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Sample records for factors atherosclerosis cerebral

  1. Serum uric acid is a risk factor for large-artery atherosclerosis cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Guo; Qingyu Shen; Jie Li; Xiaoming Rong; Ying Peng; Yamei Tang

    2011-01-01

    Using the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification for acute ischemic stroke, 371 patients with either acute large-artery atherosclerosis or small-artery occlusion cerebral infarction were recruited to investigate the potential impact of elevated serum uric acid on cerebrovascular disorders. The results showed that patients who have suffered from large-artery atherosclerosis, relative to small-artery occlusion patients, were characterized by elevated serum uric acid but reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Logistic regression showed that elevated uric acid and lower triglyceride levels were the main risk factors for patients with large-artery atherosclerosis. The findings of this study suggest that hyperuricemia may be a risk factor for stroke.

  2. Vascular risk factors, atherosclerosis, cerebral white matter lesions and cerebral perfusion in a population-based study

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    Claus, J.J. [Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Univ. Medical School, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Breteler, M.M.B. [Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Univ. Medical School, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hasan, D. [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital Rotterdam Dijkzigt, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krenning, E.P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Rotterdam Dijkzigt, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bots, M.L. [Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Univ. Medical School, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Grobbee, D.E. [Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Univ. Medical School, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Swieten, J.C. van [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital Rotterdam Dijkzigt, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Harskamp, F. van [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital Rotterdam Dijkzigt, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hofman, A. [Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Univ. Medical School, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-06-01

    We studied risk factors for cerebral vascular disease (blood pressure and hypertension, factor VIIc, factor VIIIc, fibrinogen), indicators of atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness and plaques in the carotid artery) and cerebral white matter lesions in relation to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 60 persons (aged 65-85 years) recruited from a population-based study. rCBF was assessed with single-photon emission tomography using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression with adjustment for age, sex and ventricle-to-brain ratio. A significant positive association was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and temporo-parietal rCBF. In analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for the relation of low diastolic blood pressure ({<=}60 mmHg) and low temporo-parietal rCBF. Levels of plasma fibrinogen were inversely related to parietal rCBF, with a threshold effect of high fibrinogen levels (>3.2 g/l) and low rCBF. Increased atherosclerosis was related to low rCBF in all cortical regions, but these associations were not significant. No consistent relation was observed between severity of cerebral white matter lesions and rCBF. Our results may have implications for blood pressure control in the elderly population. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of carotid artery intima - media thickness and risk factors of atherosclerosis in lacunar versus non-lacunar cerebral infarcts

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    Seyed Ali Mousavi

    2007-07-01

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    BACKGROUND: Increases in the thickness of the intima-media of the carotid artery have been associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in subjects without a history of cardiovascular disease. Lacunar infarcts, one of the most common subtypes of ischemic stroke, show unique pathological and clinicoradiological characteristics. The present study examined the relationship between the vascular risk factors, including carotid artery intimamedia thickness (IMT, and lacunar versus non-lacunar infarcts.
    METHODS: We collected data from patients admitted to hospital with acute ischemic stroke. 195 Patients and 96 control subjects underwent B-mode ultrasonographic measurements of IMT of the common carotid artery. We examined the association of lacunar and non-lacunar infarcts with age, sex, and potential vascular risk factors.
    RESULTS: Of 195 adult patients with acute ischemic stroke, 87 were considered lacunar and 108 were considered nonlacunar strokes. Between these two groups of patients, we did not find a significantly different percentage of diabetes,
    smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, myocardial infarction, or previous history of ischemic stroke, alcohol, obesity,
    atherogen diet, exercise, and IMT. However, patients with lacunar infarct, diabetes mellitus (P = 0.02, and hypertension
    (P = 0.02 had a significantly higher percentage of history of prior CVA (P = 0.03 and a significantly higher percentage
    of non-lacunar infarct.
    CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicated that diabetes mellitus and hypertension are more common in patients with lacunar infarcts, and history of CVA is more common in patients with non–lacunar infarcts. We further concluded that IMT cannot differentiate subtypes of ischemic stroke. Because risk factors and clinical presentation of ischemic stroke differ among races, more national studies

  4. 脑梗死与颈动脉粥样硬化及相关危险因素分析%Analysis on Cerebral Infarction and Carotid Atherosclerosis and Related Risk Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐妍妍

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨脑梗死与颈动脉粥样硬化及其危险因素与斑块发生的关系.方法 将279例患者分为斑块组201例,非斑块组78例,所有患者都记录既往有或无无高血压、糖尿病、高脂血症及吸烟、饮酒史,并进一步检测血糖及糖耐量、三酰甘油、胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇及血压,行颈动脉超声检查及头颅磁共振成像检查,通过数据统计分析脑梗死和颈动脉粥样硬化及其危险因素与斑块发生的关系.结果 脑梗死组颈动脉粥样硬化斑块发生明显增多(P<0.01);与无斑块组比较,年龄、吸烟、脑梗死、高血压、三酰甘油、胆固醇及低密度脂蛋白胆固醇增高、糖尿病是颈动脉硬化的主要危险因素(P<0.01或P<0.05),差异有统计学意义.结论 颈动脉粥样硬化与脑梗死的关系密切,吸烟、高血压、脂代谢异常、糖尿病是颈动脉硬化的主要危险因素.%Objective To discuss cerebral infarction and carotid atherosclerosis, and the correlation between its risk factors and plaque incidence. Methods 279 cases were divided into plaque group of 201 cases, non plaque group of 78 cases. All patients were recorded of hypertension, diabetes, history of hyperlipi-demia,and smoking, drinking history, and further detection of glucose and glucose tolerance, TG, TC and LDL-cholesterol,blood pressure,carotid ultrasonography and MRI scan were done, correlation between cerebral infarction and carotid atherosclerosis and its risk factors and the occurrence of plaque was analyzed by the statistics. Results Cerebral infarction incidence was significantly higher in carotid atherosclerosis plaque group ( P≤0.01 ); compared to the no plaque group,age,smoking,hypertension,stroke,TG,TC and LDL-cholesterol were higher,diabetes is the major risk factors of carotid artery atherosclerosis ( P≤0.01or P≤0. 05 ), the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion Relationship between carotid

  5. Stroke patients with cerebral microbleeds on MRI scans have arteriolosclerosis as well as systemic atherosclerosis.

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    Shimoyama, Takashi; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Kazumi; Mitsumura, Hidetaka; Sengoku, Renpei; Kono, Yu; Morita, Masayo; Mochio, Soichiro

    2012-10-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are recognized as a manifestation of arteriolosclerosis in cerebral small vessels. However, little is known regarding whether stroke patients with CMBs often have systemic atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to elucidate this issue using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), a new index of systemic atherosclerosis, in acute ischemic stroke patients. We prospectively studied 105 patients (71 males, median age=70.0 years) with acute ischemic stroke. All of the patients were examined using T2*-weighted gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look for and assess the CMBs and using fluid-attenuated inversion recovery to evaluate white matter hyperintensity (WMH). We assigned the patients into CMB and non-CMB groups and compared the clinical characteristics of these groups. The factors associated with CMBs were investigated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. T2*-weighted gradient echo MRI revealed CMBs in 47 patients (44.8%) and no CMBs in 58 patients (55.2%). The CAVI was significantly higher in the CMBs group (10.5 vs. 8.6, PCMBs. A high CAVI was independently associated with CMBs in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Our results indicated that ischemic stroke patients with CMBs may have cerebral arteriolosclerosis as well as systemic atherosclerosis.

  6. Atherosclerosis: Process, Indicators, Risk Factors and New Hopes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Atherosclerosis is the major cause of morbidities and mortalities worldwide. In this study we aimed to review the mechanism of atherosclerosis and its risk factors, focusing on new findings in atherosclerosis markers and its risk factors. Furthermore, the role of antioxidants and medicinal herbs in atherosclerosis and endothelial damage has been discussed and a list of important medicinal plants effective in the treatment and prevention of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis is pre...

  7. Aortic arch and intra-/extracranial cerebral arterial atherosclerosis in patients suffering acute ischemic strokes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭毅; 姜昕; 陈实; 张少文; 赵宏文; 吴瑛

    2003-01-01

    cerebral embolic strokes. The presence of carotid arterial plaques correlates with AAA incidence. Most of carotid artery lesion were plaques other than severe stenosis, it may be the character of carotid atherosclerosis of stroke patients. It appears that atherosclerosis does not mainly occur in the intracranial arteries in stroke patients as thought before. Aged, male, diabetes, and smoking are important risk factors to the AAA.

  8. Atherosclerosis: Process, Indicators, Risk Factors and New Hopes

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    Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The pathogenesis factors involved in atherosclerosis have recently been cleared and the discovery of these factors has brought about new hopes for better prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  9. The relationship of carotid,femoral atherosclerosis and its related factors with cerebral infarction%颈动脉、股动脉粥样硬化及其相关因素与脑梗死的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于峰; 姚晓霞; 韩伏莅

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨脑梗死患者颈动脉、股动脉粥样硬化及其相关因素的关系.方法:对409例脑梗死患者(脑梗死组)与104例非脑梗死患者(对照组)行颈动脉、股动脉血管超声检查和血液生化检查,比较2组间动脉粥样硬化斑块及其相关危险因素.结果:脑梗死组颈总、颈内、股总动脉斑块检出率分别为75.1%、66.5%、38.1%,均明显高于对照组的25.0%、20.2%和16.3%(P<0.01);脑梗死组颈动脉内中膜厚度(IMT)(1.5±0.42) mm及斑块积分(2.74±0.15)、股动脉IMT(1.34±0.37) mm及斑块积分(2.26±0.29)均明显高于对照组颈动脉IMT(0.9±0.53) mm及斑块积分(1.13±0.27)、股动脉IMT(0.79±0.31) mm及斑块积分(1.03±0.16)(P<0.01);脑梗死组总胆固醇、甘油三酯、低、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇、纤维蛋白原和尿酸水平均高于对照组(P<0.05~P<0.01).结论:高脂血症、高尿酸血症、颈动脉斑块及股动脉斑块是脑梗死的危险因素;通过检查血脂、血尿酸、颈动脉斑块、股动脉斑块可早期预防脑梗死,降低脑梗死的患病率及致残率.%Objective: To evaluate the relationship of carotid, femoral atherosclerosis and its related factors with cerebral infarction .Methods: Four hundred and nine patients with cerebral infarction were detected by Cobr Doppler and the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, fibrinogen, uric acid were evaluated, and compared with those of 104 patients who had no cerebral infarction in control group. Results: The plaque detection rates of cerebral carotid, internal carotid and fenoral artery were 75.1% ,66.5% ,38.1% , respectively, which were significantly higher than tiose in control group,25. 0% ,20. 2% and 16.3%(P <0. 01). Carotid artery intima-media thickness( MT) (1. 5 ±0.42) mm and plaque score(2. 74 ±0. 15), femoral artery MT(1.34 ±0. 37) mm and plaque score(2. 26 ±0. 29) in cerebral infarction group were significantly higher

  10. Environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis

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    Andrzej Brodziak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present an overview of recent findings on the environmental and behavioral factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis. The authors primarily concentrated on deliberations of possibile main causes of the damage of the endothelium. At the same time the following pathogenic mechanisms as cellular dysfunction, inflammation and coagulation disorders have been enumerated. The links between the state of the vascular endothelium and life style have been emphasized. It is also important to note that the primary causes of the endothelial damage should be traced as originally suggested many years ago viewing such factors as anger, hostility, aggression, impulsiveness and depression but with a new approach. The authors supplement the comments, on the environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis, with basic data on family predisposition to the development of this disease. They highlight that current genetic research have not determined genes responsible for atheroscelosis. According to the authors the considerations and conclusions presented in this overview are important for the educational purposes related to the most frequent disease process resulting in many diseases in medical disciplines.

  11. Periodontitis as a Risk Factor of Atherosclerosis

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    Jirina Bartova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the amount of evidence corroborating an association between dental plaque bacteria and coronary diseases that develop as a result of atherosclerosis has increased. These findings have brought a new aspect to the etiology of the disease. There are several mechanisms by which dental plaque bacteria may initiate or worsen atherosclerotic processes: activation of innate immunity, bacteremia related to dental treatment, and direct involvement of mediators activated by dental plaque and involvement of cytokines and heat shock proteins from dental plaque bacteria. There are common predisposing factors which influence both periodontitis and atherosclerosis. Both diseases can be initiated in early childhood, although the first symptoms may not appear until adulthood. The formation of lipid stripes has been reported in 10-year-old children and the increased prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a risk factor contributing to lipid stripes development. Endothelium damage caused by the formation of lipid stripes in early childhood may lead to bacteria penetrating into blood circulation after oral cavity procedures for children as well as for patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis.

  12. Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries. Plaque is a sticky substance ... flow of oxygen-rich blood to your body. Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including Coronary artery ...

  13. SAMHD1 Gene Mutations Are Associated with Cerebral Large-Artery Atherosclerosis.

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    Li, Wei; Xin, Baozhong; Yan, Junpeng; Wu, Ying; Hu, Bo; Liu, Liping; Wang, Yilong; Ahn, Jinwoo; Skowronski, Jacek; Zhang, Zaiqiang; Wang, Yongjun; Wang, Heng

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether one or more SAMHD1 gene mutations are associated with cerebrovascular disease in the general population using a Chinese stroke cohort. Patients with a Chinese Han background (N = 300) diagnosed with either cerebral large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA, n = 100), cerebral small vessel disease (SVD, n = 100), or other stroke-free neurological disorders (control, n = 100) were recruited. Genomic DNA from the whole blood of each patient was isolated, and direct sequencing of the SAMHD1 gene was performed. Both wild type and mutant SAMHD1 proteins identified from the patients were expressed in E. coli and purified; then their dNTPase activities and ability to form stable tetramers were analysed in vitro. Three heterozygous mutations, including two missense mutations c.64C>T (P22S) and c.841G>A (p.E281K) and one splice site mutation c.696+2T>A, were identified in the LAA group with a prevalence of 3%. No mutations were found in the patients with SVD or the controls (p = 0.05). The mutant SAMHD1 proteins were functionally impaired in terms of their catalytic activity as a dNTPase and ability to assemble stable tetramers. Heterozygous SAMHD1 gene mutations might cause genetic predispositions that interact with other risk factors, resulting in increased vulnerability to stroke.

  14. SAMHD1 Gene Mutations Are Associated with Cerebral Large-Artery Atherosclerosis

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    Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate whether one or more SAMHD1 gene mutations are associated with cerebrovascular disease in the general population using a Chinese stroke cohort. Methods. Patients with a Chinese Han background (N=300 diagnosed with either cerebral large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA, n=100, cerebral small vessel disease (SVD, n=100, or other stroke-free neurological disorders (control, n=100 were recruited. Genomic DNA from the whole blood of each patient was isolated, and direct sequencing of the SAMHD1 gene was performed. Both wild type and mutant SAMHD1 proteins identified from the patients were expressed in E. coli and purified; then their dNTPase activities and ability to form stable tetramers were analysed in vitro. Results. Three heterozygous mutations, including two missense mutations c.64C>T (P22S and c.841G>A (p.E281K and one splice site mutation c.696+2T>A, were identified in the LAA group with a prevalence of 3%. No mutations were found in the patients with SVD or the controls (p=0.05. The mutant SAMHD1 proteins were functionally impaired in terms of their catalytic activity as a dNTPase and ability to assemble stable tetramers. Conclusions. Heterozygous SAMHD1 gene mutations might cause genetic predispositions that interact with other risk factors, resulting in increased vulnerability to stroke.

  15. Independent Correlation of Serum Homocysteine with Cerebral Microbleeds in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke due to Large-Artery Atherosclerosis.

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    Wang, Bian-Rong; Ou, Zhou; Jiang, Teng; Zhang, Ying-Dong; Zhao, Hong-Dong; Tian, You-Yong; Shi, Jian-Quan; Zhou, Jun-Shan

    2016-11-01

    The severity of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) affected the prognosis of patients with acute cerebrovascular disease. Considering the impact of CMBs on clinical decision, it is necessary to assess the risk factors of CMBs. We aimed to evaluate the independent risk factors of CMBs in patients with acute ischemic stroke of large-artery atherosclerosis. 112 patients were enrolled in the study. The baseline information, the results of laboratory examination and cranial MRI were collected. The independent risk factors of CMBs in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large-artery atherosclerosis were evaluated. CMBs were found in 56 (50%) patients. Older age and higher homocysteine (Hcy) level were associated with an elevated chance of occurrence of CMBs. Further, there was a positive correlation between CMBs grade and serum Hcy level. Serum Hcy level is strongly associated with the presence of CMBs in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large-artery atherosclerosis. Serum Hcy level may be a potential therapeutic target for alleviating adverse clinical outcomes of CMBs. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intracranial angioplasty and stenting for cerebral atherosclerosis: new treatments for stroke are needed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashida, Randall T. [San Francisco Medical Center, Division of Interventional Neurovascular Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Meyers, Philip M. [Columbia University, The Neurological Institute, New York Presbyterian Hospitals, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Intracranial atherosclerosis is a common cause of stroke. Recent technological developments offer improved methods for endovascular revascularization of symptomatic and asymptomatic cerebral artery stenosis. Identification of appropriate patients remains a diagnostic challenge, and our knowledge about the natural history of the disease remains limited. At this time, patients with significant intracranial stenosis should receive counseling on the benefits and risks of revascularization therapy. Ultimately, determination of which patients should undergo revascularization procedures will require carefully planned, randomized clinical trials. (orig.)

  17. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

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    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in the study group. MATERIA LS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to assess possible associated antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Mothers of 100 cerebral palsy children were selected who are treated in Rani Chandramani Devi Hospital, a Government hospital in Visakhapa tn am, Andhra Pradesh State, India , from 2012 to 2014 and 100 controls, mothers of normal children were studied. Detailed antenatal history was obtained from the mothers of the children in both affected and control group. RESULTS: From the data, we conclude that the association of maternal anaemia with cerebral palsy is 7.3 times higher; association of maternal hypertension with cerebral palsy is 6.6 time higher, association with Pre - eclampsia is 6 times higher; association with Eclampsia is 8.6 times higher ; with antepartum haemorrhage, the association is 8.6 times higher and association of multiple pregnancy with cerebral palsy is 4.8 times higher than with controls. CONCLUSION: From this study of the role of antenatal risk factors, in the occurrence of cer ebral palsy in children it is concluded that the most common risk factor associated with cerebral palsy is the maternal anaemia and the other important risk factors associated being hypertension, pre eclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and multipl e births.

  18. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms as risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis

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    Zurnić Irena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Atherosclerosis is still the leading cause of death in Western world. Development of atherosclerotic plaque involves accumulation of inflammatory cells, lipids, smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix proteins in the intima of the vascular wall. Apolipoprotein E participates in the transport of exogenous cholesterol, endogenouly synthesized lipids and triglycerides in the organism. Apolipoprotein E gene has been identified as one of the candidate genes for atherosclerosis. Previous studies in different populations have clearly implicated apolipoprotein E genetic variation (ε polymorphisms as a major modulator of low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Data considering apolipoprotein E polymorphisms in relation to carotid atherosclerosis gave results that are not in full compliance. The aim of present study was to investigate the apolipoprotein E polymorphisms in association with carotid plaque presence, apolipoprotein E and lipid serum levels in patients with carotid atherosclerosis from Serbia. Methods. The study group enrolled 495 participants: 285 controls and 210 consecutive patients with carotid atherosclerosis who underwent carotid endarterectomy. Genotyping of apolipoprotein E polymorphisms were done using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Results. Patients had significantly decreased frequency of the ε2 allele compared to controls. Patients who carry at least one ε2 allele had a significantly higher level of serum apolipoprotein E and significantly lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to those who do not carry this allele. Conclusion. Our results suggest protective effect of apolipoprotein E ε2 allele on susceptibility for carotid plaque presence as well as low density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering effect in Serbian patients with carotid atherosclerosis. Further research of multiple gene and environmental factors that contribute to the

  19. Iron and hepcidin as risk factors in atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galesloot, Tessel E; Janss, Luc L; Burgess, Stephen;

    2015-01-01

    -wide association meta-analysis on iron status, and assessed associations of individual SNPs and quartiles of a multi-SNP score with NIMA. Quartile 4 versus quartile 1 of the multi-SNP score showed directionally consistent associations with the hypothesized direction of effect for all NIMA in women, indicating...... that increased body iron status is a risk factor for atherosclerosis in women. We observed no single SNP associations that fit the hypothesized directions of effect between iron and NIMA, except for rs651007, associated with decreased ferritin concentration and decreased atherosclerosis risk. Two of six NIMA......-related SNPs showed association with the ratio hepcidin/ferritin, suggesting that an increased hepcidin/ferritin ratio increases atherosclerosis risk. Genomic correlations were close to zero, except for hepcidin and ferritin with ABI at rest [-0.27 (SE 0.34) and -0.22 (SE 0.35), respectively] and ABI after...

  20. Dialysis modalities as risk factors in the development of atherosclerosis

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    Damjanović Tatjana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Atherosclerosis is a major risk factor for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. First clinical symptoms are usually associated with initial atherosclerotic changes of blood vessels. The aim of this study was ultrasound evaluation of intimae media thickness (IMT of carotid arteries in dialysis patients and its correlation with certain risk factors. Patients and methods IMT was measured in 45 dialysis patients with no signs of cardiovascular diseases:15 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients, 30 haemodialysis (HD patients and in 20 healthy controls. IMT was correlated with certain risk factors for atherosclerosis (general parameters - age, gender, duration of dialysis cause of renal diseases, parameters of nutrition, parameters of calcium and phosphorus metabolism, lipid parameters, blood pressure and smoking. Results The mean carotid artery IMT was significantly higher in dialysis patients than in the control group (p<0.05. In addition, the mean IMT was statistically significantly higher in PD than in HD patients (p<0.05. In CAPD patients there was a significant correlation between IMT and total and LDL cholesterol. In the second group (HD patients IMT was significantly correlated with diastolic blood pressure, BMI and smoking. Conclusion Although atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease may not manifest in dialysis patients, IMT of carotid arteries significantly increases. Major risk factors affecting IMT are lipid disturbances in patients on peritoneal dialysis and hypertension, obesity and smoking in HD patients.

  1. Factor VIII deficiency does not protect against atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biere-Rafi, S.; Tuinenburg, A.; Haak, B.W.; Peters, M.; Huijgen, R.; de Groot, E.; Verhamme, P.; Peerlinck, K.; Visseren, F.L.J.; Kruip, M.J.H.A.; Laros-van Gorkom, B.A.P.; Gerdes, V.E.A.; Buller, H.R.; Schutgens, R.E.G.; Kamphuisen, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary. Background: Hemophilia A patients have a lower cardiovascular mortality rate than the general population. Whether this protection is caused by hypocoagulability or decreased atherogenesis is unclear. Objectives: To evaluate atherosclerosis and endothelial function in hemophilia A patients w

  2. Analysis of danger factors between cerebral infarction due to penetrating artery disease and large artery atherosclerosis%穿支动脉疾病与大动脉粥样硬化性脑梗死危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍会永; 李立红; 曹凌; 赵现; 李军涛

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨穿支动脉疾病性脑梗死和大动脉粥样硬化性脑梗死的危险因素,为二者的预防、治疗提供依据.方法 将113例急性脑梗死患者按中国缺血性卒中亚型(CISS)的病因分型分为大动脉粥样硬化(LAA)脑梗死组64例和穿支动脉疾病(PAD)脑梗死组49例.对入组的患者进行常见可变危险因素的筛查,包括高血压、糖尿病、代谢综合征和心脏病(冠心病),并进行统计学分析.结果 LAA脑梗死组中有34例(53%)患者合并代谢综合征,19例(30%)患者合并心脏病,PAD脑梗死组分别为13例(26%)和4例(8%),2组比较有显著性差异(P均<0.01);PAD脑梗死组合并糖尿病27例(55%),LAA脑梗死组合并糖尿病21例(33%),2组比较有显著性差异(P<0.05);2组在合并高血压方面无显著性差异.结论 PAD脑梗死在危险因素上与LAA脑梗死有差别,糖尿病为罹患PAD脑梗死危险因素,LAA脑梗死更多见于合并代谢综合征、冠心病者.%Objective It si to explore the danger factors between cerebral infarction ( CI ) due to penetrating artery disease ( PAD ) and large artery atherosclerosis( LAA ), and to provide evidences for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. Methods 113 cases who suffered from acute CI were divided into two groups according to Chinese Ischemic Stroke Subclassifi-cation ( CISS ) including LAA CI group ( n = 64 ) and PAD CI group ( n = 49 ). The danger factor screening was performed on in the patients collected, including hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and heart disease( coronary heart disease). Statistics was used to analyze the differences. Results There were 34 cases ( 53% ) complicating with metabolic syndrome, 19 cases ( 30% ) with heart disease in LAA CI group, and that in PAD CI group were 13 cases ( 26% ) and 4 cases ( 8% ) respectively. The differences between the two groups were significant ( P <0.01 ). There were 21 cases ( 33% ) complicating with diabetes in LAA CI group

  3. Risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis in young women with hyperprolactinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medic-Stojanoska, Milica; Icin, Tijana; Pletikosic, Ivana; Bajkin, Ivana; Novakovic-Paro, Jovanka; Stokic, Edita; Spasic, Dragan T; Kovacev-Zavisic, Branka; Abenavoli, Ludovico

    2015-04-01

    Prolactin is a metabolic hormone. The hypothesis is that hyperprolactinemia can cause metabolic and inflammatory changes which are associated with accelerated atherosclerotic process, but the treatment of hyperprolactinemia with dopamine agonists, leads to reversibility of these processes. The first aim of this study was to determine whether hyperprolactinemia in premenopausal women is accompanied with the increase in body mass index (BMI), changes in body composition, lipid disturbances, the presence of inflammation and changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure as risk factors for the development of early atherosclerosis. The second aim was to know whether the therapy of hyperprolactinemia and prolactin normalization lead to improvement of the observed parameters. Twenty female patients with prolactinomas, before and during treatment with dopamine agonists and 16 healthy controls were evaluated. Prolactin, BMI, total body fat, free fat mass, total body water, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and fibrinogen as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at baseline and during the therapy. Hyperprolactinemic patients had pathologic and significantly higher levels of prolactin (PRL) than the controls (p=0.000). The BMI, body fat, total body water (TBW), total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL were in normal range and higher in the patients than in the controls. HDL was lower in hyperprolactinemic females than controls. The difference was significant only for body fat (fat % p=0.006; fat kg p=0.009). Fibrinogen was slightly increased in patients compared with the controls. Hyperprolactinemic patients had normal, but increased levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with the controls. The difference with border significance was found in diastolic blood pressure (p=0.065). The correlation of PRL with all the observed parameters was positive apart from HDL, but relatively

  4. Risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yutaka; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Doi, Yasufumi; Kubo, Michiaki; Iida, Mitsuo; Sueishi, Katsuo

    2009-01-01

    To investigate risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis in men and women in the recent general Japanese population, we examined coronary arteries obtained from subjects autopsied in the Hisayama cohort study (autopsy rate: 78.7%). The subjects were over 40 years of age and consisted of 125 men and 108 women. They underwent an antemortem medical examination in 1988 and were subject to autopsy at death during an 8-year follow-up period. Atherosclerosis was globally assessed by examining 14 specimens taken from wide areas of epicardial coronary arteries and classified into 6 grades. The frequency of more severe grades of coronary atherosclerosis increased with age in both genders and was greater in men than in women of the same age. Multiple regression analysis revealed that age, systolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and hemoglobin A(1C) were significant risk factors for men. Age, systolic blood pressure, and waist to hip ratio were risk factors for women. Smoking was not significantly correlated with the grade of coronary atherosclerosis in either gender. Thus, aging, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and glucose intolerance are risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis in recent Japanese populations, and the significance of the metabolic risk factors is different between men and women.

  5. Age, gender and hypertension as major risk factors in development of subclinical atherosclerosis

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    Ajla Rahimić Ćatić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intima-media thickness (IMT measurement of the common carotid artery (CCA is considered as useful indicator of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors is important to prevent stroke and heart diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate which risk factors are better determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by common carotidartery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT.Methods: A total of 74 subjects were randomly selected in this cross – sectional study. Information on the patient’s medical history and laboratory fi ndings were obtained from their clinical records. Risk factors relevant to this study were age, gender, cigarette smoking status, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ultrasound scanning of carotid arteries was performed with a 7,5 MHz linear array transducer (GE Voluson730 pro. The highest value of six common carotid artery measurements was taken as the fi nal IMT. Increased CCA-IMT was defi ned when it was > 1 mm.Results: Our data demonstrated higher CCA-IMT values in male patients compared with female patients. Increased CCA-IMT was the most closely related to age (PConclusion: Age, gender and hypertension are the most important risk factors in development of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis among high-risk populations is important in order to prevent stroke and heart diseases, which are leading causes of death worldwide.

  6. Risk Factors for Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvis, Suzanne M; Middeldorp, Saskia; Zuurbier, Susanna M; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Coutinho, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare thrombotic disorder involving the cerebral veins and dural sinuses. In contrast to more common sites of venous thromboembolism (VTE), such as the legs and lungs, CVT mainly affects young adults and children, and women are affected three times more often than men. Although presenting symptoms are variable, headache is usually the first symptom, often in combination with focal neurologic deficits and epileptic seizures. The primary therapy for CVT consists of heparin followed by oral anticoagulation for at least 3 to 6 months. The mortality in the acute phase is 5 to 10% and a substantial proportion of survivors suffer from long-term disabilities. A large number of risk factors have been linked to CVT, although the scientific evidence for an association varies considerably between risk factors. Some risk factors, such as hereditary thrombophilia, correspond with risk factors for more common sites of VTE, whereas others, such as head trauma, are specific to CVT. In most patients, at least one risk factor can be identified. In this review, we provide an overview of the risk factors for CVT.

  7. Associations of cardiovascular disease risk factors and calcified atherosclerosis with aortoiliac bifurcation position: the MultiEthnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbang, Nketi I; Ix, Joachim H; Allison, Matthew A; Criqui, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    We investigated associations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and calcified atherosclerosis with aortoiliac bifurcation position. The bifurcation position was determined by measuring the distance from the aortoiliac bifurcation to the L5-S1 disk space (or aortoiliac bifurcation distance [AIBD]), using computed tomography scans. The 1711 study participants (51% male) had a mean age of 62 ± 10 years and a mean AIBD of 26 ± 15 mm. In multivariable linear regression, older age, male gender, smoking, hypertension, larger aortic diameter, and smaller lumbar height were each independently associated with a smaller AIBD (more caudal bifurcation position). In contrast, diabetes, elevated triglycerides, and increased pulse pressure were independently associated with a larger AIBD (more cephalad bifurcation position). These findings suggest that age-related bifurcation descent is associated with CVD markers for aortic disease. Future studies should assess whether the bifurcation position is an independent prognosticator for CVD. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Iron and hepcidin as risk factors in atherosclerosis: what do the genes say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galesloot, Tessel E; Janss, Luc L; Burgess, Stephen; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; den Heijer, Martin; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Holewijn, Suzanne; Benyamin, Beben; Whitfield, John B; Swinkels, Dorine W; Vermeulen, Sita H

    2015-07-11

    Previous reports suggested a role for iron and hepcidin in atherosclerosis. Here, we evaluated the causality of these associations from a genetic perspective via (i) a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach, (ii) study of association of atherosclerosis-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with iron and hepcidin, and (iii) estimation of genomic correlations between hepcidin, iron and atherosclerosis. Analyses were performed in a general population sample. Iron parameters (serum iron, serum ferritin, total iron-binding capacity and transferrin saturation), serum hepcidin and genome-wide SNP data were available for N = 1,819; non-invasive measurements of atherosclerosis (NIMA), i.e., presence of plaque, intima media thickness and ankle-brachial index (ABI), for N = 549. For the MR, we used 12 iron-related SNPs that were previously identified in a genome-wide association meta-analysis on iron status, and assessed associations of individual SNPs and quartiles of a multi-SNP score with NIMA. Quartile 4 versus quartile 1 of the multi-SNP score showed directionally consistent associations with the hypothesized direction of effect for all NIMA in women, indicating that increased body iron status is a risk factor for atherosclerosis in women. We observed no single SNP associations that fit the hypothesized directions of effect between iron and NIMA, except for rs651007, associated with decreased ferritin concentration and decreased atherosclerosis risk. Two of six NIMA-related SNPs showed association with the ratio hepcidin/ferritin, suggesting that an increased hepcidin/ferritin ratio increases atherosclerosis risk. Genomic correlations were close to zero, except for hepcidin and ferritin with ABI at rest [-0.27 (SE 0.34) and -0.22 (SE 0.35), respectively] and ABI after exercise [-0.29 (SE 0.34) and -0.30 (0.35), respectively]. The negative sign indicates an increased atherosclerosis risk with increased hepcidin and ferritin concentrations. Our results suggest a

  9. The association between different definitions on metabolicsyndrome and cerebral atherosclerosis%不同诊断标准代谢综合征与脑动脉粥样硬化病变的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 刘俊艳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess definition whid was optimal for chinese on Metabolic Syndrome ( MS ). Methods 1903 individuals for health physical examination were enrolled and MS patients were identified with three definitions of MS respectively. To analyze the association between MS and Cerebral Atherosclerosis. Result The prevalence of MS was 14. 14% ,27. 33% and 29. 69% according to CDS, IDF and ATPIH definition and the corresponding Cerebral Atherosclerosis in MS was 20. 07%, 15. 77% and 17. 17 % respectively ( x = 2. 307, P = 0. 315 ). Logistic analysis showed that MS wasn't an independent risk factor of Cerebral Atherosclerosis and the effect of MS on predicting ischemic events depended on hyperglycemia and hypertension. The hyperglycemia in CDS definition significantly increased the risk of Cerebral Atherosclerosis with correlation coefficients value 0. 734( IDF, ATPIII all = 0.651, Z value =2.02, P<0.05 ). Similar result was obtained about hypertension in CDS definition and cerebral atherosclerosis ( Z = 1. 97 ,P <0. 05 ). Conclusion The effect of MS cerebral atherosclerosis depends on MS components and the cutoff value of hyperglycemia and hypertension in CDS is more suitable of Chinese for screening the high risk group of ischemic events.%目的 探寻更适用于国人的代谢综合征(MS)诊断标准.方法 以1903例健康体检个体为研究对象,比较经不同标准诊断的MS与脑动脉粥样硬化性病变的相关性.结果 ①1903例个体中,经CDS、IDF及改良NCEP ATPⅢ标准诊断的MS患者率分别为14.14%、27.33%及29.69%(χ2=147.78,P<0.0001),相应脑动脉粥样硬化性病变的发生率分别为20.07%、15.77%和17.17%(χ2=2.307,P=0.315).②多因素Logistic回归分析,MS患者增加脑动脉闭塞病变发病风险的作用依赖于其危险组分高血糖、高血压.将三种MS诊断标准中使用的高血糖、高血压与脑动脉闭塞病变的关联相关系数进行比较显示,CDS标准中高血糖、高血压与脑

  10. Suppressive impact of anethum graveolens consumption on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbubeh Setorki

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: A. graveolens might have some protective values against atherosclerosis and that it significantly affects some biochemical risk factors of this disease. Our findings also confirm the potential harmful effects of oxidized fats and the importance of dietary polyphenols in the meal.

  11. Femoral and carotid subclinical atherosclerosis association with risk factors and coronary calcium: the AWHS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Early subclinical atherosclerosis has been mainly researched in carotid arteries. The potential value of femoral arteries for improving the predictive capacity of traditional risk factors is an understudied area. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the association of subclinical ca...

  12. Who Is at Risk for Atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for Atherosclerosis? The exact cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. ... role in atherosclerosis risk. Other Factors That Affect Atherosclerosis Other factors also may raise your risk for ...

  13. Risk factors of atherosclerosis and clinical and morphological comparisons in systemic vasculitides

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    Leonid Aleksandrovich Strizhakov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence rates of angina, myocardial infarction (MI, stroke, and the frequency of endovascular interventions in patients with systemic vasculitides, and the incidence rate of atherosclerosis according to autopsy data. Subjects and methods. Three hundred and twenty-one patients with systemic vasculitides: Wegener's granulomatosis (n = 138, Takayasu's arteritis (n = 79, polyarteritis nodosum (n = 55, and Churg-Strauss syndrome (n = 49 were examined; 55 autopsies were analyzed in patients with the above diseases. Results. Fifty-one (15.6% of the 321 patients were diagnosed as having cardiovascular diseases (CVD: angina pectoris (7.1% and MI (3.1% and endovascular interventions (0.9%. The risk of cardiovascular events was found to be associated with traditional risk factors, such as male gender and age. Arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and increased serum creatinine were more frequently detected in the CVD group that showed no significant differences from the non-CVD group. According to autopsy results, atherosclerosis was identified in the patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (52%, Takayasu's arteritis (50%, polyarteritis nodosum (52.6%, and Churg-Strauss syndrome (57.1%. Conclusion. CVD and atherosclerosis are common in systemic vasculitides, which requires the traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis to be actively corrected.

  14. Association factor analysis between osteoporosis with cerebral artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Eun-Sun; Jeong, Je Hoon; Lee, Bora; Im, Soo Bin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical association factors between osteoporosis and cerebral artery disease in Korean population. Two hundred nineteen postmenopausal women and men undergoing cerebral computed tomography angiography were enrolled in this study to evaluate the cerebral artery disease by cross-sectional study. Cerebral artery disease was diagnosed if there was narrowing of 50% higher diameter in one or more cerebral vessel artery or presence of vascular calcification. History of osteoporotic fracture was assessed using medical record, and radiographic data such as simple radiography, MRI, and bone scan. Bone mineral density was checked by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We reviewed clinical characteristics in all patients and also performed subgroup analysis for total or extracranial/ intracranial cerebral artery disease group retrospectively. We performed statistical analysis by means of chi-square test or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Student's t-test or Wilcoxon's rank sum test for continuous variables. We also used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the factors associated with the prevalence of cerebral artery disease. A two-tailed p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using R (version 3.1.3; The R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) and SPSS (version 14.0; SPSS, Inc, Chicago, Ill, USA). Of the 219 patients, 142 had cerebral artery disease. All vertebral fracture was observed in 29 (13.24%) patients. There was significant difference in hip fracture according to the presence or absence of cerebral artery disease. In logistic regression analysis, osteoporotic hip fracture was significantly associated with extracranial cerebral artery disease after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Females with osteoporotic hip fracture were associated with total calcified

  15. Risk factors and early detection of atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Lodewijk; Posthumus, Marcel D.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Bijl, Marc

    2010-01-01

    P>Background Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). This cannot be explained alone by the increased prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors like smoking and hypertension. Other factors therefore seem to be

  16. Study on the Relationship of Carotid Atherosclerosis and Acute Cerebral Infarction%颈动脉粥样硬化程度与急性脑梗死相关性探讨研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈雪莉; 张斯萌; 隹梦遥; 戚其学

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate carotid atherosclerosis risk factors and sclerosis hardenability in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Methods 60 cases of acute cerebral infarction patients,the normal physical exam compares 40 cases,two groups of patients on blood glucose,blood lipids,fibrinogen,blood pressure,carotid atherosclerosis were compared,while carotid atherosclerosis the degree of clinical manifestations of patients with cerebral infarction were compared to explore the correlation between them Results The acute cerebral infarction group and the normal control group,blood glucose,cholesterol,low density lipoprotein,fibrinogen levels and high blood pressure,smoking,drinking rates were significantly higher(P<0.05),carotid artery intimal thickness of atherosclerotic plaque formation and stenosis rate,there were significant differences between the two groups(P<0.05),carotid atherosclerotic plaque,stenosis <50% and≥50% of the clinical symptoms of cerebral infarction patients with different neurological deficit score(NIHSS score) compared with significant difference(P<0.05).Conclusion The blood glucose,blood lipids,fibrinogen level increased and carotid atherosclerosis,hypertension,smoking,alcohol risk factors of acute cerebral infarction,carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque and the degree of stenosis are closely related to the severity of patients.%目的 探讨颈动脉粥样硬化的危险因素及硬化程度与急性脑梗死的相关性.方法 选择急性脑梗死病例60例,正常健康体检对照40名,对其血糖、血脂、纤维蛋白原、血压、颈动脉粥样硬化程度等进行对照分析,同时将颈动脉粥样硬化的程度与脑梗死病人临床表现进行对照分析,探讨它们之间的相关性.结果 急性脑梗死组与正常对照组相比,血糖、胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白(LDH-C)、纤维蛋白原(FIB)含量以及高血压、吸烟、饮酒者比率均明显增高(P<0.05),颈动脉粥样硬化内膜

  17. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Protects against Atherosclerosis via Fine-Tuning the Multiorgan Crosstalk

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    Leigang Jin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a metabolic hormone with pleiotropic effects on energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Besides its antiobese and antidiabetic activity, FGF21 also possesses the protective effects against atherosclerosis. Circulating levels of FGF21 are elevated in patients with atherosclerosis, macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes, possibly due to a compensatory upregulation. In apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, formation of atherosclerotic plaques is exacerbated by genetic depletion of FGF21, but is attenuated upon replenishment with recombinant FGF21. However, the blood vessel is not the direct target of FGF21, and the antiatherosclerotic activity of FGF21 is attributed to its actions in adipose tissues and liver. In adipocytes, FGF21 promotes secretion of adiponectin, which in turn acts directly on blood vessels to reduce endothelial dysfunction, inhibit proliferation of smooth muscle cells and block conversion of macrophages to foam cells. Furthermore, FGF21 suppresses cholesterol biosynthesis and attenuates hypercholesterolemia by inhibiting the transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 in hepatocytes. The effects of FGF21 on elevation of adiponectin and reduction of hypercholesterolemia are also observed in a phase-1b clinical trial in patients with obesity and diabetes. Therefore, FGF21 exerts its protection against atherosclerosis by fine-tuning the interorgan crosstalk between liver, brain, adipose tissue, and blood vessels.

  18. [Atypical risk factors of atherosclerosis in patients with hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhaĭlenko, O Iu

    2013-09-01

    The non-traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic lesions of the cardiovascular system (C-reactive protein, uric acid, fibrinogen, homocysteine) in blood plasma of patients with manifestative hypothyroidism at the age of 23 to 73 years were assessed in the study. An increase in the average values of C-reactive protein was revealed in patients with hypothyroidism without arterial hypertension (AH), as well as under its presence, and increased BMI. Uric acid level also was increased with the combination of hypothyroidism and hypertension. Average level of fibrinogen was within the values of the control group and increased only in 23.4% of patients with hypothyroidism. Homocysteine content was elevated in 32% of patients and was not associated with the presence of AH. Increased levels of these markers of cardiovascular lesions risk coincided with the increased diameter of the common carotid artery.

  19. Myeloid-Specific Krüppel-Like Factor 2 Inactivation Increases Macrophage and Neutrophil Adhesion and Promotes Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingrel, Jerry B; Pilcher-Roberts, Robyn; Basford, Joshua E.; Manoharan, Palanikumar; Neumann, Jon; Konaniah, Eddy S.; Srinivasan, Ramprasad; Bogdanov, Vladimir Y; Hui, David Y.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and Objective Hemizygous deficiency of the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) has been shown previously to augment atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. However, the cell type responsible for the increased atherosclerosis due to KLF2 deficiency has not been identified. This study examined the consequence of myeloid cell-specific KLF2 inactivation in atherosclerosis. Methods and Results Cell-specific knockout mice were generated by Cre/loxP recombination. Macrophages isolated from myeloid-specific Klf2 knockout (myeKlf2-/-) mice were similar to myeKlf2+/+ macrophages in response to activation, polarization, and lipid accumulation. However, in comparison to myeKlf2+/+ macrophages, myeKlf2-/- macrophages adhered more robustly to endothelial cells. Neutrophils from myeKlf2-/- mice also adhered more robustly to endothelial cells, and less myeKlf2-/- neutrophils survived in culture over a 24 hr period in comparison with myeKlf2+/+ neutrophils. When myeKlf2-/- mice were mated to Ldlr-/- mice and then fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet, significant increase in atherosclerosis was observed in the myeKlf2-/-Ldlr-/- mice compared to myeKlf2+/+Ldlr-/- littermates. The increased atherosclerosis in myeKlf2-/-Ldlr-/- mice was associated with elevated presence of neutrophils and macrophages, with corresponding increase of myeloperoxidase as well as chlorinated- and nitrosylated-tyrosine epitopes in their lesion areas compared to myeKlf2+/+Ldlr-/- mice. Conclusions This study documents a role for myeloid KLF2 expression in modulating atherosclerosis. The increased neutrophil accumulation and atherosclerosis progression with myeloid-specific KLF2 deficiency also underscores the importance of neutrophils in promoting vascular oxidative stress and atherosclerosis. Collectively, these results suggest that elevating KLF2 expression may be a novel strategy for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:22474254

  20. Atherosclerosis and Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mamari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease have been considered as major health problem worldwide. Abnormalities in lipids and lipoprotein metabolism and impairment of endothelial function have been implicated as the main contributing factors in atherosclerosis and its progression. Physical activity has been recognized as a preventive measure for atherosclerosis.

  1. Reduction of Risk Factor Coagulation Oxidative Apolipoprotein and Development of Atherosclerosis by Apple Cider Vinegar in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Apple cider vinegar is an antioxidant compound and it has many medical uses. In this research we have investigated effects of apple cider vinegar on some risk factors of atherosclerosis and on the development of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbit. Methods: Thirty two male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet group high cholesterol diet group (%1cholesterol) %1 cholesterol with 5ml apple cider vinegar group and %1 cholesterol with 10...

  2. Selected atherosclerosis risk factors in youth aged 13–15 years 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Michalska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The high frequency of cases of circulatory system conditions in Europe and other countries around the world requires scientific research to define risk factors of early atherosclerotic changes. The aim of the present study was to define which students are at danger of developing atherosclerosis by means of measuring cholesterol and triglyceride levels in blood as well as defining the correlation between atherosclerosis risk factors and arterial blood pressure, physical fitness and efficiency of the subjects.Material/Methods:The research covered 167 students of Public Junior High School ¹1 in Biala Podlaska aged 13–15 years. Accutrend GCT was employed to define the levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides in the screen test. Those students who were found to have increased values of biochemical parameters of capillary blood were subjected to additional blood tests aiming to define complete lipid profile of venous blood. The blood pressure in subjects was tested three times. The Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA test, suggested by American authors, was employed to define physical activity in subjects. EUROFIT was employed to define physical efficiency.Results:Among the 167 subjects there were found 42 students (25.1�20whose lipid level in capillary blood proved to be increased. Full lipid profile tests proved that 16 students (9.6�20had increased blood lipid levels; those subjects constituted the risk group. Subjects in the risk group were characterized by lower levels of physical activity and physical efficiency compared to subjects with normal blood lipid level. Moreover, the frequency of hypertension was greater in risk group subjects compared to subjects with normal blood lipid levels.Inferences:Students diagnosed with atherosclerosis risk factors require observation and early prophylactics by adopting habits of healthy physical activity.

  3. Cholesterol-Lowering Atherosclerosis Study (CLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Carotid Artery Diseases; Cerebral Arteriosclerosis; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Coronary Disease; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Ischemia; Atherosclerosis

  4. Non-traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis in high risk children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blieden, L C; Kuberger, N; Goez, R; Abramov, N; Laron, Z; Weizman, A; Gil-Ad, I

    1996-12-01

    Non-traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis were examined in children whose fathers suffered from myocardial infarction up to age 48. Factors examined were hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], fibrinogen, cardiovascular hyperreactivity, and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Hyperinsulinemia was present in five cases (9%) and hypoinsulinemia in two. Insulin output following glucose load was significantly higher in obese children compared with controls. There was an increase in Lp(a) alone in 14 cases (24%) and with low density lipoprotein in 6 cases. Increased fibrinogen and positive correlation with insulin abnormality was present in 29% (76% females) (P >0.02). Cardiac hyperreactivity (increased systolic blood pressure) was present in 9% and increased blood pressure and pulse rate in 17%. Holter monitoring pattern was sympathetic in 39% and parasympathetic in 47% of cases. Thus a number of non-traditional risk factors were found to be higher than normal in a relatively large number of children at high risk for atherosclerosis, with 25 children having more than three risk factors.

  5. ATHEROSCLEROSIS DISEASE: A MULTI-FACTORIAL PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcieli da Luz Giroldo1; Arienne Serrano Alves1; Francielle Baptista1

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis or arterial stiffening is a gradual disease that restricts the normal blood flow in different areas of body and maylead to secondary illnesses as myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Innumerable factors are related to the development ofatherosclerosis, among them are the dyslipidemia; genetic factors; arterial hypertension; diabetes mellitus; obesity; smoking;lack of exercise; pulmonary infection by Chlamydia and stress. Due to multi-factorial atherosclerosis characteristics,innumerable drugs, with differentiated mechanisms of action, are being elaborated to be used in prevention and control of thisdisease. However, beyond the pharmacological therapy, a balanced diet, physical activity and elimination of risk habits, assmoking, also are need for controlling atherosclerosis progression, as well as for the increase of expectative and quality of life

  6. Atherosclerosis risk factors in American Indians with Alzheimer disease: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Myron F; Rosenberg, Roger N; Womack, Kyle B; Svetlik, Doris A; Fuller, Carey; Fields, Julie; Hynan, Linda S

    2008-01-01

    Factors predisposing to and associated with atherosclerosis may impact the onset and progression of Alzheimer disease (AD). The high prevalence of atherosclerosis and associated risk factors in American Indians makes them ideal subjects to test this association. We compared frequency of history of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, and high cholesterol in 34 American Indians with AD with 34 age-matched American Indian controls, and 34 age-matched whites with probable AD. We also measured waist size, height, and weight, and acquired blood for determination of plasma homocysteine and apolipoprotein E genotype. The 3 groups did not differ significantly in age or sex. History of hypertension and diabetes was significantly more common among American Indian AD patients than Indian controls or whites with AD. The 3 groups did not differ in history of stroke or myocardial infarction. Body mass index was significantly greater in both Indian groups than the white AD group. Plasma homocysteine levels were greater, but not significantly so, in the Indian AD than the Indian control group. Thus, there is preliminary evidence of a modest association between history of hypertension and diabetes and AD in a small sample of American Indians. This suggests that changes in lifestyle factors could influence the expression of AD in American Indians.

  7. Personality factors correlate with regional cerebral perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, R L; Kumari, V; Williams, S C R; Zelaya, F O; Connor, S E J; Alsop, D C; Gray, J A

    2006-06-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence pointing to a neurobiological basis of personality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological bases of the major dimensions of Eysenck's and Cloninger's models of personality using a noninvasive magnetic resonance perfusion imaging technique in 30 young, healthy subjects. An unbiased voxel-based analysis was used to identify regions where the regional perfusion demonstrated significant correlation with any of the personality dimensions. Highly significant positive correlations emerged between extraversion and perfusion in the basal ganglia, thalamus, inferior frontal gyrus and cerebellum and between novelty seeking and perfusion in the cerebellum, cuneus and thalamus. Strong negative correlations emerged between psychoticism and perfusion in the basal ganglia and thalamus and between harm avoidance and perfusion in the cerebellar vermis, cuneus and inferior frontal gyrus. These observations suggest that personality traits are strongly associated with resting cerebral perfusion in a variety of cortical and subcortical regions and provide further evidence for the hypothesized neurobiological basis of personality. These results may also have important implications for functional neuroimaging studies, which typically rely on the modulation of cerebral hemodynamics for detection of task-induced activation since personality effects may influence the intersubject variability for both task-related activity and resting cerebral perfusion. This technique also offers a novel approach for the exploration of the neurobiological correlates of human personality.

  8. Growth factors induce monocyte binding to vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for monocyte retention in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiangjun; Lanting, Linda; Natarajan, Rama

    2004-09-01

    Adhesive interactions between monocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) may contribute to subendothelial monocyte-macrophage retention in atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of angiotensin II (ANG II) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB on VSMC-monocyte interactions. Treatment of human aortic VSMC (HVSMC) with ANG II or PDGF-BB significantly increased binding to human monocytic THP-1 cells and to peripheral blood monocytes. This was inhibited by antibodies to monocyte beta(1)- and beta(2)-integrins. The binding was also attenuated by blocking VSMC arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism by inhibitors of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Conversely, binding was enhanced by overexpression of 12/15-LO or COX-2. Direct treatment of HVSMC with AA or its metabolites also increased binding. Furthermore, VSMC derived from 12/15-LO knockout mice displayed reduced binding to mouse monocytic cells relative to genetic control mice. Using specific signal transduction inhibitors, we demonstrated the involvement of Src, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and MAPKs in ANG II- or PDGF-BB-induced binding. Interestingly, after coculture with HVSMC, THP-1 cell surface expression of the scavenger receptor CD36 was increased. These results show for the first time that growth factors may play additional roles in atherosclerosis by increasing monocyte binding to VSMC via AA metabolism and key signaling pathways. This can lead to monocyte subendothelial retention, CD36 expression, and foam cell formation.

  9. Polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system are associated with blood pressure, atherosclerosis and cerebral white matter pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.E. van Rijn (Marie Josee); M.J. Bos (Michiel); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); M. Yazdanpanah (Mojgan); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); B.A. Oostra (Ben); O.H. Klungel (Olaf); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); C.M. van Duijn (Cock)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin system is involved in the development of hypertension, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We studied the association between the M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) and the C573T polymorphism of the angiotensin II type 1

  10. Selected thrombosis and atherosclerosis risk factors in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Bieniaś

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to evaluate selected thrombosis and atherosclerosis risk factors in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS at three  stages of the disease (I – in acute phase before steroid therapy, II – during steroid therapy after resolution of proteinuria, III – in remission after completion of steroid therapy.In all children, serum total homocysteine, lipoprotein (a, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels were measured at three stages of the disease. Plasma antithrombin III, fibrinogen and D-dimer levels were also determined.  At all stages of INS, the serum t-HCY levels were similar and significantly higher than in controls.  Serum lipoprotein (a level, plasma antithrombin III, fibrinogen and D-dimer levels were significantly higher at stage I than at stages II, III and controls.In conclusion, children with INS are at high risk of thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Keywords: Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, Homocysteine, Lipoprotein (a, Antithrombin III, fibrinogen, D-dimer

  11. Acute effects of vinegar intake on some biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose and lipids induce proportional increases in oxidative stress, which acutely trigger impairment endothelial, inflammation and increased risk of future cardiovascular events. In this research, we have investigated acute effects of vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits to see if we can find a probable protective value for it. Methods The rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1cholesterol), %1 cholesterol with 5 ml vinegar (low dose), %1 cholesterol with 10 ml vinegar (high dose). After fasting for 12-15 hours, blood samples were taken to determine baseline values. Three hours after feeding, blood samples were collected again to investigate acute effects of vinegar intake on the measured factors. Results Using high-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused significant reduce in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), total cholesterol (TC) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Consumption low-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet induced a significant decrease in fibrinogen and glucose compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. Level of serum nitrite, nitrate, triacylglycerol (TAG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A (ApoA), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were not significantly difference in low and high doses vinegar with cholesterolemic diet compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. A significant difference was observed for LDL-C, ApoB100 and TC between low and high doses vinegar. Conclusion This study suggest that vinegar, might have some acute effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis and a probable protective value can be considered for its postprandial use. PMID:20109192

  12. Acute effects of vinegar intake on some biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rohani Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose and lipids induce proportional increases in oxidative stress, which acutely trigger impairment endothelial, inflammation and increased risk of future cardiovascular events. In this research, we have investigated acute effects of vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits to see if we can find a probable protective value for it. Methods The rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1cholesterol, %1 cholesterol with 5 ml vinegar (low dose, %1 cholesterol with 10 ml vinegar (high dose. After fasting for 12-15 hours, blood samples were taken to determine baseline values. Three hours after feeding, blood samples were collected again to investigate acute effects of vinegar intake on the measured factors. Results Using high-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused significant reduce in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL, malondialdehyde (MDA, total cholesterol (TC and apolipoprotein B (ApoB in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Consumption low-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet induced a significant decrease in fibrinogen and glucose compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. Level of serum nitrite, nitrate, triacylglycerol (TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, apolipoprotein A (ApoA, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT and C-reactive protein (CRP were not significantly difference in low and high doses vinegar with cholesterolemic diet compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. A significant difference was observed for LDL-C, ApoB100 and TC between low and high doses vinegar. Conclusion This study suggest that vinegar, might have some acute effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis and a probable protective value can be considered for its postprandial use.

  13. Relationship between the level of fibrinogen and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with cerebral infarction%脑梗死患者血浆纤维蛋白原水平与颈动脉粥样硬化的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟国杰; 邵国富; 徐元

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between the level of fibrinogen and carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) and the effect of relevant risk factors on CAS. Methods Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured using color Doppler ultrasonography in 508 patients with cerebral infarction. According to the results of ultrasonography, the patients were divided into two groups: normal (IMT≤0. 9 mm), and carotid atherosclerosis (IMT>0. 9 mm and plaque). The plasma fibrinogen and other biochemical markers were also detected. The history of hypertension, diabetes, and smoking were also recorded. Results According to the level of fibrinogen, patients were divided into two groups: ≤ 3 g/L group and >3 g/L group. Logistic regression showed that the rate of >3 g/L group was 2. 04. There were significant differences in age, fibrinogen, hypertension, and smoking between the normal — carotid group and the carotid atherosclerosis group. Logistic regression showed that age, fibrinogen, hypertension, and smoking had significant influence on the CAS, with the highest risk factor being the fibrinogen. Plasma fibrinogen was higher in lacunar infarction patients. Conclusions In patients with cerebral infarction, the elevated plasma fibrinogen was significantly correlated with CAS. Therefore, fibrinogen might play more important role than other traditional risk factors.%目的 探讨脑梗死患者血浆纤维蛋白原( fibrinogen,Fg)水平与颈动脉粥样硬化(carotid atherosclerosis,CAS)的关系及相关危险因素对颈动脉粥样硬化发生、发展的作用.方法 选择脑梗死患者508例.应用彩色多普勒超声检查患者颈总动脉(common carotid artery,CCA)、颈内动脉(Internal carotid artery,ICA)颅外段及颈总动脉分叉处内—中膜厚度(Intima- medial Thickness,IMT).评定标准:颈动脉IMT>0.9 mm或(和)颈动脉斑块定义为CAS.入院后24 h内抽取空腹静脉血送检,测定Fg水平及其他生化指标,记录高血压病、糖尿

  14. Apelin and APJ, a novel critical factor and therapeutic target for atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deguan Lv; Hening Li; Linxi Chen

    2013-01-01

    Apelin is a bioactive peptide discovered recently that has been proved to be an endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor.Apelin and APJ are widely distributed in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues.Researches have confirmed that apelin/APJ involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological functions in the cardiovascular system.Investigations indicated that apelin is a novel critical factor in the development of atherosclerosis (AS).In this review,we discuss the roles of apelin in the vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation,monocytes-endothelial cell adhesion,and angiogenesis that potentially reveals a new cellular mechanism of AS.Considering these roles,apelin and APJ may be novel therapeutic targets of AS.

  15. Anti-cytomegalovirus antibodies and other atherosclerosis risk factors in patients with cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies along with anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP)antibodies in comparison with inflammatory markers and other risk factors of atherosclerosis in patients with selected cardiovascular diseases(CVD).Methods A total of 228 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and/or hypertension (HT), and those who underwent reconstructive vascular surgery (RVS) on carotids or abdominal aorta were tested for the presence of anti-CMV IgG and IgM antibodies as well as for anti-CP IgA antibodies, C-reactive protein (CRP),and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Other risk factors for atherosclerosis, namely age, gender,smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus were also analyzed. Results Anti-CMV IgG antibodies were found in 204 patients sera (89.5%),compared with 46 positive of 68 sera in the controls (67.6%), whereas anti-CMV IgM antibodies were detected in 4 of 54 sera of patients tested (7.4%), but not in the controls. The highest proportion of positive sera with not only anti-CMV IgG antibodies (95.6.7%),but also anti-CP IgA antibodies (78.3%), IL-6 (84.8%) and CRP (97.8%), was observed in patients with RVS. The results obtained corresponded to age, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Conclusions The presence of anti-CMV antibodies together with antibodies to CP and markers of inflammation (CRP and IL-6) in our study was associated with CVD, primarily in elderly patients who underwent RVS.

  16. 64Cu-DOTATATE for Noninvasive Assessment of Atherosclerosis in Large Arteries and Its Correlation with Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmberg, Catarina; Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Johnbeck, Camilla Bardram

    2015-01-01

    aimed to compare the uptake of the PET tracers (68)Ga-DOTATOC and (64)Cu-DOTATATE in large arteries, in the assessment of atherosclerosis by noninvasive imaging technique, combining PET and CT. Further, the correlation of uptake and cardiovascular risk factors was investigated. METHODS: Sixty...

  17. Traditional and non-traditional risk factors contribute to the development of accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, K.; Freire, B.; Srnit, A. J.; Bootsma, H.; Kallenberg, C. G.; Bijl, M.

    2006-01-01

    To determine risk factors of accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 72 patients with inactive disease and 36 age- and sex-matched controls were included. The intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery was determined by ultrasound. Traditional

  18. Psoriasis is the independent factor for early atherosclerosis: A prospective study of cardiometabolic risk profile

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    Dinić Miroslav Ž.

    2016-01-01

    FIMT was the diagnosis of psoriasis (p < 0.001. Conclusion. Cardiometabolic risk biomarkers and ultrasonographic signs of early atherosclerosis are correlated with the diagnosis of psoriasis, and not to generalized eczema. Psoriasis was found to be an independent risk factor for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  19. Iron and hepcidin as risk factors in atherosclerosis: what do the genes say?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galesloot, T.E.; Janss, L.L.; Burgess, S.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Heijer, M. den; Graaf, J. de; Holewijn, S.; Benyamin, B.; Whitfield, J.B.; Swinkels, D.W.; Vermeulen, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous reports suggested a role for iron and hepcidin in atherosclerosis. Here, we evaluated the causality of these associations from a genetic perspective via (i) a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach, (ii) study of association of atherosclerosis-related single nucleotide

  20. Prevalence of risk factors, coronary and systemic atherosclerosis in abdominal aortic aneurysm: Comparison with high cardiovascular risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Palazzuoli

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Palazzuoli, Maddalena Gallotta, Giuseppe Guerrieri, Ilaria Quatrini, Beatrice Franci, et alDepartment of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Unit of Aortic Surgery, University of Siena, ItalyBackground: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is considered a manifestation of atherosclerosis, however there are epidemiologic, biochemical, and structural differences between occlusive atherosclerosis and AAA. The pathogenesis of AAA involves several factors, first of all destruction of collagen and elastin in the aortic wall. Classical risk factors may influence the evolution and development of AAA, though no consistent association has been found. Aims of the study were to evaluate associations between risk factors and to establish the prevalence of carotid, peripheral vascular and coronary atherosclerosis in patients with AAA.Methods: We studied 98 patients with AAA (Group 1 awaiting surgery compared with high cardiovascular risk population having two or more risk factors (n = 82 Group 2. We evaluated traditional risk factors and we studied by eco-doppler and echocardiography the presence of carotid peripheral and coronaric atherosclerosis in two groups.Results: We found a higher incidence of AAA in males (p < 0.01. The prevalence of infrarenal AAA was significantly higher than suprarenal AAA (81 vs 17 p < 0.001. No differences in total cholesterol (199 ± 20 vs. 197 ± 25 mg/dl, low-density lipoprotein (142 ± 16 vs. 140 ± 18 mg/dl, triglycerides (138 ± 45 vs. 144 ± 56 mg/dl, glycemia (119 ± 15 vs. 122 ± 20 mg/dl, and fibrinogen (388 ± 154 vs. 362 ± 92 mg/dl were found between groups. We demonstrated significant differences for cigarette smoking (p < 0.002, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (150 ± 15 vs. 143 ± 14 mmHg and 88 ± 6 vs. 85 ± 7 mmHg, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05, respectively and high sensititivity C reactive protein (2.8 ± 1.3 vs. 1.3 ± 0.7 mg/dl, p < 0.001. High-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels were

  1. Pre-clinical atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid artery intima-media thickness and the risk factors in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-zheng; LIU Ying; MI Jie; TANG Chao-shu; DU Jun-bao

    2007-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis as a cardiovascular disease was found to begin even in the fetal period. However,information about risk factors of pre-clinical atherosclerosis in childhood has been limited. Hence, this study was aimed to find out the risk factors of atherosclerosis by measuring the carotid artery intima-media thickness in children. High resolution B-mode ultrasound used to examine the carotid artery intima-media thickness was demonstrated to be useful in finding the early carotid structural changes.Methods The study included 79 children who were divided into two groups according to their ages: group Ⅰ consisted of 42 children with ages from 5 to 9 years and group Ⅱ consisted of 37 children with ages from 10 to 18 years, Among them,23 had a positive family history for risk, such as hypertension, obesity or dyslipidemia. Blood samples were collected and total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein were assayed. The carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured by ultrasound. Comparisons were done between the two groups using Student's t tests and Chi-square analysis. Body mass index, blood pressure, levels of lipids, family history and the carotid artery intima-media thickness were calculated by conditional logistic regression analysis.Results Compared with the children without a positive family history, the incidence of the increased carotid artery intima-media thickness was significantly high (x2=4.364, P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between left and right carotid arteries in carotid artery intima-media thickness (P>0.05). In this study, diastolic blood pressure and the atherosclerosis index were suggested to be the risk factors to the thickened carotid artery intima-media thickness. In group I the diastolic blood pressure's odds radio was 1.187 (P=0.035) and the atherosclerosis index odds radio was 37.165 (P=0.001); in group Ⅱ the diastolic blood pressure's odds

  2. Decreased Renal Function Is a Risk Factor for Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis in Korean Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Chon, Seung Joo; Cho, Si Hyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Decreased renal function is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Our study was planned to verify the association of decreased renal function and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 251 Korean postmenopausal women who visited the health promotion center for a routine health checkup. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was used to show renal function, which was estimated by calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formulas. Coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by 64-row multidetector computed tomography. Results Women with reduced eGFR (menopausal hormone therapy before atherosclerosis development. PMID:28119897

  3. Factors predicting compensatory vascular remodelling of the carotid artery affected by atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, D; Oka, T; Kajiyama, A; Ohnishi, N; Shiraki, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate factors predicting the development of outward remodelling of the carotid artery in patients with atherosclerosis. Design: 130 patients with carotid artery stenosis (15–85% of the vessel diameter) were divided into two groups, based on the presence or absence of outward remodelling of the sclerotic carotid segment on high resolution ultrasonography. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of haemodynamic, laboratory, and clinical measurements on the development of remodelling, including age, sex, type of stenosis, extent of plaque, per cent diameter stenosis, underlying disease, selected drug treatment, and plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and uric acid. Results: 64 patients (49%) had outward remodelling. Multivariate regression analysis showed that hypertension, the type of plaque, the thickness of the plaque, and the extent of stenosis were independent factors predicting remodelling. The odds ratios of hypertension, unstable shape of plaque, thickness of plaque, and the extent of the stenosis were 6.70, 3.02, 2.04, and 1.05, respectively. Other measurements did not contribute significantly to the estimation of remodelling. Conclusions: Compensatory enlargement of the vessel occurs in about 50% of carotid artery segments with a diameter stenosis of 15–85%. Hypertension and the shape of the plaque are major determinants of the development of outward remodelling. PMID:11796551

  4. Small-Nucleic-Acid-Based Therapeutic Strategy Targeting the Transcription Factors Regulating the Vascular Inflammation, Remodeling and Fibrosis in Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Youn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis arises when injury to the arterial wall induces an inflammatory cascade that is sustained by a complex network of cytokines, together with accumulation of lipids and fibrous material. Inflammatory cascades involve leukocyte adherence and chemotaxis, which are coordinated by the local secretion of adhesion molecules, chemotactic factors, and cytokines. Transcription factors are critical to the integration of the various steps of the cascade response to mediators of vascular injury, and are induced in a stimulus-dependent and cell-type-specific manner. Several small-nucleic-acid-based therapeutic strategies have recently been developed to target transcription factors: antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, RNA interference, microRNA, and decoy oligodeoxynucleotides. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of these particular targeted therapeutic strategies, toward regulation of the vascular inflammation, remodeling and fibrosis associated with atherosclerosis.

  5. Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Low Cardiovascular Risk: The Role of von Willebrand Factor Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorica G Ristić

    Full Text Available To evaluate association between von Willebrand factor (vWF activity, inflammation markers, disease activity, and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and low cardiovascular risk.Above mentioned parameters were determined in blood samples of 74 non-diabetic, normotensive, female subjects, with no dyslipidemia(42 patients, 32 matched healthy controls, age 45.3±10.0 vs. 45.2±9.8 years. Intima-media thickness (IMT was measured bilaterally, at common carotid, bifurcation, and internal carotid arteries. Subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as IMT>IMTmean+2SD in controlsat each carotid level and atherosclerotic plaque as IMT>1.5 mm. Majority of RA patients were on methotrexate (83.3%, none on steroids >10 mg/day or biologic drugs. All findings were analysed in the entire study population and in RA group separately.RA patients with subclinical atherosclerosis had higher vWF activity than those without (133.5±69.3% vs. 95.3±36.8%, p<0.05. Predictive value of vWF activity for subclinical atherosclerosis was confirmed by logistic regression. vWF activity correlated significantly with erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fibrinogen, modified disease activity scores (mDAS28-ESR, mDAS28-CRP, modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (p<0.01 for all, duration of smoking, number of cigarettes/day, rheumatoid factor concentration (p<0.05 for all, and anti-CCP antibodies (p<0.01. In the entire study population, vWF activity was higher in participants with subclinical atherosclerosis (130±68% vs. 97±38%, p<0.05 or atherosclerotic plaques (123±57% vs. 99±45%, p<0.05 than in those without. Duration of smoking was significantly associated with vWF activity (β 0.026, p = 0.039.We demonstrated association of vWF activity and subclinical atherosclerosis in low-risk RA patients as well as its correlation with inflammation markers, all parameters of disease activity, and seropositivity. Therefore, vWF might be a valuable marker of

  6. Atherosclerosis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arteries in which fatty material is deposited in the vessel wall, ... muscle leads to symptoms such as chest pain. Atherosclerosis shows no symptoms until a complication occurs.

  7. Clinical symptoms and risk factors in cerebral microangiopathy patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Okroglic

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although the clinical manifestation and risk factors of cerebral microangiopathy (CM remain unclear, the number of diagnoses is increasing. Hence, patterns of association among lesion topography and severity, clinical symptoms and demographic and disease risk factors were investigated retrospectively in a cohort of CM patients. METHODS: Patients treated at the Department of Neurology, University of Bonn for CM (n = 223; 98m, 125f; aged 77.32±9.09 from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical symptoms, blood chemistry, potential risk factors, demographic data and ratings of vascular pathology in the brain based on the Wahlund scale were analyzed using Pearson's chi square test and one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Progressive cognitive decline (38.1%, gait apraxia (27.8%, stroke-related symptoms and seizures (24.2%, TIA-symptoms (22% and vertigo (17% were frequent symptoms within the study population. Frontal lobe WMLs/lacunar infarcts led to more frequent presentation of progressive cognitive decline, seizures, gait apraxia, stroke-related symptoms, TIA, vertigo and incontinence. Parietooccipital WMLs/lacunar infarcts were related to higher frequencies of TIA, seizures and incontinence. Basal ganglia WMLs/lacunar infarcts were seen in patients with more complaints of gait apraxia, vertigo and incontinence. Age (p = .012, arterial hypertension (p<.000, obesity (p<.000 and cerebral macroangiopathy (p = .018 were positively related to cerebral lesion load. For increased glucose level, homocysteine, CRP and D-Dimers there was no association. CONCLUSION: This underlines the association of CM with neurological symptoms upon admission in a topographical manner. Seizures and vertigo are symptoms of CM which may have been missed in previous studies. In addition to confirming known risk factors such as aging and arterial hypertension, obesity appears to increase the risk as well. Since the incidence of CM is increasing, future

  8. Reduction of Risk Factor Coagulation Oxidative Apolipoprotein and Development of Atherosclerosis by Apple Cider Vinegar in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbubeh Setorki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apple cider vinegar is an antioxidant compound and it has many medical uses. In this research we have investigated effects of apple cider vinegar on some risk factors of atherosclerosis and on the development of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbit. Methods: Thirty two male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet group high cholesterol diet group (%1cholesterol %1 cholesterol with 5ml apple cider vinegar group and %1 cholesterol with 10ml apple cider vinegar group .The malondialdehyde (MDA oxidized-LDL (oxLDL fibrinogen factor VII apolipoprotein A (ApoA and apolipoprotein B (ApoB were measured before the experiment and at the end period (2month. At the end of study using Chekanov method fatty streak formation in aorta artery was determined in all groups. Results: Using both doses of apple cider vinegar significantly decreased fibrinogen oxLDL MDA ApoB ApoB/ApoA VIIlevels in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet (P0.05. Also consumption of apple cider vinegar induced significant decrease in atherosclerotic lesions in aorta artery compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet. Conclusion: This study suggests that apple cider vinegar (as an antioxidant might have some protective effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis.

  9. Cerebral microbleeds: their associated factors, radiologic findings, and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Seung-Hoon

    2013-09-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are tiny, round dark-signal lesions that are most often detected on gradient-echo MR images. CMBs consist of extravasations of blood components through fragile microvascular walls characterized by lipohyalinosis and surrounding macrophages. The prevalence of CMBs in elderly subjects with no history of cerebrovascular disease is around 5%, but is much higher in patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Development of CMBs is closely related to various vascular risk factors; in particular, lobar CMBs are thought to be associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The presence of CMBs has been hypothesized to reflect cerebral-hemorrhage-prone status in patients with hypertension or amyloid microangiopathy. Stroke survivors with CMBs have been consistently found to have an elevated risk of subsequent hemorrhagic stroke or an antithrombotic-related hemorrhagic complication, although studies have failed to establish a link between CMBs and hemorrhagic transformation after thrombolytic treatment. A large prospective study is required to clarify the clinical significance of CMBs and their utility in a decision-making index.

  10. A common spatial factor analysis model for measured neighborhood-level characteristics: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethery, Rachel C; Warren, Joshua L; Herring, Amy H; Moore, Kari A B; Evenson, Kelly R; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce the dimensionality of a set of neighborhood-level variables collected on participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) while appropriately accounting for the spatial structure of the data. A common spatial factor analysis model in the Bayesian setting was utilized in order to properly characterize dependencies in the data. Results suggest that use of the spatial factor model can result in more precise estimation of factor scores, improved insight into the spatial patterns in the data, and the ability to more accurately assess associations between the neighborhood environment and health outcomes.

  11. A Common Spatial Factor Analysis Model for Measured Neighborhood-Level Characteristics: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethery, Rachel C.; Warren, Joshua L.; Herring, Amy H.; Moore, Kari A.B.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce the dimensionality of a set of neighborhood-level variables collected on participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) while appropriately accounting for the spatial structure of the data. A common spatial factor analysis model in the Bayesian setting was utilized in order to properly characterize dependencies in the data. Results suggest that use of the spatial factor model can result in more precise estimation of factor scores, improved insight into the spatial patterns in the data, and the ability to more accurately assess associations between the neighborhood environment and health outcomes. PMID:26372887

  12. Factores de riesgo cardiovascular y aterosclerosis carotídea detectada por ultrasonografía Cardiovascular risk factors and carotid atherosclerosis detected by ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cantú-Brito

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la frecuencia y los factores determinantes de aterosclerosis carotídea en una comunidad de la ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó, de julio de 1993 a enero de 1996, una ultrasonografía carotídea en 145 participantes del proyecto CUPA, que consiste en un estudio de vigilancia epidemiológica. Se investigó la presencia de aterosclerosis carotídea y su relación con factores de riesgo cardiovascular. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de aterosclerosis carotídea detectada por ultrasonografía fue de 64.8%. En 64 personas (44.1% se documentó engrosamiento del complejo íntima-media de la pared aterial y en 82 sujetos (56.5% se observaron placas de ateroma (concomitantes con engrosamiento íntima-media en 52 individuos. En sólo ocho personas (5.5% las placas de ateroma se asociaron a estenosis hemidámicamente significativa. No se encontraron diferencias en la prevalencia de aterosclerosis en relación con el sexo (hombres, 61.9% y mujeres, 66.0%. Los factores de riesgo asociados con aterosclerosis fueron: edad (pOBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency of carotid atherosclerosis and its relation to cardiovascular risk factors in a general elderly population of Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: B-mode ultrasonography was performed to investigate carotid atherosclerosis in 145 CUPA (a research project participants, between July 1993 and January 1996. The outcome was then related to cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Prevalence of ultrasound-detected carotid atherosclerosis was 64.8%. Intimal-medial thickening was detected in 64 subjects (44.1% and carotid plaques in 82 (56.5%; Fifty-two subjects had both intimal-medial thickening and plaques. However, only 8 subjects had carotid plaques with severe stenosis (5.5%. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of atherosclerotic lesions (male 61.9%, female 66.0%. Carotid atherosclerosis was significantly associated with age (p<0.0001, high blood pressure (p<0

  13. Adiponectin provides additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis in both genders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the relation between adiponectin and atherosclerosis in both genders, and investigated whether adiponectin provides useful additional information for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. METHODS: We measured serum adiponectin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in 1033 subjects (454 men, 579 women from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort study. Carotid intima-media-thickness (CIMT was used as measure of atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated using multiple logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC, the category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI were calculated. RESULTS: After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, waist circumference, smoking history, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance, the ORs (95%CI of the third tertile adiponectin group were 0.42 (0.25-0.72 in men and 0.47 (0.29-0.75 in women. The area under the curve (AUC on the ROC analysis increased significantly by 0.025 in men and 0.022 in women when adiponectin was added to the logistic model of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (AUC in men: 0.655 to 0.680, p = 0.038; AUC in women: 0.654 to 0.676, p = 0.041. The NRI was 0.32 (95%CI: 0.13-0.50, p<0.001, and the IDI was 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01-0.04, p<0.001 for men. For women, the category-free NRI was 0.18 (95%CI: 0.02-0.34, p = 0.031 and the IDI was 0.003 (95%CI: -0.002-0.008, p = 0.189. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin and atherosclerosis were significantly related in both genders, and these relationships were independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, adiponectin provided additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors regarding the risk of atherosclerosis.

  14. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression in Macrophages Promotes Development of Atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annemarie Aarup; Pedersen, Tanja X; Junker, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    transplanted with bone marrow from mice with HIF-1α deficiency in the myeloid cells or control bone marrow. The HIF-1α deficiency in myeloid cells reduced atherosclerosis in aorta of the Ldlr(-/-) recipient mice by ≈72% (P=0.006).In vitro, HIF-1α-deficient macrophages displayed decreased differentiation...... to proinflammatory M1 macrophages and reduced expression of inflammatory genes. HIF-1α deficiency also affected glucose uptake, apoptosis, and migratory abilities of the macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: HIF-1α expression in macrophages affects their intrinsic inflammatory profile and promotes development of atherosclerosis....

  15. [Clinico-epidemiological characteristics of transient cerebral ischemia in the region of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buletsa, B A; Lupich, P P; Litvinova, L A

    1991-01-01

    Altogether 225 patients with transitory derangements of cerebral circulation (TDCC) underwent clinico-laboratory examinations. Arterial hypertension and cerebral atherosclerosis turned out to be among most frequently occurring factors of TDCC. The provoking factors included psychoemotional stress and drops of barometric pressure. The course and outcome of TDCC were greatly affected by an increase in blood concentration of catecholamines and thyroid hormones. The high concentration of triiodothyronine in the blood contributed to the development of cerebral stroke.

  16. Carotid Artery Longitudinal Displacement, Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Factors: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Gepner

    Full Text Available Associations between carotid artery longitudinal displacement, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and events were evaluated in a large, multi-ethnic cohort.A novel, reproducible protocol was developed for measuring right common carotid artery longitudinal displacement using ultrasound speckle-tracking. Total longitudinal displacement was measured in 389 randomly selected participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis that were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Univariate analyses and Pearson Correlations were used to define relationships between longitudinal displacement with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and traditional measures of arterial stiffness. Hazard ratios of longitudinal displacement for cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease events were compared using Cox proportional hazards models.Participants were a mean (standard deviation 59.0 (8.7 years old, 48% female, 39% White, 26% Black, 22% Hispanic, and 14% Chinese. They had 19 (4.9% cardiovascular disease and 14 (3.6% coronary heart disease events over a mean 9.5 years of follow-up. Less longitudinal displacement was associated with Chinese (β = -0.11, p = 0.02 compared to White race/ethnicity and greater longitudinal displacement was associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness (β = 0.26, p = 0.004. Longitudinal displacement was not associated with other cardiovascular disease risk factors or markers of arterial stiffness. After adjustment for age and sex, and heart rate, Chinese race/ethnicity (β = -0.10, p = 0.04 and carotid intima-media thickness (β = 0.30 p = 0.003 were associated independently with longitudinal displacement. Longitudinal displacement predicted coronary heart disease (Hazard ratio [HR] 3.3, 95% Confidence intervals [CI] 0.96-11.14, p = 0.06 and cardiovascular disease (HR 2.1, 95% CI 0.6-7.3, p = 0.23 events.Less longitudinal displacement is associated with Chinese ethnicity and greater carotid artery

  17. High cumulative insulin exposure : a risk factor of atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muis, MJ; Bots, ML; Bilo, HJG; Hoogma, RPLM; Hoekstra, JBL; Grobbee, DE; Stolk, RP

    Background: Since insulin therapy might have an atherogenic effect, we studied the relationship between cumulative insulin dose and atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes. We have focused on patients with type 1 diabetes instead of type 2 diabetes to minimise the effect of insulin resistance as a

  18. Chronic oral infection with major periodontal bacteria Tannerella forsythia modulates systemic atherosclerosis risk factors and inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukkapalli, Sasanka S; Rivera-Kweh, Mercedes F; Velsko, Irina M; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Donghang; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Gangula, Pandu R; Lucas, Alexandra R; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya

    2015-04-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a Gram-negative anaerobic organism that inhabits the subgingival cavity and initiates connective tissue destruction and alveolar bone resorption in periodontal disease (PD). PD is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease and has been linked to several systemic diseases including atherosclerosis. This study evaluated the effects of a chronic oral infection with T. forsythia ATCC 43037 on the induction of PD, inflammatory markers and atherosclerosis risk factors in hyperlipidemic ApoE(null) mice. Mice were orally infected for 12 and 24 weeks prior to euthanasia. Bacterial colonization of the oral cavity and bacteremia was confirmed via isolation of genomic DNA from oral plaque and tissues. Oral infection elicited significantly elevated levels of serum IgG and IgM antibodies and alveolar bone resorption compared to control mice. Tannerella forsythia-infected mice had increased serum amyloid A, and significantly reduced serum nitric oxide when compared to controls. Tannerella forsythia chronic infection also significantly increased serum lipoproteins suggesting altered cholesterol metabolism and potential for aortic inflammation. Despite enhanced acute phase reactants and altered lipid profiles, T. forsythia infection was associated with decreased aortic plaque. This study investigates the potential of a known periodontal bacterial pathogen found in atherosclerotic plaque in humans to accelerate atherosclerosis in hyperlipdemic mice.

  19. [Diet and atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, J A; Garcés, C; de Oya, M

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between diet and atherosclerosis is due to the diet influence on lipoprotein composition. However, because of the multifactorial basis of the atherosclerosis, diet components have another potential intervention mechanisms in the atherosclerosis process, such as the influence on other cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity, diabetes) or the influence on the coagulation system and the relationship endothelium-platelets. We will review the effect of diet components on these factors, specially its effects on the haemostasia system, which alteration is responsible for provoking ischemic heart disease. We have to consider that the main objective when treating dyslipidaemias, besides of avoiding acute pancreatitis in cases of strong hypertrigliceridaemia, is to prevent arteriosclerosis development and its clinical manifestations such as ischemic heart disease. Besides, we know that genetic, in addition to provoke familial susceptibility to atherosclerosis, has an essential importance in the response to ambiental factors as diet is.

  20. Neonatal risk factors for cerebral palsy in very preterm babies: case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, D. J.; Hope, P. L.; Johnson, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify neonatal risk factors for cerebral palsy among very preterm babies and in particular the associations independent of the coexistence of antenatal and intrapartum factors. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Oxford health region. SUBJECTS: Singleton babies born between 1984 and 1990 at less than 32 weeks' gestation who survived to discharge from hospital: 59 with cerebral palsy and 234 randomly selected controls without cerebral palsy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adverse neo...

  1. Difference in the Location and Risk Factors of Cerebral Microbleeds According to Ischemic Stroke Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Joon; Yoon, Youngshin; Sohn, Hoyon; Kang, Dong-Wha; Kim, Jong S; Kwon, Sun U

    2016-09-01

    The location of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) may differ according to ischemic stroke subtype, and the underlying pathomechanism may differ by their location. Here, we investigated the characteristics of CMBs according to various ischemic stroke subtypes to verify this issue. Patients with acute ischemic stroke were consecutively included. The presence of CMBs was determined by gradient echo image sequence. The distribution of CMBs was classified as deep, lobar, or diffuse (both deep and lobar). The prevalence, risk factors, and distribution of CMBs were compared among patients with different stroke subtypes. Factors associated with the distribution of CMBs were investigated. Among the 1033 patients included in this study, ischemic stroke subtypes were classified as large artery atherosclerosis (LAA; n=432), small vessel occlusion (SVO; n=304), and cardioembolism (CE; n=297). The prevalence of CMBs was highest in patients with SVO (40.5%), followed by CE (33.0%) and LAA (24.8%; PCMBs was different according to subtype (P=0.004). CE [odds ratio (OR)=1.85 (1.02-3.34); P=0.042] and the use of antithrombotics [OR=1.80 (1.10-2.94); P=0.019] were associated with lobar CMBs, and old age [OR=1.02 (1.00-1.04); P=0.015] and hypertension [OR=1.61 (1.08-2.40); P=0.020] were associated with deep CMBs. CMBs were frequently located in the lobar area in patients with CE. Previous use of antithrombotic agents is associated with lobar CMBs. The pathogenic mechanism of CMB may differ according to ischemic stroke subtype and location.

  2. Requirement for Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 Expression on Vascular Cells To Induce Experimental Cerebral Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Stoelcker, Benjamin; Hehlgans, Thomas; Weigl, Karin; Bluethmann, Horst; Grau, Georges E.; Männel, Daniela N

    2002-01-01

    Using tumor necrosis factor receptor type 2 (TNFR2)-deficient mice and generating bone marrow chimeras which express TNFR2 on either hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic cells, we demonstrated the requirement for TNFR2 expression on tissue cells to induce lethal cerebral malaria. Thus, TNFR2 on the brain vasculature mediates tumor necrosis factor-induced neurovascular lesions in experimental cerebral malaria.

  3. Lupus eritematoso sistêmico: novo fator de risco para aterosclerose? Is systemic lupus erithematosus a new risk factor for atherosclerosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Funayama Alvarenga Freire

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de eventos cardiovasculares (ECV secundários à aterosclerose em pacientes com lupus eritematoso sistêmico (LES e correlacioná-los aos tradicionais fatores de risco, tempo de doença e drogas utilizadas na terapia. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo através da coleta e análise dos dados contidos nos prontuários de pacientes com diagnóstico confirmado há no mínimo dois anos e seguidos desde 1992. Foram considerados ECV: angina do peito (AP, IAM e acidente vascular cerebral (AVC de causa não relacionada à atividade do LES. Foram computados os fatores de risco para aterosclerose e dados sobre tratamento. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 71 prontuários. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 34,2±12,7 anos; 68 mulheres e três homens; 58 caucasóides (81,6%. Dez (14,08% apresentaram ECV. Os pacientes nos quais os eventos cardiovasculares foram observados apresentavam idade mais elevada (42,7 vs 32,8 anos p=0,0021 e maior tempo de doença (10,8 vs 7,2 anos p=0,011. Os tradicionais fatores de risco, as doses diárias e cumulativas de esteróides, imunossupressores e antimaláricos não apresentaram diferença estatística significante entre pacientes que apresentaram ou não ECV. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de secundários à aterosclerose no LES foi semelhante ao da literatura, 14,08%. Os tradicionais fatores de risco não mostraram associação com a ocorrência ou não de ECV no LES. Os pacientes nos quais os eventos cardiovasculares foram observados apresentavam idade mais elevada e maior tempo de doença. É precoce estabelecer-se que o LES possa ser um fator independente no desenvolvimento da aterosclerose.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of cardiovascular events (CVE secondary to atherosclerosis in lupus patients and correlate them to the traditional risk factors, disease duration and drug therapy used. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out based on data obtained from patients’ charts

  4. 亚临床甲减对脑梗死患者颈动脉粥样硬化程度的影响%Analysis of the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism on carotid atherosclerosis degree of patients with cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李滨; 吴琳; 李连波; 李栋; 冯爱萍; 冯磊

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨亚临床甲减对脑梗死患者颈动脉粥样硬化程度的影响。方法选取2011-2012年在我院诊治的26例单纯亚临床甲减患者(甲减组),25例单纯脑梗死患者(脑梗死组),22例亚临床甲减合并脑梗死患者(甲减合并脑梗死组),以及23例健康体检者(对照组),共96例作为研究对象。检测对所有患者的血脂水平、超敏C反应蛋白(CRP)含量、颈动脉内膜中层厚度(IM T ),并对各组进行比较分析。结果甲减合并脑梗组的hs-CRP、TC、LDL-C、IM T明显高于对照组、甲减组及脑梗组(P<0.05),差异具有统计学意义。结论脑梗死合并亚临床甲减可加重动脉粥样硬化程度,临床干预脑梗死合并亚临床甲减非常必要。%Objective To analyze the influence of subclinical hypothyroidism on carotid atherosclerosis of patients with cer-ebral infarction.Methods Ninety-six cases admitted in our hospital during 2011-2012 were chosen as the research subjects ,in-cluding 26 patients with simple subclinical hypothyroidism (hypothyroidism group) ,25 patients of simple cerebral infarction ,22 cases of subclinical hypothyroidism combined with cerebral infarction (hypothyroidism merged with cerebral infarction group) , and 23 cases healthy check-up(control group).The blood lipid levels ,hypersensitive c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels ,carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in all patients were detected and analyzed comparatively.Results The hs-CRP ,TC ,LDL-C and IMT of hypothyroidism combined with cerebral infarction group were significantly higher than those of the control group ,hy-pothyroidism group and cerebral infarction group (P<0.05) ,the difference had a statistical significance.Conclusion Cerebral infarction combined with subclinical hypothyroidism can aggravate atherosclerosis ,clinical intervention in these patients is very necessary.

  5. An analysis of risk factors for asymptomatic cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Tomoko; Owada, Kiyoshi; Hoshino, Tatsuo; Nagahara, Hikaru; Shiratori, Keiko

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for asymptomatic cerebral infarction (ACI) in the general Japanese population. A total of 634 subjects (272 men aged 55.4+/-8.8 years and 362 women aged 55.2+/-8.5 years) who visited the Health Management Center at Aoyama Hospital (Tokyo, Japan) from January 2004 through January 2005 for an annual brain dry dock examination were analyzed. We evaluated 21 risk factors for ACI by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Abnormal or potentially abnormal conditions were detected in 258 subjects (40.7% of all subjects who had an annual check-up program for brain disease). The most frequent abnormal finding was ACI, which was observed in 208 subjects. The significant risk factors for ACI, as determined by multivariate logistic analysis, were age (P <0.01), hypertension (P <0.01), and hypertensive vascular changes in the fundus (P <0.05). The hypertensive vascular abnormalities in the fundus might be a risk factor for ACI independent of age and hypertension.

  6. Association factor analysis between osteoporosis with cerebral artery disease: The STROBE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Eun-Sun; Jeong, Je Hoon; Lee, Bora; Im, Soo Bin

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical association factors between osteoporosis and cerebral artery disease in Korean population. Two hundred nineteen postmenopausal women and men undergoing cerebral computed tomography angiography were enrolled in this study to evaluate the cerebral artery disease by cross-sectional study. Cerebral artery disease was diagnosed if there was narrowing of 50% higher diameter in one or more cerebral vessel artery or presence of vascular calcification. History of osteoporotic fracture was assessed using medical record, and radiographic data such as simple radiography, MRI, and bone scan. Bone mineral density was checked by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We reviewed clinical characteristics in all patients and also performed subgroup analysis for total or extracranial/ intracranial cerebral artery disease group retrospectively. We performed statistical analysis by means of chi-square test or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Student's t-test or Wilcoxon's rank sum test for continuous variables. We also used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the factors associated with the prevalence of cerebral artery disease. A two-tailed p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using R (version 3.1.3; The R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) and SPSS (version 14.0; SPSS, Inc, Chicago, Ill, USA). Of the 219 patients, 142 had cerebral artery disease. All vertebral fracture was observed in 29 (13.24%) patients. There was significant difference in hip fracture according to the presence or absence of cerebral artery disease. In logistic regression analysis, osteoporotic hip fracture was significantly associated with extracranial cerebral artery disease after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Females with osteoporotic hip fracture were associated with total calcified cerebral artery

  7. Relationship between coronary atherosclerotic stenosis and cerebral atherosclerotic stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaping Wei; Shenmao Li; Zhiyong Zhang; Feng Ling; Kang Li; Hong Zhao; Jifang He; Liqing Xu; Jing Wen; Chunyan Zhou; Xiaoguang Wu; Jiarui Wang

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between severity of cerebrovascular atherosclerosis stenosis and that of coronary atherosclerosis stenosis.Methods Cerebral angiography and coronary angiography were performed in 34 patients who had coronary disease with cerebral ischemia.Patients were divided into 3 subgroups according to the degree ofstenosis on angiography,concomitant diseases,risk factors and biochemical data.Results The follow-up study showed that the incidence of cardiac and cerebrovascular death increased significantly in patients with moderate to severe stenosis of coronary and cerebral arteries;the severity of stenosis in the coronary artery parallels that in the solitary carotid artery,or dual carotid and vertebral arteries.Conclusions Patients with coronary and cerebral artery stenosis,especially those with multi-risk factors,such as hypertension,diabetes and cigarette smoking,should receive intensive treatment to reduce cardiac and cerebrovascular events.(J Geriatr Cardiol 2008;5:227-229)

  8. Activation of nuclear factor-κB and the onset of atherosclerosis%核因子-κB的活化与动脉粥样硬化的启动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史立宏; 王守训; 高尔

    2003-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in arteries. Nuclear factor- kappa B(NF-κB), a redox - sensitive transcription factor, has been indicated to play a critical role in both initiation and expansion of atherosclerosis. Activation of NF-κB activates a variety of target genes that promote inflam-mation, such as leukocyte adhesion molecules, cytokines, and chemokines, as well as genes that regulate cellproliferation and differentiation. Multiple risk factors relevant to atherosclerosis including hypertension, dia-betes mellitus, smoking and lipoprotein disorders also activate NF-κB. Thus the activation of NF-κB may belinked to the onset of atherosclerosis.

  9. Detection, risk factors, and functional consequences of cerebral microinfarcts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veluw, Susanne J; Shih, Andy Y; Smith, Eric E.; Chen, Christopher; Schneider, Julie A.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Biessels, Geert Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165576367

    Cerebral microinfarcts are small lesions that are presumed to be ischaemic. Despite the small size of these lesions, affected individuals can have hundreds to thousands of cerebral microinfarcts, which cause measurable disruption to structural brain connections, and are associated with dementia that

  10. Evaluation of Factors Influencing Sensory Disability in Cerebral Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ghandehari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical findings affecting disability in stroke patients are important as presence of these factors determines the prognosis and future course of these patients. Methods: Consecutive stroke patients admitted at Ghaem hospital, Mashhad were enrolled in this prospective study in 2008. Hemihyposthesia, hemianesthesia, hemineglect and homonymous hemianopsia was evaluated in these patients. Disability score was based on the Modified Ranking Disability Score (MRDS, 72 hours post stroke. Mean of MRDS was analyzed by T test and Fisher tests and p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: A total of 329 stroke patients were investigated. Hemihyposthesia, hemianesthesia, hemineglect and homonymous hemianopsia was found in 37.4%, 13.8%, 7.9% and 7.3% of the patients, respectively. MRDS was significantly higher in patients with hemianesthesia as compared to other stroke patients, (p<0.001. MRDS of patients with hemihypoestheisa, hemineglect and homonyous hemianopsia was not significantly different than patients without these abnormalities (p=0.44, p=023 and p=0.83. Patients with triad of hemianesthesia, hemineglect and homonymous hemianopsia had significantly higher MRDS than others (p<0.001. Conclusion: Hemianesthesia is a clinical factor affecting sensory disability in cerebral stroke patients. Presence of the above triad could increase MRDS in these patients.

  11. Peculiarities of dyslipidemia in patients with psoriatic arthritis: connection with atherosclerosis, cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebrov A.P.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to found the dyslipidemia in patients with psoriatic arthritis and to study the connection between dyslipidemia and cardiovascular risk factors, atherosclerosis and inflammation activity. 40 persons with PsA without cardiovascular diseases were involved in the study, 25 healthy people were examined like controls. Activity of PsA was learned by DAS, Likert index, Ritchie Arthicular Index, Number of swelling joints (NSJ, ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP and fibrinogen. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, body mass index, individual cardiac history were performed like cardiovascular risk markers. The ultrasound measuring the thickness of intima-media layer (IML in carotid arteries was performed to subclinical atherosclerosis study. Increase of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein cholesterol level was found in patients with PsA comparative with controls. There was prevalence of high and moderate increase of total cholesterol in patients with PsA, and in controls only low increase was measured. Correlation between total cholesterol and NSJ, fibrinogen, hypertension and IML was found. Low density lipoproteins were tingly interrelated with ESR, hypertension and IML. Very low density lipoproteins were connected with age of disease beginning, hypertension and IML, and triglycerides-with hypertension, enthesitis and dactilitis. Dyslipidemia in patients with PsA characterizes by total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol increase, but not high density lipoprotein decrease. There is the connection between dyslipidemia in PsA and inflammation activity, arterial hypertension and IML

  12. Cerebral venous thrombosis following spinal surgery in a patient with Factor V Leiden mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Baran; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Akakın, Akın; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Konya, Deniz

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is a devastating event leading to high mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of cerebral venous thrombosis that occurred following spinal surgery in a patient with Factor V Leiden mutation and G1691A heterozygosity. Possible prevention and treatment strategies have been discussed.

  13. Parents of children with cerebral palsy : a review of factors related to the process of adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rentinck, I. C. M.; Ketelaar, M.; Jongmans, M. J.; Gorter, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the way parents adapt to the situation when their child is diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Methods A literature search was performed to gain a deeper insight in the process of adaptation of parents with a child with cerebral palsy and on factors related to this proces

  14. Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors of Cerebral Infarction in 439 Patients Undergoing Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaoka, Yuji; Ohki, Takao; Maeda, Koji; Baba, Takeshi; Fujita, Tetsuji

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study is to identify the potential risk factors of cerebral infarction associated with thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR). TEVAR was developed as a less invasive surgical alternative to conventional open repair for thoracic aortic aneurysm treatment. However, outcomes following TEVAR of aortic and distal arch aneurysms remain suboptimal. Cerebral infarction is a major concern during the perioperative period. We included 439 patients who underwent TEVAR of aortic aneurysms at a high-volume teaching hospital between July 2006 and June 2013. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify perioperative cerebral infarction risk factors. Four patients (0.9%) died within 30 days of TEVAR; 17 (3.9%) developed cerebral infarction. In univariate analysis, history of ischemic heart disease and cerebral infarction and concomitant cerebrovascular disease were significantly associated with cerebral infarction. "Shaggy aorta" presence, left subclavian artery coverage, carotid artery debranching, and pull-through wire use were identified as independent risk factors of cerebral infarction. In multivariate analysis, history of ischemic heart disease (odds ratio [OR] 6.49, P = 0.046) and cerebral infarction (OR 43.74, P = 0.031), "shaggy aorta" (OR 30.32, P < 0.001), pull-through wire use during surgery (OR 7.196, P = 0.014), and intraoperative blood loss ≥800 mL (OR 24.31, P = 0.017) were found to be independent risk factors of cerebral infarction. This study identified patient- and procedure-related risk factors of cerebral infarction following TEVAR. These results indicate that patient outcomes could be improved through the identification and management of procedure-related risk factors.

  15. Is there an effect of folic acid supplementation on the coagulation factors and C-reactive protein concentrations in subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Mierzecki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Folic acid (FA may delay the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. Increased plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF are observed in cardiovascular disease, which leads to higher risk of thrombosis. Fibrinogen (Fb is a well-documented risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of FA supplementation on the Fb, VWF and C-reactive protein (CRP plasma concentrations in subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors.Material/Methods:The study enrolled 124 Caucasian individuals (60 M, 64 F with atherosclerosis risk factors – family history of premature ischaemic stroke, arterial hypertension, dyslipidaemia, overweight and obesity, cigarette smoking and low physical activity. The participants were asked to take FA in the low dose of 0.4 mg/24 h for three months.Results:After FA supplementation a significant reduction of the VWF concentrations in females (76.6 vs 72.3�20p=0.028 and in males (75.5 vs 66.9�20p=0.001 was observed. Among women and men with dyslipidaemia concentrations of VWF decreased after FA supplementation (76.8�0vs 69.6�20p=0.003 and 76.7�0vs 67.8�20p=0.001 respectively. Among females and males with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 concentrations of VWF decreased only in men (77.6�0vs 66.5�20p=0.001. In female and male smokers supplementation of FA decreased VWF concentrations (82.5�0vs 74.4�20p=0.012 and 76.6�0vs 69.5�20p=0.036 respectively.Discussion:The results of our study suggest that there is an effect of FA supplementation on VWF concentrations in subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors

  16. Impact of plant-based diet on lipid risk factors for atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Agnieszka; Lebiedzińska, Anna; Fijałkowski, Marcin; Gałąska, Rafał; Kreft, Ewelina; Totoń, Magdalena; Czaja, Kuba; Kozłowska, Anna; Ćwiklińska, Agnieszka; Kortas-Stempak, Barbara; Strzelecki, Adrian; Gliwińska, Anna; Dąbkowski, Kamil; Jankowski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a vegan diet on the serum lipid profile with particular regard to the parameters characterizing the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fractions in subjects without subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by carotid Doppler ultrasonography. Forty-two 23 to 38 year old subjects (21 omnivores and 21 vegans) participated in the study. Compared to the omnivores, the vegan subjects were characterized by lower parameters of lipid profile: total cholesterol (p vegan subjects. The apoB/apoAI ratio in vegans was lower than in omnivores (p vegans. The activity of paraoxonase-1 and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2a concentration were also not different between the study groups. We suggest that a vegan diet may have a beneficial effect on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular protection, but it is not associated with changes in HDL composition.

  17. Disruption of phactr-1 pathway triggers pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic factors: New insights in atherosclerosis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarray, Rafika; Pavoni, Serena; Borriello, Lucia; Allain, Barbara; Lopez, Nicolas; Bianco, Sara; Liu, Wang-Qing; Biard, Denis; Demange, Luc; Hermine, Olivier; Garbay, Christiane; Raynaud, Françoise; Lepelletier, Yves

    2015-11-01

    Significant interest has recently emerged for phosphatase and actin regulatory protein (PHACTR1) gene in heart diseases prognosis. However, the functional role of phactr-1 protein remains elusive in heart related-diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery calcification, ischaemic stroke, coronary artery stenosis and early-onset myocardial infarction. Phactr-1 is directly regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor A165 (VEGF-A165) through VEGF receptor 1 (VEGR-1) and Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1). Using an antagonist peptide approach to inhibit the interaction of VEGF-A165 to NRP-1 and VEGF-R1, we highlighted the importance of both cysteine residues located at the end of VEGF-A165 exon-7 and at the exon-8 to generate functional peptides, which decreased Phactr-1 expression. Here, we report original data showing Phactr-1 down-expression induces the expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) regulators such as Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1/-2) and Reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK). Furthermore, focal adhesion kinases (FAK/PYK2/PAXILLIN) and metabolic stress (AMPK/CREB/eNOS) pathways were inhibited in endothelial cells. Moreover, the decrease of phactr-1 expression induced several factors implicated in atherosclerotic events such as oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptors (CD36, Clusterin, Cadherin-13), pro-inflammatory proteins including Thrombin, Thrombin receptor 1 (PAR-1), A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease domain-9/-17 (ADAM-9/-17), Trombospondin-2 and Galectin-3. Besides, Phactr-1 down-expression also induces emerging atherosclerosis biomarkers such as semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) and TGF-beta-inducible gene h3 (βIG-H3). In this report, we show for the first time the direct evidence of the phactr-1 biological function in the regulation of pro-atherosclerotic molecules. This intriguing result strengthened heart diseases PHACTR-1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) correlation. Taken together

  18. Venous thromboembolism has the same risk factors as atherosclerosis: A PRISMA-compliant systemic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yuhong; Yan, Shufeng; Lu, Yanhui; Liang, Ying; Li, Chunsheng

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that idiopathic pulmonary embolism is positively associated with other cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke, suggesting a potentially important association between atherosclerosis risk factors and venous thromboembolism (VTE). We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the correlation between risk factors for atherosclerosis and VTE. In December 2014, we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies evaluating the associations between VTE and risk factors for atherosclerosis and pooled outcome data using random-effects meta-analysis. In addition, we analyzed publication bias. Thirty-three case-control and cohort studies with a total of 185,124 patients met the inclusion criteria. We found that participants with body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m had a significantly higher prevalence of VTE than those with BMI <30 kg/m in both case-control studies (odds ratio [OR] = 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78-3.35) and cohort studies (relative risk [RR] = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.79-3.17). VTE was more prevalent in patients with hypertension than without hypertension (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.06-1.84; RR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.11-1.67). The findings were similar for VTE prevalence between patients with and without diabetes (OR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.17-2.69; RR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.20-1.66). Current smoking was significantly associated with VTE prevalence in case-control studies (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01-1.77), but not in cohort studies (RR = 1.29, 95% CI: 0.96-1.72). In addition, we found that total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in patients with VTE than without VTE (weighted mean differences [WMD] = 8.94 mg/dL, 95% CI: 3.52-14.35 mg/dL, and WMD = 14.00 mg/dL, 95% CI: 8.85-19.16 mg/dL, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in patients with VTE than without VTE (WMD = -2.03 mg/dL, 95% CI: -3.42 to -0

  19. The Progression and Early detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PESA) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Jiménez-Borreguero, L Jesús; Peñalvo, José L

    2013-01-01

    The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined.......The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined....

  20. Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor and MT1-MMP Involved in Development of Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-zhen GUO; Andres J. Espinoza; Christian A. Espinoza; Terence M. Doherty; Xiao WANG

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Genetic deficiency of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) in atherosclerosis-prone (apoE-/-) mice markedly reduces formation of atheroma. But Little is known about the potential effects of other colony stimulating factors(CSF), such as granulocyte CSF(G-CSF), on atherosclerosis. This study tested the hypothesis that G-CSF would be involved in development of atherosclerotic plaque. Methods apoE-/- mice fed with a Western-style diet (0.15% cholesterol) were injected subcutaneously with recombinant human G-CSF(10 mg/day) daily for 9 weeks then sacrificed. The matrix metalloproteinase(MMP)2 and MMP9 in serum of mice were measured by Gelatin Zymography analysis and c-kit and membrane type1-MMP(MT1-MMP) antigens were detected using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Meanwhile, complete blood counts (CBC) and serum cholesterol, relative fractions of VLDL,LDL, and HDL were evaluated by spectrophotometric techniques and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)respectively. Atherosclerotic Lesions of the aorta were also analyzed by histological methods. Results G-CSF treatment resulted in increased proportions of circulating monocytes (6.9±2.2% vs.3.8±0.3%;P<0.05), and decreased serum levels of total cholesterol (1225±594 vs.1991±1009;P<0.005) compared to control mice. A greater proportion of bone marrow cells from G-CSF treated mice expressed MT1-MMP (14.5±5.5% vs.6.2±5.0%, P<0.05) compared to bone marrow cells from vehicle treated mice. G-CSF treatment was also associated with smaller atheromatous plaque, and decreased oil red O staining. Conclusions G-CSF lowers serum cholesterol, increases circulating monocytes, increases bone marrow cell expression of MT1-MMP, inhibits plaque development, and decreases lipid and macrophage infiltration into developing plaque.

  1. Serum endogenous secretory RAGE level is an independent risk factor for the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakami, Naoto; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Kaneto, Hideaki; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Sakamoto, Ken'ya; Yasuda, Tetsuyuki; Umayahara, Yutaka; Kosugi, Keisuke; Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu

    2009-05-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) system plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. It has been recently reported that endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) and total soluble RAGE (sRAGE) levels are associated with diabetic complications. The aim of the present study is to longitudinally evaluate the association between esRAGE and sRAGE levels and the progression of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. Japanese type 1 diabetic patients (n=47, aged 24.0+/-3.1 years) were enrolled into a 4-year follow-up study and annual measurements of serum esRAGE and sRAGE levels and IMTs were performed. At baseline, mean-IMT was inversely correlated with circulating esRAGE levels (r=-0.317, p=0.0292), whereas there was not statistical significance between mean-IMT and sRAGE levels. Mean-IMT significantly increased during the follow-up period (from 0.63+/-0.10 to 0.67+/-0.10mm, p=0.0022). Annual increase in mean-IMT (=(mean-IMT after 4 years-mean-IMT at baseline)/4) was positively correlated with the arithmetic average of systolic blood pressure (r=0.310, p=0.0332) and triglyceride (r=0.337, p=0.0201), and inversely correlated with circulating esRAGE levels (r=-0.360, p=0.0124) and sRAGE levels (r=-0.406, p=0.0042) during the follow-up period. Furthermore, stepwise multivariate regression analyses revealed that continuous low levels of circulating esRAGE and sRAGE were determinants of the progression of mean-IMT independently of conventional risk factors. Circulating esRAGE level as well as sRAGE level was an independent risk factor for the progression of carotid IMT in type 1 diabetic subjects.

  2. [Study on the expressions of basic fibroblast growth factor and nervous growth factor genes in rat cerebral concussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rui-yun; Gao, Ya-bing; Xiao, Xing-yi; Wang, De-wen; Chen, Hao-yu; Wu, Xiao-hong; Liu, Jie; Hu, Wen-hua; Cai, Bao-ren

    2003-04-01

    To study the expressions of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and nervous growth factor(NGF) genes in rat cerebral concussion. Eighty Wistar male rats were used for animal model of cerebral concussion, which were sacrificed on 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days after injury and the brain tissue was taken out. The expressions of bFGF and NGF genes were studied in the course of cerebral concussion by means of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Rats in 100 g group were seen the clinical manifestation for typical cerebral concussion. The protein and mRNA of bFGF were increased on day 1, obtained at peak on day 3-7, decreased on day 14 and also increased on day 30 compared with controls. The positive area was seen in the plasma of neurons in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum. NGF protein and mRNA showed strong positive and increased in the plasma of neurons in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum on day 1, and they were continuously positive but gradually decreased within 30 days after injury. The expression of bFGF gene participates in the course of cerebral concussion, might play an important role in the nervous cells degeneration and necrosis; NGF gene expression participates in the whole course of cerebral concussion, especially in the early phase.

  3. Periodontal Innate Immune Mechanisms Relevant to Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a common cardiovascular disease in the United States. The disease is a leading cause of illness and death in the United States. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause for heart attack and stroke. Most commonly, people develop atherosclerosis as a result of diabetes, genetic risk factors, high blood pressure, a high-fat diet, obesity, high blood cholesterol levels, and smoking. However a sizable amount of patients suffering from atherosclerosis do not harbor the classical ...

  4. An Attempt to evaluate cerebral hemodynamics before and after neurosurgical treatment of Moyamoya disease by factor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Keiji; Ishii, Katsumi; Sakai, Fumihiko; Matsubayashi, Takashi (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-09-01

    We made factor analysis on the data obtained by the radionuclide angiography to evaluate cerebral hemodynamics before and after neurosurgical treatment in a patient with Moyamoya disease (bilateral occlusion of internal carotid arteries). Tracer used was {sup 99m}Tc-RBC or {sup 99m}TcHSA. Before the neurosurgical treatment, the cerebral factor image obtained by the factor analysis showed defects in the right and the left frontal cerebral regions, and the venous factor image showed abnormal accumulations in the right and the left frontal cerebral regions. After Encephalo-Myo-Synangiosis and burr hole operations, defects in the right and the left frontal cerebral regions on the cerebral factor image were improved and abnormal accumulations in the right and the left frontal cerebral regions on the venous factor image disappeared. (author).

  5. Comparison of osteoprotegerin to traditional atherosclerotic risk factors and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein for diagnosis of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sune Holm; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular disease, but the extent of atherosclerosis in individual patients is difficult to estimate. A biomarker of the atherosclerotic burden would be very valuable. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of plasma osteoprotegerin ...

  6. Phytosterols and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Malene

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of premature deaths worldwide. Coronary heart disease is the most common CVD, caused by atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries. Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. WHO has in 2007 listed...... for decades for their natural ability to reduce cholesterol levels in the blood. In the last decade numerous food products added phytosterol esters have been placed on the market, e.g. yellow fat spread, yoghurt, dressing. The products are being marketed as a natural means for people who want to lower...... than 3% brassicasterol are not accepted on the European market. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of RSO derived sterol, with high content of brassicasterols, and stanol esters on the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed heterozygous WHHL rabbits...

  7. Asociación entre factores perinatales y neonatales de riesgo y parálisis cerebral Association between the perinatal and neonatal risk factors and cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Rogelio Robaina Castellanos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una actualización sobre los factores perinatales y neonatales de riesgo de parálisis cerebral congénita, cuyas causas perinatales no deben ser minimizadas, si se tienen en cuenta los hallazgos de los estudios imaginológicos recientes. De cualquier manera, la contribución relativa de las diferentes causas y factores de riesgo que intervienen en la ocurrencia de parálisis cerebral puede variar en dependencia de condiciones contextuales específicas, pues es ésta un síndrome de etiología múltiple.Present paper is an updating on the perinatal and neonatal risk factors related to the congenital cerebral palsy whose perinatal causes not must to be minimized, if we take into account the recent imaging studies' findings. Anyhow, the relative contribution of the different causes and risk factors involved in the occurrence of cerebral palsy may change depending on the specific contextual conditions, because it is a multiple etiology syndrome.

  8. A comparative analysis of risk factors for stroke in blacks and whites: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Rachel; Bell, Elizabeth J.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Bushnell, Cheryl; Shahar, Eyal; Rosamond, Wayne; Gottesman, Rebecca; Folsom, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have speculated that the higher stroke incidence rate in blacks compared with whites may be due, in part, to stroke risk factors exerting a more adverse effect among blacks than whites. To determine whether such racial differences exist we compared the prospective associations between novel, traditional and emerging stroke risk factors in blacks and whites. Design Baseline characteristics on risk factor levels were obtained on 15,407 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Stroke incidence was ascertained from 1987–2008. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for stroke in relation to stroke risk factor levels stratified by race. Results During follow-up 988 stroke events occurred: Blacks had higher stroke incident rates compared with whites with the greatest difference in those aged <60 years: 4.34, 3.24, 1.20 and 0.84 per 1,000 person-years, in black men, black women, white men and white women, respectively. Associations between risk factors with incident stroke were similar in blacks and whites excluding diabetes which was more strongly associated with risk of stroke in blacks than in whites: HR 2.54 (95% CI: 2.03–3.18) vs. 1.74 (1.37–2.21), respectively; p for race interaction=0.02. Conclusions At all ages, blacks are at considerably higher risk of incident stroke compared with whites, although the effect is most marked in younger age groups. This is most likely due to blacks having a greater burden of stroke risk factors rather than there being any substantial race differences in the associations between risk factors and stroke outcomes. PMID:24261746

  9. Neonatal Cerebral Ischemia: A Risk Factor for ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of low neonatal cerebral blood flow (CBF on dopaminergic neurotransmission was studied in 6 genetically susceptible high-risk, preterm neonates followed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, and tested at 12-14 years of age.

  10. Endothelial progenitor cells, cardiovascular risk factors, cytokine levels and atherosclerosis--results from a large population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Xiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: EPC number and functionality are assumed to reflect the endogenous vascular repair capacity with the EPC pool declining in higher ages and being exhausted by unfavorable life-style and risk factors. This intriguing and clinically highly relevant concept, however, has so far been derived from small case-control studies and patient series. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: In the population-based Bruneck Study EPC number and EPC-colony forming units (EPC-CFU were assessed as part of the fourth follow-up evaluation (2005 in 571 and 542 subjects, respectively. EPC number declined with age (p = 0.013, was significantly lower in women (p = 0.006 and higher in subjects on statin, hormone replacement or ACE inhibitor/angiotensin-receptor blockers, and correlated positively with moderate alcohol consumption. Unexpectedly, a positive relation between EPC number and several vascular risk factors emerged. In a step forward multivariate linear regression analysis EPC number was independently related with SDF1alpha, MMP-9, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and Hba1c. EPC-CFU in turn was related to SDF1alpha and diastolic blood pressure. Moreover, EPC number showed a significant positive association with the Framingham risk score (P = 0.001. Finally, there was an inverse association between EPC number and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (p = 0.02 and the carotid artery atherosclerosis score (p = 0.059. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based data confirm the decline of EPC number with advancing age and lend first epidemiological support to a role of SDF-1alpha and MMP9 in EPC differentiation, mobilization and homing, but are conflict with the view that EPC number is unfavorably affected by cardiovascular risk factors. EPC number increases with the cardiovascular risk estimated by the Framingham risk score (FRS, which in the absence of similar changes for EPC-CFU. Finally, we demonstrate a significant inverse association between EPC

  11. Immune Vasculitis Induced Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between immune vasculitis and atherosclerosis was studied. The experimental model of weanling rabbits for immune vasculitis was reproduced by intravenous injection of 10 % bovine serum albumin. There were 6 groups: group A, 25 weanling rabbits with immune vasculitis subject to coronary arteriography; group B, 10 normal mature rabbits subject to coronary arteriography; group C, 10 weanling rabbits subject to coronary arteriography; group D, 8 weanling rabbits with vasculitis and cholesterol diet; group E, 8 weanling rabbits receiving single cholesterol diet; group F: 8 weanling rabbits receiving basic diet. Four weeks later, coronary arteriography was performed in groups A, B and C. The rabbits in groups D, E and F were sacrificed for the study of pathological changes in the coronary artery after 12 weeks. The results showed that the dilatation of coronary artery occurred in 6 rabbits of group A, but in groups B and C, no dilatation of coronary artery appeared. In comparison with group E, more severe atherosclerosis occurred in group D, showing the thickened plaque, fibrous sclerosis and atherosclerotic lesion. Percentage of plaques covering aortic intima, incidence of atherosclerosis of small coronary arteries and degree of stenosis of coronary arteries were significantly higher in group D than in group E (P<0.01). No atherosclerosis changes were found in group F. It was concluded that in the acute phase, the serum immune vasculitis can induce the dilatation of coronary artery of some weanling rabbits, and aggravate the formation of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with cholesterol diet. Immune vasculitis is a new risk factor of atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease.

  12. Treatment Experience of Cerebral Atherosclerosis Vertigo with Combination of Traditional Chinese with Western Medicine%中西医结合救治脑动脉粥样硬化性眩晕经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宝宽; 周探

    2012-01-01

    Discussion on treatment experience of cerebral atherosclerosis vertigo with combination of Gelong Zhaoren Decoction with western medicine was made. Radix puerariae supraises yang qi of spleen and stomach, relieves muscles, promotes the production of body fluid to relieve dazzling; fossilia ossis mastoid relieves convulsion, calms the nerves, calms the liver and suppresses yang to relieve dazzling; Spine Date Seed benefits heart and liver, calms the nerves to relieve dazzling. Gelong Zhaoren Decoction can quickly relive dazzling, and has good effect on vertigo, showing advantages of traditional Chinese medicine. Cinnarizine has advantages on improving cerebral circulation. It is promising for treatment of vertigo with combination of traditional Chinese with western medicine.%探讨葛龙枣仁汤配合西药治疗脑动脉粥样硬化性眩晕经验.葛根通过升发脾胃清阳之气,解肌,生津而止眩;龙骨通过镇惊安神,平肝潜阳而止眩;酸枣仁通过养心益肝,安神而止眩.三药组成的葛龙枣仁汤不但止眩迅速且疗效肯定,彰显了中医药优势.桂利嗪在改善脑循环方面有优势.中西医结合治疗脑动脉粥样硬化性眩晕有发展前景.

  13. [Atherosclerosis and infection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, K

    2006-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is guided by chronicle inflammation process. In the last decades of the 20th century, studies considering infection another possible risk factor of atherosclerosis development were written. Helicobacter pylori, Porphyromas gingivalis, some viruses but most frequently Chlamydia pneumonie are infection agens mentioned in these studies. Some of them emphasize also combined infections caused by more pathogenic factors having influence on vascular inflammation. Serological, epidemiological, histological and imunological studies show the pathogenic influence of acute or chronic infections. Many studies selected makrolid antibiotics as treatment in patients with ischaemic heart disease. However, existing experience with antibiotics did not bring clear results. These studies have mentioned the fact antibiotics have not been indicated as treatment in patients with acute or chronic vascular system infliction by atherosclerosis. Since the experimental and clinical research of influence of inflammations on the development of atherosclerosis moved forward a lot, no exact evidence of this complicated pathogenic mechanism was given. It will obviously take some time to confirm whether the relation between infections and artherosclerosis is causal, i.e. initiating the pathogenic process, accelerating it or keeping it alive.

  14. Aerobic fitness is associated with low cardiovascular disease risk: the impact of lifestyle on early risk factors for atherosclerosis in young healthy Swedish individuals – the Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernström M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Fernström,1,* Ulrika Fernberg,2,* Gabriella Eliason,1 Anita Hurtig-Wennlöf1 1Department of Medical Diagnostics, Medical Faculty, School of Health Sciences, 2Medical Faculty, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD and atherosclerosis is slow and develops over decades. In the cross-sectional Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study, 834 young, self-reported healthy adults aged 18.0–25.9 years have been studied to identify early risk factors for atherosclerosis.Purpose: The aims of this study were to 1 assess selected cardiometabolic biomarkers, carotid intima–media thickness (cIMT as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and lifestyle-related indicators (food habits, handgrip strength, and oxygen uptake, VO2 max; 2 analyze the assofciations between cIMT and lifestyle factors; and 3 identify subjects at risk of CVD using a risk score and to compare the characteristics of subjects with and without risk of CVD.Method: Blood samples were taken in a fasting state, and food habits were reported through a questionnaire. cIMT was measured by ultrasound, and VO2 max was measured by ergometer bike test. The risk score was calculated according to Wildman.Result: cIMT (mean ± standard deviation was 0.50±0.06 mm, and VO2 max values were 37.8±8.5 and 42.9±9.9 mL/kg/min, in women and men, respectively. No correlation was found between aerobic fitness expressed as VO2 max (mL/kg/min and cIMT. Using Wildman’s definition, 12% of the subjects were classified as being at risk of CVD, and 15% had homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A total of 35% of women and 25% of men had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than recommended. Food habits did not differ between those at risk and those not at risk. However, aerobic fitness measured as VO2 max (mL/kg/min differed; 47% of the

  15. Aerobic fitness is associated with low cardiovascular disease risk: the impact of lifestyle on early risk factors for atherosclerosis in young healthy Swedish individuals - the Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernström, Maria; Fernberg, Ulrika; Eliason, Gabriella; Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita

    2017-01-01

    The progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis is slow and develops over decades. In the cross-sectional Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study, 834 young, self-reported healthy adults aged 18.0-25.9 years have been studied to identify early risk factors for atherosclerosis. The aims of this study were to 1) assess selected cardiometabolic biomarkers, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and lifestyle-related indicators (food habits, handgrip strength, and oxygen uptake, VO2 max); 2) analyze the associations between cIMT and lifestyle factors; and 3) identify subjects at risk of CVD using a risk score and to compare the characteristics of subjects with and without risk of CVD. Blood samples were taken in a fasting state, and food habits were reported through a questionnaire. cIMT was measured by ultrasound, and VO2 max was measured by ergometer bike test. The risk score was calculated according to Wildman. cIMT (mean ± standard deviation) was 0.50±0.06 mm, and VO2 max values were 37.8±8.5 and 42.9±9.9 mL/kg/min, in women and men, respectively. No correlation was found between aerobic fitness expressed as VO2 max (mL/kg/min) and cIMT. Using Wildman's definition, 12% of the subjects were classified as being at risk of CVD, and 15% had homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A total of 35% of women and 25% of men had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than recommended. Food habits did not differ between those at risk and those not at risk. However, aerobic fitness measured as VO2 max (mL/kg/min) differed; 47% of the subjects at risk had low aerobic fitness compared to 23% of the nonrisk subjects (Pfitness is associated with low CVD risk in Swedish young adults. The high prevalence of young adults observed with unfavorable levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance raises concerns about future CVD risk.

  16. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Amin

    2016-09-01

    Endothelial dysfunction, sympathetic stimulation, and proinflammatory cytokine modulation caused by OSA play significant role to an atherosclesrotic event. Other risk factors of atherosclerosis like hypertension and diabetes mellitus also associated with OSA. Animal and clinical studies recently showed promising data to prove association between OSA, atherosclerosis, and its risk factors. However, provided data has not showed consistent result. In the future, demand of further research both basic and clinical sciences need to be fulfilled.

  17. Cerebral Microbleeds: Their Associated Factors, Radiologic Findings, and Clinical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Seung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are tiny, round dark-signal lesions that are most often detected on gradient-echo MR images. CMBs consist of extravasations of blood components through fragile microvascular walls characterized by lipohyalinosis and surrounding macrophages. The prevalence of CMBs in elderly subjects with no history of cerebrovascular disease is around 5%, but is much higher in patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Development of CMBs is closely related to various vascular r...

  18. Systematic investigation of transcription factors critical in the protection against cerebral ischemia by Danhong injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junying; Zhang, Yanqiong; Jia, Qiang; Liu, Mingwei; Li, Defeng; Zhang, Yi; Song, Lei; Hu, Yanzhen; Xian, Minghua; Yang, Hongjun; Ding, Chen; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Systematic investigations of complex pathological cascades during ischemic brain injury help to elucidate novel therapeutic targets against cerebral ischemia. Although some transcription factors (TFs) involved in cerebral ischemia, systematic surveys of their changes during ischemic brain injury have not been reported. Moreover, some multi-target agents effectively protected against ischemic stroke, but their mechanisms, especially the targets of TFs, are still unclear. Therefore, a comprehensive approach by integrating network pharmacology strategy and a new concatenated tandem array of consensus transcription factor response elements method to systematically investigate the target TFs critical in the protection against cerebral ischemia by a medication was first reported, and then applied to a multi-target drug, Danhong injection (DHI). High-throughput nature and depth of coverage, as well as high quantitative accuracy of the developed approach, make it more suitable for analyzing such multi-target agents. Results indicated that pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1 and cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor 1, along with six other TFs, are putative target TFs for DHI-mediated protection against cerebral ischemia. This study provides, for the first time, a systematic investigation of the target TFs critical to DHI-mediated protection against cerebral ischemia, as well as reveals more potential therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke. PMID:27431009

  19. Anti-apoptotic effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in focal cerebral ischemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yuan; Shiming Zhang; Wanli Dong; Qi Fang

    2011-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury are currently contentious. The present study examined the effects of subcutaneous injection of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (50 μg/kg) over 5 days in a model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion with intraluminal filament occlusion in rats. The results indicated that recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor reduced brain infarct volume following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats, down-regulated the expression of caspase-3 mRNA (a key protease for apoptosis in the cerebral ischemia zone), lowered the rate of neuronal apoptosis in the cerebral ischemia zone, and notably ameliorated neurological function. These results indicate that recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has anti-apoptotic effects on neurons following focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and exerts neuroprotective effects.

  20. What Causes Atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Atherosclerosis? The exact cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  1. How Is Atherosclerosis Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Atherosclerosis Treated? Treatments for atherosclerosis may include heart-healthy ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  2. How Is Atherosclerosis Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Atherosclerosis Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose atherosclerosis based on ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  3. What Is Atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Atherosclerosis? Español Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque ... problems, including heart attack , stroke , or even death. Atherosclerosis Figure A shows a normal artery with normal ...

  4. Role of unphosphorylated transcription factor STAT3 in late cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samraj, Ajoy K; Müller, Anne H; Grell, Anne-Sofie

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms behind increased cerebral vasospasm and local inflammation in late cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are poorly elucidated. Using system biology tools and experimental SAH models, we have identified signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3......) transcription factor as a possible major regulatory molecule. On the basis of the presence of transcription factor binding sequence in the promoters of differentially regulated genes (significant enrichment PE: 6 × 10(5)) and the consistent expression of STAT3 (mRNA, P=0.0159 and Protein, P=0.0467), we...

  5. Ataque cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi Tan, Yuri; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1998-01-01

    ¿Qué es un ataque cerebral?/¿Qué tipos de ataque cerebral existen?/¿Cuáles son los síntomas de un ataque cerebral?/Factores de riesgo para un ataque cerebral/Tratamiento médico del ataque cerebral/¿por qué es importante acudir temprano cuando se presentan las señales de alarma?/ Manejo preventivo del ataque cerebral isquémico/Tratamiento quirúrgico del ataque cerebral/Enfermedad vascular cerebral hemorrágica/¿Cómo está constituido el grupo de ataque cerebral de la fundación Clínica Valle d...

  6. Ataque cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi Tan, Yuri; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1998-01-01

    ¿Qué es un ataque cerebral?/¿Qué tipos de ataque cerebral existen?/¿Cuáles son los síntomas de un ataque cerebral?/Factores de riesgo para un ataque cerebral/Tratamiento médico del ataque cerebral/¿por qué es importante acudir temprano cuando se presentan las señales de alarma?/ Manejo preventivo del ataque cerebral isquémico/Tratamiento quirúrgico del ataque cerebral/Enfermedad vascular cerebral hemorrágica/¿Cómo está constituido el grupo de ataque cerebral de la fundación Clínica Valle d...

  7. Association of ABO Blood Types With Atherosclerosis Risk Factors and Number of Involved Coronary Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golmohammadi Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. The relationship between ABO blood groups and main risk factors of CVD is unknown. So this study was designed to investigate whether there is an association between ABO blood groups and cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy people. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, risk factors for CVD were screened in 300 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD who were hospitalized in Madani hospital (biggest heart center in Tabriz in 2013-2014 and evaluated by a questionnaire that aimed to extract information about age, sex, smoking, blood group type, weight, height, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and family history of CVD. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17. Results: Of the total selected 300 patients, 69.3% were male, 35.3% were smoker, 61% were hypertensive, 30.3% were diabetic mellitus, 31% had hyperlipidemia, 70.97% were obese and 17.3% had family history of CVD. The mean age was 62.06 ± 11.40 years. Blood groups O (28%, A (43.3%, B (19% and AB (7.3% were the most frequent ones, respectively. According to our results, we found that the rate of CAD in individuals with the blood group A was higher than the other blood groups. Regarding the risk factors, however, no significant difference was observed between the blood groups. Conclusion: A correlation was found between blood group A and the incidence of CAD and there was no significant difference between the blood groups and cardiovascular risk factors and number of involved coronary arteries.

  8. Calcification of coronary arteries and abdominal aorta in relation to traditional and novel risk factors of atherosclerosis in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencak Przemysław

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Process of accelerated atherosclerosis specific for uremia increases cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and may be influenced by the different structure of arteries. The study assesses the influence of traditional and novel risk factors on calcification of coronary arteries (CAC and abdominal aorta (AAC in hemodialysis patients (HD. Methods CAC and AAC were assessed by CT in 104 prevalent adult HD and 14 apparently healthy subjects with normal kidney function (control group. Mineral metabolism parameters, plasma levels of FGF-23, MGP, osteoprotegerin, osteopontin, fetuin-A, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured. Results CAC and AAC (calcification score ≥ 1 were found in 76 (73.1% and 83 (79.8% HD respectively, more frequent than in the control group. In 7 HD with AAC no CAC were detected. The frequency and severity of calcifications increased with age. Both CAC and AAC were more frequently detected in diabetics (OR = 17.37 and 13.00, respectively. CAC score was significantly greater in males. CAC and AAC scores were correlated significantly with pack-years of smoking and plasma osteoprotegrin levels. However the independent contribution of plasma osteoprotegerin levels was not confirmed in multiple regression analysis. Age (OR = 1.13 and hemodialysis vintage (OR = 1.14 were the independent risk factor favoring the occurrence of CAC; while age (OR = 1.20 was the only predictor of AAC occurrence in HD. Conclusions 1. AAC precedes the occurrence of CAC in HD patients. 2. The exposition to uremic milieu and systemic chronic microinflammation has more deteriorative effect on the CAC than the AAC.

  9. Transforming growth factor-β and atherosclerosis: interwoven atherogenic and atheroprotective aspects

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Age-related progression of cardiovascular disease is by far the largest health problem in the US and involves vascular damage, progressive vascular fibrosis and the accumulation of lipid-rich atherosclerotic lesions. Advanced lesions can restrict flow to key organs and can trigger occlusive thrombosis resulting in a stroke or myocardial infarction. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a major orchestrator of the fibroproliferative response to tissue damage. In the early stages of repair...

  10. [Aortic valve calcification prevalence and association with coronary risk factors and atherosclerosis in Mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Valerio, Jorge; Rodas-Díaz, Marco A; Macias-Garrido, Enrico; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Juárez-Rojas, Juan G; Medina-Urrutia, Aida X; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo C; Joge-Galarza, Esteban; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Posadas-Romero, Carlos

    The prevalence of aortic valve calcification (AVC), strongly influenced by ethnicity, is unknown in Mexican population. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of AVC and its associations with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery calcification (CAC), in Mexican subjects. In 1,267 subjects (53% women) without known coronary heart disease, aged 35 to 75 years, AVC and CAC were assessed by multidetector-computed tomography using the Agatston score. Cardiovascular risk factors were documented in all participants. The associations of AVC with CAC and risk factors were assessed by multivariable logistic regression analyses. The overall prevalence of AVC and CAC was 19.89% and 26.5%, respectively. AVC and CAC increased with age and were found more frequently in men (25.5% and 37.1%, respectively) than in women (14.9% and 13.0%, respectively). AVC was observed in only 8.5% of subjects without CAC, while those with CAC 1-99, 100-399, and >400 Agatston units had AVC prevalences of 36.8%, 56.8%, and 84.0%, respectively. The multivariable logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, gender, obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and high insulin levels, showed that the presence of CAC (OR [CI95%]: 3.23 [2.26-4.60]), obesity (1.94 [1.35-2.79]), male gender (1.44 [1.01-2.05]) and age (1.08 [1.03-1.10]), were significant independent predictors of AVC. Prevalence of AVC is high and significantly associated with atherosclerotic risk factors and CAC in this Mexican population. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in atherosclerosis: studies of osteopetrotic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) plays a role in atherogenesis. To examine this hypothesis, we have studied atherogenesis in osteopetrotic (op/op) mice, which lack M-CSF due to a structural gene mutation. Atherogenesis was induced either by feeding the mice a high fat, high cholesterol diet or by crossing op mice with apolipoprotein E (apo E) knockout mice to generate mice lacking both M-CSF and apo E. In both the dietary a...

  12. Postmortem Study of Validation of Low Signal on Fat-Suppressed T1-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging as Marker of Lipid Core in Middle Cerebral Artery Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Jie; Zhao, Hai-Lu; Niu, Chun-Bo; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Yun; Wong, Ka-Sing; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— High signal on T1-weighted fat-suppressed images in middle cerebral artery plaques on ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging was verified to be intraplaque hemorrhage histologically. However, the underlying plaque component of low signal on T1-weighted fat-suppressed images (LST1) has never been explored. Based on our experience, we hypothesized that LST1 might indicate the presence of lipid core within intracranial plaques. Methods— 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging was performed in the postmortem brains to scan the cross sections of bilateral middle cerebral arteries. Then middle cerebral artery specimens were removed for histology processing. LST1 presence was identified on magnetic resonance images, and lipid core areas were measured on the corresponding histology sections. Results— Total 76 middle cerebral artery locations were included for analysis. LST1 showed a high specificity (96.9%; 95% confidence interval, 82.0%–99.8%) but a low sensitivity (38.6%; 95% confidence interval, 24.7%–54.5%) for detecting lipid core of all areas. However, the sensitivity increased markedly (81.2%; 95% confidence interval, 53.7%–95.0%) when only lipid cores of area ≥0.80 mm2 were included. Mean lipid core area was 5× larger in those with presence of LST1 than in those without (1.63±1.18 mm2 versus 0.32±0.31 mm2; P=0.003). Conclusions— LST1 is a promising imaging biomarker of identifying intraplaque lipid core, which may be useful to distinguish intracranial atherosclerotic disease from other intracranial vasculopathies and to assess plaque vulnerability for risk stratification of patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease. In vivo clinical studies are required to explore the correlation between LST1 and clinical outcomes of patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease. PMID:27462119

  13. Immune response to lipoproteins in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Sonia; Mundkur, Lakshmi; Kakkar, Vijay V

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, is characterized by chronic inflammation and altered immune response. Cholesterol is a well-known risk factor associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Elevated serum cholesterol is unique because it can lead to development of atherosclerosis in animals and humans even in the absence of other risk factors. Modifications of low-density lipoproteins mediated by oxidation, enzymatic degradation, and aggregation result in changes in their function and activate both innate and adaptive immune system. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been identified as one of the most important autoantigens in atherosclerosis. This escape from self-tolerance is dependent on the formation of oxidized phospholipids. The emerging understanding of the importance of immune responses against oxidized LDL in atherosclerosis has focused attention on the possibility of development of novel therapy for atherosclerosis. This review provides an overview of immune response to lipoproteins and the fascinating possibility of developing an immunomodulatory therapy for atherosclerosis.

  14. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rat hippocampus following focal cerebral ischemic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingping Li; Ruifang Guo; Kaifeng Lu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The functional role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is enhanced following cerebral ischemic injury providing neurons with an important self-protection mechanism in early stage ischemia/hypoxia.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression pattern of BDNF in different rat hippocampal regions following focal cerebral ischemic injury.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: We performed a comparative and neurobiological study of animals in the Department of Histology and Embryology and the Central Laboratory, Hebei Medical University from March to December 2003.MATERIALS: Forty healthy Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a cerebral ischemla group and a sham operation group, with 20 rats per group.METHODS: In the cerebral ischemia group, we occluded the right middle cerebral artery with a suture,threading it to a depth of 17-19 mm. In the sham operation group, the threading depth was approximately 10 mm.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We analyzed the expression of BDNF in different hippocampal regions by immunohistochemical staining of brain sections taken on post-operative days 7, 14, 21 and 30.RESULTS: Sham operation group: We observed a number of a few BDNF-positive cells with light staining in the hippocampal CAI CA4 regions and dentate gyrus. Cerebral ischemia group: compared with the sham operation group, BDNF increased on day 7, significantly increased on day 14, and reached a peak on day 21 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, immunologically reactive products were darkly stained, and neurons had long axons.BDNF was particularly highly expressed in the hippocampal CA3 and CA4 regions and dentate gyrus.CONCLUSION: Cerebral ischemic injury can damage hippocampal neurons. Neurons can increase their anti-ischemic capacity by increasing BDNF expression in the hippocampal CA3 and CA4 regions and dentate gyrus.

  15. Genetic Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kovacic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Advances in techniques of molecular genetics have revealed that genetic ground significantly influences susceptibility to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Besides further investigations of monogenetic diseases, candidate genes, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility loci associated with atherosclerotic diseases have been identified in recent years, and their number is rapidly increasing. This paper discusses main genetic investigations fields associated with human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the directions and implications of future genetic research in arteriosclerosis with an emphasis on prospective prediction from an early age of individuals who are predisposed to develop premature atherosclerosis as well as to facilitate the discovery of novel drug targets.

  16. Cardiovascular risk factor profiles for peripheral artery disease and carotid atherosclerosis among Chinese older people: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Liang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological data concerning atherosclerotic disease among older people in rural China are sparse. We seek to determine prevalence and cardiovascular risk factor profiles for peripheral artery disease (PAD and carotid atherosclerosis (CAS among Chinese older people living in a rural community. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1499 participants (age ≥60 years, 59.0% women of the Confucius Hometown Aging Project in Shandong, China. From June 2010-July 2011, data were collected through interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory tests. PAD was defined as an ankle-brachial index ≤0.9. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT and carotid artery stenosis were assessed by ultrasonography. We defined moderate stenosis as carotid stenosis ≥50%, and severe stenosis as carotid stenosis ≥70%. cIMT≥1.81 mm was considered as an increased cIMT (a measure of CAS. Data were analyzed with multiple logistic models. RESULTS: The prevalence was 5.7% for PAD, 8.9% for moderate stenosis, 1.8% for severe stenosis, and 11.2% for increased cIMT. After controlling for multiple potential confounders, diabetes, an increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio, and hypertension were significantly or marginally associated with PAD. Ever smoking, hypertension, and an increased LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of increased cIMT. An increasing number of those cardiovascular risk factors were significantly associated with an increasing odds ratio of PAD and increased cIMT, respectively (p for linear trend <0.001. CONCLUSION: Among Chinese older people living in a rural community, PAD, carotid artery stenosis, and an increased cIMT are relatively uncommon. Cardiovascular risk factor profiles for PAD and CAS are slightly different, with hypertension and an increased LDL-C/HDL-C ratio being associated with an increased likelihood of both PAD and

  17. The changes and significance of serum inflammatory factors and hemodynamics in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Wei Lu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changes of serum inflammatory factors and hemodynamics in patients with acute cerebral infarction and its clinical significance.Methods: A total of 55 cases of acute cerebral infarction (ACI) patients as observation group, and cases of healthy physical examination were selected as the observation group, and 55 healthy persons as control group. ELISA method was used to detect inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) level, WA-880 heart and brain integrated digital hemodynamic monitor to detect bilateral carotid artery blood flow velocity, blood flow and peripheral resistance.Results:The serum levels of IL-8, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α were higher in the observation group than in the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The blood flow velocity and blood flow velocity in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (IL-8). With the increase of infarct size, serum IL-6, CRP,P<0.05 and TNF-α increased significantly (P<0.05).Conclusions:The changes of serum inflammatory factors and hemodynamic indexes can be used to judge the early cerebral infarction and the size of the infarct size of the index, the clinical dynamic monitoring of its changes in patients with acute cerebral infarction and the severity of the prognosis and the prognosis of the important significance of the judgment.

  18. Increased tissue factor, MMP-8, and D-dimer expression in diabetic patients with unstable advanced carotid atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Krupinski

    2007-09-01

    diabetic patients at higher risk of atherothrombosis. Increased procoagulant activity in diabetic patients may be linked to increased mural remodeling.Keywords: Diabetes, atherosclerosis, carotid artery, tissue factor, D-dimer, matrix metalloproteinase.

  19. Aerobic Exercise Suppresses Atherosclerosis Through Adiponectin-Nuclear Transcription Factor κB Pathway in Apolipoprotein E-deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weidong; Wang, Haiying; Jiao, Guangfa; Yue, Jingjing; Wang, Guowei

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of aerobic exercise on atherosclerosis (AS) in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice and the adiponectin (ApN)-nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) pathway involved in the related anti-inflammation. ApoE-deficient mice with AS (AS+C), and ApoE-deficient mice with AS and aerobic exercise (AS+E) were investigated for body weight and visceral fat. Pathomorphology of the aortic vascular wall was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated with hematoxylin-eosin staining. The ApN messenger RNA level in adipose tissue and ApN level in plasma were determined. The aortic adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and NF-κB levels were determined with western blot. There was no significant difference in body weight between the AS+C and the AS+E groups, but visceral fat in the AS+E group was significantly smaller than that in the AS+C group. Aortic vascular wall fiber board in the AS+C group broke, but this aortic disease in the AS+E group was obviously alleviated. The AS+E group showed a smaller neointimal hyperplasia and plaque area compared with AS+C group. After a high-fat diet, the ApN levels in both adipose tissue and plasma were decreased in the AS+C group and returned to a relative high level in the AS+E group. The expression of AdipoR1 protein in the AS+C group was significantly lower than those in the AS+E group. As for NF-κB protein, its enhanced expression in the AS+C group was reversed to a relatively low level in the AS+E group. Aerobic exercise suppressed AS through the ApN-NF-κB pathway in ApoE-deficient mice. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sleep Apnea, Sleep Duration and Brain MRI Markers of Cerebral Vascular Disease and Alzheimer's Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L Lutsey

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature has suggested that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and habitual short sleep duration are linked to poor cognitive function. Neuroimaging studies may provide insight into this relation.We tested the hypotheses that OSA and habitual short sleep duration, measured at ages 54-73 years, would be associated with adverse brain morphology at ages 67-89 years.Included in this analysis are 312 ARIC study participants who underwent in-home overnight polysomnography in 1996-1998 and brain MRI scans about 15 years later (2012-2013. Sleep apnea was quantified by the apnea-hypopnea index and categorized as moderate/severe (≥15.0 events/hour, mild (5.0-14.9 events/hour, or normal (<5.0 events/hour. Habitual sleep duration was categorized, in hours, as <7, 7 to <8, ≥8. MRI outcomes included number of infarcts (total, subcortical, and cortical and white matter hyperintensity (WMH and Alzheimer's disease signature region volumes. Multivariable adjusted logistic and linear regression models were used. All models incorporated inverse probability weighting, to adjust for potential selection bias.At the time of the sleep study participants were 61.7 (SD: 5.0 years old and 54% female; 19% had moderate/severe sleep apnea. MRI imaging took place 14.8 (SD: 1.0 years later, when participants were 76.5 (SD: 5.2 years old. In multivariable models which accounted for body mass index, neither OSA nor abnormal sleep duration were statistically significantly associated with odds of cerebral infarcts, WMH brain volumes or regional brain volumes.In this community-based sample, mid-life OSA and habitually short sleep duration were not associated with later-life cerebral markers of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. However, selection bias may have influenced our results and the modest sample size led to relatively imprecise associations.

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors and blood pressure in a primary care unit: Yugoslav Study of the Precursors of Atherosclerosis in School Children (YUSAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajcetic, Milica; Ilic, Katarina; Singh, Nada Majkic; Novakovic, Ivana; Vukotic, Milija; Nedeljkovic, Srecko; Simeunovic, Slavko

    2006-01-01

    The presence of cardiovascular risk factors in children may be important in the development of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Adequate control of blood pressure is a cornerstone in atherosclerosis prevention. The aim of the Yugoslav Study of the Precursors of Atherosclerosis in School Children (YUSAD) was to identify risk factors for elevated blood pressure in school children. The YUSAD study is a multicentre follow-up study comprised of two cross-sectional surveys conducted five years apart. At baseline, 10-year-old children (3226 boys and 3074 girls [n=6300]) were randomly selected during periodical visits to primary health care centres. The risk factors measured were heart rate, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, grade point average and current smoking status. Significant age and sex differences were identified in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and all investigated independent variables. In a multivariate analysis, diastolic blood pressure in 10-year-old boys was directly and significantly related to total cholesterol and height, whereas it was inversely related to weight. At follow-up, in the multivariate model, only BMI was a significant predictor of diastolic blood pressure in boys. In girls at baseline in the multivariate regression analysis, the only significant predictor of diastolic blood pressure was total cholesterol. In 15-year-old girls, diastolic blood pressure was significantly and directly related to BMI and heart rate, whereas it was inversely related to weight. For both 10- and 15-year-old male and female participants, none of the variables by multivariate analysis were a significant predictor of systolic blood pressure. Age, sex, heart rate, cholesterol and weight are the most important predictors of blood pressure in school children.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors and blood pressure in a primary care unit: Yugoslav Study of the Precursors of Atherosclerosis in School Children (YUSAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajcetic, Milica; Ilic, Katarina; Singh, Nada Majkic; Novakovic, Ivana; Vukotic, Milija; Nedeljkovic, Srecko; Simeunovic, Slavko

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The presence of cardiovascular risk factors in children may be important in the development of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Adequate control of blood pressure is a cornerstone in atherosclerosis prevention. The aim of the Yugoslav Study of the Precursors of Atherosclerosis in School Children (YUSAD) was to identify risk factors for elevated blood pressure in school children. METHODS The YUSAD study is a multicentre follow-up study comprised of two cross-sectional surveys conducted five years apart. At baseline, 10-year-old children (3226 boys and 3074 girls [n=6300]) were randomly selected during periodical visits to primary health care centres. The risk factors measured were heart rate, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, grade point average and current smoking status. RESULTS Significant age and sex differences were identified in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and all investigated independent variables. In a multivariate analysis, diastolic blood pressure in 10-year-old boys was directly and significantly related to total cholesterol and height, whereas it was inversely related to weight. At follow-up, in the multivariate model, only BMI was a significant predictor of diastolic blood pressure in boys. In girls at baseline in the multivariate regression analysis, the only significant predictor of diastolic blood pressure was total cholesterol. In 15-year-old girls, diastolic blood pressure was significantly and directly related to BMI and heart rate, whereas it was inversely related to weight. For both 10- and 15-year-old male and female participants, none of the variables by multivariate analysis were a significant predictor of systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS Age, sex, heart rate, cholesterol and weight are the most important predictors of blood pressure in school children. PMID:18651041

  3. 62例青年脑卒中患者临床病因及危险因素分析%Clinical and Risk Factor Analysis of Young Patients With Cerebral Apoplexy in 62 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任大为

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨青年脑卒中患者的临床病因及危险因素特征。方法选取我院收治的62例青年脑卒中患者(≤45岁)作为研究对象,分析其病因及危险因素。结果脑卒中病变位置主要存在于脑叶、基底节区。40例青年缺血性脑卒中最为常见的病因为动脉粥样硬化(52.50%),其次为心源性脑栓塞(12.50%),22例青年出血性脑卒中最为常见的病因为高血压(40.91%),其次为颅内动脉瘤(13.65%);青年脑卒中的危险因素是高血压、高脂血症、吸烟、饮酒、家族史、糖尿病等。结论引发青年脑卒中的原因比较多,高血压和动脉粥样硬化分别是出血性脑卒中和缺血性脑卒中的主要病因,血脂、高血压、吸烟饮酒是青年脑卒中的重要危险因素。%Objective To investigate the clinical causes and risk factors of young patients with cerebral apoplexy.MethodsSelected 62 cases of juvenile stroke patients (45 years of age or less) in our hospital as the research object, analyzed its causes and risk factors.ResultsStroke lesion location mainly existed in the brain, the basal ganglia region. 40 cases of young ischemic stroke was the most common disease for atherosclerosis (52.50%), folowed by cardiac cerebral embolism (12.50%), 22 cases of youth hemorrhagic stroke was the most common disease because of high blood pressure (40.91%), folowed by intracranial aneurysm (13.65%). Young stroke risk factors were hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, drinking, family history, diabetes, etc. ConclusionCauses of youth cerebral apoplexy, blood pressure and atherosclerosis are hemorrhagic cerebral apoplexy and the major cause of ischemic cerebral apoplexy, blood fat, high blood pressure, smoking, drinking alcohol is one of the important risk factors for young stroke.

  4. MTHFR homozygous mutation and additional risk factors for cerebral infarction in a large Italian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Balzo, Francesca; Spalice, Alberto; Perla, Massimo; Properzi, Enrico; Iannetti, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Several cases with cerebral infarctions associated with the C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have been reported. Given the large number of asymptomatic individuals with the MTHFR mutation, additional risk factors for cerebral infarction should be considered. This study describes a large family with the MTHFR mutation and a combination of heterozygous factor V Leiden mutations and different additional exogenous and endogenous thrombogenic risk factors. Psychomotor retardation and a left fronto-insular infarct associated with the MTHFR mutation together with diminished factor VII and low level of protein C was documented in the first patient. In the second patient, generalized epilepsy and a malacic area in the right nucleus lenticularis was associated with the MTHFR mutation and a low level of protein C. In the third patient, right hemiparesis and a left fronto-temporal porencephalic cyst were documented, together with the MTHFR mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia. An extensive search of additional circumstantial and genetic thrombogenic risk factors should be useful for prophylaxis and prognosis of infants with cerebral infarctions associated with the MTHFR mutation and of their related family members.

  5. The risk factors and pattern of cerebral microbleeds in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dian; Liu, Chun-Feng; Chu, Lan; Li, Ya; Xu, Da-Fei; Jiao, Ling

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been reported recently and concerned increasingly. Our aim was to investigate the risk factors and pattern of CMBs in patients with PD, as well as the influence of risk factors on the pattern of CMBs. We retrospectively collected medical and imaging data of 247 patients who underwent brain susceptibility-weighted imaging. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the risk factors of CMBs. The frequency and amount of CMBs in different locations between patients with and without risk factors were analyzed. Of the 247 patients with PD, 39 (15.79%) had CMBs, 27 (69.23%) had lobar CMBs, 20 (51.28%) had deep CMBs and 17 (43.59%) had infratentorial CMBs. A history of cerebral ischemic events was independently associated with the presence of CMBs (odds ratio (OR) 4.485 [95% CI 2.150-9.356]; p = 0.000), especially with lobar and deep CMBs. Hypertension and Hoehn and Yahr score were also associated with the presence of deep CMBs. Only white matter hyperintensities were independently associated with the presence of infratentorial CMBs. Compared to patients without risk factors, the frequency of deep CMBs was greater in those with a history of cerebral ischemic events (p = 0.013), while the amount of deep CMBs was higher in those with hypertension (p = 0.035). CMBs in PD seem to present a lobe-dominant pattern. A history of cerebral ischemic events and hypertension may be two strong risk factors which preferentially influences the pattern of deep CMBs in PD.

  6. Poxue Huayu and Tianjing Busui Decoction for cerebral hemorrhage Upregulation of neurotrophic factor expression**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jixiang Ren; Xiangyu Zhou; Jian Wang; Jianjun Zhao; Pengguo Zhang

    2013-01-01

    This study established a rat model of cerebral hemorrhage by injecting autologous anticoagulated blood. Rat models were intragastrical y administered 5, 10, 20 g/kg Poxue Huayu and Tianjing Bu-sui Decoction, supplemented with Hirudo, raw rhubarb, raw Pol en Typhae, gadfly, Fructrs Tricho-santhis, Radix Notoginseng, Rhizoma Acori Talarinowi , and glue of tortoise plastron, once a day, for 14 consecutive days. Results demonstrated that brain water content significantly reduced in rats with cerebral hemorrhage, and intracerebral hematoma volume markedly reduced after treatment. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tyrosine kinase B and vascular endothelial growth factor expression noticeably increased around the surrounding hematoma. Reverse transcription-PCR revealed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase B mRNA expression significantly increased around the surrounding hematoma. Neurologic impairment obviously reduced. These results indicated that Poxue Huayu and Tianjing Busui De-coction exert therapeutic effects on cerebral hemorrhage by upregulating the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

  7. Early Exercise Affects Mitochondrial Transcription Factors Expression after Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshan Hu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that exercise training is neuroprotective after stroke, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. To clarify this critical issue, the current study investigated the effects of early treadmill exercise on the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors. Adult rats were subjected to ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Expression of two genes critical for transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1 (PGC-1 and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1, were examined by RT-PCR after five days of exercise starting at 24 h after ischemia. Mitochondrial protein cytochrome C oxidase subunit IV (COX IV was detected by Western blot. Neurological status and cerebral infarct volume were evaluated as indices of brain damage. Treadmill training increased levels of PGC-1 and NRF-1 mRNA, indicating that exercise promotes rehabilitation after ischemia via regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis.

  8. 高密度脂蛋白与脑动脉粥样硬化相关性研究%Correlation study between high density lipoprotein -cholesterol with cerebral atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 陈胜利; 游曦; 熊见

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨高密度脂蛋白(HDL)与脑动脉粥样硬化(AS)的相关性。方法选择200例缺血性脑血管病患者,均于晨8:00空腹采集静脉血液检验血常规及生化指标,计算测量得到 HDL 占总胆固醇的比例,以25%为标准,≥25%为高 HDL 组,<25%为低 HDL 组。同时进行双侧颈动脉超声检查,测量双颈总动脉内-中膜厚度,≥0.9 mm 为 AS 组、<0.9 mm 为非 AS 组。结果经生化分析,200例患者中高 HDL 患者47例(高 HDL 组),低 HDL 患者153例(低 HDL 组);高 HDL 组患者中经颈动脉多普勒超声检查确诊 AS 12例(25.53%)、非 AS 35例(74.47%),低 HDL 组患者中经颈动脉多普勒超声检查确诊 AS 139例(94.56%)、非 AS 14例(9.52%),低 HDL 组确诊 AS 患者显著高于高 HDL 组,HDL 占总胆固醇的比例与脑动脉粥样硬化呈负相关关系(r =-0.644,P <0.05)。结论 HDL 的检测对于脑动脉粥样硬化的诊断具有重要意义,可通过 HDL 含量评估缺血性脑血管病病情,为下一步治疗提供参考。%Objective To explore the correlation between high density lipoprotein -cholesterol(HDL)with cerebral atherosclerosis(AS).Methods 200 patients with potential cerebral AS were chosen.Blood routine and bio-chemical indices of venous blood of all patients were analyzed.According to the results of biochemical indices (25%),all the patients were classified as high HDL group(≥25%)or low HDL group(<25%).According to the results of carotid artery ultrasonography by color Doppler flow imaging,all the patients were classified as AS group or non -AS group.Results According to the biochemical examination,there were 47 patients with high HDL(high HDL group)and 153 patients with low HDL(low HDL group)in all 200 cases with potential cerebral AS.There were 12 cases of AS(25.53%)and 35 cases of non -AS(74.47%)in the high HDL group,and there were 139 cases

  9. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor regulates JNK pathway to alleviate damage after cerebral ischemia reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-guo; LIU Xiao-li; ZHENG Chao-bo

    2013-01-01

    Background Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a potent hematopoietic growth factor that both enhances the survival and drives the differentiation and proliferation of myeloid lineage cells.Recent studies have suggested that GM-CSF has a neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia injury,but the molecular mechanisms have been unclear.This study aimed to investigate the influences of a short-acting (half-life 3.5 hours) G-CSF and a long-acting (half-life 40 hours) pegylated G-CSF on the JNK signaling pathway after cerebral ischemia reperfusion.Methods A total of 52 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups:a sham group (n=4),a vehicle with saline (n=16),a short-acting G-CSF treatment group (n=16) and a long-acting G-CSF treatment group (n=16).The cerebral ischemia reperfusion model was established for the sham group and G-CSF treatment groups by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).Five days post reperfusion,rats were sacrificed and the brains were removed.Changes in neurological function after cerebral ischemia reperfusion was evaluated according to Neurological Severity Score (NSS) and the lesion volume and infarct size were measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining.The numbers of apoptotic neurons in these ischemic areas:left cerebral cortex,striatum and hippocampus were calculated by TUNEL assay,and expression of JNK/P-JNK,c-jun/P-c-jun in these areas was detected by Western blotting.Results Compared with the saline vehicle group ((249.68±23.36) mm3,(19.27±3.37)%),G-CSF-treated rats revealed a significant reduction in lesion volume (long-acting:(10.89±1.90)%,P <0.01; short-acting G-CSF:(11.69±1.41)%,P <0.01)and infarct size (long-acting:(170.53±18.47) mm3,P <0.01; short-acting G-CSF:(180.74±16.93) mm3,P <0.01) as well as less neuron functional damage (P <0.01) and a smaller number of apoptotic neurons in ischemic areas (P <0.01).The activity of P-JNK and P-c-jun in the

  10. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yujun [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Li, Jian-Dong [Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yan, Chen, E-mail: Chen_Yan@urmc.rochester.edu [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  11. Effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on the Expression of c-Fos and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor of the Cerebral Cortex in Rats with Cerebral Infarct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoqiao; MEI Yuanwu; LIU Chuanyu; YU Shanchun

    2007-01-01

    The effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the neurological functional recovery and expression of c-Fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) of the cerebral cortex in rats with cerebral infarction was investigated. Cerebral infarction models were established by using left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and were randomly divided into a model group (n=40) and a TMS group (n=40). TMS treatment (2 times per day, 30 pulses per time) with a frequency of 0.5 Hz and magnetic field intensity of 1.33 Tesla was carried out in TMS group after MCAO. Modified neurological severity score (NSS) were recorded before and 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 day(s) after MCAO. The expression of c-Fos and BDNF was immunohistochemically detected 1, 7,14, 21, and 28 day(s) after infarction respectively. Our results showed that a significant recovery of NSS (P<0.05) was found in animals treated by TMS on day 7, 14, 21, and 28 as compared with the animals in the model group. The positive expression of c-Fos and BDNF was detected in the cortex surrounding the infarction areas, while the expression of c-Fos and BDNF increased significantly in TMS treatment group in comparison with those in model group 7, 14, 21, and 28 days (P<0.05) and 7,14, 21 days (P<0.01) after infarction, respectively. It is concluded that TMS has therapeutic effect on cerebral infarction and this may have something to do with TMS's ability to promote the expression of c-Fos and BDNF of the cerebral cortex in rats with cerebral infarction.

  12. Elevation in fibroblast growth factor 23 and its value for identifying subclinical atherosclerosis in first-degree relatives of patients with diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Pan, Xiaoping; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supported an association between diabetes and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). The goal of the present study was to explore alteration in serum FGF23 levels and to assess its value for identifying subclinical atherosclerosis in normoglycemic individuals with a first-degree family history of diabetes (FHD). The study enrolled 312 subjects with a first-degree FHD and 1407 subjects without an FHD. Serum FGF23 levels were detected by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum FGF23 levels were much higher in subjects with a first-degree FHD than in those without an FHD (P = 0.006). A first-degree FHD was positively associated with serum FGF23 levels, independent of C-IMT and cardiovascular factors (both P < 0.05). In subjects with a first-degree FHD, only those with serum FGF23 levels in the upper quartile were more likely to have an increased C-IMT (odds ratio = 2.263, P < 0.05). As conclusions, a first-degree FHD contributes to the increased serum FGF23 levels independently. Subjects with a first-degree FHD need higher serum FGF23 levels to indicate subclinical atherosclerosis. The influence of a first-degree FHD on serum FGF23 levels should be considered to avoid overestimating the risk of cardiovascular disease in normoglycemic individuals with a first-degree FHD. PMID:27698482

  13. Living with Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Atherosclerosis Improved treatments have reduced the number of deaths ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  14. Atherosclerosis and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After Stroke Inspirational Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Atherosclerosis and Stroke Updated:Oct 24,2016 Excerpted and ... cause difficulty walking and eventually gangrene. Stroke and atherosclerosis There are two types of ischemic stroke caused ...

  15. Effects of leukemia inhibitory factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on free radicals and endogenous stem cell proliferation in a mouse model of cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihui Huang; Yadan Li; Yufeng Lin; Xue Ye; Dawei Zang

    2012-01-01

    The present study established a mouse model of cerebral infarction by middle cerebral artery occlusion,and monitored the effect of 25 μg/kg leukemia inhibitory factor and (or) basic fibroblast growth factor administration 2 hours after model establishment.Results showed that following administration,the number of endogenous neural stem cells in the infarct area significantly increased,malondialdehyde content in brain tissue homogenates significantly decreased,nitric oxide content,glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity significantly elevated,and mouse motor function significantly improved as confirmed by the rotarod and bar grab tests.In particular,the effect of leukemia inhibitory factor in combination with basic fibroblast growth factor was the most significant.Results indicate that leukemia inhibitory factor and basic fibroblast growth factor can improve the microenvironment after cerebral infarction by altering free radical levels,improving the quantity of endogenous neural stem cells,and promoting neurological function of mice with cerebral infarction.

  16. Systemic and cerebral vascular endothelial growth factor levels increase in murine cerebral malaria along with increased Calpain and caspase activity and can be reduced by erythropoietin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Hoyer, Nils; Kildemoes, Anna

    2014-01-01

    increased levels of VEGF in brain and plasma and decreased plasma levels of soluble VEGF receptor 2. EPO treatment normalized VEGF receptor 2 levels and reduced brain VEGF levels. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was significantly upregulated whereas cerebral HIF-2α and EPO levels remained unchanged....... Furthermore, we noticed increased caspase-3 and calpain activity in terminally ill mice, as measured by protease-specific cleavage of α-spectrin and p35. In conclusion, we detected increased cerebral and systemic VEGF as well as HIF-1α, which in the brain were reduced to normal in EPO-treated mice. Also...

  17. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD – a new factor that interplays between inflammation, malnutrition, and atherosclerosis in elderly hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolasevic I

    2014-08-01

    remarkable positive correlation between NAFLD and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP (r=0.659; P<0.0001 and consequent negative correlation with the nutritional parameter, serum albumin (r=-0.321; P=0.004. Interestingly, we showed that in contrast to the general population, where NAFLD is associated with obesity, in the present study, there was no statistically significant association between NAFLD and overnutrition in elderly HD patients. Furthermore, the presence of NAFLD, low serum albumin levels, and high hs-CRP were strong predictors of poor outcome in our elderly HD patients. Conclusion: Our results indicated that NAFLD probably interplays between inflammation, malnutrition, and atherosclerosis in elderly HD patients. NAFLD could be a new factor that contributes to type 2 malnutrition in elderly HD patients, who may be amenable to adequate nutritional and HD support. Keywords: cardiovascular risk, serum albumin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP

  18. 颈动脉硬化的发生率及其影响因素的分析%Analysis of prevalence and risk factors of carotid atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成丽岚; 肖丽敏; 马恩红; 王建栋; 倪素娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective It is to explore the prevalence and risk factors of carotid atherosclerosis. Methods The height, body mass, waist, blood pressure, blood lipids, blood sugar, blood uric acid were determined and carotid artery ultrasound was detected in 2 807 officials examined in our medical department. Results The incidence of obesity, center obesity, hyperuricemia, high blood pressure, hyperlipemia, glycometabolism abnormality, and metabolism syndrome in carotid atherosclerosis group were higher than that of the ones without carotid atherosclerosis, and the results of waistline, blood sugar and blood uric acid were higher in the former group than that in the latter group. With age increasing, the rate of carotid atheroscleros was increased. Conclusion The carotid atherosclerosis is closely related to metabolic targets, we should pay attention to carotid artery ultrasound, it will guide clinical work to the extent.%目的 探讨颈动脉粥样硬化的发生率及其影响因素.方法 对2807例进行体检的公务员进行身高、体质量、腰围、血压、血脂、血糖及血尿酸等指标的测定及颈动脉超声检查.结果 颈动脉硬化组合并肥胖、中心性肥胖、高尿酸血症、高血压、高血脂症、糖代谢异常及代谢综合征发生率均明显高于颈动脉正常组;腰围、血糖、血尿酸的检测结果均高于颈动脉正常组;而且随年龄增加,颈动脉硬化的发生率增加.结论 颈动脉硬化与各代谢指标密切相关,颈动脉超声检查在一定程度上可指导临床工作.

  19. Whether chronic bronchitis is an independent risk factor for cerebral infarction in the elderly 1:1 case paired study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The inflammatory reaction already becomes an important risk factor of causing acute cerebral infarction; however, the correlation between chronic bronchitis and senile cerebral infarction is still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To study whether the chronic bronchitis is the risk factor for senile cerebral infarction.DESIGN: 1:1 pair, case contrast, and risk factor study.SETTINGS: Department of Respiratory Medicine, Third Hospital of Tangshan; Department of Neurology,Affiliated Hospital of North China Coal Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 147 patients with acute cerebral infarction who were regarded as case group were selected from Department of Neurology, the Third Hospital of Tangshan from January 2004 to December 2006. All patients met the diagnostic criteria of the Fourth National Cerebrovascular Diseases Meeting. There were 87 males and 60 females, and their ages ranged from 65 to 83 years. Based on 1∶1 pair study, another 147 subjects without cerebrovascular disease were regarded as control group. Except the diseases about infection, there were 73 males and 74 females, and their ages ranged from 62 to 81 years. All subjects provided the confirm consent and agreed with the coordinate experiment.METHODS: ① Questionnaire of risk factor of cerebral infarction was designed to measure the following items: chronic bronchitis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipemia, coronary heart disease, primary cerebral infarction/transient ischemic attack and history of smoking. ② Cerebral infarction was regarded as the dependent variance, while chronic bronchitis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperiipemia, primary cerebral infarction/transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease and smoking were regarded as the independent variance for multiple regression analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk factors of senile cerebral infarction.RESULTS: All 147 patients with acute cerebral infarction and 147 subjects without cerebrovascular diseases were involved in

  20. Clinical and etiological associations in chronic cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Zhitkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the clinical features of chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI in relation to the leading etiological factor.Patients and methods. Examinations were made in 515 non-stroke CCI patients: 306 men and 209 women aged 58 to 75 years with hypertension and no obvious atherosclerosis of head and neck vessels (n=197; with obvious atherosclerosis of head and neck vessels and no hypertension (n=157; with obvious atherosclerosis of head and neck vessels and hypertension (n=161. In all cases, the investigators performed standard neurological examination and evaluated cognitive, affective symptoms with a set of neuropsychological scales and equilibrium and gait abnormalities with the Tinetti scale.Results and discussion. The development of extrapyramidal syndrome was more related to hypertension or its concurrence with the atherosclerotic process. The patients with atherosclerosis and no hypertension showed a more distinct differentiation of clinical syndromes, which was associated with stenosis in the specific vascular bed; this was probably due to decreased local perfusion. A relationship was established between hypertension and the development of severe cognitive impairments (CIs that had predominantly a dysregulation neuropsychological profile. In the patients with atherosclerosis and no hypertension, emotional disorders were more common than CI and the latter resembled Alzheimer’s disease. A differentiated prophylactic and therapeutic strategy accounting for the leading etiological factor will be able to prevent or significantly reduce functional limitations in patients with CCI.

  1. Abnormal blood rheology and chronic low grade inflammation: possible risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease in Lewis negative subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, Tamas; Pais, Eszter; Wenby, Rosalinda B; Mack, Wendy J; Hodis, Howard N; Kono, Naoko; Wang, Jun; Baskurt, Oguz K; Fisher, Timothy C; Meiselman, Herbert J

    2015-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that abnormal hemorheology and chronic low-grade inflammation are more prevalent in Lewis negative individuals, possibly contributing to premature atherosclerosis. We enrolled 223 healthy subjects (154 females, mean age: 64yrs). Conventional risk factors, markers of inflammation and hemorheological profiles were measured; Lewis blood group was determined by serology. Conventional risk factors (age, gender, BMI, blood pressure, lipid profile, smoking habit) did not differ among Lewis phenotypes. However, markers of inflammation (WBC, hs-CRP, ESR) were significantly elevated and rheological parameters (RBC aggregation, plasma viscosity) were abnormal in Lewis negative subjects, especially when compared to the Le(a-b+) group. With a prevalence of 33% in select populations, our data support the hypothesis that Le(a-b-) represents a pro-inflammatory phenotype that may contribute to the elevated cardiovascular risk in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral microbiota in patients with atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fåk, Frida; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bergström, Göran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent evidence suggests that the microbiota may be considered as an environmental factor that contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Periodontal disease has been associated with cardio- and cerebrovascular events, and inflammation in the periodontium is suggested...... patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic atherosclerosis we performed pyrosequencing of the oral microbiota of 92 individuals including patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic atherosclerosis and control individuals without carotid plaques or previous stroke or myocardial infarction. RESULTS......: The overall microbial structure was similar in controls and atherosclerosis patients, but patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis had higher relative abundance of Anaeroglobus (mean 0.040% (SD 0.049)) than the control group (0.010% (SD 0.028)) (P = 0.03). Using linear regression analysis, we found...

  3. Electroacupuncture stimulation of the brachial plexus trunk on the healthy side promotes brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in the ischemic cerebral cortex of a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zongjun; Wang, Lumin

    2012-07-25

    A rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was established by suture occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. In situ hybridization results showed that the number of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA-positive cells in the ischemic rat cerebral cortex increased after cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion injury. Low frequency continuous wave electroacupuncture (frequency 2-6 Hz, current intensity 2 mA) stimulation of the brachial plexus trunk on the healthy (right) side increased the number of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA-positive cells in the ischemic cerebral cortex 14 days after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. At the same time, electroacupuncture stimulation of the healthy brachial plexus truck significantly decreased neurological function scores and alleviated neurological function deficits. These findings suggest that electroacupuncture stimulation of the brachial plexus trunk on the healthy (right) side can greatly increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression and improve neurological function.

  4. Electroacupuncture stimulation of the brachial plexus trunk on the healthy side promotes brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in the ischemic cerebral cortex of a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongjun Guo; Lumin Wang

    2012-01-01

    A rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was established by suture occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. In situ hybridization results showed that the number of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA-positive cells in the ischemic rat cerebral cortex increased after cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion injury. Low frequency continuous wave electroacupuncture (frequency 2-6 Hz, current intensity 2 mA) stimulation of the brachial plexus trunk on the healthy (right) side increased the number of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA-positive cells in the ischemic cerebral cortex 14 days after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. At the same time, electroacupuncture stimulation of the healthy brachial plexus truck significantly decreased neurological function scores and alleviated neurological function deficits. These findings suggest that electroacupuncture stimulation of the brachial plexus trunk on the healthy (right) side can greatly increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression and improve neurological function.

  5. Impact of cerebral cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers in a general hospital: prognostic factors and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomay Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess survival of patients undergoing cerebral cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers and to identify prognostic factors for short-term survival. METHODS: Prospective study with patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers. RESULTS: The study included 150 patients. Spontaneous circulation was re-established in 88 (58% patients, and 42 (28% were discharged from the hospital. The necessary number of patients treated to save 1 life in 12 months was 3.4. The presence of ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia (VF/VT as the initial rhythm, shorter times of cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers and cardiopulmonary arrest, and greater values of mean blood pressure (BP prior to cardiopulmonary arrest were independent variables for re-establishment of spontaneous circulation and hospital discharge. The odds ratios for hospital discharge were as follows: 6.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7-13.6, when the initial rhythm was VF/VT; 9.4 (95% CI = 4.1-21.3, when the time of cerebral cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 70 mmHg. CONCLUSION: The presence of VF/VT as the initial rhythm, shorter times of cerebral cardiopulmonary resuscitation and of cardiopulmonary arrest, and a greater value of BP prior to cardiopulmonary arrest were independent variables of better prognosis.

  6. Polymorphism of Apolipoprotein A5 is a Risk Factor for Cerebral Infarction in Type 2 Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefeng LI; Yancheng XU; Yan DING; Chengming QIN; Zhe DAI; Li NIU

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the association of apolipoprotein A5 (apoAS) gene polymorphism at position -113 ITC with cerebral infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 256 type 2 diabetic patients without cerebral infarction (T2DM), 220 type 2 diabetic patients with cerebral infarction (T2DMCI) and 340 healthy subjects were recruited from the same region (Hubei province,China). The genotype of apoA5 -1131TC was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol,LDL-cholesterol and trigiycerides were quantitatively detected by using standard enzymatic techniques. The results showed that the prevalence of the apoA5 -1131C allele was significantly higher in T2DMCI group than that in control group (42.7% versus 31.2%, P<0.01). The carriers of rare C allele had higher TG levels as compared with carders of common allele in the three groups (P<0.01). Logistic regression models, which were adjusted for age, gender, blood pressure, BMI, FBS, smoking,LDL-C and HDL-C, revealed that patients carrying the apoA5 -1131C allele and CC homozygotes were at high risk for T2DMCI. It was concluded that the apoA5 -ll31C allele variant is an independent genetic risk factor for T2DMCI.

  7. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  8. Risk factors for cerebral venous thrombosis and deep venous thrombosis in patients aged between 15 and 50 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Karen; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Vroomen, Patrick C A J; van der Meer, Jannes; De Keyser, Jacques; Luijckx, Gert-Jan

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) and deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE) are associated with many risk factors. It is unclear why CVT occurs less often than DVT/PE. Age dependent risk factors may play a role. The aim of our study was to compare risk factors in a uniform age group of

  9. Digital subtraction angiography in cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sin Young; Kim, Ji Hun; Suh, Hong Kil; Kim, Hyo Heon; Kwack, Eun Young; Lee, Il Seong [College of Medicine Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    The usefulness and radiographic findings of the angiography in cerebral infarction are well known. We attempted to evaluate the angiographic causes, findings, and the usefulness of DSA in cerebral infarction. The authors reviewed retrospectively DSA images of 51 patients who were diagnosed as having cerebral infarction by brain CT and/or MRI and clinical settings. DSA was performed in all 51 patients, and in 3 patients, conventional angiogram was also done. Both carotid DSA images were obtained in AP, lateral, oblique projections, and one or both vertebral DSA images in AP and lateral. The authors reviewed the patient's charts for symptoms, operative findings and final diagnosis, and analysed DSA findings of cerebral atherosclerosis with focus on 6 major cerebral arteries. Among the 51 patients of cerebral infarction 43 patients (84.3%) had cerebral atherosclerosis, 1 dissecting aneurysm, 1 moyamoya disease and 6 negative in angiogram. DSA findings of cerebral atherosclerosis were multiple narrowing in 42 patients (97.7%), tortuosity in 22 (51.2%), dilatation in 14, occlusion in 12, avascular region in 8, collaterals in 7, ulcer in 6, and delayed washout of contrast media in 3. In cerebral atherosclerosis, internal carotid artery was involved in 37 patients (86.0%), middle cerebral artery in 29 (67.4%) posterior cerebral artery in 28, anterior cerebral artery in 26, vertebral artery in 22, and basilar artery in 15. Intracranial involvement of cerebral atherosclerosis (64.9%) was more common than extracranial involvement (16.2%). In cerebral infarction MRA may be the screening test, but for more precise evaluation of vascular abnormality and its extent, DSA should be considered.

  10. Genetic ablation of soluble tumor necrosis factor with preservation of membrane tumor necrosis factor is associated with neuroprotection after focal cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Pernille M; Clausen, Bettina H; Degn, Matilda;

    2016-01-01

    Microglia respond to focal cerebral ischemia by increasing their production of the neuromodulatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor, which exists both as membrane-anchored tumor necrosis factor and as cleaved soluble tumor necrosis factor forms. We previously demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor...

  11. Growth factor-and cytokine-stimulated endothelial progenitor cells in post-ischemic cerebral neovascularization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philip V.Peplow

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells are resident in the bone marrow blood sinusoids and circulate in the peripheral circulation. They mobilize from the bone marrow after vascular injury and home to the site of injury where they differentiate into endothelial cells. Activation and mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells from the bone marrow is induced via the production and release of endothelial progenitor cell-activating factors and includes speciifc growth factors and cytokines in response to peripheral tissue hypoxia such as after acute ischemic stroke or trauma. Endotheli-al progenitor cells migrate and home to speciifc sites following ischemic stroke via growth factor/cytokine gradients. Some growth factors are less stable under acidic conditions of tissue isch-emia, and synthetic analogues that are stable at low pH may provide a more effective therapeutic approach for inducing endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and promoting cerebral neovas-cularization following ischemic stroke.

  12. Analysis of Causes and Risk Factors of Cerebral Infarction in Young Patients in Enshi Minority Area%恩施少数民族地区中青年脑梗死病因及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥武; 黄淼

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the etiology and control able risk of Youth Cerebral Infarction in Enshi minority area factors, provide the basis for the prevention of minority groups in Enshi Youth Cerebral infarction. Methods Retrospective analysis and related risk in Enshi minority regions in 86 patients under the age of 45 patients with cerebral infarction etiology factors. Results The Enshi national minority area in the most common etiology of the disease because of Youth Cerebral Infarction atherosclerosis, fol owed by embolization of vascular disease, hypertension, heart disease and atrial fibril ation, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, obesity, smoking, drinking, hyperhomocysteinemia are the common risk factors of cerebral infarction in young. Conclusion Search the pathogeny actively, early prevention and treatment of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes risk factors, a reasonable diet, smoking, drinking, strengthen physical exercise, weight control, changing bad habits can reduce the rate of incidence of cerebral infarction in young minority groups in Enshi.%目的探讨恩施少数民族地区中青年人脑梗死的病因及可控危险因素,为恩施少数民族地区中青年脑梗死的预防提供依据。方法回顾性分析恩施少数民族地区86例45岁以下脑梗死患者的病因及相关危险因素。结果恩施少数民族地区中青年脑梗死病因最常见的病因为动脉粥样硬化,其次为栓塞性血管病,高血压、心脏疾病并房颤、糖尿病、高血脂、肥胖、吸烟、酗酒、高同型半胱氨酸血症等是中青年脑梗死的常见危险因素。结论积极寻找病因,早期防治高血压、高血脂和糖尿病等危险因素,合理饮食,戒烟、戒酒,加强体育锻炼,控制体重,改变不良生活习惯可以降低恩施少数民族地区中青年脑梗死发病率。

  13. How hyperglycemia promotes atherosclerosis: molecular mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Both type I and type II diabetes are powerful and independent risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Atherosclerosis accounts for virtually 80% of all deaths among diabetic patients. Prolonged exposure to hyperglycemia is now recognized a major factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in diabetes. Hyperglycemia induces a large number of alterations at the cellular level of vascular tissue that potentially accelerate the atheroscl...

  14. Immune Response to Lipoproteins in Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Samson; Lakshmi Mundkur; Kakkar, Vijay V

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, is characterized by chronic inflammation and altered immune response. Cholesterol is a well-known risk factor associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Elevated serum cholesterol is unique because it can lead to development of atherosclerosis in animals and humans even in the absence of other risk factors. Modifications of low-density lipoproteins mediated by oxidation, enzymatic degradation, and aggregation re...

  15. The prevalence and risk factors of cerebral microbleeds in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Kazuo; Tanaka, Ryota; Hoshino, Yasunobu; Hatano, Taku; Nishioka, Kenya; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2015-09-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are frequently observed in patients with cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease. CMBs that are located in the deep or infratentorial regions and those that are present strictly in the lobar regions reflect hypertensive vasculopathy and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, respectively. The development of CMBs can be accelerated by clinical factors. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) has been reported to be associated with cerebral small vessel disease, such as white matter lesions in Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the prevalence, location and risk factors, including OH, for CMBs in patients with PD. We conducted a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients with PD who were admitted to the Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine between January 2010 and July 2014. One hundred and sixty-seven patients with PD who underwent gradient echo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were included in the present study. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the associations between risk factors and the presence of CMBs. CMBs were detected in 29 (17.4%) patients. Among the patients with CMBs, 19 (65.5%) had deep or infratentorial CMBs and 10 (34.5%) had strictly lobar CMBs. Hypertension, OH and a history of ischemic stroke were independently associated with deep or infratentorial CMBs, whereas antiplatelet use was independently associated with strictly lobar CMBs. In patients with PD, deep or infratentorial CMBs were more frequent than strictly lobar CMBs, and were associated with hypertension, OH and a history of ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. HELLP Syndrome and Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Associated with Factor V Leiden Mutation during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dag, Zeynep Ozcan; Işik, Yuksel; Simsek, Yavuz; Tulmac, Ozlem Banu; Demiray, Demet

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. The neurological complications of preeclampsia and eclampsia are responsible for a major proportion of the morbidity and mortality for women and their infants alike. Hormonal changes during pregnancy and the puerperium carry an increased risk of venous thromboembolism including cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). Factor 5 leiden (FVL) is a procoagulant mutation associated primarily with venous thrombosis and pregnancy complications. We report a patient with FVL mutation who presented with CVST at 24th week of pregnancy and was diagnosed as HELLP syndrome at 34th week of pregnancy.

  17. HELLP Syndrome and Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Associated with Factor V Leiden Mutation during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Ozcan Dag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. The neurological complications of preeclampsia and eclampsia are responsible for a major proportion of the morbidity and mortality for women and their infants alike. Hormonal changes during pregnancy and the puerperium carry an increased risk of venous thromboembolism including cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST. Factor 5 leiden (FVL is a procoagulant mutation associated primarily with venous thrombosis and pregnancy complications. We report a patient with FVL mutation who presented with CVST at 24th week of pregnancy and was diagnosed as HELLP syndrome at 34th week of pregnancy.

  18. Factors secreted by endothelial progenitor cells enhance neurorepair responses after cerebral ischemia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosell

    Full Text Available Cell therapy with endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs has emerged as a promising strategy to regenerate the brain after stroke. Here, we aimed to investigate if treatment with EPCs or their secreted factors could potentiate angiogenesis and neurogenesis after permanent focal cerebral ischemia in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. BALB/C male mice were subjected to distal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, and EPCs, cell-free conditioned media (CM obtained from EPCs, or vehicle media were administered one day after ischemia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed at baseline to confirm that the lesions were similar between groups. Immunohistochemical and histological evaluation of the brain was performed to evaluate angio-neurogenesis and neurological outcome at two weeks. CM contained growth factors, such as VEGF, FGF-b and PDGF-bb. A significant increase in capillary density was noted in the peri-infarct areas of EPC- and CM-treated animals. Bielschowsky's staining revealed a significant increase in axonal rewiring in EPC-treated animals compared with shams, but not in CM-treated mice, in close proximity with DCX-positive migrating neuroblasts. At the functional level, post-ischemia forelimb strength was significantly improved in animals receiving EPCs or CM, but not in those receiving vehicle media. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that the administration of EPC-secreted factors could become a safe and effective cell-free option to be considered in future therapeutic strategies for stroke.

  19. RISK FACTORS AND PROGNOSIS OF EPILEPSY IN CHILDREN WITH HEMIPARETIC CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveEpilepsy is reported in 15-90% of the children with Cerebral Palsy (CP but its clinical course is not well defined.We conducted a retrospective study on children with hemiparetic CP who were referred to Pediatric Neurology Department of Mofid Hospital. The aim of our study was to evaluate the risk factors and prognosis of epilepsy in children with hemiparetic CP.Materials & MethodsWe evaluated 64 children with hemiparetic CP who were referred to Pediatric Neurology Department of Mofid Hospital between 2006 and 2008.According to our protocol, patients were divided into two groups: 34 children in the case group (hemiparetic patients with epilepsy and 30 children in the control group (hemiparetic patients without epilepsy.ResultsPrenatal, perinatal and postnatal events, maternal age at the time of delivery, socioeconomic status of the family, familial history of epilepsy, neuroimaging findings, side of the hemiparesia and age at diagnosis of hemiparesis were not considered as risk factors for epilepsy in hemiparetic children, but microcephaly, severity of hemiparetic CP and mental retardation were significantly associated with an increased risk of epilepsy in children with hemiparetic CP.ConclusionOur study showed that microcephaly, severity of hemiparesis and mental retardation were risk factors for developing epilepsy in children with hemiparetic CP; furthermore, they had negative effects on rehabilitation outcome in these patients.Keyword:Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy, Epilepsy, Children, Microcephaly, Mental Retardation

  20. Learning and memory changes in rats following exogenous human hepatocyte growth factor gene injection into cerebral ischemic penumbra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijun You; Yong Liu; Jianye Yang; Qingping Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Human hepatocyte growth factor can be used to treat cerebral infarction, administered by lateral ventricular, cerebellomedullary cistern or subarachnoid injections. However, the target gene expression product is scarcely found in the ischemic penumbra, but extensively distributes in other regions, increasing the risks of gene therapy. The present study directly transfected hepatocyte growth factor gene into the ischemic penumbra of rats with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that infarct volume was significantly decreased, hepatocyte growth factor protein expression level and vessel quantity in the ischemic penumbra were significantly increased, and learning and memory were significantly improved.

  1. Lettuce glycoside B ameliorates cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury by increasing nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 expression of cerebral cortex in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heqin Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of LGB on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury in rats and the mechanisms of action of LGB. Materials and Methods: The study involved extracting LGB from P. laciniata, exploring affects of LGB on brain ischemia and action mechanism at the molecular level. The cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury of middle cerebral artery occlusion was established. We measured brain histopathology and brain infarct rate to evaluate the effects of LGB on brain ischemia injury. The expressions of nerve growth factor (NGF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 were also measured to investigate the mechanisms of action by the real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis: All results were mentioned as mean ± standard deviation. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine statistically significant differences among the groups. Values of P < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: Intraperitoneal injection of LGB at the dose of 12, 24, and 48 mg/kg after brain ischemia injury remarkably ameliorated the morphology of neurons and brain infarct rate (P < 0.05 , P < 0.01. LGB significantly increased NGF and NT-3 mRNA (messenger RNA and both protein expression in cerebral cortex at the 24 and 72 h after drug administration (P < 0.05, P < 0.01. Conclusions: LGB has a neuroprotective effect in cerebral I/R injury and this effect might be attributed to its upregulation of NGF and NT-3 expression ability in the brain cortex during the latter phase of brain ischemia.

  2. Inflammasomes and Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vallurupalli, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation plays an important role in atherosclerosis. Inflammasomes play a crucial role in innate immunity, which mediates the body’s response to various pathogens. Of the different types of inflammasomes, NLRP3 has been implicated in atherosclerosis through the production of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18. This review describes the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in atherosclerosis and discusses potential therapeutic targets in the inflammasome pathway.

  3. The role of tumor necrosis factor-α and TNF-α receptors in cerebral arteries following cerebral ischemia in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qing-Wen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine, which is rapidly upregulated in the brain after injury. TNF-α acts by binding to its receptors, TNF-R1 (p55 and TNF-R2 (p75, on the cell surface. The aim of this study was first to investigate if there is altered expression of TNF-α and TNF-α receptors in cerebral artery walls following global or focal ischemia, and after organ culture. Secondly, we asked if the expression was regulated via activation of the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway. Methods The hypothesis was tested in vivo after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, and in vitro by organ culture of isolated cerebral arteries. The localization and amount of TNF-α, TNF-α receptor 1 and 2 proteins were analysed by immunohistochemistry and western blot after 24 and 48 h of organ culture and at 48 h following SAH or MCAO. In addition, cerebral arteries were incubated for 24 or 48 h in the absence or presence of a B-Raf inhibitor (SB386023-b, a MEK- inhibitor (U0126 or an NF-κB inhibitor (IMD-0354, and protein expression evaluated. Results Immunohistochemistry revealed enhanced expression of TNF-α, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 in the walls of cerebral arteries at 48 h after MCAO and SAH compared with control. Co-localization studies showed that TNF-α, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 were primarily localized to the cell membrane and the cytoplasm of the smooth muscle cells (SMC. There was, in addition, some expression of TNF-R2 in the endothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis showed that these proteins were upregulated after 24 and 48 h in culture, and this upregulation reached an apparent maximum at 48 h of organ culture. Treatment with U0126 significantly reduced the enhanced SMC expression of TNF-α, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 immunoreactivities after 24 and 48 h of organ culture. The Raf and NF-κB inhibitors significantly reduced organ culture induced TNF-α expression

  4. Intestinal Microbiota Metabolism and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Xing Liu; Hai-Tao Niu; Shu-Yang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:This review aimed to summarize the relationship between intestinal microbiota metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to propose a novel CVD therapeutic target.Data Sources:This study was based on data obtained from PubMed and EMBASE up to June 30,2015.Articles were selected using the following search temps:"Intestinal microbiota","trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)","trimethylamine (TMA)","cardiovascular",and "atherosclerosis".Study Selection:Studies were eligible if they present information on intestinal microbiota metabolism and atherosclerosis.Studies on TMA-containing nutrients were also included.Results:A new CVD risk factor,TMAO,was recently identified.It has been observed that several TMA-containing compounds may be catabolized by specific intestinal microbiota,resulting in TMA release.TMA is subsequently converted to TMAO in the liver.Several preliminary studies have linked TMAO to CVD,particularly atherosclerosis;however,the details of this relationship remain unclear.Conclusions:Intestinal microbiota metabolism is associated with atherosclerosis and may represent a promising therapeutic target with respect to CVD management.

  5. Taurine and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Taurine is abundantly present in most mammalian tissues and plays a role in many important physiological functions. Atherosclerosis is the underlying mechanism of cardiovascular disease including myocardial infarctions, strokes and peripheral artery disease and remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies conducted in laboratory animal models using both genetic and dietary models of hyperlipidemia have demonstrated that taurine supplementation retards the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Epidemiological studies have also suggested that taurine exerts preventive effects on cardiovascular diseases. The present review focuses on the effects of taurine on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In addition, the potential mechanisms by which taurine suppress the development of atherosclerosis will be discussed.

  6. Evidence that Patent Foramen Ovale is not a Risk Factor for Cerebral Ischemia in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth F.; Calafiore, Paul; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Tonkin, Andrew M.

    1994-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young patients. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of PFO in subjects with a wider age range using patient-control methodology. Transesophageal contrast echocardiography and carotid imaging were performed in 220 consecutive patients with cerebral ischemia (mean age 66 +/- 13 years) and in 202 community-based control subjects (mean age 64 +/- 11 years). Of patients with stroke, 35 (16%) had PFO compared with 31 control subjects (15%) (p = 0.98). Analysis of PFO prevalence by age did not show a significant difference between patients and control subjects in the age groups or equal to 70 years (12% vs 17%; p = 0.43). However, the group aged 450 years was relatively small (26 cases, 19 controls). No significant difference in PFO prevalence was detected between patients with cryptogenic stroke (20%), noncryptogenic stroke (14%), and control subjects (15%). These results suggest that PFO is not a risk factor for cerebral ischemia in subjects aged >50 years, which would have major implications for the investigation and management of stroke patients in this age group. Longitudinal studies are now required to assess the incidence of stroke in symptom free patients with PFO.

  7. Factors associated with dental caries in the primary dentition of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Leal Roberto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with caries experience in the primary dentition of one- to five-year-old children with cerebral palsy. A total of 266 dental records were examined, and caries experience was measured by dmft. The following variables were also analyzed: gender, oral hygiene, history of gastroesophageal reflux, use of medications for gastroesophageal reflux, gingival status, sugar intake and reports of polyuria, excessive thirst and xerostomia. For analysis purposes, the individuals were categorized as those with and without caries experience and subcategorized into the following age groups: one year; two to three years; and four to five years. After bivariate analysis, variables with a p-value < 0.25 were selected for incorporation into the Poisson regression models. Considering the limitations of the protocol, the level of oral hygiene perceived on the first appointment was the only factor associated with caries experience among two-to-fiveyear-old children with cerebral palsy.

  8. Long-term patency of superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass for cerebral atherosclerotic disease: factors determining the bypass patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Fumihiro; Murai, Yasuo; Tateyama, Kojiro; Tamaki, Tomonori; Mizunari, Takayuki; Matsukawa, Hideoshi; Teramoto, Akira; Morita, Akio

    2016-10-01

    Long-term patency of superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery for atherosclerotic disease and associated risk factors for loss of patency have rarely been discussed. We retrospectively analyzed long-term patency following STA-MCA bypass and evaluated various demographic and clinical factors to identify the ones predictive of postsurgical loss of patency using records of 84 revascularization procedures (58 patients, 45 males; mean age at surgery 63.6 years, range 31-78 years). Bypass patency was diagnosed based on magnetic resonance angiography or three-dimensional computed tomography. The mean follow-up period was 24.7 months (range 6-63 months). Decreased bypass patency was observed in 4 of 58 patients (6.9 %) who collectively underwent 6 bypasses (7.1 %) of 84. All cases of decreased bypass patency were first detected within 6 months of surgery. Bypass patency was not correlated with age, sex, number of anastomoses, postoperative cerebral infarction, or control of postoperative diabetes mellitus. We found a significant association of bypass patency with hyperperfusion (p = 0.01) and postoperative smoking (p = 0.0036). Furthermore, we found a significant association of hyperperfusion with STA diameter (p bypass patency in cerebral atherosclerotic disease patients. Careful monitoring of patency to prevent hyperperfusion and cessation of smoking are recommended, particularly within 6 months of the surgery.

  9. INTRANASAL DELIVERY OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR TO PROTECT THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AGAINST ACUTE CEREBRAL INFARCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-mei Zhao; Xin-feng Liu; Xiao-wei Mao; Chun-fu Chen

    2004-01-01

    Objective To confirmed reliability and feasibility of intranasal nerve growth factor (NGF) bypassing the blood-brain barrier and its potential neuroprotective effects on acute cerebral ischemia.Methods (1) To assay NGF concentrations in different brain regions after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).Rats were randomly divided into intranasal (IN) NGF, intravenous (Ⅳ) NGF, and untreated group (n =4). The concentrations of NGF of different brain regions in the three groups after MCAO were measured by ELISA. (2) To observe neuroprotective action of NGF on focal cerebral ischemic damage. Rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: IN vehicle, IN NGF,Ⅳ vehicle, Ⅳ NGF (n = 8). Treatment was initiated 30 minutes after onset of MCAO and given again 24 hours later. Three neurologic behavioral tests were performed 24 and 48 hours following onset of MCAO. Corrected infarct volumes were determined 48 hours after onset of MCAO.Results The olfactory bulb in IN NGF group obtained the highest concentration (3252 pg/g) of NGF among all regions, followed by the hippocumpus. The NGF concentrations in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus in IN NGF group were markedly higher than that in Ⅳ NGF and control groups. The infarct volume in IN NGF group was markedly reduced by 38.8% compared with IN vehicle group. IN NGF group vestibulum function markedly improved compared with IN vehicle group at 24 and 48 hours after onset of MCAO (P24h = 0.02 and P48h = 0.04, respectively).Conclusion Intranasal NGF could pass through the blood-brain barrier, reach the central nervous system, reduce infarct volume, and improve neurologic function in rats following MCAO. Intranasal delivery of NGF may be a promising treatment for stroke.

  10. Environmental carcinogens and mutational pathways in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliero, A; Godschalk, R; Andreassi, M G; Curfs, D; Van Schooten, F J; Izzotti, A

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is associated with DNA damage in both circulating and vessel-wall cells and DNA adducts derived from exposure to environmental mutagens are abundant in atherosclerotic vessels. Environmental chemical carcinogens identified as risk factor for atherosclerosis include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo(a)pyrene, dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, beta-naphthoflavone, pyrene, 3-methylcolanthrene), arsenic, cadmium, 1,3-butadiene, cigarette smoke. Accordingly, polymorphisms of genes encoding for phase I/II metabolic reaction and DNA repair are risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, although their role is negligible as compared to other risk factors. The pathogenic relevance of mutation-related molecular damage in atherosclerosis has been demonstrated in experimental animal models involving the exposure to chemical mutagens. The relevance of mutation-related events in worsening atherosclerosis prognosis has been demonstrated in human clinical studies mainly as referred to mitochondrial DNA damage. Atherosclerosis is characterized by the occurrence of high level of oxidative damage in blood vessel resulting from both endogenous and exogenous sources. Mitochondrial damage is a main endogenous source of oxidative stress whose accumulation causes activation of intrinsic apoptosis through BIRC2 inhibition and cell loss contributing to plaque development and instability. Environmental physical mutagens, including ionizing radiation, are a risk factor for atherosclerosis even at the low exposure dose occurring in case of occupational exposure or the high exposure doses occurring during radiotherapy. Conversely, the role of exciting UV radiation in atherosclerosis is still uncertain. This review summarizes the experimental and clinical evidence supporting the pathogenic role of mutation-related pathway in atherosclerosis examining the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  11. Subclinical atherosclerosis in Latino youth: progression of carotid intima-media thickness and its relationship to cardiometabolic risk factors.

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    Toledo-Corral, Claudia M; Davis, Jaimie N; Alderete, Tanya L; Weigensberg, Marc J; Ayala, Christina T; Li, Yanjie; Hodis, Howard N; Goran, Michael I

    2011-06-01

    To assess carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) change over 2 years in overweight Latino adolescents and examine its relationship to cardiometabolic risk. Seventy-two healthy overweight male and female Latino adolescents (mean age, 14.5 ± 1.7 years; mean body mass index, 31.5 ± 6.9 kg/m(2)) were evaluated at baseline and 2 years later for CIMT by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound, the metabolic syndrome and its features, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging, glucose/insulin measures by fasting blood, and oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests. Baseline CIMT did not differ from 2-year follow-up; however, 38 participants increased CIMT (0.017 ± 0.003 mm; +2.8%) and 34 decreased or remained the same (-0.019 ± 0.002 mm; -3.1%). ANCOVA analyses showed that participants with CIMT progression had higher baseline low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and total cholesterol (91.3 ± 3.4 and 150.3 ± 3.9 mg/dL) compared with those with CIMT non-progression (78.1 ± 3.6 and 135.6 ± 4.2 mg/dL, P < .05), independent of sex, baseline CIMT, age, and height. In multivariate regression, LDL-cholesterol was the sole predictor of CIMT progression, but the effect was small (odds of CIMT progression increased by 3% for each 1 mg/dL higher baseline LDL-cholesterol; 95% CI, 1.004 to 1.006, P = .03). These results indicate a high variability in the magnitude of CIMT change in growing overweight Latino youth and support the use of LDL-cholesterol to assess subclinical atherosclerosis risk in this population. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Predisposing factors, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of cerebral venous thrombosis during pregnancy and postpartum: a case-control study

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    GAO Hui; YANG Bao-jun; JIN Li-ping; JIA Xiao-fang

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous investigations have demonstrated a relatively low incidence of stroke among young women,though both pregnancy and delivery can substantially increase the risk.Cerebral venous thrombosis may manifest different characteristics during pregnancy and postpartum as a result of their specific physiological statuses.This study aimed to identify the clinical manifestations,diagnosis,treatment,and prognosis of cerebral venous thrombosis during pregnancy and postpartum.Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 22 patients with cerebral venous thrombosis who were assigned to either group A (during pregnancy) or group B (during postpartum).The relevant risk factors,initiation and development of the disease,clinical presentations,diagnosis,treatment,and prognosis were compared between the two stages.Results Cerebral venous thrombosis occurred during both pregnancy and postpartum,but was more common postpartum.Patients in group A had a longer hospitalization period than those in group B.Confirmed predisposing factors in 85.7% of patients of group A were dehydration,infection,and underlying cerebrovascular disorders.No obvious predisposing factors were identified in group B.The most frequent symptom was headache,with epileptic seizures,hemiparalysis and aphasia being less frequent symptoms.Focal neurological symptoms (P=0.022) and cerebral infarction (P=0.014) occurred more frequently in group A than in group B.Anticoagulation therapy proved to be safe for cerebral venous thrombosis patients during puerperium,regardless of parenchymal hemorrhage.However,more attention should be paid to spontaneous in-site placental hemorrhage in pregnant patients.Both groups had similar prognoses (P=1.000),with 36.3% patients suffering from consequential dysfunction or recurrent intracranial hypertension.Delayed diagnosis was associated with a poorer prognosis.Conclusions Cerebral venous thrombosis manifests different clinical characteristics during pregnancy and

  13. Associations between retinol-binding protein 4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in recently postmenopausal women: cross-sectional analyses from the KEEPS study

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    Huang Gary

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The published literature regarding the relationships between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis is conflicting, likely due, in part, to limitations of frequently used RBP4 assays. Prior large studies have not utilized the gold-standard western blot analysis of RBP4 levels. Methods Full-length serum RBP4 levels were measured by western blot in 709 postmenopausal women screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Cross-sectional analyses related RBP4 levels to cardiometabolic risk factors, carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT, and coronary artery calcification (CAC. Results The mean age of women was 52.9 (± 2.6 years, and the median RBP4 level was 49.0 (interquartile range 36.9-61.5 μg/mL. Higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with higher triglycerides (age, race, and smoking-adjusted partial Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.10; P = 0.01, but were unrelated to blood pressure, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, and CIMT levels (all partial Spearman correlation coefficients ≤0.06, P > 0.05. Results suggested a curvilinear association between RBP4 levels and CAC, with women in the bottom and upper quartiles of RBP4 having higher odds of CAC (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 2.10 [1.07-4.09], 2.00 [1.02-3.92], 1.64 [0.82-3.27] for the 1st, 3rd, and 4th RBP4 quartiles vs. the 2nd quartile. However, a squared RBP4 term in regression modeling was non-significant (P = 0.10. Conclusions In these healthy, recently postmenopausal women, higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with elevations in triglycerides and with CAC, but not with other risk factors or CIMT. These data using the gold standard of RBP4 methodology only weakly support the possibility that perturbations in RBP4 homeostasis may be an additional risk factor for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT

  14. Associations between retinol-binding protein 4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in recently postmenopausal women: cross-sectional analyses from the KEEPS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gary; Wang, Dan; Khan, Unab I; Zeb, Irfan; Manson, JoAnn E; Miller, Virginia; Hodis, Howard N; Budoff, Matthew J; Merriam, George R; Harman, Mitchell S; Brinton, Eliot A; Cedars, Marcelle I; Su, Yali; Lobo, Rogerio A; Naftolin, Frederick; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S; Wildman, Rachel P

    2012-05-15

    The published literature regarding the relationships between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis is conflicting, likely due, in part, to limitations of frequently used RBP4 assays. Prior large studies have not utilized the gold-standard western blot analysis of RBP4 levels. Full-length serum RBP4 levels were measured by western blot in 709 postmenopausal women screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Cross-sectional analyses related RBP4 levels to cardiometabolic risk factors, carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), and coronary artery calcification (CAC). The mean age of women was 52.9 (± 2.6) years, and the median RBP4 level was 49.0 (interquartile range 36.9-61.5) μg/mL. Higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with higher triglycerides (age, race, and smoking-adjusted partial Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.10; P = 0.01), but were unrelated to blood pressure, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, and CIMT levels (all partial Spearman correlation coefficients ≤0.06, P > 0.05). Results suggested a curvilinear association between RBP4 levels and CAC, with women in the bottom and upper quartiles of RBP4 having higher odds of CAC (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 2.10 [1.07-4.09], 2.00 [1.02-3.92], 1.64 [0.82-3.27] for the 1st, 3rd, and 4th RBP4 quartiles vs. the 2nd quartile). However, a squared RBP4 term in regression modeling was non-significant (P = 0.10). In these healthy, recently postmenopausal women, higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with elevations in triglycerides and with CAC, but not with other risk factors or CIMT. These data using the gold standard of RBP4 methodology only weakly support the possibility that perturbations in RBP4 homeostasis may be an additional risk factor for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00154180.

  15. LDL biochemical modifications: a link between atherosclerosis and aging

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    Matilde Alique

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is an aging disease in which increasing age is a risk factor. Modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL is a well-known risk marker for cardiovascular disease. High-plasma LDL concentrations and modifications, such as oxidation, glycosylation, carbamylation and glycoxidation, have been shown to be proatherogenic experimentally in vitro and in vivo. Atherosclerosis results from alterations to LDL in the arterial wall by reactive oxygen species (ROS. Evidence suggests that common risk factors for atherosclerosis raise the likelihood that free ROS are produced from endothelial cells and other cells. Furthermore, oxidative stress is an important factor in the induction of endothelial senescence. Thus, endothelial damage and cellular senescence are well-established markers for atherosclerosis. This review examines LDL modifications and discusses the mechanisms of the pathology of atherosclerosis due to aging, including endothelial damage and oxidative stress, and the link between aging and atherosclerosis.

  16. LDL biochemical modifications: a link between atherosclerosis and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alique, Matilde; Luna, Carlos; Carracedo, Julia; Ramírez, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an aging disease in which increasing age is a risk factor. Modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a well-known risk marker for cardiovascular disease. High-plasma LDL concentrations and modifications, such as oxidation, glycosylation, carbamylation and glycoxidation, have been shown to be proatherogenic experimentally in vitro and in vivo. Atherosclerosis results from alterations to LDL in the arterial wall by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Evidence suggests that common risk factors for atherosclerosis raise the likelihood that free ROS are produced from endothelial cells and other cells. Furthermore, oxidative stress is an important factor in the induction of endothelial senescence. Thus, endothelial damage and cellular senescence are well-established markers for atherosclerosis. This review examines LDL modifications and discusses the mechanisms of the pathology of atherosclerosis due to aging, including endothelial damage and oxidative stress, and the link between aging and atherosclerosis. PMID:26637360

  17. Wine, alcohol and atherosclerosis: clinical evidences and mechanisms

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    P.L. da Luz

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease which may cause obstructions of the coronary, cerebral and peripheral arteries. It is typically multifactorial, most often dependent on risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, sedentarism, and obesity. It is the single main cause of death in most developed countries due to myocardial infarction, angina, sudden death, and heart failure. Several epidemiological studies suggest that moderate alcohol intake, especially red wine, decrease cardiac mortality due to atherosclerosis. The alcohol effect is described by a J curve, suggesting that moderate drinkers may benefit while abstainers and heavy drinkers are at higher risk. Experimental studies indicate that most beneficial effects of drinking are attributable to flavonoids that are present in red wine, purple grape juice and several fruits and vegetables. The mechanisms include antiplatelet actions, increases in high-density lipoprotein, antioxidation, reduced endothelin-1 production, and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression which causes augmented nitric oxide production by endothelial cells. These findings lead to the concept that moderate red wine drinking, in the absence of contraindications, may be beneficial to patients who are at risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. Moreover, a diet based on fruits and vegetables containing flavonoids may be even more beneficial.

  18. Classification and Clustering Methods for Multiple Environmental Factors in Gene-Environment Interaction: Application to the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Smith, Jennifer A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Allison, Matthew; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2016-11-01

    There has been an increased interest in identifying gene-environment interaction (G × E) in the context of multiple environmental exposures. Most G × E studies analyze one exposure at a time, but we are exposed to multiple exposures in reality. Efficient analysis strategies for complex G × E with multiple environmental factors in a single model are still lacking. Using the data from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we illustrate a two-step approach for modeling G × E with multiple environmental factors. First, we utilize common clustering and classification strategies (e.g., k-means, latent class analysis, classification and regression trees, Bayesian clustering using Dirichlet Process) to define subgroups corresponding to distinct environmental exposure profiles. Second, we illustrate the use of an additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model, instead of the conventional saturated interaction model using product terms of factors, to study G × E with the data-driven exposure subgroups defined in the first step. We demonstrate useful analytical approaches to translate multiple environmental exposures into one summary class. These tools not only allow researchers to consider several environmental exposures in G × E analysis but also provide some insight into how genes modify the effect of a comprehensive exposure profile instead of examining effect modification for each exposure in isolation.

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the course of experimental cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, María; Marín-García, Patricia; Pérez-Benavente, Susana; Sánchez-Nogueiro, Jesús; Puyet, Antonio; Bautista, José M; Diez, Amalia

    2013-01-15

    The role of neurotrophic factors on the integrity of the central nervous system (CNS) during cerebral malaria (CM) infection remains obscure, but the long-standing neurocognitive sequelae often observed in rescued children can be attributed in part to the modulation of neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity. To discriminate the contribution of key responses in the time-sequence of the pathogenic events that trigger the development of neurocognitive malaria syndrome we defined four stages (I-IV) of the neurological progression of CM in C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Upregulation of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, e-selectin and p-selectin expression was detected in all cerebral regions before parasitized red blood cells (pRBC) accumulation. As the severity of symptoms increased, BDNF mRNA progressively diminished in several brain regions, earliest in the thalamus-hypothalamus, cerebellum, brainstem and cortex, and correlated with a four-stage disease sequence. Immunohistochemical confocal microscopy revealed changes in the BDNF distribution pattern, suggesting altered axonal transport. During CM progression, molecular markers of neurological infection and inflammation in the parasite and the host, respectively, were accompanied by a switch in the brain constitutive proteasome to the immunoproteasome, which could impede normal protein turnover. In parallel with BDNF downregulation, NCAM expression also diminished with increased CM severity. Together, these data suggest that changes in BDNF availability could be involved in the pathogenesis of CM.

  20. Cerebral Vein Thrombosis:Screening of Acquired and Hereditary Thrombophilic Risk Factors

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    Sarraf Payam

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT is an infrequent condition with a large variety of causes that can lead to serious disabilities. However, in 20% to 35% of cases, no cause is found. In this study we evaluated the hereditary (P & C Proteins, antithrombin, mutation of prothrombin G20210A and factor V Leiden, other risk factors (hyperhomocycteinemia, factor VIII, ACL-ab, APL-ab, and OCP and clinical manifestations among a population of Iranian patients with CVT. 18 women and 10 men aged 16 to 50 years with CVT were screened for inherited and acquired coagulation risk factors. No one had an abnormal ACL-ab, APL-ab or antithrombin III deficiency. One had prothrombin G20210A mutation (heterozygot (3.6%. Hyperhomocycteinemia was observed in 5 patients (17.9%. APC-R was decreased in 3 (10.7%. 2 had positive factor V Leiden mutation (heterozygot (7.1%. 17 had an increased of factor VIII (60.7. PS and PC deficiencies were each detected in two cases (7.1%. Conclusion: Our study suggests that screening for inherited thrombophilia may be an integral part in the diagnostic workup and duration of treatment in patients with CVT.

  1. Cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis and thrombophilic mutations in Western Iran: association with factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Zohreh; Mozafari, Hadi; Bigvand, Amir Hossein Amiri; Doulabi, Reza Mohammad; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Afshari, Dariush; Razazian, Nazanin; Rezaei, Mansour

    2010-08-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the prevalence of factor V Leiden G1691A, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T in cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST) patients and their possible association with CVST in Western Iran. A total of 24 CVST patients with the mean age of 37.1 +/- 11.7 years and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy individuals from Kermanshah Province of Iran with ethnic background of Kurd were studied for factor V Leiden G1691A, prothrombin G20210A and MTHFR C677T by PCR-RFLP method using Mnl I, Hind III, and Hinf I restriction enzymes, respectively. Prevalence of factor V Leiden was 16.7% in patients and 2% in control group. A significant association was found between factor V Leiden mutation and CVST with odds ratio (OR) of 9.8 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.68-57.2, P = .01). No prothrombin G20210A was found among patients. In patients, MTHFR C677T tended to be higher (58.3%) compared to control (44%), OR of 1.8 (95% CI 0.73-4.5, P = .2). Our study for the first time has determined the prevalence of inherited thrombophilia in a homogenous ethnic group of CVST patients and suggests that factor V Leiden, and not the prothrombin gene mutation is a risk factor for CVST in Western Iran.

  2. Aortic Arch Atherosclerosis——An Important Potential Source Of Cerebral Embolic Stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Guo; Shao wen Zhang; Si Chen

    2000-01-01

    Background and purpose: Recent years with use of transesophageal echography renew awareness of aortic atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical significance, and embolic potential of thoracic aortic plaque in patients with cerebral emblism; and further study the correlation aortic plaque with carotid or heart disease. Method: 49 consecutive patients with cerebral embolism was included in this sutdy. We uscd TEE to evaluated potential source of emboli in aortic arch and heart, and duplex in carotid artery. A atherosclerotic lesion of thoracic aorta was defined as normal(O); mild plaque (1); moderate plaque (2); protruding plaque or mobile plaque (3). Result: 31(63%) patients showed evidence of AAA; 7 (14.3%) patients had mild AAA, 9 (18.4%) patients had moderate AAA and 15 (32.7%) patients had severe AAA, In these 15 patients 11 patients neither severe ICAA or embolic heart disease, the AAA may be responsible to the cerebral embolism; 33 patients had internal carotid arterial atherosclerosis(ICAA), 9 patients had embolic heart disease; Age, ICAA had significant correlated with aortic plaque. Conclusion: Aortic atherosclerosis is common in cerebral embolism. Aortic plaque might be not only responsible for some unexplained embolic event, but also for some of the embolic stroke in the group of patient do have carotid artery or heart disease. Age might be important risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic lesion in the thoracic aorta.

  3. Expression of nerve growth factor precursor, mature nerve growth factor and their receptors during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqian He; Jian Guo; Jiachuan Duan; Wenming Xu; Ning Chen; Hongxia Li; Li He

    2011-01-01

    We investigated nerve growth factor precursor (proNGF) and mature NGF expression in ischemic and non-ischemic cortices after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.In both ischemic and non-ischemic cortices, proNGF was found to be present in the extracellular space and cytoplasm.In addition, mature NGF was expressed in extracellular space, but with a very low signal.In ischemic cortex only, proNGF was significantly decreased, reaching a minimal level at 1 day.Mature NGF was increased at 4 hours, then reached a minimal level at 3 days.The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) was significantly decreased after ischemia, and increased at 3 days after ischemia.These results confirmed that proNGF was the predominant form of NGF during the pathological process of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.In addition, our findings suggest that ischemic injury may influence the conversion of proNGF to mature NGF, and that proNGF/p75NTR may be involved in reperfusion injury.

  4. Relevant Obstetric Factors for Cerebral Palsy: From the Nationwide Obstetric Compensation System in Japan.

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    Junichi Hasegawa

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the relevant obstetric factors for cerebral palsy (CP after 33 weeks' gestation in Japan.This retrospective case cohort study (1:100 cases and controls used a Japanese national CP registry. Obstetric characteristics and clinical course were compared between CP cases in the Japan Obstetric Compensation System for Cerebral Palsy database and controls in the perinatal database of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology born as live singleton infants between 2009 and 2011 with a birth weight ≥ 2,000 g and gestation ≥ 33 weeks.One hundred and seventy-five CP cases and 17,475 controls were assessed. Major relevant single factors for CP were placental abnormalities (31%, umbilical cord abnormalities (15%, maternal complications (10%, and neonatal complications (1%. A multivariate regression model demonstrated that obstetric variables associated with CP were acute delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status (relative risk [RR]: 37.182, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.028-69.032, uterine rupture (RR: 24.770, 95% CI: 6.006-102.160, placental abruption (RR: 20.891, 95% CI: 11.817-36.934, and preterm labor (RR: 3.153, 95% CI: 2.024-4.911, whereas protective factors were head presentation (RR: 0.199, 95% CI: 0.088-0.450 and elective cesarean section (RR: 0.236, 95% CI: 0.067-0.828.CP after 33 weeks' gestation in the recently reported cases in Japan was strongly associated with acute delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status, uterine rupture, and placental abruption.

  5. Relevant Obstetric Factors for Cerebral Palsy: From the Nationwide Obstetric Compensation System in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu; Asano, Yuri; Satoh, Shoji; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Ichizuka, Kiyotake; Tamiya, Nanako; Nakai, Akihito; Fujimori, Keiya; Maeda, Tsugio; Masuzaki, Hideaki; Suzuki, Hideaki; Ueda, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to identify the relevant obstetric factors for cerebral palsy (CP) after 33 weeks’ gestation in Japan. Study design This retrospective case cohort study (1:100 cases and controls) used a Japanese national CP registry. Obstetric characteristics and clinical course were compared between CP cases in the Japan Obstetric Compensation System for Cerebral Palsy database and controls in the perinatal database of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology born as live singleton infants between 2009 and 2011 with a birth weight ≥ 2,000 g and gestation ≥ 33 weeks. Results One hundred and seventy-five CP cases and 17,475 controls were assessed. Major relevant single factors for CP were placental abnormalities (31%), umbilical cord abnormalities (15%), maternal complications (10%), and neonatal complications (1%). A multivariate regression model demonstrated that obstetric variables associated with CP were acute delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status (relative risk [RR]: 37.182, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.028–69.032), uterine rupture (RR: 24.770, 95% CI: 6.006–102.160), placental abruption (RR: 20.891, 95% CI: 11.817–36.934), and preterm labor (RR: 3.153, 95% CI: 2.024–4.911), whereas protective factors were head presentation (RR: 0.199, 95% CI: 0.088–0.450) and elective cesarean section (RR: 0.236, 95% CI: 0.067–0.828). Conclusion CP after 33 weeks’ gestation in the recently reported cases in Japan was strongly associated with acute delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status, uterine rupture, and placental abruption. PMID:26821386

  6. Study on the Prevalence and Corelation of Carotid Atherosclerosis in Stroke Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hua; Wang Yongjun; Yah Zhenying

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and severity of carotid atherosclerosis in stroke patients and the risk factors of carotid atherosclerosis. Methods Two hundred fifty-one ischemic stroke patients,46 ccrcbral hemorrhagc patients and 96 control subjects were entercd into this study. Sonographic assessment of the extracranial carotid arteries was performed in all patients. Diametcr. IMT, plaques and percentage ratio of lumen stenosis were observcd. Results (1)The prevalence of carotid plaqucs was prominent in stroke patients than the control subjects(63.0%vs 36.5%). (2)The prevalencc of lumen stenosis>50% in ischemic stroke patients was higher than the cerebral hemorrhage patients and control subjects (15.6% vs 4.3%. 2.1%).(3) The prevalence of severe carotid artery stcnosis(>75%) was promincnt in aged 61~70 years old patients.(4)Our data revealed 30% of the cortical infarction subgroup, 17.5%of the subcortical infarction subgroup, 17% of the lacunar infarction subgroup,8% of the vcrtibral-basilar artery infarction subgroup.2.8% of thc CT normal subgroup possessed carotid stcnosis >50%. (5)Age, diabetes mellitus and ApoAl(inversely) were independent predictors of the extracranial carotid atherosclcrosis. Discusssion (Ⅰ)There is close relation between extracraniai carotid atherosclerosis and ischemic cerebrovascular disease.(2)The extent of serious carotid artery stcnosis in aged patients was lower.(3)Thc severity of extracranial carotid artery atherosclerosis was prominent in patients with conical infarction. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of extracranial carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese stroke patients.

  7. Neuroprotective effects of salidroside on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury involves the nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway

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    Jing Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salidroside, the main active ingredient extracted from Rhodiola crenulata, has been shown to be neuroprotective in ischemic cerebral injury, but the underlying mechanism for this neuroprotection is poorly understood. In the current study, the neuroprotective effect of salidroside on cerebral ischemia-induced oxidative stress and the role of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 pathway was investigated in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Salidroside (30 mg/kg reduced infarct size, improved neurological function and histological changes, increased activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase, and reduced malon-dialdehyde levels after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Furthermore, salidroside apparently increased Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 expression. These results suggest that salidroside exerts its neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia through anti-oxidant mechanisms and that activation of the Nrf2 pathway is involved. The Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway may become a new therapeutic target for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

  8. Factors influencing time-location patterns and their impact on estimates of exposure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalt, Elizabeth W; Curl, Cynthia L; Allen, Ryan W; Cohen, Martin; Williams, Kayleen; Hirsch, Jana A; Adar, Sara D; Kaufman, Joel D

    2016-06-01

    We assessed time-location patterns and the role of individual- and residential-level characteristics on these patterns within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) cohort and also investigated the impact of individual-level time-location patterns on individual-level estimates of exposure to outdoor air pollution. Reported time-location patterns varied significantly by demographic factors such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, education, and employment status. On average, Chinese participants reported spending significantly more time indoors and less time outdoors and in transit than White, Black, or Hispanic participants. Using a tiered linear regression approach, we predicted time indoors at home and total time indoors. Our model, developed using forward-selection procedures, explained 43% of the variability in time spent indoors at home, and incorporated demographic, health, lifestyle, and built environment factors. Time-weighted air pollution predictions calculated using recommended time indoors from USEPA overestimated exposures as compared with predictions made with MESA Air participant-specific information. These data fill an important gap in the literature by describing the impact of individual and residential characteristics on time-location patterns and by demonstrating the impact of population-specific data on exposure estimates.

  9. Periodontal innate immune mechanisms relevant to atherosclerosis.

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    Amar, S; Engelke, M

    2015-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is a common cardiovascular disease in the USA where it is a leading cause of illness and death. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause for heart attack and stroke. Most commonly, people develop atherosclerosis as a result of diabetes, genetic risk factors, high blood pressure, a high-fat diet, obesity, high blood cholesterol levels, and smoking. However, a sizable number of patients suffering from atherosclerosis do not harbor the classical risk factors. Ongoing infections have been suggested to play a role in this process. Periodontal disease is perhaps the most common chronic infection in adults with a wide range of clinical variability and severity. Research in the past decade has shed substantial light on both the initiating infectious agents and host immunological responses in periodontal disease. Up to 46% of the general population harbors the microorganism(s) associated with periodontal disease, although many are able to limit the progression of periodontal disease or even clear the organism(s) if infected. In the last decade, several epidemiological studies have found an association between periodontal infection and atherosclerosis. This review focuses on exploring the molecular consequences of infection by pathogens that exacerbate atherosclerosis, with the focus on infections by the periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis as a running example.

  10. Immune Response to Lipoproteins in Atherosclerosis

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    Sonia Samson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, is characterized by chronic inflammation and altered immune response. Cholesterol is a well-known risk factor associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Elevated serum cholesterol is unique because it can lead to development of atherosclerosis in animals and humans even in the absence of other risk factors. Modifications of low-density lipoproteins mediated by oxidation, enzymatic degradation, and aggregation result in changes in their function and activate both innate and adaptive immune system. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL has been identified as one of the most important autoantigens in atherosclerosis. This escape from self-tolerance is dependent on the formation of oxidized phospholipids. The emerging understanding of the importance of immune responses against oxidized LDL in atherosclerosis has focused attention on the possibility of development of novel therapy for atherosclerosis. This review provides an overview of immune response to lipoproteins and the fascinating possibility of developing an immunomodulatory therapy for atherosclerosis.

  11. Absolute and Attributable Risks of Atrial Fibrillation in Relation to Optimal and Borderline Risk Factors: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Rachel R.; Lopez, Faye L.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Loehr, Laura R.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Maclehose, Rich; Konety, Suma; Alonso, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important risk factor for stroke and overall mortality but information about the preventable burden of AF is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine what proportion of the burden of AF in African-Americans and whites could theoretically be avoided by the maintenance of an optimal risk profile. Methods and Results This study included 14,598 middle-aged, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study cohort members. Previously established AF risk factors, namely high blood pressure, elevated body mass index, diabetes, cigarette smoking and prior cardiac disease were categorized into ‘optimal’, ‘borderline’ and ‘elevated’ levels. Based on their risk factor levels, individuals were classified into one of these three groups. The population attributable fraction of AF due to having a non-optimal risk profile was estimated separately for African-American and white men and women. During a mean follow-up of 17.1 years, 1520 cases of incident AF were identified. The age-adjusted incidence rates were highest in white men and lowest in African-American women (7.45 and 3.67 per 1000 person-years, respectively). The overall prevalence of an optimal risk profile was 5.4% but this varied according to race and gender: 10% in white women versus 1.6% in African-American men. Overall, 56.5% of AF cases could be explained by having ≥ 1 elevated risk factors, of which elevated blood pressure was the most important contributor. Conclusions As with other forms of cardiovascular disease, more than half of the AF burden is potentially avoidable through the optimization of cardiovascular risk factors levels. PMID:21444879

  12. Plasma IP-10, apoptotic and angiogenic factors associated with fatal cerebral malaria in India

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    Dash AP

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum in a subset of patients can lead to cerebral malaria (CM, a major contributor to malaria-associated mortality. Despite treatment, CM mortality can be as high as 30%, while 10% of survivors of the disease may experience short- and long-term neurological complications. The pathogenesis of CM is mediated by alterations in cytokine and chemokine homeostasis, inflammation as well as vascular injury and repair processes although their roles are not fully understood. The hypothesis for this study is that CM-induced changes in inflammatory, apoptotic and angiogenic factors mediate severity of CM and that their identification will enable development of new prognostic markers and adjunctive therapies for preventing CM mortalities. Methods Plasma samples (133 were obtained from healthy controls (HC, 25, mild malaria (MM, 48, cerebral malaria survivors (CMS, 48, and cerebral malaria non-survivors (CMNS, 12 at admission to the hospital in Jabalpur, India. Plasma levels of 30 biomarkers ((IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12 (p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, Eotaxin, FGF basic protein, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-1 (MCAF, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES, TNF-α, Fas-ligand (Fas-L, soluble Fas (sFas, soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1 and soluble TNF receptor 2 (sTNFR-2, PDGF bb and VEGF were simultaneously measured in an initial subset of ten samples from each group. Only those biomarkers which showed significant differences in the pilot analysis were chosen for testing on all remaining samples. The results were then compared between the four groups to determine their role in CM severity. Results IP-10, sTNF-R2 and sFas were independently associated with increased risk of CM associated mortality. CMNS patients had a significantly lower level of the neuroprotective factor VEGF when compared to other groups (P Conclusion The results suggest that plasma levels of IP-10, sTNF-R2 and sFas may be potential

  13. Electroacupuncture-attenuated ischemic brain injury increases insulin-like growth factor-1expression in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanmin Gao; Ling Wang; Yunliang Guo

    2010-01-01

    Acupuncture has recently gained popularity in many countries as an alternative and complementary therapeutic intervention.Previous studies have shown that changes in genes,proteins,and their metabolites were measureable during acupuncture for treatment of cerebral ischemia.Through the use of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry,the present study confirmed that electroacupuncture increased insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA and protein expression in the corpus striatum following cerebral ischemia,reduced brain edema following middle cerebral artery occlusion repeffusion,and decreased infarct volume.Results suggested that electroacupuncture is effective in the relief of cerebral ischemia by increasing endogenous insulin-like growth factor-1 expression.

  14. Influence of pigment epithelium-derived factor on outcome after striatal cerebral ischemia in the mouse.

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    Marietta Zille

    Full Text Available We here suggest that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF does not have an effect on lesion size, behavioral outcome, cell proliferation, or cell death after striatal ischemia in the mouse. PEDF is a neurotrophic factor with neuroprotective, antiangiogenic, and antipermeability effects. It influences self-renewal of neural stem cells and proliferation of microglia. We investigated whether intraventricular infusion of PEDF reduces infarct size and cell death, ameliorates behavioral outcome, and influences cell proliferation in the one-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia. C57Bl6/N mice were implanted with PEDF or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (control osmotic pumps and subjected to 60-minute MCAO 48 hours after pump implantation. They received daily BrdU injections for 7 days after MCAO in order to investigate cell proliferation. Infarct volumes were determined 24 hours after reperfusion using magnetic resonance imaging. We removed the pumps on day 5 and performed behavioral testing between day 7 and 21. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the effect of PEDF on cell proliferation and cell death. Our model produced an ischemic injury confined solely to striatal damage. We detected no reduction in infarct sizes and cell death in PEDF- vs. CSF-infused MCAO mice. Behavioral outcome and cell proliferation did not differ between the groups. However, we cannot exclude that PEDF might work under different conditions in stroke. Further studies will elucidate the effect of PEDF treatment on cell proliferation and behavioral outcome in moderate to severe ischemic injury in the brain.

  15. Cerebral Damage May Be the Primary Risk Factor for Visual Impairment in Preschool Children Born Extremely Premature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Bangsgaard, Regitze; Fledelius, Hans Callø;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate the importance of cerebral damage and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) for visual impairment in preschool children born extremely premature and to determine the primary risk factor of the two. METHODS A clinical follow-up study of a Danish national cohort of children bor...

  16. Risk factors for emergence and progression of scoliosis in children with severe cerebral palsy : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeters, Marianne J. B.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Aim Scoliosis is a frequently occurring and serious complication of severe cerebral palsy (CP). This systematic review aims to the assess the risk factors associated with the emergence and progression of scoliosis in children with CP functioning at level IV or V of the Gross Motor Function Classific

  17. Personal and environmental factors contributing to participation in romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, Diana J. H. G.; Stam, Henk J.; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Roebroeck, Marij E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To study determinants of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on personal and environmental factors. Method: A cohort study was performed with 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) aged 20-25 years (SD 1.4) with CP (49% unilateral CP, 76

  18. Microglia and macrophages express tumor necrosis factor receptor p75 following middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertsen, Kate Lykke; Clausen, Bettina Hjelm; Fenger, Claus

    2007-01-01

    The proinflammatory and potential neurotoxic cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is produced by activated CNS resident microglia and infiltrating blood-borne macrophages in infarct and peri-infarct areas following induction of focal cerebral ischemia. Here, we investigated the expression of the ...

  19. Personal and environmental factors contributing to participation in romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, Diana J. H. G.; Stam, Henk J.; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Roebroeck, Marij E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To study determinants of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on personal and environmental factors. Method: A cohort study was performed with 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) aged 20-25 years (SD 1.4) with CP (49% unilateral CP, 76

  20. Histone deacetylases and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xia-xia; Zhou, Tian; Wang, Xin-An; Tong, Xiao-hong; Ding, Jia-wang

    2015-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common pathological process that leads to cardiovascular diseases, a disease of large- and medium-sized arteries that is characterized by a formation of atherosclerotic plaques consisting of necrotic cores, calcified regions, accumulated modified lipids, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), endothelial cells, leukocytes, and foam cells. Recently, the question about how to suppress the occurrence of atherosclerosis and alleviate the progress of cardiovascular disease becomes the hot topic. Accumulating evidence suggests that histone deacetylases(HDACs) play crucial roles in arteriosclerosis. This review summarizes the effect of HDACs and HDAC inhibitors(HDACi) on the progress of atherosclerosis.

  1. CORRELATION BETWEEN FIBRINOGEN LEVEL AND CEREBRAL INFARCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-cheng Zhu; Li-ying Cui; Bao-lai Hua; Jia-qi Pan

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between plasma fibrinogen level and cerebral infarction (CI) as well as the difference of fibrinogen among subtypes of CI.Methods A case-controlled study was conducted with 131 cases of CI and 148 controls. Plasma fibrinogen levels were detected by the Clauss method.Results High fibrinogen level (3.09±0.94 g/L) was correlated with CI (OR=2.47, 95% CI:1.51-4.04,P<0.005) at the onset stage of the disease. Persistent high fibrinogen level (3.14±0.81 g/L) at 6-month after stroke onset was detected and correlated with CI (OR=4.34, 95% CI: 1.80-10. 51,P=0.001). Higher fibrinogen level was correlated with total anterior circulation infarction (TACI), partial anterior circulation infarction (PACI), and posterior circulation infarction (POCI) (OR = 4.008, P<0.001). Higher fibrinogen level was correlated with extracranial atherosclerosis (OR=3.220, P<0.05), but not with intracranial atherosclerosis.Conclusion Fibrinogen level may be a risk factor of CI and probably correlates with subtypes of CI and distributions of atherosclerosis.

  2. A pilot study into measurements of markers of atherosclerosis in periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leivadaros, E; van der Velden, U; Bizzarro, S; ten Heggeler, JMAG; Gerdes, VEA; Hoek, FJ; Nagy, TOM; Scholma, J; Bakker, SJL; Gans, ROB; ten Cate, H; Loos, BG

    Background: Periodontitis may be a possible risk factor for atherosclerosis. The current pilot study explored arterial wall thickness and other variables associated with atherosclerosis in healthy subjects with and without periodontitis. Methods: Patients with moderate (N = 34) and severe

  3. Evaluation of risk factors for thrombophilia in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis

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    Osman Yokuş

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increased risk for thrombosis is known as hypercoagulability or thrombophilia. In our study, we aimed to determine the frequency of the identified defects for thrombophilia in patients with central venous thrombosis aged under 50 years and to compare results with the findings in the current literature. Materials and Methods: Forty-three patients (16-50 years old were retrospectively evaluated. Thrombophilia investigation included determinations of protein C, protein S, antithrombin, and activated protein C resistance, factor V Leiden (FVL, prothrombin 20210A (PT 20210 and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T mutations, antiphospholipid antibodies (APA, factor VIII levels, and homocysteine levels. Results: We detected a single thrombophilic defect in 67.4%, two defects in 27.9% and three defects in 4.7% of our patients. The most common thrombophilic defect was mutation in the MTHFR gene (41.8%, and this was followed by the FVL mutation (34.9%.Conclusion: Since the prevalence of individual thrombophilic defects varies in each population, ethnic group and geographical location, screening for thrombophilic defects in patients presenting with cerebral venous thrombosis should primarily investigate the most frequent thrombophilia risk factors.

  4. Risk factors for cerebral palsy in PPROM and preterm delivery with intact membranes (.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accordino, Federica; Consonni, Sara; Fedeli, Tiziana; Kullman, Gaia; Moltrasio, Francesca; Ghidini, Alessandro; Locatelli, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Gestational age (GA) at delivery and spontaneous prematurity are independent risk factors for cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study is to investigate perinatal risk factors for CP in spontaneous preterm delivery. A retrospective cohort study of all single pregnancies complicated by spontaneous preterm labor (PTL) or PPROM with delivery at babies died during the first year of life, 52 did not fulfill the inclusion criteria for neurologic follow-up, and 24 were lost to follow up. Thus 168 infants in the study cohort underwent neurologic follow-up. We observed 26 cases of CP. Factors related to CP were lower GA at PROM (p = 0.007) and longer latency from PPROM to delivery (p = 0.002) in the PPROM group, lower GA at delivery (p delivery in PTL are significantly associated with CP. A process leading to neurological damage may be initiated at the moment of membranes rupture in cases of PPROM and at the time of PTL in the group with intact membranes.

  5. RISK FACTORS AND PROGNOSIS OF EPILEPSY IN CHILDREN WITH HEMIPARETIC CEREBRAL PALSY

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    Seyyed Hassan TONEKABONI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveEpilepsy is reported in 15-90% of the children with Cerebral Palsy (CP but its clinical course is not well defined.We conducted a retrospective study on children with hemiparetic CP who were referred to Pediatric Neurology Department of Mofid Hospital. The aim of our study was to evaluate the risk factors and prognosis of epilepsy in children with hemiparetic CP.Materials & MethodsWe evaluated 64 children with hemiparetic CP who were referred to Pediatric Neurology Department of Mofid Hospital between 2006 and 2008.According to our protocol, patients were divided into two groups: 34 children in the case group (hemiparetic patients with epilepsy and 30 children in the control group (hemiparetic patients without epilepsy.ResultsPrenatal, perinatal and postnatal events, maternal age at the time of delivery, socioeconomic status of the family, familial history of epilepsy, neuroimaging findings, side of the hemiparesia and age at diagnosis of hemiparesis were not considered as risk factors for epilepsy in hemiparetic children, but microcephaly, severity of hemiparetic CP and mental retardation were significantly associated with an increased risk of epilepsy in children with hemiparetic CP.ConclusionOur study showed that microcephaly, severity of hemiparesis and mental retardation were risk factors for developing epilepsy in children with hemiparetic CP; furthermore, they had negative effects on rehabilitation outcome in these patients.

  6. Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α Promotes Endogenous Adaptive Response in Rat Model of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion

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    Ying Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α, a pivotal regulator of gene expression in response to hypoxia and ischemia, is now considered to regulate both pro-survival and pro-death responses depending on the duration and severity of the stress. We previously showed that chronic global cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH triggered long-lasting accumulation of HIF-1α protein in the hippocampus of rats. However, the role of the stabilized HIF-1α in CCH is obscure. Here, we knock down endogenous HIF-1α to determine whether and how HIF-1α affects the disease processes and phenotypes of CCH. Lentivirus expressing HIF-1α small hairpin RNA was injected into the bilateral hippocampus and bilateral ventricles to knock down HIF-1α gene expression in the hippocampus and other brain areas. Permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusions, known as 2-vessel occlusions (2VOs, were used to induce CCH in rats. Angiogenesis, oxidative stress, histopathological changes of the brain, and cognitive function were tested. Knockdown of HIF-1α prior to 2VO significantly exacerbates the impairment of learning and memory after four weeks of CCH. Mechanically, reduced cerebral angiogenesis, increased oxidative damage, and increased density of astrocytes and microglia in the cortex and some subregions of hippocampus are also shown after four weeks of CCH. Furthermore, HIF-1α knockdown also disrupts upregulation of regulated downstream genes. Our findings suggest that HIF-1α-protects the brain from oxidative stress and inflammation response in the disease process of CCH. Accumulated HIF-1α during CCH mediates endogenous adaptive processes to defend against more severe hypoperfusion injury of the brain, which may provide a therapeutic benefit.

  7. Risk factors for cerebral oedema in children and adolescents with diabetic ketoacidosis

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    Natasha Y. Yaneva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral oedema (CO is a rare life-threatening complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA in children. We analysed the biochemical and therapeutic risk factors for CO in DKA by a retrospective review of 256 children hospitalized for DKA between February 2003 and March 2015. The demographic characteristics, biochemical variables and therapeutic interventions were compared between the patients with and without CO. CO was observed in 22 (8.6% of the 256 subjects included in the study. One of these patients (5% had a fatal outcome and two patients (9% survived with neurological consequences. CO was significantly associated with severe DKA: lower initial venous pH (p < 0.001 and bicarbonate (p < 0.001, higher initial blood glucose (p < 0.01, urea level (p < 0.05 and baseline serum osmolality (р < 0.05. During the treatment of DKA, low serum phosphate level was found to be significantly associated with CO (p < 0.05. We also found significant dependence between the development of CO and the initiation of treatment for DKA in another facility before hospitalization in our hospital (p < 0.05, bicarbonate application (p < 0.001, higher fluid volume infused initially (p < 0.01 and delayed potassium substitution (p < 0.01. Severe ketoacidosis, hyperglycaemia and dehydration at presentation, and low serum phosphate during treatment are significantly related to CO formation in children with DKA. The initial severe acidosis and hyperglycaemia probably cause brain injury which progresses into CO in the course of developing hypophosphatemia and cerebral hypervolemia.

  8. Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α Promotes Endogenous Adaptive Response in Rat Model of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Ju, Jieyang; Deng, Min; Wang, Jing; Liu, Hui; Xiong, Li; Zhang, Junjian

    2017-01-17

    Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), a pivotal regulator of gene expression in response to hypoxia and ischemia, is now considered to regulate both pro-survival and pro-death responses depending on the duration and severity of the stress. We previously showed that chronic global cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) triggered long-lasting accumulation of HIF-1α protein in the hippocampus of rats. However, the role of the stabilized HIF-1α in CCH is obscure. Here, we knock down endogenous HIF-1α to determine whether and how HIF-1α affects the disease processes and phenotypes of CCH. Lentivirus expressing HIF-1α small hairpin RNA was injected into the bilateral hippocampus and bilateral ventricles to knock down HIF-1α gene expression in the hippocampus and other brain areas. Permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusions, known as 2-vessel occlusions (2VOs), were used to induce CCH in rats. Angiogenesis, oxidative stress, histopathological changes of the brain, and cognitive function were tested. Knockdown of HIF-1α prior to 2VO significantly exacerbates the impairment of learning and memory after four weeks of CCH. Mechanically, reduced cerebral angiogenesis, increased oxidative damage, and increased density of astrocytes and microglia in the cortex and some subregions of hippocampus are also shown after four weeks of CCH. Furthermore, HIF-1α knockdown also disrupts upregulation of regulated downstream genes. Our findings suggest that HIF-1α-protects the brain from oxidative stress and inflammation response in the disease process of CCH. Accumulated HIF-1α during CCH mediates endogenous adaptive processes to defend against more severe hypoperfusion injury of the brain, which may provide a therapeutic benefit.

  9. Risk factors for dental caries among children with cerebral palsy in a low-resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Rahena; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Martin, Elizabeth F; Muhit, Mohammad; Haque, Mohammad Raziul; Smithers-Sheedy, Hayley; Jones, Cheryl; Badawi, Nadia; Khandaker, Gulam

    2017-05-01

    To describe the oral health status and investigate factors affecting dental caries experience among children with cerebral palsy (CP) in rural Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among children with CP who are part of the Bangladesh Cerebral Palsy Register (BCPR) study. Caries experience was measured by identifying decayed, missing, and filled teeth for deciduous and permanent teeth (dmft/DMFT). Clinical periodontal index, body mass index, oral hygiene behaviour, masticatory ability, and dietary habits were recorded. CP motor types and severity of functional mobility (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS]) were assessed. Of 90 children with CP (mean age 9y 7mo, range 2-17y, 37.8% female and 62.2% male), 35% of 2 to 6 year olds, and 70% of 7 to 11 year olds (p=0.014) experienced caries (dmft+DMFT>0). The mean values (standard deviation [SD]) of dmft and DMFT were 2.46 (3.75) and 0.72 (1.79) respectively. After adjusting for age and sex, binary logistic regression analysis showed a significant relationship with dental caries for children who had quadriplegia (odds ratio [OR] 5.56, p=0.035), tooth cleaning less than one time/day (OR 0.08, p=0.016), using toothpowder or charcoal for cleaning (OR 7.63, p=0.015), and snacking between meals more than one time/day (OR 6.93, p=0.012). Early oral health preventive care is required for children with CP because dental caries is highly prevalent in these children. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  10. Analysis of the causes and risk factors of cerebral stroke in 392 young patients%392例青年脑卒中的病因及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧召霞; 刘志强; 尹琳

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the causes and risk factors of cerebral stroke in young adults.Method The clinical data of 392 young patients (≤45 years old) of cerebral stroke were analyzed retrospectively,and analyzed its causes and risk factors. Results The most common etiology in youth ischemic cerebral stroke was atherosclerosis (48.70%, 112/230), followed by cardiogenic cerebral embolism (13.04% ,30/230). The main cause in youth hemorrhagic cerebral stroke was hypertension (39.51% ,64/162), followed by intracranial aneurysm(14.81%,24/162) and cerebral vascular malformation(10.49%,17/162). The main risk factors for young patients with cerebral stroke were hypertension (40.31% ,158/392),smoking (36.22%, 142/392),drinking (33.93%, 133/392),prior stroke (13.78% ,54/392),hyperlipidemia (11.99% ,47/392), others were heart disease (9.69% ,38/392), family history of strokehistories (8.16%,32/392) and diabetes (5.36%,21/392) and so on. As far as 160 young patients and 110 young patients were detected separately homocysteine and anticardiolipin antibody, positive rates were 39.38%(63/160) and 3.64%(4/110) respectively. Conclusions The main etiological factor of ischemic cerebral stroke in young adults is atherosclerosis, cardiogenic cerebral embolism is followed. The main etiological factor of hemorrhagic cerebral stroke in young adults is hypertension, intracranial aneurysm and cerebral vascular malformation are followed. The order of risk factors for the young patients with cerebralstroke were hypertension, smoking,drinking, prior stroke, hyperlipidemia,heart disease, family history of stroke-histories, diabetes and hyperhomocysteinemia.%目的 探讨青年脑卒中的病因及危险因素.方法 回顾性分析连续住院的392例青年脑卒中患者(年龄≤45岁)的临床资料,分析其病因及危险因素.结果 青年缺血性脑卒中最常见的病因是动脉粥样硬化(48.70%,112/230),其次是心源性脑栓塞(13.04%,30/230).青年出血性脑卒

  11. Clinical features, risk factors, and outcome of cerebral venous thrombosis in Tehran, Iran

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    Samira Yadegari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite increasing the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST has remained an under-diagnosed condition. In this study, characteristics and frequency of various risk factors of CVST patients in a tertiary referral hospital were closely assessed. Methods: Patients with an unequivocal diagnosis of CVST confirmed by MRI and magnetic resonance venography during 6 years of the study were included. All data from the onset of symptoms regarding clinical signs and symptoms, hospital admission, seasonal distribution, medical and drug history, thrombophilic profile, D-dimer, neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid findings, mortality, and outcome were collected and closely analyzed. Result: A total of 53 patients with female to male ratio of 3.07 and mean age of 33.7 years were included in the study. Headache and papilledema were the most frequent clinical features (44 and 36 patients, respectively. An underlying disease (diagnosed previously or after admission was the most common identified risk factor for CVST in both females and males (21 patients. A total of 15 women used the oral contraceptive pill (OCP where 12 of them had simultaneously other predisposing factors. Overall, 19 patients (36% had more than one contributing factor. D-dimer had a sensitivity of 71.4% in CVST patients. The mortality of patients in this study was 3.7% (n = 2. Focal neurologic deficit and multicranial nerve palsy were associated with poor outcome which defined as death, recurrence, and massive intracranial hemorrhage due to anticoagulation (P = 0.050 and 0.004, respectively. Conclusion: Unlike most of the CVST studies in which OCP was the main factor; in this study, an underlying disease was the most identified cause. Considering the high probability of multiple risk factors in CVST that was shown by this study, appropriate work up should be noted to uncover them.

  12. Clinical features, risk factors, and outcome of cerebral venous thrombosis in Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadegari, Samira; Ghorbani, Askar; Miri, S. Roohollah; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rostami, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Despite increasing the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has remained an under-diagnosed condition. In this study, characteristics and frequency of various risk factors of CVST patients in a tertiary referral hospital were closely assessed. Methods: Patients with an unequivocal diagnosis of CVST confirmed by MRI and magnetic resonance venography during 6 years of the study were included. All data from the onset of symptoms regarding clinical signs and symptoms, hospital admission, seasonal distribution, medical and drug history, thrombophilic profile, D-dimer, neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid findings, mortality, and outcome were collected and closely analyzed. Result: A total of 53 patients with female to male ratio of 3.07 and mean age of 33.7 years were included in the study. Headache and papilledema were the most frequent clinical features (44 and 36 patients, respectively). An underlying disease (diagnosed previously or after admission) was the most common identified risk factor for CVST in both females and males (21 patients). A total of 15 women used the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) where 12 of them had simultaneously other predisposing factors. Overall, 19 patients (36%) had more than one contributing factor. D-dimer had a sensitivity of 71.4% in CVST patients. The mortality of patients in this study was 3.7% (n = 2). Focal neurologic deficit and multicranial nerve palsy were associated with poor outcome which defined as death, recurrence, and massive intracranial hemorrhage due to anticoagulation (P = 0.050 and 0.004, respectively). Conclusion: Unlike most of the CVST studies in which OCP was the main factor; in this study, an underlying disease was the most identified cause. Considering the high probability of multiple risk factors in CVST that was shown by this study, appropriate work up should be noted to uncover them. PMID:27695236

  13. Infection and Atherosclerosis Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lee Ann; Rosenfeld, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease hallmarked by chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and lipid accumulation in the vasculature. Although lipid modification and deposition are thought to be a major source of the continuous inflammatory stimulus, a large body of evidence suggests that infectious agents may contribute to atherosclerotic processes. This could occur by either direct effects through infection of vascular cells and/or through indirect effects by induction of cytokine and acute phase reactant proteins by infection at other sites. Multiple bacterial and viral pathogens have been associated with atherosclerosis by seroepidemiological studies, identification of the infectious agent in human atherosclerotic tissue, and experimental studies demonstrating an acceleration of atherosclerosis following infection in animal models of atherosclerosis. This review will focus on those infectious agents for which biological plausibility has been demonstrated in animal models and on the challenges of proving a role of infection in human atherosclerotic disease. PMID:26004263

  14. A relative difference in systolic blood pressure between arms by synchronal measurement and conventional cardiovascular risk factors are associated with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tomohiko; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Suematsu, Yasunori; Kuwano, Takashi; Sugihara, Makoto; Ike, Amane; Iwata, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-06-01

    It is not known the relationships between a difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP) between arms by synchronal measurement and the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD), and between a difference in BP between arms and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis. We enrolled 425 consecutive patients (M/F = 286/139, 67 ± 13 year) who were admitted to our University Hospital and in whom we could measure the absolute (|rt. BP - lt. BP|) and relative (rt. BP - lt. BP) differences in SBP and DBP using a nico PS-501(®) (Parama-Tech). We divided all patients into those who did and did not have CAD. The relative differences in SBP between arms in patients with CAD were significantly lower than those in patients without CAD. However, the relative difference in SBP between arms was not a predictor of the presence of CAD. We also divided 267 patients who underwent coronary angiography into tertiles according to the Gensini score (low, middle, and high score groups). Interestingly, the middle + high score groups showed significantly lower relative differences in SBP between arms than the low score group. The mean Korotkoff sound graph in the middle + high Gensini score group was significantly higher than that in the low Gensini score group. Among conventional cardiovascular risk factors and nico parameters, the relative difference in SBP between arms in addition to the risk factors (age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus) was associated with the score by a logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, the relative difference in SBP between arms as well as conventional risk factors may be associated with the severity of coronary arteriosclerosis.

  15. THE LATENT INTERCONNECTION OF THE FACTORS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS PROGRESSION WITH A THICKNESS OF INTIMA-MEDIA BY USE OF MULTIDIMENSIONAL STATISTICAL METHODS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Shavrin

    2011-01-01

    presence of atherosclerosis. To implement the pathological process in the vessel are important factors of acquired immunity depression, chronic intracellular infections, and possibly associated with it inflammatory process. 

  16. Interleukin-10 inhibits the expression of nuclear factor kappa B in rats with cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Wu; Nan Liu; Houwei Du; Ronghua Chen; An Zheng; Huapin Huang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plenty of studies have demonstrated that inflammatory reaction is involved in ischemic cerebral damage, and the expression of inflammatory cytokines can be observed at the initial sites of cerebral damage at early period, including interleukin-6, interleukin-8, etc., which are all the target gene products of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-кB). The process of ischemic damage can be affected by adjusting and controlling NF-кB activity via multi-links.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibitory effect of interleukin-10 on the expression of NF-кB in the ischemic sites of rats with focal cerebral ischemia in rats and its molecular mechanisms.DESIGN: A randomized and controlled animal trial.SETTING: Department of Neurology, the Affiliated Union Hospital of Fujian Medical University.MATERIALS: Thirty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing (250±30) g were used. NF-кB p65 (RelA)rabbit anti-rat monoclonal primary antibody was the product of Neomarkers Company; Immunohistochemical kit of the SP two-step method was purchased from Beijing Zhongshan Biotechnology Co., Ltd.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Affiliated Union Hospital of Fujian Medical University from August 2005 to April 2006. The rats were randomly assigned into sham-operated group, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) group, vehicle-treated group and interleukin-10 treated group, 8 rats in each group. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery as previously described. Rats in the MCAO group were anesthetized intraperitoneally, thyroid was bluntly dissected. Right common, external and internal carotid arteries were isolated, the trunk of external carotid artery was ligated and freed, an artery clamp was placed at the internal carotid artery, then a "V" shape incision was made at the free section of external carotid artery, filament was inserted for a depth of (18.5±0.5) mm. The rats in the sham-operated group were given the same treatments with

  17. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance.

  18. Fatores de risco de aterosclerose na infância. Um estudo epidemiológico Risk factors of atherosclerosis in children. An epidemiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoffi Roberto S. Gerber

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Obter um perfil dos fatores de risco coronário em uma amostra populacional pediátrica da cidade de Bento Gonçalves, RS, no período de maio/90 a junho/91. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 1501 escolares de 6 a 16 anos incompletos, visando a detecção dos níveis séricos de colesterol total, lipoproteínas, triglicerídeos, bem como a avaliação da pressão arterial e da história familiar de doença cardiovascular isquêmica e obesidade. RESULTADOS: Foram detectadas 420 (27,98% crianças com hipercolesterolemia, sendo que 75 (5% apresentavam hipertensão arterial sistólica e 48 (3,20% hipertensão arterial diastólica. A história familiar foi importante quando positiva, porém, sua ausência não excluia a presença de fatores de risco para a aterosclerose. A hipertrigliceridemia foi encontrada em 136 (9,06% escolares e a LDL-colesterol elevada em 155 (10,33%, mostrando forte associação com hipercolesterolemia. Apresentaram índice de massa corporal acima de percentil 95, não mostrando uma maior prevalência de hipercolesterolemia, 111 crianças. CONCLUSÃO: Os fatores de risco para a aterosclerose estão presentes na infância e deveriam ser pesquisados independentemente do nível socioeconômico, da história familiar, da idade e do sexo, devendo o pediatra ser um dos responsáveis por esta investigação.PURPOSE: To obtain a profile of risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis in a pediatric population from Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, from May 1990 to June 1991. METHODS: One thousand five hundred and one children with ages from 6 to 15 years were studied to assess serum cholesterol levels and their association with other risk factors, such as arterial hypertension, obesity and family history of cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty (27.98% children showed cholesterol levels over 180mg%; 75 (5% had systolic hypertension and 48 (3.20% diastolic hypertension. The family history was important to search

  19. [Is regression of atherosclerosis possible?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D; Richard, J L; Emmerich, J; Bruckert, E; Delahaye, F

    1992-10-01

    Experimental studies have shown the regression of atherosclerosis in animals given a cholesterol-rich diet and then given a normal diet or hypolipidemic therapy. Despite favourable results of clinical trials of primary prevention modifying the lipid profile, the concept of atherosclerosis regression in man remains very controversial. The methodological approach is difficult: this is based on angiographic data and requires strict standardisation of angiographic views and reliable quantitative techniques of analysis which are available with image processing. Several methodologically acceptable clinical coronary studies have shown not only stabilisation but also regression of atherosclerotic lesions with reductions of about 25% in total cholesterol levels and of about 40% in LDL cholesterol levels. These reductions were obtained either by drugs as in CLAS (Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study), FATS (Familial Atherosclerosis Treatment Study) and SCOR (Specialized Center of Research Intervention Trial), by profound modifications in dietary habits as in the Lifestyle Heart Trial, or by surgery (ileo-caecal bypass) as in POSCH (Program On the Surgical Control of the Hyperlipidemias). On the other hand, trials with non-lipid lowering drugs such as the calcium antagonists (INTACT, MHIS) have not shown significant regression of existing atherosclerotic lesions but only a decrease on the number of new lesions. The clinical benefits of these regression studies are difficult to demonstrate given the limited period of observation, relatively small population numbers and the fact that in some cases the subjects were asymptomatic. The decrease in the number of cardiovascular events therefore seems relatively modest and concerns essentially subjects who were symptomatic initially. The clinical repercussion of studies of prevention involving a single lipid factor is probably partially due to the reduction in progression and anatomical regression of the atherosclerotic plaque

  20. Study on Atherosclerosis Treated with Theory of Detoxification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yingchun; Wang Hualiang; Ding Jing

    2006-01-01

    Starting with the contents, classification and pathogenic characteristics of the toxic pathogen and combining the modem medical research on the correlation of atherosclerosis with inflammation and immune reaction,authors have studied and expounded the interrelationship between the toxic pathogen and atherosclerosis.The toxic pathogen affecting the whole pathological process of atherosclerosis is a key factor for the disease to remain lingering and a cause of various cardiocerebrovascular diseases. Detoxification can be used to treat atherosclerosis so as to enhance the toxin-removing ability of the body and resist the damage to the body from the toxic pathogen.

  1. Systemic atherosclerosis and voiding symptom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeniel, A Ozgur; Ergenoglu, A Mete; Meseri, Reci; Ari, Anıl; Sancar, Ceren; Itil, Ismail Mete

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of atherosclerosis on the storage and voiding symptoms of the bladder in women with overactive bladder (OAB). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of women with OAB who were evaluated between 2013 and 2015 in our urogynecology unit. Charts were assessed for history, examination findings, urinary diary, quality of life (QOL) questionnaires, urodynamic studies (UDSs), and four main risk factors for atherosclerosis: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and hyperlipidemia. In a previous study, these were defined as vascular risk factors. Cases were excluded for insufficient data, diabetes mellitus with dysregulated blood glucose, or prolapse greater than 1cm to avoid confusing bladder outlet obstruction. We included 167 eligible cases in this study. We evaluated storage and voiding symptoms such as frequency, nocturia, residual urine volume, and voiding difficulties and UDS findings such as maximum bladder capacity, first desire, strong desire, detrusor overactivity, and bladder contractility index. The vascular risk score was categorized as "no risk" if the woman did not have any of the four risk factors and "at risk" if she had any of the factors. Independent sample t-test and chi-square tests were performed for analyses. Among the participants (n=167), 71.9% had at least one vascular risk factor. Those who were at risk were facing significantly more wet-type OAB (p=0.003) and nocturia (p=0.023). Moreover, mean age (p=0.008) and mean gravidity (p=0.020) were significantly higher in the at-risk group, whereas mean total nocturia QOL questionnaire scores (p=0.029) were significantly lower. Our findings suggest that aging and atherosclerosis may be associated with severe OAB and poorer QOL. Nocturia and related parameters of poor quality can be explained by impaired bladder neck perfusion. Future trials need to assess vascular and molecular changes in women with OAB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Aterosclerose carotídea avaliada pelo eco-Doppler: associação com fatores de risco e doenças arteriais sistêmicas Carotid atherosclerosis evaluated by Doppler ultrasound: association with risk factors and systemic arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procopio de Freitas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A aterosclerose carotídea apresenta alta prevalência populacional e associação com vários fatores de risco, contribuindo para altos índices de morbidade e mortalidade. OBJETIVO: Pesquisar a freqüência e associação da aterosclerose de carótidas extracranianas com: idade, sexo, hipertensão arterial, doença coronária isquêmica, tabagismo, diabetes melito tipo 2, obesidade, doença arterial oclusiva periférica, acidente vascular cerebral, oclusão carotídea, espessamento médio-intimal e acotovelamento. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas as artérias carótidas extracranianas, bilateralmente, de 367 indivíduos (132 homens e 235 mulheres com idade média de 63 anos (35 a 91 anos por anamnese, semiologia clínica e ultra-sonografia. A possibilidade da associação entre aterosclerose carotídea representada por placas ateromatosas inespecíficas com estenose > 10%, ateromatose discreta e difusa com estenose 64 anos, acidente vascular cerebral, obesidade e tabagismo. Considerando-se somente estenoses carotídeas > 60%, houve associação com idade > 64 anos, oclusão carotídea e doença coronária. O espessamento médio-intimal apresentou associação com idade > 64 anos, acotovelamento, oclusão carotídea, hipertensão arterial e índice tornozelo-braquial BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in the population and its frequent association with several risk factors contribute to high morbidity and mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequency and association of extracranial carotid atherosclerosis with age, sex, hypertension, ischemic coronary disease, smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, peripheral arterial disease, stroke, carotid occlusion, intima-media thickness and kinking. METHODS: The carotid and bilateral extracranial arteries of 367 individuals (132 males and 235 females, with a mean of 63 years of age (35-91 years were evaluated via anamnesis, clinical semiology and ultrasonography. The

  3. Minocycline inhibits neuroinflammation and enhances vascular endothelial growth factor expression in a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyou Cai; Yong Yan; Changyin Yu; Jun Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain ischemia involves secondary inflammation, which significantly contributes to the outcome of ischemic insults. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may play an important role in the vascular response to cerebral ischemia, because ischemia stimulates VEGF expression in the brain, and VEGF promotes formation of new cerebral blood vessels. Minocyclinc, a tetracycline derivative, protects against cerebral ischemia and reduces inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis.OBJECTIVE: To observe the influence of minocycline on VEGE interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression in Wistar rats with focal cerebral ischemia/rcperfusion injury, and to study the neuroproteetion mechanism of minocycline against focal cerebral ischemia/rcpeffusion injury.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled experiment, which was performed in the Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurology between March 2007 and March 2008.MATERIALS: A total of 36 female, Wistar rats underwent surgery to insert a thread into the left middle cerebral artery. Animals were randomly divided into sham-operation, minocyclinc treatment, and ischemia/reperfusion groups, with 12 rats in each group. Minocycline (Huishi Pharmaceutical Limited Company, China) was dissolved to 0.5 g/L in normal saline.METHODS: A 0.5- 1.0 cm thread was inserted into rats from the sham-operation group. Rats in the ischemia/reperfusion group underwent ischemia and reperfusion. The minocycline group received minocycline (50 mg/kg) 12 and 24 hours following ischemia and reperfusion, whereas the other groups received saline at the corresponding time points.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: mRNA and protein expression of IL-1β and TNF-α was measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerasc chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. VEGF mRNA and protein expression was examined by RT-PCR, Western blot, and ELISA.RESULTS: Minocycline decreased the focal infarct

  4. Coronary artery calcification in hemophilia A: No evidence for a protective effect of factor VIII deficiency on atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinenburg, A.; Rutten, A.; Kavousi, M.; Leebeek, F.W.G.; Ypma, P.F.; Laros-Van Gorkom, B.A.P.; Nijziel, M.R.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Mauser-Bunschoten, E.P.; Roosendaal, G.; Biesma, D.H.; Van Der Lugt A., [No Value; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Bots, M.L.; Schutgens, R.E.G.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality due to ischemic heart disease is lower in hemophilia patients when compared to the general male population. As coagulation plays a role in the inflammatory pathways involved in atherogenesis, we investigated whether the clotting factor deficiency protects hemophilia patients from developin

  5. [Diabetes mellitus and aging as a risk factor for cerebral vascular disease: epidemiology, pathophysiology and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú-Brito, Carlos; Mimenza-Alvarado, Alberto; Sánchez-Hernández, Juan José

    2010-01-01

    Older patients with diabetes have a high risk of vascular complications. They have an increase of approximately 3 times for developing stroke compared with subjects without diabetes. In addition, up to 75-80% of deaths in diabetic patients are associated with major cardiovascular events including stroke. The risk of stroke is high within 5 years of diagnosis for type 2 diabetes is 9% (mortality 21%), that is more than doubles the rate for the general population. From observational registries in a collaborative stroke study in Mexico, we analyzed clinical data, risk factors, and outcome of 1182 diabetic patients with cerebral ischemia, with focus in elderly subjects. There was a high frequency of hyperglycemia during the acute phase of stroke: the median value was 140 mg/dL and 40% had values higher than 180 mg/dL. Clinical outcome was usually unfavorable in elderly stroke patients with diabetes: case fatality rate was 30% at 30 days and survivors had moderate to severe disability, usually as consequence of the propensity to develop more systemic medical complications during hospital stay. Primary stroke prevention studies in patients with diabetes reveal that tight control of glucose is not associated with reduction in stroke risk. Therefore, proper control of other vascular risk factors is mandatory in patients with diabetes, in particular of arterial hypertension.

  6. Cytokines and growth factors modify the upregulation of contractile endothelin ET(A) and ET(B) receptors in rat cerebral arteries after organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnstedt, H; Stenman, E; Cao, L

    2012-01-01

    Experimental cerebral ischaemia and organ culture of cerebral arteries induce an increased endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction. The aim of this study was to examine whether cytokines and growth factors, known to be activated in ischaemia, can influence the expression and function...... of endothelin receptors after organ culture....

  7. Naoxintong dose effects on inflammatory factor expression in the rat brain following focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangjian Zhang; Li Xü; Zuoran Chen; Shuchao Hu; Liying Zhang; Haiyan Li; Ruichun Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Certain components of tetramethylpyrazine, a traditional Chinese medicine, exhibit protective effects against brain injury.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different Naoxintong doses on expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (κ B), interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and complement 3 in rats following focal cerebral ischemia.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The randomized experiment was performed at the Laboratory of Neurology, Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from June 2004 to June 2006. MATERIAIS: A total of 150 adult, healthy, male, Sprague Dawley rats, weighing 280-320 g, were selected. Naoxintong powder (mainly comprising szechwan lovage rhizome, milkvetch root, danshen root, and radix angelicae sinensis) was obtained from Buchang Pharmacy Co., Ltd. in Xianyang City of Shanxi Province of China, lot number 040608.METHODS: The rats were randomly assigned into sham operation, saline, high-dose Naoxintong, moderate-dose Naoxintong, and low-dose Naoxintong groups, with 30 rats in each group. Rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were established using the suture method, with the exception of the sham operation group. Rats in the high-dose, moderate-dose and low-dose Naoxintong groups received 4, 2, and 1 glkg Naoxintong respectively, by gavage. Rats in the saline group were treated with 1 mL saline by gavage. All rats were administered by garage at 5 and 23 hours following surgery, and subsequently, once per day.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At 6, 24, 48, 72 hours, and 7 days following model establishment, brain water content was measured. Histopathological changes in brain tissues were detected using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Expression of nuclear factor- κB, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and complement 3 was examined by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: A total of 150 rats were included in the final analysis with no loss. Brain water content was significantly increased in the ischemic hemisphere of rats from the saline, as

  8. Clinical experience with L-lysine escinate for acute and chronic cerebral circulatory disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Pizova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular diseases (CVD are major causes of disability and death in Russia. Stroke is the third significant cause of higher death rates after cardiovascular disease and cancer. The prevalence of circulatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis and hypertension, is on the rise. Therapy for CVD must be aimed at the underlying disease in which vascular catastrophe (atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart disease, etc. develops, at the regression of neurological and psychopathological syndromes, and at the improvement of cerebral blood flow and metabolic processes. Neuroprotective agents, whose efficacy has been established in uncontrolled and small placebo-controlled trials, are widely used in our country. The prescription of these medications is substantiated by the important role of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying cerebral ischemia. This paper gives data on the clinical use of L-lysine escinate for ischemic stroke (IS, hypertensive crisis, and chronic cerebral circulatory disorders and discusses the mechanism of this drug's action and the pathogenetic mechanisms of cerebrovascular lesions. A number of investigations have shown it expedient to incorporate L-lysine escinate in the combined neuroprotective therapy of patients with IS, cerebral hypertensive crisis, and hypertensive encephalopathy, which is associated with its antiedematous effect, particularly in preventing vasogenic brain edema, in enhancing the tone of cerebral veins, and in improving venous outflow. It is stated that there is a need for an individualized approach to treating CVD, by taking into consideration the existing risk factors and somatic and neurological diseases. 

  9. Chronic intermittent hypoxia exposure-induced atherosclerosis: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongmei; Fang, Guoqiang; Greenberg, Harly; Liu, Shu Fang

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in the USA and is recognized as an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Identification of atherosclerosis risk factor attributable to OSA may provide opportunity to develop preventive measures for cardiovascular risk reduction. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a prominent feature of OSA pathophysiology and may be a major mechanism linking OSA to arteriosclerosis. Animal studies demonstrated that CIH exposure facilitated high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced atherosclerosis, accelerated the progression of existing atherosclerosis, and induced atherosclerotic lesions in the absence of other atherosclerosis risk factors, demonstrating that CIH is an independent causal factor of atherosclerosis. Comparative studies revealed major differences between CIH-induced and the classic HCD-induced atherosclerosis. Systemically, CIH was a much weaker inducer of atherosclerosis. CIH and HCD differentially activated inflammatory pathways. Histologically, CIH-induced atherosclerotic plaques had no clear necrotic core, contained a large number of CD31+ endothelial cells, and had mainly elastin deposition, whereas HCD-induced plaques had typical necrotic cores and fibrous caps, contained few endothelial cells, and had mainly collagen deposition. Metabolically, CIH caused mild, but HCD caused more severe dyslipidemia. Mechanistically, CIH did not, but HCD did, cause macrophage foam cell formation. NF-κB p50 gene deletion augmented CIH-induced, but not HCD-induced atherosclerosis. These differences reflect the intrinsic differences between the two types of atherosclerosis in terms of pathological nature and underlying mechanisms and support the notion that CIH-induced atherosclerosis is a new paradigm that differs from the classic HCD-induced atherosclerosis.

  10. Oxyradical Stress, Endocannabinoids, and Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anberitha T. Matthews

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is responsible for most cardiovascular disease (CVD and is caused by several factors including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and chronic inflammation. Oxidants and electrophiles have roles in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and the concentrations of these reactive molecules are an important factor in disease initiation and progression. Overactive NADPH oxidase (Nox produces excess superoxide resulting in oxidized macromolecules, which is an important factor in atherogenesis. Although superoxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS have obvious toxic properties, they also have fundamental roles in signaling pathways that enable cells to adapt to stress. In addition to inflammation and ROS, the endocannabinoid system (eCB is also important in atherogenesis. Linkages have been postulated between the eCB system, Nox, oxidative stress, and atherosclerosis. For instance, CB2 receptor-evoked signaling has been shown to upregulate anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative pathways, whereas CB1 signaling appears to induce opposite effects. The second messenger lipid molecule diacylglycerol is implicated in the regulation of Nox activity and diacylglycerol lipase β (DAGLβ is a key biosynthetic enzyme in the biosynthesis eCB ligand 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG. Furthermore, Nrf2 is a vital transcription factor that protects against the cytotoxic effects of both oxidant and electrophile stress. This review will highlight the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in intracellular signaling and the impact of deregulated ROS-mediated signaling in atherogenesis. In addition, there is also emerging knowledge that the eCB system has an important role in atherogenesis. We will attempt to integrate oxidative stress and the eCB system into a conceptual framework that provides insights into this pathology.

  11. Fatores de risco no desenvolvimento da aterosclerose na infância e adolescência Risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gisele dos Santos

    2008-04-01

    been studied as to its inflammatory aspect. Among the inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein (CRP has been extensively studied in individuals with CVD, including those apparently healthy. High CRP levels have been related to risk factors for atherosclerosis: family history of coronary artery disease (CAD, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking and sedentary lifestyle. A great part of these risk factors may be influenced by lifestyle modifications, such as changes in eating habits and engagement in physical activities. The effects of physical activity on CRP levels in adulthood are documented in the literature, however little is known on the influence of an active or sedentary lifestyle of children and adolescents on CRP levels. Thus, the objective of this study is to review the impact of physical activity of children and adolescents on CRP levels and the risk factors for the development of CVD.

  12. Coronary risk factors and metabolic disorders in first-degree relatives of normocholesterolaemic patients with premature atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geluk, C.A.; Halkes, C.J.M.; De Jaegere, P.P.Th.; Plokker, H.W.M.; Cabezas, M. Castro

    2006-01-01

    Aims Despite agreement on the need for screening for the presence of cardiovascular risk factors in first-degree family members of patients with premature coronary artery disease (CAD), this is not routinely carried out in relatives of normocholesterolaemic patients. We evaluated cardiovascular risk factors in family members of normocholesterolaemic patients with premature CAD. Methods Eligible index subjects were patients with premature CAD (6.5 mmol/l were excluded. Sixteen index subjects were included with a mean age of 49±8 years and total cholesterol levels of 5.5±0.8 mmol/l. Sixty-four first-degree relatives from these 16 pedigrees were screened, namely 18 children, 42 siblings and four parents. National Cholesterol Education Program III guidelines were used to identify candidates for lipid-lowering treatment. Furthermore, the presence of four additional metabolic disorders was investigated: the metabolic syndrome, increased levels of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), hyperhomocysteinaemia and postprandial hyperlipidaemia. Results Of 64 relatives free of CAD, 34 subjects (53%) fulfilled the criteria to receive therapeutic advice, 20 of whom (31% of the relatives) were candidates for drug therapy. Sixty-one relatives were available for a full assessment of metabolic disorders and in 37 relatives (61%) at least one metabolic abnormality was present. Twelve subjects had hyper-Lp(a), seven subjects had postprandial hyperlipidaemia and two had the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, 16 subjects had a combination of at least two out of four metabolic disorders. Conclusion Careful evaluation of coronary risk factors and metabolic variables in first-degree relatives of normocholesterolaemic CAD patients identifies a significant number of subjects at increased coronary risk in whom primary prevention measures should be initiated. PMID:25696610

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor induced angiogenesis following focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaijun Liu; Jiping Yang; Fenghai Liu; Qiang Zhang; Hui Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Therapeutic angiogenesis has opened up new pathway for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in recent years. The exploration of the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on inducing angiogenesis following ischemia/reperfusion injury can provide better help for the long-term treatment of cerebrovascular disease in clinic.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of VEGF on inducing angiogenesis following focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits through the angiogenesis of microvessels reflected by the expression of the factors of vascular pseudohemophilia.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal trial.SETTING: Department of Medical Imaging, Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University.MATERIALS: Sixty-five healthy male New Zealand rabbits of clean degree, weighing (2.6±0.2) kg, aged4.5-5 months, were used. The polyclonal antibody against vascular pseudohemophilia (Beijing Zhongshan Company), recombinant VEGF165 (Peprotech Company, USA), biotinylated second antibody and ABC compound (Wuhan Boster Company) were applied.METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the Laboratory of Neuromolecular Imaging and Neuropathy,Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from May to August in 2005. ① The rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated group (n=15), control group (n=25) and VEGF-treated group(n=25). In the control group and VEGF-treated group, models were established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. In the VEGF-treated group, VEGF165(2.5 mg/L) was stereotactically injected into the surrounding regions of the infarcted sites immediately after the 2-hour ischemia/reperfusion; Saline of the same dosage was injected in the control group. But the rabobserved on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 28th and 70th days of the experiment respectively, 3 rabbits in the sham-operated group and 5 in the control group and VEGF-treated group were observed at each time point. The

  14. Prevalence, risk factors and consequences of cerebral small vessel diseases: data from three Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Saima; Mok, Vincent; Youn, Young Chul; Wong, Adrian; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian

    2017-08-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) has been suggested to be more common in Asians compared with Caucasians. However, data from population-based studies in Asia are lacking. We report on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of SVD from contemporary studies in three Asian countries using 3-Tesla MRI for the evaluation of SVD. Clinical, cognitive and 3-Tesla brain MRI assessments were performed among participants of three studies from Singapore, Hong Kong and Korea. SVD markers include white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) using the modified Fazekas scale, lacunes and microbleeds. Cognition was assessed using the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Adjustments were made for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 1797 subjects were available for analysis (mean age: 70.1±6.3 years and 57% women). The prevalence of confluent WMH was 36.6%, lacunes, 24.6% and microbleeds, 26.9%. Presence of all three SVD markers showed a steeper increase with increasing age rising from 1.9% in the lowest to 46.2% in the highest 5-year age strata. The major risk factors for the increased severity of SVD markers were advancing age and hypertension. Moreover, increasing severity of SVD markers was independently associated with worse performance on MMSE and MoCA. Elderly Asians have a high burden of SVD which was associated with cognitive dysfunction. This suggests that SVD markers should be a potential target for treatment in clinical trials so as to delay progression of cerebrovascular disease and potentially cognitive decline. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Factors influencing outcomes after medial hamstring lengthening with semitendinosus transfer in patients with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Jaebong; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Cho, Byung Chae; Moon, Seung Jun; Kim, Jaeyoung; Park, Moon Seok

    2017-08-14

    Although several studies have investigated the outcomes after distal hamstring lengthening (DHL), no study has undertaken an approach that included all or most of the important factors that could influence the results. This study was performed to evaluate the outcomes after DHL and analyze the factors that influence the improvement and serial change in knee motion after surgery in patients with cerebral palsy (CP), using a linear mixed model (LMM). The study included 314 ambulatory CP patients (594 limbs) with spsastic diplegia who were followed up after undergoing DHL as part of a single-event multilevel surgery and who underwent preoperative and postoperative 3-dimensional (3D) gait analyses. Relevant kinematic values, including knee flexion at initial contact, minimum knee flexion in the stance phase, knee range of motion (ROM), mean pelvic tilt and gait deviation index (GDI) score, were the outcome measures. Changes in knee motion and the GDI score were adjusted for multiple factors, such as sex, the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, and concomitant surgeries as fixed effects, and follow-up duration, laterality, and each subject as random effects, using a LMM. We found significant improvements in knee flexion at initial contact, minimum knee flexion in the stance phase, knee ROM, and GDI score 2 years after DHL. In patients with GMFCS level I and II, improvement in all sagittal knee kinematics was maintained during follow-up. In addition, GDI score, which represents overall gait pathology, consistently improved throughout the follow-up duration (1.2 per year, p = 0.008). Medial hamstring lengthening with semitendinosus transfer, as a part of a SEMLS, was effective procedure in treating flexed knee gait with regard to sagittal knee kinematics and GDI score in spastic CP with flexed knee gait.

  16. Multiple or mixed cerebral microbleeds and dementia in patients with vascular risk factors.

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    Miwa, Kaori; Tanaka, Makiko; Okazaki, Shuhei; Yagita, Yoshiki; Sakaguchi, Manabu; Mochizuki, Hideki; Kitagawa, Kazuo

    2014-08-12

    To investigate whether cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are independently associated with incident dementia in patients with vascular risk factors. Using data from a Japanese cohort of participants with vascular risk factors in an observational study from 2001, we evaluated the association between CMBs at baseline and incident dementia. Baseline brain MRI was used to determine small-vessel disease (CMBs, lacunar infarcts, and white matter hyperintensities) and brain atrophy. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed for predictors of dementia adjusting for age, sex, APOE ε4 allele, educational level, baseline Mini-Mental State Examination score, cerebrovascular events, vascular risk factors, and MRI findings. Of the 524 subjects (mean age 68 ± 8.3 years, 57.6% male, 12.8 ± 2.6 years of schooling, 21.6% CMBs), 44 patients with incident dementia (20 Alzheimer disease, 18 vascular dementia, 3 mixed-type, and 3 other) were diagnosed during the median 7.5-year follow-up. In multivariate analysis, the presence of overall CMBs was not associated with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia (p = 0.15). However, multiple CMBs (≥ 2) or mixed (lobar and deep) CMBs were associated with the increased risk of all-cause dementia, whereas strictly lobar CMBs showed no association with any dementia. Multiple CMBs or mixed CMBs independently showed higher risk of all-cause dementia. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that CMBs exert deleterious effects on dementia incidence, suggesting that this association may be mediated by vascular burden. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Changes in Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever.

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    Çetin, Gözde; Utku, Uygar; Atilla, Nurhan; Gişi, Kadir; Sayarlioğlu, Mehmet

    2017-06-01

    It is known that there is a relationship between systemic inflammation and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is one of the best-known causes of cerebrovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to assess cerebral blood flow velocity using transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography in patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). A total of 30 patients aged from 20 to 50 years with FMF were enrolled in the FMF group consecutively. The control group (non-FMF group) consisted of 30 age- and sex-matched randomly selected patients without FMF who had other diagnoses such as fibromyalgia and did not have risk factors for atherosclerosis. Bilateral peak-systolic, end-diastolic, and mean blood flow velocities in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), values of Gosling's pulsatility index, and values of Pourcelot's resistance index were recorded using TCD ultrasonography by a neurosonologist blinded to the FMF and control groups. There were 30 participants in the FMF group in remission (male/female: 4/26, mean age: 34.7±5.9 years) and 30 participants in the control group (male/female: 4/26, mean age: 32.3±4.7 years). C-reactive protein levels and bilateral blood flow velocities in the MCA were significantly higher in the FMF group than in the control group. This study suggests that persistent clinical and subclinical inflammation in patients with FMF causes an increase in cerebral blood flow velocities. Our findings provide an insight into this association between FMF and cerebrovascular diseases.

  18. Coagulation factor VII R353Q polymorphism and the risk of puerperal cerebral venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruthika-Vinod, T P; Nagaraja, Dindagur; Christopher, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Puerperal cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a relatively common form of stroke in young women in India. The blood coagulation factor VII (FVII) R353Q polymorphism increases the risk for venous thrombosis. Our aim was to investigate the association of FVII R353Q polymorphism with the risk of puerperal CVT. A total of 100 women with puerperal CVT and 102 age-matched women without postpartum complications were investigated. FVII R353Q genotypes were identified using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Our results showed that the homozygous FVII 353QQ genotype was present in 9% and 8% of patients and controls, respectively; and 42% of patients and 31.4% of controls had the heterozygous 353RQ genotype (odds ratio = 1.55, 95% confidence interval = 0.89-2.70; p = 0.243). Our findings suggest that the FVII R353Q polymorphism is not associated with increased risk for CVT occurring during the puerperal period in Indian women.

  19. Factors Related to Psychosocial Quality of Life for Children with Cerebral Palsy

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    D. W. Tessier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Current health services interventions focus on the treatment of the musculoskeletal impairments of cerebral palsy (CP. The goal of this study was to explore whether the severity of physical symptoms correlates with psychosocial quality of life (QOL among pediatric patients with CP. Methods. A sample of 53 caregivers of children with CP was surveyed and health status information was extracted from patient medical records. Descriptive analysis explored the association between the main outcome variable, psychosocial QOL (CP QOL-child, and patient demographics, comorbidity (e.g., visual, hearing and feeding impairments, language delays, and epilepsy, CP severity (GMFCS, and the receipt of family centered care (MPOC-20. Results. Child psychosocial QOL decreased with increasing comorbidity but was not associated with CP symptom severity or any measured demographic factors. Reporting high levels of family centered care (FCC was associated with higher psychosocial QOL in univariate analysis but was not significant when controlling for comorbidities. Conclusion. There is no clear connection between symptom severity and psychosocial QOL in children with CP. Comorbidity however is strongly associated with psychosocial QOL. Focusing on reducing CP comorbidities could have a positive impact on psychosocial QOL.

  20. Vascular endothelial growth factor improves recovery of sensorimotor and cognitive deficits after focal cerebral ischemia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaoming; Galvan, Veronica; Gorostiza, Olivia; Ataie, Marina; Jin, Kunlin; Greenberg, David A

    2006-10-18

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenesis factor with neurotrophic, neuroprotective and neuroproliferative effects. Depending on the dose, route and time of administration in relation to focal cerebral ischemia, VEGF can improve histological outcome and sensorimotor function in rodents. However, VEGF also increases vascular permeability, which can lead to brain edema and exacerbate ischemic brain injury. Thus, although VEGF is a candidate therapeutic for stroke and other ischemic disorders, its benefit relative to risk is uncertain. Considering that functional rather than histological measures of outcome are probably most relevant to therapeutic prospects for human stroke, we investigated the effects of VEGF after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats using a series of behavioral tests. We report that VEGF improves functional outcome in ischemic rats, including both sensorimotor and cognitive deficiencies.

  1. 78 FR 77138 - Proposed Collection; 60-day Comment Request: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) Summary: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c) (2... days of the date of this publication. Proposed Collection: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities... primary objectives of the study are to: (1) investigate factors associated with both atherosclerosis...

  2. Expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and ischemic erythropoietin tolerance in the brain of cerebral ischemic tolerance model rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renliang Zhao; Ruijian Dong; Zhongling Sun

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 α) and erythropoietin(EPO), possessing neuroprotective effect in the cerebral ischemia, might play an important role in the formation of cerebral ischemic tolerance (IT).OBJECTIVE:To observe the neuroprotective effect of cerebral ischemic preconditioning(IPC) of rats, and the expression and mechanism of HIF-1α and target gene erythropoietin in the brain tissue following the formation of cerebral IT.DESIGN :A randomized and controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, the Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University.MATERIALS: Totally 84 enrolled adult healthy male Wistar rats of clean grade, weighing 250 to 300 g, were provided by the Animal Experimental Department, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Ready-to-use SABC reagent kit and rabbit anti-rat HIF-1α monoclonal antibody were purchased from Boshide Bioengineering Co. Ltd (Wuhan); Rabbit anti-rat EPO monoclonal antibody was purchased from Santa Cruz Company (USA).METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Department of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University during March 2005 to March 2006. ① The 84 rats were divided into 3 groups by a lot: IPC group (n=40),sham-operation group (n=40) and control group (n=4). In the IPC group, middle cerebral artery was occluded for 2 hours respectively on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21st days of the reperfusion following 10-minute preischemia was made using a modified middle cerebral artery second suture method from Zea-Longa. The rats were sacrificed 22 hours after reperfusion in the end of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). That was to say,after 10-minute preischemia, suture was exited to the external carotid artery and embedded subcutaneously.Middle cerebral artery was occluded again to form the second reperfusion at the set time point after reperfusion. Twenty-two hours later, rats were sacrificed; In the sham-operation group

  3. Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms in Young Adults with Coronary Artery Disease: Tehran Heart Center's Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis Cohort (THC-PAC Study

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    Seyed Hesameddin Abbasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Depressed coronary artery disease (CAD patients may experience a poorer prognosis than non-depressed patients. The aim of this study was to find the associated factors for depressive symptoms in young adults with CAD.Method: This was a cross-sectional study within Tehran Heart Center's Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis Cohort (THC-PAC study. Young adult CAD patients (men ≤ 45 year-old and women ≤ 55 year-old were visited from March 2013 to February 2014. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected and all patients were asked to fill in the Beck Depression Inventory II. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. A logistic regression model was used to find multiple associated factors of depressive symptoms.Results: Seven hundred seventy patients (mean ±SD age: 45.34 ±5.75 y, men: 47.7% were visited. The point prevalence of depressive symptoms was 46.9% in women and 30.2% in men (p < 0.001. Logistic regressions model revealed that the most important associated factors for depressive symptoms in the male premature CAD patients were opium usage (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.33-4.43, major adverse cardiac events (MACE (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.17-3.93, initial coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG treatment (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.07-4.06, positive family history for CAD (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.11-3.01 and cigarette smoking (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.97-2.98. Hypertension showed a protective role in this group of patients (OR = 0.5, CI = 0.29-0.92. In the female patients, hypertension (OR = 1.5, CI = 0.96-2.22 and body mass index (BMI (OR = 1.1, CI = 1.02-1.10 were associated with depressive symptoms.Conclusion: In premature CAD male patients, opium usage, MACE, initial CABG treatment, positive family history for CAD and cigarette smoking were associated with depressive symptoms; and hypertension and BMI were associated with depressive symptoms in women.

  4. Seasonality as a Factor of Resort Treatment Efficiency of Patients with Cerebral Disorders

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    Aleksandr N. Bitsadze

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article, basing on the results of examination of 369 patients with cerebrovascular disorders considers the features of seasonality impact on the cerebral haemodynamics correction and climatic balneotherapy efficiency in the course of subtropical balneotherapy resort treatment. The findings indicate the necessity to differentiate the approaches to patients with cerebrovascular disorders referral to resort treatment and climatic balneotherapy procedures prescription, considering both cerebral ischemia stage and seasonality.

  5. Risk factors for remote seizure development in patients with cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Vahid; Keyhanian, Kiandokht; Saadatnia, Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    We aimed to define the possible risk factors for acute and remote seizures in patients with cerebral vein and sinus thrombosis (CVST). Ninety-four patients were recruited prospectively at Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, between April 2007 and April 2012. To identify seizure predictors, we compared demographic, clinical and imaging factors between patients with or without acute and remote seizures. Of the 94 patients, 32 (34%) experienced at least one seizure after CVST development. Bivariate analysis showed a significant association of remote seizure with loss of consciousness at presentation (P=0.05, OR: 5.11, 95%CI: 1.07-24.30), supratentorial lesions (P=0.02, OR: 9.04, 95%CI: 1.04-78.55), lesions in the occipital lobe (P=0.00, OR: 12.75, 95%CI: 2.28-71.16), lesions in the temporal and parietal lobes, thrombophilia (P=0.03, OR: 5.87, 95%CI: 1.21-28.39), seizure in the acute phase (P=0.00, OR: 13.14, 95%CI: 2.54-201.2) and sigmoid sinus thrombosis (P=0.00, OR: 12.5, 95%CI: 2.23-69.79). Seizures in the acute phase were also more common in patients with paresis (P=0.00, OR: 4.88, 95%CI: 1.91-12.46), hemorrhagic lesions indicated by imaging (P=0.02, OR: 2.77, 95%CI: 1.08-7.10), supratentorial lesions, lesions in the frontal (P=0.01, OR: 3.81, 95%CI: 1.28-11.31) and parietal lobes (P=0.00, OR: 5.16, 95%CI: 2-13.29), thrombophilia and history of miscarriage (P=0.03, OR: 2.91, 95%CI: 1.07-7.91). No factor predicted acute or remote seizure in a multiple logistic regression analysis. Our results demonstrate that seizure development in the acute phase is the most significant factor for development of remote seizure. Parenchymal lesions in the supratentorial area were also found to be associated with both acute and remote seizures. However, no factor was predictive of acute or remote seizures in a multivariate analysis. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk factors and ankle brachial indexes in cerebral infarction combined with peripheral arterial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huihua Liu; Jun Wang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ankle brachial index(ABI)is widely involved in researches and clinical application of peripheral vascular injury of patients with diabetes (DM);however ,the application in cerebral infarction(CI)is rare.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible risk factor of cerebral infarction plus peripheral arterial disease(PAD),compare metabolic characteristics of patients who having CI plus PAD or only having CI,and understand the significance of ABI on screening and diagnosing CI plus PAD of lower limb.DESIGN: Contrast observation based on CI patients.SETTING: Deparment of Neurology,Nanxishan Hospital of Guangxi Zhang Autonomous Region.PARTICIPANTS:A total of 124 CI patients were selected from Department of Neurology.Nanxishan Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region from July 2005 to April 2006,including 72 males and 52 females aged from 45 to 88 years.All patients met the diagnostic criteria of cerebrovascular disease established by National Academic Conference of Cerebrovascular Diseases in 1995 and determined as cerebral infarction with MRI or CT examination.All patients provided informed consent.There were 46 cases(37.2%)with CI plus PAD and 78 cases(62.8%)only with CI.METHODS: Blood pressure of bilateral ankles and upper extremities was measured at plain clinostatism with DINAMAP blood pressure monitor(GE Company).The ratio between average systolic pressure of lateral ankle and average systolic pressure of both upper extremities was regarded as ABI.The normal ABI was equal to or more than 0.9.If ABI<0.9 occurred at one side,patients were diagnosed as PAD.On the second morning after hospitalization,blood was collected to measure fasting blood glucose(FBG),2-hour postprandial blood glucose(PBG2h),glycosylated hemoglobin(HbAlc),triglycerides(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C)and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C).Among them,blood glucose.lipid and other biochemical markers were measured with enzyme chemistry assay

  7. An exploratory study investigating the multidimensional factors impacting the health and well-being of young adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienko, Susan E

    2017-01-09

    For young adults with cerebral palsy, changes in psychological and social development, in conjunction with the progression of musculoskeletal deformities and the onset of secondary conditions, make the transition to adulthood a difficult developmental phase. Preliminary evidence shows that many of the physical impairments reported in adults with cerebral palsy begin during late adolescence; however, there is little information about prevalence of impairments and the combined role impairments, psychological and social factors have on the health and well-being of young adults with cerebral palsy. A cross-sectional, multidimensional survey approach was used to examine the ambulatory decline, pain, pain interference, depression, fatigue, locus of control, emotional support, overall health status and satisfaction with life of young adults with cerebral palsy, age 18-30 years. Ninety-seven surveys (57 self-report and 40 proxy report) were completed across all gross motor function classification system levels. No significant differences were found amongst functional levels for pain, pain interference, fatigue or depression. Only pain interference significantly contributed to the variance in health status, while emotional support significantly contributed to the variance in satisfaction with life. The large percentage of young adults in this study reporting pain, fatigue and depression indicates that the onset of these impairments may begin at an earlier age. This study found that emotional support from family facilitates improved health status and enhanced satisfaction with life in young adults with cerebral palsy. Similar to physical impairments, social and psychological factors also contribute to the health and well-being of young adults with cerebral palsy, a holistic approach to care that includes preventative strategies to address both mental and physical health outcomes should begin well in advance to their transition into young adulthood in order to mitigate the

  8. Gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor gene improves learning and memory in the chronic stage of cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Munehisa; Sato, Naoyuki; Waguri, Satoshi; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Hayashi, Takuya; Iida, Hidehiro; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Ogihara, Toshio; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2006-04-01

    There is no specific treatment to improve the functional recovery in the chronic stage of ischemic stroke. To provide the new therapeutic options, we examined the effect of overexpression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the chronic stage of cerebral infarction by transferring the HGF gene into the brain using hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope vector. Sixty rats were exposed to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (day 1). Based on the sensorimotor deficits at day 7, the rats were divided equally into control vector or HGF-treated rats. At day 56, rats transfected with the HGF gene showed a significant recovery of learning and memory in Morris water maze tests (control vector 50+/-4 s; HGF 33+/-5 s; P<0.05) and passive avoidance task (control vector 132.4+/-37.5 s; HGF 214.8+/-26.5 s; P<0.05). Although the total volume of cerebral infarction was not related to the outcome, immunohistochemical analysis for Cdc42 and synaptophysin in the peri-infarct region revealed that HGF enhanced the neurite extension and increased synapses. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibriary acidic protein revealed that the formation of glial scar was also prevented by HGF gene treatment. Additionally, the number of the arteries was increased in the HGF group at day 56. These data demonstrated that HGF has a pivotal role for the functional recovery after cerebral infarction through neuritogenesis, improved microcirculation, and the prevention of gliosis. Our results also provide evidence for the feasibility of gene therapy in the chronic stage of cerebral infarction.

  9. Serum calcium level is related to both intima-media thickness and carotid atherosclerosis: a neglect risk factor in obese/overweight subjects

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    Montalcini Tiziana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies suggested that high serum calcium may be important in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Since calcium seems to affect specifically the cerebrovascular district, aim of this study was to determine the relation between serum calcium levels, within normal range, and subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, in a population of obese/overweight subjects. Methods In our retrospective study we included 472 subjects (59% female with body mass index equal to or more than 25 kg/m2. They underwent a physical examination, a biochemical assessment (including calcium evaluation and a B-mode ultrasonography of the extracranial carotid arteries to detect carotid atherosclerosis presence and to measure intima-media thickness. Results Mean age of the population was 50 ±12 years. Prevalence of the Carotid atherosclerosis was 40%. Mean carotid intima-media thickness was 0,66 ± 0,18 mm. The univariate and multivariate analysis showed an association between calcium and carotid intima-media thickness (p = 0,035. We divided the population in serum calcium tertiles. We found an higher carotid atherosclerosis prevalence in the III tertile in comparison to that of the I tertile (p = 0,039. Conclusions In this study we found a positive relation between serum calcium levels, within normal range, and subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, in a population of obese/overweight subjects. It is important to consider the impact of the serum calcium levels in the overall risk assessment of patients, at least in obese subjects.

  10. [Prevalence and risk factor structure of cerebral stroke in people of the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, I A

    2011-01-01

    Based on the data of cerebral stroke register carried out in the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug in 2004-2007, the information on the prevalence of main risk factors has been obtained. Arterial hypertension is the most significant risk factor for all forms of acute cerebral blood flow disturbance. Comparison of prevalence of main risk factors of stroke in residents of this region and people of other regions of the Russian Federation has revealed significant differences for all factors, with the exception of alcohol abuse. The structure of risk factor prevalence in the autonomous okrug differs from that in Russia. The statistically significant differences in the prevalence of all factors for ischemic stroke and non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhages studied were found in men and women living in the okrug as well as in the settled population and in watchmen. Highly significant direct correlations (p<0.0005) between the number of risk factors and the level of early 28 day mortality were revealed.

  11. Correlating plasma endothelin-1 and beta-endorphin levels to nine risk factors of acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daoyou Zhou; Jun Liu; Yingrong Lao; Yigang Xing; Yan Huang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Several studies have confirmed that endothelin and endorphin are involved in the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm. However, the correlation of these factors to acute cerebral infarction-related risk factors needs to be confirmed.OBJECTIVE:To detect endothelin-1(ET-1)and beta-endorphin(β-EP)levels in plasma of patients with acute cerebral infarction,and to analyze the correlations of these factors to smoking,alcohol abuse, hypertension,diabetes mellitus,diseased region,diseased degree,gender,and other factors related to acute cerebral infarction. DESIGN:A case-control observation. SETTING:First Department of Neurology,Guangdong Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Department of Neurology,Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.PARTICIPANTS:Sixty-nine inpatients with acute cerebral infarction were admitted to the Department of Neurology,Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University(March 2003-January 2004)and First Department of Neurology,Guangdong Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine(March - July 2004)and recruited for this study.All 69 inpatients corresponded to the diagnosis criteria of acute cerebral infarction,formulated in the National Working Conference of Cerebrovascular Disease in 1998,and were confirmed as acute cerebral infarction by CT/MRI.The patient group consisted of 35 males [(64±12)years old] and 34 females[(67±13 )years old].Among them,9 patients were smokers,7 were alcohol users,48 had a history of hypertension,and 16 had a history of diabetes mellitus.CT/MRI examinations revealed that 35 patients presented with left focus sites,11 with right ones and 23 with bilateral ones.Following attack,24 patients had Barthel Index Scale grading<40 points,21 patients 40-60 points,and 24 patients>60 points.An additional 59 healthy individuals,who received health examinations simultaneously,were included as controls.Among the control subjects,there were 37 males [(62±10)years old] and 22 females [(65±11) years old

  12. The Influence of Neurodevelopmental Treatment on Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Levels and Neurological Remodeling in Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Weiyuan; Lu, Zuneng; Wen, Fang

    2016-11-01

    Neurodevelopmental treatment is an advanced therapeutic approach for the neural rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. Cerebral palsy represents a spectrum of neurological disorders primarily affecting gross motor function. The authors investigated the effects of neurodevelopmental treatment on serum levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a neuroprotective cytokine, and improvements to motor skills. Serum TGF-β1 levels and total score of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) were significantly higher in children with cerebral palsy who underwent neurodevelopmental treatment compared to untreated patients (P treatment were significantly higher in children under the age of 3 with cerebral palsy than in older patients (P treatment. Moreover, the findings provide further scientific support for the early intervention and neurological rehabilitation of young children with cerebral palsy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Nuclear Factor kB and Inhibitor of kB: Acupuncture Protection Against Acute Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Zhou, Zhongyu; Wan, Bijiang; Chen, Guang; Li, Jia

    2017-02-27

    Context • Acute, focal, cerebral ischemic stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Acupuncture is an emerging alternative therapy for treatment of acute brain ischemia. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture has not been elucidated. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cell inhibitor alpha (IκB-α) are involved in cerebral inflammation. However, the involvement of NF-κB and IκB-α in the protective effects of acupuncture on ischemic tolerance remains unknown. Objective • The study evaluated the hypothesis that acupuncture can exert a neuroprotective action in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Design • The rats were randomly divided into a normal group (N), a sham model group (SM), an MCAO model group (M), a sham acupuncture group (SA), and an acupuncture group (A). Setting • All of processes of this study were conducted at Hubei University of Chinese Medicine (Hubei Shang, China). Animals • The animals were 100 Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 3 mo. Intervention • Craniotomy and electrocoagulation of the middle cerebral artery were conducted to generate acute, focal, cerebral ischemic models in 3 groups, excluding the N and SM groups. The SM group received a surgical fenestration similar to the M group, but the procedure did not include the coagulation of the exposed artery. In the A group, acupuncture was administered at the acupoints Baihui (GV-20) and Renzhong (GV-26). In the SA group, sham acupuncture was performed at a depth of 5 mm at a position close to the left side of the GV-20 and GV-26 points. The N, M, and SM groups received neither the acupuncture nor the sham acupuncture treatment. Outcome Measures • The study (1) evaluated neurological function using the modified neurological severity score; (2) examined the ultrastructure; (3) assessed the infarct volume; (4) determined levels of serum

  14. Activated TLR signaling in atherosclerosis among women with lower Framingham risk score: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

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    Chiang-Ching Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Traditional risk factors can be used to identify individuals at high risk for developing CVD and are generally associated with the extent of atherosclerosis; however, substantial numbers of individuals at low or intermediate risk still develop atherosclerosis. RESULTS: A case-control study was performed using microarray gene expression profiling of peripheral blood from 119 healthy women in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort aged 50 or above. All participants had low (100 and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT >1.0 mm, whereas controls (N = 71 had CAC<10 and IMT <0.65 mm. We identified two major expression profiles significantly associated with significant atherosclerosis (odds ratio 4.85; P<0.001; among those with Framingham risk score <10%, the odds ratio was 5.30 (P<0.001. Ontology analysis of the gene signature reveals activation of a major innate immune pathway, toll-like receptors and IL-1R signaling, in individuals with significant atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: Gene expression profiles of peripheral blood may be a useful tool to identify individuals with significant burden of atherosclerosis, even among those with low predicted risk by clinical factors. Furthermore, our data suggest an intimate connection between atherosclerosis and the innate immune system and inflammation via TLR signaling in lower risk individuals.

  15. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

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    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  16. Nanomedicine for the prevention, treatment and imaging of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarros, Costas; Lee, Regent; Margaritis, Marios; Antoniades, Charalambos

    2012-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, with an increasing prevalence due to an aging population. The pathology underpinning CVD is atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory state involving the arterial wall. Accumulation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) laden macrophages in the arterial wall and their subsequent transformation into foam cells lead to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Progression of atherosclerotic lesions may gradually lead to plaque related complications and clinically manifest as acute vascular syndromes including acute myocardial or cerebral ischemia. Nanotechnology offers emerging therapeutic strategies, which may have advantage overclassical treatments for atherosclerosis. In this review, we present the potential applications of nanotechnology toward prevention, identification and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  17. Trombosis cerebral en presencia de un inhibidor especifico contra el factor xii de la coagulación

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Betancur, Octavio; López de Goenaga, Inés

    2011-01-01

    El presente informe determina la especificidad de un inhibidor de la coagulación dirigido contra el factor XII, activador intrínseco de la fibrinólisis plasmática, en un paciente con un evento oclusivo vascular cerebral agudo de tipo trombótico, sobre un transfondo de múltiples infartos cerebrales antiguos. Se excluyó la presencia de anticoagulante lúpico mediante la prueba de neutralización de plaquetas. Como resultado de la inhibición del factor XII, se demostró la ausencia de actividad fib...

  18. Parental Stress and Related Factors in Parents of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yi Wang

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Children with cerebral palsy display prominent motor dysfunction associated with other developmental disorders. Parenting a child with cerebral palsy presents a number of challenges and stresses. The first purpose of this study was to compare parental stress in parents of children with cerebral palsy to that in parents of children with typical development. The second purpose was to analyze the correlations between parental stress and parents' characteristics, the child's characteristics, the child's earliest age when rehabilitation was first commenced, and weekly frequency of rehabilitation for the child. A convenience sample of 63 parents of children with cerebral palsy (mean age of children, 4.3 ± 1.8 years was recruited. Forty parents of children with typical development were recruited as a comparison group. All parents filled out the Chinese version of the Parenting Stress Index (PSI, which consists of child domain and parent domain scales. The scores reported by parents of children with cerebral palsy in the child domain, parent domain, and PSI total scale were significantly higher than those for parents in the comparison group. The child domain score was significantly correlated to the child's age and severity of motor disability. A significant correlation was also found between the parent domain score and the child's earliest age of commencing rehabilitation. The PSI total scale score was significantly associated with both the child's severity of motor disability and age of commencing rehabilitation. Clinical professionals should be concerned about parental stress in parents of children with cerebral palsy and provide resources to support such parents. We suggest some strategies to reduce parental stress by strengthening parents' child-care skills.

  19. An investigation of the factors affecting handwriting skill in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumin, Gonca; Kavak, Sermin Tukel

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of sensory-perceptual-motor and cognitive functions on handwriting skill in primary-school children with left-hemiplegic cerebral palsy, compared with that of their healthy peers. The study included 26 children aged 8-12 years with left hemiplegic cerebral palsy and 32 typically developing children of similar age with dominant right hand. The Minnesota Handwriting Assessment was used to evaluate handwriting skill. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency was used to assess motor performance. Cognitive function was assessed by the Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment. The Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Tests were used to assess visual perception, kinaesthesia and graphesthesia. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in sensory-perceptual-motor and cognitive function and handwriting skill (p cerebral palsy (p cerebral palsy whose right sides were dominant were significantly less competent at handwriting than their right-dominant, healthy peers. It was found that the impairment in proprioception seen in the non-hemiplegic side in children with cerebral palsy, and also the impairment in bilateral coordination, speed and dexterity of the upper extremities, visual and spatial perception, visual-motor organization, and tactile-sensory impairments negatively affected their handwriting skills. In the treatment approaches for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, comprehensive sensory-perceptual-motor assessments that involve both extremities must be performed in detail at the earliest possible stage, in order to minimize the existing problems with early-treatment policies. Developing the sensory-perceptual-motor and cognitive function of hemiplegic children would thus be possible, and they would be able to develop handwriting skill as a tool for their academic lives as healthy peers.

  20. Asphyxia-related risk factors and their timing in spastic cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene F.; Schendel, Diana; Grove, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of asphyxia-related conditions (reducing blood flow or blood oxygen levels in the fetus) with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) considering different gestational age groups and the timing of risk. Design Population-based case-control study. Setting Danish Cerebral...... Palsy Register in eastern Denmark and Danish Medical Birth Register. Population or Sample 271 singletons with spastic CP and 217 singleton controls, frequency matched by gestational age group, born 1982-1990 in eastern Denmark. Methods Data were abstracted from medical records, and a priori asphyxia...

  1. Transcription factor changes following long term cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo Zhang; Weijuan Gao; Tao Qian; Jinglong Tang; Jun Li

    2013-01-01

    The present study established a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury using four-vessel occlusion and found that hippocampal CA1 neuronal morphology was damaged, and that there were reductions in hippocampal neuron number and DNA-binding activity of cAMP response element binding protein and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, accompanied by decreased learning and memory ability. These findings indicate that decline of hippocampal cAMP response element binding protein and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein DNA-binding activities may contribute to neuronal injury and learning and memory ability reduction induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  2. 脑性瘫痪的危险因素研究进展(综述)%Risk factors of cerebral palsy research progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周陶成; 王训

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of cerebral palsy is currently on the rise. Etiology and pathology of cerebral palsy is quite complex.Time of brain injury, the risk factors often are divided into prenatal factors, intrapartum factors and postnatal factors . Previously widely believed, intrapartum and postnatal factors are the main reason for cerebral palsy, but in recent years the view that prenatal factors are the main causes of cerebral palsy. Intrapartum and postnatal risk factors are likely to be the result of prenatal quantitative factors, rather than direct cause of cerebral palsy.%脑性瘫痪目前发病率有上升趋势,病因相当复杂,其危险因素按脑损伤发生的时间常分为产前因素、产时因素和产后因素。以前普遍认为,产时和产后因素是脑瘫的主要原因,但近年来认为,产前因素是脑瘫的主要病因,产时和产后危险因素很可能是产前因素导致的结果变量,而不是脑瘫的直接病因。

  3. Accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Leeuw, K.; Kallenberg, Cees; Bijl, Marc; Shoenfeld, Y.; Gershwin, M.E.; Shoenfeld, Y; Gershwin, ME

    2005-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Wegener's granulomatosis are associated with a significantly increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Many risk factors are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis,

  4. Interactions between inflammation and lipid metabolism: Relevance for efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, J.A. van; Berbee, J.F.; Havekes, L.M.; Rensen, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Dyslipidemia and inflammation are well known causal risk factors the development of atherosclerosis. The interplay between lipid metabolism and inflammation at multiple levels in metabolic active tissues may exacerbate the development of atherosclerosis, and will be discussed in this review.

  5. Factores de riesgo aterosclerótico en el niño y adolescente obeso que pueden causar alteraciones del aprendizaje Atherosclerosis risk factors in the obese child and adolescent that may to cause learning disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regino Piñero Lamas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad es la forma más común de malnutrición y ha ido alcanzando proporciones epidémicas tanto en los países desarrollados como en los que se encuentran en vías de desarrollo. Existe en la actualidad una gran preocupación por las consecuencias de los factores de riesgo aterosclerótico desde edades tempranas de la vida, así como de las afectaciones psicosociales y cognitivas presentes en la obesidad. Se ofrece una revisión al respecto, partiendo de la consideración de que es importante que sean del conocimiento del personal responsable de la atención de estos niños y adolescentes.Obesity is the commonest way of malnutrition and has achieved epidemic levels in developed countries and also in those underdeveloped. At the present time there is a great concern by the consequences of atherosclerosis risk factors from early stages of life, as well as of the psychosocial and cognitive affectations present in obesity. In this respect a review is offered from the consideration that all this be of knowledge of staff responsible for the care of these children and adolescents.

  6. Risk factors of recurrent cerebral infarction%复发性脑梗死的危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福英; 孙培荣; 孙丰辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of recurrent cerebral infarction. Methods 50 patients with recurrent cerebral infarction were analyzed retrospectively and 51 patients with first cerebral infarction were enrolled as the control group. A total of 12 factors were analyzed with chisquare test or t test, and their af fected degree was determined with mutiple logistic regression analysis, and all risk factors were analyzed with multi-variable correlation analysis. Results The proportions of smoking history,diabetes history, hypertensive disease history, Hyperlipidemia history, TIA history, fibrillation atrial history and hyperhomocysteinemia on admission were all significantly higher in the recurrent group (P<0. 05). The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the important risk factors of early exacerbation of ischemic stroke were diabetes history (P= 0. 030) ,TIA history (P = 0. 043) ,fibrillation atrial history (P= 0. 016) and hyperhomocysteinemia (P = 0.042). multi variable correlation analysis showed that these 5 factors were not correlative between each other.Conclusions The independent risk factors of recurrent cerebral infarction are the diabetes history, TIA histo ry, fibrillation atrial history and hyperhomocysteinemia.%目的 探讨复发性脑梗死的危险因素.方法 对50例复发性脑梗死患者及51例初发性脑梗死患者的危险因素中12个因素进行对比分析,并用多元Logistic回归分析各因素与复发性脑梗死的关系,用多元相关分析各危险因素间的相关性.结果 复发性脑梗死组的吸烟史、糖尿病史、高血压病史、高脂血症史、TIA史、房颤史、Hhcy的比例明显高于初发性脑梗死组(P均<0.05).多元Logistic回归分析显示,糖尿病史(P=0.030)、TIA史(P=0.043)、房颤病史(P=0.016) 和Hhcy(P=0.042)是复发性脑梗死的主要危险因素.多元相关分析显示该5项因素间没有相关性.结论 糖尿病史、TIA史、房颤病史和Hhcy是

  7. Through the looking glass: Risk factors, radiological hallmarks and cognitive function in cerebral small vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenborg, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease’ (CSVD) is een ziekte van de kleine bloedvaatjes in de hersenen. In onderzoek wordt vaak gebruik gemaakt van MRI markers: witte stofafwijkingen en lacunaire infarcten. Beide markers komen vaak voor in de normale bevolking. Dit proefschrift onderzoekt 1) mogelijk andere

  8. Contribution of multiple thrombophilic and transient risk factors in the development of cerebral venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Libourel, Eduard J.; ten Kate, Min Ki; Brouwer, Jan-Leendert P.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; van der Meer, Jan

    2007-01-01

    introduction: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism (PE) have been associated with thrombophilic defects. However, in contrast to DVT or PE, CVT is a rare disease. We performed a study to identify differences in thrombotic risk profile, predisposing t

  9. Multiple factors contribute to the peripheral induction of cerebral beta-amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisele, Y.S.; Fritschi, S.K.; Hamaguchi, T.; Obermüller, U.; Füger, P.; Skodras, A.; Schäfer, C.; Odenthal, J.; Heikenwalder, M.; Staufenbiel, M.; Jucker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Deposition of aggregated amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide in brain is an early event and hallmark pathology of Alzheimer's disease and cerebral Abeta angiopathy. Experimental evidence supports the concept that Abeta multimers can act as seeds and structurally corrupt other Abeta peptides by a

  10. A Protocol for Diagnosis and Management of Aortic Atherosclerosis in Cardiac Surgery Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter W. Jansen Klomp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients undergoing cardiac surgery, use of perioperative screening for aortic atherosclerosis with modified TEE (A-View method was associated with lower postoperative mortality, but not stroke, as compared to patients operated on without such screening. At the time of clinical implementation and validation, we did not yet standardize the indications for modified TEE and the changes in patient management in the presence of aortic atherosclerosis. Therefore, we designed a protocol, which combined the diagnosis of atherosclerosis of thoracic aorta and the subsequent considerations with respect to the intraoperative management and provides a systematic approach to reduce the risk of cerebral complications.

  11. 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced neuroprotection following acute cerebral ischemia and reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yi; Haiou Zhang; Hao Lei; Li Wei

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has become generally accepted that measuring N-acetyI-L-aspartic acid through the use of 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) could be used to evaluate neuronal injury. OBJECTIVE: To study metabolic changes of N-acetyl-L-aspanic acid surrounding the acute cerebral ischcmia area following vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment using 1H-MRS imaging, and to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of VEGE.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomly controlled animal study, according to one-factor analysis of variance, was performed at the Shenzhen Hospital of Peking University and State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences from August 2003 to December 2005.MATERIALS: Twelve healthy, adult, Sprague Dawley rats were used to establish an ischemia/reperfusion model through the use of middle cerebral artery occlusion. The 4.7T superconducting nuclear magnetic resonance meter was provided by Brucker Company. VEGF164 was purchased from Shenzhen Jingmei Bioengineering Co., Ltd. Titus ancsthesia machine was purchased from Draeger Medical AG & Co. KG.METHODS: The rats were randomly divided into model control (n = 6) and VEGF-injected (n = 6) groups. All animals received 60-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion and 24-hour repcrfusion. Lateral cerebral ventricle injection was performed by stereotaxic technique at respective time points. The VEGF group received 0. 1 μ g/μ L VEGF (5 μL), and the model group received the same amount of normal saline, once daily for 3 days.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Metabolic changes of N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid and lactic acid following cerebral ischemia and reperfusion were detected using 1H-MRS, and the ischemic volume was measured.RESULTS: Twelve rats were included in the final analysis. =H-MRS results revealed that the ischemic volume increased in the control group compared with prior to injection (P < 0.01). In the

  12. Factor V Leiden, factor V Cambridge, factor II GA20210, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatnia, Mohammad; Salehi, Mansour; Movahedian, Ahmad; Shariat, Seyed Ziaeddin Samsam; Salari, Mehri; Tajmirriahi, Marzieh; Asadimobarakeh, Elham; Salehi, Rasoul; Amini, Gilda; Ebrahimi, Homa; Kheradmand, Ehsan

    2015-06-01

    Factor V G1691A (FV Leiden), FII GA20210, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutations are the most common genetic risk factors for thromboembolism in the Western countries. However, there is rare data in Iran about cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of common genetic thrombophilic factors in CVST patients. Forty consequently CVST patients from two University Hospital in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences aged more than 15 years from January 2009 to January 2011 were recruited. In parallel, 51 healthy subjects with the same age and race from similar population selected as controls. FV Leiden, FII GA20210, MTHFR C677T, and FV Cambridge gene mutations by polymerase chain reaction technique were evaluated in case and control groups. FV Leiden, FII GA20210, and FV Cambridge gene mutations had very low prevalence in both case (5%, 2%, 0%) and control (2.5%, 0%, 0%) and were not found any significant difference between groups. MTHFR C677T mutations was in 22 (55%) of patients in case group and 18 (35.5%) of control group (P = 0.09). This study showed that the prevalence of FV Leiden, FII GA20210, and FV Cambridge were low. Laboratory investigations of these mutations as a routine test for all patients with CVST may not be cost benefit.

  13. Connecting the Lines between Hypogonadism and Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akl C. Fahed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies show that atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and point to gender differences with ageing males being at highest risk. Atherosclerosis is a complex process that has several risk factors and mediators. Hypogonadism is a commonly undiagnosed disease that has been associated with many of the events, and risk factors leading to atherosclerosis. The mechanistic relations between testosterone levels, atherosclerotic events, and risk factors are poorly understood in many instances, but the links are clear. In this paper, we summarize the research journey that explains the link between hypogonadism, each of the atherosclerotic events, and risk factors. We look into the different areas from which lessons could be learned, including epidemiological studies, animal and laboratory experiments, studies on androgen deprivation therapy patients, and studies on testosterone-treated patients. We finish by providing recommendations for the clinician and needs for future research.

  14. Factores de riesgo cardiovascular y aterosclerosis carotídea detectada por ultrasonografía Cardiovascular risk factors and carotid atherosclerosis detected by ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Cantú-Brito; Joel Rodríguez-Saldaña; Marco Tulio Reynoso-Marenco; Roberto Marmolejo-Henderson; Fernando Barinagarrementeria-Aldatz

    1999-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Evaluar la frecuencia y los factores determinantes de aterosclerosis carotídea en una comunidad de la ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó, de julio de 1993 a enero de 1996, una ultrasonografía carotídea en 145 participantes del proyecto CUPA, que consiste en un estudio de vigilancia epidemiológica. Se investigó la presencia de aterosclerosis carotídea y su relación con factores de riesgo cardiovascular. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de aterosclerosis carotídea detectada po...

  15. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008412 Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with coronary artery disease. WU Naqiong(吴娜琼),et al. Cardiovasc Instit, Fuwai Hosp, Beijing 100037. Chin J Cardiol 2008;36(6):501-505. Objective To investigate the association between the severity of coronary arteries in patients with coronary artery disease and the single nucleotide polymorphisms of MMP-3 gene.

  16. Alcohol and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinglan; Song Jingyu; Jin Junshuo; Zhong Xiuhong; Ren Xiangshan; Liu Shuangping

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To study the relationship between alcohol and atherosclerosis (AS).Methods The paper reviewed the mechanism of the alcohol leading to AS from four aspects such as the introduction of alcohol and AS, imbalance of oxidationantioxidation system, oxygen free radical (OFR) and endothelium cell (EC) apoptosis, apoptosis and AS.Results Excessive alcohol could lead to imbalance of oxidation-antioxidation system, and increase OFR, in the meanwhile, OFR could lead to EC apoptosis,which could lead to AS.

  17. Association of plasma lipid levels with atherosclerosis prevalence in psittaciformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Vet, Dr Med; Cray, Carolyn; Ammersbach, Mélanie; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of atherosclerosis is high in the captive psittacine population and increases with age and female sex. The genera Psittacus, Amazona, and Nymphicus are predisposed to atherosclerosis, whereas the genera Cacatua and Ara are less susceptible. Plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein abnormalities have been suggested as risk factors in the development of atherosclerosis as observed in mammals. To investigate whether the psittacine genera susceptibility to atherosclerosis and the known risk factors of age and sex could be associated with differences in the lipid profile, a retrospective analysis was conducted on blood lipid values from 5625 birds. Prevalence values were obtained from a previously published, large, case-control study and were compared with identified trends in plasma lipid profiles. Genus-specific differences were identified in plasma total cholesterol values that corresponded to observed trends in the prevalence of clinically important atherosclerotic lesions, which were also highly correlated. The effect of age was significant but was mild and may not account for the dramatic increase in atherosclerosis prevalence observed with age. In addition, Quaker parrots ( Myiopsitta monachus ), which were used as experimental models for psittacine atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia, were found to have the highest values in all lipid profile parameters. The results of this study suggest that the differences observed in prevalence among species of the psittacine genera may partly be explained by differences in plasma total cholesterol levels. Results also support the use of Quaker parrots as models for studying atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia.

  18. Increased Number and Distribution of Cerebral Microbleeds Is a Risk Factor for Cognitive Dysfunction in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Chao; Wang, Zhiye; Fan, Linlin; Zhang, Mengjie; Chu, Zhiqiang; Zuo, Chao; Liu, Lei; E. Mark Haacke; Guo, Wenmei; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the risk factors associated with longitudinal changes in hemodialysis patients including the correlation between number and distribution of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). Sixty-one hemodialysis patients were enrolled in this prospective study. Twenty-eight patients had follow-up examinations with a mean interval of 24.79 ± 5.17 months. The number of CMBs was manually counted on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Subjects were divided into 2 groups wit...

  19. Hemiparetic cerebral palsy: etiological risk factors and neuroimaging Paralisia cerebral hemiparética: fatores de risco etiológico e neuroimagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Sedrez Gonzaga Piovesana

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper, which was conducted on 175 children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (H-CP, was to verify the etiological risk period for this disease. Etiological risk factors (ERF were detected through anamnesis: 23% in the prenatal period, 18% in the perinatal period and 59% of the patients the period was undefined (ERF in the prenatal and perinatal period was 41% and no ERF was 18% of the cases. The computerized tomographic scan (CT and MRI were performed on all the patients, who were then classified according to their etiopathogenic data: CT1= normal (18%; CT 2= unilateral ventricular enlargement (25%; CT 3= cortical/ subcortical cavities (28%; CT4= hemispheric atrophy and other findings (14%; CT 5= malformations (15%. CT 5 was associated with physical malformations beyond the central nervous system and with prenatal ERF's , while CT 2 was associated with the perinatal ERF's, mainly in premature births. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 57 patients and demonstrated a good degree of concordance with the CT. Etiology remained undefined in only 37% of the cases after neuroimaging was related to ERF. A high perinatal RF frequency (59% was observed and emphasized the need for special care during this period.Foram estudadas 175 crianças com paralisia cerebral hemiparética (PC-H para elucidar o período de risco etiológico. Através da anamnese constataram-se fatores de risco para etiologia (FRE pré-natal em 23%, perinatal em18% e período indefinido em 59% dos pacientes (com FRE pré e perinatal 41% e sem FRE 18%. A tomografia computadorizada (TC foi realizada em todos os sujeitos e classificada de acordo com dados etiopatogênicos em: TC1= normal (18%; TC2= alargamento ventricular unilateral (25%; TC3= cavidades córtico-subcorticais (28%; TC4= atrofia hemisférica e outros achados (14%; TC5= malformações (15%. A TC5 se associada a malformações físicas fora do sistema nervoso central e aos FRE pré-natais e a TC2 aos

  20. Factors contributing to the risk of cardiovascular disease reflected by plasma adiponectin: data from the coronary risk factors for atherosclerosis in women (CORA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyriax, Birgit-Christiane; Algenstaedt, Petra; Hess, Utz Florian; Schöffauer, Mark; Bamberger, Christoph; Boeing, Heiner; Windler, Eberhard

    2008-10-01

    An inverse association of adiponectin with coronary heart disease (CHD) has been reported, but the results are inconsistent. We used data from the CORA study to investigate into plasma concentrations of adiponectin and factors that may mediate the link to incident CHD. The CORA study is a population-based case-control study on 200 women with incident CHD and 255 age-matched controls. Plasma concentrations of adiponectin were significantly lower in women with CHD (por=25 kg/m(2) (por=0.85), prevalent diabetes or insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >or=3.8), or low HDL-cholesterol (<50mg/dl), and in smokers (each p<0.0001). Adiponectin also correlated with intake of fruit and vegetables, meat and sausage and alcohol as dietary markers of cardiovascular risk. Strikingly, the trend towards lower adiponectin concentrations with increasing BMI or waist circumference was less marked than the difference of adiponectin between CHD cases and controls. In a logistic regression model the odds ratio of adiponectin of 0.943 per 1 microg/ml (CI 0.919-0.968, p<0.0001) for risk of CHD was progressively reduced by elevated WHR, obesity-related risk factors, smoking, and dietary parameters. Plasma adiponectin indicates protection from CHD in women that is attenuated by combined effects of central obesity and dependent risk factors, parameters of nutrition and smoking. Thus, the impact of adiponectin goes beyond its relation to central adiposity, but may also reflect independent effects of lifestyle.

  1. Changes in neuronal apoptosis and apoptosis modulatory factors in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liying Qiu; Ying Li; Hongbin Fan; Bin Du; Zhiyong Yang; Jianqing Cheng

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The high concentration of glutamate release is the main cause for neuronal cell death. The relationship between glutamate level and apoptosis during ischemia/reperfusion injury is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To observe the neuronal apoptosis at 24 and 72 hours following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats, and analyze the possible influencing factors. DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment. SETTING: School of Medicine, Southern Yangtze University.MATERIALS: Totally 30 male adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats of clean grade, weighing 240 - 290 g, were obtained from Shanghai Experimental Animal Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group (n=10) and model group (n=20). Each group was observed at 24 and 72 hours after ischemia/reperfusion, 5 rats at each time point in the sham-operated group, whereas 12 at 24 hours and 8 at 72 hours in the model group. Kits for determining apoptosis and Bcl-2 were bought from Wuhan Boster Biological Technology, Co., Ltd.; Kit for calcineurin from Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Functional Scientific Research Room of Southern Yangtze University from June to October in 2006.①Right middle cerebral artery was occluded by inserting a thread through internal carotid artery (ICA). The surgical process for the sham-operated rats was the same as that in the model group except a nylon suture inserted the ICA. According to Longa five-degree standard, the neurological deficit evaluation of rats was evaluated after surgery, and grades 1-3 were taken as successful model establishment. The blood was recirculated by withdrawing the nylon filament under anesthesia at 2 hours after ischemia in successful rat models.②After reperfusion, the brain tissue was quickly removed at 24 or 72 hours and the slices were obtained from optic chiasma to funnel manubrium. The changes of the number of apoptotic cells were observed using the

  2. Difference in the Location and Risk Factors of Cerebral Microbleeds According to Ischemic Stroke Subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bum Joon; Yoon, Youngshin; Sohn, Hoyon; Kang, Dong-Wha; Kim, Jong S.; Kwon, Sun U.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The location of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) may differ according to ischemic stroke subtype, and the underlying pathomechanism may differ by their location. Here, we investigated the characteristics of CMBs according to various ischemic stroke subtypes to verify this issue. Methods Patients with acute ischemic stroke were consecutively included. The presence of CMBs was determined by gradient echo image sequence. The distribution of CMBs was classified as deep, lobar, o...

  3. Endothelial progenitor cells (CD34+KDR+) and monocytes may provide the development of good coronary collaterals despite the vascular risk factors and extensive atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Yalçın, Mehmet Rıdvan; Yağcı, Münci; Sahinarslan, Asife; Türkoğlu, Sedat; Arslan, Uğur; Kurşunluoğlu, Nevruz; Ozdemir, Murat; Timurkaynak, Timur; Cemri, Mustafa; Abacı, Adnan; Boyacı, Bülent; Cengel, Atiye

    2011-06-01

    CD34-KDR- cell subpopulation within monocyte gate (514±173 mm(-3)) reached to highest counts in good collateral group among all study population. Endothelial progenitor cells can be mobilized from bone marrow to induce the coronary collateral growth in case of myocardial ischemia even in presence of the vascular risk factors and extensive atherosclerosis. This finding may be supportive to investigate the molecules, which can specifically mobilize EPC without inflammatory cells.

  4. Combined heterozygosity of factor V leiden and the G20210A prothrombin gene mutation in a patient with cerebral cortical vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X Y; Gabig, T G; Bang, N U

    2000-07-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare type of stroke with a variety of causes. Several reports have suggested that either factor V Leiden or G20210A prothrombin gene mutation is associated with an increased risk of CVT. The genetic thrombophilias are typically associated with other predisposing factors. We report a unique case of CVT in a patient with both the factor V Leiden and the G20210A prothrombin gene mutations without other identifiable precipitating factors in a 28-year-old white male in good health. MRI and cerebral arterial angiography showed cerebral cortical venous thrombosis. This case suggests that combined heterozygous individuals may be particularly prone to spontaneous thrombosis, like CVT.

  5. Delayed treatment with intravenous basic fibroblast growth factor reduces infarct size following permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M; Meadows, M E; Do, T; Weise, J; Trubetskoy, V; Charette, M; Finklestein, S P

    1995-11-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a polypeptide that supports the survival of brain cells (including neurons, glia, and endothelia) and protects neurons against a number of toxins and insults in vitro. This factor is also a potent dilator of cerebral pial arterioles in vivo. In previous studies, we found that intraventricularly administered bFGF reduced infarct volume in a model of focal cerebral ischemia in rats. In the current study, bFGF (45 micrograms/kg/h) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was infused intravenously for 3 h, beginning at 30 min after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion by intraluminal suture in mature Sprague-Dawley rats. After 24 h, neurological deficit (as assessed by a 0- to 5-point scale, with 5 = most severe) was 2.6 +/- 1.0 in vehicle-treated and 1.5 +/- 1.3 in bFGF-treated rats (mean +/- SD; N = 12 vs. 11; p = 0.009). Infarct volume was 297 +/- 65 mm3 in vehicle- and 143 +/- 135 mm3 in bFGF-treated animals (p = 0.002). During infusion, there was a modest decrease in mean arterial blood pressure but no changes in arterial blood gases or core or brain temperature in bFGF-treated rats. Autoradiography following intravenous administration of 111In-labeled bFGF showed that labeled bFGF crossed the damaged blood-brain barrier to enter the ischemic (but not the nonischemic) hemisphere. Whether the infarct-reducing effects of bFGF depend on intraparenchymal or intravascular mechanisms requires further study.

  6. Response of the sensorimotor cortex of cerebral palsy rats receiving transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor 165-transfected neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jielu Tan; Xiangrong Zheng; Shanshan Zhang; Yujia Yang; Xia Wang; Xiaohe Yu; Le Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells are characterized by the ability to differentiate and stably express exogenous ge-nes. Vascular endothelial growth factor plays a role in protecting local blood vessels and neurons of newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells may be neuroprotective in rats with cerebral palsy. In this study, 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into ifve groups: (1) sham operation (control), (2) cerebral palsy model alone or with (3) phosphate-buffered saline, (4) vascular en-dothelial growth factor 165 + neural stem cells, or (5) neural stem cells alone. hTe cerebral palsy model was established by ligating the letf common carotid artery followed by exposure to hypox-ia. Phosphate-buffered saline, vascular endothelial growth factor + neural stem cells, and neural stem cells alone were administered into the sensorimotor cortex using the stereotaxic instrument and microsyringe. Atfer transplantation, the radial-arm water maze test and holding test were performed. Immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor and histology using hematoxylin-eosin were performed on cerebral cortex. Results revealed that the number of vas-cular endothelial growth factor-positive cells in cerebral palsy rats transplanted with vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells was increased, the time for ifnding water and the ifnding repetitions were reduced, the holding time was prolonged, and the degree of cell degeneration or necrosis was reduced. hTese ifndings indicate that the transplantation of vascu-lar endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells alleviates brain damage and cognitive deifcits, and is neuroprotective in neonatal rats with hypoxia ischemic-mediated cerebral palsy.

  7. Response of the sensorimotor cortex of cerebral palsy rats receiving transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor 165-transfected neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jielu; Zheng, Xiangrong; Zhang, Shanshan; Yang, Yujia; Wang, Xia; Yu, Xiaohe; Zhong, Le

    2014-10-01

    Neural stem cells are characterized by the ability to differentiate and stably express exogenous ge-nes. Vascular endothelial growth factor plays a role in protecting local blood vessels and neurons of newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells may be neuroprotective in rats with cerebral palsy. In this study, 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: (1) sham operation (control), (2) cerebral palsy model alone or with (3) phosphate-buffered saline, (4) vascular endothelial growth factor 165 + neural stem cells, or (5) neural stem cells alone. The cerebral palsy model was established by ligating the left common carotid artery followed by exposure to hypoxia. Phosphate-buffered saline, vascular endothelial growth factor + neural stem cells, and neural stem cells alone were administered into the sensorimotor cortex using the stereotaxic instrument and microsyringe. After transplantation, the radial-arm water maze test and holding test were performed. Immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor and histology using hematoxylin-eosin were performed on cerebral cortex. Results revealed that the number of vascular endothelial growth factor-positive cells in cerebral palsy rats transplanted with vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells was increased, the time for finding water and the finding repetitions were reduced, the holding time was prolonged, and the degree of cell degeneration or necrosis was reduced. These findings indicate that the transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells alleviates brain damage and cognitive deficits, and is neuroprotective in neonatal rats with hypoxia ischemic-mediated cerebral palsy.

  8. Risk Analysis on Uric Acid Resulting in Carotid Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖敏; 李河; 郭兰; 石美铃; 麦劲壮

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To explore the risk of uric acid (UA) resulting in carotid atherosclerosis. Methods With a cross sectional study, 643 subjects (aged 41-83 yrs, male 552 and female 91)were surveyed in 1999 in Guangdong Province, China.The main research variables were uric acid (UA), occurrence and the size of carotid artery plaque. Results There was no statistical significance between the UA means of plaque occurrence and no-occurrence groups (t=0.60, df=242, P=0.5495). It seemed UA was not a possible risk factor of carotid atherosclerosis (OR=1.060, P=-0.8448>0.05, n=244) based on the logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Our results are not consistent with serum UA being an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). It is necessary to do more research to learn the risk degree of UA during the progress of atherosclerosis/CHD.

  9. p.Q192R SNP of PON1 seems not to be Associated with Carotid Atherosclerosis Risk Factors in an Asymptomatic and Normolipidemic Brazilian Population Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zanetti Scherrer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Evidences suggest that paraoxonase 1 (PON1 confers important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties when associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL.Objective:To investigate the relationships between p.Q192R SNP of PON1, biochemical parameters and carotid atherosclerosis in an asymptomatic, normolipidemic Brazilian population sample.Methods:We studied 584 volunteers (females n = 326, males n = 258; 19-75 years of age. Total genomic DNA was extracted and SNP was detected in the TaqMan® SNP OpenArray® genotyping platform (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA. Plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins were determined and PON1 activity was measured using paraoxon as a substrate. High-resolution β-mode ultrasonography was used to measure cIMT and the presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques in a subgroup of individuals (n = 317.Results:The presence of p.192Q was associated with a significant increase in PON1 activity (RR = 12.30 (11.38; RQ = 46.96 (22.35; QQ = 85.35 (24.83 μmol/min; p Conclusion:In low-risk individuals, the presence of the p.192Q variant of PON1 is associated with a beneficial plasma lipid profile but not with carotid atherosclerosis.

  10. The Effects of Taekwondo Training on Peripheral Neuroplasticity-Related Growth Factors, Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity, and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Youn Cho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although regular Taekwondo (TKD training has been reported to be effective for improving cognitive function in children, the mechanism underlying this improvement remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to observe changes in neuroplasticity-related growth factors in the blood, assess cerebral blood flow velocity, and verify the resulting changes in children’s cognitive function after TKD training. Thirty healthy elementary school students were randomly assigned to control (n = 15 and TKD (n = 15 groups. The TKD training was conducted for 60 min at a rating of perceived exertion (RPE of 11–15, 5 times per week, for 16 weeks. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 levels were measured by blood sampling before and after the training, and the cerebral blood flow velocities (peak systolic [MCAs], end diastolic [MCAd], mean cerebral blood flow velocities [MCAm], and pulsatility index [PI] of the middle cerebral artery (MCA were measured using Doppler ultrasonography. For cognitive function assessment, Stroop Color and Word Tests (Word, Color, and Color-Word were administered along with other measurements. The serum BDNF, VEGF, and IGF-1 levels and the Color-Word test scores among the sub-factors of the Stroop Color and Word Test scores were significantly higher in the TKD group after the intervention (p < 0.05. On the other hand, no statistically significant differences were found in any factors related to cerebral blood flow velocities, or in the Word test and Color test scores (p > 0.05. Thus, 16-week TKD training did not significantly affect cerebral blood flow velocities, but the training may have been effective in increasing children’s cognitive function by inducing an increase in the levels of neuroplasticity-related growth factors.

  11. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Polymorphism (rs2010963 and Its Receptor, Kinase Insert Domain-Containing Receptor Gene Polymorphism (rs2071559, and Markers of Carotid Atherosclerosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastjan Merlo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The current study was designed to reveal possible associations between the polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF gene (rs2010963 and its receptor, kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR gene polymorphism (rs2071559, and markers of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Patients and Methods. 595 T2DM subjects and 200 control subjects were enrolled. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and plaque characteristics (presence and structure were assessed ultrasonographically. Biochemical analyses were performed using standard biochemical methods. Genotyping of VEGF/KDR polymorphisms (rs2010963, rs2071559 was performed using KASPar assays. Results. Genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the VEGF/KDR polymorphisms (rs2010963, rs2071559 were not statistically significantly different between diabetic patients and controls. In our study, we demonstrated an association between the rs2071559 of KDR and either CIMT or the sum of plaque thickness in subjects with T2DM. We did not, however, demonstrate any association between the tested polymorphism of VEGF (rs2010963 and either CIMT, the sum of plaque thickness, the number of involved segments, hsCRP, the presence of carotid plaques, or the presence of unstable carotid plaques. Conclusions. In the present study, we demonstrated minor effect of the rs2071559 of KDR on markers of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with T2DM.

  12. Reduction of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits and decrease of expressions of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in foam cells by a water-soluble fraction of Polygonum multiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng-Yuan; Almofti, Mohamad Radwan; Lu, Ling; Kang, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Li, Tie-Jun; Rui, Yao-Cheng; Sun, Lian-Na; Chen, Wan-Sheng

    2005-11-01

    Polygonum multiflorum stilbeneglycoside (PMS) is a water-soluble fraction of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., one of the most famous tonic traditional Chinese medicines, that has protective effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the effects of PMS on macrophage-derived foam cell functions and the reduction of severity of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. NZW rabbits were fed for 12 weeks with a normal diet, a high cholesterol diet, or a high cholesterol diet associated with irrigation with different doses of PMS (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg). Treatment of NZW rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet with 100 mg/kg PMS attenuated the increase in plasma cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and plasma triglyceride. Treatment with 50 and 100 mg/kg PMS caused 43% and 60% decrease in atherosclerotic lesioned area ratio to total surface area, respectively. In U937 foam cells, PMS could decrease the high expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 protein and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels in the medium induced by oxidized lipoprotein when analyzed by flow cytometry. The results proved that PMS is a powerful agent against atherosclerosis and that PMS action could possibly be through the inhibition of the expression of ICAM-1 and VEGF in foam cells.

  13. Effect of propofol on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase receptor B in the hippocampus of aged rats with chronic cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Chen; Qiang Fu; Jiangbei Cao; Weidong Mi

    2012-01-01

    We intraperitoneally injected 10 and 50 mg/kg of propofol for 7 consecutive days to treat a rat model of chronic cerebral ischemia. A low-dose of propofol promoted the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tyrosine kinase receptor B, phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein, and cAMP in the hippocampus of aged rats with chronic cerebral ischemia, but a high-dose of propofol inhibited their expression. Results indicated that the protective effect of propofol against cerebral ischemia in aged rats is related to changes in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase receptor B in the hippocampus, and that the cAMP-cAMP responsive element binding protein pathway is involved in the regulatory effect of propofol on brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression.

  14. Atherosclerosis in elderly patients with renal insufficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandeep S. Soman

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction As people age,cardiovascular structure and function change and this is superimposed on by specific pathophysiologic disease mechanism.In addition to lipid levels,diabetes,sedentary lifestyle,and genetic factors that are known risks for coronary disease,hypertension,and stroke - the quintessential cardiovascular (CV) diseases related to atherosclerosis within our society - advancing age unequivocally confers the major risk.(Fig.1) Mortality due to cardiovascular disease is more than any other disease and creates enormous costs for the health care system.The main underlying problem in cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis,a process that obstructs major arteries with lipid deposits and cell accumulation.1 Decreased kidney function (estimated GFR<70 mL/min/1.73 m2) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in the general population.2

  15. Coronary, Carotid, and Lower-extremity Atherosclerosis and Their Interrelationship in Danish Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kay, Susan Due; Poulsen, Mikael Kjaer; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is highly prevalent among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but has been demonstrated predominantly in non-European SLE cohorts and few investigations have included more than 1 imaging modality. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of atherosclerosis...... regression model, age (p Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC; p = 0.008) were significant independent risk factors for atherosclerosis at any vascular territory. CONCLUSION: Atherosclerosis is highly prevalent among Danish patients with SLE...

  16. Factores asociados a crisis epilépticas en pacientes con enfermedad vascular cerebral aguda.

    OpenAIRE

    Salirrosas-Alegría, Cristopher; Médico residente de Psiquiatría, Instituto Nacional de Salud Mental Honorio Delgado - Hideyo Noguchi. Facultad de Medicina Alberto Hurtado, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima.; Pereda-Vásquez, Firdusi; Profesor Principal de Neurología Clínica y de Semiología Neurológica. Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Coordinador Académico del Residentado de Neurología de la Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar la asociación entre el tipo de enfermedad vascular cerebral (EVC), la extensión de la lesióncerebral, la presencia de cardiopatía isquémica y/o fibrilación auricular; y las crisis epilépticas en pacientes con EVCaguda. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de tipo casos y controles. Se estudiaron a los pacientesque presentaron crisis epilépticas luego de la EVC. Las variables fueron: crisis epilépticas, tipo de EVC, cardiopatíaisquémica, fibrilación auri...

  17. Connective tissue diseases and noninvasive evaluation of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardita G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio Ardita, Giacomo Failla, Paolo Maria Finocchiaro, Francesco Mugno, Luigi Attanasio, Salvatore Timineri, Michelangelo Maria Di SalvoCardiovascular Department, Angiology Unit, Ferrarotto Hospital, Catania, ItalyAbstract: Connective tissue diseases (CTDs are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to accelerated atherosclerosis. In patients with autoimmune disorders, in addition to traditional risk factors, an immune-mediated inflammatory process of the vasculature seems to contribute to atherogenesis. Several pathogenetic mechanisms have been proposed, including chronic inflammation and immunologic abnormalities, both able to produce vascular damage. Macrovascular atherosclerosis can be noninvasively evaluated by ultrasound measurement of carotid or femoral plaque. Subclinical atherosclerosis can be evaluated by well-established noninvasive techniques which rely on ultrasound detection of carotid intima-media thickness. Flow-mediated vasodilatation and arterial stiffness are considered markers of endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerosis, respectively, and have been recently found to be impaired early in a wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases. Carotid intima-media thickness turns out to be a leading marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and many studies recognize its role as a predictor of future vascular events, both in non-CTD individuals and in CTD patients. In rheumatic diseases, flow-mediated dilatation and arterial stiffness prove to be strongly correlated with inflammation, disease damage index, and with subclinical atherosclerosis, although their prognostic role has not yet been conclusively shown. Systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and likely antiphospholipid syndrome are better associated with premature and accelerated atherosclerosis. Inconclusive results were reported in systemic sclerosis.Keywords: rheumatic disease, subclinical atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness

  18. B cell subsets in atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Perry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of heart attacks and strokes, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall. Immune cells, including lymphocytes modulate atherosclerotic lesion development through interconnected mechanisms. Elegant studies over the past decades have begun to unravel a role for B cells in atherosclerosis. Recent findings provide evidence that B cell effects on atherosclerosis may be subset-dependent. B-1a B cells have been reported to protect from atherosclerosis by secretion of natural IgM antibodies. Conventional B-2 B cells can promote atherosclerosis through less clearly defined mechanism that may involve CD4 T cells. Yet, there may be other populations of B cells within these subsets with different phenotypes altering their impact on atherosclerosis. Additionally, the role of B cell subsets in atherosclerosis may depend on their environmental niche and/or the stage of atherogenesis. This review will highlight key findings in the evolving field of B cells and atherosclerosis and touch on the potential and importance of translating these findings to human disease.

  19. Atherosclerosis in Ancient Egyptian Mummies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allam, Adel H; Thompson, Randall C; Wann, L. Samuel; Miyamoto, Michael I; Nur el-Din, Abd el-Halim; el-Maksoud, Gomaa Abd; Al-Tohamy Soliman, Muhammad; Badr, Ibrahem; el-Rahman Amer, Hany Abd; Sutherland, James D; Sutherland, M. Linda; Thomas, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    ... is exclusively a disease of modern society and did not affect our ancient ancestors. The findings of the present study provide evidence to the contrary. Atherosclerosis was first identified in ancient Egyptians when Johann Nepomuk Czermak found calcific aortic atherosclerosis during an autopsy of the mummy of an elderly Egyp...

  20. Pengaruh Interleukin-1β (IL-1β dan Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α terhadap Dopamin pada Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATIMIN HADIWIDJAJA

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The caused of disability on cerebral palsy is unknown, but the humancerebral hypoxic, which affected to the motor cortex and motor pathways in the brain is believed cause of it. The major clinical manifestations are abnormality of movements and posture patterns. The immunity against the cerebral palsy (CP is unknown, but interleukine-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α are expressed in cerebral damage including cerebral palsy. By biological effects of IL-1β and TNF-α, they affect to the neuron dopaminergic in the brain, so dopamine in the vesicle of this neuron delivered to the extracellular tissue and to the intravascular compartment. Expressed dopamine in the extracellular and intravascular compartment has effects on motor pathways. IL-1β, TNF-α and dopamine all together detectable in cerebrospinal fluid and in the blood. The aim of this study is to known the effects of IL-1β and TNF-α as collectively to the dopamine in cerebral palsy. Diagnosis of the cerebral palsy is based on clinical manifestation in childhood by the abnormality of movements and posture patterns without involve the alteration of IL-1β and TNF-α and dopamine in blood. This study is conducted by observational method as cross-sectional study. Material of this study is serum from the blood plasma, take by peripheral venous blood vessels; IL-1β and TNF-α are analysis by ELISA and dopamine is analyzed by RIA. The results of this study show, that IL-1β and TNF-α as collectively affect dopamine in cerebral palsy. The result of this study is very suggested in the cerebral palsy.

  1. Predictive factors for spasticity among ischemic stroke patients Fatores preditivos para espasticidade após acidente vascular cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia dos Reis Moura

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Spasticity is a determining for functional loss following ischemic stroke. OBJECTIVE: To detect possible predictive factors for its occurrence. METHOD: Demographic, clinical and tomographic data on 146 stroke patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Spasticity was noted more frequently among patients who underwent physiotherapy (pA espasticidade é fator determinante para perda funcional após o acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCI. OBJETIVO: Detectar possíveis fatores preditivos para a ocorrência da espasticidade. MÉTODO: Foram analisados dados demográficos, clínicos e tomográficos de 146 pacientes pós-AVCI. RESULTADOS: Na análise univariada a espasticidade foi notada com maior freqüência em pacientes que realizaram fisioterapia (p<0,0001; OR=19,4; 95% CI: 4,4-84,5, com maior tempo de duração desse tratamento (p=0,028; OR=4,80; 95% CI: 1,1-8,3 e que realizavam trabalho braçal (p=0,041; OR=2,2; 95% CI: 1,02-4,6, renda menor (p=0,038, referência de dor (p<0,0001; OR=107,0; 95% CI: 13,5-847,3 e seu aparecimento simultâneo à espasticidade (p<0,0001, acidente vascular cerebral (AVC pregresso (p=0,001; OR=4,2; 95% CI: 1,7-10,3, fraqueza muscular (p<0,0001; OR=91,9; 95% CI: 12,0-699,4, lesão tomográfica extensa (p=0,01 e lesão afetando mais de um lobo cerebral (p=0,018. Na análise de regressão multivariada a atividade braçal apresentou risco relativo de 2,9; acidente vascular cerebral prévio com risco relativo de 3,9 e lesão tomográfica extensa risco relativo de 3,6. CONCLUSÃO: A espasticidade afetou um quarto da população estudada e esteve associada ao trabalho braçal, AVC pregresso, lesões tomográficas extensas, diminuição da renda individual, realização de fisioterapia, realização de fisioterapia por um período maior, presença de dor, surgimento da dor simultânea à espasticidade e alteração da força.

  2. Brain edema and tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis in rats with cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renlan Zhou; Peng Xie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) participates in brain edema. However, it is unclear whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is associated with TWEAK during the process of brain edema OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of TWEAK on BBB permeability in brain edema.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An immunohistochemical observation, randomized, controlled animal experiment was pertbrmed at the Laboratory of Neurosurgical Anatomy, Xiangya Medical College, Central South University & Central Laboratory, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University between January 2006 and December 2007.MATERIALS: A total of 48 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (n =8), sham-operated (n = 8), and ischemia/reperfusion (n = 32). Rats from the ischemia/reperfusion group were randomly assigned to four subgroups according to different time points, i.e., 2 hours of ischemia followed by 6 hours (n = 8), 12 hours {n = 8), 1 day (n = 8), or 12 days (n = 8) of reperfusion.METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using the suture method in rats from the ischemia/reperfusion group. Thread was introduced at a depth of 17-19 mm. Rats in the sham-operated group were subjected to experimental procedures similar to the ischemia/reperfusion group; however, the introducing depth of thread was 10 mm. The normal control group was not given any intervention.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: TWEAK expression was examined by immunohistochemistry; brain water content on the ischemic side was calculated as the ratio of dry to wet tissue weight; BBB permeability was measured by Evans blue extravasation.RESULTS: A total of eight rats died prior to and after surgery and an additional eight rats were randomly entered into the study. Thus 48 rats were included in the final analysis. In the ischemia/reperfusion group,TWEAK-positive cells were

  3. Oxygen, a key factor regulating cell behaviour during neurogenesis and cerebral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan eZhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen is vital to maintain the normal functions of alomost all the organs, especially for brain which is one of the heaviest oxygen consumers in the body. The important roles of oxygen on the brain are not only reflected in the development, but also showed in the pathological processes of many cerebral diseases. In the current review, we summarized the oxygen levels in brain tissues tested by real-time measurements during the embryonic and adult neurogenesis, the cerebral diseases or in the hyperbaric/hypobaric oxygen environment. Oxygen concentration is low in fetal brain (0.01%- 1% and in adult brain (1.5%-7%, decreased during stroke, and increased in hyperbaric oxygen environment. In addition, we reviewed the effects of oxygen tensions on the behaviors of neural stem cells (NSCs in vitro cultures at different oxygen concentration (2%-20% and in vivo niche during different pathological states and in hyperbaric/hypobaric oxygen environment. Moderate hypoxia (3%-10% is known can promote the proliferation of NSCs and enhance the differentiation of NSCs into the TH-positive neurons. Next, we briefly presented the oxygen-sensitive molecular mechanisms regulating NSCs proliferation and differentiation recently found including the Notch, BMP and Wnt pathways. Finally, the future perspectives about the roles of oxygen on brain and NSCs were given.

  4. Functional recovery after transplantation of neural stem cells modified by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rats with cerebral ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J M; Zhao, Y Y; Chen, S D; Zhang, W H; Lou, L; Jin, X

    2011-01-01

    Functional recovery after transplantation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-modified neural stem cells (NSCs) was evaluated in a rat model of cerebral ischaemia damage induced by temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated upregulated BDNF protein expression by rat embryonic NSCs transfected with the human BDNF gene (BDNF-NSCs). BDNF-NSCs stimulated neurite outgrowth in cocultured dorsal root ganglion neurons, suggesting that BDNF increased neurogenesis in vitro. In vivo, BDNF promoted recovery of tMCAO. Phosphate-buffered saline, untransformed NSCs or BDNF-NSCs were introduced into the penumbra zone of the right striatum of tMCAO rats and neurological function deficit was assessed for up to 12 weeks using the neurological severity score (NSS). The NSS was significantly lower in the BDNF-NSC transfected transplant group than in all the other groups from week 10. BDNF-NSCs recovered 1 week after transplantation expressed BDNF protein. Transplanted NSCs had differentiated into mature neurons 12 weeks after transplantation. Transgenic NSCs have potential as a therapeutic agent for brain ischaemia.

  5. The relationship between the level of plasma fibrinogen and carotid/lower limb atherosclerosis in patients with transient ischemic attack and single/multiple lacunar cerebral infarction%短暂性脑缺血发作、单/多发腔隙性脑梗死患者血纤维蛋白原水平与颈动脉及下肢动脉粥样硬化的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季芳; 罗美芳; 李蕾

    2011-01-01

    atheromatous plaques were the most at the bifurcations of common carotid artery(58.3%).The level of plasma fibrinogen in the group of IMT≥1.2 mm was higher than that in the group of IMT<1.2 mm(P<0.05).The lower limb atheromatous plaques were the most in femoral artery (49.6%).The level of plasma fibrinogen in the group of IMT≥1.2 mm was higher than that in the group of IMT<1.2 mm(P<0.05).The number of carotid/lower limb atheromatous plaque in the group of high level fibrinogen(≥3.0 g/L)was higher than that in the group of low level fibrinogen (P≤0.05).The IMT of bifurcation of common carotid artery was directly associated with the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and level of plasma fibrinogen(r= 4.89、5.37、6.47,all P<0.05).The IMT of lower limb artery was directly associated with the glycemic level and level of plasma fibrinogen(r= 4.83、5.38、6.68,all P<0.05).Conclusions As one of the most important risk factors of ischemic stroke, the level of plasma fibrinogen is directly associated with carotid/lower limb atherosclerosis in patients with TIA、 single/multiple lacunar cerebral infarction.

  6. T Lymphocyte Autoreactivity in Inflammatory Mechanisms Regulating Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Profumo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis has been clearly demonstrated to be a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. Both cells of the innate and the acquired immune system, particularly monocytes and T lymphocytes, are implicated in the atherogenic process, producing different cytokines with pro- and anti-inflammatory effects. The majority of pathogenic T cells involved in atherosclerosis are of the Th1 profile, that has been correlated positively with coronary artery disease. Many studies conducted to evaluate the molecular factors responsible for the activation of T cells have demonstrated that the main antigenic targets in atherosclerosis are modified endogenous structures. These self-molecules activate autoimmune reactions mainly characterized by the production of Th1 cytokines, thus sustaining the inflammatory mechanisms involved in endothelial dysfunction and plaque development. In this paper we will summarize the different T-cell subsets involved in atherosclerosis and the best characterized autoantigens involved in cardiovascular inflammation.

  7. MicroRNA-33 in atherosclerosis etiology and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wu-Jun; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Guo-Jun; Fu, Yuchang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Zhu, Hai-Bo; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2013-04-01

    MicroRNAs are a group of endogenous, small non-coding RNA molecules that can induce translation repression of target genes within metazoan cells by specific base pairing with the mRNA of target genes. Recently, microRNA-33 has been discovered as a key regulator in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. This review highlights the impact of microRNA-33-mediated regulation in the major cardiometabolic risk factors of atherosclerosis including lipid metabolism (HDL biogenesis and cholesterol homeostasis, fatty acid, phospholipid and triglyceride, bile acids metabolism), inflammatory response, insulin signaling and glucose/energy homeostasis, cell cycle progression and proliferation, and myeloid cell differentiation. Understanding the etiology and pathophysiology of microRNA-33 in atherosclerosis may provide basic knowledge for the development of novel therapeutic targets for ameliorating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

  8. RIP3-dependent necrosis induced inflammation exacerbates atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingjun; Jin, Wei; Wang, Yuhui; Huang, Huanwei; Li, Jia; Zhang, Cai

    2016-04-29

    Atherothrombotic vascular disease is already the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis shares features with diseases caused by chronic inflammation. More attention should concentrates on the innate immunity effect atherosclerosis progress. RIP3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3) act through the transcription factor named Nr4a3 (Nuclear orphan receptors) to regulate cytokine production. Deletion RIP3 decreases IL-1α production. Injection of anti-IL-1α antibody protects against the progress of atherosclerosis in ApoE -/- mice. RIP3 as a molecular switch in necrosis, controls macrophage necrotic death caused inflammation. Inhibiting necrosis will certainly reduce atherosclerosis through limit inflammation. Necrotic cell death caused systemic inflammation exacerbated cardiovascular disease. Inhibition of necrosis may yield novel therapeutic targets for treatment in years to come.

  9. Cerebral infarction and femoral venous thrombosis detected in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis and heterozygous factor V Leiden G1691A and PAI-1 4G/5G mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroglu Kazanci, Selcen; Yesilbas, Osman; Ersoy, Melike; Kihtir, Hasan Serdar; Yildirim, Hamdi Murat; Sevketoglu, Esra

    2015-09-01

    Cerebral infarction is one of the serious neurological complications of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Especially in patients who are genetically prone to thrombosis, cerebral infarction may develop due to inflammation, dehydration, and hyperviscocity secondary to DKA. A 6-year-old child with DKA is diagnosed with cerebral infarction after respiratory insufficiency, convulsion, and altered level of consciousness. Femoral and external iliac venous thrombosis also developed in a few hours after central femoral catheter had been inserted. Heterozygous type of factor V Leiden and PAI-14G/5G mutation were detected. In patients with DKA, cerebral infarction may be suspected other than cerebral edema when altered level of consciousness, convulsion, and respiratory insufficiency develop and once cerebral infarction occurs the patients should also be evaluated for factor V Leiden and PAI-14G/5G mutation analysis in addition to the other prothrombotic risk factors.

  10. Analysis of Fibrinogen relevant factors in delayed cerebral edema of cerebral hemorrhage%脑出血后迟发性脑水肿与纤维蛋白原等相关因素的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄园园; 陈吉相; 王芳; 肖海兵

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究脑出血迟发性脑水肿与纤维蛋白原(FIB)等因素的相互联系,并探讨对脑出血预后的影响.方法 回顾性分析本院2008年1月~2011年2月接受内科保守治疗的非外伤性急性脑出血60例,其中并发迟发性脑水肿29例,未发生迟发性脑水肿31例.于发病后连续3周监测FIB值等指标,并同时期行头颅CT检查,动态观察血肿及其周围水肿的变化.行χ2检验比较迟发性脑水肿组与未发生组间FIB的升高率; logistic回归分析迟发性脑水肿与各指标的相关性,并采用多元逐步COX模型分析脑出血预后的相关影响因素.结果 迟发性脑水肿组较未发生组FIB值明显升高(P<0.005); FIB升高、脑出血量大、吸烟、高血压病史与迟发性脑水肿相关(P<0.05);迟发性脑水肿、持续升高的FIB和高血压病影响脑出血的预后,其P值均<0.05,有统计学意义.结论 脑出血者FIB持续升高、脑出血量大、吸烟、高血压与迟发性脑水肿的发生密切相关,迟发性脑水肿、FIB升高和高血压病影响预后,对疾病恢复有不良影响.%Objective To observe Pibrinogen and other related factors on delayed cerebral edema in cerebral hemorrhage, and to explore related factor impact on prognosis in cerebral hemorrhage. Methods Analyzed retrospectively the 60 cases of acute non-traumatic and conservative treated cerebral hemorrhage in January 2008- February 2011, which 29 cases complicated with delayed cerebral edema and 31 cases not complicated . Monitored FIB values and other indicators for three weeks ,and observed hematoma and the surrounding low-density changes by head CT during the same period; x2 test to compare the increase rate of FIB in two groups; Analyze related factors on delayed cerebral edema and their relationship with prognosis. Results FIB significantly increased in delayed brain edema group(P<0. 005). Elevated FIB, hematoma volume, smoking, and hypertension associated with delayed

  11. Cholesterol and hematopoietic stem cells: inflammatory mediators of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jennifer K; Cimato, Thomas R

    2014-05-01

    Atherosclerosis causing heart attack and stroke is the leading cause of death in the modern world. Therapy for end-stage atherosclerotic disease using CD34(+) hematopoietic cells has shown promise in human clinical trials, and the in vivo function of hematopoietic and progenitor cells in atherogenesis is becoming apparent. Inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Cholesterol is a modifiable risk factor in atherosclerosis, but in many patients cholesterol levels are only mildly elevated. Those with high cholesterol levels often have elevated circulating monocyte and neutrophil counts. How cholesterol affects inflammatory cell levels was not well understood. Recent findings have provided new insight into the interaction among hematopoietic stem cells, cholesterol, and atherosclerosis. In mice, high cholesterol levels or inactivation of cholesterol efflux transporters have multiple effects on hematopoietic stem cells (HSPCs), including promoting their mobilization into the bloodstream, increasing proliferation, and differentiating HSPCs to the inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils that participate in atherosclerosis. Increased levels of interleukin-23 (IL-23) stimulate IL-17 production, resulting in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) secretion, which subsequently leads to HSPC release into the bloodstream. Collectively, these findings clearly link elevated cholesterol levels to increased circulating HSPC levels and differentiation to inflammatory cells that participate in atherosclerosis. Seminal questions remain to be answered to understand how cholesterol affects HSPC-mobilizing cytokines and the role they play in atherosclerosis. Translation of findings in animal models to human subjects may include HSPCs as new targets for therapy to prevent or regress atherosclerosis in patients.

  12. Personal and environmental factors contributing to participation in romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegerink, Diana J H G; Stam, Henk J; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Roebroeck, Marij E

    2012-01-01

    To study determinants of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on personal and environmental factors. A cohort study was performed with 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) aged 20-25 years (SD 1.4) with CP (49% unilateral CP, 76% GMFCS level I, 85% MACS level I). All participants were of normal intelligence. Romantic relationships, sexual activity (outcome measures), personal and environmental factors (associated factors) were assessed. Associations were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. More females than males with CP were in a current romantic relationship. Self-esteem, sexual esteem and feelings of competence regarding self-efficacy contributed positively to having current romantic relationships. A negative parenting style contributed negatively. Age and gross motor functioning explained 20% of the variance in experience with intercourse. In addition, sexual esteem and taking initiative contributed significantly to intercourse experience. For young adults with CP personal factors (20-35% explained variances) seem to contribute more than environmental factors (9-12% explained variances) to current romantic relationships and sexual experiences. We advice parents and professionals to focus on self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem in development of young adults with CP. [ • The severity of gross motor functioning contributed somewhat to sexual activities, but not to romantic relationships.• High self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem can facilitate involvement in romantic and sexual relationships for young adults with CP.

  13. Dependence of cerebral-cortex activation in women on environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, K. I.; Mukhin, V. N.; Kamenskaya, V. G.; Klimenko, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    The investigation of female physiological reactions to different meteorological conditions and space weather is relevant, since there are little experimental findings in this field. The purpose of this work is to determine how the level of cerebral-cortex activity in women depends on the meteorological and cosmophysical parameters of weather and space processes. We studied electroencephalograms (EEGs) recorded at rest in the sitting position and with eyes closed. We performed four series of measurements of brain bioelectrical activity from February to June 2013. We found that the level of cortical activity recorded by EEG changed significantly during these 6 months. Significant differences were detected between the cortical activity and the parameters of weather and space processes; namely, an increase in the air temperature and a decrease in the wind speed and cosmic-ray energy result in a decrease in the activity rate of the right occipital lobe.

  14. Relative risk factors analysis of type 2 diabetes combined with cerebral infarction%2型糖尿病合并脑梗死相关危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张如意; 刘芳; 雷晨; 何兰杰; 薛腊梅

    2003-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Incidence of type 2 diabetes combined with cerebral infarction in-crease with increase of age. High blood sugar, hypertension, hyper-cholesterolemia and high LDL are main risk factors to cerebral in-farction. Obesity is also the risk factor to diabetes combined withcerebral infarction.

  15. Atherosclerosis and Nanotechnology: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Jeremy D; Chaddha, Ashish; Bhattacharjee, Somnath; Goonewardena, Sascha N

    2016-02-01

    Over the past several decades, tremendous advances have been made in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, with shifting demographics and evolving risk factors we now face new challenges that must be met in order to further advance are management of patients with CAD. In parallel with advances in our mechanistic appreciation of CAD and atherosclerosis, nanotechnology approaches have greatly expanded, offering the potential for significant improvements in our diagnostic and therapeutic management of CAD. To realize this potential we must go beyond to recognize new frontiers including knowledge gaps between understanding atherosclerosis to the translation of targeted molecular tools. This review highlights nanotechnology applications for imaging and therapeutic advancements in CAD.

  16. Atherosclerosis, vascular aging and therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Chen, Ke-Ji

    2012-02-01

    With the arrival of the era of global population aging, we strive for healthy aging and a healthy senior life rather than simple prolongation of the physical age. For the past 50 years, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been the most common cause of death among the elderly people globally. In China, there has been an exponential increase in the incidence of heart disease and stroke in the elderly population. Atherosclerosis is the pathological change in the coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Despite the significant benefit demonstrated, control of classic risk factors alone, such as lifestyle change or drug therapy, was shown to have limitations in reducing the incidence of cardiovascular events. Vascular aging has been shown to be an important independent predictor of CVD events. Interventions targeting vascular aging have emerged as a new paradigm in conjunction with control of risk factors for the prevention of CVD. Vascular aging and atherosclerosis are two distinct pathological changes and difficult to distinguish clinically. Recent research with Chinese medicine (CM) has shown encouraging observations, linking the clinical benefit of delaying vascular aging and treating atherosclerosis. These results demonstrate great potential of CM in the prevention and treatment of CVD.

  17. [About etiology and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitruk, S K

    2013-01-01

    On the ground own researches and researches of other authors etiology and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis are proved and refuted existing concept about leading role of disturbance of lipid exchange and atherogenicity of lipoproteins of low and very low density. Established basic etiological factors of damage intima of artery and reason of penetration of lipoproteins in intima after her damage. Is determined that development and progression of atherosclerosis do not depend also from quantitative content of lipoproteins of low density in blood and from normalization of them under influence of drugs. According to our researches atherosclerosis is the polyetiological chronic disease basis of pathogeny which is infringement of blood supply (chronic microcirculatory insufficiency) in arterial wall causing damage of it, and in first place, damage of intima with her most vulnerable microcirculation; inflammation intima hence influence of endogenous and exogenous factors; destruction of antiaggregatic and fibrinolytic properties of intima in places of her damage; formation atherosclerotic plaque with level-by-level imposing of lipoproteins in result of cyclic process of restoration or balance between coagulation and anticoagulation of blood systems.

  18. Hostility, Anger and Risk of Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Masoudnia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The previous researches about the etiology of coronary artery atherosclerosis have accentuated on clinical and medical risk factors, such as cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, positive family background, myocardial ischemia history in family, atherogenic diet, increase of A lipoprotein, inflammatory factors such as increase of cross-reactive protein and so on. Although factors in behavioral medicine are recognized as an independent risk factor in coronary artery atherosclerosis, few researches have been done on hostility and anger. The aim of this study was to determine the difference between normal people(Control group and people with coronary artery atherosclerosis(Case group with regards to hostility and anger. Methods: This study was performed as a case-control design. Data was collected from seventy-seven patients with coronary artery atherosclerosis who had referred to Afshar Hospital Professional Heart Clinic in Yazd city and seventy-eight normal people were used as control. Two groups completed the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire(BPAQ to measure their hostility and anger. Results: The results of the analysis showed that there was a statistically significant difference regarding hostility(p<.05 and anger(p<.001 between the two groups. Hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the sociodemographic and clinical variables(step 1 explained 35.5 % to 47.4%, while hostility and anger(step 2 explained 6.7% to 9% of the variance in incidence of coronary artery atherosclerosis. Conclusion: Hostility and anger are strong risk factors for coronary artery atherosclerosis or CAD in Iran. Therefore, in order to decrease the incidence rate of coronary artery atherosclerosis in Iran, alongside medical interventions, attention should also be paid towards behavioral interventions in order to modify hostile and angrily behavior.

  19. Research Advances of Atherosclerosis in Translational Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhuo-xin; DENG Rong; PI Min; YU Hai-bo

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) are defined as a series of diseases caused by atherosclerosis (AS), including coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction (MI), stable or unstable angina pectoris, revascularization of coronary artery or other arteries, stroke, transient cerebral ischemic onset or atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease. AS has common pathological basis with ASCVD as it is a general arterial regressive disease of human beings. With the industrialization progression, AS morbidity increases annually and it also leads to coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, cerebral stroke and peripheral artery stenosed occlusion or dilation, thus becoming the main cause for high disability and mortality. The main purpose of translational medicine is to break the intrinsic barrier between basic medicine with drug research and development as well as clinical and public healthcare, and establish a direct connection between them. It is also can rapidly transform basic research results to new clinical preventive and therapeutic methods. This study mainly reviewed AS from the aspect of translational medicine, aiming to provide a reliable basis for the prevention and treatment of AS.

  20. Antibodies to the atherosclerotic plaque components beta2-glycoprotein I and heat-shock proteins as risk factors for acute cerebral ischemia Anticorpos contra os componentes da placa aterosclerótica beta2-glicoproteína I e proteínas de choque térmico como fatores de risco para isquemia cerebral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Luiz Staub

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available One third of cases of cerebral ischemia have no clear etiology. A humoral response to the atherosclerotic plaques components beta2-glycoprotein l (beta2-gpl and heat-shock proteins (Hsp might be involved in the pathogenesis of stroke. This case-control study includes a complete profile of anti-beta2-gpl antibodies and testing of IgG antibodies to the 60/65 kilodaltons (kDa Hsp in stroke patients. Ninety-three patients with acute ischemic stroke and 93 controls were evaluated for age, sex, race, hypertension, smoking, previous cardiopathy, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and previous history of cerebral ischemia. lgG/lgM/lgA anticardiolipin (aCL and anti-beta2-gpl antibodies, as well as lgG antibodies to human 60 kDa Hsp and to Mycobacterium bovis 65 kDa Hsp, were detected by immunoassay. Adjusted odds ratios (OR were calculated by logistic regression. The adjusted OR for IgA anti-beta2-gpl antibodies was 4.6 (90%Cl 1.5 to 14.3; p = 0.025. The non-adjusted OR for IgG antibodies to Hsp 60 was 26.1. The adjusted OR for IgG antibodies to Hsp 65 was 3.2 (90%Cl 1.2 to 8.3; p = 0.044. The adjusted OR for lgG to any Hsp (60 or 65 was 4.8 (90%Cl 1.9 to 12.1; p = 0.006. This study demonstrates that elevated IgA anti-beta2-gpl and lgG anti-Hsp 60/65 antibodies are associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. The association occurred independently of other risk factors. This humoral response might link autoimmunity, thrombophilia and atherosclerosis in stroke patients.Um terço dos casos de isquemia cerebral não apresenta etiologia clara. Uma resposta humoral contra os componentes da placa aterosclerótica beta2-glicoproteína l (beta2-gpl e proteínas de choque térmico ("heat-shock proteins", Hsp pode estar envolvida na patogênese do infarto cerebral. Este estudo de caso-controles inclui um perfil completo de anticorpos anti-beta2-gpI e a testagem de IgG anti-Hsp de 60/65 kilodaltons (kDa em pacientes com isquemia cerebral. Noventa e tr

  1. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) does not slow the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in SLE over 2 years

    OpenAIRE

    KIANI, ADNAN N.; Magder, Laurence S.; Petri, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated atherosclerosis is a major cause of mortality in SLE. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has been shown to suppress growth factor-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells in animal models. We hypothesized that MMF might modify the inflammatory component of atherosclerosis in SLE. We examined the effect of MMF on atherosclerosis as measured by changes in carotid intima–media thickness (IMT) or coronary artery calcium (CAC) over 2 years. CAC and carotid IMT wer...

  2. Complement factors C1q, C3 and C5 in brain and serum of mice with cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helbok Raimund

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patho-mechanisms leading to brain damage due to cerebral malaria (CM are yet not fully understood. Immune-mediated and ischaemic mechanisms have been implicated. The role of complement factors C1q, C3 and C5 for the pathogenesis of CM were investigated in this study. Methods C57BL/6J mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA blood stages. The clinical severity of the disease was assessed by a battery of 40 standardized tests for evaluating neurological functions in mice. Brain homogenates and sera of mice with CM, infected animals without CM and non-infected control animals were analyzed for C1q, C3 and C5 up-regulation by Western blotting. Results Densitometric analysis of Western blots of brain homogenates yielded statistically significant differences in the levels of C1q and C5 in the analyzed groups. Correlation analysis showed a statistically significant association of C1q and C5 levels with the clinical severity of the disease. More severely affected animals showed higher levels of C1q and C5. No differences in complement levels were observed between frontal and caudal parts of the brain. Densitometric analysis of Western blot of sera yielded statistically lower levels of C1q in infected animals without CM compared to animals of the control group. Conclusion The current study provides direct evidence for up-regulation of complement factors C1q and C5 in the brains of animals with CM. Local complement up-regulation is a possible mechanism for brain damage in experimental cerebral malaria.

  3. 糖尿病牙周炎病人颈动脉硬化相关因素分析%Factor analysis of diabetic periodontitis patients with carotid atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张煜; 滕志海; 王浙云; 张诚

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨Ⅱ型糖尿病牙周炎病人与颈动脉硬化的关系.方法:随机选取20例健康对照组(A组),同期选取20例Ⅱ型糖尿病无合并症病人(B组),和20例Ⅱ型糖尿病仅合并牙周炎病人(C组).所有研究对象进行牙周检查,并测定身体质量指数(body mass index,BMI),空腹血糖(FPG),空腹胰岛素(FNS),游离脂肪酸(FFA);免疫比浊法测定C反应蛋白(CRP).采用彩超测定所有研究对象的颈动脉内膜-中膜厚度(MT).结果:糖尿病组的FPG、FNS、FFA、CRP、MT水平均明显高于对照组.Pearson相关分析示:MT与FPG、FNS、FFA、CRP、BMI呈正相关;Logistic回归分析显示:MT与龈炎指数(GI)、临床附着丧失(CAL)、牙周袋探诊深度(PD)密切相关.结论:牙周炎与糖尿病并发颈动脉硬化有密切联系.%AIM; To investigate the relationship between periodontitis and carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS; Twenty healthy volunteers, 20 type 2 diabetes patients without complications and 20 type 2 diabetes patients with periodontitis were included in this study. Periodontal examination, body mass index (BMI) , fasting plasma glucose (FPG) , fasting insulin (FNS) , free fatty acid (FFA) , C-reactive protein (CRP) and carotid artery intiman-media thickness ( MT) were measured for each subject. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis and Logistic regression analysis with SPSS 15 software. RESULTS; FPG, FNS, FFA, CRP and MT levels in diabetic group were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteers. Furthermore, FPG, FNS, FFA, CRP and MT levels in periodontitis group were significantly higher than those in diabetic patients without periodontitis. MT was positively correlated with FPG, FNS, FFA, CRP and BMI by Pearson correlation analysis. Meanwhile, MT was closely related to GI, CAL and PD by Logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Periodontitis is closely related with carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes patients.

  4. Large animal models of atherosclerosis--new tools for persistent problems in cardiovascular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, J; Al-Mashhadi, R H; Sørensen, C B; Bentzon, J F

    2016-01-01

    Coronary heart disease and ischaemic stroke caused by atherosclerosis are leading causes of illness and death worldwide. Small animal models have provided insight into the fundamental mechanisms driving early atherosclerosis, but it is increasingly clear that new strategies and research tools are needed to translate these discoveries into improved prevention and treatment of symptomatic atherosclerosis in humans. Key challenges include better understanding of processes in late atherosclerosis, factors affecting atherosclerosis in the coronary bed, and the development of reliable imaging biomarker tools for risk stratification and monitoring of drug effects in humans. Efficient large animal models of atherosclerosis may help tackle these problems. Recent years have seen tremendous advances in gene-editing tools for large animals. This has made it possible to create gene-modified minipigs that develop atherosclerosis with many similarities to humans in terms of predilection for lesion sites and histopathology. Together with existing porcine models of atherosclerosis that are based on spontaneous mutations or severe diabetes, such models open new avenues for translational research in atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the merits of different animal models of atherosclerosis and give examples of important research problems where porcine models could prove pivotal for progress.

  5. Factors Associated With 8-Year Mortality in Older Patients With Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: The Radboud University Nijmegen Diffusion Tensor and Magnetic Resonance Cohort (RUN DMC) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, H.M. van der; Uden, I.W.M. van; Tuladhar, A.M.; Laat, K.F. de; Norden, A.G. van; Norris, D.G.; Dijk, E.J. van; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Gait and cognition have been related to mortality in population-based studies. This association is possibly mediated by cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), which has been associated with mortality as well. It is unknown which factors can predict mortality in individuals with SVD.

  6. Metabolic syndrome, inflammation and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Paoletti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Rodolfo Paoletti1,2, Chiara Bolego1, Andrea Poli2, Andrea Cignarella1,31Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Italy; 2Nutrition Foundation of Italy (NFI, Milan; 3Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, ItalyAbstract: The inflammatory component of atherogenesis has been increasingly recognized over the last decade. Inflammation participates in all stages of atherosclerosis, not only during initiation and during evolution of lesions, but also with precipitation of acute thrombotic complications. The metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for development of both cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes in humans. Central obesity and insulin resistance are thought to represent common underlying factors of the syndrome, which features a chronic low-grade inflammatory state. Diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome occurs using defined threshold values for waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose and dyslipidemia. The metabolic syndrome appears to affect a significant proportion of the population. Therapeutic approaches that reduce the levels of proinflammatory biomarkers and address traditional risk factors are particularly important in preventing cardiovascular disease and, potentially, diabetes. The primary management of metabolic syndrome involves healthy lifestyle promotion through moderate calorie restriction, moderate increase in physical activity and change in dietary composition. Treatment of individual components aims to control atherogenic dyslipidemia using fibrates and statins, elevated blood pressure, and hyperglycemia. While no single treatment for the metabolic syndrome as a whole yet exists, emerging therapies offer potential as future therapeutic approaches.Keywords: metabolic syndrome, systemic inflammation, coronary artery disease

  7. The Effects of Taekwondo Training on Peripheral Neuroplasticity-Related Growth Factors, Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity, and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Su-Youn; So, Wi-Young; Roh, Hee-Tae

    2017-04-25

    Although regular Taekwondo (TKD) training has been reported to be effective for improving cognitive function in children, the mechanism underlying this improvement remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to observe changes in neuroplasticity-related growth factors in the blood, assess cerebral blood flow velocity, and verify the resulting changes in children's cognitive function after TKD training. Thirty healthy elementary school students were randomly assigned to control (n = 15) and TKD (n = 15) groups. The TKD training was conducted for 60 min at a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 11-15, 5 times per week, for 16 weeks. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels were measured by blood sampling before and after the training, and the cerebral blood flow velocities (peak systolic [MCAs], end diastolic [MCAd], mean cerebral blood flow velocities [MCAm], and pulsatility index [PI]) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) were measured using Doppler ultrasonography. For cognitive function assessment, Stroop Color and Word Tests (Word, Color, and Color-Word) were administered along with other measurements. The serum BDNF, VEGF, and IGF-1 levels and the Color-Word test scores among the sub-factors of the Stroop Color and Word Test scores were significantly higher in the TKD group after the intervention (p 0.05). Thus, 16-week TKD training did not significantly affect cerebral blood flow velocities, but the training may have been effective in increasing children's cognitive function by inducing an increase in the levels of neuroplasticity-related growth factors.

  8. Effects of nerve growth factor on the expression of caspase-12 of nerve cells in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiping Yang; Huaijun Liu; Ying Li; Yan Liu; Haiqing Yang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Researches suggest that cascade reaction of cysteine protease mediated by caspase-12 can cause apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury;however, nerve growth factor (NGF) can reduce apoptosis through inhibiting activation of that reaction.OBJECTTVE: To observe the effect of NGF on the expression of caspase-12 in brain tissue of rabbits with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and elucidate the protective mechanism of NGF on neural apoptosis induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Department of Image, Second Hospital, Hebei Medical University.MATERIALS: A total of 26 healthy New Zealand rabbits, of clean grade, aged 4.5-5 months, weighing (2.6±0.2) kg, were selected in this study. Reagents: NGF (Xiamen Beida Zhilu Biotechnology Co., Ltd.);caspase-12 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology Company, USA, clone number: SC-12395); caspase-3 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology Company, USA, clone number: SC-7272); biotin-antibody Ⅱ and ABC compound (Wuhan Boster Company); in situ end-labeling (ISEL, Beijing Zhongshan Company).METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratories of Nerve Molecule Image Science and Neurology of the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from May to August 2005. ① All animals were randomly divided into three groups. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group (n=10): Left middle cerebral artery (MCA) was blocked for 2 hours and then blooded for 2 hours in order to establish focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion models. Sham operation group (n=6): Cork was inserted with 3 cm in depth, and then pulled to common carotid artery. Other procedures were as the same as those in ischemia/reperfusion group.Treatment group (n=10): After modeling, 400 AU (16 μg/L) NGF was inserted into cerebral infarction focus sham operation group and at 3 days after reperfusion in other two groups. In addition, contents of caspase-12 and caspase-3 were measured with immunohistochemical technique; mean

  9. Malaria cerebral Cerebral malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hugo Zapata Zapata; Silvia Blair Trujillo

    2003-01-01

    La malaria Cerebral (MC) es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1) citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2) formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3) producción de citoqu...

  10. Early expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor increase the neuronal plasticity of activated endogenous neural stem cells after focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seung Song; Jong-Tae Park; Joo Young Na; Man-Seok Park; Jeong-Kil Lee; Min-Cheol Lee; Hyung-Seok Kim

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous neural stem cells become “activated” after neuronal injury, but the activation sequence and fate of endogenous neural stem cells in focal cerebral ischemia model are little known. We evaluated the relationships between neural stem cells and hypoxia-inducible fac-tor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in a photothromobotic rat stroke model using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. We also evaluated the chrono-logical changes of neural stem cells by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression was initially increased from 1 hour after ischemic injury, followed by vascular endothelial growth factor expression. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1αimmunoreactivity was detected in the ipsilateral cortical neurons of the infarct core and peri-in-farct area. Vascular endothelial growth factor immunoreactivity was detected in bilateral cortex, but ipsilateral cortex staining intensity and numbers were greater than the contralateral cortex. Vascular endothelial growth factor immunoreactive cells were easily found along the peri-infarct area 12 hours after focal cerebral ischemia. The expression of nestin increased throughout the microvasculature in the ischemic core and the peri-infarct area in all experimental rats after 24 hours of ischemic injury. Nestin immunoreactivity increased in the subventricular zone during 12 hours to 3 days, and prominently increased in the ipsilateral cortex between 3-7 days. Nes-tin-labeled cells showed dual differentiation with microvessels near the infarct core and reactive astrocytes in the peri-infarct area. BrdU-labeled cells were increased gradually from day 1 in the ipsilateral subventricular zone and cortex, and numerous BrdU-labeled cells were observed in the peri-infarct area and non-lesioned cortex at 3 days. BrdU-labeled cells rather than neu-rons, were mainly co-labeled with nestin and GFAP. Early expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and

  11. Dietary factor VII activation does not increase plasma concentrations of prothrombin fragment 1+2 in patients with stable angina pectoris and coronary atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Münster, A M; Marckmann, P

    2000-01-01

    for triglycerides, activated FVII (FVIIa), FVII protein concentration (FVII:Ag), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and soluble fibrin. Triglyceride levels increased from fasting levels on both diets, but they increased most markedly on the high-fat diet. FVIIa and FVIIa/FVII:Ag increased with the high-fat diet...... and decreased with the low-fat diet. For both diets, FVII:Ag and F1+2 decreased slightly. No postprandial changes were observed for soluble fibrin. Postprandial mean values of triglycerides, FVIIa, FVII:Ag, and FVIIa/FVII:Ag were significantly higher for the high-fat diet than for the low-fat diet. Our findings...... confirm that high-fat meals cause immediate activation of FVII. The clinical implication is debatable because FVII activation was not accompanied by an increase in plasma F1+2 concentrations in patients with severe atherosclerosis. However, a local thrombin generation on the plaque surface cannot...

  12. Systemic and cerebral vascular endothelial growth factor levels increase in murine cerebral malaria along with increased Calpain and caspase activity and can be reduced by erythropoietin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Hoyer, Nils; Kildemoes, Anna;

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore, we noticed increased caspase-3 and calpain activity in terminally ill mice, as measured by protease-specific cleavage of α-spectrin and p35. In conclusion, we detected increased cerebral and systemic VEGF as well as HIF-1α, which in the brain were reduced to normal in EPO-treated mice. Also...... caspase and calpain activity was reduced markedly in EPO-treated mice....

  13. Plasma Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) Levels Correlate with Disease Severity in Spastic Diplegia, Triplegia, and Quadriplegia in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianxian; Li, Xueming

    2015-12-11

    BACKGROUND Inflammatory responses in utero and in neonates have been involved in the development of white matter lesions. This study aimed to investigate the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in spastic cerebral palsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Plasma TNF-α was measured by ELISA in 54 children with spastic cerebral palsy and 28 aged-matched controls. Both groups were split into age subgroups (1-3 vs. 4-12). Gross motor function and activities of daily living were assessed on enrollment and after 6 months of rehabilitation. RESULTS TNF-α was higher in patients with cerebral palsy than in controls in young (Pcerebral palsy had significantly higher TNF-α levels compared with older ones (Pcerebral palsy showed higher plasma levels of TNF-α than controls. In addition, pre-treatment TNF-α levels were correlated with the improvements after rehabilitation therapy.

  14. 创伤性脑浅表大静脉梗死的相关因素分析%Correlative factors of traumatic embolism in superficial cerebral vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘天仑; 金国良; 王晓明

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨外伤后脑浅表大静脉梗死的相关因素和治疗措施.方法 从2003年1月至2008年10月对74例脑浅表大静脉损伤按术中发现分为3组:1组:脑浅表大静脉损伤合并局部脑挫伤和脑内血肿、急性硬模下血肿.2组:脑浅表大静脉损伤合并局部脑挫伤和脑内血肿、急性硬模下血肿、损伤区颅骨骨折.3组脑浅表大静脉损伤合并损伤区颅骨骨折、急性硬模下血肿,无明显脑挫伤、脑内血肿,并按性别、年龄、术前GCS评分、脑疝情况分组.结果 1组28例,2组39例,3组7例,各组的损伤静脉不同,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).1组和2组有37例患者合并有不同程度的脑梗死,3组有2例发生脑梗死.脑梗死与性别、年龄、术前GCS评分、脑疝均无关.结论 脑浅表大静脉损伤主要南局部颅骨骨折或对冲伤、剪切伤所致,合并有脑挫伤时脑梗死多见,术中应注意保护受损腩浅表大静脉及周围的静脉网,及时清除颅内血肿,必要时大骨瓣充分减压,降低颅高压,术后注意稀释血液,防止受损静脉栓塞.%Objective To analyze the correlative factors of traumatic embolism in superficial cerebral vein and explore their corresponding treatments. Methods A total of 74 cases were divided into 3 groups according to their injury mechanisms. Group A: traumatic brain injury in superficial cerebral vein with cerebral contusion, acute intracerebral hematoma and subdural hematoma in the same place; Croup B; traumatic brain injury in superficial cerebral vein with acute intracerebral hematoma, subdural hematoma and skull fracture in the same place; Group C: traumatic brain injury in superficial cerebral vein with acute subdural hematoma and skull fracture in the same place, without cerebral contusion or acute intracerebral hematoma. They were divided into different groups according to gender, age, pre-operative GCS and cerebral hemia. Results Among 74 cases, 28, 39 and 7 cases belonged

  15. Targeted therapeutics in inflammatory atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alaarg, Amr Muhmed Sabry Abdelhakeem

    2017-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory vascular disease, which has been recently identified in 5000-year mummies, remains undefeated. It is the most common underlying cause of deadly cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including heart attacks, strokes, and peripheral vascular diseases. This tremendous

  16. Periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis: A meta-analysis of 17,330 participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Leng, Wei-Dong; Lam, Yat-Yin; Yan, Bryan P; Wei, Xue-Mei; Weng, Hong; Kwong, Joey S W

    2016-01-15

    The association between periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis has been evaluated primarily in single-center studies, and whether periodontal disease is an independent risk factor of carotid atherosclerosis remains uncertain. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis. We searched PubMed and Embase for relevant observational studies up to February 20, 2015. Two authors independently extracted data from included studies, and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for overall and subgroup meta-analyses. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by the chi-squared test (Pperiodontal disease was associated with carotid atherosclerosis (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.14-1.41; Pperiodontal disease was associated with carotid atherosclerosis; however, further large-scale, well-conducted clinical studies are needed to explore the precise risk of developing carotid atherosclerosis in patients with periodontal disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Steroid sex hormones for lower limb atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jackie; Leng, Gillian C

    2012-10-17

    There is accumulating evidence that steroid sex hormones have a beneficial effect on a number of risk factors for peripheral arterial disease. The objective of this review was to determine whether exogenous steroid sex hormones are an effective treatment for patients with lower limb atherosclerosis. For this update the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched August 2012) and CENTRAL 2012, Issue 7. There were no language restrictions. We selected randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of steroid sex hormones in patients with lower limb atherosclerosis. Both authors extracted data and assessed trial quality independently. Whenever possible investigators were contacted to obtain information needed for the review that could not be found in published reports. Four trials appeared to meet the inclusion criteria, but one was excluded because of poor methodology. The three remaining trials compared testosterone treatment with placebo in a total of 109 subjects with intermittent claudication or critical leg ischaemia. The most recent trial to meet the inclusion criteria dated from 1971. No trials were available which investigated the potentially beneficial effects of oestrogenic hormones in women with lower limb atherosclerosis.Testosterone therapy produced no significant improvement in tests of walking distance or in a variety of other objective tests for peripheral arterial disease, including venous filling time, muscle blood flow and plethysmography. The relative risk for subjective improvement in symptoms using the combined trial results was also non-significant (relative risk (RR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81 to 1.48). There is no evidence to date that short-term testosterone treatment is beneficial in subjects with lower limb atherosclerosis. However, this might reflect limited data rather than the lack of a real effect.

  18. Responses of serum inflammatory factor high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in elderly males with cerebral infarction Non-randomized concurrent control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiping Jiao; Xinjie Tan; Zhiliu Yuan; Chunling Li; Jing Wang; Wen Mo

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral infarction is poorly treated due to neuronal necrosis and secondary pathophysiological changes; for example, free radical production and inflammatory reactions.OBJECTIVE: To detect the levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor nccrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in elderly males with cerebral infarction.DESIGN: Non-randomized current control study.SETTING: Cadre Medical Department, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Forty elderly males (65-89 years old) with cerebral infarction were selected from Cadre Medical Department, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital from February 2004 to December 2006. All patients met the diagnostic criteria of cerebral infarction modified at the 4th National Cerebrovascular Disease Academic Meeting, and were diagnosed on the basis of CT or MRI tests. Furthermore, 35 elderly male inpatients (65-87 years old) without cerebral infarction were selected as the control group. Included subjects provided confirmed consent and did not have heart disease, diabetes mellitus, lipid disorder, acute trauma, infection, rheumatism, or other inflammatory diseases. The study was approved by the local ethics committee. There were no significant differences in age, blood pressure, and lipid levels between the cerebral infarction group and the control group (P>0.05), and this suggested that the baseline data of both groups were comparable.METHODS: Fasting venous blood was drawn from cerebral infarction patients 24 hours after cerebral infarction attack and from control subjects 24 hours after hospitalization. A latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect the levels of hs-CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α in the serum.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The levels of hs-CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α in the serum in both groups.RESULTS: Forty cerebral infarction patients and thirty-five control subjects were included in the final analysis without any loss

  19. Increased Number and Distribution of Cerebral Microbleeds Is a Risk Factor for Cognitive Dysfunction in Hemodialysis Patients: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Wang, Zhiye; Fan, Linlin; Zhang, Mengjie; Chu, Zhiqiang; Zuo, Chao; Liu, Lei; Mark Haacke, E; Guo, Wenmei; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the risk factors associated with longitudinal changes in hemodialysis patients including the correlation between number and distribution of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs).Sixty-one hemodialysis patients were enrolled in this prospective study. Twenty-eight patients had follow-up examinations with a mean interval of 24.79 ± 5.17 months. The number of CMBs was manually counted on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Subjects were divided into 2 groups with and without CMBs. In the CMB group, 8 of 33 patients did not have a mini-mental state examination (MMSE) because of blurred vision. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the risk factors for CMBs. Partial correlation was used to explore the correlation between the increased number of CMBs and the change of MMSE scores.CMBs were seen in 33 (54%) hemodialysis patients. Both age and pre/postdialysis systolic blood pressure (SBP) positively correlated with CMBs. Serum iron (SI), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) negatively correlated with CMBs (all P CMBs and MMSE, 9 patients had scores CMBs in these patients were located in the brainstem and basal ganglia. Considering age and follow-up time as the co-confounding factors, the number of new CMBs over the 2 imaging time points negatively correlated with the change of MMSE scores (r = -0.673, P = 0.023).The presence of new CMBs was a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction and the location of CMBs may be correlated with cognitive impairment. Both SI and HDL-c were protective factors for the CMBs. The risk factors for CMBs included age, pre- and postdialysis SBP.

  20. Increased Number and Distribution of Cerebral Microbleeds Is a Risk Factor for Cognitive Dysfunction in Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Wang, Zhiye; Fan, Linlin; Zhang, Mengjie; Chu, Zhiqiang; Zuo, Chao; Liu, Lei; Mark Haacke, E.; Guo, Wenmei; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the risk factors associated with longitudinal changes in hemodialysis patients including the correlation between number and distribution of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). Sixty-one hemodialysis patients were enrolled in this prospective study. Twenty-eight patients had follow-up examinations with a mean interval of 24.79 ± 5.17 months. The number of CMBs was manually counted on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Subjects were divided into 2 groups with and without CMBs. In the CMB group, 8 of 33 patients did not have a mini-mental state examination (MMSE) because of blurred vision. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the risk factors for CMBs. Partial correlation was used to explore the correlation between the increased number of CMBs and the change of MMSE scores. CMBs were seen in 33 (54%) hemodialysis patients. Both age and pre/postdialysis systolic blood pressure (SBP) positively correlated with CMBs. Serum iron (SI), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) negatively correlated with CMBs (all P CMBs and MMSE, 9 patients had scores CMBs in these patients were located in the brainstem and basal ganglia. Considering age and follow-up time as the co-confounding factors, the number of new CMBs over the 2 imaging time points negatively correlated with the change of MMSE scores (r = −0.673, P = 0.023). The presence of new CMBs was a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction and the location of CMBs may be correlated with cognitive impairment. Both SI and HDL-c were protective factors for the CMBs. The risk factors for CMBs included age, pre- and postdialysis SBP. PMID:27015171

  1. Influence of mild hypothermia on vascular endothelial growth factor and infarct volume in brain tissues after cerebral ischemia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Ye; Gangming Xi; Biyong Qin; Shifeng Wang; Chengyan Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that mild hypothermia has obvious protective effect on both whole and local cerebral ischemia. However, the definite mechanism is still unclear for the brain protection of mild hypothermia on cerebral edema, inhibiting inflammatory reaction, stabilizing blood brain barrier, etc.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of mild hypothermia on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and the infarct volume after cerebral ischemia in rats, and analyze the brain protective mechanism of mild hypothermia.DESIGN: A randomized grouping and controlled animal trial.SETTING: Department of Neurology, People's Hospital of Yunyang Medical College.MATERIALS: Twenty adult male SD rats of clean degree, weighing (250±30) g, were provided by the animal experimental center, School of Medicine, Wuhan University. The kits for SP immunohistochemistry were purchased from Beijing Zhongshan Golden Bridge Biotechnology Co., Ltd.METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the laboratory of Department of Neurology, Renmen Hospital of Wuhan University from May to July 2005. ① The 20 rats were divided randomly into normal temperature group (n =10) and mild hypothermia group (n =10). Models of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion were established with modified nylon suture embolization. The rats were assessed with the Longa standards: O point for without nerve dysfunction; 1 for mild neurological deficit (fore claws could no extend completely); 2 for moderate neurological deficit (circling towards the affected side); 3 for severe neurological deficit (tilting towards the affected side); 4 for coma and unconscious; 1 -3 points represented that models were successfully established. The rats of the normal temperature group were fed at room temperature, and those in the mild hypothermia group were induced by hypothermia from 2 hours postoperatively, and the rectal temperature was kept at 34-35 ℃ for 72 hours. ② Measurement of infarct volume

  2. Corticotropin-releasing factor administration elicits a stress-like activation of cerebral catecholaminergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, A J; Berridge, C W

    1987-08-01

    The cerebral content of the biogenic amines, dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT) and their catabolites 30 min after CRF or saline injections was determined using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Injection of CRF (1.0 micrograms) into the lateral ventricles (ICV) of mice produced a behavioral activation in which their motor movements appeared as bursts of activity followed by periods of immobility. CRF administration (ICV or SC) did not alter the concentrations of DA, NE, tryptophan, 5-HT, or 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in any brain region measured. ICV CRF increased the concentrations of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), the major catabolite of DA, and of 3-methoxy,4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG), the major catabolite of NE, in several brain regions. DOPAC:DA ratios were consistently increased in prefrontal cortex, septum, hypothalamus, and brain stem relative to animals injected with saline. MHPG:NE ratios were also increased in the prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus, with a marginal effect (p = 0.06) in brain stem. SC CRF significantly increased DOPAC:DA in prefrontal cortex, and MHPG:NE in prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus and brain stem. Pretreatment with naloxone did not prevent any of the neurochemical responses to ICV CRF, but naloxone alone increased DOPAC:DA in medial profrontal cortex, and decreased MHPG:NE in nucleus accumbens in CRF-injected mice. These results suggest that administration of CRF either centrally or peripherally induces an activation of both dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems in several regions of mouse brain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Adenovirus-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha gene transfer induces angiogenesis and neurogenesis following cerebral ischemia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanfu Wu; Xiu Chen; Zhen Yu; Changlin Hu; Wenqin Cai

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) accumulates under conditions of hypoxia. HIF-1α target genes have pleiotropic effects on neurogenesis, neuroprotection and angiogenesis in the brain.OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a recombinant adenovirus carrying HIF-1α can increase the expression of HIF-1α in vivo and thus promote angiogenesis and neurogenesis in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The randomized, controlled experiment was performed at the Department of Neurobiology, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from September 2006 to October 2007.MATERIALS: 68 healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, weighing 230-250 g, were used. HIF-1α antibody was purchased from Wuhan Boster Company. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody was purchased from Santa Cruz Biotech Company.METHODS: All 68 rats were induced with a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), according to the method of intra-luminal vascular occlusion. 54 rats, in which MCAO was successfully induced, were randomly divided into adenovirus (Ad) group and recombinant adenovirus with HIF-1αgene (Ad-HIF-1α) group (27 rats for each group). Rats were injected with 10 μL Ad (Ad group) or Ad-HIF-1α (Ad-HIF-1α group) into the lateral ventricle, 1 day after MCAO induction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expression of HIF-1α and of VEGF. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the localization of HIF-1α, VEGF and factor Ⅷ in ischemic penumbra. Rat newborn nerve cells were labeled with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) after ischemia. BrdU/neurofilament 200 (NF200) and BrdU/glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) double labeled immunofluorescent histochemistry was used to identify the differentiation of newborn cells. Neurological function was evaluated using the modified neurological severity score (NSS).RESULTS: Compared with Ad, Ad-HIF-1αenhanced the expression of HIF-1

  4. Regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion with and without brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaia, Z; Zhao, Q; Kokaia, M; Elmér, E; Metsis, M; Smith, M L; Siesjö, B K; Lindvall, O

    1995-11-01

    Levels of mRNA for c-fos, nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), TrkB, and TrkC were studied using in situ hybridization in the rat brain at different reperfusion times after unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Short-term (15 min) MCAO, which does not cause neuronal death, induced elevated BDNF mRNA expression confined to ipsilateral frontal and cingulate cortices outside the ischemic area. With a longer duration of MCAO (2 h), which leads to cortical infarction, the increase was more marked and elevated BDNF mRNA levels were also detected bilaterally in dentate granule cells and CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons. Maximum expression was found after 2 h of reperfusion. At 24 h BDNF mRNA expression had returned to control values. In the ischemic core of the parietal cortex only scattered neurons were expressing high levels of BDNF mRNA after 15 min and 2 h of MCAO. Analysis of different BDNF transcripts showed that MCAO induced a marked increase of exon III mRNA but only small increases of exon I and II mRNAs in cortex and hippocampus. In contrast to BDNF mRNA, elevated expression of c-fos mRNA was observed in the entire ipsilateral cerebral cortex, including the ischemic core, after both 15 min and 2 h of MCAO. Two hours of MCAO also induced transient, bilateral increases of NGF and TrkB mRNA levels and a decrease of NT-3 mRNA expression, confined to dentate granule cells. The upregulation of BDNF mRNA expression in cortical neurons after MCAO is probably triggered by glutamate through a spreading depression-like mechanism. The lack of response of the BDNF gene in the ischemic core may be due to suppression of signal transduction or transcription factor synthesis caused by the ischemia. The observed pattern of gene expression after MCAO agrees well with a neuroprotective role of BDNF in cortical neurons. However, elevated levels of NGF and BDNF protein could also increase synaptic efficacy in the

  5. Dose-dependent effects of procyanidin on nerve growth factor expression following cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Li; Hai Xie; Ying Gao; Tongxia Zhan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, grape seed procyanidin (GSP) has been shown to be exhibit antioxidant effects, effectively reducing ischemia/reperfusion injury and inhibiting brain cell apoptosis.OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of GSP on nerve growth factor (NGF) expression and neurological function following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.DESIGN: Randomized controlled study based on SD rats.SETTING: Weifang Municipal People's Hospital. MATERIALS: Forty-eight healthy adult SD rats weighing 280-330 g and irrespective of gender were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Shandong University. GSP derived from grape seed was a new high-effective antioxidant provided by Tianjin Jianfeng Natural Product Researching Company (batch number: 20060107). Rabbit-anti-rat NGF monoclonal antibody was provided by Beijing Zhongshan Biotechnology Co., Ltd., and SABC immunohistochemical staining kit by Wuhan Boster Bioengineering Co., Ltd. METHODS: The present study was performed in the Functional Laboratory of Weifang Medical College from April 2006 to January 2007. Forty-eight SD rats were randomly divided into the sham operation group, ischemia/reperfusion group, high-dose GSP (40 mg/kg) group, or low-dose GSP (10 mg/kg) group (n = 12 per group). Ischemia/reperfusion injury was established using the threading embolism method of the middle cerebral artery. Rats in the ischemia/reperfusion model group were given saline injection (2 mL/kg i.p.) once daily for seven days pre-ischemia/reperfusion, and once more at 15 minutes before reperfusion. Rats in the high-dose and low-dose GSP groups were injected with GSP (20 or 5 mg/mL i.p., respectively, 2 mL/kg) with the same regime as the ischemia/reperfusion model group. The surgical procedures in the sham operation group were as the same as those in the ischemia/reperfusion model group, but the thread was approximately 10 mm long, thus, the middle cerebral artery was not blocked. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: NGF expression in the

  6. Immune mechanisms in atherosclerosis, especially in diabetes type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frostegård, Johan

    2013-10-29

    Atherosclerosis and ensuing cardiovascular disease (CVD) are major complications of diabetes type 2. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition involving immunocompetent cells of different types present in the lesions. Even though inflammation and immune activation may be more pronounced in atherosclerosis in diabetes type 2, there does not appear to be any major differences between diabetics and non-diabetics. Similar factors are thus implicated in atherosclerosis-associated immune activation in both groups. The cause of immune activation is not known and different mutually non-exclusive possibilities exist. Oxidized and/or enzymatically modified forms of low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and dead cells are present in atherosclerotic plaques. OxLDL could play a role, being pro-inflammatory and immunostimulatory as it activates T-cells and is cytotoxic at higher concentrations. Inflammatory phospholipids in OxLDL are implicated, with phosphorylcholine (PC) as one of the exposed antigens. Antibodies against PC (anti-PC) are anti-atherogenic in mouse studies, and anti-PC is negatively associated with development of atherosclerosis and CVD in humans. Bacteria and virus have been discussed as potential causes of immune activation, but it has been difficult to find direct evidence supporting this hypothesis, and antibiotic trials in humans have been negative or inconclusive. Heat shock proteins (HSP) could be one major target for atherogenic immune reactions. More direct causes of plaque rupture include cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and also lipid mediators as leukotrienes. In addition, in diabetes, hyperglycemia and oxidative stress appear to accelerate the development of atherosclerosis, one mechanism could be via promotion of immune reactions. To prove that immune reactions are causative of atherosclerosis and CVD, further studies with immune-modulatory treatments are needed.

  7. Increased Levels of Oxidative Stress Markers, Soluble CD40 Ligand, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Reflect Acceleration of Atherosclerosis in Male Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Active Phase and without the Classical Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewka, Armand; Sieroń, Karolina; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of the study was to assess levels of oxidative stress markers, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), and placental growth factor (PlGF) as well as carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with active phase without concomitant classical cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods The observational study involved 96 male subjects: 48 AS patients and 48 healthy ones, who did not differ significantly regarding age, BMI, comorbid disorders, and distribution of classical cardiovascular risk factors. In both groups, we estimated levels of oxidative stress markers, lipid profile, and inflammation parameters as well as sCD40L, serum PAPP-A, and PlGF. In addition, we estimated carotid IMT in each subject. Results The study showed that markers of oxidative stress, lipid profile, and inflammation, as well as sCD40L, PlGF, and IMT, were significantly higher in the AS group compared to the healthy group. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ankylosing spondylitis may be associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis. PMID:28883908

  8. Increased Levels of Oxidative Stress Markers, Soluble CD40 Ligand, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Reflect Acceleration of Atherosclerosis in Male Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Active Phase and without the Classical Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Stanek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The primary aim of the study was to assess levels of oxidative stress markers, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, and placental growth factor (PlGF as well as carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS with active phase without concomitant classical cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. The observational study involved 96 male subjects: 48 AS patients and 48 healthy ones, who did not differ significantly regarding age, BMI, comorbid disorders, and distribution of classical cardiovascular risk factors. In both groups, we estimated levels of oxidative stress markers, lipid profile, and inflammation parameters as well as sCD40L, serum PAPP-A, and PlGF. In addition, we estimated carotid IMT in each subject. Results. The study showed that markers of oxidative stress, lipid profile, and inflammation, as well as sCD40L, PlGF, and IMT, were significantly higher in the AS group compared to the healthy group. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that ankylosing spondylitis may be associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis.

  9. Erythropoietin Levels Increase during Cerebral Malaria and Correlate with Heme, Interleukin-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalko, Esther; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Pays, Laurent; Herbert, Fabien; Cazenave, Pierre-André; Ravindran, Balachandran; Sharma, Shobhona; Nataf, Serge; Das, Bidyut; Pied, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites often leads to the death of infected patients or to persisting neurological sequelae despite anti-parasitic treatments. Erythropoietin (EPO) was recently suggested as a potential adjunctive treatment for CM. However diverging results were obtained in patients from Sub-Saharan countries infected with P. falciparum. In this study, we measured EPO levels in the plasma of well-defined groups of P. falciparum-infected patients, from the state of Odisha in India, with mild malaria (MM), CM, or severe non-CM (NCM). EPO levels were then correlated with biological parameters, including parasite biomass, heme, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, interferon gamma-induced protein (IP)-10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 plasma concentrations by Spearman's rank and multiple correlation analyses. We found a significant increase in EPO levels with malaria severity degree, and more specifically during fatal CM. In addition, EPO levels were also found correlated positively with heme, TNF-α, IL-10, IP-10 and MCP-1 during CM. We also found a significant multivariate correlation between EPO, TNF-α, IL-10, IP-10 MCP-1 and heme, suggesting an association of EPO with a network of immune factors in CM patients. The contradictory levels of circulating EPO reported in CM patients in India when compared to Africa highlights the need for the optimization of adjunctive treatments according to the targeted population.

  10. Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  11. Prevention of Coronary Atherosclerosis: The Role of a College Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Ralph A.; Greenland, Philip

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the concept of behavioral risk factors for atherosclerosis which become entrenched in adolescence or young adulthood. Evidence favoring intervention in the adolescent years and a screening program at the University of Rochester Health Service are described. A preliminary strategy for prevention of atherosclerosis on campus is…

  12. Child characteristics, caregiver characteristics, and environmental factors affecting the quality of life of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy.

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    Tseng, Mei-Hui; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Huang, Chien-Yu; Simeonsson, Rune J

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed to investigate comprehensively the determinants of the quality of life (QOL) of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY). A total of 167 children with CP (mean age 9.06 years, SD 2.61 years) and their caregivers (mean age 40.24 years, SD 5.43 years) participated in this study. The QOL of caregivers was measured with the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF-Taiwan version (WHOQOL-BREF-TW). The potential determinants of QOL were collected, including child characteristics, caregiver characteristics, and environmental factors from all dimensions of the ICF-CY and analysed using multiple regression models. Four multiple regression models revealed that determinants of the QOL of caregivers of children with CP was multidimensional, encompassing child characteristics (age, type of CP, fine motor impairment, other diseases, behaviour and emotions, visual impairment, hearing impairment), caregiver characteristics (general mental health, parenting stress, marital status, family coping patterns, and socio-economic status), and environmental factors (child's medication, school setting, and current rehabilitation service, caregiver's spouse's age, family life impacts, and domestic helper). Knowledge of the determinants of QOL could serve as a guide in a holistic approach to evaluation and intervention and help plan interventions targeted at these determinants to improve the QOL of caregivers of children with CP. Implications for Rehabilitation Caregivers of children with CP had lower QOL, except the environment QOL. The QOL determinants of caregivers of children with CP are multidimensional, including child characteristics, caregiver characteristics, and environmental factors. In addition to child characteristics of severity of fine motor impairments and emotional and behavioural problems, caregiver characteristics of general mental

  13. Cerebral malaria Malaria cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Blair Trujillo; Carlos Hugo Zapata Zapata

    2003-01-01

    Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains...

  14. Polymorphisms of the coagulation factor Ⅶ gene and its plasma levels in relation to acute cerebral infarction differences in allelic frequencies between Chinese Han and European populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康文英; 王鸿利; 熊立凡; 王学锋; 储海燕; 璩斌; 刘湘帆; 尹俊; 段宝华; 王振义

    2004-01-01

    Background Coagulation factor Ⅶ (F Ⅶ) levels in plasma are usually related to ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebral infarction shares many of the risk factors related to IHD. Is there any relationship between factor Ⅶ and cerebral infarction? We investigated the relationship between F Ⅶ and acute cerebral infarction and reported genotype frequencies and allelic frequencies of FⅦ gene polymorphisms in the Chinese Han population.Methods We recruited 62 patients with acute cerebral infarction confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from Ruijin Hospital, and 149 age-matched patients clinically free of vascular disease to act as controls. All of them were unrelated, and were from the Chinese Han population. FⅦ coagulant activity (FⅦc) was determined using an clotting assay, activated FⅦ (FⅦa) and FⅦ Ag were assayed using enzyme immunoassay kits. The FⅦ gene polymorphisms to be detected included-401G/T, -402G/A, 5'F7A1/A2, IVS7 and R353Q. 5'F7 and IVS7 were revealed by means of a PCR and direct agarose gel electrophoresis. The rest were examined by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results The results showed that FⅦc, FⅦAg and FⅦa were higher in the acute cerebral infarction group than in the control group (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.05, respectively). There were no significant differences in the genotype frequencies of FⅦ gene polymorphisms between the two groups. The allelic frequencies in the Chinese Han population were as follows: -401G/T (96.64/3.36), -402G/A (52.01/47.99), 5'F7A1/A2(96.64/3.36), IVS7 H5/H6/H7/H8 (0.34/52.35/46.98/0.34) and R353Q (95.64/4.36). There were significant differences (P<0.01, P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively) in these allelic frequencies between the Chinese Han and European populations.Conclusions The results indicate that increased plasma FⅦ levels may contribute to thrombosis in cerebral infarction. And there was no significant difference

  15. Cerebral malaria Malaria cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blair Trujillo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains to be answered; how the host-parasite interaction in the vascular space interferes transiently with cerebral function? Recently, the beta amyloid precursor peptide has been employed as marker of neural injury in CM. It is expected that the beta amyloid precursor peptide will help to understand the pathogenesis of CM in complicated patients of endemic areas of Colombia. La malaria Cerebral (MC es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1 citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2 formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3 producción de citoquinas y activación de segundos mensajeros y, 4 apertura de la barrera hematoencefálica. Sin embargo, queda un interrogante sin resolver aún: ¿qué proceso se lleva a cabo para que el parásito, desde el espacio microvascular, pueda interferir transitoriamente con la función cerebral? Recientemente se ha utilizado el precursor de la proteína b-Amiloide como un marcador de daño neuronal en MC; este precursor será de gran ayuda en futuras investigaciones realizadas en nuestro medio que aporten información para comprender la patogénesis de la MC.

  16. Estudo das freqüências dos principais fatores de risco para acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico em idosos Study of the main risk factors frequencies for ischemic cerebrovascular disease in elderly patients

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    Sueli Luciano Pires

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados retrospectivamente 262 pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCi permanente, com idade igual ou superior a 60 anos, selecionados dos 1015 registros da Liga de Aterosclerose da Clínica Neurológica da ISCMSP, de 1990 a 2002. O estudo focalizou as freqüências dos fatores de risco modificáveis para AVCi nesta população idosa, considerando-se sexo e faixa etária dos pacientes. Os resultados evidenciaram que a hipertenção arterial sistêmica é significativamente freqüente (87,8% entre pacientes idosos com AVCi, independentemente do sexo e da faixa etária. Tabagismo (46,9% e etilismo (35,1% revelaram-se fatores de riscos modificáveis freqüentes especialmente entre os homens. As cardiopatias (27,0%, o Diabete Melito (19,9% e as dislipidemias (15,6% também se revelaram fatores de risco modificáveis freqüentes em pacientes idosos com AVCi, em ambos os sexos e em ambas as faixas etárias estudadas (60 a 70 anos e mais que 71 anos. Foi relativamente baixa a freqüência de hiperuricemia nesta amostra.Two hundred and sixty two patients with clinical diagnosis of permanent ischemic stroke, all of them aged 60 or more were retrospectively studied from the 1015 cerebrovascular diseases (CVD records of the Atherosclerosis Ligue of the Neurology Clinics of the ISCMSP, from 1990 to 2002. The study emphasized modifiable risk factors frequencies for ischemic stroke in this population, considering gender and age of the patients. Results have evidenced that systemic arterial hypertension is a main risk factor significantly frequent in old people (87.8%, independently of gender and age. Smoking (46.9% and alcohol consumption (35.1% have revealed to be very frequent important modifiable risk factors especially among men. Lower frequencies have been presented for cardiac diseases (27.0%, Diabetes Melitus (19.9%, and dislipidemia (15.6% as risk factors for ischemic stroke in old people of both

  17. Oxidized lipoprotein lipids and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahotupa, Markku

    2017-04-01

    Plasma lipoproteins contain variable amounts of lipid oxidation products (LOP), which are known to impair normal physiological functions and stimulate atherosclerotic processes. Recent evidence indicates that plasma lipoproteins are active carriers of LOP, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) directing transport toward peripheral tissues, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) being active in the reverse transport. It has been proposed that the lipoprotein-specific transport of LOP could play a role in atherosclerosis-related effects of LDL and HDL. This article gives an overview of the present knowledge of lipoprotein LOP transport and its association with the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Evidence of the significance of lipoprotein LOP transport comes mainly from studies of physiological oxidative stress and is supported by studies of the functionality apolipoprotein A-1 mimetic peptides. A large body of data has accumulated indicating that lipoprotein LOP transport is connected to the risk of atherosclerosis. While high levels of LOP carried by LDL are indicative of elevated risk, high LOP level in HDL appears to associate with protection. If confirmed, the proposed lipoprotein LOP transport function would affect conception of the etiology of atherosclerosis, but would not conflict current views of the pathophysiological mechanisms. It could open new perspectives, such as the dietary origin of LOP, and the protective function of HDL in clearance of LOP. Focusing on LOP could give additional tools especially for prevention and diagnosis, but would not radically change the management of atherosclerosis and CVD.

  18. Role of social factors on cell death, cerebral plasticity and recovery after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venna, Venugopal Reddy; McCullough, Louise D

    2015-04-01

    Stroke is a serious global health care problem. It is now is the fourth leading cause of death and the primary cause of adult disability in the United States. Substantial evidence from both experimental and clinical studies has demonstrated that social isolation (SI) can increase stroke incidence and impair recovery. Epidemiological studies demonstrate that an increasing number of patients are living alone, and as the aging population increases, loneliness will only increase in prevalence. SI is increasingly identified as an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality. In contrast, individuals with high levels of social support exhibit more rapid and extensive functional and cognitive recovery after a wide variety of pathological insults, including stroke. Clinical data suggests that SI is an important risk factor for increased mortality and delayed functional recovery following ischemic stroke. Attesting to the importance of mortality and behavioral factors in stroke outcome is that these same effects can be reproduced in animal models of experimental stroke. This has allowed researchers to identify several mechanistic changes that occur with affiliative interactions. These include decreased systemic inflammation, elaboration of growth factors including brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), enhanced neurogenesis, and improved neuroimmune responsiveness in group housed animals. These may mediate the beneficial effects of social interaction on improving stroke recovery and reducing neuronal death. In this review we provide an overview of the effects of SI on ischemic injury and recovery and discuss their clinical and therapeutic implications.

  19. Clinical Factors Associated with Cerebral Metabolism in Term Neonates with Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbison, Anna Lonyai; Votava-Smith, Jodie K; Del Castillo, Sylvia; Kumar, S Ram; Lee, Vince; Schmithorst, Vincent; Lai, Hollie A; O'Neil, Sharon; Bluml, Stefan; Paquette, Lisa; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2017-04-01

    To determine associations between patient and clinical factors with postnatal brain metabolism in term neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD) via the use of quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Neonates with CHD were enrolled prospectively to undergo pre- and postoperative 3T brain magnetic resonance imaging. Short-echo single-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy of parietal white matter was used to quantify metabolites related to brain maturation (n-acetyl aspartate, choline, myo- inositol), neurotransmitters (glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid), energy metabolism (glutamine, citrate, glucose, and phosphocreatine), and injury/apoptosis (lactate and lipids). Multivariable regression was performed to search for associations between (1) patient-specific/prenatal/preoperative factors with concurrent brain metabolism and (2) intraoperative and postoperative factors with postoperative brain metabolism. A total of 83 magnetic resonance images were obtained on 55 subjects. No patient-specific, prenatal, or preoperative factors associated with concurrent metabolic brain dysmaturation or elevated lactate could be identified. Chromosome 22q11 microdeletion and age at surgery were predictive of altered concurrent white matter phosphocreatine (P term infants with CHD, but not patient-specific, preoperative, or intraoperative factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic and acute anemia and extracranial internal carotid stenosis are risk factors for silent cerebral infarcts in sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaudin, Françoise; Verlhac, Suzanne; Arnaud, Cécile; Kamdem, Annie; Vasile, Manuela; Kasbi, Florence; Hau, Isabelle; Madhi, Fouad; Fourmaux, Christine; Biscardi, Sandra; Epaud, Ralph; Pondarré, Corinne

    2015-03-05

    Early transcranial Doppler (TCD) screening of the Créteil sickle cell anemia (SCA)-newborn cohort, and rapid initiation of transfusion programs, resulted in successful prevention of overt strokes, but a high cumulative risk of silent cerebral infarcts (SCI) remained, suggesting that TCD screening does not identify all patients with SCA at risk for SCI. We hypothesized that episodes of hypoperfusion/hypoxia, as observed during acute chest syndromes or acute anemic events (AAE), and extracranial internal carotid artery (eICA) stenoses, detectable via submandibular Doppler sonography and cervical magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), could also be risk factors for SCI. This study includes 189 stroke-free patients with SCA from the Créteil newborn cohort (1992-2010) followed longitudinally by magnetic resonance imaging/MRA, including cervical MRA at the last assessment. All patients with abnormal TCD and/or intracranial stenoses were placed on a transfusion program. Mean follow-up was 9.9 years (range, 2.2-19.9 years; 1844 patient-years). Annual rates of clinical events were calculated. The cumulative risk for SCI was 39.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.5%-54.7%) by age 18 years, with no plateau. We confirm that baseline hemoglobin level lower than 7 g/dL before age 3 years is a highly significant predictive risk factor for SCI (hazard ratio, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.43-6.17; P = .004). Furthermore, we show that AAE rate (odds ratio, 2.64 per unit increase; 95% CI, 1.09-6.38; P = .031) and isolated eICA stenosis (odds ratio, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.18-8.70; P = .023) are significant and independent risk factors for SCI.

  1. Relative Risk Factors for Cerebral Microbleeds in Acute Cerebral Infraction Patients%脑微出血发生在急性脑梗死患者中危险因素的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟清; 覃娜; 饶家敏; 欧山英

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解急性脑梗死患者脑微出血(CMB)的发生率,并对其危险因素进行相关分析。方法:选择2007年3月-2012年3月住院的急性脑梗死患者122例,全部研究对象根据MRI磁敏感加权成像上有无CMB分为两组。将两组患者一般临床资料和临床生化指标进行比较,探讨急性脑梗塞合并CMB的相关危险因素。结果:在CMB组中血清HDL水平显著性高于非CMB组(P<0.05),而LDL水平显著性低于非CMB组(P<0.05)。年龄、高血压、脑卒中史、吸烟史在CMB组中的比例显著高于非CMB组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:在急性脑梗死患者中CMB较常见,年龄、高血压、脑卒中史、吸烟史及HDL是CMB发生的危险因素,而LDL是CMB发生的保护因素。%Objective:To investigate the incidence of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) in patients with acute cerebral infarction and analyze its risk factors. Method:122 patients with acute cerebral infarction admitted to our hospital from March 2008 to March 2012 were divided into CMB group (n=51) and non-CMB group (n=71) according to their MRI susceptibility-weighted imaging. General clinical data and biochemical variables were compared between two groups to explore relative risk factors of CMB.Result:The LDL levels were significantly lower,while the HDL level was significantly higher in CMB group than non-CMB group (P<0.05). The Proportion of age,hypertension,stroke history and history of smoking in the CMB groups were significantly higher than the non-CMB group (P<0.05). Conclusion:CMB usually occur in patients with acute cerebral infarction.Age,hypertension,stroke history,history of smoking and plasma HDL level are risk factor,while plasma LDL level is protective factors for CMB.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for epilepsy in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Rahmat

    2010-03-01

    Conclusions The prevalence of epilepsy in spastic CP is 39%. The risk factors for epilepsy in spastic CP are post central nervous system infection, and ocurrence of seizure in the first year of life. [Paediatr Indones. 2010;50:11-7].

  3. Factors Associated with Quality of Life in Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Iran

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    Zahra Ahmadizadeh

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Two important factors that lead to a worse QOL of mothers with a CP child are the unemployment of mothers and having a CP child with concurrent intellectual disabilities. To diminish the adverse effects of having a CP child on QOL of mothers, unemployed women who have a CP child with concurrent intellectual disabilities need more psychological support and help.

  4. Study on influencing factors of the hypertension with carotid atherosclerosis in aircrew%飞行人员高血压伴颈动脉粥样硬化形成影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶; 王露今; 刘玉华; 徐先荣; 刘红巾; 徐蜀宣; 崔丽; 付兆君; 熊巍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM) and other cardiovascular risk factors in the aircrews with hypertension (HT) complicated carotid atherosclerosis (CAS),and to find out the evidence for the prevention.Methods Fifty-three hospitalized aircrews were diagnosed by carotid ultrasound examination and then were divided into HT group (n=26) and HT+CAS group (n=27).They were inquired case history and received physical and biochemistry examinations,as well as ABPM monitoring for comparison.Results The age,time course of hypertension,levels of total cholesterol,triglyceride,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of HT+CAS group were significantly older,longer and higher than those of HT group (t=2.136-4.913,P<0.05) ; mean systolic pressure at night (nSBP),24-hour pulse pressure (24 hPP),day PP (dPP),night PP (nPP) in ABPM monitoring were different between two groups (t=2.154-3.315,P< 0.05).Conclusions Age factor,time course of hypertension,levels of blood fat,PP and nSBP contribute more to cause carotid atherosclerosis in HT aircrew.%目的 调查伴颈动脉粥样硬化的高血压飞行人员动态血压参数及心血管危险因素,探讨高血压飞行人员颈动脉粥样硬化形成的影响因素,为防控高血压动脉粥样硬化提供依据. 方法 因高血压住院的53名飞行人员,根据颈部血管超声结果分为高血压(hypertension,HT)无颈动脉粥样硬化组(HT组),26名;HT合并颈动脉粥样硬化(carotid atherosclerosis,CAS)组(HT+ CAS组),27名.对所有入选对象进行病史询问、体检、血生化指标、动态血压检测及比较. 结果 HT+CAS组的年龄、高血压病程、总胆固醇、甘油三酯及低密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平均大于HT组(t=2.136~4.913,P<0.05);动态血压中HT+ CAS组的夜间平均收缩压(night SBP,nSBP)、24 h脉压差(24 hour pulse pressure,24hPP)、昼间脉压差(day PP,dPP)及夜间脉压差(night PP,nPP)均高于HT组(t=2.154~3.315,P<0.05). 结论 年龄、高

  5. Analysis of risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis in patients with renal glomerular diseases%肾小球疾病患者颈动脉粥样硬化的危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅淑霞; 李绍梅; 谭会斌; 杨林; 李素敏; 马琳; 张晓光

    2008-01-01

    logistic regression analysis revealed that IAL and age emerged as an independent risk factor for carotid AS(OR=1.826 and 1.129,P=0.001 and 0.003).Conclusion The intrarenal arterial lesion is an independent risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis in patients with renal glomerular disease.Controlling blood glucose,blood pressure,weight,smoking quit and delaying progression of kidney disease have important significance in relieving or preventing atherosclerosis and intrarenal arterial lesions of patients with renal glomerular diseases.

  6. Factors Contributing to Satisfaction with Changes in Physical Function after Orthopedic Surgery for Musculoskeletal Dysfunction in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoto, Yasuaki; Nitta, Osamu; Matsuo, Atsushi; Takaki, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Background The recognition of required treatments for cerebral palsy (CP) patients, including orthopedic surgery, differs according to region. This study was performed to identify factors associated with satisfactory changes in physical function after orthopedic surgery. Methods 358 patients were selected for the questionnaire survey. The following information was collected: gender, primary disease, age of initial surgery, total procedural count, operated sites, satisfaction of postoperative rehabilitation frequency, ideal amount of postoperative rehabilitation sessions per week, frequency of voluntary home training per week, satisfaction of the timing of surgery and the current satisfaction with the changes in physical function after the orthopedic surgery. We classified the patients into the satisfied and dissatisfied group according to satisfactory changes in physical function after the surgery. We performed unpaired t-tests and chi-square tests to determine the variables that differed significantly between the groups. Variables with a p value of <0.2 were included in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The logistic model was revised and summed up to two potential predictors of postsurgical satisfaction with physical function: satisfaction with the frequency of postoperative rehabilitation sessions and the orthopedic surgery of the hip (distinction hit ratio, 75.4%). Conclusions This study demonstrated that the frequency of postoperative rehabilitation and history of hip surgery seemed to be related to the satisfaction with the changes in physical function after orthopedic surgery. PMID:27135609

  7. Oral Cnm-positive Streptococcus Mutans Expressing Collagen Binding Activity is a Risk Factor for Cerebral Microbleeds and Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Isao; Kuriyama, Nagato; Miyatani, Fumitaro; Nomura, Ryota; Naka, Shuhei; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Ihara, Masafumi; Iwai, Komei; Matsui, Daisuke; Ozaki, Etsuko; Koyama, Teruhide; Nishigaki, Masaru; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Tamura, Aiko; Mizuno, Toshiki; Akazawa, Kentaro; Takada, Akihiro; Takeda, Kazuo; Yamada, Kei; Nakagawa, Masanori; Tanaka, Tokutaro; Kanamura, Narisato; Friedland, Robert P.; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are an important risk factor for stroke and dementia. We have shown that the collagen binding surface Cnm protein expressed on cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans is involved in the development of CMBs. However, whether the collagen binding activity of cnm-positive S. mutans is related to the nature of the CMBs or to cognitive impairment is unclear. Two-hundred seventy nine community residents (70.0 years) were examined for the presence or absence of cnm-positive S. mutans in the saliva by PCR and collagen binding activity, CMBs, and cognitive function were evaluated. Cnm-positive S. mutans was detected more often among subjects with CMBs (p CMBs was significantly higher (odds ratio = 14.3) in the group with S. mutans expressing collagen binding activity, as compared to the group without that finding. Deep CMBs were more frequent (67%) and cognitive function was lower among subjects with cnm-positive S. mutans expressing collagen binding activity. This work supports the role of oral health in stroke and dementia and proposes a molecular mechanism for the interaction. PMID:27934941

  8. Sleep disorders in children with cerebral palsy and its correlation with sleep disturbance in primary caregivers and other associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Adiga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To observe prevalence of sleep disturbance (SD in cerebral palsy (CP children in a specific age-group and its correlation with SD in primary caregivers and other associated factors. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. SD assessed using Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC in CP children and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI in caregivers. Fifty cases of clinically diagnosed CP [27 females, mean age: 107.9 ΁ 29.5 months (range: 78-180 months] fulfilling criteria were included. Results: Eighteen (36% children had pathological sleep total score (TS and Disorders of Initiating and Maintaining Sleep (DIMS was the commonest SD (n = 25, 50%. All primary caregivers were mothers. Twenty-five (50% mothers had SD on PSQI scale. DIMS, Disorders of Excessive Somnolence (DES, and TS had significant correlation with PSQI (P < 0.05. Disorders of Arousal (DA and TS had significant correlation with seizures (P < 0.05 in CP children. Bed-sharing had significant correlation with SD in caregivers (P < 0.001 but not with CP children. No significant correlation was observed between SD in CP and gross motor function (Gross Motor Function Classification System, use of orthoses, and dental caries. Interpretation: Children with CP have underreported significant SD, which negatively impacts caregiver′s sleep also. Seizure disorders and medications contribute significantly to SD.

  9. Targeting paraoxonase-1 in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackness, Mike; Mackness, Bharti

    2013-07-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a Ca(2+) dependent, high-density lipoprotein-associated lactonase which is capable of retarding/inhibiting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. LDL oxidation is believed to be central to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, therefore, PON1 is considered to be atheroprotective. Relevant literature on PON1 was identified in PubMed. Here, we discuss the background to research on PON1 in atherosclerosis, the evidence for and against PON1 being atheroprotective, potential mechanisms of this atheroprotection and current knowledge on human PON1 regulation. Although current knowledge on PON1 indicates it to be atheroprotective, further clinical and basic studies are warranted to show that PON1 is causally linked to atherosclerosis, how it is atheroprotective and how it is regulated in vivo in humans.

  10. Acetylation of the pro-apoptotic factor, p53 in the hippocampus following cerebral ischemia and modulation by estrogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limor Raz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies demonstrate that acetylation of the transcription factor, p53 on lysine(373 leads to its enhanced stabilization/activity and increased susceptibility of cells to stress. However, it is not known whether acetylation of p53 is altered in the hippocampus following global cerebral ischemia (GCI or is regulated by the hormone, 17β-estradiol (17β-E(2, and thus, this study examined these issues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study revealed that Acetyl p53-Lysine(373 levels were markedly increased in the hippocampal CA1 region after GCI at 3 h, 6 h and 24 h after reperfusion, an effect strongly attenuated by 17β-E(2. 17β-E(2 also enhanced interaction of p53 with the ubiquitin ligase, Mdm2, increased ubiquitination of p53, and induced its down-regulation, as well as attenuated elevation of the p53 transcriptional target, Puma. We also observed enhanced acetylation of p53 at a different lysine (Lys(382 at 3 h after reperfusion, and 17β-E(2 also markedly attenuated this effect. Furthermore, administration of an inhibitor of CBP/p300 acetyltransferase, which acetylates p53, was strongly neuroprotective of the CA1 region following GCI. In long-term estrogen deprived (LTED animals, the ability of 17β-E(2 to attenuate p53 acetylation was lost, and intriguingly, Acetyl p53-Lysine(373 levels were markedly elevated in sham (non-ischemic LTED animals. Finally, intracerebroventricular injections of Gp91ds-Tat, a specific NADPH oxidase (NOX2 inhibitor, but not the scrambled tat peptide control (Sc-Tat, attenuated acetylation of p53 and reduced levels of Puma following GCI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The studies demonstrate that p53 undergoes enhanced acetylation in the hippocampal CA1 region following global cerebral ischemia, and that the neuroprotective agent, 17β-E(2, markedly attenuates the ischemia-induced p53 acetylation. Furthermore, following LTED, the suppressive effect of 17β-E(2 on p53 acetylation is lost, and p53

  11. How Can Atherosclerosis Be Prevented or Delayed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Atherosclerosis Be Prevented or Delayed? Taking action to control ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  12. A Right Middle Cerebral Artery Infarct After Frontal Eosinophilic Granuloma Resection in an 8-Year-Old Boy with Factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Ertugrul; Arslan, Erhan; Yazar, Ugur; Reis, Gokce Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Stroke in children is relatively uncommon. We describe an 8-year-old boy diagnosed with primary eosinophilic granuloma (EG) of the frontal bone. After excision of the EG, the postoperative course was eventful. The patient had an acute right middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarct and had been comatose with a diminished Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 5. Urgent decompressive hemicraniectomy with duraplasty was performed. The postoperative course after the second operation was uneventful. Hematological tests revealed a diagnosis of factor V Leiden. The patient was discharged with left hemiparesis and GCS of 15. To the best of our knowledge, no such clinical picture of MCA infarction after EG excision has been described before. Neurosurgeons should be aware of inherited thrombophilias, such as factor V Leiden, if the postoperative clinical course worsens because of cerebral artery thrombosis. Also, decompressive hemicraniectomy could be life saving and should be performed urgently without any hesitation.

  13. Endothelial dysfunction: the early predictor of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudau, Mashudu; Genis, Amanda; Lochner, Amanda; Strijdom, Hans

    2012-05-01

    Since the discovery in the 1980s that nitric oxide (NO) is in fact the elusive endothelium-derived relaxing factor, it has become evident that NO is not only a major cardiovascular signalling molecule, but that changes in its bioavailability are crucial in determining whether atherosclerosis will develop or not. Sustained high levels of harmful circulating stimuli associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes mellitus elicit responses in endothelial cells that appear sequentially, namely endothelial cell activation and endothelial dysfunction (ED). ED, characterised by reduced NO bioavailability, is now recognised by many as an early, reversible precursor of atherosclerosis. The pathogenesis of ED is multifactorial; however, oxidative stress appears to be the common underlying cellular mechanism in the ensuing loss of vaso-active, inflammatory, haemostatic and redox homeostasis in the body's vascular system. The role of ED as a pathophysiological link between early endothelial cell changes associated with cardiovascular risk factors and the development of ischaemic heart disease is of importance to basic scientists and clinicians alike.

  14. Intermittent hypoxia-activated cyclooxygenase pathway: role in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier-Veyret, Elodie; Arnaud, Claire; Bäck, Magnus; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Petri, Marcelo H; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Tamisier, Renaud; Lévy, Patrick; Stanke-Labesque, Françoise

    2013-08-01

    Intermittent hypoxia, the main stimulus of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), induces inflammation, leading to early atherosclerosis. Whether the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway contributes to intermittent hypoxia-induced atherosclerosis remains to be determined. We studied the effects of 8-weeks of intermittent hypoxia exposure on COX-pathway gene expression and atherosclerosis, and the influence of COX-1 inhibition by SC-560 on atherosclerosis progression in aortas of apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice. Urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (11-dTXB2) was assessed in 50 OSA subjects free of cardiovascular risk factor matched for age and body mass index with 25 controls, and 56 OSA with cardiovascular risk factor. Intermittent hypoxia significantly increased atherosclerotic lesion sizes, mRNA levels of COX-1 and thromboxane synthase (TXBS). Lesion sizes correlated to COX-1 (r = 0.654, p = 0.0003) and TXBS (r = 0.693, pintermittent hypoxia mice only (p = 0.04). Urinary 11-dTXB2 was similar in OSA subjects free of cardiovascular risk factor and controls, but was increased by 13% (p = 0.007) in OSA subjects with cardiovascular risk factor compared with those without. Although OSA itself was not associated with increased urinary 11-dTXB2 concentration, the COX-1 pathway was activated in intermittent hypoxia-exposed mice and in OSA subjects presenting with cardiovascular risk factor, and may contribute to intermittent hypoxia-induced atherogenesis. COX-1 inhibition could be of clinical interest in the prevention of cardiovascular morbidity in OSA.

  15. Long noncoding RNAs and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Ding, Jia-wang; Wang, Xin-an; Zheng, Xia-xia

    2016-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is universally recognized as a chronic lipid-induced inflammation of the vessel wall in response to dyslipidemia and haemodynamic stress involving dysfunction and activation of resident vascular cells as well as infiltration of leukocytes. As members of nonprotein-coding RNAs, the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in various biological processes. Accumulating evidences suggest that lncRNAs regulate the function of vascular wall, activation of macrophages, lipid metabolism and immune response. Here, we review the effects of lncRNAs on the progress of atherosclerosis.

  16. 急性脑梗死患者脑微出血的相关危险因素分析%Relative risk factors for cerebral microbleeds in acute cerebral infraction patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小强; 吴君仓; 张继; 群森; 岳宏; 赵昊; 张持; 吴倩; 刘祖欣

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解脑微出血(CMB)在急性脑梗死患者中的发生率,并对其危险因素进行分析.方法 选择我院2010年2月~2011年6月连续收治的82例急性脑梗死患者,根据MRI磁敏感加权成像上有无CMB分为2组,CMB组40例和无CMB组42例.比较2组患者的一般临床资料及生化指标,并进一步回归分析CMB发生的相关危险因素.结果 与无CMB组比较,CMB组患者TC、TG、LDL-C明显降低,同型半胱氨酸明显升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01);CMB组脑卒中比例有升高趋势,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 在急性脑梗死患者中CMB较常见,血浆同型半胱氨酸是CMB发生的独立危险因素.%Objective To investigate the incidence of cerebral microbleeds(CMB) in patients with acute cerebral infarction and analyze its risk factors. Methods Eighty-two patients with acute cerebral infarction admitted to our hospital from February 2010 to June 2011 were divided into CMB group(? = 40) and non-CMB group(w = 42) according to their MRI susceptibility-weighted imaging and CMB. General clinical data and biochemical variables were compared between two groups. Relative risk factors for CMB were analyzed by regression analysis. Results The total cholesterol, triglyceride. And LDL-C levels were significantly lower while the plasma homocysteine level was significantly higher in CMB group than in non-CMB group(P0. 05). Conclusion CMB usually occur in patients with acute cerebral infarction and plasma homocysteine level is an independent risk factor for it.

  17. Fine particulate matter air pollution and atherosclerosis: Mechanistic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuntao; Sun, Qinghua

    2016-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids and fibrous plaque in the arteries. Its etiology is very complicated and its risk factors primarily include genetic defects, smoking, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, lack of exercise, and infection. Recent studies suggest that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution may also contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. The present review integrates current experimental evidence with mechanistic pathways whereby PM2.5 exposure can promote the development of atherosclerosis. PM2.5-mediated enhancement of atherosclerosis is likely due to its pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory effects, involving multiple organs, different cell types, and various molecular mediators. Studies about the effects of PM2.5inhalation on atherosclerosis may yield a better understanding of the link between air pollution and major cardiovascular diseases, and provide useful information for policy makers to determine acceptable levels of PM2.5 air quality. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Air Pollution, edited by Wenjun Ding, Andrew J. Ghio and Weidong Wu. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Yindanxinnaotong, a Chinese compound medicine, synergistically attenuates atherosclerosis progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Long; Pan, Guo-feng; Zhang, Xiao-dong; Wang, Jian-lu; Wang, Wan-dan; Zhang, Jian-yong; Wang, Hui; Liang, Ri-xin; Sun, Xiao-bo

    2015-07-21

    Yindanxinnaotong (YD), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been introduced to clinical medicine for more than a decade, while its pharmacological properties are still not to be well addressed. This report aimed to explore the anti-atherosclerosis properties and underlying mechanisms of YD. We initially performed a computational prediction based on a network pharmacology simulation, which clued YD exerted synergistically anti-atherosclerosis properties by vascular endothelium protection, lipid-lowering, anti-inflammation, and anti-oxidation. These outcomes were then validated in atherosclerosis rats. The experiments provided evidences indicating YD's contribution in this study included, (1) significantly reduced the severity of atherosclerosis, inhibited reconstruction of the artery wall and regulated the lipid profile; (2) enhanced antioxidant power, strengthened the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and decreased malondialdhyde levels; (3) significantly increased the viability of umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to oxidative stress due to pretreatment with YD; (4) significantly reduced the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines; (5) significantly down-regulated NF-kB/p65 and up-regulated IkB in the YD-treated groups. Overall, these results demonstrated that YD intervention relieves atherosclerosis through regulating lipids, reducing lipid particle deposition in the endothelial layer of artery, enhancing antioxidant power, and repressing inflammation activity by inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappa B signal pathway.

  19. RIP3-dependent necrosis induced inflammation exacerbates atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Lingjun, E-mail: menglingjun@nibs.ac.cn [College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206 (China); Jin, Wei [Institute for Immunology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Yuhui [Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, Health Science Center, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Huang, Huanwei; Li, Jia; Zhang, Cai [National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2016-04-29

    Atherothrombotic vascular disease is already the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis shares features with diseases caused by chronic inflammation. More attention should concentrates on the innate immunity effect atherosclerosis progress. RIP3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3) act through the transcription factor named Nr4a3 (Nuclear orphan receptors) to regulate cytokine production. Deletion RIP3 decreases IL-1α production. Injection of anti-IL-1α antibody protects against the progress of atherosclerosis in ApoE −/− mice. RIP3 as a molecular switch in necrosis, controls macrophage necrotic death caused inflammation. Inhibiting necrosis will certainly reduce atherosclerosis through limit inflammation. Necrotic cell death caused systemic inflammation exacerbated cardiovascular disease. Inhibition of necrosis may yield novel therapeutic targets for treatment in years to come. - Highlights: • RIP3 regulate the Nr4a3 to control cytokine production. • Deletion RIP3 decreases IL-1a production. • Injection anti-IL-1a antibody protects against the progress of atherosclerosis. • RIP3 controls macrophage necrotic dead caused inflammation.

  20. Clinical profile, predisposing factors, and associated co-morbidities of children with cerebral palsy in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vykuntaraju K Gowda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common physical disorder of children. Causes like jaundice and birth injury though are decreasing; complications resulting from the survival of low birth weight babies are replacing some of the older etiologies. Hence, this study was planned. Objectives: The objective was to study the clinical patterns, predisposing factors, and co-morbidities in children with CP. Materials and Methods: The present study is a hospital based prospective study conducted from January 2012 to January 2013 in children presenting to neurodevelopmental clinic at a tertiary care teaching hospital in India. Hundred cases with clinical features suggestive of CP were included in the study. Cases were evaluated by history, clinical examination, and necessary investigations. Results: Results of the study showed 81% of spastic, 12% of hypotonic, 5% of dystonic, and 2% of mixed CP cases. The mean age of presentation was 2 year, 2 month, and male to female ratio of 1:2. Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH was the most common antenatal complication observed in 6%. Four percent had neonatal sepsis and 19% were born premature. Associated co-morbidities were mental retardation (55%, seizure disorder (46%, visual problems (26%, hearing problems (19%, and failure to thrive (47%. Discussion: Sex distribution observed in our study was male to female ratio of 1.2, which was comparable with a multicenter study in Europe. PIH was observed in 6% of cases, which was comparable with prior studies. Birth asphyxia was observed in 43% of cases. Eighty-one percent of the cases constituted a spastic variety of CP which was comparable to other studies. Conclusion: Perinatal asphyxia was the important etiological factor. We found preventable intranatal causes (60% and antenatal causes (20% forming a significant proportion. Co-morbidities were significantly observed in our study.

  1. Systemic Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Cerebral Cavernous Malformation Treated by Stereotactic Radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Jin; Park, Seong-Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Increased expression of angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is associated with the pathogenesis of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma levels of VEGF in normal subjects and in patients with CCM and to evaluate change in these levels following stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Peripheral venous blood was collected from 6 patients with CCM before SRS using Gamma Knife and at the 1 week, 1 month, 3month, and 6 month follow-up visits. Plasma VEGF levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 10 healthy volunteers as controls. Mean plasma VEGF level of 41.9 pg/mL (range, 11.7-114.9 pg/mL) in patients with CCM at baseline was higher than that of the healthy controls (29.3 pg/mL, range, 9.2-64.3 pg/mL), without significant differences between CCM patients and controls (p=0.828). Plasma VEGF level following SRS dropped to 24.6 pg/mL after 1 week, and decreased to 18.5 pg/mL after 1 month, then increased to 24.3 pg/mL after 3 months, and 32.6 pg/mL after 6 months. Two patients suffering from rebleeding after SRS showed a higher level of VEGF at 6 months after SRS than their pretreatment level. Plasma VEGF levels in patients with CCM were elevated over controls at baseline, and decreased from baseline to 1 month after SRS and increased further for up to 6 months. Theses results indicated that anti-angiogenic effect of SRS might play a role in the treatment of CCMs.

  2. Proteinuria as an independent risk factor for contrast-induced acute kidney injury and mortality in patients with stroke undergoing cerebral angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yiming; Dong, Wei; Li, Zhilian; Chen, Yuanhan; Liang, Huaban; Li, Ruizhao; Mo, Liyi; Xu, Lixia; Liu, Shuangxin; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Li; Liang, Xinling

    2017-05-01

    The correlation between proteinuria and contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients with cerebrovascular disease is still unknown. To determine whether proteinuria is a risk factor for CI-AKI and death in patients with stroke undergoing cerebral angiography. Data from 2015 patients with stroke undergoing cerebral angiography between January 2009 and December 2013 were retrospectively collected. Clinical parameters were obtained from the hospital's computerized database. All variables were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis. CI-AKI was seen in 85 patients (4.2%). After adjustment for potential confounding risk factors, patients with proteinuria had a fivefold higher risk of CI-AKI than patients without proteinuria (OR=5.74; 95% CI 2.23 to 14.83; pProteinuria did not increase in-hospital mortality (OR=1.25; 95% CI 0.49 to 3.17; p=0.639) but did increase 1-year mortality (HR=2.30, 95% CI 1.55 to 3.41, pProteinuria is an independent risk factor for CI-AKI and 1-year mortality in patients with stroke undergoing cerebral angiography. More attention should be paid to the development of CI-AKI in patients with stroke with proteinuria. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Factor neurotrófico derivado del cerebro en tejido cerebral de ratas sanas

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Serrano Sánchez; Lourdes Lorigados Pedre; Jorge Bergado Rosado; William Almaguer Melián; Jeffrey López Rojas; Esteban Alberti-Amador; Ivan Díaz Armesto; Jorge Felipe Montero León

    2009-01-01

    Hasta el presente se conocen cinco proteínas, estructuralmente relacionadas, que constituyen la familia de las neurotrofinas dentro de las que se encuentra el factor neurotrófico derivado del cerebro (FNDC), que tiene influencia sobre muchos tipos de neuronas en el sistema nervioso central, promoviendo en ellas su diferenciación, crecimiento y supervivencia. Esta proteína es importante en la neuroprotección, así como en los mecanismos de plasticidad sináptica. Teniendo en cuenta la importanci...

  4. [Factors significant for cerebral circulacion in patients with supratentorial brain tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sboev, A Yu; Dolgih, V T; Larkin, V I

    2013-01-01

    Using the Doppler ultrasonography method the condition of brain blood circulation of 90 patients with supratentorial brain tumors (gliomas--43, meningiomas--34, metastasis--9) during pre-surgical period was studied. The factors changing brain blood circulation at patients with with supratentorial brain tumors were brain displacement, increase of intracranial pressure, histologic structure and the first symptoms duration of illness. Localization (for an exception of an occipital lobe) and the size of a tumor directly didn't render influence on blood circulation parameters.

  5. Probiotics and atherosclerosis – a new challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yee Kwan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Atherosclerosis is the major cause of cardiovascular disease and stroke, which are among the top 10 leading causes of death worldwide. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs can activate toll-like receptors (TLRs and activate nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB signaling, a central pathway in inflammation, which regulates genes that encode proinflammatory molecules essential in atherogenesis. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS, which is unique to gram negative bacteria, as well as peptidoglycan (PGN, which is found in gram positive bacteria are PAMPS and ligands of TLR4 and TLR2, respectively, both of which are essential in plaque progression in atherosclerosis. Gastrointestinal tract is suggested to be the major site for absorption and translocation of TLR2 and TLR4 stimulants. Inflammation can result in a ‘leaky gut’ that leads to higher bacterial translocation, eventually the accumulation of LPS and PGN would activate TLRs and trigger inflammation through NFκB and promote further systemic complication like atherosclerosis. Probiotics, can protect the intestinal barrier to reduce bacterial translocation and have potential systemic anti-inflammatory properties.To evaluate whether probiotics can help reduce atherosclerotic development using in vivo study.Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE−/ −  mice were fed on high fat diet alone, with telmisartan (Tel (1 or 5 mg/kg/day, positive controls or with probiotics (VSL#3/LGG with or without Tel (1 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks.Probiotics, Tel, or a combination of both reduced lesion size at the aortic root significantly; VSL#3 reduced serum inflammatory adhesion molecules soluble E- (sE-selectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1, and plaque disrupting factor matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 significantly; probiotics and Tel at 5 mg/kg/day could induce changes in gut microbiota population; the efficiency of lesion reduction seemed

  6. The Role of Atherosclerosis, Hormones and Genes in Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hollander (Monika)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes the relation between atherosclerosis, hormones and genetic factors in relation to the risk of stroke. The results are based on the Rotterdam Study, a large population based cohort study among 7,983 persons aged 55 years or older. A total of 7,721 persons were free f

  7. Fibrinogen and atherosclerosis: A study in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, J.; Maas, A.; Rezaee, F.; Havekes, L.; Verheijen, J.; Gijbels, M.; Haverkate, F.

    1997-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that the combination of elevated VLDL/LDL concentrations and elevated fibrinogen levels results in a strong increase of the risk for cardiovascular dise

  8. Fibrinogen and atherosclerosis: A study in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, J.; Havekes, L.; Verheijen, J.; Gijbels, M.; Haverkate, F.

    1996-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that the combination of elevated VLDL/LDL concentrations and elevated fibrinogen levels results in a strong increase of the risk for cardiovascular dise

  9. The Role of Atherosclerosis, Hormones and Genes in Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hollander (Monika)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes the relation between atherosclerosis, hormones and genetic factors in relation to the risk of stroke. The results are based on the Rotterdam Study, a large population based cohort study among 7,983 persons aged 55 years or older. A total of 7,721 persons were free

  10. Evaluation of risk factors of infantile cerebral paralysis development in disabled children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseeva G.Yu.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research object: to detect the influence of qualitative and quantitative factors involved into ICP formation. Material: the research is based on the clinical observation, instrumental diagnostics and 147 disabled children with ICP aged under 4 rehabilitation campaign results analysis. Comparison group was composed from 39 children of similar age who were registered for observation by pediatric polyclinics neurologists and were rehabilitated. Results: 2 algorithms formed as decision trees, that were built using multivariate analysis methods were suggested and can be used in pediatric polyclinics for children with ICP formation threatening detection. Conclusion: the ICP formation can be forecasted in 93% of cases wrt prematurely born children with convulsive and hypertensive-hydrocephalic syndromes in aggregate with periventricular leukomalacia

  11. Factors causing prolonged hypoperfusion after transient ischemic attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Ashida, Keiichi; Iiji, Osamu; Imaizumi, Masatoshi (Osaka National Hospital (Japan))

    1993-02-01

    Even during the symptom-free stages, patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) often experience cerebral blood flow disturbances. In order to evaluate the factors which cause this abnormality, we studied the cerebral blood flow disturbance, anatomy and clinical status in 21 patients after TIAs. The results of [sup 99m]Tc-hexamethyl-propylene-amine oxime SPECT were compared with CT, cerebral angiogram, cerebrovascular risk factors and clinical findings to determine which factor is most responsible for the hypoperfusion of brain after TIA. The overall sensitivity rates in detecting a lesion were 67% in SPECT and 19% in CT. The hypoperfused area tended to be large in patients who had intracranial, severe stenotic, multiple, or hemodynamically significant arterial lesions on the ipsilateral side. No such relationships were found between other examinations. We conclude that hypoperfusion after TIA essentially reflects a continuous cerebral blood flow disturbance that can be attributed to atherosclerosis of the cerebral arteries, with subsequent embolic and/or hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, although there may be a variety of processes. (author).

  12. The pathological changes of inflammatory cells,smooth muscle cell and neo-vessels in the vulnerable carotid atherosclerosis plaque

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕鹤

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the inflammation, smooth muscle cells and neovessels change in the vulnerable carotid atherosclerosis plaque. Methods 6 male patients, aged between 66~73 years old, had the history of stroke or transient cerebral ischemic attacks of internal carotid artery system in a few days to 5 months. MRI and DSA re-

  13. [Calcified aortic valve disease: association with atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Rocío; Mangas, Alipio; Gómez, Francisco

    2011-05-14

    Calcified aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a prevalent condition, affecting 25% of people older than 65 years. CAVD and atherosclerosis share common risk factors and pathogenic mechanisms. Nevertheless, they present different pathologic lesions. The main factors involved in the pathogenesis of CAVD are genetic predisposition, the process of valvular calcification, deposition of lipoproteins, and chronic inflammation. Studies have suggested a potential benefit from early treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-II receptor blockers, and particularly with statins. Observational studies on risk factors for the CAVD, and randomized clinical trials on primary and secondary prevention in subjects with high risk for the disease, would be necessary to improve the clinical management of CAVD. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Cyclodextrin promotes atherosclerosis regression via macrophage reprogramming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease linked to elevated blood cholesterol concentrations. Despite ongoing advances in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Continuous retention of apolipoprotein B...... that increases cholesterol solubility in preventing and reversing atherosclerosis. We showed that CD treatment of murine atherosclerosis reduced atherosclerotic plaque size and CC load and promoted plaque regression even with a continued cholesterol-rich diet. Mechanistically, CD increased oxysterol production...... of CD as well as for augmented reverse cholesterol transport. Because CD treatment in humans is safe and CD beneficially affects key mechanisms of atherogenesis, it may therefore be used clinically to prevent or treat human atherosclerosis....

  15. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart diseas...

  16. Theobromine up-regulates cerebral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and facilitates motor learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Mitsugu; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Katakura, Masanori; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Tanigami, Hayate; Yachie, Akihiro; Ohno-Shosaku, Takako; Shido, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Theobromine, which is a caffeine derivative, is the primary methylxanthine produced by Theobroma cacao. Theobromine works as a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor to increase intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). cAMP activates the cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), which is involved in a large variety of brain processes, including the induction of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF supports cell survival and neuronal functions, including learning and memory. Thus, cAMP/CREB/BDNF pathways play an important role in learning and memory. Here, we investigated whether orally administered theobromine could act as a PDE inhibitor centrally and affect cAMP/CREB/BDNF pathways and learning behavior in mice. The mice were divided into two groups. The control group (CN) was fed a normal diet, whereas the theobromine group (TB) was fed a diet supplemented with 0.05% theobromine for 30 days. We measured the levels of theobromine, phosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (p-VASP), phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB), and BDNF in the brain. p-VASP was used as an index of cAMP increases. Moreover, we analyzed the performance of the mice on a three-lever motor learning task. Theobromine was detectable in the brains of TB mice. The brain levels of p-VASP, p-CREB, and BDNF were higher in the TB mice compared with those in the CN mice. In addition, the TB mice performed better on the three-lever task than the CN mice did. These results strongly suggested that orally administered theobromine acted as a PDE inhibitor in the brain, and it augmented the cAMP/CREB/BDNF pathways and motor learning in mice.

  17. Ginsenoside Reduces Cognitive Impairment During Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Through Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Regulated by Epigenetic Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qun; Ma, Xue; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Ting; Xia, Feng; Zhao, Gang; Wu, Yu-Mei

    2016-03-28

    Increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with memory-enhancing and neuroprotective properties of some drugs under chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) condition. Ginsenoside Rd (GSRd), one of the main active ingredients in Panax ginseng, is widely used for brain protection. However, it is poorly understood whether epigenetic mechanisms implied in the BDNF modulation after GSRd treatment for CCH remain elusive. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of GSRd and the involved mechanisms. We demonstrated that GSRd administration ameliorated CCH-induced impairment of learning and memory behaviors, evidenced by decreased escape latency and increased number of crossing the platform in Morris water maze test. This improvement was associated with promoted neuron survival and increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of CCH mice. GSRd improved neuron survival and decreased neuron apoptosis and the level of caspase-3 under oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) by upregulation of BDNF as well as in vitro. The levels of acetylated histone H3 (Ac-H3) and histone deacetylase (histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2)) were altered under OGD/R in a time-dependent manner, and GSRd reestablished the balance between Ac-H3 and HDAC2 which resulted in upregulation of BDNF and increased neuron survival. MS-275, an inhibitor of class I HDACs, abolished the levels of Ac-H3 at the bdnf promoters and enhanced upregulation of BDNF after GSRd administration, suggesting a synergistic effect between GSRd and MS-275. All the data suggested that GSRd provided neuroprotection by epigenetic modulation which accounted for the regulation of BDNF in CCH mice.

  18. Effects of age and cardiovascular risk factors on 18F-FDG PET/CT quantification of atherosclerosis in the aorta and peripheral arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasha, Ahmed K.; Moghbel, Mateen; Saboury, Babak; Gharavi, Mohammed H.; Blomberg, Bjorn A.; Torigian, Drew A.; Kwee, TC; Basu, Sandip; Mohler, Emile R.; Alavi, Abass

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To quantify fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in the aorta and peripheral arteries and assess the variation of 18F-FDG uptake with age and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: The subject population of this retrospective study comprises melanoma patients who underwent whole

  19. Dietary factor VII activation does not increase plasma concentrations of prothrombin fragment 1+2 in patients with stable angina pectoris and coronary atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Münster, A M; Marckmann, P

    2000-01-01

    tissue factor, the cofactor of FVII, to circulating blood; therefore, thrombin formation in response to FVII activation is more likely to occur in such patients. This hypothesis was tested in a randomized crossover study of 30 patients (aged 43 to 70 years) with stable angina pectoris...

  20. Therapeutic implications of melatonin in cerebral edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnasamy, Gurugirijha; Ling, Eng-Ang; Kaur, Charanjit

    2014-12-01

    Cerebral edema/brain edema refers to the accumulation of fluid in the brain and is one of the fatal conditions that require immediate medical attention. Cerebral edema develops as a consequence of cerebral trauma, cerebral infarction, hemorrhages, abscess, tumor, hypoxia, and other toxic or metabolic factors. Based on the causative factors cerebral edema is differentiated into cytotoxic cerebral edema, vasogenic cerebral edema, osmotic and interstitial cerebral edema. Treatment of cerebral edema depends on timely diagnosis and medical assistance. Pragmatic treatment strategies such as antihypertensive medications, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, barbiturates, steroids, glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists and trometamol are used in clinical practice. Although the above mentioned treatment approaches are being used, owing to the complexity of the mechanisms involved in cerebral edema, a single therapeutic strategy which could ameliorate cerebral edema is yet to be identified. However, recent experimental studies have suggested that melatonin, a neurohormone produced by the pineal gland, could be an effective alternative for treating cerebral edema. In animal models of stroke, melatonin was not only shown to reduce cerebral edema but also preserved the blood brain barrier. Melatonin's beneficial effects were attributed to its properties, such as being a potent anti-oxidant, and its ability to cross the blood brain barrier within minutes after its administration. This review summarizes the beneficial effects of melatonin when used for treating cerebral edema.

  1. Does cerebral large-artery disease contribute to cognitive impairment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kimura

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Impaired cognition was observed in some of the non-demented patients with CLAD. Older age, drinking habit, severe PVH and decreased cerebral perfusion contributed to their poor cognitive performance. Strict treatment of atherosclerosis and intervention for CLAD might be necessary to prevent cognitive decline in these patients.

  2. Effects of Acupuncture on mRNA Levels of Apoptotic Factors in Perihematomal Brain Tissue During the Acute Phase of Cerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuowei; Zheng, Xiaonan; Li, Ping; Itoua, Eudes Saturnin Régis; Moukassa, Donatien; Andely, Françoise Ndinga

    2017-01-01

    Background To explore the time-dependent effects of acupuncture on mRNA levels of the apoptotic factors BCL-2 and BAX in a rat cerebral hemorrhage model, slow injection of autologous blood to the caudate nucleus was used to generate the cerebral hemorrhage model. Material/Methods A sham surgery control group, groups with acupuncture applied 3, 9, 24, and 48 hours after model induction, and time-matched model-only control groups were used. In situ hybridization was used to detect BCL-2 and BAX mRNA expression, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure the expression. Results The number of BCL-2 and BAX mRNA-positive cells significantly increased during the acute phase of cerebral hemorrhage. BCL-2 mRNA was significantly upregulated in acupuncture groups compared to other groups, whereas BAX mRNA levels in the acupuncture groups were lower in the other groups, except for the sham surgery group. Additionally, earlier acupuncture intervention was associated with a lower ratio of expression between the two genes. Changes in BCL-2 and BAX mRNA expression were consistent with changes in the number of cells positive for BCL-2 and BAX mRNA; however, the change in the expression ratio was consistent with the change in the number of cells positive for BCL-2 mRNA, but opposite to the change in the number of cells positive for BAX mRNA. Conclusions Acupuncture ameliorated changes in expression of apoptotic factors in the brain induced by acute cerebral hemorrhage and may thus protect the brain, with greater efficacy when the delay before acupuncture was minimized. PMID:28357997

  3. Effects of Acupuncture on mRNA Levels of Apoptotic Factors in Perihematomal Brain Tissue During the Acute Phase of Cerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuowei; Zheng, Xiaonan; Li, Ping; Itoua, Eudes Saturnin Régis; Moukassa, Donatien; Ndinga Andely, Françoise

    2017-03-30

    BACKGROUND To explore the time-dependent effects of acupuncture on mRNA levels of the apoptotic factors BCL-2 and BAX in a rat cerebral hemorrhage model, slow injection of autologous blood to the caudate nucleus was used to generate the cerebral hemorrhage model. MATERIAL AND METHODS A sham surgery control group, groups with acupuncture applied 3, 9, 24, and 48 hours after model induction, and time-matched model-only control groups were used. In situ hybridization was used to detect BCL-2 and BAX mRNA expression, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure the expression. RESULTS The number of BCL-2 and BAX mRNA-positive cells significantly increased during the acute phase of cerebral hemorrhage. BCL-2 mRNA was significantly upregulated in acupuncture groups compared to other groups, whereas BAX mRNA levels in the acupuncture groups were lower in the other groups, except for the sham surgery group. Additionally, earlier acupuncture intervention was associated with a lower ratio of expression between the two genes. Changes in BCL-2 and BAX mRNA expression were consistent with changes in the number of cells positive for BCL-2 and BAX mRNA; however, the change in the expression ratio was consistent with the change in the number of cells positive for BCL-2 mRNA, but opposite to the change in the number of cells positive for BAX mRNA. CONCLUSIONS Acupuncture ameliorated changes in expression of apoptotic factors in the brain induced by acute cerebral hemorrhage and may thus protect the brain, with greater efficacy when the delay before acupuncture was minimized.

  4. Clinical significance of factor V leiden and prothrombin G20210A-mutations in cerebral venous thrombosis - comparison with arterial ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beye, Aida; Pindur, Gerhard

    2017-08-28

    Cerebrovascular diseases are considered in a different way concerning their etiology with regard to arterial and venous occlusion. The role of thrombophilia in this context remains undetermined. For this reason, a case-control study was conducted including a total of 202 patients (154 females, 48 males) aged from 18 to 76 years (mean: 39.8 years) suffering either from cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (n = 101) or from arterial ischemic stroke (n = 101). Study groups were evaluated on the basis of age- and gender-matched pairs. Gene mutations of factor V-1691 (factor V Leiden) and prothrombin-20210 being considered as the most common thrombophilia markers were analyzed in this study. Factor V Leiden-mutations were found in 16.8% of patients with cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CVT) and in 17.8% of patients with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), which was significantly more frequent than in controls at a rate of 4.95% (ORs: 3.89 and 4.16). Prothrombin-mutations were significantly more frequent in CVT at a rate of 14.9% versus 2.97% in controls (OR: 5.70). This does not apply for AIS showing a rate of 4.95% prothrombin-mutations. Rates of factor V Leiden-mutations are not different in CVT compared with AIS. In contrast, however, prothrombin-mutations were significantly more frequent in CVT than in AIS with a rate of 14.9% versus 4.95% (OR 3.35). Furthermore, 3 cases with combined heterozygosity of factor V Leiden- and prothrombin-mutation have been identified in CVT, but not in AIS or controls. All of the above mentioned mutations were exclusively heterozygous. We conclude from these data that thrombophilia in terms of factor V Leiden genotype is a risk factor for both CVT and AIS in equal measure. In contrast, prothrombin-20210-mutations were different playing a significant role in the pathogenesis of cerebral sinus vein- thrombosis, but not in arterial ischemic stroke. Also, the combined occurrence of heterozygous prothrombin- and factor V Leiden

  5. Fibrinogen and P-selectin expression in atherosclerosis model of Sprague Dawley rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bi-rong; PAN Ying; ZHAI Zhi-min

    2011-01-01

    Background Platelet P-selectin plays an important role in inflammation and contributes to thrombosis and hemostasis.Fibrinogen may take part in inflammation,thrombosis,and hemostasis via enhancement of platelet P-selectin expression.This study aimed to discover the correlation between them in atherosclerosis model of Sprague Dawley (SD) rat.Methods Diet-induced atherosclerosis SD rats were adopted as experimental models.The blood from the common abdominal aorta of the rats was obtained to measure the biochemical characteristics and for the check of flow cytometry.Then the aortas were separated carefully,taken out,put into 10% (w/v) neutral formalin for later use.Then fibrinogen and P-selectin expression were detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry.Results SD rats were induced to atherosclerosis model by high fat diet and vitamin D2 injected.It was discovered that the binding of fibrinogen and the expression of P-selectin on the platelet increase in atherosclerosis model (Group H)than in that in the control group (Group Z),there were closely interrelated.High levels of fibrinogen and P-selectin express on the artery of atherosclerosis rat model.Conclusions Fibrinogen and P-selectin are concerned with atherosclerosis.Fibrinogen can interact with P-selectin in order to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis,high levels of fibrinogen and P-selectin can be regarded as risk factors for markers of atherosclerosis.

  6. Cardiovascular disease due to accelerated atherosclerosis in systemic vasculitides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem

    2013-02-01

    Patients with different forms of systemic vasculitis experience long-term morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular disease due to premature atherosclerosis. Epidemiologic reports of patients with GCA suggest that long-term mortality in this disease is not increased compared with the general population of the same age. The risk of a stroke, however, in particular in the vertebrobasilar territory, is increased. In addition, the occurrence of aortic aneurysmal disease and aortic dissection is also clearly increased in GCA. Mortality due to ischaemic heart disease, however, is not increased. In Takayasu arteritis accelerated atherosclerosis has been clearly documented both clinically and in autopsy reports. Atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery may be present in the carotid arteries especially in patients with a documented history of arteritis involving the carotid artery. It is controversial whether Kawasaki disease is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Young adults with a history of Kawasaki disease may have abnormal brachial artery reactivity, increased carotid IMT values and increased arterial stiffness. At autopsy examinations of KD patients, however, no significant atherosclerotic lesions are detected and carotid IMT measurements were found to be clearly different from those in young adults with familiar hypercholesterolaemia, suggesting that the remodeling process in KD is different from atherosclerosis. In ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), an increased mortality as a consequence of cardiovascular disease is well-documented. In these patients the relative risk for coronary heart disease is two- to fourfold that in control subjects. In addition, a similar relative risk has been found for stroke. Diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity (metabolic syndrome), impaired renal function, persistent proteinuria and increased production of C-reactive protein are common risk factors for premature atherosclerosis in patients with

  7. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005188 No association between 3 polymorphisms of transforming growth factor β3 gene and essential hypertension in Chinese. HU Bang-chuan (呼邦传), et al. Shanghai Instit Hyperten Ruijin Hosp, Shanghai 2nd Med Univ Shanghai 200025. Chin J Cardiol, 2005;33(2):127-130. Objective: To investigate possible association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of transforming growth factor β3 (TGF-β3) gene and

  8. Effect of age on aortic atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael A. Chen; Miwa Kawakubo; Patrick M. Colletti; Dongxiang Xu; Laurie LaBree Dustin; Robert Detrano; Stanley P Azen; Nathan D. Wong; Xue-Qiao Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of atherosclerosis burden in the survivors of an asymptomatic elderly cohort study and its relationship to other coronary risk factors (specifically, age) by evaluating aortic atherosclerotic wall burden by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods A total of 312 participants in an ongoing observational cohort study underwent cardiac and descending thoracic aorta imaging by MRI. Maximum wall thickness was measured and the mean wall thickness calculated. Wall/outer wall ratio was used as a normalized wall index (NWI) adjusted for artery size difference among participants. Percent wall volume (PWV) was calculated as NWI × 100. Results In this asymptomatic cohort (mean age: 76 years), the mean (SD) aortic wall area and wall thickness were 222 ± 45 mm2 and 2.7 ± 0.4 mm, respectively. Maximum wall thickness was 3.4 ± 0.6 mm, and PWV was 32% ± 4%. Women appeared to have smaller wall area, but after correcting for their smaller artery size, had significantly higher PWV than men (P = 0.03). Older age was associated with larger wall area (P = 0.04 for trend) with similar PWVs. However, there were no statistically significant associations between standard risk factors, Framingham global risk, or metabolic syndrome status, therapy for cholesterol or hypertension, coronary or aortic calcium score, and the aortic wall burden. Aortic calcification was associated with coronary calcification. Conclusions Asymptomatic elderly in this cohort had a greater descending thoracic aortic wall volume that correlated with age, and women had a significantly increased PWV compared to men. In these survivors, the atherosclerotic aortic wall burden was not significantly associated with traditional risk factors or with coronary or aortic calcium scores or coronary calcium progression. Results suggest that age, or as yet unidentified risk factor(s), may be responsible for the increase in atherosclerosis.

  9. Studies on carotid artery atherosclerosis and its related factors in maintenance hemodialysis patients%维持性血液透析患者颈动脉粥样硬化及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭美华; 皮小陵; 徐琴芳; 傅立倩

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the formation of carotid artery atherosclerosis (CAS) and its potential causes in maintenance hemodialysis {MHD) patients. Methods We recruited 55 MHD cases and measured their physical dimensions of bilateral carotid arteries by using high resolution ultrasonography. They were then assigned into plaque positive group or plaque negative group. Data were compared between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis was performed to disclose the potential factors leading to plaque generation. Results Atherosclerotic plaque was found in 69.09% of the 55 MHD cases. The intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arteries was significant larger in plaque positive group than in negative group (P=0,001). Other significant differences between the two groups included age (P=0.000), hemoglobin (Hb) level (P=0.01) and C reactive protein (CRP) level (P=0.002). Logistic regression analysis indicated that older age 0=1.102, P=0.014) and higher CRP level (β=0.138, P=0.026) were the two major contribution factors for atherosclerotic plaque formation. Conclusions MHD patients have higher potential of CAS. Older age and higher CRP level are the two major risk factors for atherosclerotic plaque formation in carotid artery.%目的 了解慢性肾衰竭维持性血液透析(maintenance hemodialysis,MHD)患者颈动脉粥样硬化(carotid artery atherosclerosis,CAS)发生情况并分析其相关影响因素. 方法 收集55例MHD患者.采用高分辨B型超声多普勒方法测定其双侧颈动脉解剖,按斑块有无分为斑块阳性组和斑块阴性组.对2组各数据进行比较,并对斑块产生的各危险因素进行Logistic回归分析.结果 55例MHD患者中,颈动脉斑块发生率为69.09%.与斑块阴性组相比,阳性组患者颈动脉血管内皮厚度(即内膜-中层厚度,intima-media thickness,IMT)明显增加(P=0.001).2组患者在年龄(P<0.001)、血红蛋白(hemoglobin,Hb)水平(P=0.01)和C反应蛋白(Creactive protein

  10. Molecular imaging of atherosclerosis in translational medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Costanzo, Pierluigi; Marciano, Caterina; Vassallo, Enrico; Marsico, Fabio; Ruggiero, Donatella; Petretta, Maria Piera; Chiariello, Massimo [University Federico II, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular and Immunological Sciences, Naples (Italy); Dellegrottaglie, Santo [University Federico II, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular and Immunological Sciences, Naples (Italy); Mount Sinai Medical Center, Z. and M.A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute and M.-J. and H.R. Kravis Center for Cardiovascular Health, New York, NY (United States); Rudd, James H.F. [University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy); SDN Foundation, Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development, Naples (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Functional characterization of atherosclerosis is a promising application of molecular imaging. Radionuclide-based techniques for molecular imaging in the large arteries (e.g. aorta and carotids), along with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have been studied both experimentally and in clinical studies. Technical factors including cardiac and respiratory motion, low spatial resolution and partial volume effects mean that noninvasive molecular imaging of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries is not ready for prime time. Positron emission tomography imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose can measure vascular inflammation in the large arteries with high reproducibility, and signal change in response to anti-inflammatory therapy has been described. MRI has proven of value for quantifying carotid artery inflammation when iron oxide nanoparticles are used as a contrast agent. Macrophage accumulation of the iron particles allows regression of inflammation to be measured with drug therapy. Similarly, contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging is also being evaluated for functional characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. For all of these techniques, however, large-scale clinical trials are mandatory to define the prognostic importance of the imaging signals in terms of risk of future vascular events. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of related disease factors of children with cerebral palsy spastic%痉挛型脑瘫患儿发病的相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡会芹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the related disease factors of children with cerebral palsy spastic.Methods 89 chil-dren with spastic cerebral palsy from June 2009 to June 2013 in our hospital were collected and considered as the research ob-ject. The patient’s information was obtained by a questionnaire survey. The relationship between the morbidity of children with spastic cerebral palsy and the genetic factors ,environmental factors ,neonatal factors and maternal factors during pregnan-cy.Results The occurrence of children with spastic cerebral palsy had a correlation with the following factors :the skin color , weight and muscle tone of neonate at birth ,maternal education and living environment ,whether pregnant women experiencing serious stimulation and vaginal bleeding and using antipyretic analgesics ,and whether neonate having intracranial hemorrhage , birth asphyxia and fetal distress. Conclusion Genetic and environmental factors ,maternal condition during pregnacy and neo-natal factors have close relationship with children with spastic cerebral palsy. Strengthening the health care during pregnancy and neonatal nursing are very necessary in decreasing the incidence rate of children with spastic cerebral palsy.%目的:探讨痉挛型脑瘫患儿发病的相关因素。方法收集我院2009-06-2013-06就诊的痉挛型脑瘫患儿89例为研究对象。通过问卷调查获取相关信息,分析痉挛型脑瘫患儿发病与遗传因素、环境因素、孕期母亲因素及新生儿因素的关系。结果新生儿出生体质量、母亲学历、出生时的肌张力、皮肤颜色、孕妇是否经历过严重刺激、居住环境、孕期是否使用过解热镇痛药、孕期是否阴道出血、出生时是否有颅内出血、是否有出生窒息及是否有宫内窘迫这11项因素与痉挛型脑瘫的发生有关。结论遗传因素、环境因素、孕期母亲因素及新生儿因素与痉挛型脑瘫发生均有密切的关系,为减少脑

  12. Diet, atherosclerosis, and fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, W E; Connor, S L

    1990-01-01

    The principal goal of dietary prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease is the achievement of physiological levels of the plasma total and LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and VLDL. These goals have been well delineated by the National Cholesterol Education Program of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association. Dietary treatment is first accomplished by enhancing LDL receptor activity and at the same time depressing liver synthesis of cholesterol and triglyceride. Both dietary cholesterol and saturated fat decrease LDL receptor activity and inhibit the removal of LDL from the plasma by the liver. Saturated fat decreases LDL receptor activity, especially when cholesterol is concurrently present in the diet. The total amount of dietary fat is of importance also. The greater the flux of chylomicron remnants is into the liver, the greater is the influx of cholesterol ester. In addition, factors that affect VLDL and LDL synthesis could be important. These include excessive calories (obesity), which enhance triglyceride and VLDL and hence LDL synthesis. Weight loss and omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil depress synthesis of both VLDL and triglyceride in the liver. The optimal diet for the treatment of children and adults to prevent coronary disease has the following characteristics: cholesterol (100 mg/day), total fat (20% of calories, 6% saturated with the balance from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat), carbohydrate (65% of calories, two thirds from starch including 11 to 15 gm of soluble fiber), and protein (15% of calories). This low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet can lower the plasma cholesterol 18% to 21%. This diet is also an antithrombotic diet, thrombosis being another major consideration in preventing coronary heart disease. Dietary therapy is the mainstay of the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease through the control of plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels. The

  13. Mechanisms of electroacupuncture effects on acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injur y:possible association with upregulation of transforming growth factor beta 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-biao Wang; Lai-fu Yang; Qing-song He; Tong Li; Yi-yong Ma; Ping Zhang; Yi-sheng Cao

    2016-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at the head acupoints Baihui (GV20) and Shuigou (GV26) improves recovery of neurological function following isch-emic cerebrovascular events, but its mechanism remains incompletely understood. We hypothesized that the action of electroacupuncture at these acupoints is associated with elevated serum levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). To test this, we established a rat model of cerebral ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Electroacupuncture was performed at Baihui and Shuigou with a“disperse-dense”wave at an alternating frequency of 2 and 150 Hz, and at a constant intensity of 3 mA. Each electroacupuncture session lasted 30 minutes and was performed every 12 hours for 3 days. Neurological severity scores were lower in injured rats after acupuncture than in those not subjected to treatment. Furthermore, serum level of TGF-β1 was greater after electroacupuncture than after no treatment. Our results indicate that electroacupuncture at Baihui and Shuigou increases the serum level of TGF-β1 in rats with acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and exerts neuroprotective effects.

  14. EXPERIENCIA EMOCIONAL, FACTOR DETERMINANTE EN EL DESARROLLO CEREBRAL DEL NIÑO/A PEQUEÑO/A

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine Pepper,Ivonne

    2000-01-01

    Existe suficiente evidencia que demuestra la importancia de las experiencias emocionales tempranas en el establecimiento de redes neuronales y, en consecuencia, en el desarrollo cerebral del niño pequeño y en la construcción de la inteligencia. Ello hace necesario que los educadores la consideren en su trabajo educativo.

  15. Fetal cerebral ventricular atria width of 8-10mm: A possible prenatal risk factor for adolescent treated Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Gabis, Lidia V; Katorza, Eldad; Achiron, Reuven

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to study the in-utero and long term post-natal outcome of fetal isolated cerebral ventricular atria width between 8 and 10mm. We conducted a retrospective, observational, case-control study, of low risk pregnant women, between 1993 and 2001. One hundred and forty one fetuses with isolated cerebral ventricular atria width between 8 and 10mm, corresponding to 2-4 standard deviations above the mean, and 309 controls, with atrial width below this level, were included for the analysis. Clinical data concerning pre and post-natal outcome was retrieved from computerized medical records. Matching of cases with controls was based on age, with a ratio of 2-3 controls per case. Statistical analysis included: T-test, Chi-Square, and Multiple Logistic Regression analysis. The study group was characterized by a predominance of male gender, left side involvement, and higher birth weight, compared to the control group. Long term post-natal follow-up at a mean age of 12.7 years (±1.9) demonstrated an adjusted odds ratio of 2.589 (95% CI 1.415-4.737, p=0.001), being diagnosed as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and treated by Methylphenidate (Ritalin(®)), during childhood, compared to the control group (23.6% and 10.0% respectively) (p=0.001). Cerebral atria width was an independent factor, controlled for the only two significant variants between groups, gender and weight over 90th centile. In conclusions, our preliminary results show that fetuses with prenatal finding of isolated cerebral ventricular atria width between 8 and 10mm are more likely of being diagnosed and treated as ADHD during childhood.

  16. Oct-2 transcription factor binding activity and expression up-regulation in rat cerebral ischaemia is associated with a diminution of neuronal damage in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camós, Susanna; Gubern, Carme; Sobrado, Mónica; Rodríguez, Rocío; Romera, Víctor G; Moro, María Ángeles; Lizasoain, Ignacio; Serena, Joaquín; Mallolas, Judith; Castellanos, Mar

    2014-06-01

    Brain plasticity provides a mechanism to compensate for lesions produced as a result of stroke. The present study aims to identify new transcription factors (TFs) following focal cerebral ischaemia in rat as potential therapeutic targets. A transient focal cerebral ischaemia model was used for TF-binding activity and TF-TF interaction profile analysis. A permanent focal cerebral ischaemia model was used for the transcript gene analysis and for the protein study. The identification of TF variants, mRNA analysis, and protein study was performed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), qPCR, and Western blot and immunofluorescence, respectively. Rat cortical neurons were transfected with small interfering RNA against the TF in order to study its role. The TF-binding analysis revealed a differential binding activity of the octamer family in ischaemic brain in comparison with the control brain samples both in acute and late phases. In this study, we focused on Oct-2 TF. Five of the six putative Oct-2 transcript variants are expressed in both control and ischaemic rat brain, showing a significant increase in the late phase of ischaemia. Oct-2 protein showed neuronal localisation both in control and ischaemic rat brain cortical slices. Functional studies revealed that Oct-2 interacts with TFs involved in important brain processes (neuronal and vascular development) and basic cellular functions and that Oct-2 knockdown promotes neuronal injury. The present study shows that Oct-2 expression and binding activity increase in the late phase of cerebral ischaemia and finds Oct-2 to be involved in reducing ischaemic-mediated neuronal injury.

  17. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930082 Clinical administration of atrial natri-uretic factor in reno-vascular hypertension.ZHANG Weiguo(张卫国),et al.Cardiovasc In-stit & Fuwai Hosp,CAMS,Beijing.Chin Cir J1992;7(5):450-452.In order to evaluate the effects of atrial natri-uretic factor(ANF)on patients with reno-vas-cular hypertension,α-hANF(0.025μg/kg/min×60min)was administered to 7 patients byi.v.drip..The renin-angiotensin-aldosteronesystem,plasma catecholamine and arginine va-sopressin were suppressed with diuresis and na-triuresis and lowering of blood pressure.The

  18. Periodontal disease and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Freitas Toregeani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic disease (AD is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. It expresses inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP and can provoke arterial wall thickening, which can be evaluated using Doppler ultrasound. Risk factors associated with AD include diabetes mellitus, systemic arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia and smoking. More recently, periodontal disease (PD has been identified as a factor related to AD. Periodontal disease has a high prevalence in the global population and the inflammatory process and bacterial activity at the periodontium appear to increase the risk of AD. Encouraging good oral hygiene can reduce expression of inflammatory markers of AD. A review of literature on PD, AD and inflammatory markers and the interrelationships between the two diseases was conducted using data published in articles indexed on the PUBMED, SCIELO and BIREME databases.

  19. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest......Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  20. Changes of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and the Effects of Ulinastatin Injection during Cardiopulmonary Cerebral Resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫; 黄唯佳; 陈寿权; 李章平; 王万铁; 王明山

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The changes of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and brain ultrastructure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the effects of ulinastation injection were observed, and the mechanism was investigated. Twenty-four adult healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into.control group (8 rats), resuscitation group (8 rats) and ulinastatin (UTI) group (8 rats). Rats in control group underwent tracheotomy without clipping the trachea to induce circulatory and respiratory standstill. Rats in resuscitation and ulinastatin group were subjected to the procedure of establishing the model of cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation (CPCR). Rats in ulinastatin group were given with UTI 104 U/kg once after CPCR. In the control group, the plasma was collected immediate,30 min, 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h after tracheotomy. In resuscitation group and UTI group, plasma was collected immediate after tracheotomy, 30 min, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h after successful resuscitation. The plasma levels of TNF-α were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). At the end of the experi-ment, 2 rats were randomly selected from each group and were decapitated. The cortex of the brain was taken out immediately to observe the ultrastructure changes. In control group, there were nosignificant differences in the level of TNF-α among different time points (P>0.05). In resuscitation group, the level of TNF-α was increased obviously after resuscitation (P<0.01) and reached its peak 2 h later after resuscitation. An increasing trend of TNF-α showed in UTI group. There were no differences in TNF-α among each sample taken after successful resuscitation and that after tracheotomy. The utrastructure of brains showed the injury in UTI group was ameliorated as compared with that in resuscitation group. In early period of CPCR, TNF-α was expressed rapidly and kept increasing. It indicated that TNF-α might take part in the tissue injury after CPCR. The administration of UTI during CACR could depress TNF

  1. A review of plant-based compounds and medicinal plants effective on atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sedighi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is one of the most important cardiovascular diseases that involve vessels through the development of fatty streaks and plaques. Plant-based compounds can help treat or prevent atherosclerosis through affecting the involved factors. The main purpose of this review article is to investigate and introduce medicinal plants and their potential activities regarding antioxidant properties, effective on lipids level and development of plaque, atherosclerosis, and progression of atherosclerosis as well as the development of cardiovascular disease and ischemia. To search for the relevant articles indexed in Information Sciences Institute, PubMed, Scientific Information Database, IranMedex, and Scopus between 1980 and 2013, with further emphasis on those indexed from 2004 to 2015, we used these search terms: atherosclerosis, antioxidant, cholesterol, inflammation, and the medicinal plants below. Then, the articles with inclusion criteria were used in the final analysis of the findings. Plant-based active compounds, including phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidants, can be effective on atherosclerosis predisposing factors and hence in preventing this disease and associated harmful complications, especially through reducing cholesterol, preventing increase in free radicals, and ultimately decreasing vascular plaque and vascular resistance. Hence, medicinal plants can contribute to treating atherosclerosis and preventing its progression through reducing cholesterolemia, free radicals, inflammation, vascular resistance, and certain enzymes. They, alone or in combination with hypocholesterolemic drugs, can therefore be useful for patients with hyperlipidemia and its complications.

  2. Pharmacological effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen on cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Ching-Liang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Danshen, the dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, is a Chinese medicine used to promote blood flow and treat vascular disease. The present article reviews the pharmacological effects of Danshen on cerebral infarction and possible interactions between Danshen and Western drugs. Danshen may reduce or prolong the development of atherosclerosis and may have anti-hypertensive and anti-platelet aggregation effects, which prevent cerebral infarction. Danshen may enhance endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme activities such as the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and may scavenge oxygen free radicals. Prevention and treatment of cerebral infarction by Danshen involves multiple pathways, including anti-atherosclerosis, anti-hypertension, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

  3. The role of tumor necrosis factor-α and TNF-α receptors in cerebral arteries following cerebral ischemia in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddahi, Aida; Kruse, Lars S; Chen, Qing-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine, which is rapidly upregulated in the brain after injury. TNF-α acts by binding to its receptors, TNF-R1 (p55) and TNF-R2 (p75), on the cell surface. The aim of this study was first to investigate if there is altered expre...

  4. The role of tumor necrosis factor-α and TNF-α receptors in cerebral arteries following cerebral ischemia in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddahi, Aida; Kruse, Lars S; Chen, Qing-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine, which is rapidly upregulated in the brain after injury. TNF-a acts by binding to its receptors, TNF-R1 (p55) and TNF-R2 (p75), on the cell surface. The aim of this study was first to investigate if there is altered expre...

  5. New aspects on the metabolic role of intestinal microbiota in the development of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, Ioannis; Tavridou, Anna; Kolios, George

    2015-04-01

    Gut microbiota remains a very interesting, yet largely unexplored ecosystem inside the human organism. The importance of this ecosystem for the physiology and the pathophysiology of the organism is being slowly unraveled. Recent studies reveal a connection between intestinal microbiota and atherosclerosis development. It seems that alterations in the function and composition of this bacterial population lead through complex mechanisms to a high risk for atherosclerosis. Although these mechanisms remain largely unknown, published studies show that microbiota can lead to atherosclerosis either by augmenting known risk factors or via other, more "direct" mechanisms. This review article summarizes the available literature regarding this matter.

  6. Microvascular inflammation in atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vitiello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Atherogenesis is the pathogenetic process leading to formation of the atheroma lesion. It is associated to a chronic inflammatory state initially stimulated by an aberrant accumulation of lipid molecules beyond the endothelial barrier. This event triggers a cascade of deleterious events mainly through immune cell stimulation with the consequent liberation of potent pro-inflammatory and tissue damaging mediators. The atherogenetic process implies marked modifications of endothelial cell functions and a radical change in the endothelial–leukocyte interaction pattern. Moreover, accumulating evidence shows an important link between microvascular and inflammatory responses and major cardiovascular risk factors. This review illustrates the current knowledge on the effects of obesity, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes on microcirculation; their pathophysiological implications will be discussed.

  7. Significance of Haemodynamic and Haemostatic Factors in the Course of Different Manifestations of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: The SHEF-CSVD Study—Study Rationale and Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Staszewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. This paper describes the rationale and design of the SHEF-CSVD Study, which aims to determine the long-term clinical and radiological course of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD and to evaluate haemostatic and haemodynamic prognostic factors of the condition. Design. This single-centre, prospective, non-interventional cohort study will follow 150 consecutive patients with different clinical manifestations of CSVD (lacunar ischaemic stroke, vascular dementia, vascular parkinsonism or spontaneous deep, intracerebral haemorrhage and 50 age- and sex-matched controls over a period of 24 months. The clinical and radiological course will be evaluated basing on a detailed neurological, neuropsychological and MRI examinations. Haemodynamic (cerebral vasoreactivity, 24 h blood pressure control and haemostatic factors (markers of endothelial and platelet dysfunction, brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation test will be determined. Discussion. The scheduled study will specifically address the issue of haemodynamic and haemostatic prognostic factors and their course over time in various clinical manifestations of CSVD. The findings may aid the development of prophylactic strategies and individualised treatment plans, which are critical during the early stages of the disease.

  8. Interactions between inflammation and lipid metabolism: Relevance for efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, J.A. van; Berbée, J.F.P.; Havekes, L.M.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Dyslipidemia and inflammation are well known causal risk factors the development of atherosclerosis. The interplay between lipid metabolism and inflammation at multiple levels in metabolic active tissues may exacerbate the development of atherosclerosis, and will be discussed in this review. Cholest

  9. The Deubiquitinating Enzyme Cylindromatosis Dampens CD8+ T Cell Responses and Is a Critical Factor for Experimental Cerebral Malaria and Blood–Brain Barrier Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Ursula; Stenzel, Werner; Koschel, Josephin; Raptaki, Maria; Wang, Xu; Naumann, Michael; Matuschewski, Kai; Schlüter, Dirk; Nishanth, Gopala

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is a severe complication of human malaria and may lead to death of Plasmodium falciparum-infected individuals. Cerebral malaria is associated with sequestration of parasitized red blood cells within the cerebral microvasculature resulting in damage of the blood–brain barrier and brain pathology. Although CD8+ T cells have been implicated in the development of murine experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), several other studies have shown that CD8+ T cells confer protection against blood-stage infections. Since the role of host deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) in malaria is yet unknown, we investigated how the DUB cylindromatosis (CYLD), an important inhibitor of several cellular signaling pathways, influences the outcome of ECM. Upon infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) sporozoites or PbA-infected red blood cells, at least 90% of Cyld−/− mice survived the infection, whereas all congenic C57BL/6 mice displayed signatures of ECM, impaired parasite control, and disruption of the blood–brain barrier integrity. Cyld deficiency prevented brain pathology, including hemorrhagic lesions, enhanced activation of astrocytes and microglia, infiltration of CD8+ T cells, and apoptosis of endothelial cells. Furthermore, PbA-specific CD8+ T cell responses were augmented in the blood of Cyld−/− mice with increased production of interferon-γ and granzyme B and elevated activation of protein kinase C-θ and nuclear factor “kappa light-chain enhancer” of activated B cells. Importantly, accumulation of CD8+ T cells in the brain of Cyld−/− mice was significantly reduced compared to C57BL/6 mice. Bone marrow chimera experiments showed that the absence of ECM signatures in infected Cyld−/− mice could be attributed to hematopoietic and radioresistant parenchymal cells, most likely endothelial cells that did not undergo apoptosis. Together, we were able to show that host deubiqutinating enzymes play an important role in ECM and that CYLD promotes

  10. Nerve growth factor affects focal cerebral cortical neuronal Bcl-2 and Bax expression in a mouse model of oxyhemoglobin-induced subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianfeng Jiang; Wei Shi; Jin Liang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) can induce brain cell apoptosis in vivo.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) on cerebral cortical neuronal Bcl-2 and Bax expression in mice with OxyHb-induced subarachnoid hemorrhage.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A completely randomized grouping, controlled animal experiment was performed at the Experimental Center for Biomedicine, College of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University between February and April 2005.MATERIALS: Fifty-four healthy, male, adult, ICR mice were included in this study. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced by a subarachnoid injection of OxyHb in 48 mice. Mouse NGF was obtained from Xiamcn Beidazhilu Bioengineering Co., Ltd., China.METHODS: All 54 mice were randomly divided into three groups: control (n = 6), injury (n = 24), and NGF (n = 24). The NGF group received a subarachnoidal administration of OxyHb, immediately followed by a caudal vein injection of NGF (1 μg). The injury group was injected with OxyHb, and subsequently with physiological saline. Thc control group only received intravenous physiological saline.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At 1, 6, 24, and 48 hours following subarachnoid hemorrhage induction,expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by immunohistochemistry in the cerebral cortex 3 mm anterior and posterior to the injection site.RESULTS: At all time points following OxyHb injection, cerebral cortical Bax levels were significantly higher in the injured group than in the control and NGF groups (P < 0.01). During the first 24 hours following OxyHb injection, cerebral cortical Bcl-2 levels were significantly lower in the injury group compared to the control group (P < 0.05 0.01). Between 1 and 48 hours, Bcl-2 levels were significantly higher in the NGF group than in the injury group (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Exogenous NGF can inhibit increased neuronal Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2expression in the cerebral cortex of mice with Oxy

  11. Study on Related Factors of Recurrent Cerebral Infarction%复发性脑梗死相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨复发性脑梗死的相关因素.方法 选取2008年1月-2010年12月191例复发性脑梗死患者及525例同期入院的首发脑梗死患者的临床资料进行对照分析,并对其相关因素进行多因素非条件Logistic回归分析.结果 两组性别构成,糖尿病、饮酒、肾功能不全及蛋白尿发生率,血小板计数、同型半胱氨酸、尿酸、肌酐、C反应蛋白、空腹血糖、总胆固醇、三酰甘油、低密度脂蛋白及高密度脂蛋白水平比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).复发组年龄>60岁、有脑梗死家族史者所占比例,高血压、冠心病、吸烟、心房纤颤、慢性支气管炎及高纤维蛋白原发生率与对照组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).进一步进行多因素非条件Logestic回归分析,其中年龄>60岁[OR=2.021,95%CI(1.336,3.058),P=0.001]、高血压[OR=1.717,95%CI(1.054,2.796),P=0.030]、高纤维蛋白原[OR=1.492,95%CI(1.048,2.123),P=0.026]进入回归方程.结论 脑梗死复发是多因素的,年龄>60岁、高血压、高纤维蛋白原是复发性脑梗死的主要危险因素,针对可控制因素的治疗是预防脑梗死复发的重要途径之一.%Objective To explore the risk factors for recurrent cerebral infarction. Methods Clinical data of 191 patients with recurrent cerebral infarction and 525 patients with first time cerebral infarction from January 2008 to December 2010 were comparatively analyzed and multivariate unconditional Logistic regression analysis were used to analyze related factors. Results The sex ratio, diabetes, drinking, renal insufficiency, incidence of proteinuria, platelet count, homocysteine (HCY), uric acid, creatinine, C - reactive protein, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, LDL and HDL showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups ( P > 0. 05 ) . Compared with control group, age > 60 , history of cerebral infarction, hypertension, coronary disease

  12. Vasoespasmo cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. F. de Salles

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Vasoespasmo cerebral ocorre em patologias como enxaqueca, hemorragia subaracnóidea, trauma de crânio, após isquemia e/ou hipoxia. A fisiopatologia do vasoespasmo cerebral nestas patologias não está completamente desvendada. Neste artigo são analisados os fatores neuroquímicos e morfológicos responsáveis pelo controle circulatório cerebral. As alterações circulatórias que seguem a hemorragia subaracnóidea são utilizadas como exemplo. Conclui-se que fatores bioquímicos, fisiológicos e morfológicos são responsáveis pelas manifestações vasculares que ocorrem após a hemorragia subaracnóidea. Alternativas de tratamento do vasoespasmo cerebral são discutidas.

  13. Asthma is a risk factor for acute chest syndrome and cerebral vascular accidents in children with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Paul J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and sickle cell disease are common conditions that both may result in pulmonary complications. We hypothesized that children with sickle cell disease with concomitant asthma have an increased incidence of vaso-occlusive crises that are complicated by episodes of acute chest syndrome. Methods A 5-year retrospective chart analysis was performed investigating 48 children ages 3–18 years with asthma and sickle cell disease and 48 children with sickle cell disease alone. Children were matched for age, gender, and type of sickle cell defect. Hospital admissions were recorded for acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accident, vaso-occlusive pain crises, and blood transfusions (total, exchange and chronic. Mann-Whitney test and Chi square analysis were used to assess differences between the groups. Results Children with sickle cell disease and asthma had significantly more episodes of acute chest syndrome (p = 0.03 and cerebral vascular accidents (p = 0.05 compared to children with sickle cell disease without asthma. As expected, these children received more total blood transfusions (p = 0.01 and chronic transfusions (p = 0.04. Admissions for vasoocclusive pain crises and exchange transfusions were not statistically different between cases and controls. SS disease is more severe than SC disease. Conclusions Children with concomitant asthma and sickle cell disease have increased episodes of acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accidents and the need for blood transfusions. Whether aggressive asthma therapy can reduce these complications in this subset of children is unknown and requires further studies.

  14. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Atherosclerosis? Atherosclerosis usually doesn't cause signs and symptoms ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  15. PDGFRβ signalling regulates local inflammation and synergizes with hypercholesterolaemia to promote atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chaoyong; Medley, Shayna C; Hu, Taishan; Hinsdale, Myron E; Lupu, Florea; Virmani, Renu; Olson, Lorin E

    2015-07-17

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a mitogen and chemoattractant for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the direct effects of PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) activation on VSMCs have not been studied in the context of atherosclerosis. Here we present a new mouse model of atherosclerosis with an activating mutation in PDGFRβ. Increased PDGFRβ signalling induces chemokine secretion and leads to leukocyte accumulation in the adventitia and media of the aorta. Furthermore, PDGFRβ(D849V) amplifies and accelerates atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic ApoE(-/-) or Ldlr(-/-) mice. Intriguingly, increased PDGFRβ signalling promotes advanced plaque formation at novel sites in the thoracic aorta and coronary arteries. However, deletion of the PDGFRβ-activated transcription factor STAT1 in VSMCs alleviates inflammation of the arterial wall and reduces plaque burden. These results demonstrate that PDGFRβ pathway activation has a profound effect on vascular disease and support the conclusion that inflammation in the outer arterial layers is a driving process for atherosclerosis.

  16. Relation between preclinical atherosclerosis and venous thromboembolism in patients with thrombophilias - longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzký, O; Dembovská, R; Mrázková, J; Nováková, Š; Pagáčová, L; Piťha, J

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical atherosclerosis may represent a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). In longitudinal study we followed longitudinally 96 patients (32 men) with thrombophilias with (n=51) and without (n=45) history of VTE. In both groups we studied the changes of preclinical atherosclerosis at peripherally located arteries detected by ultrasound. In addition, we assessed changes in selected risk factors of atherosclerosis. During the mean follow-up of 56.0+/-7.62 months we did not find significant change in preclinical atherosclerosis defined as Belcaro score in either group (-3 % in the VTE group vs 0 % in non VTE group). Significant increase in body mass index (1.03+/-1.98 kg*m(-2), resp. 1.21+/-1.67 kg*m(-2), p<0.01) and non-significant increase in systolic blood pressure were detected in both groups. Waist circumference increased significantly only in patients without VTE (4.11+/-7.84 cm, p<0.05). No differences in changes of risk factors under study between both groups were detected. In summary, patients with thrombophilia and history of VTE showed no evidence of greater progression of atherosclerosis or increase in traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis than patients with thrombophilia without history of VTE. Unfavorable changes of body mass index, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were detected in both groups during study period.

  17. Cerebral Paragonimiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, I

    1975-01-01

    The first case of cerebral paragonimiasis was reported by Otani in Japan in 1887. This was nine years after Kerbert's discovery of the fluke in the lungs of Bengal tigers and seven years after a human pulmonary infection by the fluke was demonstrated by Baelz and Manson. The first case was a 26-year-old man who had been suffering from cough and hemosputum for one year. The patient developed convulsive seizures with subsequent coma and died. The postmortem examination showed cystic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobes. An adult fluke was found in the occipital lesion and another was seen in a gross specimen of normal brain tissue around the affected occipital lobe. Two years after Otani's discovery, at autopsy a 29-year-old man with a history of Jacksonian seizure was reported as having cerebral paragonimiasis. Some time later, however, it was confirmed that the case was actually cerebral schistosomiasis japonica. Subsequently, cases of cerebral paragonimiasis were reported. However, the majority of these cases were not confirmed histologically. It was pointed out that some of these early cases were probably not Paragonimus infection. After World War II, reviews as well as case reports were published. Recently, investigations have been reported from Korea, with a clinicla study on 62 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis seen at the Neurology Department of the National Medical Center, Seoul, between 1958 and 1964. In 1971 Higashi described a statistical study on 105 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis that had been treated surgically in Japan.

  18. The protective role of Sirt1 in vascular tissue: its relationship to vascular aging and atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Munehiro; Ogura, Yoshio; Koya, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to atherosclerosis is the main cause of death in both the elderly and patients with metabolic diseases, including diabetes. Aging processes contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Calorie restriction (CR) is recognized as a dietary intervention for promoting longevity and delaying age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis. Sirt1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, is considered an anti-aging molecule and is induced during CR. Sirt1 deacetylates target proteins and is linked to cellular metabolism, the redox state and survival pathways. Sirt1 expression/activation is decreased in vascular tissue undergoing senescence. Sirt1 deficiency in endothelial cells (ECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and monocytes/macrophages contributes to increased oxidative stress, inflammation, foam cell formation, senescences impaired nitric oxide production and autophagy, thereby promoting vascular aging and atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction, activation of monocytes/macrophages, and the functional and phenotypical plasticity of VSMCs are critically implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis through multiple mechanisms. Therefore, the activation of Sirt1 in vascular tissue, which includes ECs, monocytes/macrophages and VSMCs, may be a new therapeutic strategy against atherosclerosis and the increasing resistance to the metabolic disorder-related causal factors of CVD. In this review, we discuss the protective role of Sirt1 in the pathophysiology of vascular aging and atherosclerosis. PMID:27744418

  19. Comparison of Predictive Value of Cardiometabolic Indices for Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Chinese Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Xu; Fang-fang Zeng; Li-ping He; Wen-hua Ling; Wei-qing Chen; Yu-ming Chen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Metabolic disturbances are well-known risk factors for atherosclerosis, but it remains unclear which cardiometabolic components are the predominant determinants. This study aimed to compare and identify the key determinants of carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study including 3,162 apparently healthy residents aged 37–75 years was performed from July 2008 to June 2010 in Guangzhou, China. Carotid arter...

  20. Role and significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in nutrition in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ristić Vanja I.; Ristić Gordana N.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Hyperlipoproteinemia is a key factor in development of atherosclerosis, whereas regression of atherosclerosis mostly depends on decreasing the plasma level of total and LDL-cholesterol. Many studies have reported the hypocholesterolemic effect of linolenic acid. Types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) Linoleic and α-linolenic acids are essential fatty acids. The main sources of linoleic acid are vegetable seeds and of α-linolenic acid - green parts of plants. α-linolenic acid...

  1. Associated risk factors for silent cerebral infarcts in sickle cell anemia: low baseline hemoglobin, sex, and relative high systolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBaun, Michael R; Sarnaik, Sharada A; Rodeghier, Mark J; Minniti, Caterina P; Howard, Thomas H; Iyer, Rathi V; Inusa, Baba; Telfer, Paul T; Kirby-Allen, Melanie; Quinn, Charles T; Bernaudin, Françoise; Airewele, Gladstone; Woods, Gerald M; Panepinto, Julie Ann; Fuh, Beng; Kwiatkowski, Janet K; King, Allison A; Rhodes, Melissa M; Thompson, Alexis A; Heiny, Mark E; Redding-Lallinger, Rupa C; Kirkham, Fenella J; Sabio, Hernan; Gonzalez, Corina E; Saccente, Suzanne L; Kalinyak, Karen A; Strouse, John J; Fixler, Jason M; Gordon, Mae O; Miller, J Phillip; Noetzel, Michael J; Ichord, Rebecca N; Casella, James F

    2012-04-19

    The most common form of neurologic injury in sickle cell anemia (SCA) is silent cerebral infarction (SCI). In the Silent Cerebral Infarct Multi-Center Clinical Trial, we sought to identify risk factors associated with SCI. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the clinical history and baseline laboratory values and performed magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in participants with SCA (HbSS or HbSβ° thalassemia) between the ages of 5 and 15 years with no history of overt stroke or seizures. Neuroradiology and neurology committees adjudicated the presence of SCI. SCIs were diagnosed in 30.8% (251 of 814) participants who completed all evaluations and had valid data on all prespecified demographic and clinical covariates. The mean age of the participants was 9.1 years, with 413 males (50.7%). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, lower baseline hemoglobin concentration (P blood pressure (P = .018), and male sex (P = .030) were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of an SCI. Hemoglobin concentration and systolic blood pressure are risk factors for SCI in children with SCA and may be therapeutic targets for decreasing the risk of SCI. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00072761.

  2. Cerebral Palsy (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Right Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Teens > Cerebral Palsy Print A A ... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of the ...

  3. Binding of transcription factors to Presenilin 1 and 2 promoter cis-acting elements varies during the development of mouse cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Thakur, M K

    2016-08-15

    Previously, we reported differential expression of Presenilin (PS)1 and 2 and epigenetic modifications of their gene promoter in the cerebral cortex of mice during development. We identified the crucial role of DNA methylation and H3K9/14 acetylation in stage specific PS expression during brain development. Interestingly, we noted differential DNA methylation in putative binding sites of transcription factors considered pivotal for brain development. This prompted us to study the binding of transcription factors to cis-acting elements of PS1 and PS2 promoter in the cerebral cortex of mice during development. In-silico analysis revealed various cis-acting elements of PS1 and PS2 promoter and their putative transcription factors. We selected those cis-acting elements that were proven by wet lab experiments to interact with the transcription factors crucial for brain development. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that the binding of nuclear proteins to PS1 promoter cis-acting elements like HSF-1, Cdx1, Ets-1 and Sp1 significantly increased at embryonic day (E) 12.5, postnatal day (P) 45 and 20 weeks (w) as compared to P0. The binding pattern of these factors correlated well with the PS1 expression profile, indicating their cumulative influence on PS1 gene transcription. For PS2 promoter, the binding of Nkx2.2 and HFH-2 was high at prenatal stages (E12.5 and E18.5) while that of Cdx1 and NF-κB was maximum at postnatal stages (P45 and 20w). Taken together, our study shows that the binding of HSF-1, Cdx1, Ets-1 and Sp1 to PS1 promoter and that of Nkx2.2, HFH-2, Cdx1 and NF-κB to PS2 promoter regulate their differential expression during brain development.

  4. Plasma cholesterol-induced lesion networks activated before regression of early, mature, and advanced atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkegren, Johan L M; Hägg, Sara; Talukdar, Husain A; Foroughi Asl, Hassan; Jain, Rajeev K; Cedergren, Cecilia; Shang, Ming-Mei; Rossignoli, Aránzazu; Takolander, Rabbe; Melander, Olle; Hamsten, Anders; Michoel, Tom; Skogsberg, Josefin

    2014-02-01

    Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL) slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80%) and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr(-/-)Apob (100/100) Mttp (flox/flox)Mx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions.

  5. Plasma Cholesterol–Induced Lesion Networks Activated before Regression of Early, Mature, and Advanced Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkegren, Johan L. M.; Hägg, Sara; Jain, Rajeev K.; Cedergren, Cecilia; Shang, Ming-Mei; Rossignoli, Aránzazu; Takolander, Rabbe; Melander, Olle; Hamsten, Anders; Michoel, Tom; Skogsberg, Josefin

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL) slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80%) and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr−/−Apob 100/100 Mttp flox/floxMx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24586211

  6. Plasma cholesterol-induced lesion networks activated before regression of early, mature, and advanced atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan L M Björkegren

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80% and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr(-/-Apob (100/100 Mttp (flox/floxMx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions.

  7. In-Vivo Assessment of Coronary Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Rodriguez-Granillo

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIntravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has emerged as a highly accurate tool for the serial assessment of the natural history of coronary atherosclerosis and to evaluate the effect of different conventional and emerging drug therapies on the progression of atherosclerosis. The contemporary a

  8. Cytokines in atherosclerosis: an intricate balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, M.C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying pathology in the majority of clinical manifestations of cardiovascular diseases, which are nowadays the main global cause of mortality. Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. This inflammatory response, with cytokines as

  9. Vascular dopamine-I receptors and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Kano, H; Yokokawa, K; Minami, M; Yoshikawa, J

    1997-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation are believed to play key roles in atherosclerosis. To elucidate the role of vascular dopamine D1-like receptors in atherosclerosis, the effects of dopamine, specific D1-like agonists SKF 38,393, and YM 435 on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB-mediated VSMC migration, proliferation, and hypertrophy were studied. We observed that cells stimulated by 5 ng/ml PDGF BB showed increased migration, proliferation and hypertrophy. These effects were prevented by coincubation with dopamine, SKF 38,393, or YM 435 at 1-10 mumol/l, and this prevention was reversed by Sch 23,390 (1-10 mumol/l), a specific D1-like antagonist. These actions are mimicked by 1-10 mumol/l forskolin, a direct activator of adenylate cyclase and 8-bromocyclic AMP at 0.1-1 mmol/l. The actions are blocked by a specific protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor N-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamino) ethyl]-5-isoquinoline-sulfonamide (H 89), but are not blocked by its negative control, N-[2-(N-formyl-p-chlorocinnamylamino) ethyl]-5-isoquinoline sulfonamide (H 85). PDGF-BB (5 ng/ml)-mediated activation of phospholipase D (PLD), protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity were significantly suppressed by coincubation with dopamine. These results suggest that vascular D1-like receptor agonists inhibit migration, proliferation and hypertrophy of VSMC, possibly through PKA activation and suppression of activated PLD, PKC and MAPK activity.

  10. Risk Factors Associated With Incident Cerebral Microbleeds According to Location in Older People: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Garcia, Melissa; Phillips, Caroline L; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van Buchem, Mark A; Launer, Lenore J

    2015-06-01

    The spatial distribution of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), which are asymptomatic precursors of intracerebral hemorrhage, reflects specific underlying microvascular abnormalities of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (lobar structures) and hypertensive vasculopathy (deep brain structures). Relatively little is known about the occurrence of and modifiable risk factors for developing CMBs, especially in a lobar location, in the general population of older people. To investigate whether lifestyle and lipid factors predict new CMBs in relation to their anatomic location. We enrolled 2635 individuals aged 66 to 93 years from the population-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study in a brain imaging study. Participants underwent a baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the brain from September 1, 2002, through February 28, 2006, and returned for a second MRI examination from April 1, 2007, through September 30, 2011. Lifestyle and lipid factors assessed at baseline included smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and serum levels of total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. Incident CMBs detected on MRIs, which were further categorized as exclusively lobar or as deep. During a mean follow-up of 5.2 years, 486 people (18.4%) developed new CMBs, of whom 308 had lobar CMBs only and 178 had deep CMBs. In the multivariate logarithm-binomial regression model adjusted for baseline cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, antihypertensive use, prevalent CMBs, and markers of cerebral ischemic small-vessel disease, heavy alcohol consumption (vs light to moderate consumption; relative risk [RR], 2.94 [95% CI, 1.23-7.01]) was associated with incident CMBs in a deep location. Baseline underweight (vs normal weight; RR, 2.41 [95% CI, 1.21-4.80]), current smoking (RR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.11-1.94]), an elevated serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (RR per 1-SD increase, 1.13 [95

  11. Relative risk factors for cerebral microbleeds in acute cerebral infraction patients%急性脑梗死患者中脑微出血危险因素的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒孔亮

    2013-01-01

      目的了解急性脑梗死患者脑微出血(CMB)的发生率,分析其危险因素。方法选择2008年3月-2012年3月住院的急性脑梗死患者122例,行MRI磁敏感加权成像,根据有无CMB分为两组,对其一般临床资料和临床生化指标进行比较,探讨急性脑梗死合并CMB的相关危险因素;根据CMB的程度分为三组,分析颈动脉内膜增厚与CMB程度之间的关系。结果CMB组血清HDL水平显著性高于非CMB组(P<0.05),LDL水平显著性低于非CMB组(P<0.05)。年龄、高血压、脑卒中史、吸烟史在CMB组中的比例显著性高于非CMB组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。CMB患者颈动IMT异常率显著性高于无CMB组(χ2=7.05,P<0.05),并且在轻、中、重三组中IMT异常率也具有显著差异(χ2=8.83,P=0.02)。结论在急性脑梗死患者中,CMB发生与年龄、高血压、脑卒中史、吸烟史、颈动脉内膜增厚、血清HDL及LDL水平相关。%Objective To investigate the incidence of cerebral microbleeds(CMB) in patients with acute cerebral infarction and analyze its risk factors. Methods 122 patients with acute cerebral infarction admitted to our hospital from March 2008 to March 2012 were divided into CMB group(n=51) and non-CMB group(n=71) according to their MRI susceptibility-weighted imaging. General clinical data and biochemical variables were compared between two groups to explore relative risk factors of CMB. The patients were divided into three groups according to the extent of the CMB, and the relationship between carotid IMT level and the degree of CMB were analysised. Results The LDL levels were significantly lower while the HDL level was significantly higher in CMB group than non-CMB group(P<0.05). The proportion of age, hypertension, stroke history and history of smoking in the CMB groups were significantly higher than the non-CMB group(P<0.05). The abnormal rate of IMT in CMB group were significantly higher than the non

  12. 载脂蛋白E基因多态性与颈动脉粥样硬化相关性的研究进展%Research progress of apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and carotid atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任歆; 李志坚; 王文蕾

    2014-01-01

    Hiperlipidemia and carotid atherosclerosis are important risk factors of cerebrovascular disease. Studies find that apolipoprotein E in plasma can regulate lipid metabolism to maintain