Keywords: Agriculture, Renewable Energy, Fossil, Fuel, Sustainability Article History: Received Nov 16th 2016; Received in revised form January 12nd 2017; Accepted 3rd February 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Mohammadi, M and Yavari, G. (2017 Factors affecting the use and development of solar energy in Iran's agricultural sector. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 6(1,45-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.1.45-53
Full Text Available We have started from the analysis of existing human resources in the paper, from the point of view of regional, qualification and age structure of the active labour force. Basic research method is deduction method, because we start from the general towards special and individual, with the aim to bring human factor and development of agriculture in Montenegro into connection. With regards to the key role of the human factor in the development of agriculture, a question emerges: is this factor in Montenegro a real opportunity or a constraint? Upon having insight into the existing situation of the human factor, we can conclude that there is an obvious discrepancy between demographic and economic centres. Expressed migration of the population from the north towards the south and from villages to cities brought the development of agricultural production into question. When the human factor engaged in agriculture is concerned, old population and elderly households prevail, which is a serious threat to the development, because depopulation and 'senilization' caused abandoning villages, deagrarization and space devastation.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the impact of factors determining the transition to organic farming and provide some recommendations for government’s policy relating to organic farming. Material and research method. An analysis was based on questionnaire survey on the willingness of organic farming by small farmers in the province of Jiangsu. Binary logistic regression model was used in the research. Concluding remarks. Five factors affecting organic agricultural production were discovered: farmers’ age, risk preferences, labour costs, expected benefi ts and the environment. On this ground, the authors suggest, that Chinese government should adopt policies assisting farmers in the transition to organic farming for the sustainable development of China’s organic agriculture. Cooperation of farmers’ cooperatives and research institutions to improve organic farming techniques should also be promoted.
Irina Elena PETRESCU
Full Text Available This paper represents an analysis of the level of labor productivity in agriculture for each development region of Romania. Labor productivity in agriculture was analyzed by two parameters, namely: the value of agricultural production and the number of employees in agriculture for the period 2011 – 2012. The level of labor productivity is influenced by the quality of biological and bio-capacity of plants and animals as well, as well as the equipment and quality of work performed. From the factorial analysis it can be noticed a decrease of labor productivity caused by a decrease in the value of agricultural production.
Pavel Mikhailovich Sovetov
Full Text Available The article considers the results of a questionnaire survey carried out in 2011 –2013 by the Department of Production Management at the Vologda State Dairy Farming Academy Named after N.V. Vereshchagin. The survey was supported by the Vologda Oblast Department of Agriculture, Food Stocks and Trade in the framework of ongoing research into the issues of transition of agricultural economy to innovation development. The authors present and systematize the opinions of the heads of the region’s agricultural enterprises concerning the challenges and opportunities of innovation-investment activity of agricultural organizations
R?y, Inna U.; Shakulikova, Gulzada T.; Kozhakhmetova, Gulnar A.; Lashkareva, Olga V.; Bondarenko, Elena G.; Bermukhambetova, Botagoz B.; Baimagambetova, Zamzagul A.; Zhetessova, Mariyam T.; Beketova, Kamar N.; Anafiyaeva, Zhibek
Agricultural problems associated with prospects of the rural population and agriculture in general have recently become an important factor in the modern economic policy development. The urgency of finding ways to improve the labor resource efficiency in agriculture pursuant to the state tasks is determined by the need to restore the agricultural…
This paper analyzes the characteristics of agricultural products from the perspective of agricultural production, farmers’ income, adjustment of agricultural structure and environmental improvement, and analyzes the characteristics of agricultural products in LanZhou area. Through data mining and empirical analysis, the regional agriculture (1) forecasting model of gray system with dynamic data processing, combined with the output data of lily in 2004-2003, the yield prediction is predicted and the fitting state is good and the error is small. Finally, combined with the relevant characteristics of the local characteristics of the agricultural industry to make reference, by changing the characteristics of agricultural production as the center of the mindset, and agricultural industrialization and organic combination, take the characteristics of efficient industrialization of agricultural products.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give an overview and analyze the contemporary land tenure relations in Russia in view of their influences on economic viability of agricultural production. The paper investigates progress made toward the development of agricultural land market in economies in transition. The research is made with emphasis on Stavropol Krai, agricultural region in the southern part of Russia. The authors retrospectively address land tenure relations in the region, analyze contemporary tendencies, and discover linkages between land tenure relations and sustainable agricultural development. The later concept is understood here as economic viability of agricultural production. The paper focuses on the potential approaches for resolving specific problem issues in the sphere of sustainable agricultural development through effective land tenure relations. The paper is concluded with the substantiation of methodology of land rent payment, the size of which is made conditional on land productivity and effectiveness of agricultural production.
Full Text Available The investigation performed bellow has the goal of showing how the ecological situation can be improved through worm- culture, meaning the bioconversion of organic offal. This can be achieved by obtaining valuable organic fertilizers and ecological agricultural production by wormculture.
The study on Myanmar consists mainly of field surveys conducted in agro-ecologically distinct sites in two townships in Myanmar , namely Thonegwa Township in the delta area and Monywa Township in the central dry zone. Survey design covers the profiles of the study sites, respondents and their households, overall conditions of secondary farming, the marketing and industrial processing systems, the effect of agricultural diversification on poverty alleviation, risk mitigation and environmental ...
Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying and analyzing issues and challenges on the agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework. The survey consisted of two groups: agricultural researchers of Agriculture-Research and Education Organization and all faculty members of public agricultural faculties of Ministry of Scientific, Research and Technology. Using Cochran sampling formula and multi-stage sampling method, 188 researchers and 205 faculty members were selected in order to fill in the survey questionnaire. Using the SPSS, collected data analyzed based on explanatory factor analysis. Totally, factor analysis of three sets of issues and challenges on the agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework led to extract 13 factors, including agricultural structure and policy, infrastructure and resources of agricultural development, supportive services for agricultural development (level of agricultural development, investment and capacity building in research and technology, management of research and technology development, research and technology productivity, research culture, networks for research and technology development (level of national innovation system, agricultural research policy, impacts and effectiveness of agricultural research and technology development, integrated management of research and technology, institutional development for agricultural research and technology and systematic synergy of agricultural research and higher education (level of agricultural innovation system. Totally, these three sets of factors explained 64%, 75% and 73% of the total variances. Finally, using conceptual clustering for the extracted factors, a conceptual model of issues and challenges of agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework was presented.
A long-range program is needed to maximize and sustain world food production without destroying its ecological base. Attempts to make more land available for cultivation and to increase crop yields must incorporate environmental planning as well. The most-pressing agricultural problems are soil loss because of environmental degradation, erosion, runoff, and urbanization. The large-scale use of pesticides, whose inefficient application leaves residues in food and leads to new resistant species, and irrigration projects, which lead to salination and alkalinization of groundwater and the spread of water-borne diseases, as well as other problems are dealt with best by using strategies that work with nature and natural systems. (DCK)
Full Text Available Romania has favourable conditions to develop the agriculture thanks to its significant agricultural land, climate conditions and labour force employed in this sector. In the last decades, the economic transition has determined major structural transformations within the agriculture sector, which generated certain disparities between the performance of Romania's agriculture and that of the EU's developed countries. This paper deals with the relationship between the size of agricultural holdings and the performance of the agricultural production factors in Romania. In order to achieve the paper's goal, we used the Data Envelopment Analysis and the comparative analysis, taking into account the features of the other EU countries. The research findings revealed that the efficiency of production factors used in agriculture is low and, therefore, a new organization of holdings is required. This can lead to an optimal sizing of the holdings, so that the differences in performance compared to the EU's developed countries to be minimized or even eliminated.
Full Text Available Agriculture today is a strategic point of a country's economy, providing food based on population, development of internal and external trade and manufacturing industries by supplying raw materials. For Romania, this branch is a strong point both in terms climatic (temperate, balanced relief, soil quality and at the same time is also a way of national development and convergence of rural areas to their full potential untapped. With strong reforms, well implemented, a specific legislative framework which aims to protecting private property, Romania could reduce the low efficiency and can have a sustainable agriculture. The paper aimed to present the advantages of consuming organic products, and, on the other hand, the advantages of a country in terms of organic farming. European agriculture is a competitive, market-oriented, but also protecting the environment model.
The Journal of Agricultural Research and Development aims at publishing research reports, short communications, Critical Reviews in Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Agronomy, Forestry, Animal Science, Food Technology, Soil Science, Home Economics, Agricultural Extension, Rural development, ...
Bezemer, Dirk; Headey, Derek
Throughout history, agriculture-led development strategies with state support programs have been essential to achieving rapid economy-wide growth, poverty reduction, and structural transformation. Yet over the last three decades, the domestic and international policy environments have continued to
Dec 13, 2010 ... Irrigation, chemicals, and crop technology are transforming agriculture around the world. Farmers from developing countries are challenged by these changes, affecting livelihoods, food security, environment, and health. Using ecohealth approaches, researchers can better understand the complex ...
Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... The purpose of the study is to determine the factors promoting agricultural research in Nigerian universities. Stratified ... Major findings of the study showed that funding, collaboration and ICT promote agricultural research in Nigerian universities.
Vsevolod Babushkin; Margarita Ignatyeva
In this paper, an estimation of condition and level of development of agricultural mechanical engineering is given; also an expert estimation of scales of the Russian market of agricultural machinery is given. The factors negatively influencing formation of the named market are designated. Features and prospects of development of agricultural mechanical engineering of Sverdlovsk region are defined. State regulation mechanisms of domestic agricultural mechanical engineering development are des...
Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management - A Sourcebook Volume 3 : Doing Participatory Research and Development. Couverture du livre Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management : A.
Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management - A Sourcebook Volume 1 : Understanding Participatory Research and Development. Couverture du livre Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture And Natural Resource Management : A.
Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei
Xinjiang's agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991-2014. The agriculture belonged to the "low emissions and high efficiency" agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.
Abstract. The purpose of the study is to determine the factors promoting agricultural research in Nigerian universities. Stratified sampling ..... tremendously since you started using computers. 3.08 .84. Agree. 13. You find enough research information in electronic resources. 3.17 .76. Agree. 14. You now read journals on-line.
Agricultural experts in the field of biotechnology in Iran were surveyed in order to explore their perception about factors influencing the participation of public sector in developing agricultural biotechnology in Iran. Based on the results of the study, policy making, marketing, infrastructural, educational and research factors ...
The management of agricultural development projects is a factor that can contribute to their success or failure. In worst-case scenarios poorly managed projects seem to continue with a life of their own and without clear direction. In the cycle of agricultural development projects, including programmed extension, major pitfalls ...
Food insecurity: challenges of agricultural extension in developing countries. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... However, food insecurity has remained a problem throughout much of the developing world and is the result of such factors as slow (as well as highly variable) growth in domestic food ...
Misselbrook, T. H.; Van Der Weerden, T. J.; Pain, B. F.; Jarvis, S. C.; Chambers, B. J.; Smith, K. A.; Phillips, V. R.; Demmers, T. G. M.
Ammonia (NH 3) emission inventories are required for modelling atmospheric NH 3 transport and estimating downwind deposition. A recent inventory for UK agriculture, estimating emission as 197 kt NH 3-N yr -1, was constructed using 1993 statistical and census data for the UK. This paper describes the derivation of the UK-based emission factors used in the calculation of that emission for a range of livestock classes, farm practices and fertiliser applications to agricultural land. Some emission factors have been updated where more recent information has become available. Some of the largest emission factors derived for each farming practice include 16.9 g NH 3-N dairy cow -1 d -1 for grazing, 148.8 g NH 3-N liveweight unit -1 yr -1 for housed broilers and 4.8 g NH 3-N m -2 d -1 for storage of solid pig and poultry waste as manure heaps. Emissions for land spreading of all livestock waste were 59% of the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) applied as a high dry matter content slurry and 76% of TAN applied as farm yard manure. An updated estimate of emission from UK agriculture, using updated emission factors together with 1997 statistical and census data, is presented, giving a total of 226 kt NH 3-N per year.
Full Text Available Because of the fact that specialty agricultural assistance is not always available when the farmers need it, we identified expert systems as a strong instrument with an extended potential in agriculture. This started to grow in scale recently, including all socially-economic activity fields, having the role of collecting data regarding different aspects from human experts with the purpose of assisting the user in the necessary steps for solving problems, at the performance level of the expert, making his acquired knowledge and experience available. We opted for a general presentation of the expert systems as well as their necessity, because, the solution to develop the agricultural system can come from artificial intelligence by implementing the expert systems in the field of agricultural insurance, promoting existing insurance products, farmers finding options in depending on their necessities and possibilities. The objective of this article consists of collecting data about different aspects about specific areas of interest of agricultural insurance, preparing the database, a conceptual presentation of a pilot version which will become constantly richer depending on the answers received from agricultural producers, with the clearest exposure of knowledgebase possible. We can justify picking this theme with the fact that even while agricultural insurance plays a very important role in agricultural development, the registered result got from them are modest, reason why solutions need to be found in the scope of developing the agricultural sector. The importance of this consists in the proposal of an immediate viable solution to correspond with the current necessities of agricultural producers and in the proposal of an innovative solution, namely the implementation of expert system in agricultural insurance as a way of promoting insurance products. Our research, even though it treats the subject at an conceptual level, it wants to undertake an
Aksoy, M. Ataman; Beghin, John C.
Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries explores the outstanding issues in global agricultural trade policy and evolving world production and trade patterns. This book presents research findings based on a series of commodity studies of significant economic importance to developing countries. Setting the stage with background chapters and investigations of cross-cutting issues, the authors describe trade and domestic policy regimes affecting agricultural and food markets and analyz...
Azadi, Hossein; Ghanian, Mansour; Ghuchani, Omid M.; Rafiaani, Parisa; Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Hajivand, Roghaye Y.; Dogot, Thomas
The present debate on how to increase global food production in a sustainable way has focused on arguments over the pros and cons of genetically modified (GM) crops. Scientists in both public and private sectors clearly regard GM technology as a major new set of tools, whereas industry sees it as an opportunity for increased profits. However, it remains questionable whether GM crops can contribute to agricultural growth, agricultural development, and agricultural sustainability. This review p...
Faulkner, W. B.; Shaw, B. W.
Ammonia emissions from agricultural industries are a significant source of atmospheric reactive nitrogen, which can lead to negative environmental consequences such as ecosystem change and formation of fine particulate. While a number of emission factors (EFs) have been proposed for developing ammonia emissions inventories for the US, most are based on European research with little discussion of their applicability to US production systems. Recently developed ammonia EFs from literature for animal feeding operations (AFOs), including production facilities for beef and dairy cattle, swine, and poultry, are presented. Tentative EFs for US animal agriculture are suggested until further research can be conducted. Currently, there is a dearth of EFs developed specifically for agricultural production practices in the US.
Greater involvement of farmers in development and dissemination of agricultural technology is a key component in current reforms of ... its members to engage in demand-driven agricultural services in Soroti district and thereby contributed to the success of .... long training in integrated production and pest management.
Ethiopia is an agrarian country that can have enormous benefit from the applications of biotechnology for increasing its agricultural productivity. The country is at initial stages of research and development in agricultural biotechnology with scattered efforts underway in various public institutions. Research efforts and ...
This paper reviewed the wide range of policies and approaches formulated and implemented to effect agricultural and rural development in Nigeria. The paper reveals that the common feature of all the strategies is the use of institutionalized agricultural extension service, devoted principally to augment smallholder ...
We invest in projects that bring food, nutrition, and income to small-scale farmers and their families. ... Contribute to the development of improved market access and agricultural value chains for smallholders. Support ... Funding. The Agriculture and Food Security program funds research primarily through competitive calls.
This article highlights the contribution to sustainable agricultural development of various nuclear techniques, and describes the methods developed and promoted by the IAEA's Laboratories at Seibersdorf and Vienna. After a general introduction to the applications of nuclear techniques in agriculture there follow sections devoted to soil fertility, irrigation and crop production; agrochemicals and residues; insect pest control; and plant breeding. A second article, to appear in the next edition of the IAEA Bulletin, will focus on environmental aspects of sustainable development
Full Text Available The aim of the work is to study the state of development of agriculture in Ukraine. The indicators of production and yield of the main agricultural crops and production of the main types of livestock products are analysed. The main directions of the development of agriculture are determined taking into account the transformations in the agrarian sphere. Solutions of the problem of investment support for the development of agriculture are investigated. The main factors that restrain the growth of the industry and inhibit the development of agricultural enterprises are given. Based on the results of the analysis, the main problems that the sector has faced recently are identified and the issues that require priority solutions are listed. The subject is the theoretical and methodological foundations and practical recommendations on the search for reserves for the development of the agricultural sector. Methodology. The study is based on a comparison of data from 2009 to 2015, using statistical compilations. The results of the research showed that the livestock sector begins to decline in Ukraine and this means that in the further such situation, it is possible to lose the opportunity not only to export livestock products abroad but also to meet the domestic needs of the country’s population. The state of agriculture in Ukraine is considered. The results showed that the main reserves of the development of agriculture in Ukraine are the state regulation, assessment of the attractiveness of the investment climate, the use of environmentally safe technologies, the use of modern technologies and mechanisms for the economic stimulation of production and processing of agricultural products. Value/originality. The data obtained during the research years of the main reserves of agricultural development in Ukraine are able to provide a better understanding of the state of the agricultural sector in the conditions of the economic downturn in general and in
Full Text Available Economic development within rural areas of the Republic of Moldova is affected by multiple issues which cross the agricultural individual sector development. One of the main factors that would influence positively the development of agriculture is investment. Investment plays an important role on the country's economy, representing the material support of its economic and social development. It ensures the permanent capital increase, advances the technical and economic efficiency of existing ones and creates new places of employment. In this context, investment is the decisive element of economic growth, of the intensive, qualitative and effective factors promotion.
Abstract The analysis of which factors affect the development of European agricultural policy, the CAP, combines economic, political and historic methods to examine the interaction between politicians, farmers and voters/taxpayers. The objective of this PhD thesis is to examine the development...... and persistence of agricultural policy in the EU, based on the hypothesis that the political process and the agricultural structure are linked together. This is achieved through an examination of the foundation, the Danish farm household income and the future of agricultural support. The result of this study...... is that the foundation of agricultural policy in Europe depends on domestic policy, thus how the policy measures will affect voters. The farm households in Denmark have a living standard which is equal to rest of the society....
The emphasis on accelerated agricultural development by developing countries was meant to achieve food security. However, food insecurity has remained a problem throughout much of the developing world and is the result of such factors as slow (as well as highly variable) growth in domestic food production, rapid ...
Molineros Andrade, J.
The Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission has elaborated a plan for development of nuclear energy, the construction of a 1-3 MW Nuclear Reactor for Research and production of radioisotopes and of the related laboratories. Agriculture is a very important part of this plan, in the following areas: genetics, irrigation, plant and animal nutrition and metabolisms, and pest and disease control. Ecuadorian agriculture institutions have also been considered in this plan. (Author)
The challenges of food security and agricultural development in South Africa cannot simply be solved by limiting extension and research development to the public sector. However, if shortcomings arise in the public sector while addressing extension, research and development, the potential involvement of the private sector ...
Biofuels are socially and politically accepted as a form of sustainable energy in numerous countries. However, cases of environmental degradation and land grabs have highlighted the negative effects to their adoption. Smallholder farmers are vital in the development of a biofuel industry. The study sort to assess the implications in the adoption of biofuel crops by smallholder farmers. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 129 smallholder farmers who were sampled from the Easter...
Siwar, C.; Hossain, E.
Despite significantly contributing to country's overall economic development through providing employment for the people and supplying raw materials for agro- and resource based industrial development, agriculture is putting serious burden on the environment in the process of production and consumption of agricultural produce. It is the largest consumer and polluter of water resources and contributor of atmospheric pollution, land degradation and forest reduction. Agriculture-environmental relationship is complex and the relationship depends on the spatial and biophysical factors and country's level of economic development. This paper tried to document the linkages between agricultural practices and policies with environment. The channels, through which agriculture impacts the environment, is discussed. It is seen that multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture interacts with the domestic agricultural policy reforms to determine the environmental impacts of agriculture. It is seen that agricultural policy reforms and agricultural trade liberalization can have separate environmental effects in the developed and developing countries. A wide range of theoretical and empirical literatures are reviewed, in this paper, to understand the concepts, linkages and environmental problems. Finally, this paper ends up with the conclusion that integrating environmental considerations into domestic agricultural policies and implementing agro-environmental programmes may ensure the decline of environmental problems of agriculture in both the developed and developing countries. (author)
Lesschen, Jan Peter; Velthof, Gerard L.; Vries, Wim de; Kros, Johannes
Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) direct soil emissions from agriculture are often estimated using the default IPCC emission factor (EF) of 1%. However, a large variation in EFs exists due to differences in environment, crops and management. We developed an approach to determine N 2 O EFs that depend on N-input sources and environmental factors. The starting point of the method was a monitoring study in which an EF of 1% was found. The conditions of this experiment were set as the reference from which the effects of 16 sources of N input, three soil types, two land-use types and annual precipitation on the N 2 O EF were estimated. The derived EF inference scheme performed on average better than the default IPCC EF. The use of differentiated EFs, including different regional conditions, allows accounting for the effects of more mitigation measures and offers European countries a possibility to use a Tier 2 approach. - Highlights: → We developed an N 2 O emission factor inference scheme for agricultural soils. → This scheme accounts for different N-input sources and environmental conditions. → The derived EF inference scheme performed better than the default IPCC EF. → The use of differentiated EFs allows for better accounting of mitigation measures. - Emission factors for nitrous oxide from agricultural soils are derived as a function of N-input sources and environmental conditions on the basis of empirical information.
Zhao, Jingzhu; Luo, Qishan; Deng, Hongbing; Yan, Yan
This paper introduces the concepts and aims of sustainable agriculture in China. Sustainable agricultural development comprises sustainability of agricultural production, sustainability of the rural economy, ecological and environmental sustainability within agricultural systems and sustainability of rural society. China's prime aim is to ensure current and future food security. Based on projections of China's population, its economy, societal factors and agricultural resources and inputs between 2000 and 2050, total grain supply and demand has been predicted and the state of food security analysed. Total and per capita demand for grain will increase continuously. Total demand will reach 648 Mt in 2020 and 700 Mt in 2050, while total grain yield of cultivated land will reach 470 Mt in 2010, 585 Mt in 2030 and 656 Mt in 2050. The per capita grain production will be around 360kg in the period 2000-2030 and reach 470kg in 2050. When productivities of cultivated land and other agricultural resources are all taken into consideration, China's food self-sufficiency ratio will increase from 94.4% in 2000 to 101.3% in 2030, suggesting that China will meet its future demand for food and need for food security. Despite this positive assessment, the country's sustainable agricultural development has encountered many obstacles. These include: agricultural water-use shortage; cultivated land loss; inappropriate usage of fertilizers and pesticides, and environmental degradation.
This paper illuminates the nature and inception of Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives and their failure in sustainable development and poverty alleviation throughout various historical-political eras due to such (periodic-policy) institutional constraints requiring removal if sustainable development is to be achieved in any ...
The International Journal of Agricultureand Rural Development (IJARD) is an International Journal designed to provide information in the areas of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics. The main aim is to disseminate information resulting from the research experience of Scientists working in all the fields ...
processing, control engineering, etc. This thesis proposes a Model-Driven Software Develop- ment based approach to model, analyse and partially generate the software implementation of a agricultural robot. Furthermore, Guidelines for mod- elling the architecture of an agricultural robots are provided......The design and development of agricultural robots, consists of both mechan- ical, electrical and software components. All these components must be de- signed and combined such that the overall goal of the robot is fulfilled. The design and development of these systems require collaboration between...... mul- tiple engineering disciplines. To this end, architectural specifications can serve as means for communication between different engineering disciplines. Such specifications aid in establishing the interface between the different com- ponents, belonging to different domains such as image...
Industrialization of agricultural scientific and technological achievements has become an extremely important part in agricultural structural adjustment and agricultural economic development. Basic models for industrialization of Chinaâ€™s agricultural scientific and technological achievements should be: (i) integrating scientific and technological development and production relying on large enterprises; (ii) integrating scientific research and development with agricultural scientific and tec...
Full Text Available Financial institutions present on the market become more attentive when they have to give loans to the agriculture sector. The lack of necessary guarantees the low profit registered in agricultural district, economy instability and other things had and continue to have a negative impact on the evolution of agricultural sector, this being seen as one with a high level of risk. Commercial banks use less own funds for lending to agriculture and especially when the loans are guaranteed from various funds, programs or foreign donor agencies. Farmers find it difficult to bank loans because of collateral amount required is too high. However, commercial banks in Moldova provide agricultural loans, thus increasing the economic efficiency of agriculture.
Weissenburger-Moser, Lisa; Meza, Jane; Yu, Fang; Shiyanbola, Oyewale; Romberger, Debra J; LeVan, Tricia D
Agricultural workers are at an increased risk of developing chronic respiratory disorders. Accurate estimation of long-term agricultural exposures based on questionnaires has been used to improve the validity of epidemiologic investigations and subsequent evaluation of the association between agricultural exposures and chronic diseases. Our aim was to use principal factor analysis (PFA) to distill exposure data into essential variables characterizing long-term agricultural exposures. This is ...
Research has shown that CA when properly practised can lead to increased yield, improved soil structure and increased utilization of agricultural resources. Despite CA's numerous benefits, some farmers in developing nations are reluctant to adopt the farming system. The reasons behind this are immense and diverse and ...
Inevitably conflicts and contradictions arise. This paper focuses on the inherent conflicts and contradictions which come in the way of operationalising the concept of sustainable development in the context of Rwandan agriculture. The importance of this paper emerges from the backdrop of the state, politics and society in ...
262. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 10(2): 262 – 275, 2017. ISSN:1998-0507 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v10i2.12. Submitted: January 27, 2017. Accepted: March 20, 2017. Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ilorin, Ilorin. Nigeria. Abstract.
Stevenson, Russell; Locke, Virginia O.
This history of the Agriculture Development Council (ADC) consists of eight chapters and four appendices. Chapter 1 traces the early years of the ADC, from its inception in 1953 to 1957, the year of the retirement of the council's first director, J. Lossing Buck. The chapter covers the role of John D. Rockefeller, III, the incorporation of the…
The study was conducted to assess the extension service delivery within the Agricultural Development Programmes of Southwest Nigeria after the cessation of the World Bank funding between 1996 and 2013. Primary data were collected from 201 extension agents across 50% of the states in the area of study using ...
Anna M. Shkolyarenko
Full Text Available Population growth in the context of limited land resources makes the global scientific society research new ways to increase the agricultural yields. Over the past 20 years, biotechnology and GM crops have become widely spread and now are cultivated in 28 countries. The total area of crops has tripled, and it suggests the further vertical and horizontal integration in short term. In 2015, the US Department of Agriculture authorized the commercial use of GM farm animals. The development of agricultural biotechnology market is constrained by opponents of GM crops in more than 160 countries, which include Russia and the European Union, where the production of GM crops is banned due to economic, ethical, ideological and biological reasons. Currently, the EU is seeking to reduce the imports of GM crops and products; Russia's GM imports and exports are prohibited, and the deadline of designing a consolidated position on agricultural biotechnology has been moved to 2017. The author seeks to analyze the volume of production and international trade of agricultural products based on biotechnologies and to describe the main trends in the global market, which could be integrated into the food value chain in Russia. In the context of the worsening economic indicators, the article proposes the possibility of extending the use of GM crops in Russia non-food sector.
Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.
Mohammad Karim Motamd
Full Text Available In order to identify different agricultural services, by correlation-descriptive method, the present study attempts to prioritize demands of villagers for agricultural services, determine the role of effective factors on serving villagers through discriminant analysis and compute correlation between demands of agricultural services with education services through Spearman's Coefficient in Guilan Agricultural Jihad centers. The results showed that the five demands of services which had the priority were related to applicants of agricultural machines, draft discussion for fertilizer, facilities for livestock and poultry units, quota of fuel for agricultural machines and agricultural units and demands related to rice agronomy. In addition,educational services had a positive correlation with educational needs of villagers and staff factor enjoyed more important role in compare with human resource factor, equipment and rural coordination to offer services. Regarding that priorities in service demands from the centers requires providing credits, cooperation to establish local funds to provide agricultural machines which is the first demands of villagers and agreeing with collective ownership of these agricultural instruments are proper options so that the fund could be effective to provide other inputs and credits.
The study investigated the role of youths in agricultural development in Makurdi Local Government area (LGA) of Benue State. Interview schedules were used to collect data from 120 youths selected through random sampling procedure from Makurdi LGA. Descriptive and inferential statistics namely, mean and factor ...
竹内, 重吉; 南石, 晃明; Takechi, Shigeyoshi; Nanseki, Teruaki
In recent years, information and communication technology develops and ICT is utilized for production control, personnel training and the like in agricultural production. However, there are few papers studied about the factor of ICT use and its effects in agricultural corporation. In this paper, the factor which influences the ICT use and its effect in agricultural corporation was clarified quantitatively by logit model based on the nationwide questionnaire survey. As the result, ICT use and ...
Suhaimi Masduki; Aini Zakaria
Photosynthetically derived biomass and residues, including waste products from food processing industries are renewable. They accumulate every year in large quantities, causing deterioration to the environment and loss of potentially valuable resources. The conserved energy is potentially convertible; thermodynamically the energy can be tapped into forms which are more amenable for value added agricultural applications or for other higher value products such as chemicals or their feedstocks. The forms and types in which this biomass has to be modified for the intended use depend on the costs or the respective alternatives. Under current situations, where chemical feedstocks are available in abundance at very competitive prices, biomass is obviously more suitably placed in the agro-industrial sector. Recycling of the biomass or residues into the soil as biofertilizers or for some other uses for agricultural applications requires less intense energy inputs for their improvements. Highly efficient biological processes with microorganisms as the primary movers in the production of the desired end products indeed require less capital costs than in most other industrial entities. In this paper, the various processes, which are potentially valuable and economically feasible in the conversion of biomass and residues for several products important in the agricultural sector, are described. Emphasis is given to the approach and the possible permutations of these processes to arrive at the desired good quality products for sustainable agricultural development. (Author)
Cui, M J; Chen, Y; Li, Y; Hu, J; Zhang, X J
Objective: To examine the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers. Methods: A total of 103 drivers (who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year based on the road traffic injury registrar from the Traffic Management Bureau) who were involved in the annual agricultural vehicle inspection from December 2014 to January 2015 were randomly sampled from the Yixing Agricultural Vehicle Station as the case group for this study. Based on a 1∶2 assignment ratio and matched for sex, age, and education, a total of 206 drivers who had not suffered any agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year were selected as the control group. The general information, vehicle information, driving information, driving behavior, and accident details of the agricultural vehicle drivers were analyzed. Results: The incidence rate of road traffic injury was 7.24% given the 103 agricultural vehicle drivers who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury in the past year. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that drinking, debt, pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, smoking and phone use during driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers ( OR =2.332, 2.429, 19.778, 5.589, 8.517, 2.125, 3.203, 10.249 and 5.639, respectively) . Multivariate logistic regression analysis also demonstrated that pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers ( OR =12.139, 11.184, 6.729, 5.939, and 6.544, respectively) . Conclusion: Pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness are the major risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers.
Chernyaeva, Victoria A.; Teng, Xiuyi; Sergio
China and Russia are both agriculture countries, agricultural environment sustainable development is very important for them. The paper studies three main agricultural wastes: straw, organic waste and plastic waste, and analyzes their treatments with the view of agricultural sustainable development.
... Fishery Management, Agronomy, Forestry and Wildlife resources, Soil Science, Agricultural Engineering and Food Processing. The School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University fo Technology, Owerri, Nigeria publishes the Journal. The International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development is ...
KEY WORDS: Agricultural Productivity, Credit policies, Agricultural development, Monetary policies and Cross River State ... and a clear definition of the monetary objectives. However, governments in most tropical African countries have been compelled to intervene in the economy ..... An Introduction to monetary Theory.
The present and history of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences in China were studied in order to explore its law of development. The conclusion is that the human resource was one of the key factors and the system of market economy or plan economy was not an important factor for restricting the development of nuclear agricultural sciences in China
Full Text Available In the last decade, an ever increasing interest of both foreign and domestic academic and general public for organic agriculture can be observed. Organic agriculture, as a new agricultural production system, enables full utilization of farming potentials while satisfying social and economic needs and preserving natural ecosystem and environment. Act on Organic Production of Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs provides an elementary strategic frame for agricultural production development in Republic of Croatia. This article gives an overview of organic agriculture legislation in Croatia and detailed analysis of development periods of organic agriculture. Special emphasis is put on structure of organic production which highlights data on organic plant and animal production in Croatia. The paper provides a comparison between levels of organic agriculture development in the world (with the special emphasis on Europe and in Croatia, as well as the overview of main obstacles towards more significant development of organic agriculture in Republic of Croatia.
Agriculture plays an important role in the national economy of Pakistan, where most of the rapidly increasing population resides in rural areas and depends on agriculture for subsistence. Biotechnology has considerable potential for promoting the efficiency of crop improvement, food production, and poverty reduction. Use of modern biotechnology started in Pakistan since 1985. Currently, there are 29 biotech centers/institutes in the country. However, few centers have appropriate physical facilities and trained manpower to develop genetically modified (GM) crops. Most of the activities have been on rice and cotton, which are among the top 5 crops of Pakistan. Biotic (virus/bacterial/insect) and abiotic (salt) resistant and quality (male sterility) genes have already been incorporated in some crop plants. Despite acquiring capacity to produce transgenic plants, no GM crops, either produced locally or imported, have been released in the country. Pakistan is signatory to the World Trade Organization, Convention on Biological Diversity, and Cartagena protocols. Several legislations under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights have been promulgated in the country. National Biosafety Guidelines have been promulgated in April 2005. The Plant Breeders Rights Act, Amendment in Seed Act-1976, and Geographical Indication for Goods are still passing through discussion, evaluation, and analysis phases. Meanwhile, an illegal GM crop (cotton) has already sneaked into farmer's field. Concerted and coordinated efforts are needed among various ministries for implementation of regulation and capacity building for import/export and local handling of GM crops. Pakistan could easily benefit from the experience of Asian countries, especially China and India, where conditions are similar and the agriculture sector is almost like that of Pakistan. Thus, the exchange of information and experiences is important among these nations.
Mercado, Agustin R., Jr.; Reyes, Manuel R.; Ella, Victor B.
This presentation describes the implementation of Conservation Agriculture production practices in Claveria, Misamis, Philippines, as well as its impacts on soil conservation and marketable produce yields. This research was conducted by the SANREM CRSP Long Term Research Activity 12, Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines. LTRA-12 (Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines)
This publication presents the results of an international research project on optimizing the capture and storage of water by assessing nutrient using water conservation zones in agricultural landscapes. Eight countries from Asia-Pacific, Africa and Europe participated in the project. Field studies were established in all participating countries using isotopic and nuclear techniques to assess three types of water conservation zones that are used to harvest water for irrigation, crop production and improve downstream water quality. In addition, isotopic and nuclear techniques were used to collect data to identify the ideal locations in the landscapes for developing wetlands. The publication provides information to researchers working in the area of soil and water management, natural resource managers, policy makers and farmers. For those working to develop wetlands, information is provided to support planning, monitoring and evaluation.
This study aimed at identifying and analyzing issues and challenges on the agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework. The survey consisted of two groups: agricultural researchers of Agriculture-Research and Education Organization and all faculty members of public agricultural faculties of Ministry of Scientific, Research and Technology. Using Cochran sampling formula and multi-stage sampling method, 188 researchers and 205 faculty members were s...
The main objective of APPRI Workshop was to analyse conditions for implementing alternative action-research practices in partnership for development, taking into account the difficulties of "official" research and of the rural world, faced with the major challenges of sustainable development in the South. One originality of APPRI was to compare experiences from rural zones of Africa, with those of the UNICAMPO Peasants' University set up 10 years ago in the Brazilian Nordeste, a semi-arid reg...
Meerman, F.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Keulen, van H.; Breman, H.
In developing countries, agriculture is being intensified to produce more food and agricultural products. In most agricultural development strategies, the order of priorities is on: (i) increasing yields, (ii) crop protection, and (iii) human health, environmental and social aspects. This sequential
Uluguru Mountain Agricultural Development Project which is based in the Department of Agricultural Education and Extension at Sokoine University of Agriculture, uses a combination of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), Participatory Technology Development (PTD), Farmers' Groups and Farmer to Farmer extension ...
Road transport plays an important role in agricultural development. This is because it is the major means of transporting agricultural produce from the farms to the markets as well as to various urban communities. This study examines the impact of road transport on agricultural development in Ilorin East L.G.A of Kwara State.
Wang Sonam Wangyel; Lee Woo-Kyun; Son Yowhan
Indian agriculture sector is a significant emitter of Green House Gas (GHG), which is projected to increase by 47% between 2011 and 2020. In response to this, India has committed itself to voluntarily reduce its emissions intensity (emissions per unit GDP) between 20 to 25 percent below 2005 levels by 2020. This would require rapid and significant scaling up of mitigation efforts including the agriculture sector, which remains a challenge, as mitigation is not a priority in Indian agriculture...
Full Text Available Among many different definitions of competitiveness it is difficult to pinpoint the most appropriate one. In the paper it was defined as the ability to be profitable by effective use of available resources. The profitability ratios (ROS, ROA, ROE and value index were proposed as measures of competitiveness and resources were indicated as one of the group of factors that has an impact on it. Precisely, the purpose of the paper was to examine the relationship between selected resourced based factors and competitiveness of agricultural enterprises. The study was done with the use of correlation analysis on the basis of statistical data on selected Polish companies operating in agriculture. The main finding was that the analyzed resources (the level of labour, size and quality of agricultural land and size of assets were weakly correlated with competitiveness. This observation means that other factors have stronger impact on agricultural company’s competitiveness. They can refer to intangible resources (such as relational capital, know-how, managerial competencies, technological resources etc. and external conditions (such as climate, legal issues of agricultural enterprises.
The inland valley in Africa are common landscapes that have favorable conditions for agricultural production. Compared to the surrounding uplands they are characterized by a relatively high and secure water availability and high soil fertility levels. Inland valleys thus have a high agricultural
Agriculture accounts for over 78.3% of labour in Nigeria and contributed about 23.9% of the Gross National Domestic product in 2016. This informed the need to examine resource efficiency based on human capital perspective in agricultural sector using Landmark University as a case study. A descriptive study reliant on ...
Ørsted Nielsen, Helle; Branth Pedersen, Anders; Christensen, Tove
in the world market could increase pressure to slacken regulatory requirements on agriculture. Thus, the question of whether liberalization will hinder or promote environmentally sustainable production methods in agriculture is unresolved. This paper analyses different scenarios of agricultural policy...... development and examines their consequences for the promotion of environmentally sustainable agriculture in the EU.......Recent reforms of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have set in motion a process of increased market orientation in the agricultural sector, a process that will be intensified by trade liberalization if an agreement is reached under the World Trade Organization (WTO...
Adewumi, B. A.
Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…
This review work identifies the two main agricultural policies in Nigeria between 1988 and 2000, and 2001 to date, the broad policy objectives and the main features of the agricultural policies. The paper examines the primary role of the agricultural sector in the growth and development of the Nigerian economy. The main ...
This paper analyzes the potential collaboration between agricultural research and NGOs in the dissemination of agricultural technologies at the Kenyan coast. An inventory of NGOs working in the region was established, and 11 out of 25 were found to be active in agricultural development. These 11 NGOs were visited and ...
The article analyses the consumption of agricultural land within the Cape Town urban edge between 2002 and 2007. The agricultural potential of the developed land and the distribution of land uses are analysed to determine the impact of urban growth on urban agriculture. The research indicates that low-density ...
Ola Homaidan Noueddine
Full Text Available Rural development is progressively seen as an important for solution for expanding the financial viability of large areas stimulating social recovery and enhancing the life style of rural groups. Many countries try to eliminate rural neediness and to have substantial potential in attracting visitors and social development looking for new progress. This paper argues that the social event of sustainable activities and attractions and the development of rural life empowers co-operation and organizations between groups and government. Meaningful community participation together with public sector support presents opportunities for the development of small-scale original sustainable and community projects in less developed areas. This paper interrogates the development of rural routes in Lebanon and highlights factors critical to its success.
This paper outlines the creation of our nuclear agricultural sciences and the development process as well as the main results for agricultural applications of nuclear technology. Nuclear agricultural sciences in China began in 1956, after 50 years of development, the collaborative research network, the academic exchange network, and the international exchange network have been formatted. These three networks comprehensively have promoted the formation and development of China nuclear agricultural sciences. Remarkable results have been achieved in the fields of radiation mutation breeding, space mutation breeding, isotope tracer technique application in agriculture, agricultural products storage and preservation of irradiation processing, irradiation sterile insect technique, low-doses of radiation to stimulate output. In addition, the concept of suggestions on the future development of China nuclear agricultural sciences, as well as the priorities of research fields are put forward. (authors)
This study, designed to determine agriculture teachers' morale and factors affecting it, explains why low morale leads to teachers' apathy, poor job performance, increased value for material rewards, dissatisfaction with school ities, low turnover and constant shortage. This correlational study (N = 95, reliability = 0.91, -level ...
The study examined socio economic factors influencing agricultural radio programme FILIN MAINOMA in Kainji Area of Niger State. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 252 respondents from the study area. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as, Pearson Product ...
Ning, Wangyun; Kuang, Yulan; Zhang, Yonghua
Kunming City has entered the rapid development stage of urbanization. In the course of building the urban modern agriculture, the agricultural mechanization of Kunming City is being faced with excellent development opportunity. In this paper, the author scientifically analyzed current development situations of agricultural mechanization in Kunming City and explored existing problems in the course of development. On the basis of analysis, the author put forward recommendations, including incre...
Full Text Available Given the importance of agriculture sector in the economy, attention to agricultural development is essential. In Iran, agricultural developments in the provinces have not been conducted homogeneous and large disparities exist among different provinces. This study was conducted to assess agricultural development in different provinces. 82 indicators were used to measure agricultural development level in the areas of agronomy, horticulture, animal husbandry, mechanization and infrastructure services. Required data was gained from Information and Communication Technology Center, Ministry of Agriculture (Jahad-e- keshavarzi in 2011-12. Composite index and analysis technique of main components was used for obtaining the results. The results show that considerable gap between provinces in terms of agricultural development. Fars, Mazandaran and West Azerbaijan provinces have the best rank and Qom, Bushehr, Hormozgan provinces have the lowest rating in agricultural development. Geographical Information System software (GIS was used for spatial analysis of the state of the provinces’ agricultural development and the position of each province in agricultural development is determined.
Technological innovations have had profound effect on agricultural sector in the post-Green Revolution period in India. With the inception of Green Revolution, mechanisation process, especially the application of tractor in agriculture sector had intensified. However, in 2000s, the pattern of mechanization has diversified slightly from the intensive tractorisation to other implements like, irrigation, fertilizer, harvester, energy and others. Using a time series data on tractorisation and agr...
Napi, Wouapi; Ilegbemi, Gabriel; Kofi, Michael
Until the economic recession in the mid 1980s, Cameroon had relatively long sustained period of economic growth and agriculture was one of the main contributor of this growth due to the states subsidies to the farmers in terms of agriculture inputs, equipments, transfer of technology and finances. However, due to the fall in prices of raw materials in the world market, Cameroon went into economic crisis and the government withdrew its subsidies to the farmers and other priority sectors vit...
Chambwera, Muyeye; Anderson, Simon
African agriculture is already struggling to meet increasing demand for food. Climate change, which will alter agroecological conditions and looks set to arrest and decrease agricultural yields on the continent, will make it even harder to achieve food security. Boosting agricultural productivity in Africa, especially in the face of climate change, cannot be achieved without the benefits of cutting edge science. Advances in technology development and transfer, capacity building and policy research must be harnessed by developing and disseminating relevant strategies and technologies, and improving policy environments. The European Initiative for Agricultural Research for Development (EIARD), which facilitates and coordinates European policy and support for agricultural research for development, must integrate climate change into its activities and ensure that agricultural research for development and climate change adaptation are not disjointed. This demands a more strategic and coordinated approach from the initiative — one that reflects African realities, responds to African priorities for adaptation and development, and makes the best use of limited resources.
Sakadevan, K.; Nguyen, M.L.
The intensification and extension of agriculture have contributed significantly to the global food production in the last five decades. However, intensification without due attention to the ecosystem services and sustainability of soil and water resources contributed to land and water quality degradation such as soil erosion, decreased soil fertility and quality, salinization and nutrient discharge to surface and ground waters. Land use change from forests to crop lands altered the vegetation pattern and hydrology of landscapes with increased nutrient discharge from crop lands to riverine environment. Global climate change will increase the amount of water required for agriculture in addition to water needed for further irrigation development causing water scarcity in many dry, arid and semi-arid regions. The water and nutrient use efficiencies of agricultural production systems are still below 40% in many regions across the globe. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer use in agriculture have accelerated the cycling of these nutrients in the landscape and contributed to water quality degradation. Such nutrient pollution has a wide array of consequences including eutrophication of inland waters and marine ecosystems. While intensifying drought conditions, increasing water consumption and environmental pollution in many parts of the world threatens agricultural productivity and livelihood, these also provided opportunities for farmers to use improved land and water management technologies and practices to make agriculture resilient to external shocks
Full Text Available In this study we investigated the relation between energy consumption and growth of total factor productivity (TFP of agriculture in Iran from 1974 to 2012 using Solow residual method. The results from estimated aggregate Cobb–Douglas production function showed that one percent change in the value of labor, capital and energy will lead to 4.07, 0.09 and 0.49 percent change in agriculture value added, respectively. Also in a long term, based on the Johansen cointegration test, there is a negative relation between TFP growth and energy consumption in Iranian agriculture which might be due to cheap and inefficient energy use in this sector. Gradual liberalization of energy price and use of so called green box support policies is recommended.
Daniela Konstantinovna Sanakoeva
Full Text Available The article reviews primary directions for economical regulation of agriculture, for solving problems of insufficient funds of agricultural enterprises. Goals for development of agricultural economics growth and competitive abilities are determined, economical measures for governmental support are described as functions of system for development of agricultural market. The authors reveal the problems of innovational and optimizational model for development of agriculture, and system of state regulative and supportive measures for implementing the innovational model of development by consolidation of self-development mechanisms within revealing of inner economical reserves and activisation of “growth points” for resource potential. The mutual system dependence for mechanisms of taxes and subsidiaries and their influence on budget and socio-economical externalities are analyzed. It is substantiated that the state regulation of agricultural markets must take into account low incomes of small agricultural business, not allowing to accumulate necessary funds for starting cooperation. Due to that, the article specially reviews issues of loan availableness for small agricultural enterprises, including private farmings, peasant farms and cooperatives created by them, and, for this goal, the issues of marketing effectiveness for production of such small forms of agriculture are further reviewed. As a result of research, the authors discovered the necessity for government support of socially important businesses in agriculture, which are not of high profitability and, due to that, are not attractive for investors, but are necessary for saving the traditional rural lifestyle and maintaining important social functions for sustainable development.
Rijn, van F.C.
In this thesis, I show that social capital has an important role in the evaluation of development initiatives targeting agricultural innovation. Social capital and agricultural innovation are naturally linked from an innovation system perspective in which innovations result from the integration
Goetz, B.; Riss, A.; Zethner, G.
This chapter deals with fertilization techniques, bioenergy from agriculture, environmental aspects of a common agriculture policy in the European Union, bio-agriculture, fruit farming in Austria and with environmental indicators in agriculture. In particular renewable energy sources (bio-diesel, biogas) from agriculture are studied in comparison to fossil fuels and other energy sources. (a.n.)
Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the sustainability of agricultural holdings with diff erent directions of production. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for agroecological indicators (share of permanent grasslands, share of cereals in crops, soil coverage with vegetation, stock density and economic indicators (profi tableness of land and labor. Analysis was conducted according to a classifi cation into agricultural holding types: fi eldcrops, dairy cattle, and granivores. Fieldcrop and granivore holdings achieved more favourable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding posed a threat to the natural environment, mainly due to their excessive stock density. Economic sustainability assessment showed that granivore holdings were assessed most favorably. In these holdings, holding income per full-time worker was 37% greater than in fi eldcrop holdings and 57% greater than in dairy cattle holdings.
The study evaluates the influence of credit policies on institutional lending behaviour of farmers in Cross River State. It also ascertains the relationship between credit and agricultural development. Using econometric methods, results reveal that credit quota and portfolio lending devices and pursuit of cheap interest rate ...
Kang, Jun; Cai, Lecai; Li, Hongchan
With the developing of the agricultural information, it is inevitable trend of the development of agricultural electronic commercial affairs. On the basis of existing study on the development application model of e-commerce, combined with the character of the agricultural information, compared with the developing model from the theory and reality, a new development model electronic commerce of regional agriculture base on the government is put up, and such key issues as problems of the security applications, payment mode, sharing mechanisms, and legal protection are analyzed, etc. The among coordination mechanism of the region is discussed on, it is significance for regulating the development of agricultural e-commerce and promoting the regional economical development.
Jun 3, 2008 ... Public research and extension institutions are projected as the sole source of innovation/knowledge requisite to trigger ..... commodity traders, processing industries related to agriculture, transporters, input and serv ice suppliers. Research sector. Generates knowledge. Research institutes, universities ...
Wang Sonam Wangyel
Full Text Available Indian agriculture sector is a significant emitter of Green House Gas (GHG, which is projected to increase by 47% between 2011 and 2020. In response to this, India has committed itself to voluntarily reduce its emissions intensity (emissions per unit GDP between 20 to 25 percent below 2005 levels by 2020. This would require rapid and significant scaling up of mitigation efforts including the agriculture sector, which remains a challenge, as mitigation is not a priority in Indian agriculture. The study found out that in-spite of numerous mitigation technologies that are readily available for takeoff, the scale of adoption and deployment is far from sufficient to meet the emission targets set by the Government of India, mainly due to lack of financial incentives, capacity building of farmers, and an enabling policy at different levels. This study identified a suite of feasible interventions for promoting low carbon agriculture such as: low tillage systems as it has negative costs due to savings on tillage and fuel; introduction of superior livestock breeds to reduce numbers (especially unproductive cattle and increase yield; use of livestock wastes to produce energy for cooking and heating through bio-gas technology can not only reduce methane emission but also save electricity costs for the households and; introduction of carbon credits and exploration of domestic carbon markets. An enabling policy environment must be created for these interventions to take off.
The concept of sustainability has become central to all sectors all over the world, from agriculture to environment to business, engineering and industrialization. The principle of sustainability is the same all over these sectors. However, the understanding of the term may vary from sector to sector depending on how it may be ...
Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.; Goldringer, I.; Hoad, S.; Kovacs, G.M.; Loschenberger, F.; Miedaner, T.; Ostergard, H.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.
The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local, in
Integration: Creating opportunities and a supportive environment for introducing PR&D in mainstream agriculture and natural resource management programs. ...... Because this approach is broad, flexible and adaptive, scientists and farmers must be in continuous contact to agree on research procedures, monitor trials and ...
Egelyng, Henrik; Halberg, Niels; Jensen, Henning Høgh
Farmers growing food with high eco-efficiency may be seen cultivating peace by reducing competition among nations for oil and as producers of other public goods: biodiverse landscapes and ecosystem services with more soil fertility, less water use and less pollution. How does Organic agriculture...
Language English. When large-scale irrigation came to Peru's northern coast in the 1960s and 1970s, it brought with it an explosion in agriculture — and one of the world's deadliest diseases. An IDRC-funded project is changing irrigation practices to help turn the tide against malaria. This article is part of an ongoing ...
RĂDULESCU CARMEN VALENTINA
Full Text Available Agriculture is an important field and also a priority of Romania's development. In this regard, providing food for population is a factor that ensures the specificity of agriculture. For this reason, we can consider that agriculture is a starting point for the socio-economic development of the country. Romania is recognized, at European and international level, for its experience in cultivating natural and traditional products. The agricultural area offers the possibility of supplying raw materials for both the population and for the manufacturing industry. It is aimed that the organization of the agricultural area to be made so that the lands that have agricultural destination to be used as rationally as possible. Also, it is important to introduce in the agricultural circuit all the unused lands. The fragmentation of the agricultural land is a disadvantage in the process of rational organization of agricultural area. Efficient use of land, as a requirement of the intensive and durable agriculture is a complex activity that involves conservation activities and soil improvement. Due to the role that they have, the approach of the aspects referring to the medium and big farms has to be different from the approaches referring to the small farms. If the farms from the first category take into account the agriculture as a business, the small farms are important for the rural area by oferring food and social security and means of traditional production that contributes to the environment conservation. Romania's economic recovery can be achieved based on the attention that has to be given to this field. Being an important factor of social stability and of the maintainance of the ecological balance, agriculture enjoys an increasing attention worldwide. The supply and the demand of food determines the use of agricultural resources. The article presents the current situation of agriculture, at national and regional levels. Through this analysis, we
Full Text Available Proactive approach to risk management of agriculture companies is the way to ensure the efficiency of agricultural production even affected by natural disasters, to ensure the continuity of agricultural business and ultimately affect the level of development of rural regions. The instrument that solves the problem of reduction and elimination of risks associated with agricultural production is a systemic approach to the insurance of agricultural production, both crop insurance and livestock insurance, linked to a support program for SME in agriculture.This presented paper aims to identify and discuss the possibility of eliminating risks possibly threatening the agricultural production and to analyze forms of covering risks associated with agricultural production on the commercial insurance market in the Czech Republic. The paper analyzes the current situation and current development of the agricultural insurance on the insurance market in the Czech Republic.This paper was written as a part of the research project MSM 6215648904, carried out by the Faculty of Business and Economics, under the title „The Czech economics in the processes of integration and globalization, and the development of the agriculture and service sector in the new conditions of the integrated European market“, following the goals and methodology of the research project.
The problems associated with youth behaviours in the Niger Delta region necessitated the study. The specific objectives were to collate the current agricultural development intervention programmes; compare the attitude of youth leaders and non-leaders to agricultural development intervention programmes, and examine ...
colonial era presents a need for a critical rethink into what the nation has been through all the way, with a view to identifying the most fitting approach to rural agricultural development. This paper reflects on Nigeria's rural agricultural development ...
or rural development? This article finds empirical support for a proposed theory which suggests that the extent of agricultural rent-seeking, in the form of large-scale land acquisitions, is determined by the relative political power of an elite and a farmer group. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.......Recent increases in demand for agricultural land has fuelled academic, as well as public, interest in the potential effects of high value agricultural land, particularly in developing countries. The dominating question seems to be: will increasing demand for agricultural land imply land grabbing...
Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.
The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local......, in European OA. Currently, the effort is determined, partly, by the outcomes from trials that compare varieties under OA and CA (conventional agriculture) conditions. The differences are sufficiently large and important to warrant an increase in appropriate breeding. The wide range of environments within OA...... and between years, underlines the need to try to select for specific adaptation in target environments. The difficulty of doing so can be helped by decentralised breeding with farmer participation and the use of crops buffered by variety mixtures or populations. Varieties for OA need efficient nutrient uptake...
Full Text Available In the recent decades, the Danube Region countries profile their policies towards a more efficient way of exploiting the natural resources of the Danube basin. The Danube can contribute to a better integration of the countries, enhancing economic opportunities through diversification and promotion of rural development. The trend analysis in the agricultural sector of the Danube Region countries refers to the first decade of this century, and it begins with the determination of the agricultural importance in the overall economy. The development performances of agriculture in the Danube Region countries are considered according to the production and export performances of this economic sector, using a comparative approach. The agricultural production growth, level and growth of the partial agricultural productivities - labour and land, as well as the value of exports in relation to engaged labour and agricultural land, are analysed in such a context.
Ugbomeh, George M. M.
Discusses the concepts of agricultural education, women empowerment, and sustainable rural development. Suggests that, because women make up more than half of Nigeria's population, their empowerment would assist the efforts for sustainable rural development. (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)
Weissenburger-Moser, Lisa; Meza, Jane; Yu, Fang; Shiyanbola, Oyewale; Romberger, Debra J; LeVan, Tricia D
Agricultural workers are at an increased risk of developing chronic respiratory disorders. Accurate estimation of long-term agricultural exposures based on questionnaires has been used to improve the validity of epidemiologic investigations and subsequent evaluation of the association between agricultural exposures and chronic diseases. Our aim was to use principal factor analysis (PFA) to distill exposure data into essential variables characterizing long-term agricultural exposures. This is a cross-sectional study of veterans between the ages of 40 and 80 years and who worked on a farm for ≥2 years. Participant characteristics were: 98.1% were white males with a mean age 65±8 (SD) years and 39.8% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The final model included four factors and explained 16.6% of the variance in the exposure data. Factor 1 was a heterogeneous factor; however, Factor 2 was exclusively composed of exposure to livestock such as hogs, dairy and poultry. Factor 3 included exposures from jobs on or off the farm such as wood dust, mineral dust, asbestos and spray paint. Crop exposure loaded exclusively in Factor 4 and included lifetime hours of exposure and maximum number of acres farmed in the participants' lifetime. The factors in the final model were interpretable and consistent with farming practices. PMID:27049536
Weissenburger-Moser, Lisa; Meza, Jane; Yu, Fang; Shiyanbola, Oyewale; Romberger, Debra J; LeVan, Tricia D
Agricultural workers are at an increased risk of developing chronic respiratory disorders. Accurate estimation of long-term agricultural exposures based on questionnaires has been used to improve the validity of epidemiologic investigations and subsequent evaluation of the association between agricultural exposures and chronic diseases. Our aim was to use principal factor analysis (PFA) to distill exposure data into essential variables characterizing long-term agricultural exposures. This is a cross-sectional study of veterans between the ages of 40 and 80 years and who worked on a farm for ≥2 years. Participant characteristics were: 98.1% were white males with a mean age 65±8 (SD) years and 39.8% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The final model included four factors and explained 16.6% of the variance in the exposure data. Factor 1 was a heterogeneous factor; however, Factor 2 was exclusively composed of exposure to livestock such as hogs, dairy and poultry. Factor 3 included exposures from jobs on or off the farm such as wood dust, mineral dust, asbestos and spray paint. Crop exposure loaded exclusively in Factor 4 and included lifetime hours of exposure and maximum number of acres farmed in the participants' lifetime. The factors in the final model were interpretable and consistent with farming practices.
Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan
Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....
Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan
Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....
Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems (BES are a newly emerged technology for energy-efficient water and wastewater treatment. Much effort as well as significant progress has been made in advancing this technology towards practical applications treating various types of waste. However, BES application for agriculture has not been well explored. Herein, studies of BES related to agriculture are reviewed and the potential applications of BES for promoting sustainable agriculture are discussed. BES may be applied to treat the waste/wastewater from agricultural production, minimizing contaminants, producing bioenergy, and recovering useful nutrients. BES can also be used to supply irrigation water via desalinating brackish water or producing reclaimed water from wastewater. The energy generated in BES can be used as a power source for wireless sensors monitoring the key parameters for agricultural activities. The importance of BES to sustainable agriculture should be recognized, and future development of this technology should identify proper application niches with technological advancement.
banks' agricultural credit demand, while commercial banks' lending rate had a negative insignificant influence on commercial banks' agricultural credit demand. Commercial banks' agricultural credit demand is inelastic with respect to agricultural income, lending rate and net borrowing requirement. For the agricultural ...
Bezlepkina, I.; Oskam, A.J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.
This article presents an overview of the development of Russian agricultural enterprises in 1990-2001. The multi-layered structure of agriculture represented by different categories of non-commercial and commercial producers requires a clear distinction of policies with respect to their targets and
Feb 19, 2008 ... The most critical areas in the world for bringing economic prosperity and stability are the developing countries. Agricultural productivity in these countries must advance more rapidly to meet growing food demands and raise incomes while protecting the environment for future generations. Agricultural.
George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy
There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…
(2012), motivation is explained as description of person's motive to action. The assumption is that when development agents are motivated at their workplace it tends them to foster in serving people in agricultural extension services effectively. As a result, the outcome of the agricultural extension service they provide leads ...
The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.
Full Text Available As an agricultural nation, the agricultural landscape is the basic appearance and existence in China, but the common existence often be neglected and contempted. As a new type of design and ideology, the development of urban agricultural landscape will greatly affect the texture and structure of the urban space. According to the urban agricultural production data and the socio-economic data of Weifang County, a set of evaluation index system that could analyze quantitatively the driving force of urban agricultural production changes and the internal drive mechanism was built. The original driving force indicators of economy, society, resources and environment from the time-series were chosen, and then 15 driving forces from the original driving forces by correlation analysis and principal component analysis were selected. The degree of influence was analyzed and the driving forces model by means of partial least squares(PLS was built. The results demonstrated that the factors greatly influenced the increase of urban agricultural output value in Weifang County were per capita net income of rural residents, agricultural machinery total power, effective irrigation area, centralized treatment rate of urban sewage, with the driving exponents 0.2509, 0.1019, 0.1655, 0.1332, respectively. The negative influence factor was the use amount of agricultural plastic film and the driving exponent was-0.2146. The research provides a reference for the development of urban agriculture, as well as a reference for the related study.
Full Text Available The Republic of Serbia has significant resources for the development of agriculture (natural, scientific and professional. However, agriculture doesn't achieve the results adequate to conditions it has and which are expected of it. The aim of the research in this paper is to perceive the contribution of agriculture in the development of Serbia. The contribution of agriculture was considered by an analysis of next indicators: 1. Share of rural population in total population and an active rural population in the total work force, 2. Share of agriculture in the creation of gross domestic product (GDP and, 3. Contribution of agriculture and agro-industry to the foreign trade exchange. The analysis of the mentioned indicators points out that our developmental strategy must be based on the increase of agricultural-food products export (intensive production, and the change in production structure in accordance with the solvent demand (especially for the demand of ecologically healthy food and which level of finalization would be higher, in order to increase competitiveness and a new value. In this paper were used published data of the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, and then the research results of some authors in this field, as well as the results of the authors' other research. The research period was from the year 2000 to the year 2015. In the analysis of contribution (performances of agriculture were used the system and comparative analysis, as well as the standard statistical - mathematical instrumentation: average values, a rate of change and a coefficient of determination. In the paper were presented also the linear trends of GDP and income of agriculture and a share of agriculture in GDP, as well as the export/import of whole economy and agriculture trends.
Liao, L.; Green, C. T.; Bekins, B. A.; Bohlke, J. K.
Predictions of effects of land use changes on water quality require identification of the relative importance of geochemical and hydrologic factors. To understand the factors controlling the transport of nitrogen in groundwater, vertical fluxes of water and solutes were estimated for 13 aquifers in agricultural areas located in California, Iowa, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, North Carolina, Texas, and Wisconsin. The aquifers are overlain by unsaturated zones with thicknesses ranging from 2.5 to 100 m. Precipitation ranges from 19 to 132 cm/yr and irrigation ranges from 0 to 120 cm/yr. Main crop types include corn, soybeans, forage, wheat, and cotton. A 1-dimensional mathematical model was developed to estimate vertical N transport in response to N inputs on the land surface from chemical fertilizer, manure and atmospheric deposition. Simulated vertical profiles of O2, NO3-, N2 from denitrification, Cl- and atmospheric age tracers were matched to observations by adjusting parameters for recharge rate, unsaturated zone travel time, N leaching ratio (defined as leaching fraction of N reaching water table of N input at land surface), Cl- leaching ratio, O2 reduction rate and denitrification rate. Results indicated that vertical NO3 fluxes below the water table were affected by both geochemical and physical factors. High vertical NO3 fluxes below the water table are associated with high N input at the land surface. Values of Cl- leaching ratios were less than 1 (0.42 to 1) likely as a result of runoff and exported harvested crops. N leaching ratios were lower (0.1 to 0.6), consistent with additional N losses such as denitrification and volatilization. The sites with high leaching ratios for both N and Cl tended to be those with high recharge rates and low ET loss, defined as the fraction of applied water lost to ET. Modeled zero-order denitrification rates in the saturated zone varied within an order of magnitude with a maximum rate of 1.6 mg
Mellor, J W; Adams Rh
This paper emphasizes the benefits of an agricultural strategy of development in developing countries. It begins by analyzing the close links between food and employment in the development process. In an underdeveloped country, food production is minimal, but demand is as well because of the small population growth. After development begins, income rises and food demand outstrips production. Only at later stages of development can food production meet demand. The middle stage of development describes most developing countries, which have averaged annual growth rates of 3% per capita in 1966-80. The growth in food demand must be met through technological advance in agriculture: high-yield seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation, which, for example, helped India increase cereal yields 29% between 1954-55 and 1964-65. The rate of growth in cropped areas has declined between 1961-1980, making increased yields more necessary. Growth in employment and income leads to higher food demand, which leads to higher prices and labor costs and a tendency towards capital-intensive agriculture. As the rural sector becomes wealthier, there is also more opportunity for non-agricultural rural workers, creating still more demand. In the final development stage, agricultural products can generate foreign exchange. In Asia, the priority is to ensure efficient outcomes of capital allocations, while in Africa, technology must be instituted. Public investment has been shown to be essential to rapid development in Japan, Taiwan, and the Punjab of India. The absence of this investment in Africa, partly because of an overemphasis on urban sector investment, is largely responsible for the backward state of African agriculture. Often rural areas are overtaxed, agricultural experts are lacking, and there is a growing presence of urban bureaucrats. Both experts in the donor community and farmers themselves must become more vocal in demanding investment in the agricultural sector.
Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.
Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos
Full Text Available The agricultural modernization of any country must be considered in the light of its national conditions, its population, resources and economic and social conditions. China’s government clearly expresses the desire to promote agricultural modernization at the same pace with the in-depth development of industrialization, information technology, and urbanization, which is a major task for the construction of a moderately prosperous society and for the achievement of modernization. Due to the growing resource and environmental constraints, promoting the agricultural modernization must take the way of achieving its sustainable development based on the status quo of the environment and basic national conditions
Volume 1 focuses on typologies and concepts, approaches, participatory technology development, and participatory natural resource management. Volume 2 examines capacity building, networking and partnerships, and scaling up and institutionalization. Volume 3 looks at technology development, strengthening local ...
Research and development can no longer be the exclusive domain of scientists. To find sustainable solutions to development problems, a wider range of actors must be involved. It is crucial, for example, that local stakeholders provide input to the process. Participatory research and development (PR&D) offers such an ...
Spanish. Research and development can no longer be the exclusive domain of scientists. To find sustainable solutions to development problems, a wider range of actors must be involved. It is crucial, for example, that local stakeholders provide input to the process. Participatory research and development (PR&D) offers ...
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the conceptual provisions of the essence of labour productivity in agriculture in order to determine the factors and conditions for its growth at the present stage of economic development. Methods. The theoretical and methodological bases of research are the works of classical and modern economic science concerning labour productivity and human capital. With the aim of concretizing the conceptual and categorical apparatus, the dialectical and abstract-logical methods were used; a monographic method was used during covering the views of scientists on the investigated problem; for the analysis of labour productivity trends, the method of comparative analysis and the graphical method were used. Results. The conditions of agricultural production management in an agrarian region are characterized. Factors of labour productivity growth in agriculture are determined. It is established that the main reserves of increasing labour productivity consist of reducing labour costs for the production of agricultural products. In turn, the reduction of labour costs is caused by the use of new equipment and new technologies, progressive forms of labour organization, improvement of the system of material incentives for labour. Practical significance. The realization of proposals and recommendations concerning the formation and development of human capital for agricultural production, optimization of production resources, strengthening of labour motivation will provide an opportunity to increase the labour activity of personnel, the volume of agricultural production. Relevance/originality. Further development of research results allows us to collect an empirical, multifactorial model of labour productivity growth in agricultural production.
This paper analyzed the influence of agriculture in GDP of China and three SSA countries. Data used for the study was drawn from the Food and Agriculture Organization for SSA countries and the statistical offices reported in China statistical yearbook. The study covered the period 1990-2001. Ordinary least square multiple ...
The project will: -rebuild agricultural research capacity in the region -increase collaboration between CORAF/WECARD, IITA, national agricultural research centres, and universities -help students generate useful research data that will meet the needs of smallholder farmers and other food chain actors -share results through ...
Several other relevant macro economic and meso level factors such as policy and legislative framework and nature of human capital, physical infrastructure, finance and investment climate and system for facilitating information and knowledge flows were not considered as important. The emerging reforms and changes in
Full Text Available Based upon analyses of the Common Agricultural Policy development and its economic tools reforming the process of changing is characterised there. It deals with the multifunctionality of agriculture as well as the influence of the CAP on environment of the production tasks of agriculture and food processing industry accomplishment. Paper generalises results of new trends of the agribusiness economic environment development and the opportunity of an effective utilization of production factors in agriculture. It deals with the sources and economic implications of partial enhancement of interest and redirection of support within framework and type of tools of agrarian policy. New quality of structure of relevant information needs and economic support for agricultural enterprises decision making process are pointed out.
Full Text Available The paper aims at overview of the history and major contents of the Agreement on Agriculture of the World Trade Organization. Special attention is paid to implications of the Agreement for agricultural and trade policies in developing countries, including Russia, recently accessed the WTO. The differential treatment that developing countries receive under the agreement is investigated. The paper includes an overview of the recently adopted State Program of the Russian Federation for Development of Agriculture and Regulation of Agricultural Commodities Markets in 2013-2020. The research considers four applications of the given State Program: compliance with WTO requirements, state support of agriculture, provision of food security, and ensurance of sustainable rural development. The paper results in the conclusion that state policies in the sphere of rural development have to evolve beyond the traditional, sector-based model, with its almost exclusive focus on agriculture. Contemporary set of tools to ensure sustainable rural development should be based on the multi-sectoral strategies and programs that identify and better exploit the development potential of rural area through a variety of factors: national food security, agricultural production, liberalization of trade and foreign economic activities, support of local producers and rural households, rural infrastructure, environmental and recreational potential.
Group formation cannot simply be achieved by calling people together. The formation and development of an effective farmer group is influenced by the skills of the group promoter and the adherence to certain basic group dynamic principles. This paper reflects on the experience of establishing and working with farmer ...
The publishers and authors of individual papers encourage readers to quote, reproduce, disseminate and translate materials from this sourcebook for their own use. ...... Participation in curriculum development increases motivation, commitment and ownership of the learning process by teachers, students or trainees, ...
Dec 29, 2009 ... commercialized. The most promising biopesticides based on indigenous microbes are Beavaria bassiana and. Metarihizium anisiphole for the control of locusts, grasshoppers and storage pests (Kassa et al., 2002;. Kassa et al., 2004; Tadele and Pringle, 2004). Some progress has been made in developing ...
The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig
Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul; Krupnik, Timothy J; Erenstein, Olaf
There is strong advocacy for agricultural machinery appropriate for smallholder farmers in South Asia. Such 'scale-appropriate' machinery can increase returns to land and labour, although the still substantial capital investment required can preclude smallholder ownership. Increasing machinery demand has resulted in relatively well-developed markets for rental services for tillage, irrigation, and post-harvest operations. Many smallholders thereby access agricultural machinery that may have otherwise been cost prohibitive to purchase through fee-for-service arrangements, though opportunity for expansion remains. To more effectively facilitate the development and investment in scale-appropriate machinery, there is a need to better understand the factors associated with agricultural machinery purchases and service provision. This paper first reviews Bangladesh's historical policy environment that facilitated the development of agricultural machinery markets. It then uses recent Bangladesh census data from 814,058 farm households to identify variables associated with the adoption of the most common smallholder agricultural machinery - irrigation pumps, threshers, and power tillers (mainly driven by two-wheel tractors). Multinomial probit model results indicate that machinery ownership is positively associated with household assets, credit availability, electrification, and road density. These findings suggest that donors and policy makers should focus not only on short-term projects to boost machinery adoption. Rather, sustained emphasis on improving physical and civil infrastructure and services, as well as assuring credit availability, is also necessary to create an enabling environment in which the adoption of scale-appropriate farm machinery is most likely.
Klochko Vіtalіy M.
Full Text Available The article provides data with respect to the modern state and tendencies of development of the agrarian sector of Ukraine. The issue of the optimal size of an agricultural enterprise is discussed in the scientific literature. The world practice shows that competitive advantages of farms are achieved through their unification for creation of various partnerships and co-operatives, which operate on the unprofitable basis. Powerful industrial enterprises, financial, trading and service structures took advantage of absence of co-operatives and monopolised production of agricultural products, holding significant areas of agricultural land on lease. Today, ten biggest Ukrainian agro-holdings have more than three million hectares of land or 7.5% of all lands. Big capital, trying to maximise profit, is specialised, as a rule, in mono-production. The article shows main ways of strategic development of agriculture in Ukraine. Depending on the main form of farm management, there are two directions of further development of agro-industrial production: development of big agro-industrial formations (branch organisation of agro-industrial production and vertical integration in the agro-industrial complex (AIC or co-operatives (territorial organisation of agro-industrial production and horizontal integration in AIC. Depending on the way selected by the state, an organisational and economic mechanism is created. The article develops conceptual grounds of state regulation of AIC in the context of development of major agro-industrial formations and agricultural service co-operatives.
Sigurbjoernsson, B.; Vose, P.
Over the past 30 years, programmes of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division have helped countries solve practical, and costly, problems in areas of soil fertility, irrigation, and crop production; plant breeding and genetics; animal production and health; insect and pest control; agrochemicals and residues; and food preservation. The Division's overall objectives are to exploit the potential for application of isotopes and radiation techniques in agricultural research and development; to increase and stabilize agricultural production; to reduce production costs; to improve the quality of food; to protect agricultural products from spoilage and losses; and to minimize pollution of food and the agricultural environment. On the occasion of the Joint Division's 30th anniversary year, this article highlights selected achievements over the past three decades
This article describes globalisation preconditions for export in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. The summarised results of the previous research highlight the essential characteristics of the export-led activity concept, establish the current trends, factor conditions and the impact of globalisation on the development of agricultural exports. The article also shows the dynamics and peculiarities of goods and geographical structure of agrarian exports. The areas and causes of Ukraine’s vul...
Full Text Available In Ivory Coast, the freshwater fishculture in rural areas is mainly on a small scale. This type of breeding in ponds (2 to 4 ares yields on an average 3 metric tons of fish/ha/year and represents only an activity with self-consumption of products. The yield in intensive pond fishculture Tilapia nilotica is on an average 6 to 7 metric tons/ha/year but yields bigger than 10 metric tons/ha/year are not uncommon. The intensive fishculture in floating cages, requiring a minor investment but a more improved formation than in fischculture, yields on an average about 30 to 40 kg/m3/year. However the effective development of this activity rests on the resolution of problems like the sufficient fry production, the feeding and the commercialization.
Muhammad Hakimi Mohd Shafiai
Full Text Available The Islamic finance industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. However, many potential Muslim customers, particularly in rural areas, have unfulfilled banking needs and lack access to financing. Meanwhile, entrepreneurial projects in the agricultural sector are presumed to optimize economic growth. In addition, some scholars have expounded that the financial problems faced by the agricultural sector are caused by the risks of debt financing and lack of access to the capital market. In Islamic law, almuzara’ah and al-musaqah can be considered as forms of partnership contract in farming. Therefore, using descriptive analysis, this paper attempts to portray how Islamic financial principles are closely related to the agricultural sector in developing Islamic agricultural finance. This study found that the application of the modes of Islamic financing in the agricultural sector through financial institutions could be very effective in providing financing to ensure that the partnership progresses effectively and efficiently. As a result, there is an urgent need to develop a sound agricultural financial system based on Islamic contracts in order to increase and sustain the income of farmers and landowners and to reduce poverty.
The Development of Agricultural Cooperatives in Ethiopia: History and a Framework for Future Trajectory. ... Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities ... It indicates that although modern cooperatives have rapidly increased and positively contributed to community development, several weaknesses and ...
Bird, Alan R.
Migration is a major continuing phenomenon associated with national and subnational development. The past, present, and future significance of migration on rural development and agriculture are reviewed in this paper. Data are cited which appear to be at variance with popular beliefs. The complexity of interrelationships between migration…
InnovATE (Innovation for Agricultural Training and Education) is a five year, demand-driven USAID-funded program with a mandate for capacity development in AET systems in ... Through innovATE's learn-design-train approach, the program has developed capacity through various activities in Sub- Saharan Africa (SSA).
Mechanization alone is not sufficient to achieve the desired development in agriculture due to the high cost associated with it, but with improvement on existing simple tools and modification of existing machines based on ergonomic considerations, sustainable development can be attained. The awareness of ergonomics ...
Urban agriculture has served for a long time as a vital asset in the livelihood strategies of urban households in developing countries. It has been considered since then as a relevant input in responding to the embryonic economic situation of developing countries resulting to the structural adjustment programs and increasing ...
This study was conducted with an objective of assessing the level of job satisfaction and its determinants among agricultural development agents working in different kebeles of Kalu Woreda, South Wollo Zone of the Amhara National Regional State. A total of 100 development agents were selected and interviewed using ...
Fox, C. H.; Schuler, A.
Factors like increasing population, urbanization, and climate change have made the management of water resources a challenge for municipalities. By understanding wastewater recycling for agriculture in arid regions, we can expand the supply of water to agriculture and reduce energy use at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This can improve management decisions between WWTPs and water managers. The objective of this research is to develop a prototype integrated model of the wastewater treatment system and nearby agricultural areas linked by water and nutrients, using the Albuquerque Southeast Eastern Reclamation Facility (SWRF) and downstream agricultural system as a case study. Little work has been done to understand how such treatment technology decisions affect the potential for water ruse, nutrient recovery in agriculture, overall energy consumption and agriculture production and water quality. A holistic approach to understanding synergies and tradeoffs between treatment, reuse, and agriculture is needed. For example, critical wastewater treatment process decisions include options to nitrify (oxidize ammonia), which requires large amounts of energy, to operate at low dissolved oxygen concentrations, which requires much less energy, whether to recover nitrogen and phosphorus, chemically in biosolids, or in reuse water for agriculture, whether to generate energy from anaerobic digestion, and whether to develop infrastructure for agricultural reuse. The research first includes quantifying existing and feasible agricultural sites suitable for irrigation by reuse wastewater as well as existing infrastructure such as irrigation canals and piping by using GIS databases. Second, a nutrient and water requirement for common New Mexico crop is being determined. Third, a wastewater treatment model will be utilized to quantify energy usage and nutrient removal under various scenarios. Different agricultural reuse sensors and treatment technologies will be explored. The
Edson Ramos de Medeiros
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze factors of the modernization of the agricultural sector of Paraná for the years 1995 and 2006. The Census (IBGE data were used. Two methods for the treatment and analysis of data were used: Factor analysis and spatial data and analysis. The factor analysis allowed the construction of the Index of Agricultural Modernization (IAM; the next step was to adopt Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA to determine patterns of spatial concentration. The results showed that the indicators that contributed in the formation of IMAs were machinery, fertilizers and correctives, seeds and seedlings, pesticides and irrigation, respectively. Three clusters of low IAM and six clusters of high IAM were identified. Regarding the characteristics of clusters of low IMA, we verify that they occur in areas of low HDI, topography and soil unfit or restricted to mechanization, lower fertility, vulnerable to erosion, low agricultural productivity and poorly capitalized. The clusters of high IAM occur in areas of best HDI (Human Development Index with flat relief mechanization, fertile and low constraint to agricultural production soils strongly related to high productivity and capitalization.
Full Text Available Community supported agriculture (CSA refers to those agricultural activities that contrast with commercial agriculture. They consist of members who pay for fresh, untreated and locally grown food directly from farmers. In this way the risk is shared and the resellers are eliminated. This paper discusses the basic principles of CSA functioning and the historical circumstances of their development. Besides the economic dimension of the functioning of CSA groups, which is most important (ensuring of purchase, emphasis is also given to the social and cultural dimension of the groups activity. The basis of the work is the presentation of the functioning of CSA groups in Croatia and a comparison of social and economic characteristics of the group members and the farmers that collaborate to the groups with trends in the world. The results were collected by administering an online questionnaire among 46 group members and 5 famers. The survey has confirmed the starting hypothesis – that the group members are younger and highly educated persons who live in large cities or urbanized regions (Zagreb, Kvarner, Istria and are driven by eco-social motives (ecological consciousness, healthy food, cooperation with group members. Farmers who cooperate with CSA groups are practicing ecological agriculture on farms that are smaller than an average Croatian farm. They collaborate with the groups because of easier selling of the products and they find that the groups have a positive effect on their income and involvement in the local community.
Full Text Available Community supported agriculture (CSA refers to those agricultural activities that contrast with commercial agriculture. They consist of members who pay for fresh, untreated and locally grown food directly from farmers. In this way the risk is shared and the resellers are eliminated. This paper discusses the basic principles of CSA functioning and the historical circumstances of their development. Besides the economic dimension of the functioning of CSA groups, which is most important (ensuring of purchase, emphasis is also given to the social and cultural dimension of the groups activity. The basis of the work is the presentation of the functioning of CSA groups in Croatia and a comparison of social and economic characteristics of the group members and the farmers that collaborate to the groups with trends in the world. The results were collected by administering an online questionnaire among 46 group members and 5 famers. The survey has confirmed the starting hypothesis – that the group members are younger and highly educated persons who live in large cities or urbanized regions (Zagreb, Kvarner, Istria and are driven by eco-social motives (ecological consciousness, healthy food, cooperation with group members. Farmers who cooperate with CSA groups are practicing ecological agriculture on farms that are smaller than an average Croatian farm. They collaborate with the groups because of easier selling of the products and they find that the groups have a positive effect on their income and involvement in the local community.
Mueller, N. D.; Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.
Global climate change and continued intensification of agriculture are two "mega-trends" that will impact agricultural systems in the coming decades. While often these two trends are analyzed in isolation, recent work describes how climate change has historically offset some crop yield gains that would have otherwise occurred. Here we spatially analyze how these interactions between climate change and agricultural development may continue to 2025. We highlight areas that will be hit hardest by climate change and require aggressive management changes, as well as areas where large productivity increases are likely given current trends. To carry out our analysis we rely on a recently developed climate analog model to produce projections of climate-induced yield changes, projections of business-as-usual crop yield trends utilizing time-series data from ~13,500 agricultural census units, and published estimates of possible crop yield increases from aggressive intervention to close yield gaps. We find that a rich picture of agriculture in 2025 emerges when analyzing these multiple critical drivers. In many regions, existing yield trends or more aggressive management interventions (closing yield gaps) can overcome negative impacts from climate change. Thus, intensification can provide a buffer from near-term climate impacts, but it is unclear how long society may be able to rely on this buffering capacity.
Nichole Ann A. Lago
Full Text Available Establishing the tourism and agriculture linkage is a vital factor for the promotion of agri - tourism. This study aimed to determine the tourism and agriculture factors in Quezon province . Specifically, to present the profile of tourists and farmers; determine the supply and demand – related factors influencing the linkage between tourism and agriculture; test the significant difference in the responses of tourists and farmers in terms of su pply and demand related factors; test the significant differences on the supply and demand related factors when grouped according to profile; test the significant relationship between tourists’ motivation and preferences and propose an action plan for agri - tourism development in Quezon. This study used descriptive design with farmers and tourist as respondents. Self - made questionnaire was utilized as data gathering instrument. Percentage, frequency distribution, weighted mean, T - Test, ANOVA and Pearson - r co rrelation were the statistical tools used. Based on the result, it was revealed that tourism and agriculture linkages in Quezon province were relatively strong. Educational attainment of farmers is an important factor for agriculture supply, civil status a nd income were found to be the major indicators of tourist demands while safety and security becomes the major consideration of tourists to visit agritourism sites. It is recommended that there is a need to educat e farmers in order to encourage diversifica tion of farms into agri - tourism wherein market segmentation is vital for agri - tourism promotion while fostering a community - based agri - tourism in Quezon province is likewise highly recommende
Full Text Available Beijing suffers from a severe water shortage. To find the key factors that impact the agricultural water footprint (WF within Beijing to relieve the pressure on water resources, this study quantifies the agricultural WF within Beijing from 1980 to 2012 and examines the factors of population, urbanization level, GDP per capita, Engel coefficient, and total rural power using an extended stochastic impact by regression on population, affluence and technology (STIRPAT model. Ridge regression is employed to fit the extended STIRPAT model. The empirical results reveal that the Engel coefficient, which is defined as the total amount of food expenses accounted for the proportion of total personal consumption expenditures, has the largest positive impact on the increase in the agricultural WF, followed by urbanization. In contrast, total rural power, population, and GDP per capita can decrease the agricultural WF. Finally, policy recommendations from technological development, agriculture plantation structure adjustment, and virtual water imports are provided to cope with water shortages.
Full Text Available The agricultural sector has an important role for rural communities in moving its economy. Therefore, that agricultural potential should be utilized as much as possible for socialwelfare. This study aimed to analyze the potential of agricultural commodities and priority of the factors that determine superioragroindustrybased potensial of agricultural commodities. This study usedsurvey, which was conduct in the Meranti IslandsDistrict from January to May 2016.Respondents involving stakeholders from experts, government agencies and community leaders. The analysis was the Hirarchi Analytical Process (AHP. The results showedthat the potential of agricultural commodities which was develope in Meranti Islands District were sago, coconut and rubber. Determinants: 1 Natural resources (climate, rainfall and land suitability, the priority factor were the land suitability and climate. 2 Human resources (formal education and skills, the priority factor was skill, 3 capital (land, seeds, tools, technology, and ease of cultivation, the priority factor were land, seeds, ease of cultivation. 4 Socio-economic and cultural (ethnic, contribution to GDP, the priority factor was the contribution to the GDP.Superior agroindustriesthat has be developed in the District of Meranti Islands based agricultural potential was agroindustrial sago and coconut. Determinants: 1. The technical aspects (raw materials, capital, technology and infrastructure, the priority factor were the raw material and capital. 2 Economical aspects (price, market, downstream prospects, and the contribution to the GDP, the priority factor are market and downstream prospects. 3 Socio-economic and cultural aspects (education and labor absorption, the priority factor in Agroindustry sago was education, whereas in the palm agro-industry was labor absorption.
Moore, Keith M.; Lamb, Jennifer N.; Sikuku, D.N.; Ashilenje, Dennis S.; R. Laker-Ojok; Norton, James
Metadata only record This article explores the interactions of different agricultural knowledges in order to examine mindset changes related to the adoption of conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS). Farmers in the Mount Elgon region of Kenya and Uganda were presented with 20 statements representing three different agricultural frames: conventional modern agriculture, conservation agriculture, and risk-averse agriculture. Responses were recorded on a five-point Likert scale. Fa...
The study evaluates the impacts of the Commercial Agricultural Development Project (CADP) on the empowerment of farmers in Kaduna State with specific reference to Lere, Giwa and Kubau Local Government Areas for the period of 2010-2016. Survey and documentary research design were employed and data sourced ...
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. ... Effect of processing on the quality, composition and antioxidant properties of Terminalia catappa (Indian almond) seed oil · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE ... Effect of NPK fertilizer on fruit yield and yield components of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) ...
This study examines agricultural and rural development (ARD) public expenditures in Mexico. The study is based on federal public expenditures. The study is structured in six parts as follows: the first part presents the Mexican ARD context in terms of policy and performance. The second part dissects the ARD public budget, classifying expenditure programs in various ways so as to provide an ...
Development Of An Agricultural Land Drainage And Reclamation Design Software. ... Journal of the Ghana Institution of Engineers ... The design of appropriate drainage structures however often involves complex hydrological, hydraulic and engineering computations and the use of charts, tables and nomographs, etc.
Changing the ways of doing business – business unusual – will require innovative approaches to building the required capacities in Integrated ... agricultural research and development strategies and activities that respond to the ... individual, team and institutional capacity building, market- driven approaches, natural ...
This paper, identified the areas where staff of the Agricultural Development. Programme (ADP) that carry out grassroots extension service delivery need to be trained and the field problems requiring research intervention. Secondary data from Annual Performance Survey (APS) report of NAERLS and NPAFS between.
Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Agriculture and Development in Rivers State, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. E.C. Matthews-Njoku, M.A.C.A. Odii, J.O. Odirin, 70-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijard.v3i1.2521 ...
demands and raise incomes while protecting the environment for future generations. Agricultural biotechnology has the potential to play a large role toward this achievement. Sadly, this opportunity remains a mirage for most developing societies because of numerous challenges that prevent them from benefiting from the ...
Contract farming has received renewed attention recently as developing economies try to grapple with how to transform the agricultural sector and its associated value chains. This book examines different contract arrangements for selected crops, applying both qualitative and quantitative approaches...... in order to examine how contract farming affects smallholders and value chain dynamics in Tanzania....
Genardis : Gender for Agriculture and Rural Development in the Information Society in African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries - Phase III. Phases I and II of this small grants project were funded under projects 101698 and 102900, respectively. Genardis III will provide 15 awardees - mainly, rural women from African, ...
The authors observed that in spite of the enormous prospects for agricultural development and food security in Nigeria, these intervention programmes have recorded little or no success considering the current rate of hunger, malnutrition, poverty and poor rural livelihood. With vast land area of about 98.3 million ha out of ...
Food aid is a widely debated development topic and such debates have given rise to the existence of two schools of thought regarding its resultant effects. The general belief is that food aid has disincentive effects, whereas the counter belief is that food aid instead comes with contributional effects to agricultural ...
Manuscripts for peer review will be accepted for consideration on condition that they are submitted exclusively to the African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development (AJFAND). All materials submitted for publication must be typed in double line space on numbered pages and should conform to the uniform ...
The African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development (AJFAND) is a peer reviewed scholarly journal. The journal is envisaged to enable dissemination and sharing of food and nutrition information issues on the continent. It taps social science, biochemical, food and nutrition related research and information.
Full Text Available Social ties play an important role in agricultural knowledge exchange, particularly in developing countries with high exposure to agriculture development interventions. Institutions often facilitate agricultural training projects, with a focus on agroecological practices, such as agroforestry and agrobiodiversity. The structural characteristics of social networks amongst land managers influences decision-making to adopt such adaptive agroecoloigcal practice; however, the extent of knowledge transfer beyond direct project participants is often unknown. Using a social network approach, we chart the structure of agrarian knowledge networks (n = 131 in six communities, which have been differentially exposed to agriculture development interventions in Ghana. Farmer network size, density and composition were distinctly variable; development project-affiliated farmers were embedded in larger networks, had non-affiliated farmers within their networks, were engaged in more diverse agricultural production and reported adopting and adapting agroecological practice more frequently. Such bridging ties that link across distinctive groups in a network can expose network members to new and innovative agroecological practices, such as increasing agrobiodiversity, thus, contributing to livelihood strategies that mitigate environmental and market risk. Furthermore, we show that these knowledge networks were crop-specific where network size varied given the type of crop produced. Such factors, which may influence the rate and extent of agroecological knowledge diffusion, are critical for the effectiveness of land management practices as well as the persistence of agriculture development interventions.
Grassi, G.; Palz, W.
In the 1980s the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) resulted in large surpluses of main agricultural products; dealing with these surpluses consumed large parts of the Commission's and Member States' budgets. To alleviate this problem, a proposal for alternative land use is presented here: large-scale exploitation of biomass for industrial and energy uses, at the level of 600 to 800 million tonnes of oil equivalent a year. The important benefits to arise from this activity will include: job creation in rural districts, solutions to environmental problems, and technologies applicable in developing countries. (author)
V. V. Drokin
Full Text Available The factors with the greatest impact on the level of competitiveness of agricultural products in the region (on the example of the Sverdlovsk region. Among the important factors include unit cost of production, specialization and concentration of production, technological factors, especially the formation of the competitive behavior of the heads of agricultural enterprises.
Mendali, Rebati; Ames, Glenn C.W.; Gunter, Lewell F.
We measure Malmquist index of total factor productivity (TFP) changes in the agricultural sector of Brazil and Argentina during 1971-2002. The TFP change index is further decomposed into efficiency change and technical change. We then compare the cumulative TFP growth and its components in both countries. Results show that agricultural TFP change as well as efficiency and technical change accelerated in Brazilian agriculture, where as Argentinean agriculture experienced a negative trend in TF...
Wang Zhidong; Gao Meixu
The development status and existing problems in the field of nuclear agricultural sciences (NAS) are reviewed. Including the application of nuclear technology in mutation breeding by irradiation, isotopic technique application, food irradiation and sterile insect technique, etc. China has made great achievements in the research and application of nuclear technique in agriculture from 1950s to 1990s. Due to lack of enough financial support to the basic research and reformation of science and research system in China, the development of NAS now meets its tough time. Through analyzing the difference and reasons of NAS development between China and the USA, it is recognized that the innovation in research and scientific system is important for promoting the development speed and research level of NAS. (authors)
Full Text Available The management of internal and external factors directly influencing the decisions implemented by the managerial act at the macroeconomic analysis of the relations within this branch and sub-branches, of the disturbing factors with the implementation of some decisions to stop the phenomena of soil degradation and agricultural land and to preserve and develop their productive potential, a production surplus for ash consumption and ensuring a productive production for industrial consumption with the result of gaining added value and net profit as much as possible for the exploitation farms.
McKim, Billy R.; Saucier, P. Ryan
Accidents happen; however, the likelihood of accidents occurring in the agricultural mechanics laboratory is greatly reduced when agricultural mechanics laboratory facilities are managed by secondary agriculture teachers who are competent and knowledgeable. This study investigated the agricultural mechanics laboratory management in-service needs…
Singh, S.R.K.; Srinivas, K.; Kumar, L.R.; Gupta, H.S.
Indian agriculture has achieved remarkable success in the food grain production due to inception of 'rainbow revolution', which made the country self-sufficient in food production. Sustainable agriculture (SA) is an ongoing process, in which people take actions leading to development of agriculture that meets their current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. It advocates avoiding all those actions, which reduce the ability of future generations to meet out the present generations. It is based on the optimal interaction between clean environment, healthy economy, and vital society by avoiding trade-off of problems to other regions on to the future. Moreover, sustainable agriculture is the function of people's progress and nature's capacity. In fact, SA commits us to considering the long-term effect and to recognize our place within the ecosystem. It encourages a continuous reflection on the implications of human activity on the ecosystem. Empirical evidences shows that in the race of self-sufficiency in food grain production, we compromised a lot on social and environmental fronts. The aftermath of green revolution is not so sustainable as it showed reverse side too, in the form of environmental degradation and ecological imbalances. Such threats have led to the need for promoting sustainable development in agriculture. Due to several unsustainable activities which resulted in resource degradation in the form of top soil loss, ground water depletion and forest degradation. The average soil loss is estimated to be over 16 tonnes/ha/year. The ground water depletion resulted in several blocks as 'grey blocks' and 'dark blocks'. This happened mainly due to increase in number of tube-wells and free supply of electricity making the cost of pumping water very low. Rate of human induced land degradation is very high. Out of total geographical area of 329.0 million ha, 187 million ha (57.0 %) are reported to have degraded, of
Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the aim of investigating factors affecting utilization of information technology by students of agriculture. A survey approach was used in this study and a questionnaire was developed to gather the data. The study population was postgraduate students (MS and PhD of economic and agricultural development faculty in Tehran University who were selected by applying random sampling technique. Sample size for students was 61 persons. Data was analyzed by using SPSS/WIN software. The results of the research indicated that there was a positive significant relationship between using of information technology by students and their age, average, prior experience, information technology skills, innovativeness, perceived ease of use, attitude and self-efficacy. The relationship between computer anxiety and using of IT was negative. Stepwise Regression Analysis showed that innovativeness and attitude predict 53.2 percent of variations of IT use by students.
Full Text Available Introduction: The growth of agricultural production and natural resources are from primary objectives of any political system, because this section has a vital role in providing food security. According to the production theories, production growth will come from two sources; more use of production factors within the framework of existing technologies and second, with using more advanced and more efficient production methods and effective use of production factors. In fact, the second one is tied to the concept of productivity. New and efficient technologies are the most important factor for productivity growth. Technology was enhanced through internal and external sources. External sources include spillover technology from developed countries into another country. Empirical evidence on the impact of spillover technology on productivity growth of indigenous producer is vague. One perspective proposes that FDI, technology transferred from developed countries has positive effects on developing countries and another perspective is against it. This paper explores the role of technological spillover on total factor productivity (TFP growth in agricultural sectors of Iran uses time series data during 1971-2011. Materials and Methods: In this study, Kendrick model was used to calculate total factor productivity. After calculating productivity, affective factors on it, were examined through ARDL model. The aim of this study is examination of technology spillover on the productivity of agricultural sectors. The degree of technology diffusion grows with increase in technology distance between the hosts and the foreign countries. The greater the technology distance, the more difficult it becomes for developing countries to boost independent innovation. To calculate the index of technology spillover, commercial partners should be considered that are more advanced in science and technology than Iran. For this purpose, commercial partners in this study are
The necessity of transition of agriculture to sustainability is complicated by the necessity to increase production of local environmentally safe food, unemployment indigenous growth of living standards of the peasant community, stable and balanced nature management. Due to the difficult economic conditions of natural and agricultural development for the Komi Republic principle of food self-sufficiency is unacceptable, but the production of basic food products, for which favorable there are conditions, is objective necessity in the short term. Priority directions of development of the agricultural and fisheries sectors: the production of socially significant food products - potatoes, vegetables of the local range, milk, fresh meat, eggs, dietary, preservation and development of traditional industries, and collecting wild mushrooms and berries and its processing. Off forecast in the northern agricultural areas three scenarios selected: a base (slow), optimistic and pessimistic. For all versions of the forecast to be considered systemic crisis of the agricultural sector of the North is ongoing. Functioning of on sector under a particular scenario will depend on the factors and conditions that affect the stability of the agricultural enterprises and farms. At the base, especially under unfavorable conditions, negative external factors and conditions will prevail. The baseline scenario of recent years assumes the maintenance of the rate of change indicators of agriculture, of the levels of state industry conditions of interbranch exchange in agriculture, of access to economic entities in the financial markets, of the pricing and taxation policies, of relatively low investment opportunities to upgrade production capacity. In this embodiment the growth of agricultural production and its reduction will occur in suburban (peripheral areas). The optimistic scenario will be characterized by protectionist policies of the state, increase investment to improve soil fertility
Pavel Vasil’evich Smekalov
Full Text Available This paper pays attention to global issues related to the growth of population and food production: reduced growth rate of agricultural production, reduction of resource potential of agriculture and others. Critical factors and trends of structural changes in agriculture are identified. Results of comparative analysis of the development of farms in European countries and Russia are presented. Studies have shown that at the end of the last century there have been the following trends in the global agriculture: there has been a trend of farm consolidation in size, new controls and control of production are were introduced as well as more stringent quality standards of ecology were launched, which, in turn, require introduction of new technics and technologies; the processes of plants and animals development become more controllable and manageable. Conseptual foresights of pricing in the food market are given. Priority areas of agricultural policy aimed at creating conditions for sustainable rural development and accelerated growth in agricultural production by improving its competitiveness are identified
Full Text Available This article describes globalisation preconditions for export in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. The summarised results of the previous research highlight the essential characteristics of the export-led activity concept, establish the current trends, factor conditions and the impact of globalisation on the development of agricultural exports. The article also shows the dynamics and peculiarities of goods and geographical structure of agrarian exports. The areas and causes of Ukraine’s vulnerability in the global agro-food market have been established. The work also deals with the directions of export-led activity development in the context of economic globalisation
Snowden, Obed L.; McMinn, J. H.
In order to help vocational agriculture teachers develop competencies needed in giving instruction in off-farm agricultural occupations, 10 teachers were selected from Mississippi schools to help develop training programs, to conduct a home community survey, and to engage in a work experience program. After completion of their training, each…
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. ... GM Kenji, KK Nyirenda, GC Kabwe. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajfand.v3i2.19138 · Weaning Foods and Practices in Central Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study. JK Kikafunda, AF Walker, JK Tumwine. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajfand.v3i2.19139 ...
Orsini, Francesco; Kahane, Remi; Nono-Womdim, Remi; Gianquinto, Giorgio
International audience; The year 2007 marked a critical event in the world history. For the first time, more than half of the world population now lives in cities. In many developing countries, the urbanization process goes along with increasing urban poverty and polluted environment, growing food insecurity and malnutrition, especially for children, pregnant and lactating women; and increasing unemployment. Urban agriculture represents an opportunity for improving food supply, health conditi...
Full Text Available The Republic of Serbia is very convenient for agricultural production: large, high-quality arable land, favourable climate conditions for all agricultural cultures, rich flora and fauna, rich tradition and developed scientific institutions are the priceless treasure of Serbian agriculture. However, the results of numerous research show that Serbian agriculture competitiveness is based on cheap production factors compared to other countries (soil, workforce, other inputs. One of the ways of solving this situation is larger application of entrepreneurial type of production in agribusiness, for which there are great possibilities in Serbia. This paper analyses the position of agriculture at the moment, and points out the importance and the need for faster and wider development of an entrepreneurial orientation in this sector. Serbia is in the EU accession process, and therefore the imperative of approaching the European model of doing business and the need for companies and family economies in agribusiness to build and protect their competitive advantages. In order to achieve this goal, traditional weaknesses should be overcome, so education and introduction of entrepreneurship into the school system are a good basis for farmers to have a stronger influence on the economic policy carriers as well as the adequate treatment of agricultural sector at the macroeconomic level.
Suvedi, Murari; Ghimire, Ramjee; Channa, Ty
This cross-sectional study examined perceived level of importance, perceived level of competency in extension core competencies, and whether and how perceptions of competency vary by respondents' demographics; ascertained gaps in competency, if any; and identified ways for agricultural development professionals in Cambodia to acquire core competencies. Data were collected using a group-administered survey among 39 agricultural development professionals participating in a national workshop in December 2015. The survey consisted of 48 competencies representing eight core competencies, and each competency had level of importance and level of competency parts. The findings show that extension workers in Cambodia deemed all competencies highly or very highly important to their extension work; however, their perceived level of competency in those competencies appeared not to meet the expectations. The level of competency in all but communication skills and diversity significantly differed by gender but not by age and experience. Respondents indicated all four methods-preservice, in-service, basic induction training, and participation in seminars, workshops, and webinars-equally appropriate to acquire core competencies. The findings imply that the agricultural development authority in Cambodia should review, update, or design extension education curricula incorporating the competencies highlighted in this study and train its extension cadres on those competencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper analysed empirically the relationship between credit sources and agricultural zones in Edo State. The data used were collected from questionnaires administered to four hundred and fifty respondent farmers out of which three hundred and seventy three were valid. A simple random sampling was employed to ...
Luan, Zhaoqing; Zhou, Demin
A spatiotemporal analysis on the changes in the marsh landscape in the Honghe National Nature Reserve, a Ramsar reserve, and the surrounding farms in the core area of the Sanjiang Plain during the past 30 years was conducted by integrating field survey work with remote sensing techniques. The results indicated that intensified agricultural development had transformed a unique natural marsh landscape into an agricultural landscape during the past 30 years. Ninety percent of the natural marsh wetlands have been lost, and the areas of the other natural landscapes have decreased very rapidly. Most dry farmland had been replaced by paddy fields during the progressive change of the natural landscape to a farm landscape. Attempts of current Chinese institutions in preserving natural wetlands have achieved limited success. Few marsh wetlands have remained healthy, even after the establishment of the nature reserve. Their ecological qualities have been declining in response to the increasing threats to the remaining wetland habitats. Irrigation projects play a key role in such threats. Therefore, the sustainability of the natural wetland ecosystems is being threatened by increased regional agricultural development which reduced the number of wetland ecotypes and damaged the ecological quality.
Full Text Available A spatiotemporal analysis on the changes in the marsh landscape in the Honghe National Nature Reserve, a Ramsar reserve, and the surrounding farms in the core area of the Sanjiang Plain during the past 30 years was conducted by integrating field survey work with remote sensing techniques. The results indicated that intensified agricultural development had transformed a unique natural marsh landscape into an agricultural landscape during the past 30 years. Ninety percent of the natural marsh wetlands have been lost, and the areas of the other natural landscapes have decreased very rapidly. Most dry farmland had been replaced by paddy fields during the progressive change of the natural landscape to a farm landscape. Attempts of current Chinese institutions in preserving natural wetlands have achieved limited success. Few marsh wetlands have remained healthy, even after the establishment of the nature reserve. Their ecological qualities have been declining in response to the increasing threats to the remaining wetland habitats. Irrigation projects play a key role in such threats. Therefore, the sustainability of the natural wetland ecosystems is being threatened by increased regional agricultural development which reduced the number of wetland ecotypes and damaged the ecological quality.
Connors, John Patrick
The Kilombero Valley lies at the intersection of a network of protected areas that cross Tanzania. The wetlands and woodlands of the Valley, as well as the forest of surrounding mountains are abundant in biodiversity and are considered to be critical areas for conservation. This area, however, is also the home to more than a half million people, primarily poor smallholder farmers. In an effort to support the livelihoods and food security of these farmers and the larger Tanzanian population, the country has recently targeted a series of programs to increase agricultural production in the Kilombero Valley and elsewhere in the country. Bridging concepts and methods from land change science, political ecology, and sustainable livelihoods, I present an integrated assessment of the linkages between development and conservation efforts in the Kilombero Valley and the implications for food security. This dissertation uses three empirical studies to understand the process of development in the Kilombero Valley and to link the priorities and perceptions of conservation and development efforts to the material outcomes in food security and land change. The first paper of this dissertation examines the changes in land use in the Kilombero Valley between 1997 and 2014 following the privatization of agriculture and the expansion of Tanzania's Kilimo Kwanza program. Remote sensing analysis reveals a two-fold increase in agricultural area during this short time, largely at the expense of forest. Protected areas in some parts of the Valley appear to be deterring deforestation, but rapid agricultural growth, particularly surrounding a commercial rice plantation, has led to loss of extant forest and sustained habitat fragmentation. The second paper focuses examines livelihood strategies in the Valley and claims regarding the role of agrobiodiversity in food security. The results of household survey reveal no difference or lower food security among households that diversify their
Baydar, N; White, M J; Simkins, C; Babakol, O
State planning plays a central role in Malaysia's social and economic development. The government's rural development policies are designed to promote agricultural incomes and help counterbalance ethnic inequalities. The Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) implements one of the internationally most successful land development and resettlement programs. In this article, we quantify the impact of FELDA settlements on local out-migration rates, linking macro and micro approaches and using data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey, national censuses, and other sources. A model of instantaneous migration rates specifies an individual's migration rate as a function of individual-level sociodemographic characteristics, the level of urbanization of the origin and destination, and the extent of rural development at the district of current residence. Our results show that in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the existence of rural development centers in a district reduced the levels of out-migration to pre-1965 levels.
Alaska is food insecure, importing an estimated 95% of all agricultural products and 50 commodities and only maintaining a year round food supply of about three to five days. We 51 review the history, development and current state of sustainable agriculture at high-latitudes, 52 especially Alaska, a...
Full Text Available The background of this study is that Dewa Starfruit as a local resource in Depok City is threatened with extinction. The absence of regulations that protect these local resources and high rate of land use conversion causes decreasing number of starfruit plants and production. Starfruit farmers tend to switch professions to non-agricultural occupations. In national level, the largest number of agricultural business households experienced the greatest decline in horticulture subsector by 37.4% (Agricultural Census 2013. The elected regional head has branded Depok City with the tagline "friendly city" replacing Dewa Starfruit. The government's orientation and support for Dewa starfruit is fading away. Therefore, Depok City Government, especially DKP3, need to develop local resource-based agriculture development plan in order to be able to maintain local resources while improving it for society welfare. This research uses qualitative approach. The research informants were DKP3 apparatus of Depok City, Bappeda (Regional Government apparatus of Depok City, field officer and farmer group. Data collection techniques used in-depth interviews and documentary studies. Data analysis utilized interactive model. Research results indicate that the development of local resource-based agricultural development plans has not gone well. Despite various supporting factors, there are existing inhibiting factors which are land use conversion had never been discussed; DKP3 Depok City efforts to safeguard agricultural issues in musrenbang has not been optimal; no field data update, either by couseling workers or farmers; DKP3 Depok City prioritized RPL activity; uneducated farmers; and absence of regional head support.
Jhansi Seetharam Chittoor
Full Text Available Governments all over the world have focused upon sustainable rural development in an organized way. Rural locations, in particular, need more economic development in order to match urban centric development. Poverty in rural areas has remained by and large, the main focal point of governments and development agencies. Sustainable rural development is the most effective way to eliminate this curse. Environment friendly growth stimulators have been provided to rural populations. This paper aims to: (a give an insight into the linkages between the agricultural education and sustainable rural development, and (b present strategies for sustainable rural development. Challenges in sustainable rural development for developing countries in the 21st century have also been looked into. The paper concludes that agricultural education institutions in developing countries will need to address not only immediate production needs, but also long-term food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development needs.
Culp, Elzie Lynn [Surprise Valley Electrification Corp., Alturas, CA (United States)
Surprise Valley Electric, a small rural electric cooperative serving northeast California and southern Oregon, developed a 3mw binary geothermal electric generating plant on a cooperative member's ranch. The geothermal resource had been discovered in 1980 when the ranch was developing supplemental irrigation water wells. The 240°F resource was used for irrigation until developed through this project for generation of electricity. A portion of the spent geothermal fluid is now used for irrigation in season and is available for other purposes, such as greenhouse agriculture, aquaculture and direct heating of community buildings. Surprise Valley Electric describes many of the challenges a small rural electric cooperative encountered and managed to develop a geothermal generating plant.
Full Text Available In the article assessment of economic efficiency of agriculture is discussed from the sustainable development perspective. Basic definitions are outlined and spheres of sustainability related to Polish agriculture characteristics. Concepts of productivity and efficiency measurement are illustrated with the use of recently conducted research. Ability of different measures to reflect most important processes in agriculture sector is discussed. Following, development policies for economy and agricultural sector are reviewed to suggest concept of economic efficiency measurement form the sustainable agriculture perspective.
Full Text Available Colleges of Agriculture (CoAs are estimated to supply only slightly more than half of the number of graduates needed to fill job openings through 2015. The purpose of this research study was to describe the factors influencing agriculture students’ choice of major. The population for this descriptive research study consisted of full-time CoA freshmen enrolled in AGRI 1001: Introduction to Agriculture at Louisiana State University. A total of 259 students were asked to participate in the electronic survey. All students completed the survey for a 100% response rate. Consistent with the model proposed by Hodges and Karpova (2010, the factors identified in this study included personal characteristics, interpersonal factors, and environmental factors. Moreover, contextual factors unique to agriculture were identified.
This study analyzes the competitiveness of agricultural-food products of Serbia in the local and international markets. The subject of this research is analysis of relevant competitiveness factors of agricultural-food products, aiming to assess the products' quality and highlight the main intentions of production and processing.
Zhang, X.; Wu, B.; Zhang, M.; Zeng, H.; Yan, N.
CropWatch, which was developed by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI) in the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), has achieved breakthrough results in the integration of methods, independence of the assessments and support to emergency response by periodically releasing agricultural information for thirty-one countries over the world. Taking advantages of the multi-source remote sensing data and the openness of the data sharing policies, CropWatch group reported their monitoring results by publishing four bulletins one year. The digital agriculture system is an effective tool for people browse and analysis the agriculture monitoring results. For helping our group to analysis and write the bulletin better and providing our readers an alternative way to browser our results, we design and build the CropWatch online agriculture monitoring system based on the WEBGIS techniques. The figure shows the CropWatch online system structure. In this web application, three methods are provided to browse the data: Vector mode, Raster mode and Cluster mode. (1)Vector mode provides the statistical data of each area which including the current time value and the maximum and minimum values in five years. In this mode, users are able to look the global statistical data and the historical data change in a chart by selecting the region of interest; (2) Raster mode provides the abnormal index value by pixel globally. In this mode, users are able to locate the precise area where the notable exception occurred after they ensure the region in global statistical data. Meanwhile, the historical data change chart is still provided in this mode; (3) Data from remote sensing image series at high temporal and low spatial resolution provide key information in agriculture monitoring. Cluster mode provides the time series change by pixel in one country which users selected. The time series data is classified into 4 or 5 types by the ISODATA method. Users can click each type in the
Dem?ar, D.; D?eroski, S.; Krogh, P. H.
With the newly arisen ecological awareness in the agriculture the sustainable use and development of the land is getting more important. With the sustainable use of soil in mind, we are developing a decision support system that helps making decisions on managing agricultural systems and is able t...
Miller, W. Wade; And Others
This curriculum guide can be used by secondary and postsecondary agriculture instructors for a semester course in marketing agricultural products or individual units can be incorporated in other courses. The curriculum guide consists of six units of study made up of two to eight lessons each. The units cover the following topics: (1) marketing…
Diverse vulnerabilities of Bangladesh's agricultural sector in 16 sub-regions are assessed using experiments designed to investigate climate impact factors in isolation and in combination. Climate information from a suite of global climate models (GCMs) is used to drive models assessing the agricultural impact of changes in temperature, precipitation, carbon dioxide concentrations, river floods, and sea level rise for the 2040-2069 period in comparison to a historical baseline. Using the multi-factor impacts analysis framework developed in Yu et al. (2010), this study provides new sub-regional vulnerability analyses and quantifies key uncertainties in climate and production. Rice (aman, boro, and aus seasons) and wheat production are simulated in each sub-region using the biophysical Crop Environment REsource Synthesis (CERES) models. These simulations are then combined with the MIKE BASIN hydrologic model for river floods in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Basins, and the MIKE21Two-Dimensional Estuary Model to determine coastal inundation under conditions of higher mean sea level. The impacts of each factor depend on GCM configurations, emissions pathways, sub-regions, and particular seasons and crops. Temperature increases generally reduce production across all scenarios. Precipitation changes can have either a positive or a negative impact, with a high degree of uncertainty across GCMs. Carbon dioxide impacts on crop production are positive and depend on the emissions pathway. Increasing river flood areas reduce production in affected sub-regions. Precipitation uncertainties from different GCMs and emissions scenarios are reduced when integrated across the large GBM Basins' hydrology. Agriculture in Southern Bangladesh is severely affected by sea level rise even when cyclonic surges are not fully considered, with impacts increasing under the higher emissions scenario.
Nesta comunicação são abordados os vários contributos que a agricultura de conservação pode dar, para aumentar a eficiência do uso de factores em ambiente Mediterrânico. Começa por se fazer uma apreciação dos constrangimentos climáticos e edáficos e a evolução da eficiência no uso dos factores, pela agricultura portuguesa, entre 1987 e 2011. De seguida abordam-se as estratégias possíveis para aumentar a eficiência no uso dos factores no contexto de sistemas de agricultura de conservação. ...
Ørsted Nielsen, Helle; Branth Pedersen, Anders; Christensen, Tove
Recent reforms of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have set in motion a process of increased market orientation in the agricultural sector, a process that will be intensified by trade liberalization if an agreement is reached under the World Trade Organization (WTO......). It is widely expected that both CAP reforms and a WTO agreement will also lead to a more environmentally friendly European agriculture. It is conceivable, however, that market demand would instead provide renewed incentives for intensive agricultural production. Opening European agriculture to more competition...... in the world market could increase pressure to slacken regulatory requirements on agriculture. Thus, the question of whether liberalization will hinder or promote environmentally sustainable production methods in agriculture is unresolved. This paper analyses different scenarios of agricultural policy...
Yang, Chun-he; Qiao, Qi-cheng; Gu, Wei-bing; Sun, Jia-feng
Developing the low carbon ecological circular agriculture is an effective approach to realizing low carbon development of agriculture. Through investigation on existing measures and performance of development of low carbon type ecological circular agriculture in Nantong City, we analyzed the potential and problems of Nantong City in developing low carbon type ecological circular agriculture. Finally, with reference to domestic and foreign research achievements and practical experience, we put...
Vandecasteele, C.M.; Zeevaert, Th.; Kirchmann, R.
The applications of nuclear energy have led and will continue to lead to routine or accidental discharges of radioactive elements into the atmospheric and/or aquatic environment resulting in the exposure of populations to ionising radiations. The radionuclides released into the atmosphere are transported downwind, dispersed by the atmospheric mixing phenomena and progressively settled by deposition processes. During the passage of the radioactive cloud, people are irradiated externally as well as internally by inhalation. After the passage of the cloud, exposure of the population continues via three main pathways: external irradiation from the radionuclides deposited on the ground, inhalation of resuspended contaminated particles and ingestion of contaminated food products. When discharged into aquatic systems, the radionuclides can be partly removed from the aqueous phase by adsorption on suspended solids and bottom sediments. As the radioactivity disperses, there is a continuing exchange between water and solid phases. The contaminated sediments deposited on the banks of rivers, lakes and coastal area lead to external irradiation of people spending time at these sites. The residual activity in water exposes man internally through the ingestion of drinking water and food products, contaminated by irrigation of vegetation and ingestion of water by livestock. Among the various exposure pathways, the main route of entry of fission products and most other artificial radionuclides into man has been identified as uptake from the diet. Since agricultural products constitute the basic diet of most populations, the fate and behavior of radionuclides in agricultural ecosystems are of primary importance when assessing the exposure risk of man from environmental releases of radioactivity. 69 refs., 4 figs
Maria Magdalena TUREK RAHOVEANU
Full Text Available In rural Romania the main activity is agriculture, so much of the rural population is occupied in agriculture and earns income from this activity . Due to small areas of agricultural land, lack of agricultural machinery and access to credit, many farms are subsistence. In the new 2014-2020 period, for job creation and for increasing the incomes of the rural population, it is necessary to diversify the activities and promote small-scale businesses.
Functionality, agricultural extension, particularly advisory services have been and still are being criticized for ineffectiveness, supply-drivenness, lack of ... Hence, agricultural advisory services must continually adapt to the changing agricultural environment and to changes in farm family circumstances in order to remain ...
The main economic activity of the people of Eritrea is agriculture: crop production and livestock herding. Agriculture mainly comprises mixed farming and some commercial concessions. Most agriculture is rain-fed. The main rain-fed crops are sorghum, millet and sesame, and the main irrigated crops are all horticultural ...
transformation and utilisation of agricultural education and extension services, increased budgetary allocation to agriculture, improved livestock and ... manufacturing sectors of the Nigerian economy and found out that agricultural sector is .... March and the end of the 2013 lean season in August/September, particularly for.
From the various identified job related factors that affect facilitators in Enugu NFDP III only insufficient authority (t= 1.17) was perceived differently by both men and women facilitators. The results also show that from the various identified employee/personnel factors that affect facilitators in Enugu NFDP III, involvement in ...
...; ] Agency for International Development Notice of Meeting: Board for International Food and Agricultural... the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development (BIFAD). The meeting will be held from 8... partnerships in agricultural research and development with USAID and the future of those relationships. Dr...
César Nunes de Castro
Much of the recent dynamism of the Brazilian agricultural sector occurred in activities developed in Brazil´s South, Southeast and Midwest regions. Specifically, the Southeast region was responsible in 2006 for approximately 34% of the value of agricultural production according to data from the 2006 Agricultural Census. The aim of this study is to assess the recent situation of agriculture in the Southeast, based on data from the 2006 Agricultural Census. Based on this diagnosis, the study ai...
Full Text Available Introduction. Agriculture is one of the largest and most important sectors of the Ukrainian economy. The food security and independence of the state, the state of the internal and external markets, and, consequently, the standard of living of the population are directly dependent on its functional state. Mykolaiv region has significant opportunities for the development of the agricultural sector. There are favorable natural and climatic conditions, fertile land, labor resources and long-standing cultivating traditions. The region is considered one of the regions of intensive agriculture in Ukraine and has significant land resources. Purpose. The article presents the analysis of the development of production and sale of crop production by the agrarian enterprises of the Mykolaiv region, as well as revealing ways to increase the volume of their production and sales. Results. The crop area of main agricultural crops in all categories of farms was analyzed, and structural changes for 2010-2016 were revealed. The priority branch of the agro-industrial complex, which has an important strategic significance, first of all, is determined by the level of production of which the food security of the state depends, its economy and welfare of the population. The dynamics of agricultural crop yields in agrarian enterprises as the determining factor of influence on the efficiency of activity in the field of plant growing is researched. The dynamics of gross collections of crop production in agricultural enterprises is analyzed and the contribution of the Mykolaiv region to the national production of grain is determined. The volumes and average prices of sales of agricultural products by agrarian enterprises are investigated and it is determined that the modern development of the agrarian sector of the economy requires special attention to the formation and activation of the activities of market infrastructure entities. The production of which crops are an
Shalendra D. Sharma
Full Text Available One of the Millennium Development Goals set by the United Nations is to reduce the global level of "extreme poverty" (the roughly 1.5 billion people whose income is less than $1 a day by half by 2015. How can such a goal be reached? This paper argues that since the vast majority of the people living in extreme poverty depend either directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihood, sustained growth in agricultural production and productivity is one of the most important ways to alleviate poverty and hunger. However, for this to happen, the pace of rural and agricultural development must be greatly accelerated. Public investments in rural services and infrastructure, the application of modern science and technology, and the use of new biotechnologies the socalled "second generation greenrevolution" will be critical to boost and sustain agricultural growth and reduce global poverty.
Onwude, Daniel I; Abdulstter, Rafia; Gomes, Chandima; Hashim, Norhashila
Mechanisation of large-scale agricultural fields often requires the application of modern technologies such as mechanical power, automation, control and robotics. These technologies are generally associated with relatively well developed economies. The application of these technologies in some developing countries in Africa and Asia is limited by factors such as technology compatibility with the environment, availability of resources to facilitate the technology adoption, cost of technology purchase, government policies, adequacy of technology and appropriateness in addressing the needs of the population. As a result, many of the available resources have been used inadequately by farmers, who continue to rely mostly on conventional means of agricultural production, using traditional tools and equipment in most cases. This has led to low productivity and high cost of production among others. Therefore this paper attempts to evaluate the application of present day technology and its limitations to the advancement of large-scale mechanisation in developing countries of Africa and Asia. Particular emphasis is given to a general understanding of the various levels of mechanisation, present day technology, its management and application to large-scale agricultural fields. This review also focuses on/gives emphasis to future outlook that will enable a gradual, evolutionary and sustainable technological change. The study concludes that large-scale-agricultural farm mechanisation for sustainable food production in Africa and Asia must be anchored on a coherent strategy based on the actual needs and priorities of the large-scale farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Important green house gases (GHG) attributed to animal agriculture are methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), though carbon dioxide (CO2) contributes almost half of total greenhouse effect. Rumen CH4 production in an enteric fermentation can be accounted as the biggest anthropogenic source. Some of prebiotics and probiotics have been innovated to mitigate rumen CH4 emission. The possible use of agricultural biomass consisted of non-edible parts of crop plants such as cellulose and hemi cellul...
Shi, Ping; Yan, Bo
We conducted an exploratory investigation of factors influencing the adoption of radio frequency identification (RFID) methods in the agricultural product distribution industry. Through a literature review and field research, and based on the technology-organization-environment (TOE) theoretical framework, this paper analyzes factors influencing RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry in reference to three contexts: technological, organizational, and environmental contexts. An empirical analysis of the TOE framework was conducted by applying structural equation modeling based on actual data from a questionnaire survey on the agricultural product distribution industry in China. The results show that employee resistance and uncertainty are not supported by the model. Technological compatibility, perceived effectiveness, organizational size, upper management support, trust between enterprises, technical knowledge, competitive pressure and support from the Chinese government, which are supported by the model, have significantly positive effects on RFID adoption. Meanwhile, organizational size has the strongest positive effect, while competitive pressure levels have the smallest effect. Technological complexities and costs have significantly negative effects on RFID adoption, with cost being the most significantly negative influencing factor. These research findings will afford enterprises in the agricultural products supply chain with a stronger understanding of the factors that influence RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry. In addition, these findings will help enterprises remain aware of how these factors affect RFID adoption and will thus help enterprises make more accurate and rational decisions by promoting RFID application in the agricultural product distribution industry.
Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated m...
Full Text Available California's Mediterranean agro-ecosystems are a major source of U.S. fruits and vegetables, and vulnerable to future extremes of precipitation and temperature brought on by climate change, including increased drought and flooding, and more intense and longer heat waves. To develop resilience to these threats, strategies are necessary for climate-smart management of soil and water. Long-term, large-scale, replicated ecological experiments provide unique testbeds for studying such questions. At the UC Davis Russell Ranch Sustainable Agriculture Facility (RRSAF, the 100-year Century Experiment, initiated in 1992, is investigating the effects of multiple farming practices in a farm-scale replicated study of 10 row crop cropping systems. It includes different fertility management systems: organic, conventional and hybrid (conventional plus winter cover crop systems; different crops: wheat, tomatoes, corn, alfalfa, cover crops and grasslands; and different irrigation systems: rainfed, flood irrigated and drip irrigated. We briefly describe and report on a selection of long-term experiments conducted at RRSAF investigating soil management and irrigation practices, which are an important focus for developing climate-smart strategies in Mediterranean systems. For example, long-term monitoring of soil carbon content revealed that most crop systems have experienced a small increase in soil carbon since 1993, and increases in organically managed plots were substantially higher. As RRSAF continues to build upon this rich dataset from one of a very few long-term row crop experiments in Mediterranean ecosystems, it provides a testbed for identifying climate-smart solutions for these agronomically important ecosystems.
Full Text Available The aim of this work is the study and generalization of conceptual foundations, problematic and peculiarities of functioning of agriculture in modern economic conditions, the conceptual foundations of state regulation at the regional level and features of their financial providing. Methodology. Theoretical and methodological basis of the research is the work of scientists on problems of financial providing of agriculture development. The authors used the combination of the following methods in the process of scientific investigation: generalization and scientific abstraction – to concretize the conceptual-categorical apparatus; monographic method – to present the views of scientists on this problem; comparative analysis – to detect the features of agriculture development and to compare instruments of its financial providing. Results. The functioning features of agricultural enterprises of the region in current economic conditions have been researched, highlighting fundamental principles: the rational use of resources; state regulation and state support; financial providing. The main purposes of state support of agriculture were determined in the article: increase in production of high quality products with the aim of solution of the food security problem; the increase of competitiveness of the agricultural sector to stimulate economic growth; the intensification of research work that will create competitive advantage for domestic producers in the long term perspective; development of rural areas; increase of rural employment and so on. Practical value. It was established that a significant number of unresolved financial problems of this economic sector requires the development and implementation of new, adequate to modern conditions, methodical approaches to financial and credit providing of industry, in particular the expansion of the market of banking services (project financing and forward loans, forfaiting, factoring; the widespread
Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John
The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…
McArthur, John W; McCord, Gordon C
This paper estimates the role of agronomic inputs in cereal yield improvements and the consequences for countries' processes of structural change. The results suggest a clear role for fertilizer, modern seeds and water in boosting yields. We then test for respective empirical links between agricultural yields and economic growth, labor share in agriculture and non-agricultural value added per worker. The identification strategy includes a novel instrumental variable that exploits the unique economic geography of fertilizer production and transport costs to countries' agricultural heartlands. We estimate that a half ton increase in staple yields generates a 14 to 19 percent higher GDP per capita and a 4.6 to 5.6 percentage point lower labor share in agriculture five years later. The results suggest a strong role for agricultural productivity as a driver of structural change.
Xiaojin Li; Ibrahim M. Abu-Reesh; Zhen He
Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) are a newly emerged technology for energy-efficient water and wastewater treatment. Much effort as well as significant progress has been made in advancing this technology towards practical applications treating various types of waste. However, BES application for agriculture has not been well explored. Herein, studies of BES related to agriculture are reviewed and the potential applications of BES for promoting sustainable agriculture are discussed. BES may b...
Assessing the Learning Needs of Student Teachers in Texas regarding Management of the Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory: Implications for the Professional Development of Early Career Teachers in Agricultural Education
Saucier, P. Ryan; McKim, Billy R.
Skills needed to manage a laboratory are essential knowledge for all school-based, agriculture teachers who instruct agricultural mechanics curriculum (Saucier, Terry, & Schumacher, 2009). This research investigated the professional development needs of Texas agricultural education student teachers regarding agricultural mechanics laboratory…
Full Text Available The exposed carbonate rocks aged from Sinian to Mid-Triassic Periods cover an area of 500,000 Km2 in south-west China. In karst areas with spectacular landscapes characterized by magnificent tower karst and conical karst, rare surface drainage systems and prevalent subsurface drainage systems, the environment is ecologically very fragile. The rapid increase of population, over deforested and cultivated lands, worsted the ecological system, causing a higher frequency of draught, flood and various disasters, backward economic development, low living standard of the people. In order to improve the sustainability of the agriculture the experience shows that the following operations should be adopted: (1 serious control of the population increase, emigration, extra labours and improvement of the environmental education of the local inhabitants; (2 terracing of the slopes (shi jala di as to improve the cultivated land quality, to preserve the water, soil and fertiliser and ameliorate the effective utilisation of the land; (3 development of new rural energies such as the solar energy and gas energy, and expansion of the saving-fuel stoves to reduce the load of bio-energy; (4 reforestation and bounding the hills and mountains; the ecological, economic and fuel forests model has been developed in fengcong-depression areas: the tree species with high ecological, economical and energetic characteristics, should be chosen, such as the bamboo, wild grapes, Sapium rotundifolium etc.; (5 better utilisation of the ram water and karst water resource to solve the water supply problems. The karst landscape is well developed in the 500,000 km2 carbonate terrain in Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, west Hunan and south Sichuan provinces in south-west China, where 100 million habitants live (Song, 1997. The large population and its high density, serious deforestation, over-cultivation and fragile ecological system make the environmental problems very serious and about 30
Prasad, Ram; Bhattacharyya, Atanu; Nguyen, Quang D.
Nanotechnology monitors a leading agricultural controlling process, especially by its miniature dimension. Additionally, many potential benefits such as enhancement of food quality and safety, reduction of agricultural inputs, enrichment of absorbing nanoscale nutrients from the soil, etc. allow the application of nanotechnology to be resonant encumbrance. Agriculture, food, and natural resources are a part of those challenges like sustainability, susceptibility, human health, and healthy life. The ambition of nanomaterials in agriculture is to reduce the amount of spread chemicals, minimize nutrient losses in fertilization and increased yield through pest and nutrient management. Nanotechnology has the prospective to improve the agriculture and food industry with novel nanotools for the controlling of rapid disease diagnostic, enhancing the capacity of plants to absorb nutrients among others. The significant interests of using nanotechnology in agriculture includes specific applications like nanofertilizers and nanopesticides to trail products and nutrients levels to increase the productivity without decontamination of soils, waters, and protection against several insect pest and microbial diseases. Nanotechnology may act as sensors for monitoring soil quality of agricultural field and thus it maintain the health of agricultural plants. This review covers the current challenges of sustainability, food security and climate change that are exploring by the researchers in the area of nanotechnology in the improvement of agriculture. PMID:28676790
Full Text Available Nanotechnology monitors a leading agricultural controlling process, especially by its miniature dimension. Additionally, many potential benefits such as enhancement of food quality and safety, reduction of agricultural inputs, enrichment of absorbing nanoscale nutrients from the soil, etc. allow the application of nanotechnology to be resonant encumbrance. Agriculture, food, and natural resources are a part of those challenges like sustainability, susceptibility, human health, and healthy life. The ambition of nanomaterials in agriculture is to reduce the amount of spread chemicals, minimize nutrient losses in fertilization and increased yield through pest and nutrient management. Nanotechnology has the prospective to improve the agriculture and food industry with novel nanotools for the controlling of rapid disease diagnostic, enhancing the capacity of plants to absorb nutrients among others. The significant interests of using nanotechnology in agriculture includes specific applications like nanofertilizers and nanopesticides to trail products and nutrients levels to increase the productivity without decontamination of soils, waters, and protection against several insect pest and microbial diseases. Nanotechnology may act as sensors for monitoring soil quality of agricultural field and thus it maintain the health of agricultural plants. This review covers the current challenges of sustainability, food security and climate change that are exploring by the researchers in the area of nanotechnology in the improvement of agriculture.
Prasad, Ram; Bhattacharyya, Atanu; Nguyen, Quang D
Nanotechnology monitors a leading agricultural controlling process, especially by its miniature dimension. Additionally, many potential benefits such as enhancement of food quality and safety, reduction of agricultural inputs, enrichment of absorbing nanoscale nutrients from the soil, etc. allow the application of nanotechnology to be resonant encumbrance. Agriculture, food, and natural resources are a part of those challenges like sustainability, susceptibility, human health, and healthy life. The ambition of nanomaterials in agriculture is to reduce the amount of spread chemicals, minimize nutrient losses in fertilization and increased yield through pest and nutrient management. Nanotechnology has the prospective to improve the agriculture and food industry with novel nanotools for the controlling of rapid disease diagnostic, enhancing the capacity of plants to absorb nutrients among others. The significant interests of using nanotechnology in agriculture includes specific applications like nanofertilizers and nanopesticides to trail products and nutrients levels to increase the productivity without decontamination of soils, waters, and protection against several insect pest and microbial diseases. Nanotechnology may act as sensors for monitoring soil quality of agricultural field and thus it maintain the health of agricultural plants. This review covers the current challenges of sustainability, food security and climate change that are exploring by the researchers in the area of nanotechnology in the improvement of agriculture.
Александр Васильевич СИДОРЧУК
Full Text Available There have been proposed projects of technical development for agricultural producers. The conclusions about system features research projects that underlie the problem-solving methods of project management, have been made. There have been proved these projects (systems that can be simulated with the help of the research and formalization of many events. These events are components of the seven main factors of the agricultural production. The conclusion about the using the research method of the probabilistic nature events in the field of the crops projects with the help of the statistical and imitational models, have been developed. There have been considered the relation between the forecasting of functional marks of the technological systems and the estimation of their cost. And there have been found the optimum correspondence between parameters of the technical supply and planned features of the crops projects.
Full Text Available The old rural civilization which assured a long and miraculous surviving of the Romanian people, it is at present in a critical breaking up moment. Production and rural living standard have become lacked of competitiveness, traditions and customs are left and people move to cities. Production looks to be unefficient and not sustainable from an ethnical and social point of view. Under the pressure of this situation, and also of the international concerns (ONU 1972, FAOSARD, UE and European concerns (LEADER 199, EU RDP 2007-2013, sustainable development has become the core of the activity of Romanian scientists and authorities (SNDD 2013-2020-2030, PNDR 2007-2013 . Taking into consideration the previous research results and programmes, the present study approaches the need to pass to real actions based on the analysis of the thresholds of the affected space, some aspects of the agricultural and rural sustainable development, regarding: farm modernization as an economical and social imperative and mention some aspects of the rural sustainable development including also the preservation of cultural, natural and rural heritage.
Castro, Charita L; Hunting, Katherine
Global consensus is lacking, especially among developing countries, on whether agricultural work is detrimental to children's health and safety. We aimed to measure the degree to which Philippine children working in agriculture have a higher risk of injury compared with children working in other industries, and to uncover potential risk factors for their non-fatal injuries. Using the Philippine Survey of Children (SOC) 2001, we calculated injury incidence rates and relative risk measures across industries, and employed a multivariate logistic regression on the sample of working children in agriculture to ascertain the association of various exposures with the occurrence of work-related injuries. Children working in agriculture had a fivefold risk of non-fatal injury compared to children working in other industries. Logistic regression indicated that the most robust risk factor for the occurrence of non-fatal injury was the use of tools (OR = 3.12). The results of this study demonstrate agriculture to be a hazardous industry for children. Further research should focus on identifying the most dangerous tools and restricting their use. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hospers, A.; Louwsma, M.A.; Lammeren, van R.J.A.; Kuiper, P.P.
Land from many holdings is dispersed, which compels farmers to use public roads to access distant parcels. Agricultural traffic is different from other traffic with its large and heavy vehicles. When agricultural traffic mixes with other traffic, safety issues may arise. Another issue of
Mars, Matthew M.
This article qualitatively explores the potential of entrepreneurial leadership curricula to encourage interdisciplinary interest in agricultural issues and prompt diverse student engagement in agricultural leadership and innovation. The study focuses specifically on the activities and perspectives of 15 undergraduate students who completed an…
Abay, Kibrom Araya; Blalock, Garrick; Berhane, Guush
and psychological explanations for the low rates of adoption of profitable agricultural technologies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results highlight that improving farmers’ non-cognitive skills (locus of control) may facilitate technology adoption and agricultural transformation. More generally, the results suggest...
Relationship between Students Variables and their Attitudes to Taking Career in Agriculture: A Case Study of the Faculty of Agriculture of University of Ilorin, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. GB Adesiji, BM Matanmi, O Bolarin, AP Adekanye, KS Obaniyi, 1- ...
Geraldo da Silva e Souza
Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this article we assess the effect of market imperfections and income inequality on rural production efficiency. The analysis is carried out using the notion of stochastic conditional efficiency computed in terms of free disposal hull (FDH efficiency measurements. Free disposal hull and conditional FDH are output oriented with variable returns to scale. They are evaluated for rural production at the county level, considering the rank of rural gross income as the output and the ranks of land expenses, labor expenses, and expenses on other technological factors as inputs. The conditional frontier is dependent on income inequality and other indicators related to market imperfections. The econometric approach is based on fractional regression models and the generalized method of moments (GMM. Overall, the market imperfection variables act to reduce performance, and income dispersion is positively associated with technical efficiency.
Marina Luminita Sarbovan
Full Text Available In order to keep away the recession and the negative effects of the production slowing down, scientists and civil society retake the analysis of the “how we grow?” possible answers dilemma. On the other hand the recent economic evolution of the Euro zone, as a major development pole of the world, shows that macroeconomic stability and sustainability is a continuous effort for all the parties involved, and that imbalances detection is not enough to solve the complex and numerous problems which do not answer quickly to the monetary stimulus. Also, in the frame of European Union, the liberalization of the capital and human flows do not have the same effect for the supplier country and for the receiving one, and the difficulty of comparing qualitative aspects still persists, in spite of common regulations and a quasi-common governance of the core phenomena. Romanian agriculture and each of its branches can basically contribute to the stability and safety of the intelligent growth and development.
Besset-Manzoni, Yoann; Rieusset, Laura; Joly, Pierre; Comte, Gilles; Prigent-Combaret, Claire
The rhizosphere hosts a considerable microbial community. Among that community, bacteria called plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can promote plant growth and defense against diseases using diverse distinct plant-beneficial functions. Crop inoculation with PGPR could allow to reduce the use of pesticides and fertilizers in agrosystems. However, microbial crop protection and growth stimulation would be more efficient if cooperation between rhizosphere bacterial populations was taken into account when developing biocontrol agents and biostimulants. Rhizospheric bacteria live in multi-species biofilms formed all along the root surface or sometimes inside the plants (i.e., endophyte). PGPR cooperate with their host plants and also with other microbial populations inside biofilms. These interactions are mediated by a large diversity of microbial metabolites and physical signals that trigger cell-cell communication and appropriate responses. A better understanding of bacterial behavior and microbial cooperation in the rhizosphere could allow for a more successful use of bacteria in sustainable agriculture. This review presents an ecological view of microbial cooperation in agrosystems and lays the emphasis on the main microbial metabolites involved in microbial cooperation, plant health protection, and plant growth stimulation. Eco-friendly inoculant consortia that will foster microbe-microbe and microbe-plant cooperation can be developed to promote crop growth and restore biodiversity and functions lost in agrosystems.
Jordan, Nicholas R.; Bawden, Richard J.; Bergmann, Luke
Agriculture is offering new forms of support to society, as evidenced by rapid development of an agricultural "bio-economy," and increasing emphasis on production of ecological services in farmed landscapes. The advent of these innovations will engage agricultural professionals in critical civic debates about matters that are complex and…
Du, Yan-yan; Zhao, Yun-hua
Rational utilization of agricultural waste resources is of great significance to reducing environmental pollution, improving rural ecological environment, and developing agricultural circular economy. Besides, in the context of global energy crisis, the research of resource utilization technology for agricultural wastes will exert considerable influence on survival and living of human beings. We firstly discuss about general situations of agricultural waste resources in China, research and ap...
Igor Yu. Pelevin
Full Text Available Following article devoted to consideration of possible ways to develop tax system in agricultural forms of economic management. Principles of tax reforming for agricultural sector are presented, in addition initial analysis has been done for single agricultural and land tax. The article represents verification of essential support of generality principles for taxation of agrarian firms. Methodology of calculation of tax basis for single agricultural tax has been offered.
Use of nuclear techniques have been recognized to be invaluable tools in agricultural research for increasing crop production and reducing food losses in the technologically developed countries. The objectives of FAO/IAEA programme are to exploit the potential of isotopes and radiation applications in R and D for increasing and stabilizing agricultural production, reducing production costs, improving food quality, protecting agricultural products from spoilage and losses and minimizing pollution of food and the agricultural environment. (author)
Full Text Available This paper examines the agricultural potentials of Stara Pazova, and consequently defines development priorities in this area. The aim at the research is to assess the real possibilities for improvement on agriculture Municipality. The analysis is focused on: knowledge transfer and innovation, agriculture technical equipment, warehouse and finishing capacities in agriculture, processing of agricultural products and the vision and development priorities over agriculture Municipality. The research results show that the improvement to the competitiveness of the agricultural sector of Stara Pazova requires the implementation of adequate policy measures and projects related to the improvement to human resources, higher level of processing of agricultural and food products, as well as better agricultural technical equipment agricultural producers. Activities in this area include primarily higher correlation science and practice across the reorganized agricultural station, extension services, home service , agricultural cooperatives and other associations of farmers; development and implementation of new knowledge and skills of farmers through advice, training, seminars, courses; support young farmers in the modernization of farms. All projects in this field must be based on adequate state support and coordinated efforts of the public and private sectors.
Saharan Africa in thelast decade or so, a substantial proportion of the people in Africa still live inacute poverty and suffer immensely from inadequate access to economic and social resources. As the agricultural sector dominates the economics of ...
Nakanishi, Tsuneo; Jæger-Hansen, Claes Lund; Griepentrog, Hans-Werner
Agricultural vehicles and robots expand their controlling software in size and complexity for their increasing functions. Due to repeated, ad hoc addition and modification, software gets structurally corrupted and becomes low performing, resource consuming and unreliable. This paper presents...
Olatomide Waheed Olowa
Full Text Available The paper reports a study carried out on the utilisation of the Internet by agricultural science teachers in Lagos state focusing on uses, practices, and barriers. A questionnaire was developed based on literature and was administered to 300 agricultural science teachers in Lagos schools. 275 questionnaires properly completed were analyzed. Data reveal that 130 teachers are using the Internet for teaching agricultural science in classrooms as well as for various activities that enhance their professional development. Nevertheless, it was found that agricultural science teachers in Lagos State have not fully utilised the Internet because of barriers related to time factor, accessibility, and facilities. It is suggested that for the proliferation of Internet practices, there needs to be an increase in funding for technology, an introduction of computer/technology education, a provision of pedagogical training for teachers, and a provision of administrational support.
Full Text Available The economic development in Yugoslavia (Serbia after the second world war has been conducted at the expense of agriculture because the industrialisation was in the forefront of the economic policy. It has an impact on the present position of the agriculture compared to the other sectors because the parity of product exchange is still retained at the expense of agriculture. Even under these circumstances agriculture is an industry with a positive foreign trade balance, important share in the national product and the unemployment rate reduction, and that has been analysed and shown in this paper. Many developed European countries are an example of the successful agricultural development as a carrier of the complete development. There are indisputably much wider possibilities for agriculture development in Serbia, and it could become a great comparative advantage of our economy in the developed markets in the world, with the appropriate macroeconomic policy.
Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Abdul Razak, Nur Ezzazulianie; Othman, Mohd Sham; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Mohammad, Nihayah; Abd Hamid, Zariyantey; Harun, Zaliha; Kamarulzaman, Firdaus; Abdullah, Rozaini
Heavy metals, particularly cadmium, lead, and arsenic, constitute a significant potential threat to human health. This study was conducted to determine the levels of cadmium, lead, and arsenic in nail samples from farmers at Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA), Kedah, Malaysia, and evaluate factors that can contribute to their accumulations. A total of 116 farmers participated in this study. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze concentration of heavy metals in the nail samples and questionnaires were given to participants to get demographic, health status, and their agricultural activities data. In this paper, the level of heavy metals was within the normal range and varies according to demographic factors. We found that there were significant correlations between working period with level of lead and arsenic (r=0.315 and r=0.242, resp., P<0.01) and age with lead level (r=0.175, P<0.05). Our findings suggested that agricultural activities could contribute to the accumulation of heavy metals in farmers. Hence, the control of environmental levels of and human exposure to these metals to prevent adverse health effects is still an important public health issue.
Malik, R.; Sreeramulu, K.; Ruwali, K.
A 10 MeV, 5 kW electron Linac based Agricultural Radiation Processing Facility is being set-up near DABH Vegetable and Fruit Market, Indore. In this paper the design and development of a set of solenoid and scanning magnets required for the Linac is presented. The solenoid magnets include small aperture (22 mm diameter) beam collimator magnet and other water cooled solenoid magnets of peak fields of 1200 Gauss and 500 Gauss to be placed around the Linac assembly between the RF couplers to improve beam transmission. The beam collimator magnet has been designed for an axial peak magnetic field of 410 Gauss and will be placed after the electron gun and before the Linac. The scanning magnet has been designed for maximum field strength of 436 Gauss for wider scanning of the electron beam. The cross-section of all the solenoid magnets were determined by computing the field distribution with the 2D magneto static POISSON code and 3D calculations were performed using OPERA 3D Code. The forces between the water cooled solenoids are also estimated since all the solenoid magnets are placed near to each other around the Linac assembly structure. The water cooled solenoids were made from hollow copper conductors and shielded around them with low carbon steel sheets. The magnet cores of collimators were manufactured from low carbon steel and coils from enameled copper wires. The scanning magnet core cross-section is of C-type, fabricated from 0.5 mm silicon steel laminations and coils from enameled copper wires. All the wound magnet coils were epoxy resin impregnated under vacuum and assembled with magnet cores. The magnetic field measurements of all the magnets were carried out using Hall probe. After field measurements, all the magnetic elements have been installed in the Linac assembly. The details of magnetic design, magnet development and the magnetic measurements will be discussed in this paper. (author)
Lombardini, Marco; Meriggi, Alberto; Fozzi, Alberto
Crop damage by wildlife is a frequent source of human-wildlife conflict. Understanding which factors increase the risk of damage is crucial to the development of effective management strategies. The aims of this study were to provide a general description of agricultural damage caused by wild boar Sus scrofa meridionalis over a 7-year period in North-eastern Sardinia (Mediterranean Italy), and to formulate a predictive model of damage risk. We recorded a total of 221 cases of wild boar damage, with economic losses amounting to 483,982 Euros. Damage events mostly involved vineyards, meadows and oat fields, and were characterized by a peak incidence in summer and early autumn, and a minimum in spring. Damaged fields were characterized by an increasing presence of permanent crops, a decreasing presence of woodlands, maquis and urban areas, and a reduced distance from shelter areas (forests and shrublands). The analysis of spatiotemporal variation of boar-induced damage and the identification of factors that augment the risk of damage provides essential information for contributing to the development of a more effective plan for managing wild boar populations.
Mahanty, Trishna; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Goswami, Madhurankhi; Bhattacharyya, Purnita; Das, Bannhi; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti; Tribedi, Prosun
The worldwide increase in human population raises a big threat to the food security of each people as the land for agriculture is limited and even getting reduced with time. Therefore, it is essential that agricultural productivity should be enhanced significantly within the next few decades to meet the large demand of food by emerging population. Not to mention, too much dependence on chemical fertilizers for more crop productions inevitably damages both environmental ecology and human health with great severity. Exploitation of microbes as biofertilizers is considered to some extent an alternative to chemical fertilizers in agricultural sector due to their extensive potentiality in enhancing crop production and food safety. It has been observed that some microorganisms including plant growth promoting bacteria, fungi, Cyanobacteria, etc. have showed biofertilizer-like activities in the agricultural sector. Extensive works on biofertilizers have revealed their capability of providing required nutrients to the crop in sufficient amounts that resulted in the enhancement of crop yield. The present review elucidates various mechanisms that have been exerted by biofertilizers in order to promote plant growth and also provides protection against different plant pathogens. The aim of this review is to discuss the important roles and applications of biofertilizers in different sectors including agriculture, bioremediation, and ecology.
Full Text Available Important green house gases (GHG attributed to animal agriculture are methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, though carbon dioxide (CO2 contributes almost half of total greenhouse effect. Rumen CH4 production in an enteric fermentation can be accounted as the biggest anthropogenic source. Some of prebiotics and probiotics have been innovated to mitigate rumen CH4 emission. The possible use of agricultural biomass consisted of non-edible parts of crop plants such as cellulose and hemi cellulose and animal wastes was proposed as a renewable energy and nitrogen sources. The ammonia stripping from digested slurry of animal manure in biogas plant applied three options of nitrogen recycling to mitigate nitrous oxide emission. In the first option of the ammonia stripping, the effect of ammonolysis on feed value of cellulose biomass was evaluated on digestibility, energy metabolism and protein utilization. Saccharification of the NH3 treated cellulose biomass was confirmed in strictly anaerobic incubation with rumen cellulolytic bacteria, Ruminoccous flavefaciens, to produce bio-ethanol as the second option of ammonia stripping. In an attempt of NH3 fuel cell, the reformed hydrogen from the NH3 stripped from 20 liter of digested slurry in thermophilic biogas plant could generate 0.12 W electricity with proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM as the third option.
Full Text Available This article presents the legal regulations relating to Renewable Energy Sources, including the biogas sector. It discusses biogas production technologies, the current state and perspectives of agricultural biogas production in Poland, the production capabilities of Polish biogas plants and factors contributing to the attractiveness of the biogas sector. The following economic and ecological aspects of biogas production were considered in the study: profitability and environmental impacts, including reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. Despite numerous problems, the Renewable Energy Sources Act provides an opportunity for the growth and development of the biogas industry in Poland.
Full Text Available Purpose: The development of leisure agriculture is an important means of agricultural industry structure adjustment of Henan province, China, to realize the transition from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. Design/methodology/approach: The SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat analysis of Henan leisure agriculture will contribute to the sustainable development of Henan leisure agriculture. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of developing leisure agriculture in Henan province were systematically analyzed using SWOT method in our study. The aspects including location, resources, traffic, population, economy, urbanization, industrialization, market, policy, capital, product, technology, management, marketing and environment were involved. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat were quantified in this study using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process method. Findings and Originality/value: The result showed that the total strength and total opportunity of Henan leisure agriculture are much greater than that of total weakness and total threat, which suggests that the opportunities outweigh threats, and advantage outweigh disadvantage. The growth-oriented strategy combining the external opportunities and its own advantages shall be employed in development of Henan leisure agriculture as indicated by the strategy strength coefficient in strategy quadrangle we have constructed. The barriers to the development need to be overcome while strengthening competitive advantages. Originality/value: New ideas for working out the developmental strategy for Henan leisure agriculture is provided by SWOT-AHP method.
Full Text Available Sustainability of agricultural production in the world is in serious crisis. Interdependence of agricultural production and the environment is multiple and causality works both ways. On one hand, there are environmental changes which hamper food production, and on the other, the agricultural production, as it is, is severely damaging the environment. The very systems of agricultural production jeopardize future production. The goal of this paper is to explore causes of limitations of sustainable agricultural development in the world, where the authors emphasize the following: gas emissions with greenhouse effect, a disturbed cycle of nitrogen circulation and destruction of biodiversity.
(the depth of activities) and level of integration in the internal MNC-network. Birkinshaw and Hood (1998a) have in their seminal paper proposed a model where subsidiary development is determined by three factors: Headquarter assignment, dynamism of local business environment and subsidiary initiatives....... This paper is the first to conduct a statistical test of this model on a large-sample data set including data of more than 2.100 subsidiaries located in seven different countries in Europe. The effect of the three determining factors on subsidiary development is tested simultaneously in a LISREL model....
Funk, Christopher C.; Husak, Gregory; Mahiny, A.S; Eilerts, Gary; Rowland, James
This brief article looks at the intersection of climate, land cover/land use, and population trends in the world's most food insecure country, Ethiopia. As a result of warming in the Indian and Western Pacific oceans, Ethiopia has experienced substantial drying over the past 20 years. We intersect the spatial pattern of this drying with high resolution climatologies, maps of agricultural expansion, population data, and socioeconomic livelihoods information to suggest that the coincidence of drying and agricultural expansion in south-central Ethiopia is likely adversely affecting a densely populated region with high levels of poverty and low wage levels.
Garrett, R.; Koh, I.; le Polain de Waroux, Y.; Lambin, E.; Kastens, J.; Brown, J. C.
Agricultural expansion, extensive cattle ranching, and deforestation remain pressing challenges for sustainable development and climate mitigation throughout South America. In response to these challenges, national and local governments, as well as private and non-governmental actors have developed new forest conservation governance mechanisms. The objective of this study is to better understand how conservation policies interact with supply chain development to influence land use. In particular, we endeavor to understand the timing and spatial patterns of crop and cattle intensification, an understudied phenomenon that is critical to understanding the future of agricultural-forest frontiers and the impacts of conservation policies. We focus on Mato Grosso, the largest soy and cattle producing state in Brazil, which spans the Cerrado and Amazon biomes and has experienced higher levels of deforestation for agricultural expansion than any other state globally over the last decade. Using a newly created spatially explicit data set of land use intensity, supply chain development, and forest policy, we find that agricultural intensification is occurring rapidly in the region, but is only partially driven by changes in conservation policies. The intensification of cattle production is the result of improvements in deforestation monitoring, penalties, and enforcement, and increased land scarcity. Crop intensification, in contrast, preceded increases in conservation restrictions, and is associated with the positive spillovers resulting from agribusiness agglomeration and development. These results suggest that intensification is not a foregone conclusion of increasing forest conservation restrictions, but is highly dependent on wider development processes. A combined effort to direct agribusiness development away from forest regions via tax credits and subsidized credit, when applied in concert with stringent conservation requirements, could help promote intensification
Ishikawa, Nao; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo
Soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is one of the important parameters in radiation dose assessment models for the environmental transfer of radionuclides. Since TFs are affected by several factors, including radionuclides, plant species and soil properties, development of a method for estimation of TF using some soil and plant properties would be useful. In this study, we took a statistical approach to estimating the TF of stable strontium (TF Sr ) from selected soil properties and element concentrations in plants, which was used as an analogue of 90 Sr. We collected the plant and soil samples used for the study from 142 agricultural fields throughout Japan. We applied a multiple linear regression analysis in order to get an empirical equation to estimate TF Sr . TF Sr could be estimated from the Sr concentration in soil (C Sr soil ) and Ca concentration in crop (C Ca crop ) using the following equation: log TF Sr =-0.88·log C Sr soil +0.93·log C Ca crop -2.53. Then, we replaced our data with Ca concentrations in crops from a food composition database compiled by the Japanese government. Finally, we predicted TF Sr using Sr concentration in soil from our data and Ca concentration in crops from the database of food composition. (author)
Even before it was hit by a devastating earthquake in January 2010, Haiti's children suffered some of the worst rates of undernutrition in Latin America and the Caribbean. According to UNICEF, in 2005, one out of every three children under five was stunted or chronically undernourished. Since the earthquake, agriculture ...
Abstracted by: EBSCOhost, Electronic Journals Service (EJS),. Vol. 21 (1) Febuary, 2017. Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ),. ISSN(e): 24086851; ISSN(Print); 1119944X. Journal Seek, Scientific Commons, http://journal.aesonnigeria.org. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), CABI and Scopus.
Sustainability of agricultural production in communal areas of Zimbabwe: case of Chionekano communal lands · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C.T GADZIRAYI, S.I WHANDE, E. MUTANDWA, 1-11 ...
This article assesses farmers' benefits from a donor-funded programme that promoted non-traditional agricultural export crops, specifically vanilla and hot pepper. Data was obtained from a survey of 125 famers from eight farmers' associations working with a Dutch NGO and trading company, four focus group discussions ...
Boland, Michael A.
Crafting and executing strategy are key tasks to be carried out by a manager of an enterprise. Unit leaders are managers of an academic enterprise called a department. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of information collected from interviews with unit leaders of departments of agricultural economics and discuss challenges being faced by these unit leaders in March 2009.
These include: a decline in the terms of trade for traditional commodities relative to high-value niche products, rapid and controversial technical advances, and a ... Growing ethical networks : the fair trade market for raw and processed agricultural products (in five parts), with associated case studies on Africa and Latin ...
Agricultural revenue has not been able to sustain the external debt in Nigeria despite the effort made by the government in facilitating its projects using the external funds. This study adopted external debt elasticity indices as well as an ordinary least square analysis and error correction mechanism to isolate the effect of ...
Keywords: Linear programming; Land use model; Technology assessmen China's agriculture faces a series of challenges, i.e. guaranteeing national food security, increasing farmer's income and reducing the adverse effects on environment and human health associated with the use of fertilizers and
Assessment of the usage of social media among agricultural extension workers in Kwara State, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. T.R. Olaitan, G.B. Adesiji, O.B. Owojaiye, F.O. Adereti, 31-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jard.v16i1.4 ...
Genardis III will provide 15 awardees - mainly, rural women from African, Caribbean and Pacific countries - with capacity building and funding to pursue small research projects aimed at furthering knowledge on gender issues in the application of information and communications technology (ICT) in agriculture and rural ...
Since the earthquake, agriculture and food security have become top priorities for international donors and the national government. Aid has increased and the government plans major reforms. However, research efforts and resources are scarce, and local research capacity is fragmented. There is limited collaboration ...
Principal Contact. Prof. Ruth K. Oniang'o, PhD. Editor-in-Chief Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture. 9 Planets Apartments S#6. Kabarnet Gardens, Kabarnet Rd. P.O. Box 29086-00625 Nairobi, Kenya Phone: +254 (0) 722 406955. Email: email@example.com ...
the agricultural sector, by increasing the number of both small-scale and large farmers, adoption of incentives ..... western terminous of the city on the highway to Mbabane is KaKhoza. Township, a poor neighborhood .... from the other studies with those estimated in this study could be misleading. However, the own-price ...
Lawver, Rebecca G.; McKim, Billy R.; Smith, Amy R.; Aschenbrener, Mollie S.; Enns, Kellie
Research on effective teaching has been conducted in a variety of settings for more than 40 years. This study offers direction for future effective teaching research in secondary agricultural education and has implications for career and technical education. Specifically, 142 items consisting of characteristics, behaviors, and/or techniques…
A methodology for evaluating soil erosion caused by major agricultural practices was tested in 22 fields in Khao Kho District of Phetchabun Province,in the central part of Thailand. Fields were established on Ultic Haplustalf fine clayey mixed hyperthermic of 20 and 35 % slopes, and Typic Ustropept fine clayey mixed ...
graduates leave the system and find no work, rice and other food commodities are imported and the food production system is still largely peasantry with over 60% of the farmers working on small tracts of farmland. (0.2 – 1 ha) in an inefficient manner. The question therefore is whether we still have hope for future agricultural.
Full Text Available Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Indonesia is one of the tin mineral-producer in the world. Agricultural crops could be a wise option for the reclamation since abandoned tin-mining lands have a high potency to be used as agricultural lands. This study was aimed to evaluate of the land/soil characteristics of abandoned tin-mining areas and to establish land suitability of the land area for agriculture used to formulate appropriate land development measures and amelioration strategies for utilization of mined areas for crop production. The land evaluation was conducted by comparing the land characteristics in every type of abandoned tin-mining areas with its crop requirements. The current suitability showed that in general food crops, vegetable crops, fruit crops, and industrial crops were consider as not suitable (N. Spice and medicinal crops [pepper (Piper nigrum L. and citronella (Andropogoh nardus L. Rendle] were consider as not suitable (N, while the Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L. and Kemiri Sunan (Aleurites moluccana L. Willd crops were considered as marginally suitable (S3 in abandoned tin-mining areas. The forest crops and forage crops were considered as marginally suitable (S3. The water availability, soil texture, and low soil fertility were considered as the limiting factors of all crops to get optimum production. For agricultural development, the soil physical and chemical properties of abandoned tin-mining land must be improved through integrated farming.
Elliott Ronald Dossou-Yovo
Full Text Available Inland valleys are becoming increasingly important agricultural production areas for rural households in sub-Saharan Africa due to their relative high and secure water availability and soil fertility. In addition, inland valleys are important as water buffer and biodiversity hot spots and they provide local communities with forest, forage, and fishing resources. As different inland-valley ecosystem functions may conflict with agricultural objectives, indiscriminate development should be avoided. This study aims to analyze the diversity of inland valleys in Sierra Leone and to develop guidelines for more precise interventions. Land use, biophysical and socio-economic data were analyzed on 257 inland valleys using spatial and multivariate techniques. Five cluster groups of inland valleys were identified: (i semi-permanently flooded with high soil organic carbon (4.2% and moderate available phosphorus (10.2 ppm, mostly under natural vegetation; (ii semi-permanently flooded with low soil organic carbon (1.5% and very low available phosphorus (3.1 ppm, abandoned by farmers; (iii seasonally flooded with moderate soil organic carbon (3.1% and low available phosphorus (8.3 ppm, used for rainfed rice and off-season vegetables produced without fertilizer application for household consumption and market; (iv well drained with moderate soil organic carbon (3.8% and moderate available phosphorus (10.0 ppm, used for rainfed rice and off-season vegetables produced with fertilizer application for household consumption and market; and (v well drained with moderate soil organic carbon (3.6% and moderate available phosphorus (11 ppm, used for household consumption without fertilizer application. Soil organic carbon, available phosphorus, hydrological regime, physical accessibility and market opportunity were the major factors affecting agricultural intensification of inland valleys. Opening up the areas in which inland valleys occur through improved roads and
Full Text Available The subject of the author’s research is the processes of development of the agrarian sector of Ukrainian economy by ecological-economic specifications. The methodological justification is based on the use of fundamental principles that reflect the main strategies of agrarian development. The systematic approach to the characteristics of the agrarian system, complex by the structure and functional parameters in interaction with the external environment, is applied. Methods of analysis/synthesis are used for the disclosure of the integral nature of the agrarian environment in the context of management of the main processes. The purpose of the author’s research suggests a consideration of the processes of formation of the agrarian system by economic and environmental interactions as modern dominant in the development of the agrarian sector of Ukraine. The analysis of integral components of agrarian development with the reflection of interactions of the sphere of agrarian production and agrarian relations is carried out. The emphasis is made on the importance of the formation of an effective and promising domestic agricultural policy, in the basis of which is the activation of entrepreneurial initiatives, comprehensive development of the agrarian community, ecologically and socially oriented projects of reproduction of rural territories, innovative strategies of ecological and economic ascension of agriculture in Ukraine. The resource base is considered as the economic basis of agriculture from the standpoint of the main sales markets, the state of transport infrastructure, the growth of world and domestic demand for agrarian raw materials and finished products, and the availability of relatively cheap labour resources. The agrarian production is analysed from ecological positions and influences of natural and climatic factors. The state of individual agro-ecological mismatches in agriculture of Ukraine is explained, as well as the reasons of
This book presents an overview of ergonomics/human factors in software development, recent research, and classic papers. Articles are drawn from the following areas of psychological research on programming: cognitive ergonomics, cognitive psychology, and psycholinguistics. Topics examined include: theoretical models of how programmers solve technical problems, the characteristics of programming languages, specification formats in behavioral research and psychological aspects of fault diagnosis.
Antolin Silvestre Martiñón-Martínez
Full Text Available The mass media, are an important complement in the agricultural extension, however, radio is the most economical mass media, so their potential is huge especially in rural areas. The present study was carried out at a community radio station (Radio Teocelo, with coffee producers, in three municipalities in the area Center of Veracruz, it should be noted that the radio has an audience formed mainly by agricultural producers, also this medium has been used for agricultural extension by the UNCADER (training unit for Rural Development, through an agricultural program called "The Moon in Uncader", with mainly technical information, however, it is necessary to propose relevant socio-economic issues that may be part of an optional agricultural programming, and/or complement the technical programming that is transmitted by the agricultural program. The study found a positive attitude to the proposed socio-economic issues, since most was obtained 80% of positive responses, highlighting the transmission of information on: marketing, government programs, visits to successful producers and transmission of successful cases of successful producers, also adopted a positive attitude for the program is disseminated by mass media mainly Teocelo Radio and are willing to personally spread mainly with friends.
Full Text Available The problem of increasing the economic efficiency of resource use in agricultural production is very important. Its solution directly depends on the economic security of the country and its constant supply with agricultural products.There are three basic factors in agricultural production: nature (land, labour and capital, which have differentmeasure units. Comparability is necessary to express the value of the integral potential that gives the possibility totake into account the main resources involved in producing and obtaining results from the agricultural sector.
Full Text Available In the context of the division of accounting into financial accounting, taxation accounting, management accounting and statistical accounting a problem of improving their relationship arises. The accounting and analytical cluster plays the role of the correlating factor of the relationship between the subdivisions of the agricultural holding property. To improve its work a modular principle of its building based on information technology was introduced. Practical implementation of modular accounting and analytical cluster revealed its shortcomings. They were as follows: each type of account and each production unit used its own natural and cost parameters. The number and nature of these parameters were different. To eliminate the shortcomings in the information security of managers and specialists of the agricultural holding, we attempt to develop a methodology for establishing a rational number of descriptors (binding parameters for each module. The proposed descriptors are designed on the basis of validity of the methodological approach to their calculations and legal support. The proposed method allowed to limit the asymmetric information in all kinds of records, to improve its quality and to bring a synergistic effect from the scale and structure of the use of the agricultural holdings property complex.
Wulystan P. Mtega
Full Text Available Background: Access to agricultural knowledge is important in transforming livelihoods of those relying on agriculture for a living and in enhancing food security. This access to agricultural knowledge is influenced by infrastructure needed for information dissemination. However, information infrastructure is not uniformly distributed within and between countries. It is because of this that some of the farming communities are information rich while others are information poor. In Tanzania, the agricultural sector is characterised by poor research-extension-farmers linkage and inaccessibility of agricultural knowledge at farm level Objective: The study investigated the factors influencing access to agricultural knowledge among smallholder rice farmers in the Kilombero district of Tanzania. Specifically, the study identified categories of agricultural knowledge needed by farmers, determined how farmers access agricultural knowledge, and assessed the factors limiting the accessibility of agricultural knowledge among rice farmers in the Kilombero district. Method: Quantitative data were collected via semi-structured questionnaires administered face-to-face with rice farmers, community leaders, and agricultural agents in four villages at the Kilombero district of the Morogoro region in Tanzania. Results: The key finding indicates that farmers accessed and used agricultural knowledge in undertaking agricultural activities. It was further revealed that the level of acquisition of agricultural knowledge increased with an increase in age. Farmers needed agricultural knowledge on land preparation, seed selection, and rice planting, while few acquired knowledge on agricultural markets. Among the agricultural knowledge sources used, demonstration plots and agricultural extension agents were found to be used by the majority of the farmers. It was also found that a limited number of demonstration plots, late delivery of information services, a limited number
This essay argues that capacity development is a response to changes in the organization and practice of agricultural extension as these changes have excluded small resource farmers. In this essay I trace the changes in the organization of agricultural extension through to the emergence of the concept and practice of capacity development. The idea…
Cooley, Zachary C.; Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake
The main agricultural areas in South Florida are located within the fertile land surrounding Lake Okeechobee. The Atlantic Watershed monthly rainfall anomalies showed a weak but statistically significant correlation to the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI). No other watershed s anomalies showed significant correlations with ONI or the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). During La Nina months, less sea breeze days and more disturbed days were found to occur compared to El Nino and neutral months. The increase in disturbed days can likely by attributed to the synoptic pattern during La Nina, which is known to be favorable for tropical systems to follow paths that affect South Florida. Overall, neither sea breeze rainfall patterns nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida s main agricultural areas were found to be strongly influenced by the El Nino Southern Oscillation during our study time.
Full Text Available Agricultural higher education institutions have a significant role in development of the agriculture sector and the effectiveness of higher education is dependent on the quality of teaching offered by its faculty members. The purpose of this study was to determine and classify factors related to teaching quality by members of a scientific board. The method of evaluation for this research was by evaluation of data from a descriptive survey taken with a researcher made questionnaire. The target population of the study consisted of 256 faculty members in agricultural colleges in Tehran University. A sample of 100 staff was selected through a randomized multi-stage sampling method based on the Koukran formula. The questionnaire, used as the research tool, was verified by a panel of experts. The reliability of the questionnaire was verified through calculating the Crookback Alpha coefficient equal to 0/86 following a pilot study. Data was analyzed through SPSS15/Win and results of the explorative factor analysis revealed that five components explained 74/82% of the total variance. These factors were as follows; (1 lesson plan (19.52%, (2 teaching skill (17.97%, (3 communication skills (17.93%, (4 expertise related to lesson content (10.59%, and (5 individual capabilities of members (9.15% respectively.
the planning process and the NED evaluacion ’- ". procedures for agriculture, as described in the P&G, are thei presented. Also identified are some...be examined to determine the uncertainty inherent in the data or in various assumptions of future economic, demographic, social , attitudinal...8217,- % % .. . . . .- 2.. - A J Risk and uncertainty arise from measurement errors and from the underlying variability of complex natural, social , and economic si’uations
Full Text Available The necessity of identification of key talents in company is known in all sectors of economy. Therefore the aim of the paper is based on competency analysis to define key factors leading to talent identification and internalization through competency modelling. Paper characterizes areas of necessary competencies on specific job positions in companies. Their targeting on employee and teams in talent management is revealed. The objective is based on analysis of primary survey conducted on 101 agriculture companies. The data were obtained through manager surveys for which a single manager represented the given company. One-dimensional and multi-dimensional statistics were used to evaluate the data. Based on statistical analyses of required competencies five factors characterizing area of key employee and team development were identified. Those factors are inclusive approach, management support, strategic development, leadership development and integrity. The resultant factors create competency models usable in specified job positions. Limits of the paper is narrow focus on primary sector companies. The results may help surveyed companies in primary sector to set required and necessary competencies for specific areas to identify and develop employees, talents and teams.
Full Text Available At the present stage of human development, food is one of the most acute problems. Over the past 30-40 years, the growth rate of population in many countries of the world is ahead of the growth rate of agricultural production, which leads to acute shortage of food. This is especially true of developing countries, which accounts for the overwhelming majority of the population of the planet that is under-eating and starving. According to FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization, in the world now about half a billion people are constantly hungry and twice asleep. Insufficient consumption affects children in particular. Nearly 300 million children in Asia, Africa and Latin America are lagging behind in physical and mental development as a result of poor nutrition. Every day from hunger there are about 12 thousand people dying. According to FAO, food products around the world are produced in general enough to feed the entire population of the Earth. However, the main reason for the global food crisis is not that products are distributed among countries irrelevant to the population, although such a problem exists. Researchers believe that the food crisis is caused by the coincidence of demographic, environmental and energy problems with the effects of adverse weather conditions, as well as a colossal increase in military spending. Investigated the interconnection between the dynamics of population growth and world food production volumes with the areas of agricultural land and the possible influence of projected changes in agricultural land use on increasing the cost of agricultural land is substantiated. It was investigated that the average national land rent in Ukraine would increase by 25.5%. This in turn will lead to an increase in the value of agricultural land in Ukraine.
Bye, Anne Snelllingen; Aarstad, Per Amund; Loevberget, Anne Ingun; Hoeie, Henning
Statistics Norway produces the report 'Agriculture and Environment - State and Development' on annual commission from the Norwegian Agricultural Authority.The report contains statistical information on status and development of agrienvironmental issues in Norwegian agriculture. A wide range of data sources from Statistics Norway and other institutions serve as input to this information. The report is published in Norwegian and is available on the Internet: http://www.ssb.no/emner/10/04/ Land use and agricultural holdings In the period 1999-2011 the agricultural area in use was reduced by 3.9 per cent. Fully cultivated agricultural land decreased by 7.4 per cent, while there was a 29 per cent increase in infield pastures. In 2011 the agricultural area in use was estimated to about 1.0 million hectares. In 2011 there were 45 500 holdings with agricultural activity in Norway, 36 per cent lower than in 1999. Transfer of agricultural area to non-agriculture purposes In 2011, 660 hectares cultivated land and 390 hectares of cultivable land were transferred to non-agricultural use. Organic farming In 2011, organic farming covered about 5 per cent of the total agricultural area in use. The number of holdings with organic farming was 2 700, comprising 6 per cent of the total number of agricultural holdings in Norway. Plant protection: The Norwegian Food Safety Authorities has developed risk indicators for the use of pesticides in agriculture. The health risk decreased by 18 percentage points from 2005 to 2008, whereas the environmental risk decreased by 7 points in the same period. Sales of commercial fertiliser In 2011, the total amount of nutrients in commercial fertiliser was on the same level as in the 1960's. The sales of nitrogen were on the level as in the 1970's, while the sales of phosphorus were lower than in the 1950's. Discharges of nutrients to waterways and ocean environment The main purpose of the EU Water Directive is to achieve
Full Text Available Virtual business communities (VBC are virtual networks of people who share common interests and comprise online software platforms that enables the fast exchange of information, collaboration and business interactions. From 2011 to 2015, we developed a design science research to create a VBC platform for an agricultural cluster of flower growers in the South of Brazil. The goal of this platform was to help to structure and strengthen this cluster by bringing together buyers and sellers while fostering cooperation to boost cluster competitiveness and economic development in the region. However, a number of challenges surfaced during the process, which led to a failure in the VBC platform’s diffusion. We adopted a sociomaterial perspective based on the mangle of practice concept (Pickering, 1993 to investigate this failure, by analyzing the key challenges involved in developing a VBC platform in an agricultural context. As its main result, this paper reveals the mangling process during the design and application of the VBC platform and details the different instances of tuning between the participants and the technology. We observed resistance and factors that weakened cooperation and resulted in a lack of governance rules, which are key to the success of a VBC platform.
Mogae, Festus G.
Africa has an abundance of energy and mineral assets and agricultural land. In spite of the variety of outlooks across its numerous countries there is a common understanding that these natural resources need to be used carefully and thoughtfully if there is to be sustainable development across Africa as a whole, especially pro-poor sustainable development. Botswana has poor soils and climate for agricultural production, but it has developed some of its other resources. That development, combi...
Murali Krishna Gumma
Full Text Available Implementing agricultural water management programs over appropriate spatial extents can have positive effects on water access and erosion management. Lack of access to water for domestic and agricultural uses represents a major constraint on agricultural productivity and perpetuates poverty and hunger in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. This lack of access is the result of erratic precipitation, poor water management, limited knowledge of hydrological systems, and inadequate investment in water infrastructure. Water management programs should be made by multi-disciplinary teams that consider the interrelationship between hydraulic and anthropogenic factors. This paper proposes a method to prioritize watersheds for water management and agricultural development across Mali (Western Africa using remote sensing data and GIS tools. The method involves deriving a set of relevant thematic layers from satellite imagery. Satellite images from Landsat ETM+ were used to generate thematic layers such as land use/land cover. Slope and drainage density maps were derived from Shuttle RADAR Topography Mission (SRTM Digital Elevation Model (DEM at 90 m spatial resolution. Population grids were available from the Global rural-urban mapping project (GRUMP database for the year 2000 and mean rainfall maps were extracted from Tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM grids for each year between 1988 and 2014. Each thematic layer was divided into classes that were assigned a rank for agriculture and livelihoods development provided by experts in the relevant field (e.g., Soil scientist ranking the soil classes and published literature on those themes. Zones of priority were delineated based on the combination of high scoring ranks from each thematic layer. Five categories of priority zones ranging from “very high” to “very low” were determined based on total score percentages. Field verification was then undertaken in selected categories to check the priority
Full Text Available The role of agriculture in rural areas has changed significantly, it has even increased, since having been attributed numerous new functions, from social to ecologic. Also Slovene agriculture, its direction, intensity level, size and proprietal structure was subject to considerable changes as a result of inclusion of Slovenia in the EU and implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy. However it should be considered whether the direction of development of Slovene agriculture corresponds to protection and conservation of our major natural resources?
Full Text Available Zimbabwe is basically endowed in agricultural resources. As a result agricultural activities have a large bearing on developmental issues in the country. Employment is one such economic issue that hinges much on agricultural development. Over the past decade employment levels have reduced as a result of low investment in the country. Masvingo Province has not been spared. This scenario has seen many youths being out of employment as the sector employed less labour. The study found out that economic woes that Zimbabwe experienced over the past half decade have contributed significantly to youth unemployment in agriculture in Masvingo Province as a result of low investment in the sector. The study recommends that heavy investment be put in agriculture and agriculture related projects to enhance employment levels of the Zimbabwean youths in Masvingo province.
Full Text Available The Australian story of farmer innovation in Conservation Agriculture reveals a complex interplay of policy, economics, science, and farming. Farmer experimentation with Conservation Agriculture began in the 1960's and has continued to this day where around 80%-90% of Australia's 23.5 million hectares of winter crops are now grown using Conservation Agriculture principles. This remarkable achievement is the result of both sustained investment in agricultural research and development and farmer innovation. Australian economic settings and science policies have encouraged and facilitated farmer participation in the Conservation Agricultural innovation system. Australian farmers have embraced Conservation Agriculture because it has met their needs, maintaining productivity and profitability in the face of declining terms of trade, and sustainably intensifying production with enhanced environmental outcomes. Drawing on individual farmer case studies, the specific strengths of farmer innovation are identified and the enabling conditions necessary for farmer innovation to flourish are discussed.
Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren
, forestry and aquaculture and consequently different kinds of adaptations have been introduced. We wanted to study the development in agriculture in order to scrutinize if climate events had major impacts on productivity of the three sectors. An overview of agricultural changes was provided through...... statistics and interviews and important climate impacts and adaptations were identified and assessed. An energy flow method was used to describe the agricultural situation. During the last decade the study showed that farmers in the agricultural field had increased the productivity and they performed strong...... to document the influence of climate change on the agriculture of Quang Nam. Administratively, agriculture in Quang Nam includes the three sectors: farming, forestry and aquaculture. From interviews we found that many Vietnamese authorities and farmers were convinced that today climate changes impact farming...
Slámová, M.; Krčmářová, Jana; Hrončiek, P.; Kaštierová, M.
Roč. 25, č. 1 (2017), s. 34-45 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-15716S Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : agricultural terraces * traditional landscapes * environmental history * multivariate analysis * Slovakia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Cultural and economic geography Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2016 http://www.geonika.cz/EN/research/ENMGRClanky/2017_1_SLAMOVA.pdf
Laleh Mohtasham Zadeh
Full Text Available Agriculture engineering and technical consulting services were initially established in 2008 by the establishment of a network of NGOs in order to reduce the problems of the agricultural sector in line with privatization and downsizing of the government. The main objective of this study was to investigate the factors that affect the success of technical and agricultural engineering consulting firms in the Isfahan province (2012. The statistical population of this research consisted of members of the boards of directors and the managing directors of such firms in the Isfahan province. The study sample consisted of 130 subjects from the members of boards of directors and the managing directors were who selected by using Cochran formula. The field data required was been collected through questionnaires and interviews. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts and its reliability was confirmed by the use of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and it was calculated to be 0.83. The results of research showed that the success rate of technical and agricultural engineering consulting firms was evaluated to be 53.2% at the medium. The result of multiple regression analysis showed that about 40% of the success rate factors for of technical and agricultural engineering consulting firms based on the Beta index could be attributed to passing training courses in management procedures (0.382, giving financial rewards to members for optimal performance (0.278, number of contracts with other public and private organizations (0.249 and having entrepreneurship characteristics (0.220.
Ali, A.; Mushtaq, K.; Ashfaq, M.
The present study estimated total factor productivity (TFP) growth of agriculture sector of Pakistan for the period 1971-2006 by employing Tornqvist-Theil (T-T) index number methodology. Most of the conventional inputs were used in constructing the input index. The output index includes major crops, minor crops, important fruits and vegetables and four categories of livestock products. The study estimated TFP growth rates for different decades. The results showed that TFP growth rate was lowest during the decade of 70s (0.96 percent) and highest during the last six years of the study period (2.86 percent). The decade of 80s and 90s registered TFP growth rate of 2.24 percent and 2.46 percent, respectively. The results also explained that TFP growth contributed about 33 percent to total agricultural output growth during the decade of 70s and this contribution increased up to 83 percent during the last six years of the study period. The contribution of TFP growth to total agricultural output growth was 53 and 81 percent during the decades of 80s and 90s, respectively. The study observed that macro level government policies, institutional factors and weather conditions are the major key factors that influenced TFP growth. (author)
Lachat, Carl; Nago, Eunice; Ka, Abdoulaye; Vermeylen, Harm; Fanzo, Jessica; Mahy, Lina; Wüstefeld, Marzella; Kolsteren, Patrick
Unlocking the agricultural potential of Africa offers a genuine opportunity to address malnutrition and drive development of the continent. Using Senegal as a case study, to identify gaps and opportunities to strengthen agricultural policies with nutrition-sensitive approaches. We carried out a systematic analysis of 13 policy documents that related to food production, agriculture, food security, or nutrition. Next, we collected data during a participatory analysis with 32 national stakeholders and in-depth interviews with 15 national experts of technical directorates of the different ministries that deal with agriculture and food production. The current agricultural context has various elements that are considered to enhance its nutrition sensitivity. On average, 8.3 of the 17 Food and Agriculture Organization guiding principles for agriculture programming for nutrition were included in the policies reviewed. Ensuring food security and increasing dietary diversity were considered to be the principal objectives of agricultural policies. Although there was considerable agreement that agriculture can contribute to nutrition, current agricultural programs generally do not target communities on the basis of their nutritional vulnerability. Agricultural programs were reported to have specific components to target female beneficiaries but were generally not used as delivery platforms for nutritional interventions. The findings of this study indicate the need for a coherent policy environment across the food system that aligns recommendations at the national level with local action on the ground. In addition, specific activities are needed to develop a shared understanding of nutrition and public health nutrition within the agricultural community in Senegal. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Agricultural innovation in low-income tropical countries contributes to a more effective and sustainable use of natural resources and reduces hunger and poverty through economic development in rural areas. Yet, despite numerous recent public and private initiatives to develop capacities for agricultural innovation, such initiatives are often not well aligned with national efforts to revive existing Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS. In an effort to improve coordination and responsiveness of Capacity Development (CD initiatives, the G20 Agriculture Ministers requested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO to lead the development of a Tropical Agricultural Platform (TAP, which is designed to improve coherence and coordination of CD for agricultural innovation in the tropics. This paper presents a summary of the results obtained from three regional needs assessments undertaken by TAP and its partners. The surveyed tropical regions were Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Central America. The findings reveal a mismatch in all three regions between the external supply of primarily individual CD and the actual demand for institutional CD. The misalignment might be addressed by strengthening south-south and triangular collaboration and by improving the institutional capacities that would render national AIS more demand-oriented and responsive to the needs of smallholders in domestic agriculture.
This book is the result of several years of expedition into the development of metropolitan FoodClusters. The authors fascination for the agricultural landscapes in and around metropolises led him to the conclusion that improving the efficiency of agriculture is the most effective way to safeguard
... programming in agricultural research and capacity development. During the business session the BIFAD will host a panel of key authors who will discuss trends in funding for Global Agricultural Research and... Moines, Iowa. Agenda The public business meeting will begin promptly at 8:00 a.m. with opening remarks by...
O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita
In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…
Tronquet, Clothilde; Foucherot, Claudine
Agriculture has a specific role to play in current and future climate change. This carbon-intensive sector, which is responsible for 13.5% of global greenhouse gas emissions, is also highly exposed to the impacts of climate change, including a downward trend and increasing variability in yields. Yet agriculture's capacity to adapt and potential for mitigation also make it part of the solution to climate change. The agricultural sector is often treated as a poor relation in international climate negotiations, which is inappropriate given its specific characteristics and fundamental role. The aim of this report is to consider how agriculture can participate effectively in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations and identify the main challenges faced by this sector in the coming years. An analysis of the history of negotiations and their current situation belies the idea that agriculture plays no part in the UNFCCC process, although it does not enjoy specific consideration as a sector. It falls within the scope of various mitigation and adaptation mechanisms, while its effective participation remains limited. Since 2009, agriculture has also been included in the COP negotiation process and is currently part of the UNFCCC's Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA). However, agriculture is only at the first stage of a long and complex negotiation process which cannot be expected to be completed during COP21. While we can hope for COP21 to achieve progress in dialogue regarding monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) or the adoption of a landscape approach, the SBSTA's work on agriculture will continue beyond 2015, representing a vital step before the development of any operational tools. Multilateral initiatives such as the Global Alliance for Climate-Smart Agriculture are meanwhile helping to mobilise the international community regarding agricultural issues, in parallel with
Caffaro, Federica; Roccato, Michele; Micheletti Cremasco, Margherita; Cavallo, Eugenio
Objective We investigated the risk factors for falls when egressing from agricultural tractors, analyzing the role played by worked hours, work experience, operators' behavior, and near misses. Background Many accidents occur within the agricultural sector each year. Among them, falls while dismounting the tractor represent a major source of injuries. Previous studies pointed out frequent hazardous movements and incorrect behaviors adopted by operators to exit the tractor cab. However, less is known about the determinants of such behaviors. In addition, near misses are known to be important predictors of accidents, but they have been under-investigated in the agricultural sector in general and as concerns falls in particular. Method A questionnaire assessing dismounting behaviors, previous accidents and near misses, and participants' relation with work was administered to a sample of Italian tractor operators ( n = 286). Results A mediated model showed that worked hours increase unsafe behaviors, whereas work experience decreases them. Unsafe behaviors in turn show a positive association with accidents, via the mediation of near misses. Conclusions We gave a novel contribution to the knowledge of the chain of events leading to fall accidents in the agricultural sector, which is one of the most hazardous industries. Applications Besides tractor design improvements, preventive training interventions may focus on the redesign of the actual working strategies and the adoption of engaging training methods in the use of machinery to optimize the learning of safety practices and safe behaviors.
Full Text Available In recent years, electronic commerce of agricultural products has developed rapidly. In the development process of electronic commerce of agricultural products,many classic cases and business models have emerged. Such as tootoo industrial commune model (product drive type, Original life model (marketing driven type, Suichang model (service platform type. The author analyzes and compares each model from 7 aspects, and summarizes their differences and links. Finally, The author puts forward suggestions on the development of electronic commerce of agricultural products in china.
Bogachev, V.; Adrianova, G.; Zaitzev, V.; Kalinin, V.; Kovalenko, E.; Makeev, A.; Malikova, L.; Popov, Yu.; Savenkov, A.; Shnyakina, V.
The purpose of the research: Development of methods for the remediation of artificial polluted soils and the improvement of polluted lands to ecologically clean agricultural production.The following tasks will be implemented in this project to achieve viable practical solutions: - To determine the priority pollutants, their ecological pathways, and sources of origin. - To form a supervised environmental monitoring data bank throughout the various geo system conditions. - To evaluate the degree of the bio geo system pollution and the influence on the health of the local human populations. - To establish agricultural plant tolerance levels to the priority pollutants. - To calculate the standard concentrations of the priority pollutants for main agricultural plant groups. - To develop a soil remediation methodology incorporating the structural, functional geo system features. - To establish a territory zone division methodology in consideration of the degree of component pollution, plant tolerance to pollutants, plant production conditions, and human health. - Scientific grounding of the soil remediation proposals and agricultural plant material introductions with soil pollution levels and relative plant tolerances to pollutants. Technological Means, Methods, and Approaches Final proposed solutions will be based upon geo system and ecosystem approaches and methodologies. The complex ecological valuation methods of the polluted territories will be used in this investigation. Also, laboratory culture in vitro, application work, and multi-factor field experiments will be conducted. The results will be statistically analyzed using appropriate methods. Expected Results Complex biogeochemical artificial province assessment according to primary pollutant concentrations. Development of agricultural plant tolerance levels relative to the priority pollutants. Assessment of newly introduced plant materials that may possess variable levels of pollution tolerance. Remediation
Full Text Available Technology innovation of corn integrated crop management (ICM is formed of concept with integrated a variety of technology component which synergy interdependent so disperse local problem, increasing eficiency input, take care of and increasingsoil fertility. Agriculture Agency of Research Development agitating for assemble new superior varieties which have a highest production, early ripening, resistent main pest and disease, tolerance of marginal domain, and yield quality which accord with consumer preference. A new superior variety which admissible for agroecosystem rain field are Lamuru, Srikandi Kuning-1, Srikandi Putih-1, Bima-1, dan Semar-10; For dry land wet climate are Bisma, Lamuru, Srikandi Kuning-1, Srikandi Putih-1, Bima-1 and Semar-10; For acid dry land wet climate are Sukmaraga; and for dry land and dry climate are Lamuru, Srikandi Kuning-1 and Srikandi Putih-1. For necessity silage, development directed towards varieties of Bisma, Lamuru, Bima-1, and Semar-10, whereas for food matter are Srikandi Kuning-1 and Srikandi Putih-1. Several strategy for accelerate of corn development, especially varieties which producting by Agriculture Agency of Research Development for farmer are trough survey or PRA, verification and evaluation technology production, field encountered, socialization of technology production, and management of seed measuring.
Ramirez, Matias; Bernal, Paloma; Clarke, Ian; Hernandez, Ivan; Rotolo, Danielle
A significant development in the economies of a number of less developed Latin American countries over the past decade has been the mushrooming of export and commodity-based agricultural clusters in hitherto economically underdeveloped regions, many of which are dominated by small-scale agricultural production. A consequent challenge for policy makers is to develop strategies that offer small-scale local producers opportunities to upgrade into more specialised higher value-added activities (S...
Full Text Available Agriculture is a sector of primary importance in Romania, both through its contribution to the economy and the share of employment. Its continuous development and improvement and the countryside must be designed and analyzed under three main aspects, namely agriculture, food and environment. The current analysis takes into account the state of Romanian agriculture today, but also economic and human potential of rural areas in the main areas of development, and their evolution in 2008-2013. The rural space in Romania is characterized by poor economic diversification and a major dependence on agricultural activities, which results in obtaining low incomes for farmers. The rural labour force should be directed to other activities, particularly in services, based on a correct and permanent information, human resource awareness and training. The rural employment strategies include measures to improve the quality of human resources to facilitate access to non-agricultural employment in connection with labour market needs.
Ioana Moraru, Paula; Rusu, Teodor; Bogdan, Ileana; Ioan Pop, Adrian; Pop, Horia
Romania's land area is 23,839,100 ha; 0.16% of the world's surface. Worldwide, Romania is ranked #83 for areal extent, and it consitutes 4.81% of the Europe's surface (ranked #12). Romania has 14,856,800 ha of agricultural land which represents 62.3% of the total surface; 0.65 ha per capita. At the national level, 72.5% and 27.5% of soils in Romania can be broadly classed as very poor and good/very good, respectively, based on intrinsic soil characteristics, climate, topography, and ground water. Romania has a specific geographical situation, namely: i) Romanian territory is located in the southeast portion of Central Europe at the cross roads of several high and low pressure centers that form regularly at the borders. The influence of these air masses is altered by the presence in the central regions of the Carpathian mountain chain resulting in a diverse climate with average annual rain fall amounts between 350 to 1,400 mm and average annual temperatures between 2 and 11.5°C. ii) At the national level, almost all soils in the international classification system are present in Romania; each soil type having specific properties and characteristics. iii) On approximately 12.5 million ha (7.5 million ha arable), soil fertility is adversely affected by erosion, acidity, low humus content, extreme texture (clay, sand), excessive moisture, chemical pollution etc. These natural and anthropogenic factors dramatically influence agricultural production. Furthermore, soil, climate, topography, etc. vary widely not only across the country, but also on smaller scales, even across fields within the same farm. In Steppe zone limitative climatic factors, which require differentiation towards soil management use, include: long periods of drought, high temperatures, high frequency winds (wind erosion in area of sands), low relative air humidity, and harsh frosts during winter. Negative phenomena most commonly encountered in this area are salinization, excess water, temporary
Full Text Available Ending hunger, achieving food security and promoting sustainable development are at the top of the list of United Nations sustainable global development priorities after 2015. In addition to many positive effects, efforts of mankind regarding the reduction of rural poverty realized through the Green Revolution have had many negative effects, primarily related to natural resources. Irreversible devastation of land, air and water quality deterioration and jeopardizing biodiversity have been recognized as key elements of unsustainability of existing agricultural development concept. Consequently, there is a need for the adoption of a new concept of agricultural development, which will lie between intensive conventional and organic farming. The concept which has already been applied in some regions of the world and whose basic goal is to find a way to increase production with a negligible negative impact on the environment is sustainable agricultural intensification. The aim of this paper is to look at both positive and negative aspects of biotechnology development so far and point out the place and role the sustainable intensification concept should have in relation to conservation of natural resources and achievement of food security.
Whitney, Cory W.; Lanzanova, Denis; Muchiri, Caroline; Shepherd, Keith D.; Rosenstock, Todd S.; Krawinkel, Michael; Tabuti, John R. S.; Luedeling, Eike
Governments around the world have agreed to end hunger and food insecurity and to improve global nutrition, largely through changes to agriculture and food systems. However, they are faced with a lot of uncertainty when making policy decisions, since any agricultural changes will influence social and biophysical systems, which could yield either positive or negative nutrition outcomes. We outline a holistic probability modeling approach with Bayesian Network (BN) models for nutritional impacts resulting from agricultural development policy. The approach includes the elicitation of expert knowledge for impact model development, including sensitivity analysis and value of information calculations. It aims at a generalizable methodology that can be applied in a wide range of contexts. To showcase this approach, we develop an impact model of Vision 2040, Uganda's development strategy, which, among other objectives, seeks to transform the country's agricultural landscape from traditional systems to large-scale commercial agriculture. Model results suggest that Vision 2040 is likely to have negative outcomes for the rural livelihoods it intends to support; it may have no appreciable influence on household hunger but, by influencing preferences for and access to quality nutritional foods, may increase the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency. The results highlight the trade-offs that must be negotiated when making decisions regarding agriculture for nutrition, and the capacity of BNs to make these trade-offs explicit. The work illustrates the value of BNs for supporting evidence-based agricultural development decisions.
Mariana Machado Granziera
Full Text Available This paper purports to discuss how the multifunctionality of agriculture - which is a view of agriculture as an activity that is not only economic but also environmental, social and cultural - could be incorporated in public and private strategies in order to achieve a rural sustainable development and a bigger income to the farmer. Therefore, the research problem is how the integration of the concept would be a strategy to meet the needs of fibre, energy and food production while maintaining sustainability in agriculture. At first a bibliography research was carried out, approaching the concepts of multifuncionality of agriculture and positive externalities; subsequently an empirical research was done, through a case study whose aim was to replicate a method to access the multifuncionality of agriculture in the city of Cunha (SP. The multifunctional agriculture generates positive externalities but, generally, the farmer is not paid for the social benefits of its production. For that reason, metrics are needed to assess the impact generated by the multifunctional agriculture so the farmer gets paid for the social services that arises from its production. As soon as the farmer gets paid for the positive outcome he/she is generating, we will get an agricultural model that is more aligned to rural sustainable development.
Mora, R.; San Juan, C.
In this paper, we review studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics, making special emphasis on the policy framework in the European Union. We find several conclusions, among which the following should be emphasized. First, this review highlights the existence of different methodologies to build up models to identify the effects of policy reforms affecting land use and desertification. Second, use of micro data to set up an econometric-process simulation model of land use has already been used with success. Third, in the geographical distribution of land use, prices drive all short and long-rung processes. Finally, logistic models have recently been used to study micro decisions at the agricultural sector to identify relative rents and land characteristics such as location and soil fertility as main determinants of land use patters. (Author) 8 refs.
Qian, Xiaojin; Liang, Liang; Shen, Qiu; Sun, Qin; Zhang, Lianpeng; Liu, Zhixiao; Zhao, Shuhe; Qin, Zhihao
Drought is a type of natural disaster that has the most significant impacts on agriculture. Regional drought monitoring based on remote sensing has become popular due to the development of remote sensing technology. In this study, vegetation condition index (VCI) data recorded from 1982 to 2010 in agricultural areas of China were obtained from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data, and the temporal and spatial variations in each drought were analyzed. The relationships between drought and climate factors were also analyzed. The results showed that from 1982 to 2010, the agricultural areas that experienced frequent and severe droughts were mainly concentrated in the northwestern areas and Huang-Huai Plain. Moreover, the VCI increased in the majority of agricultural areas, indicating that the drought frequency decreased over time, and the decreasing trend in the southern region was more notable than that in the northern region. A correlation analysis showed that temperature and wind velocity were the main factors that influenced drought in the agricultural areas of China. From a regional perspective, excluding precipitation, the climate factors had various effects on drought in different regions. However, the correlation between the VCI and precipitation was low, possibly due to the widespread use of artificial irrigation technology, which reduces the reliance of agricultural areas on precipitation.
Fox, G.; Brouwer, F.M.
This chapter reflects on the costs of compliance with environmental regulations and standards in agriculture in developed countries, and its implications for trade and competitiveness. It highlights the importance of enforcement mechanisms and implementation, subjects which often have been
Full Text Available This paper establishes the connection between transport, agriculture and rural development. The paper achieves this purpose by drawing from the experiences of the Mhlontlo municipality integrated infrastructure atlas project. The connection between...
Koning, N.B.J.; Heerink, N.B.M.; Kauffman, S.
Integrated soil management is an essential condition for agricultural development in West Africa. Such an approach combines improved soil hydraulic measures, organic fertility measures, and inorganic fertilizers and soil amendments. The synergetic effects which result from this combination are
Li, Ming; Sheng, Enze; Cong, Lujing; Wang, Minghua
Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on polyclonal antibodies (PcAbs) for clothianidin are described: colorimetric detection format (ELISA) and pattern of chemiluminescent assay (CLEIA). Clothianidin hapten was synthesized and conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) to produce immunogen and coating antigen. Anticlothianidin PcAbs were obtained from immunized New Zealand white rabbits. Under optimal conditions, the half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC₅₀) and the limit of detection (LOD, IC₂₀) of clothianidin were 0.046 and 0.0028 mg/L for the ELISA and 0.015 and 0.0014 mg/L for the CLEIA, respectively. There were no obvious cross-reactivities of the antibodies with its analogues except for dinotefuran. Recoveries of 76.4-116.4% for the immunoassays were achieved from spiked samples. The results of immunoassays for the spiked and authentic samples were largely consistent with gas chromatography. Therefore, the proposed immunoassays would be convenient and satisfactory analytical methods for the monitoring of clothianidin in agricultural products.
Śpiewak, Radosław; Góra-Florek, Anna; Horoch, Andrzej; Jarosz, Mirosław J; Doryńska, Agnieszka; Golec, Marcin; Dutkiewicz, Jacek
Farmers are at high risk of occupational skin diseases which may start already during vocational training. This study was aimed at identification of risk factors for work-related skin diseases among vocational students of agriculture. The study involved 440 students (245 males, 195 females aged 17-21 years) in 11 vocational schools which were at least 100 km from each other. The protocol included a physician-managed questionnaire and medical examination, skin prick tests, patch tests, total IgE and Phadiatop. Logistic regression model was used for the identification of relevant risk factors. Work-related dermatoses were diagnosed in 29 study participants (6.6%, 95%CI: 4.3-8.9%): eczema in 22, urticaria in 14, and co-existence of both in 7 students. Significant risk factors for work-related eczema were: history of respiratory allergy (OR=10.10; pagriculture. Atopy, past history of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema (either atopic, allergic or irritant) are relevant risk factors for work-related eczema and urticaria in young farmers, along with family history of any skin disease. Positive skin prick tests seem relevant, especially in the case of urticaria. Asking simple, aimed questions during health checks while enrolling students into agricultural schools would suffice to identify students at risk for work-related eczema and urticaria, giving them the chance for selecting a safer profession, and hopefully avoiding an occupational disease in the future.
Roy, Subrata K
In developing countries like India, where the incidence of protein-calorie malnutrition is high and mechanization is at a minimum, human labor provides much of the power for physical activity. This study presents anthropometric measurements, somatotypes, food intakes, energy expenditures, and work outputs of Oraon agricultural laborers of the Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, in an attempt to identify the factors that predict high work productivity. Specifically, this study investigates 1) the relationship between morphological variation (anthropometric measurements and somatotype) and work productivity, 2) the nature and extent of the relationship between nutritional status and work productivity, and 3) the best predictor variables of work output. Classification of groups on the basis of median values of work output show that in the aggregate, the high productive groups are significantly younger than low-productive groups in both sexes. Before age-adjustment, the high productive groups show higher mean values of a few body dimensions, though these differ by sex, and both males and females exhibit a normal range of blood pressure and pulse rate values. Mean values of grip strength and back strength are higher in high-output men and women. Mean values of both food intake and energy expenditure are also higher among men in high-output groups, with only food intake higher in high-output women. However, after eliminating the effects of age, the differences between low-productive groups and high-productive groups in most of the variables are not significant. Productivity predictors in males consist of age, food intake and chest girth (inhalation). Females, on the other hand, show age and grip strength (left) as work output predictors. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Yevich, Rosemarie; Logan, Jennifer A.
We present an assessment of biofuel use and agricultural field burning in the developing world. We used information from government statistics, energy assessments from the World Bank, and many technical reports, as well as from discussions with experts in agronomy, forestry, and agro-industries. We estimate that 2060 Tg biomass fuel was used in the developing world in 1985; of this, 66% was burned in Asia, and 21% and 13% in Africa and Latin America, respectively. Agricultural waste supplies about 33% of total biofuel use, providing 39%, 29%, and 13% of biofuel use in Asia, Latin America, and Africa, and 41% and 51% of the biofuel use in India and China. We find that 400 Tg of crop residues are burned in the fields, with the fraction of available residue burned in 1985 ranging from 1% in China, 16-30% in the Middle East and India, to about 70% in Indonesia; in Africa about 1% residue is burned in the fields of the northern drylands, but up to 50% in the humid tropics. We distributed this biomass burning on a spatial grid with resolution of 1° × 1°, and applied emission factors to the amount of dry matter burned to give maps of trace gas emissions in the developing world. The emissions of CO from biofuel use in the developing world, 156 Tg, are about 50% of the estimated global CO emissions from fossil fuel use and industry. The emission of 0.9 Pg C (as CO2) from burning of biofuels and field residues together is small, but nonnegligible when compared with the emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel use and industry, 5.3 Pg C. The biomass burning source of 10 Tg/yr for CH4 and 2.2 Tg N/yr of NOx are relatively small when compared with total CH4 and NOx sources; this source of NOx may be important on a regional basis.
Abah, Roland Clement; Petja, Brilliant Mareme
Agriculture in the Lower Benue River Basin faces several challenges which threaten the future of agricultural development. This study was an assessment of potential impacts of climate change on agricultural development in the Lower Benue River Basin. Through analysis of physical and socioeconomic parameters, the study adapted an impact assessment model to rank potential impacts on agricultural development in the study area. Rainfall intensity seemed to be increasing with a gradual reduction in the number of rainy days. The average discharge at Makurdi hydrological station was 3468.24 cubic metres per second (m 3 s -1 ), and the highest peak flow discharge was 16,400 m 3 s -1 . The daily maximum temperature and annual temperature averages for the study area are gradually rising leading to increased heat stress. Physical and chemical analyses showed that the soils are moderately fertile but require effective application of inorganic and organic fertilisers. The main occupational activities in the study area are agricultural based. The identified potential impacts of climate change on agriculture were categorised under atmospheric carbon dioxides and oxides, rainfall intensity, frequency of floods and droughts, temperature intensity and variation, heat stress, surface water trends, and soil quality and fertility. The identified potential impacts related to population dynamics on agriculture were categorised under population growth, rural-urban migration, household income and infectious diseases and HIV and AIDS. Community-level mitigation strategies were proffered. Policy makers are advised to promote irrigation farming, support farmers with farm inputs and credit facilities and establish active agricultural extension services to support the sustainable development of agriculture.
The expanding and developing of agriculture are the basic of population growth, the expansions of material cultures and civilization. The Huanghe River valley, as the origin center of millet agriculture, lies between the heartlands of wheat and rice, which gestates the flourishing Neolithic culture based on agriculture. Recent work using botanical remains has greatly expanded the knowledge concerning early agriculture. Here, we report the new progress on the development and adaption of early agriculture in Huanghe River valley and the surrounding areas. Based on the analysis of phytolith from 13 sites in middle reaches of Huanghe River and the survey of crop seeds from 5 sites in Guanzhong Basin, the rice have been cultivated around 7600 cal BP in semi-humid regions dominated by rain-fed agriculture. The mixed agriculture of common millet, foxtail millet, and rice continued to exist between 7600-3500 BP. In semi-arid region of Huanghe River valley, the agriculture was dominated by the production of common and foxtail millet and 3 major changes have taken place around 6500 BP, 5500 BP, and 4000 BP during Neolithic. The cultivating ratio of common and foxtail millet was adjusted by farmer for adapting the climate changes during Holocene. Approximately 5000 yr BP, the rain-fed agriculture continues to break geographical boundaries to expand to west and southwest from Huanghe River valley. Millet agriculture appeared in southern Ganshu and north eastern Tibetan Plateau. The common and foxtail millet spread to the arid-area of Hexi corridor, a major crossroad of the famous Silk Road, around 4500 yr BP. Wheat was added as a new crop to the existing millet based agricultural systems around 4100-4000 cal yr BP in Hexi corridor. Between 3800 and 3400 cal yr BP, the proportion of wheat and barley in agriculture was up to 90%,which have replaced the local millet and become the main crops. And now, some new evidences of wheat agriculture from NW Xijiang have been obtained and
Malnutrition amidst plenty: An assessment of factors responsible for persistent high levels of childhood stunting in food secure western Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JK Kikafunda, E Agaba, A Bambona, 2088-2113 ...
Vani, Kohila P; Doble, Mukesh
The paper discusses the patents that have been filed in the areas of sustainable development in agriculture, food and nutrition and use of natural resources in achieving this goal. A large number of patents deal with the production of fertilizers from animal manure, plant sources and other organic wastes, which are more sustainable that the chemical fertilizers that are being currently used. Sustainability in agriculture is achieved in developing processes for the manufacture of biopesticides/insecticides and bioactive agricultural products. Development of novel sustainable agricultural processes has also been the focus of researchers and technologists. Plant derived nutritious food products are sustainable and can cater for the growing population burden. This has been the focus of several patents. Processes for enhancing the nutrition in food also serve the purpose of catering for the under nourished population.
Khalatur Svetlana M.
Full Text Available The Ukrainian agrarian sector, with its production potential largely exceeding the needs of the domestic market, could, on the one hand, be a locomotive for development of the national economy and its effective integration into the world economic space and, on the other, give multiplier effect to the development of other sectors of the national economy. Agriculture uses a significant amount of energy resources yearly. Energy costs reach 18% in the structure of costs of agricultural production by agricultural enterprises and 23.1% – for crop production. Meantime, the industry sector has enormous potential to produce energy resources, consuming only 17 thousand tons of biofuels and waste, which represents about 1% of the total energy consumption. The article determines the main strategic directions for development of the agricultural production and rural territories.
Full Text Available In the present paper an attempt has been made to find out the spatial variation in the adaptation of improved agricultural practices to ascertain the level of agricultural development in Bulandshahr district of western Uttar Pradesh. The spatial variation of agricultural development is determined with the help of nine variables viz. net sown area, irrigated area, cropping intensity, crops productivity, area under HYV, agricultural labourers, role of banks and agricultural machinery. Beside this, the development of blocks are taken with their respective categories viz. high, medium and low on the basis of scores (like mean SD of these variables. These analyses have been carried out by transforming and combining the data related to nine variables, using ‘Z’ score to get the composite score. On the basis of Composite Score, developments of blocks have been again categorized in to three categories i.e. high, medium and low. Results of the aforesaid analysis shows that the modern technological inputs have reciprocal relationship with agricultural development in the study area.
Full Text Available The main aim of this article was to investigate the influence of payments under the CAP on economic development of different types of farms. The main source of data was FADN database. A period of research covers the years of 2004-2013. The article referred to previous results of research in the field of payments and its role for the economic situation of agricultural holdings. Then the share of payments in agricultural income was examined as well as the use of subsidies on investments. The process of accumulation, both in real and theoretical approach, and influence of this phenomenon on change of economic size were also presented. In addition the paper analysed the changes in return on equity in order to show the changes in economic efficiency of farms. The analyses that were conducted showed a significant role of payments in the formation of incomes and accumulation. On the other hand payments may lead to decrease in efficiency. In long term there is a risk that dependence on payments in functioning of farm will be excessive.
Francisco Javier Ferrández-Pastor
Full Text Available The application of Information Technologies into Precision Agriculture methods has clear benefits. Precision Agriculture optimises production efficiency, increases quality, minimises environmental impact and reduces the use of resources (energy, water; however, there are different barriers that have delayed its wide development. Some of these main barriers are expensive equipment, the difficulty to operate and maintain and the standard for sensor networks are still under development. Nowadays, new technological development in embedded devices (hardware and communication protocols, the evolution of Internet technologies (Internet of Things and ubiquitous computing (Ubiquitous Sensor Networks allow developing less expensive systems, easier to control, install and maintain, using standard protocols with low-power consumption. This work develops and test a low-cost sensor/actuator network platform, based in Internet of Things, integrating machine-to-machine and human-machine-interface protocols. Edge computing uses this multi-protocol approach to develop control processes on Precision Agriculture scenarios. A greenhouse with hydroponic crop production was developed and tested using Ubiquitous Sensor Network monitoring and edge control on Internet of Things paradigm. The experimental results showed that the Internet technologies and Smart Object Communication Patterns can be combined to encourage development of Precision Agriculture. They demonstrated added benefits (cost, energy, smart developing, acceptance by agricultural specialists when a project is launched.
Ferrández-Pastor, Francisco Javier; García-Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Nieto-Hidalgo, Mario; Mora-Pascual, Jerónimo; Mora-Martínez, José
The application of Information Technologies into Precision Agriculture methods has clear benefits. Precision Agriculture optimises production efficiency, increases quality, minimises environmental impact and reduces the use of resources (energy, water); however, there are different barriers that have delayed its wide development. Some of these main barriers are expensive equipment, the difficulty to operate and maintain and the standard for sensor networks are still under development. Nowadays, new technological development in embedded devices (hardware and communication protocols), the evolution of Internet technologies (Internet of Things) and ubiquitous computing (Ubiquitous Sensor Networks) allow developing less expensive systems, easier to control, install and maintain, using standard protocols with low-power consumption. This work develops and test a low-cost sensor/actuator network platform, based in Internet of Things, integrating machine-to-machine and human-machine-interface protocols. Edge computing uses this multi-protocol approach to develop control processes on Precision Agriculture scenarios. A greenhouse with hydroponic crop production was developed and tested using Ubiquitous Sensor Network monitoring and edge control on Internet of Things paradigm. The experimental results showed that the Internet technologies and Smart Object Communication Patterns can be combined to encourage development of Precision Agriculture. They demonstrated added benefits (cost, energy, smart developing, acceptance by agricultural specialists) when a project is launched.
McDermid, S. S.; Mearns, L. O.; Ruane, A. C.
Earth System Model (ESM) advances now enable improved representations of spatially and temporally varying anthropogenic climate forcings. One critical forcing is global agriculture, which is now extensive in land-use and intensive in management, owing to 20th century development trends. Agriculture and food systems now contribute nearly 30% of global greenhouse gas emissions and require copious inputs and resources, such as fertilizer, water, and land. Much uncertainty remains in quantifying important agriculture-climate interactions, including surface moisture and energy balances and biogeochemical cycling. Despite these externalities and uncertainties, agriculture is increasingly being leveraged to function as a net sink of anthropogenic carbon, and there is much emphasis on future sustainable intensification. Given its significance as a major environmental and climate forcing, there now exist a variety of approaches to represent agriculture in ESMs. These approaches are reviewed herein, and range from idealized representations of agricultural extent to the development of coupled climate-crop models that capture dynamic feedbacks. We highlight the robust agriculture-climate interactions and responses identified by these modeling efforts, as well as existing uncertainties and model limitations. To this end, coordinated and benchmarking assessments of land-use-climate feedbacks can be leveraged for further improvements in ESM's agricultural representations. We suggest key areas for continued model development, including incorporating irrigation and biogeochemical cycling in particular. Last, we pose several critical research questions to guide future work. Our review focuses on ESM representations of climate-surface interactions over managed agricultural lands, rather than on ESMs as an estimation tool for crop yields and productivity.
Full Text Available Main directions of development of small and medium-sized enterprises in Ukrainian agriculture are examined. It is determined that entrepreneurship in agrarian sector is a driving force behind the development of agriculture, as these activities contributes to the production of quality agricultural products that satisfies the needs of society, food security, independence and improves the living standards of rural population. Potential customers of small parties of harvest in Ukrainian grain market are analyzed. The ways of mutually beneficial cooperation between Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs are proved. The study of foreign experience has proven that strengthening the competitiveness of Ukrainian agricultural products in the context of globalization is possible on the basis of mutually beneficial cooperation of Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs, where recent purchase of output at market prices for the purpose of resale or creation of agricultural cooperatives, such form of economy in agrarian relations that combines a balanced economic, social and environmental components. In particular in paper is shown that sustainable economic management provide only forms of economy that take into account the socioeconomic and geophysical specifics of agriculture, particularities of agricultural labor and methods of management. The most common among these forms are farmers.
Hadi Sabari Yunus
The research shows that the period of 1980 - 2000 in Yogyakarta Special Province has indicated very significantly the increase in population, the development of road and the extension of built up area. For the time being, agricultural land mainly in Sleman Regency, Bantul Regency and Yogyakarta Municipality has decreased. Sleman regency performed the largest decrease of rice field and followed after then by Bantul regency and Yogyakarta Municipality. The regency of Kulon Progo and Gunung Kidul have experienced reverse phenomenon i.e. the increase of rice field during this period. Individually or simultaneously, three variables used in this research (number of people, road's length and built up area have significantly influenced the agricultural land use.
Full Text Available The key-factors of competitiveness of high value added agriculture of the Republic of Moldova and their great importance in increasing the national wealth of the country are analyzed in this paper. The wealth of a country in terms of competitiveness represents the level in which the country, in conditions of the market economy, produces goods and services to satisfy the global market requirements, thus increasing the real income of the citizens of the country. In this context, factors which have an indispensable contribution in increasing the competitiveness of the high value agriculture are: exports, Foreign Direct Investments, innovations, the role of the state institutions, the business climate and others. By the fact how the state contributes by its agricultural policies to attract FDI, to increase exports, to apply innovations and high technologies in the process of obtaining high value agricultural products depends the competitiveness of the agricultural sector of the country
International Journal of Development and Management Review. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
This thesis contributes to a growing literature that explores relationships between social networks and innovation diffusion within a developing country context. Given this context, the networks of interest within this thesis are the offline interpersonal relationships between community members.
Tatarina Tetyana V.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to identify the promising directions in reforming the agricultural insurance market on the basis of studying its current state and consideration of the major development problems. The article analyzes the current state of the agricultural insurance market in Ukraine. It is proved that this segment of the insurance market has a tendency to slow reduction, as all the major insurance indicators in the dynamics for the past four years have a decreasing character. In spite the difficult macroeconomic situation in the country, agricultural insurance market proves its vitality and potential for further development. On the basis of the identified trends in the development of insurance of agricultural risks the problems hampering further effective functioning of the market are described. There suggested directions in reforming the national agricultural insurance market, in particular, the introduction of new programs of insurance protection with reinsurance guarantee, accelerated development of measures on insurance protection of investing and crediting. Also the agricultural insurance market requires efforts by the government aimed at its support: the introduction of changes in the active legislation and their enforcement mechanisms.
Yu, W. S.; Luo, C. S.; Wei, Q. F.; Zheng, Y. M.; Cao, C. Z.
To deal with the “last kilometer” problem during the agricultural science and technology information service, the USB flash disk “Zixuntong”, which integrated five major consulting channels, i.e., telephone consultation, mutual video, message consultation, online customer service and QQ group was developed on the bases of capital experts and date resources. Since the products have the computer and telephone USB interface and are combined with localized information resources, users can obtain useful information on any terminal without the restriction of network. Meanwhile, the cartoon appearance make it friendly and attractive to people. The USB flash disk was used to provide agricultural expert consulting services and obtained a good preliminary application achievement. Finally, we concluded the creative application of USB flash disk in agricultural consulting services and prospected the future development direction of agricultural mobile consultation.
This paper is a comparative study of the role of agriculture in economic development in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Popular notions of economic duality and agricultural squeeze in sub-Saharan Africa are re-examined, and new explanations in terms of agrarian structures and resource availabilities are put forward to account for the apparent economic duality in that continent. Comparison with surplus labour economies of Asia highlights the constraints posed by the prevailing agrarian structures...
Sherwood, S.G.; Schut, M.; Leeuwis, C.
The recognition that innovation occurs in networks of heterogeneous actors and requires broad systemic support beyond knowledge brokering has resulted in a changing landscape of the intermediary domain in an increasingly market-driven agricultural sector in developing countries. This paper presents findings of an explorative case study that looked at 22 organisations identified as fulfilling an intermediary role in the Kenyan agricultural sector. The results show that these organisations fulf...
Full Text Available In this study we investigate the importance of agricultural sector research and technology organizations (RTO in the national economic system. The main objective of the paper is to identify and rank the factors affecting the promotion of these RTOs share in saffron’s added value. Through the literature review we extracted all the relevant factors that have been mentioned by different researchers. Then, we classified these factors into six components: applied research, technology acquisition, commercialization, market development, industry’s internal factors and national macro factors. We used a Likert scale questionnaire to gather the data about the importance of each factor based on research and technology experts’ points of view. To analyze the data we utilized confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM methods using SPSS and smart PLS software packages. The results show that the most important factor affecting the share of agricultural RTOs in a products added value is the promotion of industrial firms to invest in the field of agricultural research and development. Finally, according to the obtained results, some suggestions for improving research and technology have been provided.
production potential. The increase in the number of shops in the rural areas, the development of transport facilities, and the increased wages and salaries also affect ... Skim milk powder. Meat/fish. Dried beans/peas. Potatoes. Fresh vegetables. Margarine. Oil. Brown bread. Maize meal. Samp/maize rice. Sugar ... Coffee/tea.
Development and Evaluation of Coatings from Cactus opuntia in Prolonging the Shelf-life of Mangoes (Mangifera indica) Stored under Evaporative Coolant System (ECS) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. CO Adetunui, OB Fawole, KA Arowora, AA Abiodun, ...
The United Nations predicts that over the next 25 years nearly all population growth will be in the cities of the developing world. At current rates, 60% of the world's total population will live in cities by 2030. As the cities grow, so does the number of urban poor. Unemployment, hunger, and malnutrition are commonplace.
Jul 21, 2011 ... economic progress recorded in some countries in Sub-Saharan Africa in the ... Sub-Saharan African countries, it will be pertinent to improve the rate of .... causes of the environmental stress in the developing world is poverty, and one of the major causes of poverty is environmental stress. The rural poor.
Development and sensory evaluation of an improved beverage from Nigeria's tamarind (tamarindus indica l.) fruit · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A.A Adeola, C.O Aworh. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajfand.v10i9.62888 ...
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).
The topics covered by review articles are: Training for Rural Development (with special reference to Chile); Field Training--Theory into Practice (for women extension workers in Malaysia); A New Look is Needed for Extension (Latin America); 4-D Rural Youth Clubs in Dahomey; Sociological Aspects of Rural Training; Population Education in the…
Health and food safety concerns of early dietary introduction of unmodified cow milk to infants in developing countries · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. EL Ssemukasa, J Kearney, 8504-8517 ...
A brief description of the evolution of greenhouse horticulture in the Netherlands in the period 1950-2000, including a statistical review of areas, physical yield and labour productivity, and a qualitative review of technical and institutional development. The report first provides the story of a
Gender equality is seen both as a human rights (social justice) issue and as a precondition for and indicator of sustainable, people-centered development. Ethiopia is a signatory to various gender conventions and declarations. Much progress has been achieved in terms of establishing institutional arrangements. However ...
The paper presents a framework for developing country value chain analysis made up of three components. The first consists of identifying major constraints for value chain upgrading: market access restrictions, weak infrastructures, lacking resources and institutional voids. In the second component
Jared Abodeely; David Muth; Paul Adler; Eleanor Campbell; Kenneth Mark Bryden
Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated model to evaluate sustainable agricultural residue removal potential considering soil erosion, soil organic carbon, greenhouse gas emission, and long-term yield impacts of residue removal practices. The integrated model couples the environmental process models WEPS, RUSLE2, SCI, and DAYCENT. This study uses the integrated model to investigate the impact of interval removal practices in Boone County, Iowa, US. Residue removal of 4.5 Mg/ha was performed annually, bi-annually, and tri-annually and were compared to no residue removal. The study is performed at the soil type scale using a national soil survey database assuming a continuous corn rotation with reduced tillage. Results are aggregated across soil types to provide county level estimates of soil organic carbon changes and individual soil type soil organic matter content if interval residue removal were implemented. Results show interval residue removal is possible while improving soil organic matter. Implementation of interval removal practices provide greater increases in soil organic matter while still providing substantial residue for bioenergy production.
Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the development of organic agriculture in the world, the EU and Romania, based on the statistical data for the period 2006-2010 and the index, share and comparison methods. Organic agriculture covers 34.04 Million ha at world level, of which 26.99 % in Europe and 32.08 % in Oceania. The largest areas in organic agriculture are in Australia, Argentina, the USA, Brazil, Spain, China and Italy. At world level, there are 1.6 million organic producers, over 63 % operating in Africa and Asia, especially in India, Uganda and Mexico. In 2010, organic food sales accounted for Euro 44.5 Billions of which 50 % in Europe. In the same year, the organic agriculture area increased by 20 % in the EU-27 and reached 9.01 million ha and continues to grow, representing 5.10 % of agricultural land. The larges areas in organic agriculture are in Spain, Italy, Germany and France. In the EU-27 there are 219,290 organic producers of which 40 % in Italy, Spain, Germany and Austria. In 2010, Romania’s area in organic agriculture was 300,205 ha, 2 times higher than in 2006. A number of 10,253 organic operators were registered in 2010, representing 4.67 %, of the EU number. The main organic products are cereals, vegetables, wine, honey, dairy products, representing a chance for Romania’s export on the EU market.
Full Text Available In this paper, the development of biodegradable containers for crops that could be transplanted directly and act as fertilizers is proposed. Bovine gelatin was chosen as the base material, which was processed in a mini-injector mixer with a concentrated urea solution acted as a plasticizer. Rheological and tensile tests were performed in order to evaluate the injection of gelatin based formulations and mechanical properties related to the proposed application. Taking into account that biodegradable materials have a low water resistance, the increment of container stability was proposed using a surface coating. In addition, the influence of moisture content, the soluble matter and swelling were studied and analyzed. It was observed that coated samples were significantly more stable than the control ones, which guarantees the feasibility of the selected system and its potential development of biodegradable containers.
Oladimeji Idowu Oladele
Full Text Available Wetlands have immense poverty-fighting potentials and in Nigeria, more and more people are dependent on wetlands for their livelihoods. To examine the social factors affecting the current status of the wetlands utilization for agriculture in Nigeria, a simple random sampling technique was used to select 200 farmers cultivating wetlands and a structured questionnaire was applied to elicit the information on the social factors. Data collected were described using frequency and percentage and a multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant variables that are determinants of wetland utilization. The results of the analysis showed that significant variables included crop preferences, farming system, culture, taste, land tenure, knowledge of wetland cultivation, perceived suitability, farmers' tribe, location of wetland, and farmers' age. It was concluded with suggestions for the right combination of policies, public awareness, and appropriate farming methods in order to improve wetland utilization in Nigeria.
Freier, Axel E.; Protil, Roberto Max
We analyze instruments to evaluate investment strategies as new options for co-operatives within the wheat production chain. Using a value-based management the extension of our concept, a “cooperative balanced scorecard” is discussed as we propose the further differentiation of the scorecard’s financial perspective. This is a market development-driven approach as cooperatives may be regarded as commodity-price-intermediators for their members. Proposing this approach we use a simple model of ...
Trienekens, Jacques H.
The paper presents a framework for developing country value chain analysis made up of three components. The first consists of identifying major constraints for value chain upgrading: market access restrictions, weak infrastructures, lacking resources and institutional voids. In the second component three elements of a value chain are defined: value addition, horizontal and vertical chain-network structure and value chain governance mechanisms. Finally, upgrading options are defined in the are...
cost for farm inputs such as fertilizer , and an appreciating exchange rate. 25 While these constraints are evident throughout Myanmar, many of them...cost of imported inputs like pesticides , seeds, farming equipment, irrigation equipment, etc. Concurrent with trade liberalization, many Asian rice...development of small to medium farm and non- farm enterprise. 2 However, for practical and political reasons it will likely first deploy this strategy
Full Text Available Aim: Physical, psychological and social changes occurring in adolescence period may be cause for concern. In this study, it was aimed to determine concerns on growth and development in adolescence period, related factors and utilization of health services. Methods: In this study, data related youths' concerns, utilization of health services and socio-demographic variables obtained from multi-purpose cross-sectional survey named Needs Assesment of Seasonal Agricultural Worker Families Survey-2011 were used. Survey framework was consisted of aged 15-24 young people of families who worked as a seasonal agricultural farmworker in the year of research conducted. Survey was completed in 1021 households total 915 youths selected by probability cluster sampling method of 1200 households by Turkish Statistical Institution (Response rates were 90,7% in women, and 77,2% in men. and lsquo;Woman and Men Questionnaires' were applied by face to face interview. University Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained. Data entry and analysis performed using SPSS 11.5 software, descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results: Of participants 63,6% of female and 46,6% of male adolescents reported at least one concern related to growth and development inadolescent period. While having any concern prevalence in women were changed working time in the fields and health perception, marital status and education level with adolescent's concerns were related in men significantly (P <0,05. 13,8% of females and 10,9% of males utilized the health services because of concerns. Conclusion: By Family Health Centers at this risky young group during their period of residence in their address, adolescent follow-up should be done, should be asked concerns and given early diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, health education programs on adolescence period by Community Health Centers will be useful. [TAF Prev Med Bull
Lin, T. S.; Gahlot, S.; Shu, S.; Jain, A. K.; Kheshgi, H. S.
Continued growth in population is projected to drive increased future demand for rice and the methane emissions associated with its production. However, observational studies of methane emissions from rice have reported seemingly conflicting results and do not all support this projection. In this study we couple an ecophysiological process-based rice paddy module and a methane emission module with a land surface model, Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), to study the impacts of various environmental factors and agricultural management practices on rice production and methane emissions from rice fields. This coupled modeling framework accounts for dynamic rice growth processes with adaptation of photosynthesis, rice-specific phenology, biomass accumulation, leaf area development and structures responses to water, temperature, light and nutrient stresses. The coupled model is calibrated and validated with observations from various rice cultivation fields. We find that the differing results of observational studies can be caused by the interactions of environmental factors, including climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and N deposition, and agricultural management practices, such as irrigation and N fertilizer applications, with rice production at spatial and temporal scales.
Kristjanson, Patti; Reid, Robin S.; Dickson, Nancy; Clark, William C.; Romney, Dannie; Puskur, Ranjitha; MacMillan, Susan; Grace, Delia
We applied an innovation framework to sustainable livestock development research projects in Africa and Asia. The focus of these projects ranged from pastoral systems to poverty and ecosystems services mapping to market access by the poor to fodder and natural resource management to livestock parasite drug resistance. We found that these projects closed gaps between knowledge and action by combining different kinds of knowledge, learning, and boundary spanning approaches; by providing all partners with the same opportunities; and by building the capacity of all partners to innovate and communicate. PMID:19289830
M. Sayedur Rahman
Full Text Available A rainfall simulation model based on a first-order Markov chain has been developed to simulate the annual variation in rainfall amount that is observed in Bangladesh. The model has been tested in the Barind Tract of Bangladesh. Few significant differences were found between the actual and simulated seasonal, annual and average monthly. The distribution of number of success is asymptotic normal distribution. When actual and simulated daily rainfall data were used to drive a crop simulation model, there was no significant difference of rice yield response. The results suggest that the rainfall simulation model perform adequately for many applications.
Jones, Edward Samuel; Gibbon, Peter
This article investigates the process of development in a traditional African export market, focusing on a contract farming scheme for organic cocoa in rural Uganda. Based on a repeated household survey, we measure the impact of the scheme on the income of participants and the economic mechanisms...... behind these effects. We find substantial benefits from the scheme, driven primarily by the establishment of credible incentives for farmers to adopt technologies which improve cocoa quality. There is also evidence of broader trends of market deepening and increased productivity, probably due to positive...
Full Text Available Planning and distribution economy with state ownership of agricultural enterprises, which were dominant in the early 90s the economy of the country, was unable to provide normal functioning of the agricultural land use in the conditions of transition to market relations. To switch to another economic system began a gradual process of transformation of agricultural enterprises. The result of this process was the change in the structure of agrarian enterprises due to privatization and raspaevaniya land, and appearance from small-scale farms to large agricultural enterprises. Today identified market actors (enterprises in agriculture: business companies, private enterprises, production cooperatives, farmers, public enterprises, other forms of management. The most common kind of private business are farms. They are one of the most promising and effective forms of management with high agriculture, appropriate level of production organization, prudent attitude to the land and best landscaping. However, today the formation of farming in Ukraine has not yet reached the level of development, which is observed in economically developed countries. The overall economic decline and inadequate legislation has forced farmers to rely on themselves. Notes the insufficient level of their competitiveness, making it impossible to provide the expanded reproduction, determines the risk of insolvency and, as a consequence, leads to bankruptcy. Farmers receive government support, but it is weak and temporary, which greatly impedes their development. Practical state support only a few farms that can affect the distribution of funds. Agricultural cooperation is one of the effective forms of management, which aims to unite the producers in the direction of increase of efficiency of use of their resource potential. However, today there are a number of unresolved problems that hinder the effective development of agricultural cooperatives. Since 2000 years, the initiative in
Yu, Weishui; Luo, Changshou; Zheng, Yaming; Wei, Qingfeng; Cao, Chengzhong
To deal with the “last kilometer” problem during the agricultural science and technology information service, we analyzed the feasibility, necessity and advantages of WebApp applied to agricultural information service and discussed the modes of WebApp used in agricultural information service based on the requirements analysis and the function of WebApp. To overcome the existing App’s defects of difficult installation and weak compatibility between the mobile operating systems, the Beijing Agricultural Sci-tech Service Hotline WebApp was developed based on the HTML and JAVA technology. The WebApp has greater compatibility and simpler operation than the Native App, what’s more, it can be linked to the WeChat public platform making it spread easily and run directly without setup process. The WebApp was used to provide agricultural expert consulting services and agriculture information push, obtained a good preliminary application achievement. Finally, we concluded the creative application of WebApp in agricultural consulting services and prospected the development of WebApp in agricultural information service.
Valentini, Riccardo; Vasenev, Ivan
Despite the great progresses of the last century in the agricultural sector and food supply, still about 820 million of people in developing countries are facing food scarcity and malnutrition. More than 180 million children are underweight. Except in Africa, 80 percent of the production gains came from increased yields in major cereal crops. The area cultivated has actually begun to decline in some regions. From now on, however, even Africa, which has always relied on cultivation of new land for production increases, will have to count on yield gains or pay high financial and ecological costs for expansion into areas not yet cultivated. The global scenario is changing fast. The technological, climatic and human-induced factors are creating long-lasting effects on the lives of people and on economic activities around the globe. In particular, climate change and/or variability is exacerbating rural increasing heat stress to natural habitats and human settlements, increasing climatic extremes, including drought and impacting food production. Agriculture of any kind is strongly influenced by the availability of water. Climate change will modify rainfall, evaporation, runoff, and soil moisture storage. Changes in total seasonal precipitation or in its pattern of variability are both important. The occurrence of moisture stress during flowering, pollination, and grain-filling is harmful to most crops and particularly so to corn, soybeans, and wheat. Increased evaporation from the soil and accelerated transpiration in the plants themselves will cause moisture stress; as a result there will be a need to develop crop varieties with greater drought tolerance. These climate change effects are particularly harmful in tropical regions of South America, Africa and South East Asia where food production is feeding a large part of world countries and poses serious risks to global food security in the future. Despite global projected climate change will affect a general decline of
Full Text Available Basically, climate change refers to any change in climate overtime, generally caused by natural variability and/or human activities. It has great devastating impact, particularly on agriculture and by extrapolation on farmers and the national economy. The frontline agricultural extension workers are expected to be among the principal stakeholders to teach farmers how to cope with climate change. Consequently, there is a need to develop appropriate teaching package for the training of the frontline agricultural extension workers, based on the myriad of adaptation strategies and practices available in the literature. This paper synthesizes the rationale for capacity building in climate change and the adaptation or coping strategies. The modules (train-the-trainer for teaching agricultural extension workers and farmers are documented in the paper.
Andreea Daniela PASCU
Full Text Available Organic farming uses sustainable production systems, diversified and balanced to prevent environmental and harvest pollution. In this paper I wish to highlight the opportunities arising from the practice of sustainable agriculture and the efficient management of natural resources in Romania. Sustainable rural development can be achieved with the transition from subsistence agriculture to organic agriculture by building and strengthening competitive small and medium enterprises in rural areas. For this we analyzed empirical data provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forests and Rural Developmen and the National Institute of Statistics.The analyzed period covers the years 2006-2011. The organic food market in Romania is contoured by statistical methods and the opportunities and limitations incurred by those who choose this form of exploitation.
Full Text Available The article analyzes the current situation in the agricultural complex of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the necessity of combining small farms in the cooperative structure, evaluation of existing forms of cooperatives in agriculture are substantiated (production cooperatives, rural consumer cooperatives, rural consumer cooperatives of water users, a map of their location in the context of regions of the country is shown, problems hindering their development are revealed, particularly the formation and development trends of each of them, the economic indicators of production of products are given, together with their organizational structure, etc. On the basis of the conducted analysis of the production conditions, rural consumers and rural consumer cooperatives of water users, problems hindering their development are revealed, the positive and negative trends in the development of various forms of agricultural cooperation are assessed, and proposals has been substantiated in order to improve the regulatory framework, mechanisms of state support, credit and financial mechanisms, etc.
Full Text Available Because organic systems present complex environmental stress, plant breeders may either target very focused regions for different varieties, or create heterogeneous populations which can then evolve specific adaptation through on-farm cultivation and selection. This often leads to participatory plant breeding (PPB strategies which take advantage of the specific knowledge of farmers. Participatory selection requires increased commitment and engagement on the part of the farmers and researchers. Projects may begin as researcher initiatives with farmer participation or farmer initiatives with researcher participation and over time evolve into true collaborations. These projects are difficult to plan in advance because by nature they change to respond to the priorities and interests of the collaborators. Projects need to provide relevant information and analysis in a time-frame that is meaningful for farmers, while remaining scientifically rigorous and innovative. This paper presents two specific studies: the first was a researcher-designed experiment that assessed the potential adaptation of landraces to organic systems through on-farm cultivation and farmer selection. The second is a farmer-led plant breeding project to select bread wheat for organic systems in France. Over the course of these two projects, many discussions among farmers, researchers and farmers associations led to the development of methods that fit the objectives of those involved. This type of project is no longer researcher-led or farmer-led but instead an equal collaboration. Results from the two research projects and the strategy developed for an ongoing collaborative plant breeding project are discussed.
Full Text Available Small, astatic ponds are important features of post-glacial landscape, which support heterogeneity and biodiversity of agricultural areas. In the presented research we explored differences in hydrochemistry and plant cover of 20 small ponds located in Northeastern Poland, characterized by diverse age and developed in differently managed areas. According to our research, though changes in water level are under direct influence of water balance in the catchment, to which belonged the ponds, their hydrochemistry seemed to be shaped by processes at the level lower than the catchment scale. Age of the ponds appeared to be an important factor influencing density and species composition of vegetation developed on the studied ponds.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the links between agricultural modernization and sustainable development, looking in particular at the impact of the structural changes over the rural livelihoods. In order to achieve this, there were used the following research methods such as: analysis of the economic indicators, methods of comparative analysis, assessment of the public policies’ impact on the rural development. The agricultural sector in the Republic of Moldova is based on extensive farming and is insufficiently adapted to market economy conditions. There is a growing understanding in the country that the rural economy is not confined to the agricultural sector, but embraces the broad spectrum of needs of all rural people including living standards, economic activities and natural resources. The situation is associated with the major risks related to the structural changes that may affect the countryside and the economy as a whole such as: a migration and uncontrolled urbanization, b lack of professional qualifications and adaptability of the population in the rural areas, c inadequate use of the natural resources. Rural economy, employment issues, natural resource management and also goals and circumstances of the agricultural production have changed considerably. At the same time, academia and civil society are aware that the new paradigm of modernization must begin both with the agricultural technologies and the people. Its novelty is that in the combination of financial, economic and technological policies for agriculture, new components to be introduced, like policies aimed at improving human capital in agriculture and environmental protection. The paper contains conclusions and proposals on modernization of agriculture and diversification of non farm activities in rural areas.
Ordway, E.; Lambin, E.; Asner, G. P.
The changing structure of demand for commodities associated with food security and energy has had a startling impact on land use change in tropical forests in recent decades. Yet, the composition of conversion in the Congo basin remains a major uncertainty, particularly with regards to the scale of drivers of change. Owing to rapid expansion of production globally and longstanding historical production locally in the Congo basin, oil palm offers a lens through which to evaluate local land use decisions across a spectrum of small- to large-scales of production as well as interactions with regional and global supply chains. We examined the effect of global commodity crop expansion on land use change in Southwest Cameroon using a mixed-methods approach to integrate remote sensing, field surveys and socioeconomic data. Southwest Cameroon (2.5 Mha) has a long history of large- and small-scale agriculture, ranging from mixed crop subsistence agriculture to large monocrop plantations of oil palm, cocoa, and rubber. Trends and spatial patterns of forest conversion and agricultural transitions were analyzed from 2000-2015 using satellite imagery. We used economic, demographic and field survey datasets to assess how regional and global market factors and local commodity crop decisions affect land use patterns. Our results show that oil palm is a major commodity crop expanding in this region, and that conversion is occurring primarily through expansion by medium-scale producers and local elites. Results also indicate that global and regional supply chain dynamics influence local land use decision making. This research contributes new information on land use patterns and dynamics in the Congo basin, an understudied region. More specifically, results from this research contribute information on recent trends of oil palm expansion in Cameroon that will be used in national land use planning strategies.
Full Text Available Decision-making in agriculture has tended to be driven by factors other than environmental concerns. This may be changing, and perhaps the emphases of the two creation accounts in Genesis (responsible management or 'dominion', and active care may become more important. The paper examines a number of current developments in agriculture (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation, and organic versus industrial methodologies and discusses the issues they raise for agricultural productivity and the human communities dependent on farming. The questions raised are complex; we are faced with establishing a new paradigm for agricultural practice.
Full Text Available Sustainable development has become the main focus of the global development agenda as presented in the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. However, for countries to assess progress, they need to have reliable baseline indicators. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to develop a composite baseline index of the agriculture-related SDGs in Southern Africa to guide progress reporting. The paper identified eight of the SDG indicators related to the agriculture sector. The paper relies on data for indicators from five SDGs (SDGs 1, 2, 6, 7 and 15. Applying the arithmetic mean method of aggregation, an agriculture-related SDG composite index for Southern Africa between zero (0 = poor performance and 100 (best possible performance was computed for thirteen countries that had data on all identified indicators. The results show that the best performing countries (Botswana, Angola, Namibia, Zambia and South Africa in the assessment recorded high scores in SDGs 1, 2 and 7. The three countries (Democratic Republic of Congo, Zimbabwe and Madagascar that performed poorly on both SDG 1 and 2 also had the least scores on the overall agriculture-related SDG composite index. The water stress indicator for SDG 6 recorded the worst performance among most countries in the region. Possible approaches to improve the contribution of agriculture to SDGs may include investing more resources in priority areas for each agriculture-related SDG depending on baseline country conditions. The implementation, monitoring and evaluation of regional and continental commitments in the agriculture sector and the SDGs are critical for achievement of the targets at the national and local levels. While the methods employed are well-grounded in literature, data unavailability for some of the SDGs in some countries presented a limitation to the study, and future efforts should focus on collecting data for the other SDGs in order to permit a wider application.
Rice, Joshua E.; Rugg, Bradley; Davis, Sharon
Youth involved in 4-H projects have been engaged in science-related endeavors for years. Since 2006, 4-H has invested considerable resources in the advancement of science learning. The new Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge program challenges 4-H youth to work together to identify agriculture-related issues in their communities and to…
Amon, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Foldal, Cecilie; Schiefer, Jasmin; Kitzler, Barbara; Schwarzl, Bettina; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Sedy, Katrin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf
Results from a previous project "FarmClim" highlight that the IPCC default emission factor is not able to reflect region specific N2O emissions from Austrian arable soils. The methodology is limited in identifying hot spots and hot moments of N2O emissions. When estimations are based on default emission factors no recommendations can be given on optimisation measures that would lead to a reduction of soil N2O emissions. The better the knowledge is about Nitrogen and Carbon budgets in Austrian agricultural managed soils the better the situation can be reflected in the Austrian GHG emission inventory calculations. Therefore national and regionally modelled emission factors should improve the evidence for national deviation from the IPCC default emission factors and reduce the uncertainties. The overall aim of NitroAustria is to identify the drivers for N2O emissions on a regional basis taking different soil types, climate, and agricultural management into account. We use the LandscapeDNDC model to update the N2O emission factors for N fertilizer and animal manure applied to soils. Key regions in Austria were selected and region specific N2O emissions calculated. The model runs at sub-daily time steps and uses data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, radiation, and wind speed as meteorological drivers. Further input data are used to reflect agricultural management practices, e.g., planting/harvesting, tillage, fertilizer application, irrigation and information on soil and vegetation properties for site characterization and model initialization. While at site scale, arable management data (crop cultivation, rotations, timings etc.) is obtained by experimental data from field trials or observations, at regional scale such data need to be generated using region specific proxy data such as land use and management statistics, crop cultivations and yields, crop rotations, fertilizer sales, manure resulting from livestock units etc. The farming
Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H
The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for compensated occupational injuries and diseases in agriculture. The study population consisted of 78,679 Finnish farmers, spouses, and salaried family members covered by mandatory workers' compensation insurance. This population had a total of 24,424 occupational injuries and 1684 diseases from 2000 to 2004. In the 5-year period, 20.2% of the population had (one or more) injuries and 2.0% had occupational diseases. Multiple claims were common particularly among livestock producers. Using Poisson regression analyses, we identified several personal and farm-related risk factors, with relative risk estimates ranging from 1.07 to 3.08 for injuries and from 1.45 to 3.01 for diseases. Cattle-intensive geographic regions, occupational health service membership, large farm size, and farming alone were identified as risk factors for both outcomes. Further, male gender, higher number of insurance years, and residing on the farm were among risk factors for injury. These risk factors identified from a large longitudinal data set can be considered for developing and targeting interventions for farmers at highest risk of occupational injury and disease.
Hasibuan, Henny Triyana; Murwani, Danardana; Widjaja, Sri Umi Mientarti; Witjaksono, Mit
This research aims to develop agriculture accounting training module in order to increase palm oil farmer financial literacy, in this case farmers in Donomulyo, Malang Regency, Indonesia. The method utilized in model development is Design Based Research using the following progression: problem identification, explanation of goals, design and…
In 2010, the course ‘Organic agriculture in a development perspective' was run for the first time at Aarhus University. Education within and continuous reflections upon organic farming and food systems on all levels is a prerequisite for the development of the field, and young university students...
The development of small cities has been adopted as the main strategy to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of agricultural systems ...
This book is about change. It deals with the way in which social actors, be they individuals or groups, involved in the agricultural development of Benin reconstruct for themselves the new policy context in order to develop relevant strategies translating policy measures into practical
Wairimu, Winnie Wangari; Christoplos, Ian; Hilhorst, D.J.M.
This paper critically evaluates the transition from crisis to development in northern Uganda from the perspective of agricultural service provision. It contributes to debates on how efforts to link relief to rehabilitation and development may bypass the underlying challenges in linking humanitarian
Fournier, L A
The future agricultural development of Central America must be based of studies of land capacity in order to assure a sustained yield of the environment. The industrial development of the region, as well as the construction of the highways and rural roads must be carefully planned as a means of environmental conservation. New towns, housing developments, recreational facilities and highways should be planned to the effect that they occupy non-productive lands and thus minimize the modern trend of covering the best agricultural soils with concrete jungles. In recent years the price of agricultural lands has shown a tremendous rise, due mainly to the demand of land for urbanization. This situation has induced many farmers to abandon their lands, therefore, a selective land taxation system is suggested to encourage the cultivation of these suburban areas.
Ruane, John; Sonnino, Andrea
Latest FAO figures indicate that an estimated 925 million people are undernourished in 2010, representing almost 16% of the population in developing countries. Looking to the future, there are also major challenges ahead from the rapidly changing socio-economic environment (increasing world population and urbanisation, and dietary changes) and climate change. Promoting agriculture in developing countries is the key to achieving food security, and it is essential to act in four ways: to increase investment in agriculture, broaden access to food, improve governance of global trade, and increase productivity while conserving natural resources. To enable the fourth action, the suite of technological options for farmers should be as broad as possible, including agricultural biotechnologies. Agricultural biotechnologies represent a broad range of technologies used in food and agriculture for the genetic improvement of plant varieties and animal populations, characterisation and conservation of genetic resources, diagnosis of plant or animal diseases and other purposes. Discussions about agricultural biotechnology have been dominated by the continuing controversy surrounding genetic modification and its resulting products, genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The polarised debate has led to non-GMO biotechnologies being overshadowed, often hindering their development and application. Extensive documentation from the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies in Developing Countries (ABDC-10), that took place in Guadalajara, Mexico, on 1-4 March 2010, gave a very good overview of the many ways that different agricultural biotechnologies are being used to increase productivity and conserve natural resources in the crop, livestock, fishery, forestry and agro-industry sectors in developing countries. The conference brought together about 300 policy-makers, scientists and representatives of intergovernmental and international non
Preston, John T.
Universities in the U.S. have a significant impact on business through the transfer of technology. This paper describes goals and philosophy of the Technology Licensing Office at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This paper also relates the critical factors for susscessful technology transfer, particularly relating to new business formation. These critical factors include the quality of the technology, the quality of the management, the quality of the investor, the passion for success, and the image of the company. Descriptions of three different levels of investment are also given and the most successful level of investment for starting a new company is reviewed. Licensing to large companies is also briefly reviewed, as this type of licensing requires some different strategies than that of licensing to start-up companies. High quality critical factors and intelligent investment create rewards for the parties and successful ventures.
This comparative examination of changes in agrarian systems in 3 densely populated regions of Cameroon is intended to assess the role of demographic factors in agrarian changes and to permit prediction of future ability of the regions to continue supporting dense populations while providing a surplus for export to the rapidly growing cities. The 3 regions, Bamileke, Mont Mandaras, and the department of Lekie, are characterized by different climatic conditions, vegetation, soil types, and social organization. The total population of the 3 regions has increased from 1,278,644 in 1976 to 1,799,782 in 1987. High fertility rates seem to be the principal factor in this rapid growth. Despite very different systems of land tenure and crop regimes, the 3 areas have in common a serious lack of new lands capable of absorbing their surplus labor, and all have been greatly influenced by the introduction and spread of cash crops as their populations have come to see the land as a producer of income in addition to food, and have attempted to maximize their land holdings in conformity with their available labor and especially their desire for cash. In some areas land is no longer given to young men. Erosion and soil exhaustion are increasing. The spread of cash crops threatens the local food supply, and earnings tend to be invested in housed or wedding ceremonies rather than in increasing production. Population pressure has prompted colonization of new lands and migration to the cities or other rural areas, as well as appropriation of communal lands for private use. Conflicts over land are carried over into other areas of communal life. Underemployment of young men in some areas has led to delinquency. Efforts to intensify land use appear to be successful in the long run only where the soil is rich. Demographic pressure is a factor in the agrarian transformation of these areas, but it is only 1 of a number of factors of which the most important appears to be the entrance of the
Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.
Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and
Full Text Available The Republic of Serbia has one of the most important resources - agricultural resources, which are affected by the monetary - exchange policy, and that, as such, is the backbone of Serbia's economic development, which should be based on the exploitation of agricultural land since this resource puts our country in the region with expressed relative, comparative advantages in relation to a large number of countries. The rise in prices of agricultural products in the long period was much slower than the growth in the price level, which is the agricultural activity in the context of primary production was placed in a very disadvantageous position. The active fiscal policy, through excise taxes on petroleum products leads to higher costs in farming than in any other area. Consumption of petroleum products is the biggest expense that directly participate in the production process. Neither in terms of monetary -exchange policy situation is not favorable. The unreal exchange rate policy stimulated imports and discouraged real exports of agricultural product results in the "unrealistic" low productivity in this sector. In this regard, it is important to establish an appropriate economic policy through monetary, fiscal and exchange mechanism, in order to create a competitive advantage of agricultural production in this area.
Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the status of agricultural R&D in South Asia and contends that creating an effective agricultural research and innovation systems is a vital element to ensure food security in this region. South Asia is home to around one-fourth of mankind and houses the largest proportion of undernourished people in the world. Despite a period of marked economic growth averaging 6% a year over the past two decades, it remains the world's second poorest region contributing a mere 2.2% in global annual GDP. Agriculture is the mainstay of South Asian economy employing around 60% of the total workforce and generating around 20% of total GDP. South Asia has the recognition of being the second most food-insecure region next only to sub-Saharan Africa. Though there is growing evidence that technological innovation has a key role to play in increasing agricultural production and strengthening food security, agricultural research and development (R&D sector has failed to garner sufficient attention till now. This study also depicts the current situation of food security in South Asia and illustrates how agricultural education and innovation hold the master key to solve the food security issues for the world's most densely populated region.
J. van Zyl
Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.
Full Text Available Nowadays science applies agricultural innovations in a wide range all over the world; however, number of water users in innovations is in smaller amounts. This might happen to a number of factors, for example lack of adequate knowledge exchange system, nominal extension services at places, lack of well-defined policies, barriers in ‘human’ minds change’, barriers at policy level. As for Uzbekistan, it could be said that practice of extension of innovations application and its diffusion in agricultural irrigation sector in Uzbekistan does not have much experience, however, before 1991 Uzbekistan was one of the Soviet Unions’ republics and as it is known, the Soviet Union had high practice in innovations in different sectors, as well as in agriculture. Although, since independence, Uzbekistan has continued to experience innovations in agricultural sector independently, their diffusion is at a challenging shape. This article captures the policy issue, how Uzbekistan started to develop water management issues in its economic reforms, it describes a case research on application of innovative technique on a farm level and accordingly, it tries to propose the aspects that need to be involved in future reforms to make the current situation be better managed.
Full Text Available The article describes the most frequent unfavorable natural phenomena in the Republic of Moldova, such as drought, hot dry-winds and strong winds, dust storms, hail, frost, glaze ice, invasion of sod webworms and others. Additionally it presents a number of methods for reduction of their damaging influence on the results of agricultural activity. The article showcases the devastating effect of webworms on the seeding of agricultural crop yield in 1975 and the coping measures undertaken in those years. In 2003, as a result of an unusual combination of natural and climate factors, a great damage was done to the seeding of agricultural crops. Similarly, abnormal heat during the summer of 2007 caused a disastrously low crop yield on the territory of the republic.
Sano, T.; Nishina, K.; Sudo, S.
1. Introduction Agricultural fields are significant sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is one of the important greenhouse gases with a contribution of 7.9% to the anthropogenic global warming (IPCC, 2007). Direct fertilizer-induced N2O emission from agricultural soil is estimated using the emission factor (EF). National greenhouse gas inventory of Japan defines direct EF for N2O associated with the application of chemical and organic fertilizers as the same value (0.62%) in Japanese agricultural fields. However, it is necessary to estimate EF for organic fertilizers separately, because there are some differences in factors controlling N2O emissions (e.g. nutrient content) between chemical and organic fertilizers. The purpose of this study is to estimate N2O emissions and EF for applied organic fertilizers in Japanese agricultural fields. 2. Materials and Methods We conducted the experiments at 10 prefectural agricultural experimental stations in Japan (Yamagata, Fukushima, Niigata, Ibaraki, Aichi, Shiga, Tokushima, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, and Kagoshima) to consider the variations of cultivation and environmental conditions among regions. Field measurements had been conducted for 2-2.5 years during August 2010-April 2013. Each site set experimental plots with the applications of composted manure (cattle, swine, and poultry), chemical fertilizer, and non-nitrogen fertilizer as a control. The annual amount of applied nitrogen ranged from 16 g-N m-2 y-1 to 60 g-N m-2 y-1 depending on cropping system and cultivated crops (e.g. cabbage, potato) at each site. N2O fluxes were measured using a closed-chamber method. N2O concentrations of gas samples were measured with gas chromatography. The EF value of each fertilizer was calculated as the N2O emission from fertilizer plots minus the background N2O emission (emission from a control plot), and was expressed as a percentage of the applied nitrogen. The soil NH4+ and NO3-, soil temperature, precipitation, and WFPS (water
Bahri Karlı; Abdulbaki Bilgiç; Yusuf Çelik
Farmers’ decision and perceptions to be a member of agricultural cooperatives in the South Eastern Anatolian Region were investigated. Factors affecting the probability of joining the agricultural cooperatives were determined using binary logit model. The model released that most of variables such as education, high communication, log of gross income, farm size, medium and high technology variables play important roles in determining the probability of entrance. Small farmers are likely expec...
Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiangyu; Du, Shaoming; Yin, Guowei; Yu, Feng; Liu, Guicai; Gong, Jin; Han, Fujun
According to the status of agricultural information, this paper analyzed the advantages, opportunities and challenges of developing wisdom agriculture in Chengdu. By analyzed the local characteristics of Chengdu agriculture, the construction program of Chengdu wisdom agriculture was designed, which was based on the existing agricultural informatization. The positioning and development theme of Chengdu agriculture is leisure agriculture, urban agriculture and quality agriculture.
Rivas G. Álvaro
Full Text Available The productivist and reductionist vision of industrial agriculture in the twentieth century prevented the analysis of the other multiple functions of traditional agriculture, such as those corresponding to the ecological and cultural dimensions. In the current rural crisis, which entails food insecurity, environmental uncertainties, deterioration of the social fabric, a context lacking rural educational (extension proposals and impaired quality of life, to name a few, it is necessary to reassess traditional agriculture in order to generate strategies that are capable of providing strategic answers to the problems in question. The current multifunctional agriculture (MFA paradigm allows agricultural research in different world regions, addressing comprehensive economic aspects, protection of commons, actor-centered focus and public policy formulation. This article presents the current modern research contributions that, in the framework of the project: Rural Societies, Economy and Natural Resources integrating rural development skills, (Sociedades Rurales Economía y Recursos Naturales integrando competencias para el desarrollo rural - SERIDAR, which is part of the Alpha III program of the European Commission and reveals and reappraises other functions of traditional agriculture that warrant investigation. In this way, the Universidad Nacional de Colombia contributes to the development of appropriate research skills by integrating post-graduate students in transdisciplinary research with local knowledge networks. We hypothesized that farmer adaptations contain practical and technical strategic guidance for the protection of common goods (soil, biodiversity, water, etc. and the strengthening of the social fabric (knowledge and culture. With the reappraisal of the multiple functions of traditional agriculture and their upgrading in the context of post-industrial cultures, it is possible to build strategies that are capable of responding to the
Full Text Available The cadastral district of Horný Tisovník represents a traditionally managed Carpathian mountain agricultural landscape with extensive terraces. It was historically governed by two counties with different feudal economic systems - agricultural and industrial. This paper aims to enrich traditional methods in environmental history. We applied geospatial statistics and multivariate data analysis for the assessment of environmental factors influencing the distribution of agricultural terraces. Using linear models, the hypothesis was tested that the terrace distribution is functionally related to selected factors (affiliation to the historic counties; average altitude and slope; distance from water, buildings and settlements; units of natural potential vegetation; and current land use. Significantly greater amounts of terraces were located in the agricultural county compared to the industrial county. A principal component analysis showed the coincidence between the current agricultural land use and higher concentrations of terraces occurring in lower altitudes, closer to settlements and buildings, and within the unit of Carpathian oak-hornbeam forests. These findings regarding the most significant factors influencing the distribution of terraces are used in proposals for incentives to improve the management of the traditional agricultural landscape.
Evans, Robert G.; Hattendorf, Mary J.; Kincaid, Charles T.
By 2050, when cleanup of the Hanford Site is expected to be completed, large worldwide demands to increase the global production of animal and fish protein, food, and fiber are anticipated, despite advancements in crop breeding, genetic engineering, and other technologies. The most likely large areas for expanded irrigation in the Pacific Northwest are the undeveloped East High areas of the Columbia Basin Project and non-restricted areas within the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The area known as the Hanford Site has all the components that favor successful irrigated farming. Constraints to agricultural development of the Hanford Site are political and social, not economic or technical. Obtaining adequate water rights for any irrigated development will be a major issue. Numerous anticipated future advances in irrigation and resource conservation techniques such as precision agriculture techniques, improved irrigation systems, and irrigation system controls will greatly minimize the negative environmental impacts of agricultural activities.
Full Text Available In Romania, with the liberalization of the land market, appears the prospect of functioning of aspecialized agricultural bank which might be named ,,land bank’’. In principle, this institution can buy and sellagricultural land and to provide priority "rural land loan" for farm development. Mainly, it may incorporate anadvantageous loan system created for those who want to buy land for agriculture use, once of the liberalizationof land market since 2014. In this article we present some details about importance of this credit institution andgrant technique of rural land loan . Currently, the number of Romanian farmers grouped in associations is verysmall compared to the millions agricultural holdings. Young farm development can be possible only byappealing to an "engine" type "rural land loans" and which may more quickly solve their financial problems.
Adamo, Paola; Iavazzo, Pietro; Albanese, Stefano; Agrelli, Diana; De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria
Soil pollution in agricultural lands poses a serious threat to food safety, and suggests the need for consolidated methods providing advisory indications for soil management and crop production. In this work, the three-step extraction procedure developed by the EU Measurement and Testing Programme and two soil-to-plant transfer factors (relative to total and bioavailable concentration of elements in soil) were applied on polluted agricultural soils from southern Italy to obtain information on the retention mechanisms of metals in soils and on their level of translocation to edible vegetables. The study was carried out in the Sarno river plain of Campania, an area affected by severe environmental degradation potentially impacting the health of those consuming locally produced vegetables. Soil samples were collected in 36 locations along the two main rivers flowing into the plain. In 11 sites, lettuce plants were collected at the normal stage of consumption. According to Italian environmental law governing residential soils, and on the basis of soil background reference values for the study area, we found diffuse pollution by Be, Sn and Tl, of geogenic origin, Cr and Cu from anthropogenic sources such as tanneries and intensive agriculture, and more limited pollution by Pb, Zn and V. It was found that metals polluting soils as a result of human activities were mainly associated to residual, oxidizable and reducible phases, relatively immobile and only potentially bioavailable to plants. By contrast, the essential elements Zn and Cu showed a tendency to become more readily mobile and bioavailable as their total content in soil increased and were more easily transported to the edible parts of lettuce than other pollutants. According to our results, current soil pollution in the studied area does not affect the proportion of metals taken up by lettuce plants and there is a limited health risk incurred. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The success or failure of operating a rainwater harvesting system (RWH depends on both technological and non-technological factors. The importance of non-technological factors in attaining sustainable RWH operation is rarely emphasized. This study aims to assess the contribution of non-technological factors through determining decisive factors involved in the use of RWHs for agriculture irrigation in Beijing. The RWHs for agriculture irrigation in Beijing are not operating as well as expected. If the decisive factors are identified to be non-technological, the significance of non-technological factors will be highlighted. Firstly, 10 impact factors comprising non-technological and technological factors are selected according to both a literature review and interviews with RWH managers. Following this, through an artificial data mining method, rough set analysis, the decisive factors are identified. Results show that two non-technological factors, “doubts about rainwater quality” and “the availability of groundwater” determine whether these systems will continue or cease RWH operation in Beijing. It is, thus, considered necessary to improve public confidence in and motivation on using rainwater for agriculture irrigation, as this is the main obstacle in the sustainable and successful operation of RWHs. Through a case study of RWHs in Beijing, the study verifies the importance of acknowledging non-technological factors to achieve sustainable water management and considers that such factors should receive more attention by decision makers and researchers.
Kim, Dae-Young; Kadam, Avinash; Shinde, Surendra; Saratale, Rijuta Ganesh; Patra, Jayanta; Ghodake, Gajanan
The applications and benefits of nanotechnology in the agricultural sector have attracted considerable attention, particularly in the invention of unique nanopesticides and nanofertilisers. The contemporary developments in nanotechnology are acknowledged and the most significant opportunities awaiting the agriculture sector from the recent scientific and technical literature are addressed. This review discusses the significance of recent trends in nanomaterial-based sensors available for the sustainable management of agricultural soil, as well as the role of nanotechnology in detection and protection against plant pathogens, and for food quality and safety. Novel nanosensors have been reported for primary applications in improving crop practices, food quality, and packaging methods, thus will change the agricultural sector for potentially better and healthier food products. Nanotechnology is well-known to play a significant role in the effective management of phytopathogens, nutrient utilisation, controlled release of pesticides, and fertilisers. Research and scientific gaps to be overcome and fundamental questions have been addressed to fuel active development and application of nanotechnology. Together, nanoscience, nanoengineering, and nanotechnology offer a plethora of opportunities, proving a viable alternative in the agriculture and food processing sector, by providing a novel and advanced solutions. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Batlang, Utlwang; Tsurupe, Gorata; Segwagwe, Amogelang; Obopile, Motshwari
In Botswana, approximately 40% of the population live in rural areas and derive most of their livelihood from agriculture by keeping livestock and practising arable farming. Due to the nature of their farming practises livestock and crops are exposed to diseases and environmental stresses. These challenges offer opportunities for application of biotechnology to develop adaptable materials to the country's environment. On the other hand, the perceived risk of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has dimmed the promise of the technology for its application in agriculture. This calls for a holistic approach to the application of biotechnology to address issues of biosafety of GMOs. We have therefore assessed the potentials, challenges and opportunities to apply biotechnology with specific emphasis on agriculture, taking cognisance of requirement for its research, development and application in research and teaching institutions. In order to achieve this, resource availability, infrastructure, human and laboratory requirements were analyzed. The analysis revealed that the country has the capacity to carry out research in biotechnology in the development and production of genetically modified crops for food and fodder crops. These will include gene discovery, genetic transformation and development of systems to comply with the world regulatory framework on biosafety. In view of the challenges facing the country in agriculture, first generation biotech crops could be released for production. Novel GM products for development may include disease diagnosis kits, animal disease vaccines, and nutrient use efficiency, drought, and pest and disease resistant food and fodder crops.
Kiliszek, A.; Vaicunas, R.; Zook, K.; Popkin, J.; Inamdar, S. P.; Duke, J.; Awokuse, T.; Sims, T.; Hansen, D.; Wani, S. P.
The goal of sustainable agricultural and watershed management is to enhance agricultural productivity while protecting and preserving our environment and natural resources. The vast majority of information on sustainable watershed management practices is primarily derived from studies in developed nations with very few inputs from developing nations. Through a USDA-funded project, the University of Delaware (UD) initiated a collaboration with the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) located in Hyderabad, India to study sustainable agricultural management practices in developing countries and their impacts on the environment, crop productivity, and socioeconomic conditions of the watershed community. As a part of this project, ICRISAT provided us with a vast amount of data on sustainable agricultural practices and their impacts on runoff, soil and water quality, crop yields, nutrient management and socioeconomic conditions. Conservation practices that were implemented included check dams, groundwater recharge wells, intercropping, nutrient management, integrated pest management and a suite of other practices. Using this information, students and faculty at UD developed teaching modules that were used for education and enrichment of existing UD courses and are also being used for the development of a stand-alone online course. The students and faculty visited India in July 2010 to get a first-hand experience of the conditions in the agricultural watersheds and the impacts of sustainable management practices. The project was a tremendous learning experience for US students and faculty and highlighted the challenges people face in developing countries and how that affects every aspect of their lives. Such challenges include environmental, agricultural, technological, economic, and transportation. Although we experience many of the same challenges, developing countries do not have the technology or economic infrastructure in place to
Full Text Available The study investigated the effects of road transport infrastructure on agricultural sector development in Nigeria from 1985 to 2014, using secondary annual time series data on agricultural development (proxy by gross domestic product in the Agric sector road transport infrastructure (proxy by length of paved road per square kilometer of area export and capital, all obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN , and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS , statistical bulletins. The data were analyzed using Granger Causality test and Ordinary Least Square estimation techniques. The study concluded that a positive and statistically significant relationship exists between road transport infrastructures (LRT also evidence was found of a unidirectional causality from agricultural sector development to transport infrastructure. The study, therefore, recommends that adequate and timely maintenance of existing roads should be carried out as well as enacting appropriate regulations that ensure proper implementation and completion of new road construction contracts in the country in order to boost agricultural sector development, reduce wastage of farm produce and increase the possibility of economic diversification.
University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette.
This curriculum guide was developed to aid vocational agriculture/agribusiness teachers in Louisiana in improving their instruction and to provide students with the opportunity to obtain skills and knowledge in the production of nontraditional specialty animals. The guide covers the techniques of production, management, care, and marketing of…
Fesenko, S.V.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Perepelyatnikova, L.V.; Prister, B.S.; Wilkins, B.T.; Bouzdalkin, C.N.
A large amount of data on agricultural countermeasures has been complied and assessed within an EC-sponsored collaborative project. The results of the work are summarized, and the development of a predictive tool to aid decisions at the local level is briefly described
Tatiana E. Gvarliani
Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of agriculture and trade relations in the Caucasus in the early 20th century. This article utilizes the records of Georgian national archives, pre-revolutionary periodicals and monographic literature published in pre-revolutionary, soviet and Russian contemporary periods. The authors used the research methods such as principles of objectivity, historicism, systematic, comprehensive accounting of the economic indicators of agriculture development and trade in the Caucasus and the maximum possible neutrality of the researcher to interpret factual material. The authors come to the conclusion that the development of agriculture in the Caucasus after the revolutionary upheavals of 1905-1907 years in the subsequent period before the First World War entered into the stage of recovery. The reasons of this phenomenon became the discovery of significant quantities of oil, cement, manganese and other fields. The objects of the industry demanded also the additional food supply, this enabled the agriculture in the Caucasus to develop actively.
Edda T. Lwoga
Full Text Available This article addresses the management of agricultural indigenous knowledge (IK in developing countries, with a specific focus on Tanzania. It provides background details on IK and its importance for agricultural development. It introduces various knowledge management (KM concepts and discusses their application in managing IK in the developing world by placing Nonaka’s knowledge creation theory (Nonaka 1991; Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995; Nonaka, Toyama & Konno 2000 in the context of the local communities. Data from focus groups were used to triangulate with data from interviews in order to validate, confirm and corroborate quantitative results with qualitative findings. The study findings showed that knowledge creation theory can be used to manage IK in the local communities, however, adequate and appropriate resources need to be allocated for capturing and preserving IK before it disappears altogether. For sustainable agricultural development, the communities have to be placed within a knowledge-creating setting that continuously creates, distributes and shares knowledge within and beyond the communities’ boundaries and integrates it with new agricultural technologies, innovations and knowledge.
Hunt, Warren; Birch, Colin; Vanclay, Frank; Coutts, Jeff
The business of agricultural research, development and extension (RD&E) has undergone considerable change in Australia since the late 1980s, moving from a domain largely dominated by government departments to a situation of multiple actors, and where rural industries now directly contribute funds
The objective of this project is to develop and improve tools for the ethical assessment of new technologies in agriculture and food production in general and modern biotechnologies in particular. The project thus responds to the plurality of consumer concerns that increasingly inform the European
Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Molnar, Joseph J.
Findings from current literature form the basis for this examination of five critical elements of change and development within the local community setting which impact on agriculture: population, employment, land, water, and environment. Renewed rural population growth during the 1970's has reversed small farm trends but placed strains on local…
Nguyen, C.P.; Westen, A.C.M. van; Zoomers, A.
Since the 1990s, Vietnam’s progressive integration into the global market economy has triggered major economic and social transformations. In spatial terms, these are marked by a massive conversion of agricultural land for industrial and urban development. While this process has attracted
Phuc, Nguyen Quang; Westen, A. C M van; Zoomers, Annelies
Since the 1990s, Vietnam's progressive integration into the global market economy has triggered major economic and social transformations. In spatial terms, these are marked by a massive conversion of agricultural land for industrial and urban development. While this process has attracted
The development and significance of vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM) in wheat and potatoes have been studied in relation to various farming systems and agricultural practices. The effects of farming systems on VAM have been observed on three neighbouring experimental farms in the vicinity of
Steel, G.; van Lindert, P.H.C.M.; Fold, Niels; Mynborg, Tobias
This report analyses agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections in Sub-Saharan Africa with the aim to identify key policy areas for regional development. The report draws on the results from comparative empirical studies in various dynamic rural regions characterized by
Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.
Developed for use by vocational agriculture teachers in Iowa, this instructional unit provides information about the growing and marketing of sod for lawns. This document is one of three manuals making up a single package. (The other two are Christmas Tree Production and Marketing and Sod Production and Marketing). The manual includes an…
Full Text Available The development of organic farming is seen as the only alternative for the third millennium. The relation agriculture - food - health is increasingly obvious, because most of the "diseases of civilization" are attributed to the inadequate quality of diet,
Schut, M.L.W.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Sartas, M.; Lamers, D.; McCampbell, M.; Ogbonna, H.; Kaushik, P.; Atta-Krah, K.; Leeuwis, C.
Innovation Platforms (IPs) are seen as a promising vehicle to foster a paradigm shift in agricultural research for development (AR4D). By facilitating interaction, negotiation and collective action between farmers, researchers and other stakeholders, IPs can contribute to more integrated, systemic
Struif Bontkes, T.
Sustainability of agricultural production and food supply is threatened in many developing countries by human population growth. The increasing food requirement forces the population to extend the cultivated areas to less fertile areas, often without taking
An analytical method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for the trace determination of a variety of agricultural pesticides and selected transformation products in large-volume high-elevation lake water sa...
Unmanned aerial vehicles have been developed and applied to support agricultural production management. Compared to piloted aircrafts, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can focus on small crop fields in lower flight altitude than regular airplanes to perform site-specific management with high precisi...
Emmanuel Adilson S. Serrao; Daniel Nepstad; Robert. Walker
This paper provides an overview of agricultural and forestry development in the Amazon basin, and presents and discusses the main land use systems in evidence today in that region. These are logging, shifting-cultivation and ranching. The issue of sustainability is addressed, and current Amazonian land use is interpreted in light of ecological impacts and long-run...
Heijden, van der P.G.M.; Blom-Zandstra, G.; Sadek, S.; Elsamadony, E.; Eweas, M.; El-Dib, H.; Sabry, M.
This report describes the development of an integrated saltwater aquaculture – agriculture farming system at Wadi El Natroun, Egypt. During the first two years of the project promising salt-tolerant plant species were identified, the methods for seed germination and growing of three salt-tolerant
Galih Mukti Annas Wibisono
Full Text Available In the village, the agricultural development is not certainly oriented to the economic aspect. The social intervention is very important and very helpful for the citizens and the development of the agricultural itself. The purpose of this research is to analyze the social existence, the social influence, and also the systematic strategy that can strengthen the society in developing the agriculture. The method used in this research is the qualitative analysis with phenomenology approach. The qualitative analysis is conducted by the direct observation in the field and in-depth interviews with the respondents that are selected by the purposive sampling. The result shows that a society has formed the farmer organization to have mutual coordination among the members. However, there are some problems that occur on this organization. The values and norms begin to fade and have become the major problem. Another problem is the sense of trust among the citizens and the unoptimal social network utilization. The conclusion is, the Analytic Network Process (ANP shows that to make a progress of agricultural development, they need to strengthen the social relationship among the citizens to face all the problems that may occur.
Tripp, Rob; Louwaars, Niels; Eaton, Derek
Although many developing countries have drafted legislation to address plant variety protection (PVP) requirements, relatively few have begun to implement PVP, and little guidance is available on appropriate strategies. This note looks at some of the key decisions facing agricultural policymakers in establishing a PVP regime, examines the implementation of PVP, assesses some of the impacts...
Tripp, R.; Eaton, D.J.F.; Louwaars, N.P.
Although many developing countries have drafted legislation to address plant variety protection (PVP) requirements, relatively few have begun to implement PVP, and little guidance is available on appropriate strategies. This note looks at some of the key decisions facing agricultural policymakers in
Foreman, Elizabeth A.; Retallick, Michael S.
The purpose of this study was to identify and describe experiences of undergraduate extracurricular involvement that result in increased leadership development. Senior students in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Iowa State University completed an online questionnaire about their extracurricular experiences. Leadership development…
Sherwood, S.G.; Schut, M.; Leeuwis, C.
The recognition that innovation occurs in networks of heterogeneous actors and requires broad systemic support beyond knowledge brokering has resulted in a changing landscape of the intermediary domain in an increasingly market-driven agricultural sector in developing countries. This paper presents
de Wit, M.P.; Londo, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.
This paper discusses if, how fast and to what maximum yield improvements can be realized in Europe in the coming decades and what the opportunities and relations are to biomass production. The starting point for the analysis is the historic context of developments in European agriculture over the
Kaila, Heidi Kristiina
This paper presents a descriptive analysis on the ownership of different types of technology—both agricultural machinery and information technology—within households in rural areas of Vietnam. We find that there has been little development in the ownership of agricultural machinery, but a rapid...... expansion of information technology, especially phones. Households without phones or internet access are more likely to be poor, female-headed, have less education, and rely more on transfers. When controlling for a number of household characteristics including income, households that already own technology...
Khatodia, Surender; Bhatotia, Kirti; Tuteja, Narendra
Clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) system of targeted genome editing has already revolutionized the plant science research. This is a RNA guided programmable endonuclease based system composed of 2 components, the Cas9 nuclease and an engineered guide RNA targeting any DNA sequence of the form N20-NGG for novel genome editing applications. The CRISPR/Cas9 technology of targeted genome editing has been recently applied for imparting virus resistance in plants. The robustness, wide adaptability, and easy engineering of this system has proved its potential as an antiviral tool for plants. Novel DNA free genome editing by using the preassembled Cas9/gRNA ribonucleoprotein complex for development of virus resistance in any plant species have been prospected for the future. Also, in this review we have discussed the reports of CRISPR/Cas9 mediated virus resistance strategy against geminiviruses by targeting the viral genome and transgene free strategy against RNA viruses by targeting the host plant factors. In conclusion, CRISPR/Cas9 technology will provide a more durable and broad spectrum viral resistance in agriculturally important crops which will eventually lead to public acceptance and commercialization in the near future.
The global impact of antibiotic resistance is potentially devastating, threatening to set back progress against certain infectious diseases to the pre-antibiotic era. Although most antibiotic-resistant bacteria originally emerged in hospitals, drug-resistant strains are becoming more common in the community. Factors that facilitate the development of resistance within the community can be categorized as behavioral or environmental/policy. Behavioral factors include inappropriate use of antibiotics and ineffective infection control and hygiene practices. Environmental/policy factors include the continued use of antibiotics in agriculture and the lack of new drug development. A multifaceted approach that includes behavioral strategies in the community and the political will to make difficult regulatory decisions will help to minimize the problem of antimicrobial resistance globally.
Gouda, Sushanto; Kerry, Rout George; Das, Gitishree; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Shin, Han-Seung; Patra, Jayanta Kumar
The progression of life in all forms is not only dependent on agricultural and food security but also on the soil characteristics. The dynamic nature of soil is a direct manifestation of soil microbes, bio-mineralization, and synergistic co-evolution with plants. With the increase in world's population the demand for agriculture yield has increased tremendously and thereby leading to large scale production of chemical fertilizers. Since the use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural fields have caused degradation of soil quality and fertility, thus the expansion of agricultural land with fertile soil is near impossible, hence researchers and scientists have sifted their attention for a safer and productive means of agricultural practices. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been functioning as a co-evolution between plants and microbes showing antagonistic and synergistic interactions with microorganisms and the soil. Microbial revitalization using plant growth promoters had been achieved through direct and indirect approaches like bio-fertilization, invigorating root growth, rhizoremediation, disease resistance etc. Although, there are a wide variety of PGPR and its allies, their role and usages for sustainable agriculture remains controversial and restricted. There is also variability in the performance of PGPR that may be due to various environmental factors that might affect their growth and proliferation in the plants. These gaps and limitations can be addressed through use of modern approaches and techniques such as nano-encapsulation and micro-encapsulation along with exploring multidisciplinary research that combines applications in biotechnology, nanotechnology, agro biotechnology, chemical engineering and material science and bringing together different ecological and functional biological approaches to provide new formulations and opportunities with immense potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Farmers’ decision and perceptions to be a member of agricultural cooperatives in the South Eastern Anatolian Region were investigated. Factors affecting the probability of joining the agricultural cooperatives were determined using binary logit model. The model released that most of variables such as education, high communication, log of gross income, farm size, medium and high technology variables play important roles in determining the probability of entrance. Small farmers are likely expected to join the agricultural cooperatives than the wealthier farmers are. Small farmers may wish to benefit cash at hand, input subsidies, and services provided by the agricultural cooperatives since the risks associated with intensive high-returning crops are high. Some important factors playing pole role in abstention of farmers towards agricultural cooperatives are gross income and some social status variables. In addition, conservative or orthodox farmers are less likely to join agricultural cooperatives than moderate farmers are. We also found that the direct government farm credit programs mainly should be objected to providing farmers to better access to capital markets and creating the opportunity to use with allocation of capital inputs via using modern technology.
During recent months, another sign of the global fragility to sustain the increasing human demand for resources has appeared with merciless cruelty. Increasing food prices, paradoxically driven to a large extent by the rapid economic growth of vast regions of the emerging world, are affecting hundreds of millions of the poorest people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. As described in Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries, most of the poorest people in these low-income countries live in rural areas and are engaged in agriculture or related activities. Because many people in these areas are engaged in subsistence agriculture, they do not share in the added income derived from higher market prices for food.
Sônia Maria Agra Zamith
Full Text Available The objective of the research is to indicate directions of alternatives to self-sustainable development outlined at the principle of a family socioeconomic context, and sustainability, environmental protection promoted by family agriculture. The inclusion of Family agriculture model in the discussion, of the preliminary verification of the agricultural production methods used by family units at the time ensuring the livelihood and allows the marketing of surplus production levels. The method employed was the hypothetical- deductive, with explanatory purpose, which means corresponded to the selection of authors who have the necessary support to the understanding of the precautionary principle in environmental law.
Kushnir Nina B.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the basic aspects of establishment and development of the land market. A mechanism for securing against the leasehold estate and a model of an agricultural land market have been proposed. It has been specified that the most important component on formation of land market in our State is to work to change public opinion, people attitudes regarding the private ownership of land and deals with it. The proposed mechanism for securing against the leasehold estate has not only economic, but also social significance, which, above all, is that securing against the leasehold estate does not change the owner of the land, and, consequently, does not threaten villagers with dispossession of land. With introduction of the presented model of an agricultural land market it can be argued that such a market is an open, complex system based on the interaction between its actors over the use, disposal and market turnover of agricultural lands.
Full Text Available This article considers the main features of sustainable development of rural territories, identifies the factors of innovative entrepreneurship, and assesses their influence on the condition of rural economy. Special attention is paid to the analysis of concepts, programmes, and projects in the field of rural territory development. The authors summarise conceptual and strategic approaches and actions of the Baltic region states in the field of sustainable development of rural territories. The article identifies objectives, common for the Baltic region, relating to sustainability of rural territories, including sustainable use of natural resource potential, diversification of production through support for non-agricultural activities and employment, application of innovations and efficient technologies, and manufacturing of environmentally friendly products. The analysis of the development of agricultural and innovations in the Baltic Sea regions serves as a basis for identifying the factors and conditions of supporting innovative entrepreneurship. Of special importance are the research, technological, and innovative potential of the territory, the availability of adequate innovative infrastructure, and the formation of innovative culture. The authors corroborate the idea of innovative entrepreneurship development in rural territories through the transformation of organizational and economic mechanism of management relating to the creation of institutional, infrastructure, and spatial conditions. Research and technological cooperation in the Baltic region is emphasised as a priority area.
The plant protection by pesticides is increasing in Poland and the established trend rate took into account years 2005-2011. In the period 2002-2004 statistics did not present the full range of crop protection measures authorized for sale and consumption. In contrast the consumption of qualified seeds of basic grains and seed potatoes considerably decreased in Polish agriculture. Only for triticale it was noticed that the trend rate of qualified seeds was increasing. So the farmers should be more widely informed about the advantages of the exchange of seed grain for qualified grains. It will facilitate the quicker implementation of variety progress to agricultural production and adverse changes slowdown agricultural production.
Full Text Available This work considers important natural conditions of distribution of agricultural production, cattle breeding in particular, and also potentials for tourism development on Mokra mountain. Half-nomadic cattle breeding in mountain settlements was highly developed in recent past. It represented the main source of existence for local highlanders. Today it is neglected and in phase of dying out. The mountain disposes with excellent natural potentials for ecological and mountain tourism, but these potentials are unused.
Kammen, Daniel M.
"Biomass energy programs offer a wide range of potential benefits for developing countries. Already traditional biomass products like firewood, charcoal, manure, and crop residues provide the main source of household energy use for some 2–3 billion people in the developing world, and this demand is likely to grow in the years ahead. But new technologies for commercial energy production from biomass are emerging that could lead to dramatic new opportunities for agriculture and the rural sector...
Knežević Marko; Knežević Danilo
This work considers important natural conditions of distribution of agricultural production, cattle breeding in particular, and also potentials for tourism development on Mokra mountain. Half-nomadic cattle breeding in mountain settlements was highly developed in recent past. It represented the main source of existence for local highlanders. Today it is neglected and in phase of dying out. The mountain disposes with excellent natural potentials for ecological and mountain tourism, but these p...
Waqa, Gade; Bell, Colin; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj
There is limited research on the use of evidence to inform policy-making in the Pacific. This study aims to identify and describe factors that facilitate or limit the use of evidence in food-related policy-making in the Health and Agriculture Ministries in Fiji. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with selected policy-makers in two government ministries that were instrumental in the development of food-related policies in Fiji designed to prevent Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Snowball sampling was used to recruit, as key informants, senior policy-makers in management positions such as national advisors and directors who were based at either the national headquarters or equivalent. Interviewees were asked about their experiences in developing food-related or other policies, barriers or facilitators encountered in the policy development and implementation process and the use of evidence. Each interview lasted approximately 45-60 minutes, and was conducted in English. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed, thematically coded and analyzed using N-Vivo 8.0 software. Thirty-one policy-makers from the Ministry of Health and Medical Services (MoHMS n = 18) and the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA n = 13) in Fiji participated in the study. Whilst evidence is sometimes used in food-related policy-making in both the Health and Agriculture Ministries (including formal evidence such as published research and informal evidence such as personal experiences and opinions), it is not yet embedded as an essential part of the process. Participants indicated that a lack of resources, poor technical support in terms of training, the absence of clear strategies for improving competent use of evidence, procedures regarding engagement with other stakeholders across sectors, varying support from senior managers and limited consultation across sectors were barriers to evidence use. The willingness of organizations to create a culture of using evidence was
of road and social infrastructure in municipalities in the Piła sub-region and it explained 9.15% of the communality. These factors were induced by natural conditions, farm production constraints, the level of entrepreneurship, the situation on the labour market, which contributed to the development of sub-urbanization and the development of road and social infrastructure, as well as their derivatives, such as income levels, development of the building industry and early school education. Agriculture destimulated the development of municipalities in the Piła sub-region during the period under study.
Olaria, M.; Nebot, J.F.; Molina, H.; Troncho, P.; Lapeña, P.; Llorens, E.
Sowing of seedlings is one of the most critical processes on the establishment of a crop, since the future development of the plant depends largely on its health when is planted on the field. Moreover, organic agriculture has to deal with the low application of fertilizers and pesticides, which hinder the growth of seedlings. In this work, we studied the big influence of different mixtures of substrates suitable for organic agriculture based on peat, coconut husk and vermicompost in traditional varieties of tomato, pepper and eggplant. Our results indicate that the use of coconut husk based substrates in organic agriculture can reduce the growth of seedlings between 20 and 30% compared with peat-based substrates. Moreover, the plants growth in this substrate showed lower levels of chlorophyll and lower weight, but the results are strongly dependent on the species tested. Comparison between traditional plants demonstrates that traditional varieties are strongly influenced by the substrate, whereas the growth of a commercial variety of tomato barely differs when different substrates are used. The election of the substrate in organic agriculture is critical to the correct development of the plant, especially when traditional plant varieties are used. (Author)
Full Text Available The assessment of the sustainability of agricultural systems is multidimensional in nature and requires holistic measures using indicators with different measurements and units reflecting social, economic, and environmental aspects. To simplify the assessment process, various indicators have different units, and measurements are grouped under broad indicator heads, and normalization and/or transformation processes are carried out in order to aggregate them. In this study, a total of 50 indicators from agricultural sustainability categories of productivity, stability, efficiency, durability, compatibility, and equity are employed to investigate which normalization technique is the most suitable for further mathematical analysis for developing a final composite indicator. To understand the consistency and quality of normalization measurement techniques and compare the benefits and drawbacks of the various selected normalization processes, the indicators of agricultural sustainability are considered. Each of the different techniques for normalization has advantages and drawbacks. This study shows that the proportionate normalization and hybrid aggregation rules of the arithmetic mean and the geometric mean are appropriate for the selected data set, and that this technique has a wider applicability for developing composite indicators for agricultural sustainability assessment.
Adamo, Paola; Iavazzo, Pietro; Albanese, Stefano; Agrelli, Diana; De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria
Soil pollution in agricultural lands poses a serious threat to food safety, and suggests the need for consolidated methods providing advisory indications for soil management and crop production. In this work, the three-step extraction procedure developed by the EU Measurement and Testing Programme and two soil-to-plant transfer factors (relative to total and bioavailable concentration of elements in soil) were applied on polluted agricultural soils from southern Italy to obtain information on the retention mechanisms of metals in soils and on their level of translocation to edible vegetables. The study was carried out in the Sarno river plain of Campania, an area affected by severe environmental degradation potentially impacting the health of those consuming locally produced vegetables. Soil samples were collected in 36 locations along the two main rivers flowing into the plain. In 11 sites, lettuce plants were collected at the normal stage of consumption. According to Italian environmental law governing residential soils, and on the basis of soil background reference values for the study area, we found diffuse pollution by Be, Sn and Tl, of geogenic origin, Cr and Cu from anthropogenic sources such as tanneries and intensive agriculture, and more limited pollution by Pb, Zn and V. It was found that metals polluting soils as a result of human activities were mainly associated to residual, oxidizable and reducible phases, relatively immobile and only potentially bioavailable to plants. By contrast, the essential elements Zn and Cu showed a tendency to become more readily mobile and bioavailable as their total content in soil increased and were more easily transported to the edible parts of lettuce than other pollutants. According to our results, current soil pollution in the studied area does not affect the proportion of metals taken up by lettuce plants and there is a limited health risk incurred. - Highlights: • Soil pollution in an intensively farmed area of
Cinderby, Steve; Bruin, Annemarieke de; Mbilinyi, Boniface; Kongo, Victor; Barron, Jennie
One of the keys to environmental management is to understand the impact and interaction of people with natural resources as a means to improve human welfare and the consequent environmental sustainability for future generations. In terms of water management one of the on-going challenges is to assess what impact interventions in agriculture, and in particularly different irrigation strategies, will have on livelihoods and water resources in the landscape. Whilst global and national policy provide the overall vision of desired outcomes for environmental management, agricultural development and water use strategies they are often presented with local challenges to embed these policies in the reality on the ground, with different stakeholder groups. The concept that government agencies, advocacy organizations, and private citizens should work together to identify mutually acceptable solutions to environmental and water resource issues is increasing in prominence. Participatory spatial engagement techniques linked to geographic information systems (commonly termed participatory GIS (PGIS)) offers one solution to facilitate such stakeholder dialogues in an efficient and consultative manner. In the context of agricultural water management multi-scale PGIS techniques have recently been piloted as part of the ‘Agricultural Water Management Solutions’ project to investigate the current use and dependencies of water by small-holder farmers a watershed in Tanzania. The piloted approach then developed PGIS scenarios describing the effects on livelihoods and water resources in the watershed when introducing different management technologies. These relatively rapid PGIS multi-scale methods show promise for assessing current and possible future agriculture water management technologies in terms of their bio-physical and socio-economic impacts at the watershed scale. The paper discusses the development of the methodology in the context of improved water management decision
Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis
The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…
Piniewski, Mikołaj; Kardel, Ignacy; Giełczewski, Marek; Marcinkowski, Paweł; Okruszko, Tomasz
Currently, there is a major concern about the future of nutrient loads discharged into the Baltic Sea from Polish rivers because they are main contributors to its eutrophication. To date, no watershed-scale studies have properly addressed this issue. This paper fills this gap by using a scenario-modeling framework applied in the Reda watershed, a small (482 km²) agricultural coastal area in northern Poland. We used the SWAT model to quantify the effects of future climate, land cover, and management changes under multiple scenarios up to the 2050s. The combined effect of climate and land use change on N-NO3 and P-PO4 loads is an increase by 20-60 and 24-31 %, respectively, depending on the intensity of future agricultural usage. Using a scenario that assumes a major shift toward a more intensive agriculture following the Danish model would bring significantly higher crop yields but cause a great deterioration of water quality. Using vegetative cover in winter and spring (VC) would be a very efficient way to reduce future P-PO4 loads so that they are lower than levels observed at present. However, even the best combination of measures (VC, buffer zones, reduced fertilization, and constructed wetlands) would not help to remediate heavily increased N-NO3 loads due to climate change and agricultural intensification.
Lamm, Kevan W.; Rumble, Joy N.; Carter, Hannah S.; Lamm, Alexa J.
In the information rich society of the 21st century consumers have had access to many different communication channels where they can find information about agricultural topics. Individuals seek information that fulfills their needs and opinion leaders have been identified as a solution to communicating with audiences about complex topics.…
Yulia I. Kuznetsova
Full Text Available In the first half of the nineteenth century, agriculture in Russia had reached the new level of development. The Imperial Agricultural Societies paid much attention to establishing relations with the foreign agricultural societies and kept up with their periodicals, issuing translations and abridgements of texts, which could be interesting to the Russian readers. This paper examines the articles on farming industry in Great Britain, France, German countries, Italy, and the USA, released in journals and transactions of Imperial Agricultural Societies of Russia in 1840s. The research draws on both reviews of European congresses or exhibitions, written by members of agricultural societies, and the articles written by foreign authors and published in translation. Such approach made it possible to specify the certain topics appealing to Russian farmers. Moreover, the study of the articles contributed by the Imperial Agricultural Societies helped to build a complete picture representing knowledge on history, theory and practice of foreign and Russian husbandry, shared by the Russian farmers in 1840s. It is also worth to mention that the effective work of agricultural journals in fact integrated Russian farming communities into the broad network of contacts, experience and knowledge exchange, which had been functioning in Europe in the first half of the XIXth century. Nevertheless, the research revealed that the articles in question almost lacked comparisons between Russian and European agriculture. The papers dealing with comparative analysis of the different European farming systems are characterized by noticeably restrained reaction of the editors and authors to the published information. They tended to show the advantages and disadvantages of the foreign farming without furnishing the Russian reader or the Russian authorities with any specific recommendations.
Full Text Available Great Recession is another proof that the current paradigm of economic growth should be changed. It ought to be applied to all sectors, including agriculture. The farming sector was strongly affected by substantial price increases of some products. It was especially painful for poorer consumers in developing and Third World countries, while its benefits were channelled mainly to big farmers and speculators in developed economies. Common Agricultural Policy could not avert this turbulence. The implementa-tion of the concept of sustainable development is a possible solution of this problem as its approach is more holistic and humanistic. However, the implementation of adequate reforms is very slow. It is a sign that leading US and EU policymakers attempt to stay within the limits of current model of growth.However, the second wave of price hikes may prove to be more lasting, which would further deepen income inequality.
Full Text Available Agricultural Cooperatives, as member-owned and controlled agribusiness enterprises traditionally play an important role in upgrading the socio-economic status of their members and local Communities. However, in Greece, the majority of Agricultural Cooperatives face severe financial problems, which undermine their existence. In order to surpass this situation, they have sought means of enhancing their business dimension using more competitive forms of collaboration. These include alternative forms of collective entrepreneurship associated with the transformation of “Traditional Cooperatives” into “New Generation Cooperatives”, which under appropriate conditions can ensure their development and their members’ welfare. The typology developed in the present paper presents distinct patterns of collective entrepreneurship in which the traditional cooperative and the private enterprise are the extreme poles. The typology presented allows the comparison of alternative forms of collective entrepreneurship in the light of a threedimensional balance between economic development, environmental protection and social equity.
Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne
Context: A rural community in a developing country is a socially complex and infrastructural weak environment that demands clear understanding of the social, economical, cultural, and political precondition before implementing information commutation technology (ICT) innovations. Objective: This ...... for an ongoing discourse to fill identified gaps from software engineering, computer science or information system research perspective. Keywords: design method, information system, development, agriculture....... topics and trends from selected top ranked ICT4D Journals and conference proceedings. Second, the detailed explanation about the proposed and/ or used frameworks, theoretical underpinning, methods and Technology used were discussed, among others. Third, the paper also motivates others researchers......: This work aims to conduct a Systematic Mapping Study (SMS) to get an in-depth understanding about ICT based researches for agriculture in developing countries. Method: A systematic mapping study was carried out to investigate and distill the state-of-the-art from ranked journals and conference publications...
Lemons, Laura L.; Brashears, M. Todd; Burris, Scott; Meyers, Courtney; Price, Margaret A.
There exists in our profession a persistent shortage of quality teachers in our high school agricultural education classrooms. A multitude of studies have identified challenges faced by agriculture teachers, however, few, if any, have investigated reasons for attrition by directly asking leavers why they left. This study sought to identify reasons…
Precision agriculture (PA) is providing an information revolution using Global Positioning (GPS) and Geographic Information (GIS) systems and Remote Sensing (RS). These technologies allow better decision making in the management of crop yield-limiting biotic and abiotic factors and their interactions on a site-specific (SSM) basis in a wide range of production systems. Characterizing the nature of the problem(s) and public education are among the challenges that scientists, producers, and industry face when adapting PA technologies. To apply SSM, spatio-temporal characteristics of the problem(s) need to be determined and variations within a field demonstrated. Spatio-temporal characteristics of a given pathogen or pest problem may be known but may not be the only or primary cause of the problem. Hence, exact cause-and-effect relationships need to be established by incorporating GIS, GPS, and RS-generated data as well as possible interactions. Exploiting the potential of PA technologies in sustainable ways depends on whether or not we first ask ''Are we doing the right thing?'' (strategic) as opposed to ''Are we doing it right?'' (tactical).
Full Text Available It is important to initially understand historical and philosophical trails of the emergence of social capital concept before studying its implications to agricultural development through the stakeholders interactions. The emergence of social capital concept can be traced back from the classic social theories of Durkheim and Marx as well as other contributed classic scholars in social and economic theories. The concept originated when the forethought of morality conscience solidarity cooperation morality norms values and commitment were brought up to the period of peoples movement. Social capital does not have one single definition because the concept requires a context to define its meaning. Along the years of concepts development experts have found a common ground that the definition of social capital can be seen in the context of a social relation of the actors in achieving their common goals. Many empirical researches had been conducted to study social capital in the agricultural development to learn the social capital elements in mutual trust reciprocity and network. Many researches also had found that higher social capital level in people organization or community contributes to a better agricultural development outcome. Therefore social capital becomes one of the significant elements in pursuing development objectives and accountabilities through stakeholders social interactions.
Valentin Aleksandrovich Ivanov
Full Text Available The successful development of Northern and Arctic areas depends on sustainable functioning of the agricultural sector. Agriculture and fishing agriculture is a way of life of the indigenous population. The article discusses the state of agriculture and food self-sufficiency in the Komi Republic in the years of relatively stable development (1960–1980 and in the conditions of market reforms. It analyzes production and consumption of food and shows a positive effect of modernization processes on the agricultural sector in the pre-reform period. It studies market transformation of the agrarian economy, accompanied in the 1990s by the sharp decline in agricultural production, degradation of productive capacity, rural demography, rural infrastructure, decrease in living standard of farmers, and disparity of prices on agricultural and industrial products. The paper discloses trends in food self-sufficiency of the northern region in 1980–2013 and reveals reasons for the decrease in its level in the period of market reforms. It considers possible scenarios to develop the agrarian sector and food self-sufficiency. To predict the agriculture development the author identifies strong and weak sides, opportunities and threats by means of SWOT-analysis. The article proposes 3 scenarios: inertial (pessimistic, baseline and optimistic. It finds out the most reasonable optimistic development scenario based on innovative modernization for the Komi Republic. The study results can be used to adjust the current State program of agricultural development and elaborate the strategy of the agro-food sector of the region
A study was conducted to determine the impact profitability factors have on farm labor earnings for farms enrolled in the Minnesota Vocational Agriculture Farm Management Education Program. The most important predictors of labor earnings were size of business, gross return per cropped acre, and index return per $100 of feed fed. (LRA)
Schweiger, O.; Maelfait, J.P.; Wingerden, van W.K.R.E.; Hendrickx, F.; Billeter, R.; Speelmans, M.; Augenstein, I.; Aukema, B.; Aviron, S.; Bailey, D.; Bukacek, R.; Burel, F.; Diekötter, T.; Dirksen, J.; Frenzel, M.; Herzog, F.; Liira, J.; Roubalova, M.; Bugter, R.J.F.
1. In landscapes influenced by anthropogenic activities, such as intensive agriculture, knowledge of the relative importance and interaction of environmental factors on the composition and function of local communities across a range of spatial scales is important for maintaining biodiversity. 2. We
... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-524] Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third Country Markets; Institution of Investigation and Scheduling of Hearing AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice...
Lin, D.; Jin, M.; Brusseau, M.; Ma, B.; Liu, Y.
Accurate estimation of vertical groundwater recharge is critical for (semi) arid regions, especially in places such as the North China Plain where vertical recharge comprises the largest portion of recharge. Tracer tests were used to estimate vertical recharge beneath agricultural systems irrigated by groundwater, and to help delineate factors that influence recharge. Bromide solution was applied to trace infiltration in the vadose zone beneath irrigated agricultural fields (rotated winter wheat and summer maize, orchards, and cotton) and non-irrigated woodlands at both piedmont plain (Shijiazhaung) and alluvial and lacustrine plains (Hengshui) in the North China Plain. The tracer tests lasted for more than two years, and were conducted at a total of 37 sites. Tracer solution was injected into the subsurface at a depth of 1.2 m before the rainy season. Soil samples were then collected periodically to observe bromide transport and estimate recharge rates at the point-scale. For these experiments, the only irrigation the fields received was that applied by the landowners. In addition to these tests, a controlled irrigation experiment was conducted at a single wheat and maize site. The results showed that recharge rates were lower for the alluvial and lacustrine plains sites, which comprise finer-textured soils than those present in the piedmont plain. Specifically, the recharge rate ranged between 56-466 mm/a beneath wheat-maize, 110-564 mm/a beneath orchard, and 0-21 mm/a beneath woodlands with an average recharge coefficient of 0.17 for the piedmont plain sites, while the recharge rate ranged between 26-165 mm/a beneath wheat-maize, 6-40 mm/a beneath orchard, 87-319 mm/a beneath cotton, and 0-32 mm/a beneath woodlands with an average recharge coefficient of 0.10 for the alluvial and lacustrine plain sites. Irrigation provided the primary contribution to recharge, with precipitation providing a minor contribution. The results of both the uncontrolled and controlled
Hirota, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Tanaka, H.; Suzuki, S.; Tadano, T.
In snow-covering region of Japan, the promotion of snowmelting with application of agricultural snowmelting agents ('Yusetsuzai' in Japanese) has been widely carried out by farmers at the snowmelting season. When black colored materials with albedo-lowering effect are spread on snow surface, absorption of solar radiation by snow is increased, the snowmelting is promoted and snow thawing date becomes earlier. As a result, the growing season of crop plants is extended. Existing agricultural snowmelting agents have been mostly made from industrial waste materials or industrial processed products due to requirement for the low cost of the raw materials. These agents may contain harmful heavy metal elements and may lead to environmental pollution. To solve these problems, we developed the new agricultural snowmelting agents made from recycled bio-waste materials generated from the fields of agriculture and fishery. The developed snowmelting agents were made from shells of Patinopecten yessoensis, fowl droppings and processed wastes of fish and shellfish, etc. Especially, the shells of Patinopecten yessoensis has problems due to generation of a huge quantity in Hokkaido. Therefore, the recycling-use of these waste materials was strongly requested and expected. The developed snowmelting agents were possible to spread efficiently and safely on the snow-surface without wide scattering by controlling the particle size within the range larger than 100 microm and smaller than 1180 microm. Results obtained from the field experiment showed that the albedo was decreased from 0.70 for natural snow to 0.20 and the promotion of snowmelting for 11 days was recognized when 100 kg/10a of developed agent was spread. The promoting ability of the developed agent was equivalent to those of the existing commercial snowmelting agents. (author)
Krimm Robin F
Full Text Available Abstract Numerous molecular factors orchestrate the development of the peripheral taste system. The unique anatomy/function of the taste system makes this system ideal for understanding the mechanisms by which these factors function; yet the taste system is underutilized for this role. This review focuses on some of the many factors that are known to regulate gustatory development, and discusses a few topics where more work is needed. Some attention is given to factors that regulate epibranchial placode formation, since gustatory neurons are thought to be primarily derived from this region. Epibranchial placodes appear to arise from a pan-placodal region and a number of regulatory factors control the differentiation of individual placodes. Gustatory neuron differentiation is regulated by a series of transcription factors and perhaps bone morphongenic proteins (BMP. As neurons differentiate, they also proliferate such that their numbers exceed those in the adult, and this is followed by developmental death. Some of these cell-cycling events are regulated by neurotrophins. After gustatory neurons become post-mitotic, axon outgrowth occurs. Axons are guided by multiple chemoattractive and chemorepulsive factors, including semaphorins, to the tongue epithelium. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, functions as a targeting factor in the final stages of axon guidance and is required for gustatory axons to find and innervate taste epithelium. Numerous factors are involved in the development of gustatory papillae including Sox-2, Sonic hedge hog and Wnt-β-catenin signaling. It is likely that just as many factors regulate taste bud differentiation; however, these factors have not yet been identified. Studies examining the molecular factors that regulate terminal field formation in the nucleus of the solitary tract are also lacking. However, it is possible that some of the factors that regulate geniculate ganglion development, outgrowth, guidance and
Full Text Available The South African government provides access to agricultural land for people not adequately represented in the agricultural sector. However, the government lacks sufficient funds and institutional infrastructure to provide post-settlement support to the settled developing farmers. A farmer-to-farmer mentorship programme between established and developing farm types has been identified as an institutional arrangement that could complement the government’s efforts. However, at this stage government and other role-players lack frameworks for this type of mentorship programme.This study conceptualises a complementary mentorship alliance that is loosely structured, without the complicated legal and contractual processes involved in corporate business alliances. This alliance will hopefully lead to highly committed joint ventures in the industry in the near future. The study also provides frameworks within which the role-players could contribute to the success of mentorship programme.
Doris N. Asiwe
Research purpose: To give an overview of current burnout measures, identify gaps within the literature and develop a new burnout scale for use within South Africa. The research examined the construct validity, reliability, construct equivalence and item bias of this new scale and investigated any differences that exist in relation to demographic variables. Motivation for the study: This study aimed to address various limitations regarding existing measures by developing a reliable and valid instrument for measuring burnout in South African employees that includes cognitive, physical and emotional (affective components. Research approach, design and method: This empirical, quantitative research study delivered a cross-sectional survey, including the burnout scale and a biographical data questionnaire, to 443 employees of an agricultural research institution. Items for the burnout scale were written based on a literature review. Main findings: Exploratory factor analysis with target rotations resulted in a three-factor burnout model. Reliability analysis showed that all three scales (1 were sufficiently internally consistent and (2 showed construct equivalence for Black and White employees and speakers of Afrikaans and African languages. A practically significant difference in burnout levels was found in relation to age. Practical/managerial implications: The scale can be used to assess burnout for different cultural groups within research-based institutions. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to knowledge regarding the burnout levels of employees in an agricultural research institution in South Africa and provides a new burnout scale that can be utilised in similar institutions.
Full Text Available Questions of the development of energetics in the world are examined. Specifics of the energy supply in agriculture are discussed and the basics of energy policy and strategy in crisis conditions are formulated. The methodology of power monitoring and basics of economy of power management are shown. Priorities at forma-tion of stages of projects implementation are proved. Ways of energy efficiency programs creation using partial projects self–financing mechanisms are shown.
Assoc. Prof. Ph.D Sasho Kjosev
Macedonia needs a balance between the goals of economic progress, social development and environmental protection. The basic reasons for this lies in the decrease of the exporting competitiveness of the Macedonian agricultural sector. This negative tendency results in losing the export markets, and also in a strong pressure put by the foreign producers. What is known is that Macedonia has strong comparative advantages when it comes to food producing. Those comparative advantages have to be su...
Research generated in developing and emerging countries is currently “missing” from the international knowledge bases because of financial consequences affecting its publication and distribution. Much of the scientific research output from Africa for example, is in form of grey literature and hardly accessible. FAO is the specialized United Nation agency that leads international efforts to defeat hunger and emphasizes on knowledge management for food and agriculture. FAO more than an extensiv...
Under the background of rapid agricultural economic development, rural financial and accounting work is of great significance. From rural accounting management system, rural accountant allocation and rural accounting training, this paper analyzes current situations of rural accounting work in China. In rural financial and accounting work, there are following problems. (1) Accounting behavior is not standard, and basic accounting work is to be further strengthened; (2) Internal control is not ...
Tripp, R.; Eaton, D.J.F.; Louwaars, N.P.
Although many developing countries have drafted legislation to address plant variety protection (PVP) requirements, relatively few have begun to implement PVP, and little guidance is available on appropriate strategies. This note looks at some of the key decisions facing agricultural policymakers in establishing a PVP regime, examines the implementation of PVP, assesses some of the impacts and limitations of PVP regimes, and identifies policy priorities that complement the establishment of IP...
Skrynkovskyy Ruslan M.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is the formation and development of theoretical and methodological foundations for diagnosing the factors of innovation development of an enterprise within the framework of theory and practice of economics and enterprise management. It was found out that the presented diagnostics should be understood as the process of identification, analysis and determination of the degree of influence of certain factors (positive, negative on the processes of innovative development of an enterprise in order to identify and solve problems (available, possible of hindering its innovation activity (introduction of new technological processes, innovative types of products, etc. in the context of ensuring an effective functioning and development of the enterprise. It is determined that the key business indicators of the system for diagnosing the factors of innovation development of an enterprise are indicators that reflect main factors of innovation development: indicator of innovation development; indicator of innovation activity of personnel; indicator of provision of the enterprise with intangible assets; indicator of the property required for innovative development; indicator of promotion of innovative products to the market. The prospect for further research in this scientific direction is developing a system of partial diagnostic purposes of a multicriteria system for diagnosing activities of enterprises with consideration for diagnostics of innovative development factors of the enterprise as a partial diagnostic purpose.
Tomer, Mark D; James, David E; Sandoval-Green, Claudette M J
Conservation planning information is important for identifying options for watershed water quality improvement and can be developed for use at field, farm, and watershed scales. Translation across scales is a key issue impeding progress at watershed scales because watershed improvement goals must be connected with implementation of farm- and field-level conservation practices to demonstrate success. This is particularly true when examining alternatives for "trap and treat" practices implemented at agricultural-field edges to control (or influence) water flows through fields, landscapes, and riparian corridors within agricultural watersheds. We propose that database structures used in developing conservation planning information can achieve translation across conservation-planning scales, and we developed the Agricultural Conservation Planning Framework (ACPF) to enable practical planning applications. The ACPF comprises a planning concept, a database to facilitate field-level and watershed-scale analyses, and an ArcGIS toolbox with Python scripts to identify specific options for placement of conservation practices. This paper appends two prior publications and describes the structure of the ACPF database, which contains land use, crop history, and soils information and is available for download for 6091 HUC12 watersheds located across Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota, and parts of Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, and Wisconsin and comprises information on 2.74 × 10 agricultural fields (available through /). Sample results examining land use trends across Iowa and Illinois are presented here to demonstrate potential uses of the database. While designed for use with the ACPF toolbox, users are welcome to use the ACPF watershed data in a variety of planning and modeling approaches. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.
Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril; Jeffrey Lawrence DâSilva; Bahaman Abu Samah; Norsida Man; Jegak Uli; Azmariana Azman
Problem statement: Rising demands and needs for food nowadays have put a great pressure on our natural resources. Overuse of the environmental sources has been proven to have profound impact on both; the community and the environment. To solve such problem, sustainable agriculture has been suggested as one of the solutions. Undoubtedly, sustainable agriculture will supply adequate nutrition sources at the present and in the future to the community. In line with this, a lot of efforts have bee...
Roth, Michael; Ulardic, Christina; Trueb, Juerg
Agricultural yield and commodity prices are very sensitive to weather patterns such as drought, excessive rain, or frost. As a result unseasonable weather can cause major losses for players in the agricultural value chain, including input providers, farmers, commodity traders, and food processors. The National Crop Insurance Service (NCIS) estimates that about 70% of the losses suffered by the US crop insurance scheme result from drought or excessive rainfall. In this paper information record...
DR. ROMEO C. CLEMENTE
Full Text Available This study is an inquiry into the motivational, personality, and extrinsic variables as factors affecting students’ predisposition in their career choice for agriculture, fisheries and forestry. It features empirical facts generally reflective of the recent conditions of public and private Higher Education Institutions (as NUCAFs, PIAs and PIFs identified by NAFES-CHED and DA of Luzon, Philippines vis-à-vis problems and reasons of continuous decline in the subscription of Filipino students for AFNR courses. Subsumed in the notable findings for Luzon area (i.e., most enrollees and their parents are marginalized; most mothers who are mere housekeepers heavily influence children’s disposition; most professional AFNR parents and enrollees’ siblings who are now AFNR professionals poorly influence them to take the same course; scholarship grants or free tuition fee as a prime way out to finish college education; personal ideal expectation of students for the government to provide promising local employment; common social motive to participate in addressing problems on food security for the continuously increasing population; economic motive to shorter waiting time for employment; SUCs feel obliged to expand curriculum offering to non-AFNR courses to survive institutional fiscal constraints; dearth of educationally qualified faculty and administrators; campaign for the AFNR curriculum programs as effective strategy to improve enrolment rate; low passing rate in AFNR board examinations due to low participation rate, expensive requirements of review, generic contents of examination, and deficiency on the quality and quantity of facilities/equipment and library holdings in most AFNR State Colleges/Universities served as framework of reference for the formulation of proposed education policy reforms/measures and advocacy interventions designed to spur interest in AFNR courses.
Full Text Available The designation, conservation and tourism development of agricultural heritage systems, which are embedded with intricate human–nature relations, could significantly influence community livelihoods. Therefore, a livelihood approach is critical for agricultural heritage conservation and the sustainability of the hosting community. Taking Guanhou Village, Xuanhua Grape Garden Urban Agricultural Heritage Site as an example, this study examines impacts of heritage conservation and tourism on the community livelihood system and its implications for community livelihood sustainability. A sustainable livelihood framework is adopted to guide the analysis. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with management officials, village leaders and village residents. The research identified the importance of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS designation on raising government support and public awareness on conservation. Tourism emerges as an alternative livelihood to some residents which exerts positive economic influence. However, tourism participation is currently at a low level which restricted the distribution of benefits. The sustainability of local rural livelihood is at risk due to the rapid urbanization, the decline of human resources and the insufficient integration of traditional agriculture with tourism. Practical implications were discussed to enhance local participation and tourism contribution to GIAHS conservation.