolutionary sequences from the base of the red-giant branch to the helium flash. Representative models with masses in the range of 0.8 to 0.9 solar masses were selected in order that the stars on the giant branches had ages of approximately 16 billion yr. Initial numerical experiments indicated that a value of α = 1.6 for the ratio of the mixing length to the pressure scale height was needed to provide the best of the Z = 0.0001 model sequence with the observations of M92. Sequences for the other assumed metallicities, Z = 0.0003, 0.001, 0.003, and 0.006, were then computed for the same value of the mixing-length parameter and overlayed directly on the observations. (Auth.)

  9. An introduction to branching measure-valued processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dynkin, Eugene B

    1994-01-01

    For about half a century, two classes of stochastic processes-Gaussian processes and processes with independent increments-have played an important role in the development of stochastic analysis and its applications. During the last decade, a third class-branching measure-valued (BMV) processes-has also been the subject of much research. A common feature of all three classes is that their finite-dimensional distributions are infinitely divisible, allowing the use of the powerful analytic tool of Laplace (or Fourier) transforms. All three classes, in an infinite-dimensional setting, provide means for study of physical systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom. This is the first monograph devoted to the theory of BMV processes. Dynkin first constructs a large class of BMV processes, called superprocesses, by passing to the limit from branching particle systems. Then he proves that, under certain restrictions, a general BMV process is a superprocess. A special chapter is devoted to the connections between ...

  10. Soft hadronic production by ECCO in the geometrical branching model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, J.; Hwa, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Soft production of hadrons in hadronic collisions is described in the geometrical branching model and implemented by the eikonal cascade code (ECCO). It is shown that the major global features of multiparticle production can be reproduced by one essential characterization of the dynamics of branching, namely, a scaling law for the mass distribution of daughter clusters. Without further adjustment of any parameters, the event generator can produce local features of multiplicity fluctuations in agreement with the NA22 intermittency data. The scaling exponent ν is determined to be 1.522 at √s =22 GeV, independent of the dimensionality of the intermittency analysis. It is shown that ν is approximately independent of the collision energy

  11. A tool for simulating parallel branch-and-bound methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, Yana; Orlov, Yury; Posypkin, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    The Branch-and-Bound method is known as one of the most powerful but very resource consuming global optimization methods. Parallel and distributed computing can efficiently cope with this issue. The major difficulty in parallel B&B method is the need for dynamic load redistribution. Therefore design and study of load balancing algorithms is a separate and very important research topic. This paper presents a tool for simulating parallel Branchand-Bound method. The simulator allows one to run load balancing algorithms with various numbers of processors, sizes of the search tree, the characteristics of the supercomputer's interconnect thereby fostering deep study of load distribution strategies. The process of resolution of the optimization problem by B&B method is replaced by a stochastic branching process. Data exchanges are modeled using the concept of logical time. The user friendly graphical interface to the simulator provides efficient visualization and convenient performance analysis.

  12. Anomalous Medial Branch of Radial Artery: A Rare Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Wadhwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Radial artery is an important consistent vessel of the upper limb. It is a useful vascular access site for coronary procedures and its reliable anatomy has resulted in an elevation of radial forearm flaps for reconstructive surgeries of head and neck. Technical failures, in both the procedures, are mainly due to anatomical variations, such as radial loops, ectopic radial arteries or tortuosity in the vessel. We present a rare and a unique anomalous medial branch of the radial artery spiraling around the flexor carpi radialis muscle in the forearm with a high rising superficial palmar branch of radial artery. Developmentally it probably is a remanent of the normal pattern of capillary vessel maintenance and regression. Such a case is of importance for reconstructive surgeons and coronary interventionists, especially in view of its unique medial and deep course.

  13. First measurement of the Omega /sup -/ decay branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Bourquin, M; Chatelus, Y; Chollet, J C; Degré, A; Froidevaux, D; Fyfe, A R; Gaillard, J M; Gee, C N P; Gibson, W M; Igo-Kemenes, P; Jeffreys, P W; Merkel, B; Morand, R; Plothow, H; Repellin, J P; Saunders, B J; Sauvage, G; Schiby, B; Siebert, H W; Smith, V J; Streit, K P; Strub, R; Thresher, J J; Tovey, Stuart N

    1979-01-01

    In an experiment in the CERN-SPS charged-hyperon beam, the main Omega /sup -/ decay branching ratios have been measured to be Gamma ( Omega /sup -/ to Lambda K/sup -/)/ Gamma (all)=0.686+or-0.013, Gamma ( Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup 0/ pi /sup -/)/ Gamma (all) =0.234+or-0.013, Gamma ( Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup -/ pi /sup 0/)/ Gamma (all)=0.080+or-0.008. The relative branching ratio of the two Xi pi modes provides a test of the Delta I=1/2 rule in decuplet-octet transitions. A search has also been made for the rare decay modes Omega /sup -/ to Lambda pi /sup -/, Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup -/ gamma , Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup -/ pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ and Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup 0/e/sup -/ nu . (6 refs).

  14. Mass loss by stars on the asymptotic giant branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsman, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical populations of white dwarfs and carbon stars were generated for Salpeter initial mass function and constant stellar birth rate history. The effect of very strong mass loss on the mass distribution of white dwarfs and luminosity distribution of carbon stars is discussed and the results are compared with observations. This comparison suggested that a signioficant mass loss by stars on the asymptotic giant branch occurs besides stellar wind and planetary nebulae ejection. Thus it is possible to explain the absence of carbon stars with Msub(bol) 1.0 Msub(sun). The luminosity of asymptotic giant branch stars in the globular clusters of the Magellanic Clouds appears to be a very good indicator of the age

  15. Polymers and Random graphs: Asymptotic equivalence to branching processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spouge, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    In 1974, Falk and Thomas did a computer simulation of Flory's Equireactive RA/sub f/ Polymer model, rings forbidden and rings allowed. Asymptotically, the Rings Forbidden model tended to Stockmayer's RA/sub f/ distribution (in which the sol distribution ''sticks'' after gelation), while the Rings Allowed model tended to the Flory version of the RA/sub f/ distribution. In 1965, Whittle introduced the Tree and Pseudomultigraph models. We show that these random graphs generalize the Falk and Thomas models by incorporating first-shell substitution effects. Moreover, asymptotically the Tree model displays postgelation ''sticking.'' Hence this phenomenon results from the absence of rings and occurs independently of equireactivity. We also show that the Pseudomultigraph model is asymptotically identical to the Branching Process model introduced by Gordon in 1962. This provides a possible basis for the Branching Process model in standard statistical mechanics

  16. A tool for simulating parallel branch-and-bound methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubeva Yana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Branch-and-Bound method is known as one of the most powerful but very resource consuming global optimization methods. Parallel and distributed computing can efficiently cope with this issue. The major difficulty in parallel B&B method is the need for dynamic load redistribution. Therefore design and study of load balancing algorithms is a separate and very important research topic. This paper presents a tool for simulating parallel Branchand-Bound method. The simulator allows one to run load balancing algorithms with various numbers of processors, sizes of the search tree, the characteristics of the supercomputer’s interconnect thereby fostering deep study of load distribution strategies. The process of resolution of the optimization problem by B&B method is replaced by a stochastic branching process. Data exchanges are modeled using the concept of logical time. The user friendly graphical interface to the simulator provides efficient visualization and convenient performance analysis.

  17. The intersection of the extrinsic hedgehog and WNT/wingless signals with the intrinsic Hox code underpins branching pattern and tube shape diversity in the drosophila airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Matsuda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The tubular networks of the Drosophila respiratory system and our vasculature show distinct branching patterns and tube shapes in different body regions. These local variations are crucial for organ function and organismal fitness. Organotypic patterns and tube geometries in branched networks are typically controlled by variations of extrinsic signaling but the impact of intrinsic factors on branch patterns and shapes is not well explored. Here, we show that the intersection of extrinsic hedgehog(hh and WNT/wingless (wg signaling with the tube-intrinsic Hox code of distinct segments specifies the tube pattern and shape of the Drosophila airways. In the cephalic part of the airways, hh signaling induces expression of the transcription factor (TF knirps (kni in the anterior dorsal trunk (DTa1. kni represses the expression of another TF spalt major (salm, making DTa1 a narrow and long tube. In DTa branches of more posterior metameres, Bithorax Complex (BX-C Hox genes autonomously divert hh signaling from inducing kni, thereby allowing DTa branches to develop as salm-dependent thick and short tubes. Moreover, the differential expression of BX-C genes is partly responsible for the anterior-to-posterior gradual increase of the DT tube diameter through regulating the expression level of Salm, a transcriptional target of WNT/wg signaling. Thus, our results highlight how tube intrinsic differential competence can diversify tube morphology without changing availabilities of extrinsic factors.

  18. Highly Branched Bio-Based Unsaturated Polyesters by Enzymatic Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hiep Dinh; Löf, David; Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    A one-pot, enzyme-catalyzed bulk polymerization method for direct production of highly branched polyesters has been developed as an alternative to currently used industrial procedures. Bio-based feed components in the form of glycerol, pentaerythritol, azelaic acid, and tall oil fatty acid (TOFA)...... stability, very high water contact angles of up to 141° and a glass transition temperature that could be controlled through the feed composition....

  19. BRANCH ASPECTS OF ACCOUNTING PAYMENTS BY COMPANIES OF MOBILE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Konovalova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper some branch aspects of accounting payments by companies of mobile network are analyzed. Analyzed topical by regarded problem for Sverdlovskaya region. Researched civic-law notions, that applying at the telecommunication area. The authors gives recommendations for system of accounting specific aspects of payments on the basis of they economic essence, and gives sentences to change legislation activeing at the Russian Federation.

  20. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Patiño

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m−3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m−3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  1. SM Higgs decay branching ratios and total Higgs width

    CERN Multimedia

    Daniel Denegri

    2001-01-01

    Upper: Higgs decay ratios as a function of Higgs mass. The largest branching ratio is not necessarily the most usefull one. The most usefull ones are gamma gamma bbar ZZ and WW as in those modes latter signal to background ratios can be achieved. Lower: Total Higgs decay width versus Higgs mass. At low masses the natural width is extremely small, thus observability depends on instrumental resolution primarily.

  2. From the twig tips to the deeper branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Stothard, J. Russell

    2013-01-01

    upon disease control. While useful in determining dynamics at the tips of the evolutionary tree, these molecular tools also provide insights into deeper evolutionary branches. Although Ascaris is found throughout the globe, molecular analysis of worms retrieved from sub-Saharan Africa point towards...... a significant center of genetic diversity, possibly denoting a likely center of evolutionary origin with subsequent parasite diaspora. Resolving these issues precisely, however, requires greater scrutiny of genetic variation within Parascaris and Baylisascaris. © 2013...

  3. ACCOUNTING AS BRANCH OF KNOWLEDGE: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Manoel Raimundo Santana; Martins, Gilberto de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the accounting as branch of knowledge in three different fields: science, technology and practice. Through theoretical essay, we was argued that, although distinct, these fields interact, in that, as epistemology that justified the analysis here undertaken, the practical activities may be technology subject matter and that to be effective if based on one or more sciences. The difference between science and technology is given by the nature of knowledg...

  4. Precision measurement of the D*(0) decay branching fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, Y.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, R. Q.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pu, Y. N.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ren, H. L.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Using 482 pb(-1) of data taken at root s = 4.009 GeV, we measure the branching fractions of the decays of D*(0) into D-0 pi(0) and D-0 gamma to be B(D*(0) -> D-0 pi(0)) = (65.5 +/- 0.8 +/- 0.5)% and B(D*(0) -> D0 gamma) = (34.5 +/- 0.8 +/- 0.5)%, respectively, by assuming that the D*(0) decays only

  5. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, S.; Lloyd, J.; Paiva, R.; Baker, T. R.; Quesada, C. A.; Mercado, L. M.; Schmerler, J.; Schwarz, M.; Santos, A. J. B.; Aguilar, A.; Czimczik, C. I.; Gallo, J.; Horna, V.; Hoyos, E. J.; Jimenez, E. M.; Palomino, W.; Peacock, J.; Peña-Cruz, A.; Sarmiento, C.; Sota, A.; Turriago, J. D.; Villanueva, B.; Vitzthum, P.; Alvarez, E.; Arroyo, L.; Baraloto, C.; Bonal, D.; Chave, J.; Costa, A. C. L.; Herrera, R.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T.; Leal, E.; Luizão, F.; Meir, P.; Monteagudo, A.; Neil, D.; Núñez-Vargas, P.; Peñuela, M. C.; Pitman, N.; Priante Filho, N.; Prieto, A.; Panfil, S. N.; Rudas, A.; Salomão, R.; Silva, N.; Silveira, M.; Soares Dealmeida, S.; Torres-Lezama, A.; Vásquez-Martínez, R.; Vieira, I.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.

    2009-04-01

    Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m-3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae) from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m-3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae) from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species) accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot) accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  6. Measurement of the branching fraction for D0 -> K- π+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barate, R.; Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Orteu, S.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Alemany, R.; Becker, U.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lutters, G.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moneta, L.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rizzo, G.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thompson, E.; Thomson, F.; Turnbull, R. M.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E. B.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Giehl, I.; Greene, A. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Leroy, O.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; St. Denis, R.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Choi, Y.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Tournefier, E.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassis, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M. S.; Lehto, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zobernig, G.

    1997-02-01

    The branching fraction for D0 -> K- π+ is measured with the statistics collected by ALEPH from 1991 to 1994. The method is based on the comparison between the rate for the reconstructed D*+ -> D0π+, D0 -> K-π+ decay chain and the rate for inclusive soft pion production at low transverse momentum with respect to the nearest jet. The result is B(D0 -> K- π+) = (3.90 +/- 0.09 +/- 0.12)%

  7. From Subsidiary to Branch Organization of International Banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldberg, Lawrence; Sweeney, Richard J.; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    Nordea is the first major international bank planning to operate important host country activities in branches as the Second European banking directive envisions rather than as subsidiaries. Nordea is the result of mergers of roughly equal-size universal banks in four Nordic countries...... institutional foundations for substantial market discipline in banking. In particular, distress resolution and insolvency procedures for banks must be made rule based and credible for host country authorities to accept home country control....

  8. Insulinotropic and Muscle Protein Synthetic Effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acids: Potential Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes and Sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Darren G. Candow; Scott C. Forbes; Jonathan P. Little; Ralph J. Manders

    2012-01-01

    The loss of muscle mass and strength with aging (i.e., sarcopenia) has a negative effect on functional independence and overall quality of life. One main contributing factor to sarcopenia is the reduced ability to increase skeletal muscle protein synthesis in response to habitual feeding, possibly due to a reduction in postprandial insulin release and an increase in insulin resistance. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), primarily leucine, increases the activation of pathways involved in muscl...

  9. The branching pattern of villous capillaries and structural changes of placental terminal villi in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirkovská, M.; Kučera, T.; Kaláb, J.; Jadrníček, M.; Niedobová, V.; Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie; Moravcová, M.; Žižka, Z.; Krejčí, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 5 (2012), s. 343-351 ISSN 0143-4004 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/09/0733 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : angiogenesis * branching * capillaries * collagen * confocal microscopy * desmin * diabetes * placenta * structure * three-dimensional reconstruction * vascular topology * villi * vimentin Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 3.117, year: 2012

  10. Association between plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids and adipokines in Japanese adults without diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Goto, Atsushi; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Yamaji, Taiki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kato, Yumiko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have consistently reported an association between circulating levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) or adipokines and insulin resistance; however, the association between BCAA and adipokine levels remains to be clarified. In this cross-sectional study involving 678 participants (435 men) without diabetes, plasma BCAA (valine, leucine, and isoleucine), adipokine (total and high molecular weight [HMW] adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]) concentratio...

  11. HORIZONTAL BRANCH MORPHOLOGY OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: A MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jogesh Babu, G.; Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar; Mondal, Saptarshi

    2009-01-01

    The proper interpretation of horizontal branch (HB) morphology is crucial to the understanding of the formation history of stellar populations. In the present study a multivariate analysis is used (principal component analysis) for the selection of appropriate HB morphology parameter, which, in our case, is the logarithm of effective temperature extent of the HB (log T effHB ). Then this parameter is expressed in terms of the most significant observed independent parameters of Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) separately for coherent groups, obtained in a previous work, through a stepwise multiple regression technique. It is found that, metallicity ([Fe/H]), central surface brightness (μ v ), and core radius (r c ) are the significant parameters to explain most of the variations in HB morphology (multiple R 2 ∼ 0.86) for GGC elonging to the bulge/disk while metallicity ([Fe/H]) and absolute magnitude (M v ) are responsible for GGC belonging to the inner halo (multiple R 2 ∼ 0.52). The robustness is tested by taking 1000 bootstrap samples. A cluster analysis is performed for the red giant branch (RGB) stars of the GGC belonging to Galactic inner halo (Cluster 2). A multi-episodic star formation is preferred for RGB stars of GGC belonging to this group. It supports the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) model in three episodes instead of two as suggested by Carretta et al. for halo GGC while AGB model is suggested to be revisited for bulge/disk GGC.

  12. Branches of Triangulated Origami Near the Unfolded State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bryan Gin-ge; Santangelo, Christian D.

    2018-01-01

    Origami structures are characterized by a network of folds and vertices joining unbendable plates. For applications to mechanical design and self-folding structures, it is essential to understand the interplay between the set of folds in the unfolded origami and the possible 3D folded configurations. When deforming a structure that has been folded, one can often linearize the geometric constraints, but the degeneracy of the unfolded state makes a linear approach impossible there. We derive a theory for the second-order infinitesimal rigidity of an initially unfolded triangulated origami structure and use it to study the set of nearly unfolded configurations of origami with four boundary vertices. We find that locally, this set consists of a number of distinct "branches" which intersect at the unfolded state, and that the number of these branches is exponential in the number of vertices. We find numerical and analytical evidence that suggests that the branches are characterized by choosing each internal vertex to either "pop up" or "pop down." The large number of pathways along which one can fold an initially unfolded origami structure strongly indicates that a generic structure is likely to become trapped in a "misfolded" state. Thus, new techniques for creating self-folding origami are likely necessary; controlling the popping state of the vertices may be one possibility.

  13. Cell lineage branching as a strategy for proliferative control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzi, Gentian; Lander, Arthur D; Khammash, Mustafa

    2015-02-19

    How tissue and organ sizes are specified is one of the great unsolved mysteries in biology. Experiments and mathematical modeling implicate feedback control of cell lineage progression, but a broad understanding of what lineage feedback accomplishes is lacking. By exploring the possible effects of various biologically relevant disturbances on the dynamic and steady state behaviors of stem cell lineages, we find that the simplest and most frequently studied form of lineage feedback - which we term renewal control - suffers from several serious drawbacks. These reflect fundamental performance limits dictated by universal conservation-type laws, and are independent of parameter choice. Here we show that introducing lineage branches can circumvent all such limitations, permitting effective attenuation of a wide range of perturbations. The type of feedback that achieves such performance - which we term fate control - involves promotion of lineage branching at the expense of both renewal and (primary) differentiation. We discuss the evidence that feedback of just this type occurs in vivo, and plays a role in tissue growth control. Regulated lineage branching is an effective strategy for dealing with disturbances in stem cell systems. The existence of this strategy provides a dynamics-based justification for feedback control of cell fate in vivo.

  14. Chemical Composition of Sea Buckthorn Leaves, Branches and Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradt Ina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea buckthorn leaves and branches presently create waste-/by-products of harvesting after pruning the plants. It is already known that sea buckthorn berries are important for their chemical composition and based on this occupy a wide field in nutrition. We raised the idea that sea buckthorn leaves, branches, and especially the bark, have also an extraordinary chemical composition like the berries. The aim of this study was to describe these by-products. For this purpose, detailed full analyses of corresponding samples from Russia (seven varieties and Germany (four varieties were performed. Especially the dry mass, fat content, proteins, carbohydrates, starch content, and crude fiber were investigated to obtain an overview. Minor components like total phenol content, metals, and water- and fat-soluble vitamins were also studied. All analytical parameters were based on an official collection of analysis methods (German ASU - amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsverfahren. The results of the full analysis of leaves and branches show some interesting aspects about the differences between male and female plants. Furthermore, we observed differences between Russian and German sea buckthorn varieties. Investigation of minor components showed that vitamins were present in very low amount (< 0.1 %.

  15. Dynamic Properties of Star-Branched Polymer Brushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorski, A.; Romiszowski, P.

    2004-01-01

    We studied a simplified model of a polymer brush. It consisted of star-branched chains, which were restricted to a simple cubic lattice. Each star-branched macromolecule consisted of three linear arms of equal length emanating from a common origin (the branching point). The chains were grafted to an impenetrable surface, i.e. they were terminally attached to the surface with one arm. The number of chains was varied from low to high grafting density. The model system was studied at good solvent conditions because the excluded volume effect was the only potential of interaction included in the model. The properties of this model system were studied by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The sampling algorithm was based on local changes of chain conformations. The dynamic properties of the polymer brush were studied and correlated with its structure. The differences in relaxation times of particular star arms were shown. The short-time mobility of polymer layers was analyzed. The lateral self-diffusion of chains was also studied and discussed. (author)

  16. Plexin A3 and turnout regulate motor axonal branch morphogenesis in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sainath

    Full Text Available During embryogenesis motor axons navigate to their target muscles, where individual motor axons develop complex branch morphologies. The mechanisms that control axonal branching morphogenesis have been studied intensively, yet it still remains unclear when branches begin to form or how branch locations are determined. Live cell imaging of individual zebrafish motor axons reveals that the first axonal branches are generated at the ventral extent of the myotome via bifurcation of the growth cone. Subsequent branches are generated by collateral branching restricted to their synaptic target field along the distal portion of the axon. This precisely timed and spatially restricted branching process is disrupted in turnout mutants we identified in a forward genetic screen. Molecular genetic mapping positioned the turnout mutation within a 300 kb region encompassing eight annotated genes, however sequence analysis of all eight open reading frames failed to unambiguously identify the turnout mutation. Chimeric analysis and single cell labeling reveal that turnout function is required cell non-autonomously for intraspinal motor axon guidance and peripheral branch formation. turnout mutant motor axons form the first branch on time via growth cone bifurcation, but unlike wild-type they form collateral branches precociously, when the growth cone is still navigating towards the ventral myotome. These precocious collateral branches emerge along the proximal region of the axon shaft typically devoid of branches, and they develop into stable, permanent branches. Furthermore, we find that null mutants of the guidance receptor plexin A3 display identical motor axon branching defects, and time lapse analysis reveals that precocious branch formation in turnout and plexin A3 mutants is due to increased stability of otherwise short-lived axonal protrusions. Thus, plexin A3 dependent intrinsic and turnout dependent extrinsic mechanisms suppress collateral branch

  17. PGC-1α-mediated branched-chain amino acid metabolism in the skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukino Hatazawa

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α is a coactivator of various nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, which is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, thermogenesis, and other biological processes that control phenotypic characteristics of various organ systems including skeletal muscle. PGC-1α in skeletal muscle is considered to be involved in contractile protein function, mitochondrial function, metabolic regulation, intracellular signaling, and transcriptional responses. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA metabolism mainly occurs in skeletal muscle mitochondria, and enzymes related to BCAA metabolism are increased by exercise. Using murine skeletal muscle overexpressing PGC-1α and cultured cells, we investigated whether PGC-1α stimulates BCAA metabolism by increasing the expression of enzymes involved in BCAA metabolism. Transgenic mice overexpressing PGC-1α specifically in the skeletal muscle had increased the expression of branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT 2, branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH, which catabolize BCAA. The expression of BCKDH kinase (BCKDK, which phosphorylates BCKDH and suppresses its enzymatic activity, was unchanged. The amount of BCAA in the skeletal muscle was significantly decreased in the transgenic mice compared with that in the wild-type mice. The amount of glutamic acid, a metabolite of BCAA catabolism, was increased in the transgenic mice, suggesting the activation of muscle BCAA metabolism by PGC-1α. In C2C12 cells, the overexpression of PGC-1α significantly increased the expression of BCAT2 and BCKDH but not BCKDK. Thus, PGC-1α in the skeletal muscle is considered to significantly contribute to BCAA metabolism.

  18. PGC-1α-mediated branched-chain amino acid metabolism in the skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatazawa, Yukino; Tadaishi, Miki; Nagaike, Yuta; Morita, Akihito; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Ezaki, Osamu; Takai-Igarashi, Takako; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Kamei, Yasutomi; Miura, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a coactivator of various nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, which is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, thermogenesis, and other biological processes that control phenotypic characteristics of various organ systems including skeletal muscle. PGC-1α in skeletal muscle is considered to be involved in contractile protein function, mitochondrial function, metabolic regulation, intracellular signaling, and transcriptional responses. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism mainly occurs in skeletal muscle mitochondria, and enzymes related to BCAA metabolism are increased by exercise. Using murine skeletal muscle overexpressing PGC-1α and cultured cells, we investigated whether PGC-1α stimulates BCAA metabolism by increasing the expression of enzymes involved in BCAA metabolism. Transgenic mice overexpressing PGC-1α specifically in the skeletal muscle had increased the expression of branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT) 2, branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH), which catabolize BCAA. The expression of BCKDH kinase (BCKDK), which phosphorylates BCKDH and suppresses its enzymatic activity, was unchanged. The amount of BCAA in the skeletal muscle was significantly decreased in the transgenic mice compared with that in the wild-type mice. The amount of glutamic acid, a metabolite of BCAA catabolism, was increased in the transgenic mice, suggesting the activation of muscle BCAA metabolism by PGC-1α. In C2C12 cells, the overexpression of PGC-1α significantly increased the expression of BCAT2 and BCKDH but not BCKDK. Thus, PGC-1α in the skeletal muscle is considered to significantly contribute to BCAA metabolism.

  19. Estimating biological elementary flux modes that decompose a flux distribution by the minimal branching property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2014-01-01

    biologically feasible EFMs by considering their graphical properties. A previous study on the transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes found that distinct branches at a branch point metabolite usually belong to distinct metabolic pathways. This suggests an intuitive property of biologically feasible EFMs......, i.e. minimal branching. RESULTS: We developed the concept of minimal branching EFM and derived the minimal branching decomposition (MBD) to decompose flux distributions. Testing in the core Escherichia coli metabolic network indicated that MBD can distinguish branches at branch points and greatly...... knowledge, which facilitates interpretation. Comparison of the methods applied to a complex flux distribution in Lactococcus lactis similarly showed the advantages of MBD. The minimal branching EFM concept underlying MBD should be useful in other applications....

  20. Hilbert Series and Mixed Branches of T[SU(N)] theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carta, Federico [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC,Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Hayashi, Hirotaka [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC,Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Tokai University,4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2017-02-07

    We consider mixed branches of 3dN=4T[SU(N)] theory. We compute the Hilbert series of the Coulomb branch part of the mixed branch from a restriction rule acting on the Hilbert series of the full Coulomb branch that will truncate the magnetic charge summation only to the subset of BPS dressed monopole operators that arise in the Coulomb branch sublocus where the mixed branch stems. This restriction can be understood directly from the type IIB brane picture by a relation between the magnetic charges of the monopoles and brane position moduli. We also apply the restriction rule to the Higgs branch part of a given mixed branch by exploiting 3d mirror symmetry. Both cases show complete agreement with the results calculated by different methods.

  1. On the anomalous characteristics in the P and R branches in a hydrogen fulcher band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Shinichiro; Okamoto, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Daisuke; Iida, Yohei; Kajita, Shin; Shikama, Taiichi; Oishi, Tetsutaro; Tanaka, Satoru; Xiao Bingjia

    2006-01-01

    Anomalous characteristics in the P and R branches in hydrogen Fulcher-α emissions were investigated with respect to rotational temperature and population in the excited electronic state (upper-Fulcher state). The ro-vibrational population distribution of the ground electronic state was deduced by applying the coronal equilibrium to the Q branch, and then the population for the P and R branches was predicted. The anomalies in P and R branches can be found in the rotational temperature and the branching ratio between the branches. Our results suggest that the sum of the emission from P and R branches seems to agree with that predicted based on the Q branch emission. (author)

  2. Measuring of the efficiency of bank branches on the basis of DEA approach

    OpenAIRE

    Korchahin, A.; Zhukau, A.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of the measuring of efficiency of bank branches in a bank strategic planning is considered. The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is employed as a managerial tool to evaluate performance of network of bank branches.

  3. Pittsfield Local Flood Protection, West Branch and Southwest Branch, Housatonic River, Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Detailed Project Report for Water Resources Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    a bakery , a gas station, and the Linden Street bridge were flooded during the March 1977 storm. Flooding also occurred on the Southwest Branch...and service station, one bakery , and five other commercial establishments. Most of these structures are not suited to being elevated above the design...of a shopping plaza and a fast-food franchise in the flood plain on West Housatonic Street (Route 20). The following three alternate plans of

  4. Isaac Newton Institute of Chile: The fifteenth anniversary of its "Yugoslavia" Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, M. S.

    In 2002, the Isaac Newton Institute of Chile established in Belgrade its "Yugoslavia" Branch, one of 15 branches in nine countries in Eastern Europe and Eurasia. On the occasion of fifteen years since its foundation, the activities of "Yugoslavia" Branch of the Isaac Newton Institute of Chile are briefly reviewed.

  5. π0 decay branching ratios of 5ΛHe and 12ΛC hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, S.; Ajimura, S.; Aoki, K.; Banu, A.; Bhang, H.C.; Fukuda, T.; Hashimoto, O.; Hwang, J.I.; Kameoka, S.; Kang, B.H.; Kim, E.H.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, M.J.; Maruta, T.; Miura, Y.; Miyake, Y.; Nagae, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, S.N.; Noumi, H.; Okayasu, Y.; Outa, H.; Park, H.; Saha, P.K.; Sato, Y.; Sekimoto, M.; Takahashi, T.; Tamura, H.; Tanida, K.; Toyoda, A.; Tsukada, K.; Watanabe, T.; Yim, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    We precisely measured π0 branching ratios of 5 Λ He and 12 Λ C hypernuclei produced via the (π+,K+) reaction. Using these π0 branching ratios with the π- branching ratios and lifetimes, we obtained the π0 decay widths and the non-mesonic weak decay widths with an accuracy of ∼5% (stat) for both hypernuclei

  6. 78 FR 66265 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... Elizabeth River Eastern Branch, mile 1.1, at Norfolk, VA. This deviation is necessary to facilitate... maintenance. The Norfolk Southern 5 railroad Bridge, at mile 1.1, across the Elizabeth River (Eastern Branch...

  7. Flowering branches cause injuries to second-year main stems of Artemisia tridentata nutt. subspecies tridentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance S. Evans; Angela Citta; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2012-01-01

    Eccentricity of stems of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. (big sagebrush) has been reported previously. Analysis of samples observed over 2 years documented that each stem terminal produces about 8-10 branches each year, and during second-year growth, 3-8 of these develop into short, flowering, determinate branches. Each flowering branch produces hundreds of seeds and then...

  8. THE ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH AND THE TIP OF THE RED GIANT BRANCH AS PROBES OF STAR FORMATION HISTORY: THE NEARBY DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY KKH 98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melbourne, J.; Williams, B.; Dalcanton, J.; Ammons, S. M.; Max, C.; Koo, D. C.; Girardi, Leo; Dolphin, A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the utility of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and the red giant branch (RGB) as probes of the star formation history (SFH) of the nearby (D = 2.5 Mpc) dwarf irregular galaxy, KKH 98. Near-infrared (near-IR) Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (AO) images resolve 592 IR-bright stars reaching over 1 mag below the tip of the RGB. Significantly deeper optical (F475W and F814W) Hubble Space Telescope images of the same field contain over 2500 stars, reaching to the red clump and the main-sequence turnoff for 0.5 Gyr old populations. Compared to the optical color-magnitude diagram (CMD), the near-IR CMD shows significantly tighter AGB sequences, providing a good probe of the intermediate-age (0.5-5 Gyr) populations. We match observed CMDs with stellar evolution models to recover the SFH of KKH 98. On average, the galaxy has experienced relatively constant low-level star formation (5 x 10 -4 M sun yr -1 ) for much of cosmic time. Except for the youngest main-sequence populations (age <0.1 Gyr), which are typically fainter than the AO data flux limit, the SFH estimated from the 592 IR-bright stars is a reasonable match to that derived from the much larger optical data set. Differences between the optical- and IR-derived SFHs for 0.1-1 Gyr populations suggest that current stellar evolution models may be overproducing the AGB by as much as a factor of 3 in this galaxy. At the depth of the AO data, the IR-luminous stars are not crowded. Therefore, these techniques can potentially be used to determine the stellar populations of galaxies at significantly further distances.

  9. Msx1 is expressed in retina endothelial cells at artery branching sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lopes

    2012-02-01

    Msx1 and Msx2 encode homeodomain transcription factors that play a role in several embryonic developmental processes. Previously, we have shown that in the adult mouse, Msx1lacZ is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and pericytes, and that Msx2lacZ is also expressed in VSMCs as well as in a few endothelial cells (ECs. The mouse retina and choroid are two highly vascularized tissues. Vessel alterations in the retina are associated with several human diseases and the retina has been intensely used for angiogenesis studies, whereas the choroid has been much less investigated. Using the Msx1lacZ and Msx2lacZ reporter alleles, we observed that Msx2 is not expressed in the eye vascular tree in contrast to Msx1, for which we establish the spatial and temporal expression pattern in these tissues. In the retina, expression of Msx1 takes place from P3, and by P10, it becomes confined to a subpopulation of ECs at branching points of superficial arterioles. These branching sites are characterized by a subpopulation of mural cells that also show specific expression programs. Specific Msx gene inactivation in the endothelium, using Msx1 and Msx2 conditional mutant alleles together with a Tie2-Cre transgene, did not lead to conspicuous structural defects in the retinal vascular network. Expression of Msx1 at branching sites might therefore be linked to vessel physiology. The retinal blood flow is autonomously regulated and perfusion of capillaries has been proposed to depend on arteriolar precapillary structures that might be the sites for Msx1 expression. On the other hand, branching sites are subject to shear stress that might induce Msx1 expression. In the choroid vascular layer Msx1lacZ is expressed more broadly and dynamically. At birth Msx1lacZ expression takes place in the endothelium but at P21 its expression has shifted towards the mural layer. We discuss the possible functions of Msx1 in the eye vasculature.

  10. Msx1 is expressed in retina endothelial cells at artery branching sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Miguel; Goupille, Olivier; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Robert, Benoît

    2012-04-15

    Msx1 and Msx2 encode homeodomain transcription factors that play a role in several embryonic developmental processes. Previously, we have shown that in the adult mouse, Msx1(lacZ) is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and pericytes, and that Msx2(lacZ) is also expressed in VSMCs as well as in a few endothelial cells (ECs). The mouse retina and choroid are two highly vascularized tissues. Vessel alterations in the retina are associated with several human diseases and the retina has been intensely used for angiogenesis studies, whereas the choroid has been much less investigated. Using the Msx1(lacZ) and Msx2(lacZ) reporter alleles, we observed that Msx2 is not expressed in the eye vascular tree in contrast to Msx1, for which we establish the spatial and temporal expression pattern in these tissues. In the retina, expression of Msx1 takes place from P3, and by P10, it becomes confined to a subpopulation of ECs at branching points of superficial arterioles. These branching sites are characterized by a subpopulation of mural cells that also show specific expression programs. Specific Msx gene inactivation in the endothelium, using Msx1 and Msx2 conditional mutant alleles together with a Tie2-Cre transgene, did not lead to conspicuous structural defects in the retinal vascular network. Expression of Msx1 at branching sites might therefore be linked to vessel physiology. The retinal blood flow is autonomously regulated and perfusion of capillaries has been proposed to depend on arteriolar precapillary structures that might be the sites for Msx1 expression. On the other hand, branching sites are subject to shear stress that might induce Msx1 expression. In the choroid vascular layer Msx1(lacZ) is expressed more broadly and dynamically. At birth Msx1(lacZ) expression takes place in the endothelium but at P21 its expression has shifted towards the mural layer. We discuss the possible functions of Msx1 in the eye vasculature.

  11. Studying attention levels of the university students from various sport branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eynur Baybars Recep

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the attention skills of the university student athletes from various sport branches. A total of 174 university students have been participated into the study of which 46.6% were female and 53.4% were male. The neurofeedback method has been used in the study. With regard to the research statistics, the independent variable t-test and ANOVA have been used; and in order to evaluate the diversity of the subgroups, Bonferroni and Tamhane (α=0.05 have been used. The study has revealed that female athletes are significantly more succeful in terms of attention consistency, staying focused against time, controlling attention, hand-eye-brain coordination, and concentration compared to male athletes (p0.05. It has also been seen that on the basis of the branches, the spatial memory skills of the wrestlers are significantly higher than the soccer players (p<0.05; that the attention consistency, visual follow-up and staying focused despite the distractors skills of the national athletes are significantly higher than others (p<0.05. The reseach has revealed that attention is instantaneous and definitely an important factor for the sportive success; and besides its unique efficiency for experience and success, also similarly with the sportive success, it exists with “You can succeed only if you do it” understanding.

  12. Fluorescence branching ratios and magnetic tuning of the visible spectrum of SrOH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc-Trung; Steimle, Timothy C.; Kozyryev, Ivan; Huang, Meng; McCoy, Anne B.

    2018-05-01

    The magnetic tuning of the low rotational levels in the X ˜ 2Σ+ (0,0,0), A ˜ 2Πr (0,0,0), and B ˜ 2Σ+ (0,0,0) electronic states of strontium hydroxide, SrOH, have been experimentally investigated using high resolution optical field-free and Zeeman spectroscopy of a cold molecular beam sample. The observed Zeeman shifts and splittings are successfully modeled using a traditional effective Hamiltonian approach to account for the interaction between the A ˜ 2Πr and B ˜ 2Σ+ states. The determined magnetic g-factors for the X ˜ 2Σ+ , A ˜ 2Πr , and B ˜ 2Σ+ states are compared to those predicted by perturbation theory. The dispersed fluorescence resulting from laser excitation of rotationally resolved branch features of the 000 B ˜ 2Σ+ ← X ˜ 2Σ+ , 000 A ˜ 2Π3/2 ← X ˜ 2Σ+ and 000 A ˜ 2Π1/2 ← X ˜ 2Σ+ transitions have been recorded and analyzed. The measured fluorescence branching ratios are compared with Franck-Condon calculations. The required bending motion wave functions are derived using a discrete variable representation (DVR) method. Implications for laser slowing and magneto-optical trapping experiments for SrOH are described.

  13. Handling social problems in the courts: repercussions for social assistants in the Judiciary Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gershenson Aguinsky

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the civilizing conquests of human rights are undeniable, their recognition and enactment have required, in addition to increasingly intense historic struggles, the involvement of the Judicial Branch. The judicial treatment of social issues overlaps the responsibilities of the Judiciary with other public institutions. Access to justice takes place, as a rule, individually and by a select group of subjects – those who know how to access this legal channel. But the effective enactment of rights depends on other factors that include not only its recognition, but the capacity to attend to and finance the demand presented. Given this situation, this paper discusses the process of the effective enactment of rights, which by increasingly emphasizing judicial channels, leads to a reduced commitment of the State as a whole, to face social issues and toward the depoliticization of the public sphere. This adverse situation challenges social assistants to take an ethical-political direction in their professional responses to the demands of judicialization of the social question that is presented daily to the Judicial Branch.

  14. Long-branch attraction bias and inconsistency in Bayesian phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaczkowski, Bryan; Thornton, Joseph W

    2009-12-09

    Bayesian inference (BI) of phylogenetic relationships uses the same probabilistic models of evolution as its precursor maximum likelihood (ML), so BI has generally been assumed to share ML's desirable statistical properties, such as largely unbiased inference of topology given an accurate model and increasingly reliable inferences as the amount of data increases. Here we show that BI, unlike ML, is biased in favor of topologies that group long branches together, even when the true model and prior distributions of evolutionary parameters over a group of phylogenies are known. Using experimental simulation studies and numerical and mathematical analyses, we show that this bias becomes more severe as more data are analyzed, causing BI to infer an incorrect tree as the maximum a posteriori phylogeny with asymptotically high support as sequence length approaches infinity. BI's long branch attraction bias is relatively weak when the true model is simple but becomes pronounced when sequence sites evolve heterogeneously, even when this complexity is incorporated in the model. This bias--which is apparent under both controlled simulation conditions and in analyses of empirical sequence data--also makes BI less efficient and less robust to the use of an incorrect evolutionary model than ML. Surprisingly, BI's bias is caused by one of the method's stated advantages--that it incorporates uncertainty about branch lengths by integrating over a distribution of possible values instead of estimating them from the data, as ML does. Our findings suggest that trees inferred using BI should be interpreted with caution and that ML may be a more reliable framework for modern phylogenetic analysis.

  15. Long-branch attraction bias and inconsistency in Bayesian phylogenetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Kolaczkowski

    Full Text Available Bayesian inference (BI of phylogenetic relationships uses the same probabilistic models of evolution as its precursor maximum likelihood (ML, so BI has generally been assumed to share ML's desirable statistical properties, such as largely unbiased inference of topology given an accurate model and increasingly reliable inferences as the amount of data increases. Here we show that BI, unlike ML, is biased in favor of topologies that group long branches together, even when the true model and prior distributions of evolutionary parameters over a group of phylogenies are known. Using experimental simulation studies and numerical and mathematical analyses, we show that this bias becomes more severe as more data are analyzed, causing BI to infer an incorrect tree as the maximum a posteriori phylogeny with asymptotically high support as sequence length approaches infinity. BI's long branch attraction bias is relatively weak when the true model is simple but becomes pronounced when sequence sites evolve heterogeneously, even when this complexity is incorporated in the model. This bias--which is apparent under both controlled simulation conditions and in analyses of empirical sequence data--also makes BI less efficient and less robust to the use of an incorrect evolutionary model than ML. Surprisingly, BI's bias is caused by one of the method's stated advantages--that it incorporates uncertainty about branch lengths by integrating over a distribution of possible values instead of estimating them from the data, as ML does. Our findings suggest that trees inferred using BI should be interpreted with caution and that ML may be a more reliable framework for modern phylogenetic analysis.

  16. Association mapping in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) reveals independent control of apical vs. basal branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambeesan, Savithri U; Mandel, Jennifer R; Bowers, John E; Marek, Laura F; Ebert, Daniel; Corbi, Jonathan; Rieseberg, Loren H; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

    2015-03-11

    Shoot branching is an important determinant of plant architecture and influences various aspects of growth and development. Selection on branching has also played an important role in the domestication of crop plants, including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Here, we describe an investigation of the genetic basis of variation in branching in sunflower via association mapping in a diverse collection of cultivated sunflower lines. Detailed phenotypic analyses revealed extensive variation in the extent and type of branching within the focal population. After correcting for population structure and kinship, association analyses were performed using a genome-wide collection of SNPs to identify genomic regions that influence a variety of branching-related traits. This work resulted in the identification of multiple previously unidentified genomic regions that contribute to variation in branching. Genomic regions that were associated with apical and mid-apical branching were generally distinct from those associated with basal and mid-basal branching. Homologs of known branching genes from other study systems (i.e., Arabidopsis, rice, pea, and petunia) were also identified from the draft assembly of the sunflower genome and their map positions were compared to those of associations identified herein. Numerous candidate branching genes were found to map in close proximity to significant branching associations. In sunflower, variation in branching is genetically complex and overall branching patterns (i.e., apical vs. basal) were found to be influenced by distinct genomic regions. Moreover, numerous candidate branching genes mapped in close proximity to significant branching associations. Although the sunflower genome exhibits localized islands of elevated linkage disequilibrium (LD), these non-random associations are known to decay rapidly elsewhere. The subset of candidate genes that co-localized with significant associations in regions of low LD represents the most

  17. Multifractal structure of multiparticle production in the branching models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Hwa, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure is described for the multifractal analysis of data on multiparticle production obtained at high energy either in experiment or in Monte Carlo simulation. It is shown how the spectrum f(α) of the rapidity-density index α can be determined from the multiplicity fluctuation of the rapidity distribution, as the resolution is changed. The branching model is used to illustrate the procedure. It is found that the φ 3 model has a narrower f(α) than the gluon model, suggesting that multifractality is a useful arena for confrontation between theory and experiment. 13 refs., 2 figs

  18. Measurement of the Λ→n+γ branching ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, A.J.; Larson, K.D.; Bassalleck, B.; Fickinger, W.J.; Hall, J.R.; Hallin, A.L.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Horvath, D.; Lowe, J.; McIntyre, E.K.; Measday, D.F.; Miller, J.P.; Roberts, B.L.; Robinson, D.K.; Sakitt, M.; Salomon, M.; Waltham, C.E.; Warner, T.M.; Whitehouse, D.A.; Wolfe, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The branching ratio for the Λ weak radiative decay has been measured to be B(Λ→n+γ)/(Λ→anything) =[1.78±0.24(stat)± 0.16 0.14 (syst)]x10 -3 . A low-energy kaon beam was used to produce the Λ hyperons via the reaction K - +p→Λ+π 0 at rest. Photons from the signal channel and π 0 decay were detected with a NaI(Tl) array. The final spectrum contains 287 events after background subtraction, an order of magnitude more events than from the only previous measurement

  19. Remembered branches: towards a future of Korean homosexual film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J

    2000-01-01

    Korean cinema has long labored under an imported Confucian homophobia which, through its effects if not its causes, seems to mirror the Western conception of the closet. Recent cinematic developments in Korea, including a queer film festival in Seoul, are slowly but surely beginning to change that. Using as primary texts the recent Korean gay film Broken Branches and the long-forgotten lesbian film Ascetic: Woman and Woman, my essay hopes to serve as a set of introductory remarks on a queer Korean cinema culture whose surface has only just been broached.

  20. Summary of activities of the Research Branch during 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    A general view of the work performed during 1981 by CNEA's Research Branch in basic and applied research is provided. The information includes the main activities and achievements in: 1) Physics Department: Tandar Project; Technical Assistance and Engineering; Experimental and Theoretical Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics. 2) Reactor Chemistry Department: Chemical Control Division; Moderator and Coolant Physical-Chemistry Division; Radiation Chemistry Division. 3) Radiobiology Department: Radiation Pathology; Cellular Biology; Somatic Effects of the Ionizing Radiations; Genetics; Radiomicrobiology; Bioterium; Irradiation and Dosimetry Section, and, finally, in Biomathematics, Labelled Molecules and Radiochemistry. (M.E.L.) [es

  1. Semileptonic Branching Fractions of Charged and Neutral B Mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athanas, M.; Brower, W.; Masek, G.; Paar, H.P.; Gronberg, J.; Kutschke, R.; Menary, S.; Morrison, R.J.; Nakanishi, S.; Nelson, H.N.; Nelson, T.K.; Qiao, C.; Richman, J.D.; Ryd, A.; Tajima, H.; Sperka, D.; Witherell, M.S.; Balest, R.; Cho, K.; Ford, W.T.; Johnson, D.R.; Lingel, K.; Lohner, M.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.P.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Bloom, K.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cho, H.A.; Coffman, D.M.; Crowcroft, D.S.; Drell, P.S.; Dumas, D.; Ehrlich, R.; Gaidarev, P.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Geiser, B.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Henderson, S.; Jones, C.D.; Jones, S.L.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P.C.; Kreinick, D.L.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Salman, S.; Sapper, M.; Wuerthwein, F.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Yang, S.; Yelton, J.; Cinabro, D.; Liu, T.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Bergfeld, T.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Gollin, G.; Ong, B.; Palmer, M.; Selen, M.; Thaler, J.J.; Edwards, K.W.; Ogg, M.; Bellerive, A.; Britton, D.I.; Hyatt, E.R.F.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Patel, P.M.; Spaan, B.; Sadoff, A.J.; Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Besson, D.; Coppage, D.; Copty, N.; Davis, R.; Hancock, N.; Kelly, M.; Kotov, S.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Momayezi, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Patton, S.; Poling, R.; Savinov, V.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Ling, Z.; Mahmood, A.H.; O'Neill, J.J.; Severini, H.; Sun, C.R.; Wappler, F.; Crawford, G.; Daubenmier, C.M.; Fulton, R.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Skovpen, Y.; Sung, M.; White, C.; Zoeller, M.M.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Nemati, B.; Ross, W.R.; Skubic, P.; Wood, M.; Bishai, M.; Fast, J.; Gerndt, E.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miao, T.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Payne, D.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Wang, P.N.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Gibbons, L.; Kwon, Y.

    1994-01-01

    An examination of leptons in Υ(4S) events tagged by reconstructed B meson decays yields semileptonic branching fractions of b - =(10.1±1.8±1.5)% for charged and b 0 =(10.9±0.7±1.1)% for neutral B mesons. This is the first measurement for charged B mesons. Assuming equality of the charged and neutral semileptonic widths, the ratio b - /b 0 =0.93±0.18±0.12 is equivalent to the ratio of lifetimes

  2. Optimized Ultrawideband and Uniplanar Minkowski Fractal Branch Line Coupler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jahanbakht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-Euclidean Minkowski fractal geometry is used in design, optimization, and fabrication of an ultrawideband (UWB branch line coupler. Self-similarities of the fractal geometries make them act like an infinite length in a finite area. This property creates a smaller design with broader bandwidth. The designed 3 dB microstrip coupler has a single layer and uniplanar platform with quite easy fabrication process. This optimized 180° coupler also shows a perfect isolation and insertion loss over the UWB frequency range of 3.1–10.6 GHz.

  3. Measurement of the tau lepton electronic branching fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerib, D.S.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; Cowen, D.F.; Eigen, G.; Miller, J.S.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A.J.; Acosta, D.; Masek, G.; Ong, B.; Paar, H.; Sivertz, M.; Bean, A.; Gronberg, J.; Kutschke, R.; Menary, S.; Morrison, R.J.; Nelson, H.N.; Richman, J.D.; Tajima, H.; Schmidt, D.; Sperka, D.; Witherell, M.S.; Procario, M.; Yang, S.; Daoudi, M.; Ford, W.T.; Johnson, D.R.; Lingel, K.; Lohner, M.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.P.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Besson, D.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Coffman, D.M.; Drell, P.S.; Ehrlich, R.; Galik, R.S.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Geiser, B.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Honscheid, K.; Jones, C.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P.C.; Kreinick, D.L.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; O'Grady, C.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Sapper, M.; Selen, M.; Worden, H.; Worris, M.; Wuerthwein, F.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Stephens, R.; Yelton, J.; Cinabro, D.; Henderson, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Liu, T.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Sadoff, A.J.; Ammar, R.; Ball, S.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Copty, N.; Davis, R.; Hancock, N.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Patton, S.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Savinov, V.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; O'Neill, J.J.; Romero, V.; Severini, H.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, P.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Sung, M.; White, C.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Lambrecht, M.; Ross, W.R.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.N.; Dominick, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miao, T.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Kroha, H.; Roberts, S.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.; Sanghera, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.

    1992-01-01

    The tau lepton electron branching fraction has been measured with the CLEO II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring as B e =0.1749±0.0014±0.0022, with the first error statistical and the second systematic. The measurement involves counting electron-positron annihilation events in which both taus decay to electrons, and normalizing to the number of tau-pair decays expected from the measured luminosity. Detected photons in these events constitute a definitive observation of tau decay radiation

  4. Design of planar articulated mechanisms using branch and bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Kawamoto, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers an optimization model and a solution method for the design of two-dimensional mechanical mechanisms. The mechanism design problem is modeled as a nonconvex mixed integer program which allows the optimal topology and geometry of the mechanism to be determined simultaneously...... and that buckling is prevented. The feasible set of the design problem is described by nonlinear differentiable and non-differentiable constraints as well as nonlinear matrix inequalities. To solve the mechanism design problem a branch and bound method based on convex relaxations is developed. To guarantee...... mechanism design problems of realistic size to global optimality....

  5. Synthesis of hyper branched polyol from palm oil oleic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    Hyper branched polyol from oleic acid of palm oil has been synthesized by a two-step reaction. Dipentaerythritol was initially reacted with 2, 2-bis (hydroxymethyl) propionic acid in a solution medium aided by p-toluene sulfonic acid as a catalyst. This mixture was then used as core and reacted with the oleic acid. Optimization parameters such as processing temperature and reaction time, and chemical analysis (for example OHV, AV, FTIR, NMR and GPC) of the macromolecule synthesized is presented in this paper. (author)

  6. Summary of activities of the Research Branch during 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    A summary of the activities performed during 1983 by the C.N.E.A.'s Research Branch in basic and applied research is given. The main activities and achievements obtained are shown in the following areas: 1) Physics Department: Tandar Project; Experimental Nuclear Physics; Theoretical Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Technical Assistance and Engineering. 2) Reactor's Chemistry Department with its divisions: Radiation Chemistry; Chemical Control; Moderator and Coolant Physical Chemistry. 3) Radiobiology Department: Radiation Pathology; Genetics; Molecular Genetics; Somatic Effects; Radiomicrobiology; Irradiation and Dosimetry; Bioterium. 4) Prospective Department and Special Studies; Nuclear Fusion and Solar Energy and also, Biomathematics; Labelled Molecules and Radiochemistry. (M.E.L.) [es

  7. Assessing Canadian Bank Branch Operating Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang

    2009-10-01

    In today's economy and society, performance analyses in the services industries attract more and more attention. This paper presents an evaluation of 240 branches of one big Canadian bank in Greater Toronto Area using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Special emphasis was placed on how to present the DEA results to management so as to provide more guidance to them on what to manage and how to accomplish the changes. Finally the potential management uses of the DEA results were presented. All the findings are discussed in the context of the Canadian banking market.

  8. A spiritual audit of a retail branch in a South African Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. J. Smith

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not employees in a branch of one of the leading South African banks are spiritually fulfilled at work, whilst living the values of the bank. The results indicate that employees in the branch are spiritually fulfilled at work, that they seem to be “living the values”, and that they believe the branch to be a spiritual workplace. The results are linked to certain interventions in the branch, and these interventions could be replicated across the branch network, reaping the advantages of a spiritual workplace.

  9. Determination of J/ψ leptonic branching fraction via ψ(2S)→π+π-J/ψ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, J.Z.; Bian, J.G.; Chai, Z.W.; Chen, G.P.; Chen, J.C.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y.B.; Chen, Y.Q.; Cheng, B.S.; Cui, X.Z.; Ding, H.L.; Ding, L.Y.; Dong, L.Y.; Du, Z.Z.; Feng, S.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, M.L.; Gao, S.Q.; Gu, J.H.; Gu, S.D.; Gu, W.X.; Gu, Y.F.; Guo, Y.N.; Han, S.W.; Han, Y.; He, J.; He, J.T.; Hu, G.Y.; Hu, H.M.; Hu, J.L.; Hu, Q.H.; Hu, T.; Hu, X.Q.; Huang, J.D.; Huang, Y.Z.; Jiang, C.H.; Jin, Y.; Ke, Z.J.; Lai, Y.F.; Lang, P.F.; Li, C.G.; Li, D.; Li, H.B.; Li, J.; Li, P.Q.; Li, R.B.; Li, W.; Li, W.D.; Li, W.G.; Li, X.H.; Li, X.N.; Liu, H.M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J.H.; Liu, R.G.; Liu, Y.; Lu, F.; Lu, J.G.; Lu, J.Y.; Lu, L.C.; Luo, C.H.; Ma, A.M.; Ma, E.C.; Ma, J.M.; Mao, H.S.; Mao, Z.P.; Meng, X.C.; Nie, J.; Qi, N.D.; Qi, X.R.; Qiu, J.F.; Qu, Y.H.; Que, Y.K.; Rong, G.; Shao, Y.Y.; Shen, B.W.; Shen, D.L.; Shen, H.; Shen, X.Y.; Sheng, H.Y.; Shi, H.Z.; Song, X.F.; Sun, F.; Sun, H.S.; Tang, S.Q.; Tong, G.L.; Wang, F.; Wang, L.S.; Wang, L.Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P.L.; Wang, S.M.; Wang, T.J.; Wang, Y.Y.; Wei, C.L.; Wu, Y.G.; Xi, D.M.; Xia, X.M.; Xie, P.P.; Xie, Y.; Xie, Y.H.; Xiong, W.J.; Xu, C.C.; Xu, G.F.; Xue, S.T.; Yan, J.; Yan, W.G.; Yang, C.M.; Yang, C.Y.; Yang, J.; Yang, X.F.; Ye, M.H.; Yi, K.; Yu, C.S.; Yu, C.X.; Yu, Z.Q.; Yu, Z.T.; Yuan, C.Z.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, B.Y.; Zhang, C.C.; Zhang, D.H.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.L.; Zhang, J.W.; Zhang, L.S.; Zhang, Q.J.; Zhang, S.Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.Y.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhao, H.W.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, W.R.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zheng, J.P.; Zheng, L.S.; Zheng, Z.P.; Zhou, G.P.; Zhou, H.S.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, Q.M.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zhu, Y.S.; Zhuang, B.A.; Hitlin, D.G.; Kelsey, M.H.; Oyang, J.; Panetta, J.; Porter, F.; Weaver, M.; Chen, J.; Malchow, R.; Toki, W.; Yang, W.

    1998-01-01

    A comparison of the rates for ψ(2S)→π + π - J/ψ, J/ψ→l + l - and J/ψ→ anything is used to determine the J/ψ leptonic branching fractions. The results are B(J/ψ→e + e - )=(5.90±0.05±0.10)% and B(J/ψ→μ + μ - )=(5.84±0.06±0.10)%, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Assuming lepton universality, the leptonic branching fraction of the J/ψ is B(J/ψ→l + l - )=(5.87±0.04±0.09)% per species. This result is used to estimate the QCD scale factor Λ MS (4) and the strong coupling constant α s . copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  10. Measurement of the branching ratio of the decay $K_{L} \\to \\pi^{pm}e^{mp}\

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, A; Arcidiacono, R; Barr, G; Becker, H G; Bevan, A; Biino, C; Bizzeti, A; Bocquet, G; Calvetti, Mario; Cartiglia, N; Casali, R; Ceccucci, A; Cenci, P; Cerri, C; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; Chollet, J C; Cirilli, M; Cogan, J; Collazuol, G; Contalbrigo, M; Costantini, F; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Cundy, Donald C; D'Agostini, G; Dalpiaz, P; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Dibon, Heinz; Doble, Niels T; Dosanjh, R S; Duclos, J; Eppard, K; Eppard, M; Falaleev, V; Fantechi, R; Fayard, L; Fiorini, L; Fischer, G; Formica, A; Fox, H; Frabetti, P L; Gaponenko, A N; Gatignon, L; Gershon, T J; Gianoli, A; Giudici, Sergio; Gonidec, A; Gorini, B; Govi, G; Grafström, P; Graziani, G; Guida, R; Hay, B; Holder, M; Khristov, P Z; Iacopini, E; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Imbergamo, E; Jeitler, Manfred; Kalmus, George Ernest; Kalter, A; Kekelidze, V D; Kleinknecht, K; Knowles, I; Koch, U; Köpke, L; Kubischta, Werner; Lacourt, A; Lamanna, G; Lazzeroni, C; Lenti, M; Litov, L; Lubrano, P; Madigozhin, D T; Maier, A; Mannelli, I; Marchetto, F; Markytan, Manfred; Marouelli, P; Marras, D; Martelli, F; Martin, V; Martini, M; Mazzucato, E; Menichetti, E; Mestvirishvili, A; Mikulec, I; Molokanova, N A; Munday, D J; Nappi, A; Nassalski, J P; Neuhofer, G; Norton, A; Ocariz, J; Olaiya, E; Palestini, S; Panzer-Steindel, B; Parker, M A; Pastrone, N; Pellmann, I; Pepé, M; Pernicka, M; Peters, A; Petrucci, F; Peyaud, B; Piccini, M; Pierazzini, G M; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Renk, B; Rondio, Ewa; Sacco, R; Savrié, M; Schmidt, S A; Schönharting, V; Schué, Yu; Sozzi, M; Stoynev, S; Szleper, M; Tatishvili, G T; Taureg, H; Taurok, A; Tkatchev, A; Turlay, René; Unal, G; Vallage, B; Velasco, M; Veltri, M; Wahl, H; Walker, A; Wanke, R; White, T O; Widhalm, L; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winhart, A; Wislicki, W; Wittgen, M; Wotton, S A; Wronka, S; Zinchenko, A I; Ziolkowski, M; Da Silva, P L; De Cassagnac, R G

    2004-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the branching ratio of the decay K /sub L/ to pi /sup +or-/e/sup -or+/ nu , denoted as K/sub e3/ relative to all charged K/sub L/ decays with two tracks, based on data taken with the NA48 detector at the CERN SPS. We measure R=0.4978 +or- 0.0035. From this we derive the K/sub e3/ branching fraction and the weak coupling parameter ¿V/sub us/¿ in the CKM matrix. We obtain |V/sub us/| f/sub +/(0)=0.2146 +or- 0.0016, where f /sub +/(0) is the vector form factor in the K/sub e3/ decay.

  11. Pontine infarction induced by injury of the perforating branch of the basilar artery after blunt head impact: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Youichi; Iwamoto, Shin-ichiro; Nishi, Kouichirou

    2008-08-01

    A 77-year-old male pedestrian was hit by a car. On admission, he had disturbance of consciousness and left hemiplegia. Computed tomography (CT) indicated only left frontal subcutaneous hematoma and minor hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe, suggesting axonal injury. CT on hospital day 2 revealed a low density area in the right paramedian pons, but CT angiography showed no dissection or occlusion of the vertebrobasilar artery. The diagnosis was pontine infarction resulting from shearing force injury to the paramedian branch of the basilar artery. He was transferred to another hospital for rehabilitation without improvement of symptoms on hospital day 51. Paramedian pontine infarction tends to occur in patients with risk factors for arteriosclerosis, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, or smoking. The present elderly patient had hypertension and hyperlipidemia, so arteriosclerosis in the paramedian branch may have contributed to his susceptibility to such injury.

  12. Pressurized hot water extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of polyphenols in Sambucus nigra L. branches in dependence on vegetative period of the plant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hohnová, Barbora; Šalplachta, Jiří; Karásek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2017), s. 299-303 ISSN 1336-8672 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03749S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : PHWE * polyphenols * Sambucus nigra L. branches Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.950, year: 2016

  13. Does the azimuth orientation of Norway spruce (Picea abies/L./Karst.) branches within sunlit crown part influence the heterogeneity of biochemical, structural and spectral characteristics of needles?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lhotáková, Z.; Albrechtová, J.; Malenovský, Zbyněk; Rock, B. N.; Polák, T.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2007), s. 283-297 ISSN 0098-8472 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 658 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : branch azimuth orientation * Norway spruce * chlorophyll * phenolic compounds * needle structure * spectral reflectance indices * remote sensing Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.810, year: 2007

  14. Chemical synthesis of a dual branched malto-decaose: A potential substrate for alpha-amylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damager, Iben; Jensen, Morten; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2005-01-01

    A convergent block strategy for general use in efficient synthesis of complex alpha-(1 -> 4)- and alpha-(1 -> 6)-malto-oligosaccharides is demonstrated with the first chemical synthesis of a malto-oligosaccharide, the decasoccharide 6,6""-bis(alpha-maltosyl)-maltohexaose, with two branch points....... Using this chemically defined branched oligosaccharide as a substrate, the cleavage pattern of seven different alpha-amylases were investigated. alpha-Amylases from human saliva, porcine pancreas, barley alpha-amylose 2 and recombinant barley alpha-amylase 1 all hydrolysed the decasaccharide selectively....... This resulted in a branched hexasaccharide and a branched tetrasoccharide. alpha-Amylases from Asperagillus oryzae, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus sp. cleaved the decasoccharide at two distinct sites, either producing two branched pentasoccharides, or a branched hexasoccharide and a branched...

  15. Branching is coordinated with mitosis in growing hyphae of Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Jens Østergaard; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Filamentous fungi like Aspergillus nidulans can effectively colonize their surroundings by the formation of new branches along the existing hyphae. While growth conditions, chemical perturbations, and mutations affecting branch formation have received great attention during the last decades......, the mechanisms that regulates branching is still poorly understood. In this study, a possible relation between cell cycle progression and branching was studied by testing the effect of a nuclei distribution mutation, cell cycle inhibitors. and conditional cell cycle mutations in combination with tip......-growth inhibitors and varying substrate concentrations on branch initiation. Formation of branches was blocked after inhibition of nuclear division, which was not caused by a reduced growth rate. In hyphae of a nuclei distribution mutant branching was severely reduced in anucleated hyphae whereas the number...

  16. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of hierarchically branched ZnO nanostructures on ensembles of gold nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongaro, Michael; Gambirasi, Arianna; Favaro, Monica; Ugo, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ZnO branched nanofibres for photoelectrochemical applications. ► Branched nanostructures are obtained by electrochemical deposition of ZnO on gold template nanowires. ► Branched nanowires crystallographic phase determined by electron back scatter diffraction. ► Branched structures display improved performances for the photoelectrochemical oxidation of water. - Abstract: This study presents an electrosynthetic methodology to obtain hierarchically structured ZnO electrodes with improved surface area, by exploiting gold nanowires ensembles (3D-NEEs) as the growing substrate. By this way, semiconductor electrodes organized in the shape of fir-like branches are obtained. Branched nanofibres are characterized by electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), the latter technique allowing the determination of the crystalline habit of individual nanostructures. The hierarchical branched nanowires show enhanced performances with respect to water photooxidation in comparison with already known nanostructured materials such as 1D-ZnO nanowires.

  17. Branch-cut singularities in thermodynamics of Fermi liquid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhter, Arkady; Finkel'stein, Alexander M

    2006-10-24

    The recently measured spin susceptibility of the two-dimensional electron gas exhibits a strong dependence on temperature, which is incompatible with the standard Fermi liquid phenomenology. In this article, we show that the observed temperature behavior is inherent to ballistic two-dimensional electrons. Besides the single-particle and collective excitations, the thermodynamics of Fermi liquid systems includes effects of the branch-cut singularities originating from the edges of the continuum of pairs of quasiparticles. As a result of the rescattering induced by interactions, the branch-cut singularities generate nonanalyticities in the thermodynamic potential that reveal themselves in anomalous temperature dependences. Calculation of the spin susceptibility in such a situation requires a nonperturbative treatment of the interactions. As in high-energy physics, a mixture of the collective excitations and pairs of quasiparticles can effectively be described by a pole in the complex momentum plane. This analysis provides a natural explanation for the observed temperature dependence of the spin susceptibility, both in sign and in magnitude.

  18. Measurement of the Branching Fraction for B+- -> chic0 K+-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2003-10-07

    We present a measurement of the branching fraction of the decay B{sup {+-}} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K{sup {+-}} from a sample of 89 million B{bar B} pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. The {chi}{sub c0} meson is reconstructed through its two-body decays to {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and K{sup +}K{sup -}. The authors measure {Beta}(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K{sup {+-}}) x {Beta}({chi}{sub c0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = (1.32 {sub -0.27}{sup +0.28}(stat) {+-} 0.09(syst)) x 10{sup -6} and {Beta}(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {chi}{sub c0}K{sup {+-}}) x {Beta}({chi}{sub c0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}) = (1.49{sub -0.34}{sup +0.36}(stat) {+-} 0.11(syst)) x 10{sup -6}. Using the known values for the {chi}{sub c0} decays branching fractions, they combine these results to obtain {Beta}(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {chi}{sub c0} K{sup {+-}}) = (2.7 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -4}.

  19. Qualitative Macroinvertebrate Assessment of Crouch Branch, June 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch was performed in June 1999 to determine if effluent from the H-02 outfall is impairing the quality of the stream. Concurrent samples were collected for metals analyses (copper and zinc). The results of the study indicate that the stream is most impaired just downstream from the H-02 outfall and that the quality of the stream biota improves with increasing distance from the outfall. Conversely, macroinvertebrate habitat quality is best just downstream from the H-02 outfall. The midreaches of the stream contain very poor habitat quality, and the lower reaches of the stream, contain habitat of intermediate quality. Although much of the stream has degraded habitat due to channel erosion and scouring, there is strong evidence to suggest that the impairment is due to elevated concentrations of copper and zinc that are present in the H-02 effluent. A comparison of macroinvertebrate data collected in 1997 to the data collected in this study indicates that the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch has improved markedly in the last two years

  20. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.