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Sample records for factors affecting prognosis

  1. Factors affecting functional prognosis of patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M T

    2011-01-01

    to just one or two single factors. The current article reviews important factors affecting the functional prognosis, and clinicians are encouraged to include all factors potentially influencing the outcome of patients with hip fracture in their individualised treatment and rehabilitation plan. Especially......Having a hip fracture is considered one of the most fatal fractures for elderly people, resulting in impaired function, and increased morbidity and mortality. This challenges clinicians in identifying patients at risk of worse outcome, in order to optimise and intensify treatment in these patients....... A variety of factors such as age, prefracture function and health status, fracture type, pain, anaemia, muscle strength, and the early mobility level have been shown to influence patient outcome. Thus, the outcome of patients with hip fracture is considered multi-factorial, and can therefore not be related...

  2. The study of risk factors affecting the prognosis of lung abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Aghajan Zadeh M

    2000-01-01

    In spite the emergence of potent and broad spectrum antibiotics and recent advances in bronchoscopy and pulmonary physiotherapy, still there is a high rate of morbidity and mortality because of lung abscess. The objective of this study is the indication of risk factors, which have undesirable effects on the prognosis of lung abscess. In a retrospective study, all cases of lung abscess who was confined to bed during 1994 to 1999 in Rasht were collected and analyzed. From 52 cases, 40 (77%) wer...

  3. The study of risk factors affecting the prognosis of lung abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghajan Zadeh M

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite the emergence of potent and broad spectrum antibiotics and recent advances in bronchoscopy and pulmonary physiotherapy, still there is a high rate of morbidity and mortality because of lung abscess. The objective of this study is the indication of risk factors, which have undesirable effects on the prognosis of lung abscess. In a retrospective study, all cases of lung abscess who was confined to bed during 1994 to 1999 in Rasht were collected and analyzed. From 52 cases, 40 (77% were male and 12 (23% were female. The mean duration of stay was 20 day (15 to 35. The secondary cause for lung abscess was as follows: 10 cases (19% COPD, 10 cases (19% preumonia, 15 cases (29% bronchiectasia 2 cases lung cancer, 2 cases lung hydatid cyst and 3 cases atelectasia. Extrapulmonary causes of lung abscess were consist of: 10 case (10% aspiration, 10 case (19% esophageal diseases tending to reflux, 5 case (9% periodontal disease. The factors, which had underiable effects on prognosis of disease were lung cancer, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, age over 60, abscess with pseudomonas, abscess cavity greater thus 8 cm, lower lobe in right lung and TB. Because of high mortality and morbidity of lung abscess, due attention for internal drainage, bronchoscopy, physiotherapy and timed surgery are seriously indicated.

  4. How does number of risk factors affect prognosis in young patients with ischemic stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putaala, Jukka; Haapaniemi, Elena; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2012-02-01

    We aimed to explore clinical features of young patients with ischemic stroke with no traditional vascular risk factors and to assess the impact of risk factor counts on outcomes. We included 990 patients aged 15 to 49 years with first-ever ischemic stroke followed for a mean of 9.0 ± 3.8 years (survivors). Risk factors were categorized as well-documented and less well-documented. Outcome measures were unfavorable functional outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale 2-6); recurrent ischemic stroke; myocardial infarction or other arterial noncerebrovascular event; and death from any cause. Compared with those with at least 1 well-documented risk factor, the 127 (12.8%) patients without risk factors were younger (median age, 37 versus 44 years; Pischemic strokes (4.7% versus 13.6%; log rank P=0.014), noncerebrovascular arterial events (0% versus 6.1%; P=0.008), and lower long-term mortality (3.4% versus 14.3%; P=0.003) than did those with at least 1 risk factor. Adjusted for demographics and stroke etiology, the number of well-documented risk factors was associated with higher risk for noncerebrovascular events. Increasing count of less well-documented risk factors was, in turn, independently associated with higher long-term mortality. In young adults with first-ever ischemic stroke, risk factor counts added independent prognostic information regarding noncerebrovascular events and mortality.

  5. Radiation treatment of glottic squamous cell carcinoma, Stage I and II: analysis of factors affecting prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchin, Giovanni; Minatel, Emilio; Gobitti, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Sartor, Giovanna; Caruso, Giuseppe; Grando, Giuseppe; Politi, Doriano; Gigante, Marco; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Trovo, Mauro G.; Barzan, Luigi

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: At least in some European Countries, there is still considerable controversy regarding the choice between surgery and radiotherapy for the treatment of patients with early laryngeal-glottic carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Two hundred and forty-six patients with laryngeal-glottic neoplasms, Stage I-II, were treated with radical radiotherapy. Before radiotherapy the patients were evaluated to determine the surgical procedure of choice. Either 66-68.4 Gy (33-38 fractions) or 63-65 Gy (28-29 fractions) of radiation therapy (RT) were administered. The overall disease free survival was determined for each subgroup of patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine significant prognostic variables. Results: Five- and 10-year overall survival rates were 83 and 72%, respectively. At a median follow-up of 6 years 204 patients are alive and disease free. No patient developed distant metastases. One patient died of a large local recurrence, 38 patients died of causes unrelated to their tumor, and 3 patients were lost to follow-up. The multivariate analysis confirmed that performance status (PS), macroscopic presentation of the lesion, and persistence of dysphonia after radiotherapy are significant prognostic factors. Conclusions: According to the multivariate analysis, the patients with PS >80 and with exophytic lesions are eligible for radical RT. The surgical procedure proposed for each patient was not found to be an independent prognostic factor

  6. Breast. cancer. Prognosis factors - preliminar study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotstein, S.; Fonseca, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminar study of prognosis factors in 8 cases of breast cancer is made. Are used as parameters the dimension, the localization and the nuclear differentiation degree (gN) of the primary tumor, the vascular invasion and the axillary histologic status (pN) and the sinus histiocytosis phenomenon. Among the studied factors, have special importance the presence of vascular invasion and the negative sinus histiocytosis (minimal or absent sinus histiocytosis). Both phenomena are considered as an expression of potential systemic disease, independent of the clinical stage. Consequently the use of chemotherapy in the surgery complementation is preconized, to a best control of the disease. (author)

  7. Survival pathological prognosis factors in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Longoria Boada, Lourdes B.

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive and longitudinal study of 273 women with breast cancer belonging to Granma province was carried out from 2003 to 2004, in order to analyze the survival of this female population, reason why the method of Kaplan Meier was used for the calculation of the mentioned variable and the Log Rank test was used for the comparison of curves. Patients with higher survival at 5 years were those who had tumors of 2 cm or less (87.5%), histological grade I (90.3%), nuclear grade I (88.3%), as well as the absence of vascular, lymphatic or lymph node invasion (with 80.6; 74.9 and 6.1% respectively). Also, tumor size, histological and nuclear grade, nodal status, as well as lymphatic and vascular invasion constituted prognosis factors, which favored the individualization of therapeutic behaviors

  8. Baseline Glutathione Peroxidase Activity Affects Prognosis after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    García-Pinilla, José Manuel; Gálvez, Julio; Cabrera-Bueno, Fernando; Jiménez-Navarro, Manuel; Gómez-Doblas, Juan José; Galisteo, Milagros; Camuesco, Desiré; de Teresa Galván, Carlos; Espinosa-Caliani, Salvador; Zarzuelo, Antonio; de Teresa-Galván, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with atherosclerosis and plaque lesions in experimental in vitro models. Few in vivo studies have examined the association between redox status and the prognosis of acute coronary syndromes.

  9. Long-term Postoperative Nutritional Status Affects Prognosis Even After Infectious Complications in Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Jun; Komatsu, Shuhei; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Kubota, Takeshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Otsuji, Eigo

    2018-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the clinical impact of postoperative serum albumin level on severe postoperative complications (SPCs) and prognosis. Data for a total of 728 consecutive patients who underwent curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer between 2004 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. From these patients, a propensity score-matched analysis was performed based on 14 clinicopathological and surgical factors. Short-term decrease in postoperative serum albumin level was not associated with the occurrence of SPCs. Regarding long-term decrease in serum albumin level, a decrease of ≥0.5 g/dl at 3 months did not affect the long-term survival of patients without SPCs, but was related to a significantly poorer prognosis in patients with SPCs. By multivariate analysis, long-term decrease of serum albumin level was an independent prognostic factor in patients with SPCs. Long-term postoperative nutritional status as shown by a low level of albumin was related to prognosis in patients with SPCs. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. Factors affecting nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.

    1995-01-01

    Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos

  11. Does age affect prognosis in salivary gland carcinoma patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Therkildsen, Marianne H

    2016-01-01

    in the young group were WHO performance status 0 and in disease stage I + II, and they presented with significantly more histological low grade tumors. In multivariate analysis, chronological age seemed to be of no prognostic significance to salivary gland carcinoma patients as opposed to performance status......, disease stage and histological grade. CONCLUSIONS: Salivary gland carcinoma patients over the age of 70 years have a poor prognosis compared to younger patients, which can be explained by higher disease stages, more histological high grade subtypes and a poorer performance status at the time of diagnosis.......AIM: To compare incidence, histology, treatment modalities, disease stages, and outcome in elderly patients (≥70 years) compared to younger (

  12. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  13. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... talk about, even for doctors. Many Factors Can Affect Your Prognosis Some of the factors that affect prognosis include: The type of cancer and where ... at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hard to talk about, even for doctors. Many Factors Can Affect Your Prognosis Some of the factors that affect prognosis include: The type of cancer ... that cancer will come back later. For this reason, doctors cannot say for sure that you are ...

  16. [Relevant factors in medico-legal prognosis of whiplash injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Amadeo; Puig, Luisa; Mansilla, Joaquina; Idiaquez, Itziar

    2003-07-12

    Whiplash injury (WI) is commonly evaluated in medico-legal practice. With the aim of knowing the determining factors of WI's medico-legal prognosis, a prospective and observational study was carried out. One hundred and twenty consecutive patients who were clinically observed and evaluated in the Medico-Legal Clinic of Barcelona were studied. Socio-demographic, clinical, radiographic and evolutive factors were analyzed. We included 120 patients with a mean age of 35.6 (14) years (range, 4-74), with a homogeneous male/female distribution. An earlier cervical pathology was detected in 10% of patients; none of them had previous psychiatric pathology. 95% corresponded to road-traffic accident cases and there were 5 aggression cases. Over 50% of cases involved a rear-end collision. All patients had neck pain, almost 25% had headache and 13% had paresthesia. According to the Whiplash Association Disorders clinical classification, distribution in grades (G) was: G I 51%, G II 32% and G III 17%. Patients reported recovery within a mean time of 71.6 (46) days (range, 4-244), with 51,2 (45) no working days (range, 0-180 days). The 52% of the patients rest with complains. According to the recovery time, the following medico-legal prognostic factors were identified: age (p legal prognostic factors were age, being females, severity of initial clinical symptoms, previous cervical pathology and abnormal cervical MRI/CT.

  17. Major new developments affecting treatment and prognosis in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubner, R S

    1990-01-01

    Joint studies of the ALIMDA and Society of Actuaries, notably those of 1935, 1959 and 1979, established that there is a progressive rise in cardiovascular mortality with successive increments in blood pressure. This has provided the basis of underwriting. The converse is not true, or at least has not been true until very recently. Drugs that effectively reduce blood pressure have been available for several decades, but reduction and maintenance of blood pressure is still accomplished in only a minority of hypertensives. Long-term trials employing a combination of drugs, i.e., diuretics, vasodilators and reserpine and subsequently beta-blockers, almost without fail have not shown that treatment with these agents significantly reduces heart disease mortality and sudden death. This has been attributed, perhaps without basis, to an unfavorable countering effect of increased lipid levels, aggravating this risk factor, and other undesirable metabolic effect of diuretics, such as hypokalemia and depletion of body magnesium, increasing the propensity to ventricular arrhythmias, hyperglycemia, worsening diabetes, and hyperuricemia. A survey of 674 persons with hypertension seen personally during the period 1985-89, who were under the care of approximately that many physicians, reveals striking changes in drug prescription and use during this brief period that portend a major change in the outlook of hypertension. Two classes of drugs have increased rapidly in popularity: these are the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) and the calcium blockers. Both classes of drugs effectively lower blood pressure and have minimal side effects with good compliance. They act not only to reduce peripheral vascular resistance, but also locally in the heart muscle to directly cause left ventricular hypertrophy to regress, an effect of great consequence. The drugs used in former trials such as the vasodilators and diuretics have no effect on left ventricular hypertrophy

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to talk about, even for doctors. Many Factors Can Affect Your Prognosis Some of the factors that ... Understanding your cancer and knowing what to expect can help you and your loved ones make decisions. ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hard to talk about, even for doctors. Many Factors Can Affect Your Prognosis Some of the factors ... Services Website Linking U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute ...

  20. Risk Factors of Poor Prognosis after Whiplash Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Suissa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash, a common injury following motor vehicle crashes, is associated with high costs and a prognosis that is variable and difficult to predict. In this paper, we review findings from the Quebec cohort epidemiological study on predictive factors of recovery from whiplash injury after a motor vehicle crash. We formed a population-based incident cohort of all 4,759 individuals who sustained a whiplash injury resulting from a motor vehicle crash in the province of Québec, Canada, in 1987, and followed these patients for up to seven years. The data were obtained from the universal automobile insurance plan (SAAQ that covers all seven million residents of the Province for all vehicular-related injuries. From this cohort, we formed the cohort of 3,014 for whom a police report was completed. For this cohort, we obtained data on crash-related factors directly from the police report. We also formed the cohort of 2,627 subjects who had strictly a whiplash injury, without associated injuries. For this cohort, the data on signs and symptoms were obtained from the medical charts kept by the SAAQ. For both cohorts, data on the outcome, the recovery time from whiplash, was obtained from the SAAQ databases. The crash-related cohort study found that socio-demographic factors associated with a longer recovery from whiplash include older age, female sex, having dependents and not being employed full time and that each decreases the rate of recovery by 14 to 16 per cent. Factors related to the crash conditions indicate that being in a truck or bus, with a decrease of 52% in the rate of recovery, being a passenger in the vehicle (15%, colliding with a moving vehicle (16%, and a side or frontal collision (15% all decrease the rate of recovery. We introduce a combined risk score that predicts longer recovery. In the cohort of subjects with signs and symptoms, the median recovery time was 32 days and 12% of subjects had still not recovered after 6 months. The signs

  1. Prognosis of surface subsidence affected by underground exploitation of ore vein deposits of Rozna type

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hortvík, Karel; Staš, Lubomír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2005), s. 296-301 ISSN 1003-6326 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP105/02/P026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : mining * subsidence * prognosis Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 0.302, year: 2005

  2. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer and Its Prognosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melbye, Mads

    2000-01-01

    This project investigated the influence of reproductive history on risk of breast cancer and its prognosis by taking advantage of very large linkages between population-based health and demographic registries in Denmark...

  3. Factors affecting mining costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: investment decision-making, unit cost factors (declining ore grade, low-price contracts, ore grade/output relationship, above average cost increases). Economic, environmental, sociological and political aspects are considered. (U.K.)

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what she' ... understand what prognosis means and also hard to talk about, even for doctors. Many Factors Can Affect ...

  5. PDGFRs expression in dogs affected by malignant oral melanomas: correlation with prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iussich, S; Maniscalco, L; Di Sciuva, A; Iotti, B; Morello, E; Martano, M; Gattino, F; Buracco, P; De Maria, R

    2017-06-01

    Canine malignant melanoma (CMM) is the most common canine oral tumour, and up to 70-75% of dogs in stage II-III die within 1 year after surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of platelet-derived growth factors receptors (PDGFR)-α and -β in stage II and III CMMs and to correlate it with prognosis. PDGFRs expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on 48 cases of formalin-fixed CMM samples and correlated with clinical-pathological findings and outcome after surgery. PDGFRs co-expression was observed in 37.5% of cases. Positivity for PDGFR-α and -β receptor was present in 54.2 and 47.9% of cases, respectively. Ki67 values >19.5% were ascertained in 66.7% of cases. Statistical analysis showed that PDGFRs co-expression and Ki67 values > 19.5% were both associated with worse prognosis. PDGFRs expression suggests a role in the pathogenesis and progression of CMM, and α and β co-expression appears to be associated to worse prognosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality.

  7. Ceratocone: fatores prognósticos Keratoconus: prognosis factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Molina Saraiva Elias

    2005-08-01

    keratoconus disease carrier patients in an age range under the usual one and try to detect any factor which can influence in disease evolution and prognosis. METHODS: Patients under 15 years old with a keratoconus diagnosis where analyzed. All of them answered a questionnaire, and were submitted to ocular examination and also computerized ceratoscopy. These patients were divided into three groups and went through a contact lens test: 1 it was possible for this group to adapt to contact lenses; 2 a cornea transplant for this group was recommended; 3 for this group it was suggested that they use glasses. RESULTS: Patients who had 20/40 or greater visual acuity usually did not progress to transplant in the studied period. On the other hand, patients who had 20/60 or less acuity, progress to a deep transplant very quickly. Other cases, related to a lower age range (10-15 years old pregressed to a transplant. We can observe that the cornea apex has a very unsteady location, which explains the different difficulty levels regarding adaptation to contact lenses. In all patients who had a superior out of place apex and values greater than 66 D adaptation was successful. In the central apex eyes the adaptation was easier. In the inferior apex eyes it was not possible to set a standard to indicate the person for surgery. In the eyes which were adapted to the contact lenses and whose curvature was smaller than 51.10 D there were fewer chances of evolution to a cornea transplant, on comparison with patients who had a curvature of 57.60 or even greater. CONCLUSION: Patients who have curvatures greater than 57.40, acuity lower than 20/60 and are under 18 years old have more chances to evolve to a cornea transplant. When the ceratocone apex is central the contact lens adaptation becomes easier.

  8. Body Mass Index, Diet-Related Factors, and Bladder Cancer Prognosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westhoff, E.; Witjes, J.A.; Fleshner, N.E.; Lerner, S.P.; Shariat, S.F.; Steineck, G.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Vrieling, A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Urologists are frequently confronted with questions of urinary bladder cancer (UBC) patients about what they can do to improve their prognosis. Unfortunately, it is largely unknown which lifestyle factors can influence prognosis. Objective: To systematically review the available evidence

  9. Factors affecting construction performance: exploratory factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soewin, E.; Chinda, T.

    2018-04-01

    The present work attempts to develop a multidimensional performance evaluation framework for a construction company by considering all relevant measures of performance. Based on the previous studies, this study hypothesizes nine key factors, with a total of 57 associated items. The hypothesized factors, with their associated items, are then used to develop questionnaire survey to gather data. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to the collected data which gave rise 10 factors with 57 items affecting construction performance. The findings further reveal that the items constituting ten key performance factors (KPIs) namely; 1) Time, 2) Cost, 3) Quality, 4) Safety & Health, 5) Internal Stakeholder, 6) External Stakeholder, 7) Client Satisfaction, 8) Financial Performance, 9) Environment, and 10) Information, Technology & Innovation. The analysis helps to develop multi-dimensional performance evaluation framework for an effective measurement of the construction performance. The 10 key performance factors can be broadly categorized into economic aspect, social aspect, environmental aspect, and technology aspects. It is important to understand a multi-dimension performance evaluation framework by including all key factors affecting the construction performance of a company, so that the management level can effectively plan to implement an effective performance development plan to match with the mission and vision of the company.

  10. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer and its Prognosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melbye, Mads

    1998-01-01

    ...: Reproductive factors and breast cancer risk Having started the process of working with these questions, we discovered a unique opportunity to differentiate the outcome variable of breast cancer...

  11. Factors influencing the short-term prognosis of interventional therapy for malignant obstructive jaundice: a multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueqiang; Zhai Renyou

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the correlative factors affecting the short-term prognosis in treating malignant obstructive jaundice with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and/or percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting (PTBS). Methods: During the period of December 2008-June 2009, PTBD and/or PTBS were performed in 67 patients. The clinical date were reviewed and analyzed. According to the reduction degree of serum bilirubin and survival condition in 30 days, the patients were divided into effective group (54 cases) and ineffective group (13 cases). Single factor affecting the short-term prognosis was analyzed by using χ 2 test and multi-factors were analyzed by using non-conditional logistic regression mode. Results: Single variable analysis showed that time of obstruction, way of drainage, preoperative biliary infection, Child-Pugh grade, TBIL, HGB and Cr level were of statistical significance. The logistic regression analysis showed that there were obvious correlation among preoperative biliary infection, Child-grade ≥11 and Cr >115 μmol/L. Conclusion: The infection of the bile duct before operation, Child-grade ≥11 and Cr >115μmol/L carry a close relationship with the short-term prognosis of PTBD and PTBS. Therefore, an overall preoperative evaluation for malignant obstructive jaundice is of great importance. (authors)

  12. Does in-hospital ventricular fibrillation affect prognosis after myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, G V; Torp-Pedersen, C; Hildebrandt, P

    1997-01-01

    with ventricular fibrillation in time intervals, indicated that the importance of ventricular fibrillation for risk of death was exhausted during the initial 60 days after infarction. CONCLUSION: Ventricular fibrillation is associated with an independent increased risk of death within 0-60 days after infarction......AIM: The aim of this study was to estimate the prognostic information to be gained from ventricular fibrillation in patients with myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 4259 consecutive patients with myocardial infarction admitted to one centre in 1977-1988. Five hundred and twenty......-eight (12.4%) of the patients had ventricular fibrillation in hospital. The following risk factors were included in multivariate models to estimate their importance for 30-day and long-term (median 7 year) prognosis: age, gender, ventricular fibrillation, congestive heart failure, pulmonary oedema...

  13. Different postconditioning cycles affect prognosis of aged patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Cui, Yuqi; Ferdous, Misbahul; Cui, Lianqun; Zhao, Peng

    2017-07-17

    Postconditioning can affect the infarct size in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, few studies show an effect of different postconditioning cycles on AMI aged patients. This study sought to assess the effect of different postconditioning cycles on prognosis in aged patients with AMI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). 74 aged patients were randomly assigned to three groups. Control group; PC-1 group accepted postconditioning 4 cycles of 30 s inflation and 30 s deflation; PC-2 group accepted postconditioning 4 cycles of 60 s. Creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), troponin I (cTnI), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and corrected Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame counts (CTFC) were analyzed before andafter treatment. All patients received an echocardiographic examination for whole heart function, wall motion score index (WMSI) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) examination at 7 days and 6 months after treatment. S: The peak of CK-MB, postoperative 72 h cTnI and CTFC were significantly attenuated by postconditioning when compared with the control group. The hs-CRP of the postconditioning group was lower than the control group 24 h postoperative. No difference was observed between PC-1 and PC-2 group about the effect described above. At 7 days, heart function in the postconditioning group was improved when compared with the control group. At 6 months, the WMSI and SPECT score significantly reduced in the PC-2 group compared with the control and PC-1 groups, but there was no difference among the three groups about echo data except the left ventricular end-systolic diameter. Postconditioning is significantly beneficial to prognosis in aged patients with AMI. The cardiac protective effect of 4 cycles of 60 s procedure was observed in WMSI and SPECT. It is favorable to implement this procedure in aged patients with AMI in clinic.

  14. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of af...

  15. Prognosis of Preschool Eczema and Factors of Importance for Remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Emma Kristin; Bergström, Anna; Kull, Inger; Lind, Tomas; Söderhäll, Cilla; Melén, Erik; Asad, Samina; Bradley, Maria; Liedén, Agne; Ballardini, Natalia; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik

    2018-03-02

    Information on factors of importance for remission of eczema is scarce. This study explored factors related to the remission and course of preschool eczema (eczema at 1, 2 and/or 4 years of age) to 16 years of age (n = 889) in a Swedish cohort. Half of the children were in complete remission by school age. In multivariate prognostic models, persistent preschool eczema (eczema at 1, 2 and 4 years of age) (odds ratio 0.27 (95% confidence interval 0.18-0.41)), preschool eczema with sleep disturbance (due to itch at least once a week at 1, 2 and/or 4 years of age) (0.59 (0.43-0.81)), parental allergy (0.73 (0.55-0.96)), parental smoking at child's birth (0.70 (0.50-0.99)) and filaggrin mutation (R501X, R2447X, 2282del4) (0.47 (0.26-0.85)) were inversely associated with complete remission by school age. Male sex (1.37 (1.03-1.82)) and exclusive breastfeeding ≥4 months (1.44 (1.01-2.05)) were positively associated with complete remission by school age. In conclusion, half of the children with preschool eczema were in complete remission by school age. The most important prognostic factors were persistent preschool eczema and preschool eczema with sleep disturbance due to itch.

  16. Cisplatin neuropathy. Risk factors, prognosis, and protection by WR-2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollman, J.E.; Glover, D.J.; Hogan, W.M.; Furman, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    A prospective study of patients receiving cis-diaminedichloroplatin II (DDP) was carried out to determine if risk factors could be identified related to the patient's living habits or past medical history that would predict in which patients DDP neuropathy might develop. Sixty-nine patients receiving six different combinations of chemotherapeutic agents, including DDP were examined. Twenty-eight of these patients received DDP in combination with the radioprotective agent S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)-ethylphosporothioic acid (WR 2721). No risk factors were identified relating to personal habits or past medical history of the patients. However, patients receiving DDP (40 mg/m2) on 5 consecutive days had a significantly higher incidence of neuropathy. Patients receiving DDP in combination with WR 2721 had a significantly lower incidence of neuropathy, and the mean dose at onset was significantly higher than the mean dose at onset of neuropathy for all other groups. In addition, five of six patients who were available for long-term follow-up demonstrated nearly complete reversal of the signs and symptoms of neuropathy

  17. Cognitive/affective and somatic/affective symptoms of depression in patients with heart disease and their association with cardiovascular prognosis : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azevedo, R. de Miranda; Roest, A. M.; Hoen, P. W.; de Jonge, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Several prospective longitudinal studies have suggested that somatic/affective depressive symptoms, but not cognitive/affective depressive symptoms, are related to prognosis in patients with heart disease, but findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the

  18. Factors affecting outcome in ocular myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, Marco; Ariatti, Alessandra; Valzania, Franco; Kaleci, Shaniko; Tondelli, Manuela; Nichelli, Paolo F; Galassi, Giuliana

    2018-01-01

    50%-60% of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) progress to generalized myasthenia gravis (GMG) within two years. The aim of our study was to explore factors affecting prognosis of OMG and to test the predictive role of several independent clinical variables. We reviewed a cohort of 168 Caucasian patients followed from September 2000 to January 2016. Several independent variables were considered as prognostic factors: gender, age of onset, results on electrophysiological tests, presence and level of antibodies against acetylcholine receptors (AChR Abs), treatments, thymic abnormalities. The primary outcome was the progression to GMG and/or the presence of bulbar symptoms. Secondary outcomes were either achievement of sustained minimal manifestation status or worsening in ocular quantitative MG subscore (O-QMGS) or worsening in total QMG score (T-QMGS), assessed by Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) quantitative scores. Changes in mental and physical subscores of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed with SF-36 questionnaire. Variance analysis was used to interpret the differences between AChR Ab titers at different times of follow up among the generalized and non-generalized patients. Conversion to GMG occurred in 18.4% of patients; it was significantly associated with sex, later onset of disease and anti-AChR Ab positivity. Antibody titer above the mean value of 25.8 pmol/mL showed no significant effect on generalization. Sex and late onset of disease significantly affected T-QMGS worsening. None of the other independent variables significantly affected O-QMGS and HRQoL. Sex, later onset and anti-AChR Ab positivity were significantly associated with clinical worsening.

  19. Retinopathy of Prematurity; Risk Factors, Prognosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kocabeyo¤lu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence, related risk factors, treatment and follow-up results in cases of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Material and Method: Medical records of 405 premature infants who attended our clinic between August 1999 and September 2004 were retrospectively screened. Among these patients, 379 infants were followed up in our neonatology unit and 26 were referred to us from other clinics. Indirect diode laser photocoagulation and/or cryotherapy were performed when prethreshold or threshold ROP was detected. Surgery was performed in stage IV-V ROP. Results: ROP was detected in 88 out of 405 infants (21.72%. At the first examination, stage I ROP was detected in 18 eyes (10.4%, stage II - in 67 eyes (38.72%, stage III - in 82 eyes (47.39%, and stage IV-V – in 6 eyes (3.46%. Indirect diode laser photocoagulation was applied to 34 eyes with stage II and in 47 eyes with stage III ROP. Ten eyes with threshold ROP and 4 eyes which progressed to threshold ROP were treated with cryotherapy. Scleral buckling was performed in 3 eyes that progressed to stage IV ROP. At the first examination, 2 eyes with stage IV-V ROP were treated with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV. Discussion: In our series, the most important risk factors for development and progression of ROP were found to be low birth weight, low gestational age, mechanical ventilation and multiple pregnancy. Effective screening, follow-up and appropriate treatment are important for prevention of permanent damage and unfavorable outcome in ROP. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 128-32

  20. Factores pronósticos en la hemorragia cerebral intraparenquimatosa Prognosis factors in the cerebral intraparenchymal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo R Aguilera Pacheco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y prospectivo de 116 pacientes con hemorragia cerebral intraparenquimatosa, comprobada a través de la tomografía axial computarizada, con vistas a precisar los factores pronósticos predeterminados y su influencia sobre la mortalidad en la casuística. Entre los principales resultados sobresalió el predominio de los grupos de 41-50 y 51-60 años (57,7 % entre ambos, la hipertensión arterial como antecedente patológico personal (79,3 %, así como la ocurrencia de hemorragias en los hemisferios cerebrales (45,6 %. En la serie, 49,1 % de sus integrantes presentaban hematomas con volumen de hasta 30 mL y 7,7 % con el doble de ese contenido. Se observó una relación directa entre el volumen de sangre en el parénquima cerebral por encima de 60 mL y el pronóstico final de los afectados.A descriptive and prospective study of 116 patients with cerebral intraparenchymal hemorrhage, shown through the computerized axial tomography (CAT was carried out, aimed at specifying the predetermined prognosis factors and their influence on the mortality in the case material. Among the main results there were: the prevalence of the 41-50 and 51-60 year groups (57,7 % between both, hypertension as personal pathological history (79,3%, as well as the occurrence of hemorrhages in the cerebral hemispheres (45,6 %. In the series, 49,1 % of the patients presented haematomas with volume of up to 30 mL and 7,7 % with the double of that content. A direct relation was observed between the blood volume in the cerebral parenchyma above 60 mL and the final prognosis of those affected.

  1. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  2. Factors influencing prognosis in patients with marfan syndrome after aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Linggen; Zhou, Xianliang; Zhang, Lin; Wen, Dan; Chang, Qian; Wu, Yongbo; Sun, Lizhong; Hui, Rutai

    2011-08-01

    Aortic aneurysm formation leading eventually to aortic rupture or dissection in early adult life is a fatal outcome of Marfan syndrome (MFS). Advances in the treatment of the syndrome have improved prognosis, but the long-term reoperation rate is still high. It remains unknown which factors influence the long-term prognosis, including the reoperation and mortality rates, in surgically treated Chinese patients with MFS. The authors studied 125 such patients to investigate factors influencing prognosis after aortic surgery. A retrospective clinical investigation. An academic medical center. One hundred twenty-five Marfan patients who had undergone aortic surgery. None. The indications for aortic surgery were aortic aneurysm and/or dissection in the 125 Marfan patients. The most commonly performed procedure was the Bentall in 92 patients. Sixteen patients underwent total arch replacement combined with stented elephant trunk implantation. Ten patients underwent the David procedure. Overall in-hospital and 30-day mortality rate was 1.6%. The survival rate was 97.5%, 91.4%, and 74.2% at 1, 5, and 10 years after surgery, respectively. The reoperation rate was 2.5%, 12.9%, and 32.9% at 1, 5, and 10 years after surgery, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that increased systolic blood pressure (Sys BP) was the predictor of death (p < 0.05), and body mass index and smoking were significant predictors of reoperation (p < 0.05). The present findings report the factors influencing the prognosis of Chinese patients with MFS after aortic surgical procedures. Managing these risk factors may enable health care professionals to improve the prognosis of MFS patients after aortic surgical procedures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors affecting dental service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Baldacchino, Donia

    2015-01-01

    Measuring dental clinic service quality is the first and most important factor in improving care. The quality provided plays an important role in patient satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting dental service quality from the patients' viewpoint. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in a dental clinic in Tehran between January and June 2014. A sample of 385 patients was selected from two work shifts using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The data were collected, a self-administered questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study, based on the Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model of service quality which consisted of two parts: the patients' demographic characteristics and a 30-item questionnaire to measure the five dimensions of the service quality. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 18.0 through some descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, as well as analytical methods, including confirmatory factor. Results showed that the correlation coefficients for all dimensions were higher than 0.5. In this model, assurance (regression weight=0.99) and tangibility (regression weight=0.86) had, respectively, the highest and lowest effects on dental service quality. The Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model is suitable to measure quality in dental services. The variables related to dental services quality have been made according to the model. This is a pioneering study that uses Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model and CFA in a dental setting. This study provides useful insights and guidance for dental service quality assurance.

  4. Incidence, risk factors, treatment and prognosis of popliteal artery embolization in the superficial femoral artery interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTA + stent has gained acceptance as a primary treatment modality for the superficial femoral artery (SFA diseases. Popliteal artery embolization (PAE is a severe complication in SFA interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, treatment and prognosis of PAE in primary SFA PTA + stent. METHODS: Chronic SFA arteriosclerosis cases that underwent primary PTA + stent were reviewed from a retrospectively maintained database. Runoff vessels were evaluated in all cases before and after the interventions for PAE detection. The primary patency, secondary patency and limb salvage rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared using log-rank analysis. Cox multivariate regression was performed to evaluate predictors of patency and limb salvage rates. RESULTS: There were 436 lesions treated in 388 patients with 10 PAE events (2.3% in total. PAE rate was significantly higher in Transatlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC C/D group compared with TASC A/B group (OR = 8.91, P = .002, in chronic total occlusion (CTO lesions compared with stenotic lesions (P<.0001, and in group with history of cerebral ischemic stroke (OR = 6.11, P = .007. PAE rates were not significantly affected by age, sex, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and runoff status. The binary logistic regression showed that only the TASC C/D was an independent predictor of PAE (P = .031. The 12-month and 24-month primary patency, secondary patency and limb salvage rates in PAE group showed no significant differences comparing with non-PAE group. CONCLUSIONS: PAE is a rare event in primary SFA PTA + stent. TASC C/D lesion, CTO and cerebral ischemic stroke history are risk factors for PAE. PAE is typically reversible by comprehensive techniques. If the popliteal flow is restored in time, PAE has no significant effect on long-term patency and limb

  5. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  6. Effect of epidermal growth factor receptor gene polymorphisms on prognosis in glioma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjie; Yan, Mengdan; Xie, Zhilan; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Chao; Jin, Tianbo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are associated with risk of glioma. However, the associations between these SNPs and glioma patient prognosis have not yet been fully investigated. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of EGFR polymorphisms on the glioma patient prognosis. We retrospectively evaluated 269 glioma patients and investigated associations between EGFR SNPs and patient prognosis using Cox proportional hazard models and Kaplan-Meier curves. Univariate analysis revealed that age, gross-total resection and chemotherapy were associated with the prognosis of glioma patients (p < 0.05). In addition, four EGFR SNPs (rs11506105, rs3752651, rs1468727 and rs845552) correlated with overall survival (OS) (Log-rank p = 0.011, 0.020, 0.008, and 0.009, respectively) and progression-free survival PFS (Log-rank p = 0.026, 0.024, 0.019 and 0.009, respectively). Multivariate analysis indicated that the rs11506105 G/G genotype, the rs3752651 and rs1468727 C/C genotype and the rs845552 A/A genotype correlated inversely with OS and PFS. In addition, OS among patients with the rs730437 C/C genotype (p = 0.030) was significantly lower OS than among patients with A/A genotype. These data suggest that five EGFR SNPs (rs11506105, rs3752651, rs1468727, rs845552 and rs730437) correlated with glioma patient prognosis, and should be furthered validated in studies of ethnically diverse patients. PMID:27437777

  7. The prognosis and prognostic risk factors of patients with hepatic artery complications after liver transplantation treated with the interventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Hong; Huang Mingsheng; Jiang Zaipo; Zhu Kangshun; Yang Yang; Chen Guihua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prognosis and prognostic risk factors of hepatic artery complications after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) treated with the interventional techniques. Methods: The clinical data of 21 patients with hepatic artery complication after liver transplantation receiving thrombolysis, PTA, and stent placement in our institute from November 2003 to April 2007 were retrospectively analyzed. Based on the prognosis of grafts, 21 patients were divided into poor-prognosis group and non-poor-prognosis group. Fifteen variables (including biliary complication, hepatic artery restenosis, early or late artery complication, and so on) were analyzed in both groups with binary logistic regression analysis to screen out the risk factors related to prognosis of pereutaneous interventional treatment for hepatic artery complications after OLT. Results: Twenty-one patients were followed for mean 436 days, median 464 days (3-1037 days). The poor-prognosis group included 11 patients (5 cases received retransplantation, and 6 died). The mean survival time of grafts in poor-prognosis group was 191 days, and median survival time was 73 days (3-616 days). The mean survival time of grafts in non-poor-prognosis group which included 10 patients was 706 days, and median survival time was 692 days (245-1037 days). Univariate analysis showed there were significant difference in biliary complication, total bilimbin and indirect bilirubin between the two groups. The binary, logistic regression analysis showed the risk factor related to prognosis was with biliary complication before the interventional management (P=0.027, OR=22.818). Conclusion: Biliary complication before interventional management is the risk factor related to poor prognosis of patients with hepatic artery stenosis or thrombosis receiving interventional treatment. (authors)

  8. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms in CHD5 affect the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao; Kong, Qingming; Xie, Liwei; Chen, Zhihong; Li, Hongmei; Zhu, Zhu; Huang, Yongmei; Lan, Feifei; Luo, Haiqing; Zhan, Jingting; Ding, Hongrong; Lei, Jinli; Xiao, Qin; Fu, Weiming; Fan, Wenguo; Zhang, Jinfang; Luo, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the low expressions of chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 5 (CHD5) were intensively associated with deteriorative biologic and clinical characteristics as well as outcomes in many tumors. The aim of this study is to determine whether CHD5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contribute to the prognosis of hepatocellular carcima (HCC). The SNPs were selected according to their linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) and then genotyped with TaqMan probers. We revealed a rare haplotype AG in CHD5 (SNPs: rs12564469-rs9434711) was markedly associated with HCC prognosis. The univariate and multivariate regression analyses revealed the patients with worse overall survival time were those with tumor metastasis and haplotype AG, as well as cirrhosis, poor differentiation and IV-TNM stage. Based on the available public databases, we discovered the significant association between haplotype AG and CHD5 mRNA expressions only existed in Chinese. These data proposed that the potentially genetic haplotype might functionally contribute to HCC prognosis and CHD5 mRNA expressions. PMID:29568352

  9. Contingent factors affecting network learning

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Linda D.; Pressey, Andrew D.; Johnston, Wesley J.

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding of the impact of individuals on organizational learning processes, this paper explores the impact of individual cognition and action on the absorptive capacity process of the wider network. In particular this study shows how contingent factors such as social integration mechanisms and power relationships influence how network members engage in, and benefit from, learning. The use of cognitive consistency and sensemaking theory enables examination of how these conting...

  10. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  11. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yongi-Mi; University of Oklahoma

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR); yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider univers...

  12. FOXP3 Transcription Factor: A Candidate Marker for Susceptibility and Prognosis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Fiori Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is a relevant subgroup of neoplasia which presents negative phenotype of estrogen and progesterone receptors and has no overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2. FOXP3 (forkhead transcription factor 3 is a marker of regulatory T cells (Tregs, whose expression may be increased in tumor cells. This study aimed to investigate a polymorphism (rs3761548 and the protein expression of FOXP3 for a possible involvement in TNBC susceptibility and prognosis. Genetic polymorphism was evaluated in 50 patients and in 115 controls by allele-specific PCR (polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression was evaluated in 38 patients by immunohistochemistry. It was observed a positive association for homozygous AA (OR = 3.78; 95% CI = 1.02–14.06 in relation to TNBC susceptibility. Most of the patients (83% showed a strong staining for FOXP3 protein in the tumor cells. In relation to FOXP3-positive infiltrate, 47% and 58% of patients had a moderate or intense intratumoral and peritumoral mononuclear infiltrate cells, respectively. Tumor size was positively correlated to intratumoral FOXP3-positive infiltrate (P=0.026. In conclusion, since FOXP3 was positively associated with TNBC susceptibility and prognosis, it seems to be a promising candidate for further investigation in larger TNBC samples.

  13. Factors That Affect Software Testability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, Jeffrey M.

    1991-01-01

    Software faults that infrequently affect software's output are dangerous. When a software fault causes frequent software failures, testing is likely to reveal the fault before the software is releases; when the fault remains undetected during testing, it can cause disaster after the software is installed. A technique for predicting whether a particular piece of software is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is found in [Voas91b]. A piece of software that is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have high testability. A piece of software that is not likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have low testability. It is preferable to design software with higher testabilities from the outset, i.e., create software with as high of a degree of testability as possible to avoid the problems of having undetected faults that are associated with low testability. Information loss is a phenomenon that occurs during program execution that increases the likelihood that a fault will remain undetected. In this paper, I identify two brad classes of information loss, define them, and suggest ways of predicting the potential for information loss to occur. We do this in order to decrease the likelihood that faults will remain undetected during testing.

  14. Predictive factors and prognosis for recurrent laryngeal nerve invasion in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen W

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wenjie Chen,1 Jianyong Lei,1 Jiaying You,2 Yali Lei,3 Zhihui Li,1 Rixiang Gong,1 Huairong Tang,3 Jingqiang Zhu1 1Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery Center, 2West China School of Clinical Medicine, 3Health and Management Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Background: Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN invasion in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC is one of the main predictors of poor prognosis. The present study investigated the risk factors for RLN invasion in PTC patients.Methods: A total of 3,236 patients who received thyroidectomy due to PTC in Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery Center of West China Hospital of Sichuan University were reviewed. Demographics and clinical factors, imaging examination (ultrasonography characteristics, surgical details, postoperative pathological details, recurrence, and postoperative complications were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to study the risk factors of RLN invasion, Kaplan–Meier method was performed to compare the outcomes of tumor recurrence.Results: Patients with RLN invasion had a higher recurrence rate than those in the control group (p<0.001. Multivariate analyses showed that age greater than 45 years (p<0.001, a largest tumor size bigger than 10 mm (p<0.001, clinical lymph node metastasis (cN1 (p<0.001, posterior focus (p<0.001, extrathyroidal extension (p<0.001, esophageal extension (p<0.001, tracheal extension (p<0.001, and preoperative vocal cord paralysis (p<0.001 were independent predictors for RLN invasion.Conclusion: PTC patients with RLN invasion have a negative prognosis and a higher recurrence rate. Meticulous operation and careful follow-up of patients with the above factors is recommended. Keywords: papillary thyroid carcinoma, recurrent laryngeal nerve invasion, predictive factors, lymph node metastases, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

  15. Psychosocial and environmental factors in the prognosis of individuals with chronic pain and comorbid mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruschak, Valerie; Cochran, Gerald

    2017-08-01

    Chronic pain has considerable medical, social, and economic implications as its high prevalence rate and negative societal burden provides justification that it is a major health issue. The value of understanding psychological, social, and environmental factors in chronic pain has become widely recognized and accepted as a biopsychosocial phenomenon in which the social work perspective offers a valuable lens. Through the critical application of systems theory and ecological perspective, accompanied with the diathesis stress model, this article examines psychosocial and environmental influences as being contributory factors in the prognosis of individuals with chronic pain and comorbid mental health disorders. The social work profession will also be explored as playing a definite role in addressing elements pertaining to pain management depicted from these theories. Lastly, implications for research, policy, and practice will be reviewed to better understand the association between psychosocial and environmental influences of individuals with chronic pain and comorbid mental health issues.

  16. Relevance of genetically determined host factors to the prognosis of meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, P; Muñiz-Diaz, E; Baraldès, M A; Arilla, M; Barquet, N; Pericas, R; Juárez, C; Madoz, P; Vázquez, G

    2004-08-01

    To assess the relevance of genetically determined host factors for the prognosis of meningococcal disease, Fc gamma receptor IIA (FcgammaRIIA), the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene promoter region, and plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms were studied in 145 patients with meningococcal disease and in 290 healthy controls matched by sex. Distribution of FcgammaRIIA, TNF-alpha, and PAI-1 alleles was not significantly different between patients and controls. Patients with the FcgammaRIIA-R/R 131 allotype scored > or =1 point in the Barcelona prognostic system more frequently than patients with other allotypes (odds ratio, 18.6; 95% confidence interval, 7.1-49.0, PFc gamma receptor IIA polymorphism was associated with markers of disease severity, but TNF-alpha and PAI-1 polymorphisms were not.

  17. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit latrines in slums areas of Uganda fill up faster than might be expected from some estimates owing to inappropriate use and failure to consider critical factors affecting sludge accumulation rates at the planning, design and construction stages. This study sought to investigate factors affecting filling rates of lined pit latrines ...

  18. Factors affecting endoglucanase production by Trichoderma reesei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... from the ANOVA analysis have a significant value of Pmodel>F= 0.0008 and R2 .... there are various environmental and nutritional factors ... reported to affect cellulase production from wheat straw ... many factors affecting simultaneously the fermentation ..... and control its stability (Kalra and Sandhu, 1986).

  19. Elevated TEAD1 Expression is not an Independent Prognosis Factor of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; He, Bin; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen

    2018-05-01

    To explore the expression pattern and clinical significance of TEAD1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prognostic significance of TEAD-1 expression is also evaluated. TEAD1 expression was detected by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) method and western blot. The association between TEAD1 expression of HCC tissues and clinical variables was evaluated by Chi-squared test. Survival analysis was used to determine the prognosis effect of TEAD1. Expression of TEAD1 is significantly increased in HCC tissues compared with adjacent normal liver tissues by IHC (p = 0.002) and western blot (p = 0.020). The difference for the ratio of low, medium, and high staining between HCC and normal tissues is significant (p < 0.001). Higher TEAD1 expression is related to worse histological grade (p = 0.013), bigger tumor size (p = 0.033), and higher serum a-fetoprotein (AFP) level of HCC patients (p = 0.026). No association is found between TEAD1 expression and other clinical features. No statistical difference is found for the overall survival among the low, medium, and high TEAD1 expression groups (p = 0.122). TEAD1 expression is highly expressed in HCC. TEAD1 overexpression is involved in the growth and differentiation of HCC. TEAD1 expression is unable to act as an independent prognosis factor for HCC patients.

  20. Long-term prognosis of endodontically treated teeth: a retrospective analysis of preoperative factors in molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, Frank C; Boyer, Keith R; Jeppson, Joshua R; Karabucak, Bekir; Kim, Syngcuk

    2011-01-01

    Long-term predictability of restored endodontically treated teeth is important for the decision of tooth retention versus extraction and implant placement. The purpose of this study was to validate the hypothesis that preoperative factors can predict the long-term prognosis of molars requiring endodontic and restorative treatment for future prognostic investigations. A clinical database was searched for molar endodontic treatments with crown placement and a minimum of 4-year follow-up. Charts of 42 patients with 50 individual treatments were randomly selected. Information concerning crown lengthening; periodontal diagnosis; attachment loss; furcation involvement; mobility; and internal, external, or periradicular resorption was recorded. Radiographs from treatment initiation and follow-up were digitalized. The presence of apical periodontitis was evaluated. Available ferrule was calculated from bitewing radiographs using CAD software (AutoCAD; Autodesk, Cupertino, CA). The resulting data, age, sex, and times of restoration and follow-up were analyzed for correlation with the presence of apical radiolucency at follow-up and the following four possible outcome scenarios: "no event," "nonsurgical retreatment," "surgical retreatment," or "extraction" using Spearman rank order correlation analysis. Patients' ages ranged from 19 to 87 years, 22 were male and 20 female, and 48 teeth (96.0%) were retained at follow-up. Of those, 44 (88.0%) were without intervention ("no event"), and four (8.0%) underwent surgical or nonsurgical retreatment. Two teeth (4.0%) had been extracted. Significant positive correlations existed between "untoward events" (any form of retreatment or extraction) and "prognostic value according to periodontal status" (p = 0.047) and "attachment loss" (p = 0.042). The only preoperative factors significant for the prognosis of restored endodontically treated molars were related to periodontal prognostic value and attachment loss. It can be concluded that

  1. Transcription Factor EB Expression in Early Breast Cancer Relates to Lysosomal/Autophagosomal Markers and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Sivridis, Efthimios; Kalamida, Dimitra; Koukourakis, Michael I

    2017-06-01

    Disrupting the autophagic balance to trigger autophagic death may open new strategies for cancer therapy. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) is a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and may play a role in cancer biology and clinical behavior. The expression of TFEB and the lysosomal cancer cell content (expression of lysosomal associated membrane protein 2a [LAMP2a] and cathepsin D) was studied in a series of 100 T1-stage breast carcinomas. Expression patterns were correlated with autophagy/hypoxia-related proteins, angiogenesis, and clinical outcome. The effect of hypoxic/acidic conditions on TFEB kinetics was studied in the MCF-7 cancer cell line. Overexpression of TFEB in cancer cell cytoplasm and the perinuclear/nuclear area was noted in 23 (23%) of 100 cases. High LAMP2a and cathepsin D expression was noted in 30 (30%) of 100 and 28 (28%) of 100 cases, respectively. TFEB expression was directly linked with LAMP2a (P factor 2-alpha (HIF-2α) (P = .01, r = 0.25) expression and inversely with progesterone receptor (P = .01, r = 0.22). High vascular density was directly linked with LAMP2a (P = .05, r = 0.18) and cathepsin D (P = .005, r = 0.28). In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, TFEB and cathepsin D expression were related to an ominous prognosis (P = .001 and P = .03, respectively). In multivariate analysis, TFEB expression sustained its independent prognostic significance (P = .05, hazard ratio 2.1). In in vitro experiments, acidity triggered overexpression of TFEB and nuclear translocation. Intense TFEB expression and lysosomal biogenesis, evident in one fourth of early breast carcinomas, define poor prognosis. Tumor acidity is among the microenvironmental conditions that trigger TFEB overactivity. TFEB is a sound target for the development of lysosomal targeting therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Ahmet INAN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.

  3. Prognosis in advanced lung cancer--A prospective study examining key clinicopathological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Claribel P; Koinis, Filippos; Fallon, Marie T; Fearon, Kenneth C; Bowden, Jo; Solheim, Tora S; Gronberg, Bjorn Henning; McMillan, Donald C; Gioulbasanis, Ioannis; Laird, Barry J

    2015-06-01

    In patients with advanced incurable lung cancer deciding as to the most appropriate treatment (e.g., chemotherapy or supportive care only) is challenging. In such patients the TNM classification system has reached its ceiling therefore other factors are used to assess prognosis and as such, guide treatment. Performance status (PS), weight loss and inflammatory biomarkers (Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS)) predict survival in advanced lung cancer however these have not been compared. This study compares key prognostic factors in advanced lung cancer. Patients with newly diagnosed advanced lung cancer were recruited and demographics, weight loss, other prognostic factors (mGPS, PS) were collected. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods were used to compare these prognostic factors. 390 patients with advanced incurable lung cancer were recruited; 341 were male, median age was 66 years (IQR 59-73) and patients had stage IV non-small cell (n=288) (73.8%) or extensive stage small cell lung cancer (n=102) (26.2%). The median survival was 7.8 months. On multivariate analysis only performance status (HR 1.74 CI 1.50-2.02) and mGPS (HR 1.67, CI 1.40-2.00) predicted survival (padvanced lung cancer. In combination, these improved survival prediction compared with either alone. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors Affecting Tocopherol Concentrations in Soybean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe

    2016-12-21

    Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.

  5. 7339 BASELINE SURVEY ON FACTORS AFFECTING SORGHUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muuicathy

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... factors affecting sorghum production and the sorghum farming ... The informal seed system includes methods such as retaining seed on-farm from ..... Jaetzold R and H Schmidt Farm Management Handbook of Kenya, Ministry.

  6. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING APPLE PRODUCTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Research Organisation scientists working directly with apple farmers ... be productive up to 40 years, it was more realistic to consider .... to determine the factors that affect apple production. ..... profit maximising model using flexible production ...

  7. Usefulness of BCOR gene mutation as a prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia with intermediate cytogenetic prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kazuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Ueki, Toshimitsu; Usuki, Kensuke; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Tajika, Kenji; Gomi, Seiji; Kurosawa, Saiko; Saito, Riho; Furuta, Yutaka; Miyadera, Keiki; Tokura, Taichiro; Marumo, Atushi; Omori, Ikuko; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Yui, Shunsuke; Ryotokuji, Takeshi; Arai, Kunihito; Kitano, Tomoaki; Wakita, Satoshi; Fukuda, Takahiro; Inokuchi, Koiti

    2018-04-16

    BCOR gene is a transcription regulatory factor that plays an essential role in normal hematopoiesis. The wider introduction of next-generation sequencing technology has led to reports in recent years of mutations in the BCOR gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but the related clinical characteristics and prognosis are not sufficiently understood. We investigated the clinical characteristics and prognosis of 377 de novo AML cases with BCOR or BCORL1 mutation. BCOR or BCORL1 gene mutations were found in 28 cases (7.4%). Among cases aged 65 years or below that were also FLT3-ITD-negative and in the intermediate cytogenetic prognosis group, BCOR or BCORL1 gene mutations were observed in 11% of cases (12 of 111 cases), and this group had significantly lower 5-year overall survival (OS) (13.6% vs. 55.0%, P=0.0021) and relapse-free survival (RFS) (14.3% vs. 44.5%, P=0.0168) compared to cases without BCOR or BCORL1 gene mutations. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that BCOR mutations were an independent unfavorable prognostic factor (P=0.0038, P=0.0463) for both OS and RFS. In cases of AML that are FLT3-ITD-negative, aged 65 years or below, and in the intermediate cytogenetic prognosis group, which are considered to have relatively favorable prognosis, BCOR gene mutations appear to be an important prognostic factor. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Factor affecting Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato is a very important food crop and is adversely affected by fungus. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation can play an important role in the improvement of potato. The present study was conducted to optimize the different factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chitinase gene. Nodes were used as ...

  9. [Factors influencing the prognosis of patent ductus arteriosus in very low birth weight infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen-Hong; Shi, Li-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Lu; Luo, Fang; Chen, Zheng; Lin, Hui-Jia; DU, Li-Zhong

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the factors influencing the prognosis of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. A total of 194 VLBW infants who were admitted from January 2012 to December 2014 were enrolled as study subjects. According to cardiac ultrasound findings and treatment outcome, these infants were divided into non-PDA group, spontaneous closure group, pharmaceutical closure group, and surgical closure group. Their clinical and echocardiographic characteristics were analyzed. The spontaneous closure rate of PDA was 58.7%. The spontaneous closure group showed significantly higher gestational age, birth weight, and proportion of small-for-gestational-age infants than the pharmaceutical and surgical closure groups (Pclosure groups had a significantly higher incidence rate of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and a significantly higher proportion of infants who were given pulmonary surfactant (PS) than the spontaneous closure group (Pclosure group had a significantly smaller ductus arteriosus diameter than the pharmaceutical and surgical closure groups (Pductus arteriosus diameter at 48 hours were significantly associated with the prognosis of PDA. The major transductal flow pattern in the spontaneous closure group was closing pattern, while in the pharmaceutical and surgical closure groups, the main flow patterns were pulmonary hypertension and growing patterns within 48 hours and growing pattern on days 4 and 7. The VLBW infants have a high spontaneous closure rate of PDA. A decreased closure rate of PDA is associated with the lower gestational age and the application of PS. PDA with a large ductus arteriosus diameter and a growing or pulsatile flow pattern cannot easily achieve spontaneous closure.

  10. [Expression of connective tissue growth factor in colorectal cancer and its association with prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zheng; Yang, Ping; Liang, Li-yuan; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Wei-jian; Cao, Jie

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in colorectal cancer(CRC) and its association with clinicopathologic parameters and overall survival rate. Fresh tumor tissues and matched distal normal colon tissues were collected from 92 patients diagnosed as CRC by surgical operation. The expression level of CTGF mRNA was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Thirty out of 92 pairs of tissue specimens were selected randomly to detect CTGF protein by immunohistochemistry. All the cases were followed up to identify prognostic factors for survival. CTGF mRNA expression was up-regulated in CRC. The positive rate of CTGF protein expression tissues (73.3%) was significantly higher than that in the corresponding normal tissues (23.3%, Ptissues was classified into high and low expression groups. The 5-year cumulative survival rate was lower in patients with low CTGF expression (29.3%) as compared to those with high CTGF expressions (68.3%) (P<0.01). Cox regression analysis revealed that the relative expression level of CTGF was independent factor of overall survival (RR=2.960, 95%CI:1.491-1.587, P<0.01). ROC curve analysis showed that sensitivity and specificity of CTGF mRNA expression for prediction of 5-year survival were 64.9% and 74.5%, respectively. The aberrant expression of CTGF is associated with the malignant biological behaviors of CRC. Low expression of CTGF is associated with worse prognosis of CRC.

  11. Prognosis method to predict small-sized breast cancer affected by fibrocystic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to develop an effective radiological symptom-complex of small-sized breast cancer affected by fibrocystic breast disease by using multivariate statistical methods.Materials and methods. Radiological findings of small-sized breast cancer affected by fibrocystic mastopathy were analyzed in 100 patients with histologically verified diagnosis.Results. It was revealed that the conventional approach to the analysis of mammograms based on the detection of the primary, secondary and indirect mammographic signs of small-sized breast cancer is not effective enough - the sensitivity of mammography is only 62%. Fibrocystic disease and moderate-to-severe sclerosing adenosis make small-sized breast cancer hard to visualize by mammography. The detailed analysis of mammograms allowed us to identify the additional manifestations of small-sized breast cancer affected by mastopathy. The computer program allowing us to evaluate the risk of small-size breast cancer and the diagnostic algorithm for detecting small size breast cancer with sensitivity of 92% were developed. 

  12. Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, Brison

    This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…

  13. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  14. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  15. Risk factors and prognosis of young stroke. The FUTURE study: a prospective cohort study. Study rationale and protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Alebeek, M.E. van; Schaapsmeerders, P.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Overeem, S.; Drost, G.; Janssen, M.C.H.; Heerde, W.L. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Zwiers, M.P.; Norris, D.G.; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young stroke can have devastating consequences with respect to quality of life, the ability to work, plan or run a family, and participate in social life. Better insight into risk factors and the long-term prognosis is extremely important, especially in young stroke patients with a life

  16. Risk factors and prognosis of young stroke. The FUTURE study: A prospective cohort study. Study rationale and protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Alebeek, M.E. van; Schaapsmeerders, P.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Overeem, S.; Drost, G.; Janssen, M.C.H.; Heerde, W.L. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Zwiers, M.P.; Norris, D.G.; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, H.F. de

    2011-01-01

    Background Young stroke can have devastating consequences with respect to quality of life, the ability to work, plan or run a family, and participate in social life. Better insight into risk factors and the long-term prognosis is extremely important, especially in young stroke patients with a life

  17. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongi-Mi Kim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR; yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider university guidelines, review other websites, and consult with experts and other divisions within the library; however, resources and training for the design process are lacking. While website designers assess their websites as highly successful, user evaluations are somewhat lower. Accordingly, use is low, and users rely heavily on commercial websites. Suggestions for enhancing the usage of ULWR are provided.

  18. Patients' perceived level of social isolation affects the prognosis of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, V C; Ferreira, M L; Morsø, Lars

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perceived social isolation is prevalent among patients with low back pain (LBP) and could be a potential prognostic factor for clinical outcomes following an episode of LBP. METHODS: A secondary analysis of an original prospective cohort study, which investigated the validity...... of the Danish version of the STarT Back Screening Tool (STarT), investigated whether social isolation predicts the clinical outcomes of disability, anxiety, depression and pain catastrophizing in people with LBP. Patients with LBP of any duration (N = 204) from Middelfart, Denmark, were included. Social...... isolation was measured at baseline using the friendship scale (score ranges from 0 to 24, with lower values meaning higher perceived social isolation), and outcomes were measured at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Regression models investigated whether social isolation at baseline predicted the outcomes...

  19. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship and Business Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tur-Porcar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is becoming increasingly important for society, and the creation of business ventures is one area where sustainability is critical. We examined the factors affecting actions that are designed to foster business sustainability. These factors are related to the environment, behavior, human relations, and business activity. Based on questionnaire responses from experts, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method was used to rank sustainable business criteria according to their importance for entrepreneurs starting sustainable businesses. The results indicate that the most important drivers of sustainable entrepreneurship are behavioral factors and business factors. Ethical principles and values, together with competitive intelligence, are crucial for undertaking actions that lead to sustainability.

  20. Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen and prognosis of colorectal cancer. An independent prognostic factor still reliable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Destri, Giovanni; Rubino, Antonio Salvatore; Latino, Rosalia; Giannone, Fabio; Lanteri, Raffaele; Scilletta, Beniamino; Di Cataldo, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate whether, in a sample of patients radically treated for colorectal carcinoma, the preoperative determination of the carcinoembryonic antigen (p-CEA) may have a prognostic value and constitute an independent risk factor in relation to disease-free survival. The preoperative CEA seems to be related both to the staging of colorectal neoplasia and to the patient's prognosis, although this-to date-has not been conclusively demonstrated and is still a matter of intense debate in the scientific community. This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. A total of 395 patients were radically treated for colorectal carcinoma. The preoperative CEA was statistically compared with the 2010 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging, the T and N parameters, and grading. All parameters recorded in our database were tested for an association with disease-free survival (DFS). Only factors significantly associated (P < 0.05) with the DFS were used to build multivariate stepwise forward logistic regression models to establish their independent predictors. A statistically significant relationship was found between p-CEA and tumor staging (P < 0.001), T (P < 0.001) and N parameters (P = 0.006). In a multivariate analysis, the independent prognostic factors found were: p-CEA, stages N1 and N2 according to AJCC, and G3 grading (grade). A statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) was evident between the DFS of patients with normal and high p-CEA levels. Preoperative CEA makes a pre-operative selection possible of those patients for whom it is likely to be able to predict a more advanced staging.

  1. Clinical, biochemical and microbiological factors associated with the prognosis of pneumococcal meningitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Iolanda; Calzada, Yolanda; Monfort, Laura; Vila-Pérez, David; Felipe, Aida; Ortiz, Jessica; Cambra, Francisco José; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen

    2016-02-01

    Pneumococcal meningitis (PM) has a high morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to evaluate what factors are related to a poor PM prognosis. Prospective observational study conducted on patients admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in a tertiary hospital with a diagnosis of PM (January 2000 to December 2013). Clinical, biochemical and microbiological data were recorded. Variable outcome was classified into good or poor (neurological handicap or death). A multivariate logistic regression was performed based on the univariate analysis of significant data. A total of 88 patients were included. Clinical variables statistically significant for a poor outcome were younger age (p=.008), lengthy fever (p=.016), sepsis (p=.010), lower Glasgow Score (pbiochemical variables were higher level of C-reactive protein (pindicators of poor outcome were age less than 2 years (p=.011), high score on SOFA (p=.030), low Glasgow Score (p=.042), and severe hypoglycorrhachia (p=.009). Patients younger than 2 years of age, with depressed consciousness at admission, especially when longer mechanical ventilation is required, are at high risk of a poor outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  3. Factors Affecting the Productivity of Government Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. Haenisch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While there have been a variety of studies concerning government worker motivation and productivity, few, if any, studies have focused specifically on state government workers’ perceptions about what factors affect their productivity. With more than 5 million workers employed by state governments in the United States, any improvement in state workplace productivity could have significant financial and service impact for society. In this study, state government workers identified those factors perceived as most affecting their workplace productivity. Data were collected through a survey offered to state government workers in the state of Wyoming. Factor analysis was used to derive key productivity factors from survey responses. The results indicate that state government workers appreciate having freedom and autonomy, like their jobs and the sense of achievement, and welcome teamwork, but feel limited by poor supervision and management, poor communications, and insufficient budgets and staffing. To improve productivity, the workers would eliminate bureaucracy, supervise better, and improve communication.

  4. Patients' perceived level of social isolation affects the prognosis of low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, V C; Ferreira, M L; Morso, L; Albert, H B; Refshauge, K M; Ferreira, P H

    2015-04-01

    Perceived social isolation is prevalent among patients with low back pain (LBP) and could be a potential prognostic factor for clinical outcomes following an episode of LBP. A secondary analysis of an original prospective cohort study, which investigated the validity of the Danish version of the STarT Back Screening Tool (STarT), investigated whether social isolation predicts the clinical outcomes of disability, anxiety, depression and pain catastrophizing in people with LBP. Patients with LBP of any duration (N = 204) from Middelfart, Denmark, were included. Social isolation was measured at baseline using the friendship scale (score ranges from 0 to 24, with lower values meaning higher perceived social isolation), and outcomes were measured at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Regression models investigated whether social isolation at baseline predicted the outcomes at 6-month follow-up. Some level of social isolation was reported by 39.2% of the participants (n = 80) with 5.9% (n = 12) being very socially isolated. One-point difference on social isolation predicted one point on a 100-point disability scale (adjusted unstandardized coefficient: -0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.56 to -0.26). Social isolation predicted anxiety; however, a change of one point on the social isolation scale represents a difference of only 0.08 points on a 22-point scale in anxiety (95% CI: 0.01-0.15) and is unlikely to denote clinical importance. Social isolation did not predict pain catastrophizing or depression. Patients' perceived social isolation predicts disability related to LBP. Further understanding of the role of social isolation in LBP is warranted. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  5. Current status of cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillators and factors influencing its prognosis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Shimizu

    2013-06-01

    Conclusions: Japanese patients with CRT-D devices had a better prognosis than did those in the COMPANION trial, but no significant differences were observed between patients fulfilling and those not fulfilling the above mentioned criteria.

  6. Analysis of Economic Factors Affecting Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Linyin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation concentrates on analysis of economic factors affecting Chinese stock market through examining relationship between stock market index and economic factors. Six economic variables are examined: industrial production, money supply 1, money supply 2, exchange rate, long-term government bond yield and real estate total value. Stock market comprises fixed interest stocks and equities shares. In this dissertation, stock market is restricted to equity market. The stock price in thi...

  7. Factors affecting the effects of diuresis renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Deshan

    2006-01-01

    Diuresis renography is one of the classic methods for diagnosing upper urinary tract obstruction in both children and adults. However, in clinical practice, the results of diuresis renography were often influenced by many factors including diuretics, timing of diuretics injection, the status of renal function and hydration, the volume and compliance of collecting system, bladder fullness and so on. It is important to consider all the factors affecting diuresis renography during performing and interpreting diuresis renography. (authors)

  8. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Factors affecting career preferences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    College of Medicine prefer to work as doctors, and (ii) what factors may affect their long-term retention in their home country? Methods. We designed ... from rural areas and small towns, and whose parents were 'non- professionals', were .... needs – 5; city life can be difficult – 3; one is closer to family – 2; there is a sense of ...

  10. Workplace, Biographical and Motivation Factors Affecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the findings of a survey on how workplace, biographical and motivational factors affect the organisational commitment of records officers in federal universities in Nigeria. Single stage random sampling, with equal allocation method, was used to administer questionnaire on 300 sampled participants from ...

  11. Factors affecting IUCD discontinuation in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Subash; Paudel, Ishwari Sharma; Bhattarai, Sailesh

    2015-01-01

    Information related to contraception discontinuation, especially in the context of Nepal is very limited. A nested case-control study was carried out to determine the factors affecting discontinuation of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). A total of 115 cases (IUCD discontinuers) and 115...

  12. INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN FACTORS AFFECTING LABOUR MOBILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SELLIER, F.; ZARKA, C.

    THE GEOGRAPHICAL, OCCUPATIONAL, AND INTERFIRM MOBILITY, AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING THESE MOVEMENTS FOR WORKERS IN FRANCE, ITALY, GERMANY, AND SWEDEN IN THE PERIOD SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR ARE STUDIED. DATA OBTAINED FROM INDUSTRIAL SURVEYS AND GENERAL CENSUSES WERE USED TO COMPARE THE FOUR COUNTRIES WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH THE UNITED STATES.…

  13. Personal factors affecting organizational commitment of records ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated personal factors affecting organizational commitment among records management personnel in the state universities in Nigeria. Simple cluster sampling with equal allocation method was used to select 180 records management personnel from the study population. A five item organizational ...

  14. The Analysis of the Risk Factors of Adverse Prognosis of Myocardial Infarction in the Acute Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Zakharova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to identify the risk factors contributed to adverse outcome of myocardial infarction (MI in the acute period of the disease at a prehospital stage.Materials and methods. The study included the call cards of specialized resuscitation and anesthesia units of the budgetary institution A. S. Puchkov «Station of emergency medical care», to patients with complicated MI. The study included two groups of patients. The first group comprized of patients with complicated MI which resulted in circulatory arrest (n=184, the second group (the group of comparison included patients with com plicated MI without the outcome in circulatory arrest (n=271. Statistical processing of the material: significance of differences between two binomial observations was evaluated by the Barnard's Exact Test.The results of the research. The presence of risk of MI complication as a stopping of blood circulation was confirmed in patients of the age group of 40—60 years (P=0.01. Patients with MI complicated by a circulatory arrest was characterized by a significantly greater intensity of pain syndrome (the pain intensity of 9—10 points was typ ical for 11,2% and 3% of patients of the group with circulatory arrest and the group of comparison, respectively; P< 0.001. The combination of clinical manifestations of alveolar pulmonary edema and arrhythmia occurred in 50% of patients with circulatory arrest, resulted in poor prognosis (the frequency of same parameters in a control group was 28,7%, P=0.018. Tachysystolic arrhythmia was the most common form of alteration at a circulatory arrest.Conclusions. The risk factors for MI adverse outcome in acute period included age from 40 to 60 years, pain of high intensity, presence of cardiogenic shock in combination with alveolar pulmonary edema and tachyarrhythmia.

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Questions ...

  16. Identification of factors affecting individual industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadat Mirzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High knowledge and technology are rapidly becoming a competitive advantage in today’s world. Individual industries are considered one of the key sectors in the country’s industry. Ranking the factors that affect these industries makes us more familiar with their effectiveness and helps us take actions to improve such factors in knowledge-based companies. Consequently, based on previous research studies on Individual Industries, field observations, and a questionnaire prepared by the researchers, the current study explores and classifies the factors affecting the establishment of these industries. Regarding its purpose, this is an applied research, and regarding data collection, it is a descriptive survey. Using purposive sampling, 60 questionnaires were collected and effective factors were classified applying the SPSS software and the TOPSIS technique. This study suggests that content factors are ranked first place, while contextual and structural factors are ranked second and third, respectively. Therefore, executives and managers in single industries are recommended to strengthen joint enterprise norms and dominant values and beliefs in knowledge-based companies in order to help the growth and development of single industries.

  17. Sarcopenia Impairs Prognosis of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Role of Liver Functional Reserve and Tumor-Related Factors in Loss of Skeletal Muscle Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kenji; Takai, Koji; Watanabe, Satoshi; Hanai, Tatsunori; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Shiraki, Makoto; Shimizu, Masahito

    2017-09-22

    Sarcopenia impairs survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to clarify the factors that contribute to decreased skeletal muscle volume in patients with HCC. The third lumbar vertebra skeletal muscle index (L3 SMI) in 351 consecutive patients with HCC was calculated to identify sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was defined as an L3 SMI value ≤ 29.0 cm²/m² for women and ≤ 36.0 cm²/m² for men. The factors affecting L3 SMI were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis and tree-based models. Of the 351 HCC patients, 33 were diagnosed as having sarcopenia and showed poor prognosis compared with non-sarcopenia patients ( p = 0.007). However, this significant difference disappeared after the adjustments for age, sex, Child-Pugh score, maximum tumor size, tumor number, and the degree of portal vein invasion by propensity score matching analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age ( p = 0.015) and sex ( p < 0.0001) were significantly correlated with a decrease in L3 SMI. Tree-based models revealed that sex (female) is the most significant factor that affects L3 SMI. In male patients, L3 SMI was decreased by aging, increased Child-Pugh score (≥56 years), and enlarged tumor size (<56 years). Maintaining liver functional reserve and early diagnosis and therapy for HCC are vital to prevent skeletal muscle depletion and improve the prognosis of patients with HCC.

  18. Factors affecting patient dose in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, J.L.

    1994-03-01

    The report, Factors Affecting Patient Dose in Diagnostic Radiology is divided into three main sections. Part one is introductory and covers the basic principles of x-ray production and image formation. It includes discussion of x-ray generators and x-ray tubes, radiation properties and units, specification and measurement of x-ray beams, methods of patient dose measurement, radiation effects, radiation protection philosophy and finally the essentials of imaging systems. Part two examines factors affecting the x-ray output of x-ray machines and the characteristics of x-ray beams. These include the influence of heat ratings, kVp, waveform, exposure timer, filtration, focus-film distance, beam intensity distribution, x-ray tube age and focal spot size. Part three examines x-ray machine, equipment and patient factors which affect the dose received by individual patients. The factors considered include justification of examinations, choice of examination method, film/screen combinations, kVp, mAs, focus-film distance, collimation and field size, exposure time, projection, scatter, generator calibration errors, waveform, filtration, film processing and patient size. The patient dose implications of fluoroscopy systems, CT scanners, special procedures and mammography are also discussed. The report concludes with a brief discussion of patient dose levels in New Zealand and dose optimisation. 104 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs

  19. [Sinus floor elevation and augmentation. Evidence-based analysis of prognosis and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strietzel, F P

    2004-03-01

    It was the aim of this investigation to analyze evidence of prognosis, predictors, and risk factors concerning sinus floor elevation and augmentation (SFEA). A MEDLINE search was performed to analyze the literature published between 1990 and 2002, limited to keywords ("sinus floor elevation and dental implants", "complications", "success"), study type (randomized as well as clinical prospective studies, retrospective studies, reviews), and language (German or English). Of 229 publications identified, 72 met the inclusion criteria (22 prospective and 47 retrospective studies, 3 reviews). Considering the augmentation material [autogenous bone (AB), bone substitution materials (BSM), and combinations of AB and BSM], the frequency of implant loss was not significantly different (AB 8%, BSM 9%, AB + BSM 5%, p>0.09) after an observation period of 2-4 years. The average duration of the healing period was 6 months (AB) and 8 months (BSM) with simultaneous SFEA and implantation and 6-7 months (AB and BSM) for the staged approach after an average healing period of 6 months for the augmentation materials. Frequency of implant loss was not different between simultaneous and staged approaches (7-8%). Postoperative sinusitis occurred in 3-8% of the cases. Smoking, positive sinusitis history, obstructive pathoses of the nose and ostium, allergic rhino-pathoses, use of short implants (bruxism, and uncontrolled early loading of implants were identified as predictors for complications. Presupposing proper consideration of indications, SFEA should be considered as an evidence-based and clinically established method for implant prosthetic rehabilitation of the atrophic posterior maxilla with an overall cumulative survival rate of 90% within an average observation period of 4 years.

  20. Factors affecting the rural domestic waste generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Darban Astane

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to evaluate the quantity and quality of rural domestic waste generation and to identify the factors affecting it in rural areas of Khodabandeh county in Zanjan Province, Iran. Waste samplings consisted of 318 rural households in 11 villages. In order to evaluate the quality and quantity of the rural domestic waste, waste production was classified into 12 groups and 2 main groups of organic waste and solid waste. Moreover, kriging interpolation technique in ARC-GIS software was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the generated domestic waste and ultimately multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors affecting the generation of domestic waste. The results of this study showed that the average waste generated by each person was 0.588 kilograms per day. with the share of organic waste generated by each person being 0.409 kilograms per day and the share of solid waste generated by each person being 0.179 kilograms per day. The results from spatial distribution of waste generation showed a certain pattern in three groups and a higher rate of waste generation in the northern and northwestern parts, especially in the subdistrict. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the households’ income, assets, age, and personal attitude are respectively the most important variables affecting waste generation. The housholds’ attitude and indigenous knowledge on efficient use of materials are also the key factors which can help reducing waste generation.

  1. Co-expression of podoplanin and fibroblast growth factor 1 predicts poor prognosis in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Chen, Han; Li, Xiaoqing; Wang, Linlin; Gao, Aiqin; Zhang, Pei; Lin, Wenli; Gao, Wei; Yang, Dong; Guo, Xiaosun; Liu, Jie; Dang, Qi; Sun, Yuping

    2017-08-01

    Podoplanin and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1 have been detected more frequently in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) compared with lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, it has been previous demonstrated that FGF1 is located on the edge of tumor nests in certain lung SQCC sections, which resembles the characteristic expression pattern of podoplanin. Podoplanin and FGF1 have roles in lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis. Based on their consistently specific expression in lung SQCC and similar localization patterns, the present study aimed to investigate whether the expression of podoplanin in tumor cells is correlated with FGF1 expression in lung SQCC and whether their co‑expression has clinicopathological significance, particularly for lymphangiogenesis/angiogenesis. The correlation between podoplanin and FGF1 expression in tumor cells of 82 lung SQCC cases was investigated by immunohistochemical staining and the association between the co‑expression of podoplanin and FGF1, and clinicopathological factors such as microvessel density (MVD), was examined in these samples. In addition, the prognostic value of co‑expression of podoplanin and FGF1 in tumor cells was determined, and the regulation of FGF1 expression and angiogenesis by podoplanin was examined in vitro in a human lung SQCC cell line. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that there was a significant correlation between podoplanin and FGF1 expression in lung SQCC tumor cells (R=0.591; P<0.0001). Co‑expression of podoplanin and FGF1 was significantly associated with larger primary tumor size, advanced TNM stage and higher intratumoral MVD. Survival analysis demonstrated that cases with podoplanin and FGF1 double‑positive staining had a significantly lower survival rate compared with cases with double‑negative staining. In vitro experiments revealed that podoplanin regulated FGF1 expression and affected tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Combined, the results

  2. Risk factors and prognosis for recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis after liver transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Lina; Jørgensen, Kristin K; Boberg, Kirsten M

    2018-01-01

    PSC for prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All liver transplanted PSC patients in the Nordic countries between 1984 and 2007 (n = 440), identified by the Nordic Liver Transplant Registry, were studied. Data were retrieved from patients' chart reviews. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to calculate risk...

  3. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level....../distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined...

  4. Factors affecting academic leadership in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martires, Kathryn J; Aquino, Lisa L; Wu, Jashin J

    2015-02-01

    Although prior studies have examined methods by which to recruit and retain academic dermatologists, few have examined factors that are important for developing academic leaders in dermatology. This study sought to examine characteristics of dermatology residency programs that affect the odds of producing department or division chairs/chiefs and program directors (PDs). Data regarding program size, faculty, grants, alumni residency program attended, lectures, and publications for all accredited US dermatology residency programs were collected. Of the 103 programs examined, 46% had graduated at least 1 chair/chief, and 53% had graduated at least 1 PD. Results emphasize that faculty guidance and research may represent modifiable factors by which a dermatology residency program can increase its graduation of academic leaders.

  5. Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

  6. Factors Affecting Gastrointestinal Microbiome Development in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Yieh Lin Chong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiome is established in the newborn period and is recognised to interact with the host to influence metabolism. Different environmental factors that are encountered during this critical period may influence the gut microbial composition, potentially impacting upon later disease risk, such as asthma, metabolic disorder, and inflammatory bowel disease. The sterility dogma of the foetus in utero is challenged by studies that identified bacteria, bacterial DNA, or bacterial products in meconium, amniotic fluid, and the placenta; indicating the initiation of maternal-to-offspring microbial colonisation in utero. This narrative review aims to provide a better understanding of factors that affect the development of the gastrointestinal (GI microbiome during prenatal, perinatal to postnatal life, and their reciprocal relationship with GI tract development in neonates.

  7. Relationship between serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and epidermal growth factor receptor mutations with the influence on the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai ZX

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zuxun Cai Department of Thoracic Surgery, Henan Provincial Chest Hospital, Zhengzhou City, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA level and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients and to analyze the influence of CEA level on postoperative survival time in lung cancer patients. Methods: A total of 296 patients who were treated in Thoracic Surgery Department of Henan Provincial Chest Hospital from September 2011 to September 2013 were recruited. The level of tumor markers, such as CEA, was determined before the surgery, and EGFR gene mutations were detected after surgery. Thereby, the relationship between tumor makers, including CEA, and EGFR mutation and its influence on prognosis could be investigated. Results: Among 296 patients, the positive rate of EGFR gene mutation was 37.84% (112/296; the mutation occurred more frequently in nonsmokers, adenocarcinoma patients, women, and patients aged <60 years (P<0.05. Both tumor markers and chemosensitivity indicators were related to the profile of EGFR mutations. Elevated squamous cell carcinoma and Cyfra21-1 as well as positively expressed ERCC1 were more common in patients with wild-type EGFR (P<0.05, whereas increased CEA level was observed more frequently in patients with EGFR gene mutation (P=0.012. The positive rate of EGFR gene mutations was higher as the serum CEA level increased, that is, the positive rate in patients with serum CEA level <5, 5–20, and >20 µg/L was 39.81%, 45.32%, and 65.47%, respectively (P=0.004. Logistic regression analysis showed that CEA level was an independent factor in predicting EGFR gene mutations, and serum CEA level was also an independent factor in affecting the prognosis of NSCLC patients, as the overall 2-year survival rate was 73.86% in elevated CEA group and 86.43% in normal group (P<0.01. Conclusion: The prognosis of

  8. Factors affecting scholastic performances of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashidhar, Saraswati; Rao, Chandrika; Hegde, Radhakrishna

    2009-05-01

    The present study aims at recognizing the social influence, study habits and health factors affecting scholastic performances of adolescents and to compare these factors among the adolescents between two categories of school. A total of 1230 adolescents (13-18 yrs) were screened. Data was collected by personal interview, using the teenage screening questionnaire, Trivandrum, between May 2004 and November 2005. A total 615 students from corporation and private schools were studied. 39.76% (489) were high achievers, 13.5% (166) were low achievers with p poor study habits and social factors were increased in low achievers of corporation schools. On multivariate analysis, the predictor variables for poor scholastic performance were adolescent having refractory error, not having help for study at home, not doing home work regularly, not solving question bank papers and reading only before examinations. It is feasible and worthwhile to identify the determinants of scholastic performance and plan intervention strategies at each school. The results of this study highlight the importance of implementing newer strategies, focusing on strict study patterns and creating the conducive school and home environment for study, so as to achieve better scholastic performances.

  9. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  10. Imbalance between vascular endothelial growth factor and endostatin correlates with the prognosis of operable non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Hu, M-m; Shi, G-L; Han, Y; Li, B-L

    2014-09-01

    Angiogenesis is regulated by a balance of pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endostatin respectively represents a frequent component of inducers and inhibitors in the process of angiogenesis. The ratio of VEGF/endostatin may reflect the balance of angiogenic switch. This study aimed to determine whether an imbalance between VEGF/endostatin exists in operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and to assess the correlation, if any, between the imbalance and the prognosis. Preoperative serum levels of VEGF and endostatin were simultaneously determined by quantitiative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the ratio of them was calculated among 98 NSCLC patients and 51 healthy controls. The relationship between these factors and clinicopathological features, including prognosis, was examined. The ratio of VEGF/endostatin levels was significantly higher in operable NSCLC patients [median, 10.4; interquartile range (IQR), 5.9-19.8] than in normal controls [median, 5.1; IQR, 3.3-9.7] (P = 0.002). While the ratio in patients who were still alive for more than 60 months was 8.3 (IQR, 4.3-17.9), the ratio in those who died was 12.9 (IQR, 8.0-22.1) (p = 0.017). In subgroup analysis of patients with pathological stage N0, there was a statistically significant increase of the survival time in the group with a lower ratio than in the group with a higher ratio (p = 0.032). Multivariate analysis confirmed that the VEGF/endostatin ratio was an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.018). There was an imbalance between VEGF and endostatin in serum of operable NSCLC patients. The imbalance correlated with the prognosis of operable NSCLC. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Nosocomial candidemia; risk factors and prognosis revisited; 11 years experience from a Norwegian secondary hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Erik Berdal

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to review the epidemiology and prognosis of candidemia in a secondary hospital, and to examine the intra-hospital distribution of candidemia patients. Study design is a retrospective cohort study. Trough 2002-2012, 110 cases of candidemia were diagnosed, giving an incidence of 2, 6/100,000 citizens/year. Overall prognosis of candidemia was dismal, with a 30 days case fatality rate of 49% and one year case fatality rate of 64%. Candidemia was a terminal event in 55% of 30 days non-survivors, defined as Candida blood cultures reported positive on the day of death or thereafter (39%, or treatment refrained due to hopeless short-term prognosis (16%. In terminal event candidemias, advanced or incurable cancer was present in 29%. Non-survivors at 30 days were 9 years (median older than survivors. In 30 days survivors, candidemia was not recognised before discharge in 13% of cases. No treatment were given and no deaths or complications were observed in this group. Candidemia patients were grouped into 8 patient categories: Abdominal surgery (35%, urology (13%, other surgery (11%, pneumonia (13%, haematological malignancy (7%, intravenous drug abuse (4%, other medical (15%, and new-borns (3%. Candidemia was diagnosed while admitted in the ICU in 46% of patients. Urology related cases were all diagnosed in the general ward. Multiple surgical procedures were done in 60% of abdominal surgery patients. Antibiotics were administered prior to candidemia in 87% of patients, with median duration 17 (1-108 days. Neutropenia was less common than expected in patients with candidemia (8/105 and closely associated to haematological malignancy (6/8. Compared with previous national figures the epidemiology of invasive candidiasis seems not to have changed over the last decade.

  12. CRITICAL THINKING AND ITS AFFECTING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Slameto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to measure the success rate achieved by the alumni of Open/Distance Learning (O/DL, the Bachelor Education In-service Teachers Program (BEITP, Staya Jacana Christian University(SWCU, Salatiga in their critical thinking habit that lead to their success, and to find factors which determined their critical thinking habit. The factors concerned were student factor (learning motivation, alumni’s readiness to enter ICT community, prerequisite or teacher factor (teacher’s ability in creating and using a new instructional context. This quantitative research belongs to the causality ex-post facto research. The data source was one class of O/ DL, the BEITP, SWCUstudents, who were chosen out of four classes, as many as 32 alumni in the academic year 2015/2016. Data were screened using a self-rating scale, which consisted of 40 items tested valid and reliable, and then reduced to 5 variablas. The BEITP, SWCU Salatiga had graduated most of its alumni who owned critical thinking habit at a high rate. The critical thinking habit was affected by the instructional contexts which enabled a new situation (Model 1, alumni’s readiness to enter the ICT community (Model 2, pre-requisite, i.e., mastery of previous lecture materials (Model 3, and student’s learning motivation (Model 4 to reach 81%. The alumni’s critical thinking habit of 51.20% was determined by the teacher’s role in developing instructional contexts which made a new situation possible. This finding was useful for educational quality management for the effectiveness and productivity of higher education, which should have been focused on the teacher in developing an instructional strategy based on context, alumni readiness to enter the ICT community, prerequisite, and student’s learning motivation.

  13. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  14. Factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sanaa Abd El Azim

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, on 207 student nurses from four different grades. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, consisted of 30 items, was used to measure the students' assertiveness level and a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer was used to measure students' psychological empowerment. The study results showed that 60.4% of the students were assertive, while about half of the students were empowered. A positive relation between student assertiveness and psychological empowerment was detected. Moreover, positive relations regarding family income and students' assertiveness and psychological empowerment were determined. The study recommended introduction of specific courses aiming at enhancing the acquisition of assertiveness skills, in addition, nurse educators must motivate their students to express their opinion and personal rights and also they must pay attention for students' empowerment and enhance students' autonomy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors Affecting Fertility Desires in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa C. David

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting fertility desires in the Philippines were examined using data from a national survey and from individual and group qualitative interviews involving 143 respondents. Fertility goals usually range from two to three children, but evidence suggests that they are dynamic and may change over a person’s lifetime. Qualitative interviews reveal that when negotiating about family size, it is the partner who wants more children that will be followed. A strong demand for gender balance among offspring creates a willingness to have more children than originally desired. Fertility goals increase over time among women. While those who start childbirth at a very young age successfully space their children, they tend to want larger families than those who start late. Initial fertility goals among women are generally low but may increase because of higher fertility desires among men, a demand for gender balance in children, and the desire for babies once their children have grown.

  16. Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Tomohiro; Kahn, B.

    1989-09-01

    In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

  17. Emergency Nurses' Perspectives: Factors Affecting Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Carol L; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V

    2016-05-01

    Caring is a universal phenomenon. However, as a result of higher patient acuity and staff shortages within the chaotic ED environment, caring behaviors may be in peril. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the meaning of caring from the perspective of emergency nurses. Exploring nurses' perspectives of caring is central to improving staffing and retention issues in this unique work environment. As part of a larger study, a subsample of emergency nurses who work in public hospitals in Manitoba, Canada (n = 17) were interviewed. A qualitative descriptive design was used to gain insight into the caring perspectives of nurses by asking them, "What does caring meaning to you?" and "What affects caring in your practice in the emergency department?" Emerging themes were extracted through analysis of audio tapes and transcripts. Advocacy and holistic care emerged as major themes in the meaning of caring for emergency nurses. Caring was affected by a number of factors, including workload, lack of time, staffing issues, shift work, and lack of self-care. However, lack of management support was the most consistent hindrance to caring identified by study participants. Caring continues to be a unifying concept in nursing; however, influencing factors continue to undermine caring for emergency nurses. Caring is not subsidiary to nursing; it is the central core of nursing. Therefore, fostering a caring working environment is essential for nurses to practice holistic nursing care. It is also imperative to job satisfaction and the retention of emergency nurses. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors affecting medication-order processing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, M A; Kotzan, J A

    1982-11-01

    The factors affecting medication-order processing time at one hospital were studied. The order processing time was determined by directly observing the time to process randomly selected new drug orders on all three work shifts during two one-week periods. An order could list more than one drug for an individual patient. The observer recorded the nature, location, and cost of the drugs ordered, as well as the time to process the order. The time and type of interruptions also were noted. The time to process a drug order was classified as six dependent variables: (1) total time, (2) work time, (3) check time, (4) waiting time I--time from arrival on the dumbwaiter until work was initiated, (5) waiting time II--time between completion of the work and initiation of checking, and (6) waiting time III--time after the check was completed until the order left on the dumbwaiter. The significant predictors of each of the six dependent variables were determined using stepwise multiple regression. The total time to process a prescription order was 58.33 +/- 48.72 minutes; the urgency status of the order was the only significant determinant of total time. Urgency status also significantly predicted the three waiting-time variables. Interruptions and the number of drugs on the order were significant determinants of work time and check time. Each telephone interruption increased the work time by 1.72 minutes. While the results of this study cannot be generalized to other institutions, pharmacy managers can use the method of determining factors that affect medication-order processing time to identify problem areas in their institutions.

  19. Factors affecting hydrocarbon removal by air stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper includes an overview of the theory of air stripping design considerations and the factors affecting stripper performance. Effects of temperature, contaminant characteristics, stripping tower geometry and air/water ratios on removal performance are discussed. The discussion includes treatment of groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents such as TCE and PCE. Control of VOC emissions from air strippers has become a major concern in recent years, due to more stringent restrictions on air quality in many areas. This paper includes an overview of available technology to control air emissions (including activated carbon adsorption, catalytic oxidation and steam stripping) and the effects of air emission control on overall efficiency of the treatment process. The paper includes an overview of the relative performance of various packing materials for air strippers and explains the relative advantages and disadvantages of comparative packing materials. Field conditions affecting selection of packing materials are also discussed. Practical guidelines for the design of air stripping systems are presented, as well as actual case studies of full-scale air stripping projects

  20. Factors Affecting the Underperformance of Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeeka Amarasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama is the largest factory of Brandix Group of Companies catering to VS Pink. It has a labour force of 1250 employees including a direct labour force of 659. Production capabilities have been extended to in-house printing and embroidery sections in addition to cutting and shipping facilities. Like other apparel manufacturers in the industry, BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama also faces much competition and problems in its day to day business operations. One of the major issues so faced is On-Time-Delivery due to underperformance of the employees. Therefore, with the objectives of studying factors affecting the underperformance of the employees of the production department, analysing and identifying such factors, and providing recommendations, a few variables i.e. machines and methods, skill level, financial incentives, leadership practices and working conditions were identified as having a potential impact over the performance of the production employees. Stratified random sampling method was used to select 64 team members from the 32 production modules, and research work continued to collate primary data through administrating a structured questionnaire among selected associates. Null and alternative hypotheses were tested using correlations, and the data is presented as graphical pictures, tables, and in narrative form. However, there were a few limitations such as management influence, sample basis selection, service period, level of understating, time availability and commitment, time availability for the study etc. which may have had an impact over the research findings.

  1. Factors affecting seismic response of submarine slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biscontin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.

  2. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

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    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  3. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

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    Virgilijus Sakalauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  4. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Liutvinavičius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient  attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  5. Ranking agility factors affecting hospitals in Iran

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    M. Abdi Talarposht

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were selected hospitals. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from the health centers. The construct validity of the questionnaire was approved by confirmatory factor analysis test and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α=0.97. All data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Friedman tests. Findings: The development of staff skills, the use of information technology, the integration of processes, appropriate planning, and customer satisfaction and product quality had a significant impact on the agility of public hospitals of Iran (P<0.001. New product introductions had earned the highest ranking and the development of staff skills earned the lowest ranking. Conclusion: The new product introduction, market responsiveness and sensitivity, reduce costs, and the integration of organizational processes, ratings better to have acquired agility hospitals in Iran. Therefore, planners and officials of hospitals have to, through the promotion quality and variety of services customer-oriented, providing a basis for investing in the hospital and etc to apply for agility supply chain public hospitals of Iran.

  6. Environmental Factors Affecting Where People Geocache

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    Jennifer Golbeck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from OpenCaching.com and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.

  7. NATURAL COURSE OF PATIENTS DISCONTINUING TREATMENT FOR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH VISUAL PROGNOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hui; Chang, Young Suk; Kim, Jong Woo

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the 24-month natural course of visual changes in patients discontinuing treatment despite persistent or recurrent fluid and factors predictive of visual prognosis. This retrospective, observational study included 35 patients (35 eyes) who initially received anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but discontinued treatment despite persistent or recurrent fluid. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at treatment discontinuation was determined and compared with the 24-month BCVA, which was then compared between polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and other neovascular age-related macular degeneration subtypes. Baseline characteristics predictive of visual outcome and the degree of visual change were also analyzed. The mean number of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections before treatment discontinuation was 4.0 ± 1.6. The mean logarithm of minimal angle of resolution of BCVA at treatment discontinuation and that at 24 months were 1.02 ± 0.20 (Snellen equivalents = 20/209) and 1.60 ± 0.56 (20/796), respectively (P age-related macular degeneration subtypes (P = 0.803). The type of fluid (intraretinal fluid vs. no intraretinal fluid) was predictive of 24-month BCVA (P = 0.004) and the degree of changes in BCVA (P = 0.043). Marked deterioration in visual acuity was noted in patients discontinuing treatment, regardless of neovascular age-related macular degeneration subtypes. The presence of intraretinal fluid was associated with worse visual prognosis, suggesting that patients with intraretinal fluid should be strongly warned about their poor prognosis before they decide to discontinue treatment.

  8. Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort

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    Gül Pınar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Başkent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

  9. Factors Affecting Internationalization of Indonesia Franchise Companies

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    Erwin Halim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Franchise is one of successful business strategies in business expansion. Franchise format has been already adopted in all countries. The success is proven in the world and also in Indonesia. Franchise system can be implemented not only in franchisor country but also in other countries. The spirit of internalization is not only because of market saturated, but also to increase reputation of franchise companies and to follow competitors or customers. Important thing discussed in this research is the franchise life-cycle, franchise growth model, and franchise companies’ profile.  It is found that the Indonesia franchise companies are in the introduction stage. The stage in life-cycle shows its reputation. This study used literature review as methodology, and the purpose of this study is to give a big picture for Indonesia franchise companies to make internationalization. There are some Indonesia franchise business profiles in the discussion part. The factors affecting franchise internationalization were analyzed by PESTEL analysis. Some strategies should be prepared in making decision to go international.  At the end, there are some recommendations and future research relating to internationalize franchise business.

  10. Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students

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    Vivien T. Supangco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality

  11. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

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    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  12. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

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    Jin HK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyekyung Jin,1 Yeonhee Kim,2 Sandy Jeong Rhie1,3 1College of Pharmacy, 2Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, 3Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160 aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15. The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=-0.215, P=0.022, sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=-0.335, P=0.000, education level (β=-0.153, P=0.045, health-related problems (β=-0.239, P=0.004, and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018. Conclusion: In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists

  13. SOXs in human prostate cancer: implication as progression and prognosis factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Wei-de; Chen, Xi-bin; Lin, Zhuo-yuan; Deng, Ye-han; Wu, Shu-lin; He, Hui-chan; Wu, Chin-lee; Qin, Guo-qiang; Dai, Qi-shan; Han, Zhao-dong; Chen, Shan-ming; Ling, Xiao-hui; Fu, Xin; Cai, Chao; Chen, Jia-hong

    2012-01-01

    SOX genes play an important role in a number of developmental processes. Potential roles of SOXs have been demonstrated in various neoplastic tissues as tumor suppressors or promoters depending on tumor status and types. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of SOXs in the progression and prognosis of human prostate cancer (PCa). The gene expression changes of SOXs in human PCa tissues compared with non-cancerous prostate tissues was detected using gene expression microarray, and confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) analysis and immunohositochemistry. The roles of these genes in castration resistance were investigated in LNCaP xenograft model of PCa. The microarray analysis identified three genes (SOX7, SOX9 and SOX10) of SOX family that were significantly dis-regulated in common among four PCa specimens. Consistent with the results of the microarray, differential mRNA and protein levels of three selected genes were found in PCa tissues by QRT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, we found that the immunohistochemical staining scores of SOX7 in PCa tissues with higher serum PSA level (P = 0.02) and metastasis (P = 0.03) were significantly lower than those with lower serum PSA level and without metastasis; the increased SOX9 protein expression was frequently found in PCa tissues with higher Gleason score (P = 0.02) and higher clinical stage (P < 0.0001); the down-regulation of SOX10 tend to be found in PCa tissues with higher serum PSA levels (P = 0.03) and advanced pathological stage (P = 0.01). Moreover, both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the down-regulation of SOX7 and the up-regulation of SOX9 were independent predictors of shorter biochemical recurrence-free survival. Furthermore, we discovered that SOX7 was significantly down-regulated and SOX9 was significantly up-regulated during the progression to castration resistance. Our data offer the convince

  14. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / ... to learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. ...

  15. Factors affecting outcome in myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jintana B; Gilhus, Nils Erik; Sanders, Donald B

    2016-12-01

    Information from myasthenia gravis (MG) patients treated and evaluated for at least 2 years between 1980 and 2014 was reviewed to assess the effect of demographics, antibody status and titer, thymus histology, and clinical severity on outcome after 2, 5, and 10 years of treatment. Among 268 patients, 74% had acetylcholine receptor antibodies, 5% had muscle specific tyrosine kinase-antibodies, and 22% had neither. Optimal outcome was achieved by 64% of patients at 2 years of follow-up, 73% at 5 years, and 75% after 10 years. Optimal outcome was achieved more often in patients with late onset, in those who had thymectomy, and in those with ocular-only disease at maximum severity. The only consistent independent predictor of optimal outcome was onset after age 50 years on multivariate analysis. Prognosis is favorable for the majority of MG patients, regardless of age, maximum disease severity, or antibody status. Muscle Nerve, 2016 Muscle Nerve 54: 1041-1049, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Relationship between prognosis of Graves' disease treated with 131I and three kinds of cell factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mingfeng; Wen Chijun; Qian Hong

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between prognosis of Graves' disease (GD) treated with 131 I and IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-α, the levels of IL-2, IL-10, TNF-α, T 3 , T 4 , FT 3 , FT 4 and s-TSH in serum of 158 patients with GD were measured before first 131 I treatment and after five months. The patients were divided into the transient hypothyroidism group, the hyperthyroidism group and the cure group according to the serum level of T 3 , T 4 , FT 3 , FT 4 and s-TSH after fives months of treatment. The results showed that the IL-2 and IL-10 levels in GD patient were remarkably higher (P 131 I treatment. The serum IL-2 level in each group after 131 I treatment was higher than that of before treatment (P the cure group >the transient hypothyroidism group. The levels of IL-10 in the hyperthyroidism group after treatment were higher than those in the cure and the transient hypothyroidism group (P the transient hypothyroidism group > the cure group. The results indicate that Th1 plays a predominant role in the pathogenesis of GD, in which the cytokines production is shifted toward the Th1 type. The patients with lower ratio of IL-2 to IL-10 and higher level of TNF-α occur hypothyroidism easily. (authors)

  17. The relationship of psychological factors to the prognosis of hyperthyroidism in antithyroid drug-treated patients with Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukao, Atsushi; Takamatsu, Junta; Murakami, Yasuhiro; Sakane, Sadaki; Miyauchi, Akira; Kuma, Kanji; Hayashi, Shunichiro; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2003-05-01

    The relationship between emotional stress and the onset of hyperthyroidism has been well investigated, but the relationship between psychological factors and prognosis of antithyroid drug-treated hyperthyroidism is not well known. This study has examined not only emotional stresses but also patients' personality traits using specific tests. A prospective cohort study. Sixty-nine patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease in the euthyroid state after 2-5 years of antithyroid drug therapy and 32 healthy subjects as the control group. Patients responded to three types of questionnaires, including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for personality traits, the Natsume's Stress Inventory for major life events, and the Hayashi's Daily Life Stress Inventory for daily life stresses. In the Graves' disease patients, stress scores of life events correlated significantly with serum TSH receptor antibody activity (r = 0.424, P thyroid volume (r = 0.480, P < 0.001). When the patients were divided according to prognosis (41 with relapse and 28 with remission), four personality traits including hypochondriasis, depression, paranoia and psychasthenia (mental fatigue) were significantly (P = 0.0146, 0.0052, 0.0125, and 0.0186, respectively) more common in the relapsed Graves' disease group than those of the remitted group. Six personality traits of conversion hysteria, psychopathic deviation, masculinity and feminity, schizophrenia, hypomania, and social introversion were not significantly different between the two groups. The scores of daily hassles (problems of daily life) were also significantly (P = 0.0124) greater in the relapsed Graves' disease group than in the remitted group. The scale scores of depression and psychasthenia showed a positive correlation with scores of daily hassles (r = 0.535, P < 0.0001; r = 0.580, P < 0.0001, respectively), while an inverse correlation with scores of daily uplifts (r = -0.373, P = 0.0332; r = -0.322, P = -0.0120, respectively

  18. Concomitant diseases and their effect on disease prognosis in Meniere's disease: diabetes mellitus identified as a negative prognostic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieskä, Teemu; Kotimäki, Jouko; Männikkö, Minna; Sorri, Martti; Hietikko, Elina

    2018-01-01

    To study comorbidities and their effect on the disease progression in Meniere's disease (MD). Retrospective study on 350 definite MD patients diagnosed according to AAO-HNS 1995 criteria using hospital records and postal questionnaire. The prevalence of migraine, hypothyroidism, allergies, coronary heart disease and autoimmune diseases was more common in MD patients than reported in the general population of Finland. Diabetes mellitus was associated with both more severe hearing impairment (p = .033) and more frequent vertigo (p = .028) in MD patients. The number of concomitant diseases was associated with more frequent vertigo (p = .021). A patient's concomitant diseases, especially diabetes, should be treated effectively because they might affect the progression of MD. Further studies on the effects of concomitant diseases on MD prognosis are needed.

  19. Expression of the Stem Cell Factor Nestin in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Is Associated with Poor Prognosis.

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    Svenja Thies

    Full Text Available The epithelioid and sarcomatoid histologic variants of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM can be considered as E- and M-parts of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT axis; the biphasic being an intermediate. EMT is associated with an increase of stem cell (SC traits. We correlated the neural crest SC marker nestin and the EMT marker periostin with histology, type of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (CT and overall survival (OS of MPM patients.Tumor tissues of a historic cohort 1 (320 patients and an intended induction chemotherapy followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP cohort 2 (145 patients were immunohistochemically H-scored (intensity of immunoreactivity multiplied by frequency of stained cells. Paired chemo-naïve biopsies and -treated surgical specimens were available for 105/145 patients. CT included platinum/gemcitabine (Pla/Gem or platinum/pemetrexed (Pla/Pem.Expression of any cytosolic nestin progressively increased from epithelioid to biphasic to sarcomatoid MPM in cohort 1, whereas the diagnostic markers calretinin and podoplanin decreased. In cohort 2, Pla/Pem CT increased the expression level of nestin in comparison to Pla/Gem, whereas the opposite was found for periostin. In Pla/Pem treated patients, nestin was higher in biphasic MPM compared to epithelioid. In addition to non-epithelioid histology, any expression of nestin in chemo-naïve biopsies (median overall survival: 22 vs. 17 months and chemo-treated surgical specimens (18 vs. 12 months as well as high periostin in biopsies (23 vs. 15 months were associated with poor prognosis. In the multivariate survival analysis, any nestin expression in chemo-naïve biopsies proved to be an independent prognosticator against histology. In both pre- and post-CT situations, the combination of nestin or periostin expression with non-epithelioid histology was particularly/ dismal (all p-values <0.05.The SC marker nestin and the EMT marker periostin allow for further prognostic

  20. Factors Affecting Turkish Students' Achievement in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil; Depren, Ozer

    2009-01-01

    Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…

  1. Factors Affecting Success of Training Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogala, Piotr; Batko, Roman; Wawak, Slawomir

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the key factors which influence the functioning quality and success of training companies. Based on an analysis of the requirements included in the quality management system standards for providers of education and training services, a set of twenty factors has been developed. This was followed by a survey for…

  2. Overexpression of GEFT, a Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factor, predicts poor prognosis in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Liu, Chunxia; Li, Shugang; Li, Hongan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yuwen; Li, Bingcheng; Cui, Xiaobin; Chen, Yunzhao; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is one of the most common soft-tissue sarcomas in children and adolescents with poor prognosis. Yet, there is lack of effective prognostic biomarkers for RMS. The present study, therefore, aimed to explore potential biomarkers for RMS based on our previous findings using array comparative genomic hybridization. We investigated guanine nucleotide exchange factor, GEFT, at expression level in 45 RMS patients and 36 normal striated muscle controls using immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. The expression rate of GEFT in RMS samples (42/45, 93.33%) was significantly higher (Prate of GEFT in RMS (31/45, 68.89%) was also significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in normal controls (0/36, 0.00%). Increased expression of GEFT correlated significantly with advanced disease stages (stages III/IV) (P=0.001), lymph node metastasis (P=0.019), and distant metastasis (P=0.004), respectively, in RMS patients. In addition, RMS patients having overexpressed GEFT experienced worse overall survival (OS) than those having low levels of GEFT (P=0.001). GEFT overexpression was determined to be an independent prognostic factor for poor OS in RMS patients (hazard ratio: 3.491, 95% confidence interval: 1.121-10.871, P=0.004). In conclusion, these observations provide the first evidence of GEFT overexpression in RMS and its correlations with disease aggressiveness and metastasis. These findings suggest that GEFT may serve as a promising biomarker predicting poor prognosis in RMS patients, thus implying its potential as a therapeutic target.

  3. Age-related macular disease : studies on incidence, risk factors, and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Leeuwen (Redmer)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAge-related macular disease (AMD) is a new name, recently coined by Bird,25 for a progressive and degenerative disease in elderly persons affecting the macula lutea. Dysfunction of this part of the retina, and especially its centre, the fovea, results in the inability to read,

  4. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid

  5. Factors affecting endoglucanase production by Trichoderma reesei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors involved in the screening process were peptone concentration, urea ... ammonium sulfate concentration, calcium nitrate concentration, yeast extract ... pH, incubation time, initial moisture content, inoculum size and substrate amount.

  6. The Factors affect equity investors in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Niavand

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial specialist conduct is a focal idea in the behavioral fund which breaks down the impact of different factors on singular value speculator basic leadership. The nature and centrality of these factors on financial specialist basic leadership can be unique and intriguing in different nations. This investigation, thusly, looks at the impact of financial, and behavioral, factors in molding the venture conduct of value speculators in India. The factor incorporates advocate suggestion, unbiased data, individual back requirements, bookkeeping data, established riches expansion and mental self-view/firm-picture incident. The examination found the solid impact of mental self-portrait/firm-picture occurrence, unbiased data, and supporter suggestion on value speculator basic leadership. While, no impacts of variables like great riches amplification, bookkeeping data, and individual budgetary needs are found on value financial specialist's basic leadership with regards to India.

  7. External risk factors affecting construction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia

    2017-11-01

    Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.

  8. Identifying the Prognosis Factors in Death after Liver Transplantation via Adaptive LASSO in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Raeisi Shahraki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread use of liver transplantation as a routine therapy in liver diseases, the effective factors on its outcomes are still controversial. This study attempted to identify the most effective factors on death after liver transplantation. For this purpose, modified least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO, called Adaptive LASSO, was utilized. One of the best advantages of this method is considering high number of factors. Therefore, in a historical cohort study from 2008 to 2013, the clinical findings of 680 patients undergoing liver transplant surgery were considered. Ridge and Adaptive LASSO regression methods were then implemented to identify the most effective factors on death. To compare the performance of these two models, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used. According to the results, 12 factors in Ridge regression and 9 ones in Adaptive LASSO regression were significant. The area under the ROC curve (AUC of Adaptive LASSO was equal to 89% (95% CI: 86%–91%, which was significantly greater than Ridge regression (64%, 95% CI: 61%–68% (p<0.001. As a conclusion, the significant factors and the performance criteria revealed the superiority of Adaptive LASSO method as a penalized model versus traditional regression model in the present study.

  9. Factors Affecting Organizational Commitment in Navy Corpsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Kewley, Stephanie; Dell'Acqua, Renée G; Thomsen, Cynthia J

    2017-07-01

    Organizational commitment is a psychological state that has a strong impact on the likelihood that employees will remain with an organization. Among military personnel, organizational commitment is predictive of a number of important outcomes, including reenlistment intentions, job performance, morale, and perceived readiness. Because of the unique challenges and experiences associated with military service, it may be that organizational commitment is even more critical in the military than in civilian populations. Despite the essential role that they play in protecting the health of other service members, little is known about the factors that influence Navy Corpsmen's organizational commitment. This study investigated demographic and psychosocial factors that may be associated with organizational commitment among Corpsmen. Surveys of organizational commitment and possible demographic and psychosocial correlates of organizational commitment were completed by 1,597 male, active duty Navy Corpsmen attending Field Medical Training Battalion-West, Camp Pendleton, California. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors of organizational commitment. Of the 12 demographic and psychosocial factors examined, 6 factors emerged as significant predictors of organizational commitment in the final model: preservice motivation to be a Corpsman, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, confidence regarding promotions, occupational self-efficacy, social support for a Corpsman career, and lower depression. Importantly, a number of the factors that emerged as significant correlates of organizational commitment in this study are potentially modifiable. These factors include confidence regarding promotions, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, and occupational self-efficacy. It is recommended that military leaders and policy-makers take concrete steps to address these factors, thereby strengthening

  10. Identifying factors affecting optimal management of agricultural water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2015-01-01

    In addition to quantitative methodology such as descriptive statistics and factor analysis a qualitative methodology was employed for dynamic simulation among variables through Vensim software. In this study, the factor analysis technique was used through the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett tests. From the results, four key elements were identified as factors affecting the optimal management of agricultural water in Hamedan area. These factors were institutional and legal factors, technical and knowledge factors, economic factors and social factors.

  11. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  12. Some factors affecting the distribution of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grainger, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The importance of the distribution of radon in the natural background radiation exposures for man is stressed. Factors which effect the distribution include the origin of the rocks, the permeability of the rocks, fractures in the rocks and ground water flow. (U.K.)

  13. Factors Affecting the Internal Audit Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mustika, Adhista Cahya

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the factors that influence the internal audit effectiveness, including internal auditor competencies, internal auditor independence, auditee support to internal audit activity, and the internal and external auditor relationship. Using the internal auditor inspectorate in Java Province, Indonesia, we found that the internal audit effectiveness can be attained through increase internal audit competence, independence and strong relationship between internal and external auditor....

  14. Nuclear factor-kappaB activation correlates with better prognosis and Akt activation in human gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Lan; Lee, Hye Seung; Jung, Jieun; Cho, Sung Jin; Chung, Hee-Yong; Kim, Woo Ho; Jin, Young-Woo; Kim, Chong Soon; Nam, Seon Young

    2005-04-01

    Because the biological significance of constitutive nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in human gastric cancer is unclear, we undertook this study to clarify the regulatory mechanism of NF-kappaB activation and its clinical significance. Immunohistochemistry for NF-kappaB/RelA was done on 290 human gastric carcinoma specimens placed on tissue array slides. The correlations between NF-kappaB activation and clinicopathologic features, prognosis, Akt activation, tumor suppressor gene expression, or Bcl-2 expression were analyzed. We also did luciferase reporter assay, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-PCR using the SNU-216 human gastric cancer cell line transduced with retroviral vectors containing constitutively active Akt or the NF-kappaB repressor mutant of IkappaBalpha. Nuclear expression of RelA was found in 18% of the gastric carcinomas and was higher in early-stage pathologic tumor-node-metastasis (P = 0.019). A negative correlation was observed between NF-kappaB activation and lymphatic invasion (P = 0.034) and a positive correlation between NF-kappaB activation and overall survival rate of gastric cancer patients (P = 0.0228). In addition, NF-kappaB activation was positively correlated with pAkt (P = 0.047), p16 (P = 0.004), adenomatous polyposis coli (P Smad4 (P = 0.002), and kangai 1 (P Akt. NF-kappaB activation was frequently observed in early-stage gastric carcinoma and was significantly correlated with better prognosis and Akt activation. These findings suggest that NF-kappaB activation is a valuable prognostic variable in gastric carcinoma.

  15. Epidemiology, risk factors and prognosis of Interferon alpha induced thyroid disorders. A Prospective Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Obołończyk

    2017-09-01

    In conclusion: Thyroid disorders are common during IFN-α therapy. Previous epidemiological data seem to be underestimated. Important risk factors for IITD development are: female sex, elevated serum TSH concentration (≥2.5 μU/mL, positive TPO-Ab and increased blood velocity in thyroid arteries.

  16. Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder : histopathological and biological factors and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F.M. Schapers

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe main purpose of the studies reported in this thesis has been to determine the extent to which the behaviour of TCC can be predicted by histopathological and biological characteristics. The potential additional prognostic value of these factors was evaluated by combining them with

  17. Review: Factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Bertelsen, Maja; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    and pigs’ earlier experience. Further, these primary factors are affected by secondary factors such as the shape of the pen, the weight of the pigs and especially the heat balance of the pigs, which is affected by several tertiary factors including, for example, temperature, humidity and draught. Results...

  18. Effect of postoperative adjuvant transarterial chemoembolization on postoperative survival of patients with liver cancer and related influencing factors for prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XING Zhixiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of postoperative adjuvant transarterial chemoembolization (TACE on the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, as well as influencing factors for prognosis. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 215 HCC patients who were admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 2007 to December 2012. According to whether TACE was given after hepatectomy, these patients were divided into single group with 95 patients and combination group with 120 patients. A comparative analysis was performed for the two groups. The patients in the single group were given hepatectomy alone, and those in the combination group were given hepatectomy followed by TACE at one month after surgery. General status, treatment condition, and related clinical indices were recorded for both groups, and the two groups were compared in terms of the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates and disease-free survival rates after surgery. The independent samples t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for comparison of survival rates between groups, and univariate analysis and Cox multivariate regression analysis were used to investigate the influencing factors for prognosis after hepatectomy. ResultsIn the combination group, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 96.5%, 67.0%, and 51.0%, respectively, with a median survival time of 51 months; in the single group, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 84.0%,49.5%, and 36.5%, respectively, with a median survival time of 39 months; there was a significant difference in survival rates between the two groups (χ2=5.540, P=0.018. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 91.7%, 62.5%, and 37.5%, respectively, in the combination group and 84.0%, 42.1%, and 26.3%, respectively, in the single

  19. Factors for poor prognosis of near-fatal asthma after recovery from a life-threatening asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Shin; Cho, Young Joo; Moon, Hee Bom; Cho, Sang Heon

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate poor prognostic factors associated with a near-fatal asthma attack following patient recovery. We enrolled 68 patients who suffered near-fatal asthma attacks and were admitted to the intensive care units of five university hospitals. The patients were divided into two groups. The first group was comprised of patients who discontinued oral corticosteroids within 6 months after being discharged from the hospital and who maintained a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) >/=60% of the maximum or estimated values of the corresponding patients. The second group included patients who continued on oral corticosteroids for >/=6 months or who maintained a FEV(1) asthma, factors for a poor prognosis included older age [48.47+/-3.53 vs. 64.69+/-2.59 years, pasthma, high values for inflammation-related laboratory markers (ESR, 8.75+/-2.05 vs. 23.88+/-4.40 mm/h, p=0.004; CRP, 1.72+/-0.46 vs. 6.68+/-9.36 mg/dL, pasthma exacerbated by pneumonia (28.1 vs. 52.8%, pasthma or the need for continual oral corticosteroids after being discharged from the hospital. Patients with these factors should be treated appropriately, under close surveillance.

  20. Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian University system. ... which mostly affect women‟s job performance in the Nigerian university system. ... are essential in building a gender-friendly university work environment.

  1. Factors Affecting the Thickness of Thermal Aureoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Annen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Intrusions of magma induce thermal aureoles in the country rock. Analytical solutions predict that the thickness of an aureole is proportional to the thickness of the intrusion. However, in the field, thermal aureoles are often significantly thinner or wider than predicted by simple thermal models. Numerical models show that thermal aureoles are wider if the heat transfer in the magma is faster than in the country rock due to contrasts in thermal diffusivities or the effect of magma convection. Large thermal aureoles can also be caused by repeated injection close to the contact. Aureoles are thin when heat transfer in the country rock is faster than heat transfer within the magma or in case of incrementally, slowly emplaced magma. Absorption of latent heat due to metamorphic reactions or water volatilization also affects thermal aureoles but to a lesser extent. The way these parameters affect the thickness of a thermal aureole depends on the isotherm under consideration, hence on which metamorphic phase is used to draw the limit of the aureole. Thermal aureoles provide insight on the dynamics of intrusions emplacement. Although available examples are limited, asymmetric aureoles point to magma emplacement by over-accretion for mafic cases and by under-accretion for felsic cases, consistent with geochronological data.

  2. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D A; Thayne, W V; Dailey, R A

    1985-07-01

    We conducted two studies to determine how herd management practices and traits of individual cows affect performance of the herd and of the cow within a herd. Management practices, reproductive performance of the herd, and relationships between management and reproductive performance were characterized on 83 dairy farms with 7596 cows. Data included 21 management variables (e.g., facilities, herd health program, estrous detection program) and 8 performance variables obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement or unofficial records (e.g., size of herd, production, days open). Although varying among herds, annual average herd incidences of reproductive disorders and reproductive performance were similar to those reported. Managerial practices influenced incidences of retained placenta and uterine infection, days open of cows not bred and of all cows, services per conception, and percentages of herd open more than 100 days and culled for low production. Veterinarian was the most consistent variable influencing herd reproductive performance. Data also were collected from production and lifetime records of 2532 cows in 19 herds. Reproductive performance was affected by season of calving, production, maturity, and reproductive disorders. Several cows with extremely poor reproductive records were maintained.

  3. Cutaneous and Mucosal Lichen Planus: A Comprehensive Review of Clinical Subtypes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that most often affects middle-aged adults. LP can involve the skin or mucous membranes including the oral, vulvovaginal, esophageal, laryngeal, and conjunctival mucosa. It has different variants based on the morphology of the lesions and the site of involvement. The literature suggests that certain presentations of the disease such as esophageal or ophthalmological involvement are underdiagnosed. The burden of the disease is higher in some variants including hypertrophic LP and erosive oral LP, which may have a more chronic pattern. LP can significantly affect the quality of life of patients as well. Drugs or contact allergens can cause lichenoid reactions as the main differential diagnosis of LP. LP is a T-cell mediated immunologic disease but the responsible antigen remains unidentified. In this paper, we review the history, epidemiology, and clinical subtypes of LP. We also review the histopathologic aspects of the disease, differential diagnoses, immunopathogenesis, and the clinical and genetic correlations. PMID:24672362

  4. Factors Affecting Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the factors influencing labour productivity in the manufacturing business sector in 20042008. Labour productivity was analyzed in the context of the assets productivity, technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, wages, value added and depreciation costs, and using linear stepwise regression. The study shows that despite significant progress, the level of labour productivity in domestic manufacturing significantly lower than the average in the European Union. Lower than in Poland, the level of labour productivity gain only companies in Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Estimated parameters of the regression function showed that the most important determinants of labour productivity in manufacturing are technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, assets productivity, level of added value in relation to revenues. These factors explain the variability of labour productivity in 20042008 in a high degree.

  5. Trust Factors Affecting Cooperation in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev; Haugbølle, Kim; Bejder, Erik

    2013-01-01

    advisor was carried out. The analysis showed that the ability to be trustful can be developed through the experience of different factors (e.g. control mechanisms, mutual respect, repeated cooperation, shared understanding and communication). Furthermore, the ability to trust other parties depends...... on knowledge of others' skillsets. Interdisciplinary collaboration through education would limit the formation of negative stereotypes and the overall trust level increases, due to more and better knowledge of other disciplines....

  6. Prognosis and related factors of HPV infections in postmenopausal Uyghur women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Shuang; Zhu, Mingyue; Jiao, Zhen; Han, Lili; Wang, Lin; Niyazi, Mayineur; Zhu, Kaichun

    2018-03-25

    With the aim to explore the characteristics of persistent HPV infections in postmenopausal Uyghur women and analyse the possible related risk factors, from September 2012 to September 2013; postmenopausal Uyghur women with HPV positive and pathologically diagnosed as non-cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions and non-cervical cancer were recruited. Their clinical course was closely followed up for 24-36 months, and the risk factors were analysed by a logistic regression model. One hundred and sixteen positive women were followed for 36 months. The total persistent HPV infection rate was 67.9%, and the type-specific persistent infection rate was 73.7% at 36 months. Nine (32.1%) women were naturally cleared of their HPV infection at 36 months. We found that an HPV16 infection and an HPV58 infection, and time since menopause over 2 years were closely related with a persistent HPV infection. More attention should be paid to the women above 2 years of menopause who were infected with HPV16 and HPV58 in their further cervical carcinoma screening. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Previous study revealed that menopause was a risk factor for a persistent HPV infection in Uyghur women. What do the results of this study add? The present study presented the characteristics of HPV persistent infection and the risk factors in Uyghur postmenopausal women. More attention should be paid to the women above 2 of years of menopause who are infected with HPV16 and HPV58. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? This study would offer a theoretical basis for a better screening design, especially the women above 2 years' menopause who have been infected with HPV16 and HPV58 in the Xinjiang region.

  7. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: risk factors, hospital course and prognosis; experiences at lady reading hospital Peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, I.; Shahzeb, A.; Shah, S.T.; Faheem, M.; Rafiullah, A.; Hafizullah, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the so-called risk factors associated with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM), its hospital course, short and long term mortality and outcome of subsequent pregnancies. Methodology: A total of 61 patients diagnosed with PPCM were enrolled in the study. Data regarding risk factors, presenting complaints, complications, pregnancy outcomes, therapeutics used and outcome at 3, 6 and 12 months were recorded. Results: The incidence was estimated to be 1 per 933 deliveries. Mean age +- SD was 30.94+-6.63 years. Majority of patients 33(54.1%) were obese. The mean parity was 3.66 +- 1.41. Other risk factors were chronic hypertension 19 (31.1%), pre-eclampsia 12 (19.7%) and multiple pregnancies 5(8.2%). Forty-three patients 43(70.5%) presented in post partum period while 18 (29.5%) in antepartum period. All patients presented with dyspnea. Main ECG findings were sinus tachycardia 39 (63.9%), LV hypertrophy 42 (68.9%) and T wave inversion 28(45.9%). Ejection fraction was universally reduced on echocardiography. There were 50(82%) live births and 11(18%) perinatal deaths. Main complications were pulmonary edema 7(11.5%), cardiogenic shock 8(13.1%) and thromboembolism 13(21.3%). At hospital discharge, 9 (14.8%) patients were dead and 52(85.2%) were discharged with stable heart failure. At 12 month follow up, a total of 20(32.8%) were dead while 32(52.5%) had recovered fully and 9(14.75%) were still suffering from heart failure. During follow up, only 8(19.5%) pregnancies were detected. Five (62.5%) patients had uneventful course while 3(37.5%) developed heart failure again. Conclusion: Peripartum cardiomyopathy is associated with multiple risk factors and carries high morbidity and mortality. (author)

  8. Obesity and smoking are factors associated with poor prognosis in patients with bacteraemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuento Risto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteraemia is still a major cause of case fatality in all age groups. Our aim was to identify the major underlying conditions constituting risk factors for case fatality in bacteraemia patients. Methods The study involved 149 patients (79 male and 70 female with bacteraemia caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus (41 patients, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Str. pneumoniae (42 patients, β-hemolytic streptococcae (β-hml str. (23 patients and Eschericia coli (E. coli (43 patients. Underlying diseases, alcohol and tobacco consumption and body mass index (BMI were registered. Laboratory findings and clinical data were registered on admission and 6 consecutive days and on day 10–14. Case fatality was studied within 30 days after positive blood culture. Associations between underlying conditions and case fatality were studied in univariate analysis and in a multivariate model. Results Nineteen patients (12.8% died of bacteraemia. We found obesity (p = 0.002, RR 9.8; 95% CI 2.3 to 41.3, smoking (p Conclusion Our results indicate that obesity and smoking are prominent risk factors for case fatality in bacteraemic patients. Identification of risk factors underlying fatal outcome in bacteraemia may allow targeting of preventive efforts to individuals likely to derive greatest potential benefit.

  9. Overview of factors affecting the leachability of nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of various factors that affect the leachability of nuclear waste forms is presented. The factors affect primarily the leaching system (temperature, for example), the leachant (pH, for example), or the solid being leached (surface condition, for example). A qualitative understanding exists of the major factors affecting leaching, but further studies are needed to establish leaching mechanisms and develop predictive models. 67 refs

  10. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Emma; Sadler, Jon P.; Telfer, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

  11. Factors affecting accelerated testing of polymer photostability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Jan; Pilař, Jan; Billingham, N. C.; Marek, Antonín; Horák, Zdeněk; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2006), s. 417-422 ISSN 0141-3910. [International Conference on Modification, Degradation, Stabilization Conference /3./. Lyon, 29.08.2004-02.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/1243; GA ČR GA202/01/0518; GA MŠk ME 543 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : photodegradation * photostabilization * testing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2006

  12. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    A review is given of the factors determining placental oxygen transfer and the oxygen supply to the fetus. In the case of continuous variables, such as the rate of placental blood flow, it is not possible to trace evolutionary trends. Discontinuous variables, for which we can define character sta......, where fetal and adult haemoglobin are not different, developmental regulation of 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate ensures the high oxygen affinity of fetal blood. Oxygen diffusing capacity is dependent on diffusion distance, which may vary with the type of interhaemal barrier. It has been shown...

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor in prognosis of splenic malignant tumours in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobczyńska-Rak Aleksandra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the levels of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the serum of dogs suffering from splenic malignant tumours, prior to splenectomy, as well as three and six months after the surgery. Tumours and blood samples were collected from 10 dogs of various breeds, aged between 7 and 13 years, and from 10 control animals. Tumour sections were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for 24 h. The type of tumour was determined according to the WHO classification. Blood samples were centrifuged and the obtained sera were subjected to immunoenzymatic assays to determine the VEGF levels. The median of VEGF levels in the serum of dogs suffering from splenic malignant tumours was 37.85 pg/mL (15.40-107.18 pg/mL. The highest values were observed in dogs with confirmed metastases (107.18 pg/mL and 65.43 pg/mL. The VEGF values in control group were between 0.1 pg/mL and 13.04 pg/mL. A comparative analysis of the VEGF levels against the animals' survival time indicated that VEGF overexpression may serve as a prognostic factor in cases of malignant tumours of the spleen.

  14. Factors affecting membership in specialty nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary Joe; Olson, Rhonda S

    2004-01-01

    A discouraging trend in many specialty nursing organizations is the stagnant or declining membership. The research committee of the Southeast Texas Chapter of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN) collected data and studied this trend to determine what changes would be necessary to increase membership. Using Herzberg's motivational theory as a framework, a review of the literature was initiated. There were few current studies on this issue, but relevant information was found about nursing's emerging workforce, as well as implications of the growth of magnet hospitals, which affect whether nurses join specialty nursing organizations. A multifaceted data-collection approach using convenience samples was designed. First, relevant literature was reviewed. Second, a survey was sent by e-mail to other ARN chapters. Third, a telephone survey on other specialty organizations in the geographic region was completed. Finally, members of the local ARN chapter and four other specialty organizations, as well staff nurses in the geographic area, were given questionnaires to complete. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to determine why nurses do and do not join specialty organizations (N = 81). The most frequent reasons for joining an organization were to increase knowledge, benefit professionally, network, and earn continuing education units. Reasons for choosing not to participate were family responsibilities, lack of information about these organizations, and lack of time. Ways to reverse the decline in membership are discussed.

  15. Incidence, risk factors, and prognosis of gastrointestinal hemorrhage complicating acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaccadori, E; Maggiore, U; Clima, B; Melfa, L; Rotelli, C; Borghetti, A

    2001-04-01

    Few prospective data are currently available on acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage (AGIH) as a complication of acute renal failure (ARF). The aim of the present study was to define incidence, sources, risk factors, and outcome of AGIH in patients with ARF. We performed a prospective study on an inception cohort of 514 patients admitted for ARF to a nephrology intermediate care unit. Data on clinical risk factors for bleeding, frequency of occurrence of AGIH, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality were collected. Independent predictors of AGIH were identified. The relative odds of death and the relative increase in length of hospital stay associated with AGIH were calculated after adjusting for baseline comorbidities. Sixty-nine patients out of 514 [13.4% (95% CI, 10.6 to 16.7)] had AGIH as a complication of ARF; 59 were upper AGIH. Forty patients had clinically important bleeding. Erosions and/or ulcers accounted for 71% of cases of upper AGIH. Independent baseline predictors of AGIH were represented by severity of illness [odds ratio 1.45 (95% CI, 1.05 to 2.01) for every 10 point increase in APACHE II score], low platelet count [<50,000 mm3; 3.71 (1.70 to 8.11)], noncirrhotic chronic hepatic disease [2.22 (1.09 to 4.55)], liver cirrhosis [3.38 (1.50 to 7.60)], de novo ARF [2.77 (1.30 to 5.90)], and severe ARF [2.07 (1.10 to 3.88)]. In-hospital mortality was 63.8% in patients with AGIH and 34.2% in the other patients; after adjusting for baseline confounders, AGIH remained significantly associated with an increase in both mortality [2.57 (1.30 to 5.09), P = 0.006] and length of hospital stay [37% (1 to 87%), P = 0.047]. AGIH and clinically important bleeding are frequent complications of ARF. In this clinical condition, AGIH is more often due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is associated with a significantly increased risk of death and length of hospital stay. Both renal and extrarenal risk factors are related to the occurrence of AGIH.

  16. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan FERENCZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  17. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin . Methods: ... methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were ... The high performance liquid chromatography ..... Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Investigate Regional.

  18. Ranking and evaluating the factors affecting the success of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ranking and evaluating the factors affecting the success of management team in construction projects. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home ... The project management team is one of these important factors.

  19. Factors affecting the organization and management of emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting the organization and management of emergency mass casualty ... service all under a unified command of leadership with a specified job description. Factors identified were: Political will, human resource planning, appropriate ...

  20. Factors affecting radiocaesium transfer to ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Howard, B.J.; Vandecasteele, C.; Mayes, R.W.; Belli, M.; Sansone, U.; Stakelum, G.; Colgan, P.A.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Crout, N.M.J.; Jones, B.E.V., Hove, K.; ITE, Merlewood; CEN, Mol; MLURI, Aberdeen; ENEA-DISP, Rome; MPRC, Fermoy; RPII, Dublin; Ioannina Univ., Nuclear Physics; Nottingham Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala; Agricultural Univ., Aas

    1993-01-01

    The studies performed in the 2 year CEG/DG XII Radiation Protection Programme described here have tried to identify and quantify some of the most important factors influencing the radiocaesium levels in animal food products. The programme involved 9 laboratories in 6 countries: Belgium, Ireland, Greece, Italy, Sweden and the UK. Scientists from Norway and Germany also participated on an informal basis and are formally involved in a subsequent project. Experimental studies have largely been conducted using sheep, although some comparative studies have been performed with dairy cattle. In parallel to the experimental studies, a number of research models have been developed by participants in Greece and the UK to be interactively used with a number of different aspects in the programme. This presentation gives a short overview and discussion of the main findings of this project. (orig./DG)

  1. Experimental Study of Factors Affecting Soil Erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, G. A.; Bushueva, O. G.; Gorobets, A. V.; Dobrovolskaya, N. G.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Litvin, L. F.; Maksimova, I. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of different factors and preparation conditions of monofraction samples from the arable horizon of leached chernozem on soil erodibility and its relationship with soil tensile strength (STS) has been studied. The exposure of samples at 38°C reduces their erodibility by two orders of magnitude. The drying of samples, on the contrary, increases their erodibility. It has been shown that erodibility decreases during the experiment. It has been found that the inoculation of soil with yeast cultures ( Naganishia albida, Lipomyces tetrasporus) reliably increases the STS value in 1.5-1.9 times. The sterile soil is eroded more intensively than the unsterile soil: at 4.9 and 0.3 g/(m2 s), respectively. The drying of soil followed by wetting to the initial water content (30%) has no significant effect on the STS value in almost all experimental treatments.

  2. Tumor hypoxia adversely affects the prognosis of carcinoma of the head and neck and soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizel, David M.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Sibley, Gregory S.; Scully, Sean P.; Harrelson, John M.; Scher, Richard L.; Prosnitz, Leonard R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose The development of modern polarographic electrode technology has led to a resurgence in the clinical assessment of tumor oxygenation. Tumor hypoxia adversely affects short term clinical radiation response of head and neck cancer lymph node metastases and long term disease-free survival (DFS) in cervix carcinoma. This study was performed to evaluate the influence that tumor hypoxia exerts on the DFS of patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and squamous carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Methods and Materials Pretreatment tumor pO 2 was assessed in STS and SCCHN patients using the Eppendorf polarographic electrode system. pO 2 probe placement was performed under CT scan guidance to ensure that measurements were obtained only from the tumor and in order to avoid measurement through areas of overt necrosis. A minimum of 3 measurement tracks that ranged in length from 10-35 mm was obtained from each tumor. A minimum of 100 measured points was taken from each tumor. All SCCHN patients had pO 2 measurements taken from locally advanced primaries (T3 or T4) or neck nodes ≥ 1.5 cm diameter. Treatment consisted of once or twice daily irradiation (70-75 Gy) +/- planned neck dissection (for ≥N2A disease) according to institutional treatment protocols. All STS patients had high grade tumors and received preoperative irradiation (2 Gy/day to 50 Gy) + hyperthermia followed by resection. DFS was measured by the Kaplan-Meier product limit method. The log rank technique was used to compare the DFS of different groups of patients. Single factor analysis of variance was used to compare tumor median pO 2 and tumor volume (STS) or stage (SCCHN) in those patients who relapsed versus those who did not. Correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relationship between tumor volume and tumor oxygenation. Results Since November, 1992, 28 SCCHN and 33 STS patients have undergone tumor pO 2 measurement and have minimum followup of 6 months. The actuarial DFS at 12

  3. Prognosis and risk factors for deterioration in patients admitted to a medical emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Brabrand, Mikkel; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg

    2014-01-01

    vital signs at arrival to a medical emergency department (MED). DESIGN AND SETTING: Single-centre, retrospective cohort study of all patients admitted to the MED from September 2010-August 2011. SUBJECTS: Patients were included when their vital signs (systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory.......2-3.0%) among the non-deteriorating, hazard ratio 4.11 (95% CI: 2.38-7.10). CONCLUSIONS: Among acutely admitted medical patients who arrive with normal vital signs, 31.0% showed signs of deterioration within 24 hours. Risk factors included old age, Do-not-attempt-to-resuscitate order, admission from the open...... general ED. Thirty-day mortality among patients with deterioration was four times higher than among non-deteriorating patients. Further research is needed to determine whether intensified monitoring of vital signs can help to prevent deterioration or mortality among medical emergency patients....

  4. Prognosis and treatment of pancreaticoduodenal traumatic injuries: which factors are predictors of outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonacci, Nicola; Di Saverio, Salomone; Ciaroni, Valentina; Biscardi, Andrea; Giugni, Aimone; Cancellieri, Francesco; Coniglio, Carlo; Cavallo, Piergiorgio; Giorgini, Eleonora; Baldoni, Franco; Gordini, Giovanni; Tugnoli, Gregorio

    2011-03-01

    Abdominal trauma rarely causes injuries involving the duodenum and pancreas. Associated injuries occur in 46% of all pancreatic injuries. The morbidity and mortality of pancreaticoduodenal injuries remain high. The present study is a retrospective review of our experience from 1989 to 2008 in the surgical treatment of traumatic pancreaticoduodenal injuries. Mortality, morbidity, prognostic factors, and the value of surgical techniques were analyzed. In our level I Trauma Center, between 1989 and 2008, 55 patients had a pancreaticoduodenal injury. In 68.5% of cases pancreatic injuries were found, 20.4% had duodenal injury, and 11.1% suffered combined pancreaticoduodenal injuries; 85.3% of the patients had blunt abdominal trauma, while 14.9% had penetrating injuries. We treated 78.1% of the patients with external drainage and/or simple suture; distal pancreatectomy was performed in 9% of cases and duodenal resection with anastomosis (3.7%) and diversion procedures (3.7%) were performed in an equal number of patients. Age, American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grade, organ involved, hemodynamic status, intraoperative cardiac arrest, and operative time remained strongly predictive of mortality on multivariate analysis. The AAST grade represented, on multivariate analysis, the only independent prognostic factor predictive of overall morbidity. In the past decade we have used feeding jejunostomy more frequently, with a reduction of mortality and operating time, due also to a better approach from a dedicated trauma team. Optimal management and better outcome of pancreaticoduodenal injuries seem to be associated with shorter operative time, and with simple and fast damage control surgery (DCS), in contrast to definitive surgical procedures.

  5. Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinomas with Central Bile Duct Invasion: Safety, Prognosis, and Predictive Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Chung, Jin Wook, E-mail: chungjw@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yun Ku [VHS Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo assess the safety and effectiveness of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of patients who have hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with central bile duct invasion.Materials and MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. Fifty-three patients, initially treated with TACE for HCCs with central bile duct invasion from January 1999 to September 2012, were included. Clinical, laboratory, and survival data were reviewed. Complications and hospitalization length were evaluated using the χ{sup 2} test, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression analysis. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method with log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard model.ResultsSeven patients experienced TACE-related major complications (severe post-embolization syndrome in 3, non-fatal sepsis in 3, and secondary bacterial peritonitis in 1). The overall major complication rate was 13.2 %, but there were no permanent adverse sequelae or deaths within 30 days. Serum total bilirubin ≥3.0 mg/dL was the only significant risk factor for long hospitalization [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.341, p = .022]. The median survival was 12.2 months. Extrahepatic metastasis (HR = 6.145, p < .001), international normalized ratio (PT-INR) ≥1.20 (HR = 4.564, p < .001), vascular invasion (HR = 3.484, p = .001), and intermediate tumor enhancement (HR = 2.417, p = .019) were significantly associated with shorter survival.ConclusionTACE can be a safe and effective treatment for patients who have HCCs with central bile duct invasion. In particular, long-term survival can be expected if patients have strongly enhancing tumors without poor prognostic factors such as extrahepatic metastasis, PT-INR prolongation, and vascular invasion.

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor and B7-H3 expression in esophageal squamous tissues correlate to patient prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song J

    2016-10-01

    correlated with EGFR (relative risk =1.853, 1.875, respectively and B7-H3 (relative risk =1.886, 2.061, respectively (all P<0.05 expression level. Thus, EGFR and B7-H3 are highly expressed in tumor tissues of patients with ESCC. Their expression levels are correlated with tumor severity and survival, and therefore these may be viable biomarkers to aid in prognosis determination. Keywords: esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, epidermal growth factor receptor, costimulatory molecule B7-H3, prognosis, immunohistochemistry

  7. Factors Affecting Hypertension among the Malaysian Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ataollahi Eshkoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common chronic disease in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, nutritional parameters, and blood elements on the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. This research was conducted on a group of 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of hypertension in respondents. Approximately, 45.61% of subjects had hypertension. The findings indicated that the female gender (Odds ratio (OR = 1.54, an increase in body weight (OR = 1.61, and an increase in the blood levels of albumin (OR = 1.51, glucose (OR = 1.92, and triglycerides (OR = 1.27 significantly increased the risk of hypertension in subjects (p < 0.05. Conversely, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates (OR = 0.74, and blood cholesterol level (OR = 0.42 significantly reduced the risk of hypertension in samples (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that ethnicity was a non-relevant factor to increase the risk of hypertension in subjects. It was concluded that female gender, an increase in body weight, and an increase in the blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, and albumin enhanced the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. In addition, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates and blood cholesterol level decreased hypertension in subjects.

  8. Factors Affecting Patient Satisfaction During Endoscopic Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M. O.; Shafqat, F.; Ahmed, S.; Niazi, T. K.; Khokhar, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality and patient satisfaction in Endoscopy Unit of Shifa International Hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Division of Gastroenterology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Quality and patient satisfaction after the endoscopic procedure was assessed using a modified GHAA-9 questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 1028 patients were included with a mean age of 45 A+- 14.21 years. Out of all the procedures, 670 (65.17%) were gastroscopies, 181 (17.60%) were flexible sigmoidoscopies and 177 (17.21%) were colonoscopies. The maximum unsatisfactory responses were on the waiting time before the procedure (13.13 %), followed by unsatisfactory explanation of the procedure and answers to questions (7.58%). Overall, unsatisfied impression was 4.86%. The problem rate was 6.22%. Conclusion: The quality of procedures and level of satisfaction of patients undergoing a gastroscopy or colonoscopy was generally good. The factors that influence the satisfaction of these patients are related to communication between doctor and patient, doctor's manner and waiting time for the procedure. Feedback information in an endoscopy unit may be useful in improving standards, including the performance of endoscopists. (author)

  9. Expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor correlates with prognosis in oral and mesopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, H; Fujieda, S; Sunaga, H; Noda, I; Saito, H

    1998-02-15

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptors (G-CSFRs) have been observed on the surface of not only hematopoietic cells but also several cancer cells. The stimulation of G-CSF has been demonstrated to induce proliferation and activation of G-CSFR-positive cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of G-CSFR on the surface of tumor cells and G-CSF production in oral and mesopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by an immunohistochemical approach. Of 58 oral and mesopharyngeal SCCs, 31 cases (53.4%) and 36 cases (62.1%) were positive for G-CSFR and G-CSF, respectively. There was no association between G-CSFR expression and G-CSF staining. In the group positive for G-CSFR expression, relapse was significantly more likely after primary treatment (P = 0.0069), whereas there was no association between G-CSFR expression and age, sex, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage. Also, the G-CSFR-positive groups had a significantly lower disease-free and overall survival rate than the G-CSFR-negative groups (P = 0.0172 and 0.0188, respectively). However, none of the clinical markers correlated significantly with G-CSF staining, nor did the status of G-CSF production influence the overall survival. The results imply that assessment of G-CSFR may prove valuable in selecting patients with oral and mesopharyngeal SCC for aggressive therapy.

  10. Divergent effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression on prognosis of estrogen receptor positive versus triple negative invasive ductal breast carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Hermien; Horlings, Hugo M; van der Vegt, Bert; Kreike, Bas; Ajouaou, Abderrahim; van de Vijver, Marc J; Boezen, Hendrika; de Bock, Geertruida H; van der Graaf, Wilhelmina; Wesseling, Jelle

    2011-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF1R) is involved in progression of breast cancer and resistance to systemic treatment. Targeting IGF1R signaling may, therefore, be beneficial in systemic treatment. We report the effect of IGF1R expression on prognosis in invasive ductal breast

  11. Factors affecting mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczak, Andrew M; Ranheim, Birgit; Fosse, Torunn K; Hild, Sophie; Nordgreen, Janicke; Moe, Randi O; Zanella, Adroaldo J

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the stability and repeatability of measures of mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets and to examine potentially confounding factors when using a hand held algometer. Descriptive, prospective cohort. Forty-four piglets from four litters, weighing 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) at 2 weeks of age. Mechanical thresholds were measured twice on each of 2 days during the first and second week of life. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design to test the effects of behavior prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, and repetition within day. The effect of body weight and the interaction between piglet weight and behaviour were also tested. Piglet was entered into the model as a random effect as an additional test of repeatability. The effect of repeated testing was used to test the stability of measures. Pearson correlations between repeated measures were used to test the repeatability of measures. Variance component analysis was used to describe the variability in the data. Variance component analysis indicated that piglet explained only 17% of the variance in the data. All variables in the model (behaviour prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, repetition within day, body weight, the interaction between body weight and behaviour, piglet identity) except sex had a significant effect (p testing and measures changed with repeated testing and increased with increasing piglet weight, indicating that time (age) and animal body weight should be taken into account when measuring mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. Mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds can be used both for testing the efficacy of anaesthetics and analgesics, and for assessing hyperalgesia in chronic pain states in research and clinical settings. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  12. Obesity might be a good prognosis factor for COPD patients using domiciliary noninvasive mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altinoz H

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hilal Altinoz,1 Nalan Adiguzel,2 Cuneyt Salturk,2 Gokay Gungor,2 Ozlem Mocin,2 Huriye Berk Takir,2 Feyza Kargin,2 Merih Balci,2 Oner Dikensoy,1 Zuhal Karakurt2 1Pulmonary Division, Acibadem University School of Medicine, 2Sureyyapasa Thoracic Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: Cachexia is known to be a deteriorating factor for survival of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but data related to obesity are limited. We observed that obese patients with COPD prescribed long-term noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV had better survival rate compared to nonobese patients. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective observational cohort study. Archives of Thoracic Diseases Training Hospital were sought between 2008 and 2013. All the subjects were prescribed domiciliary NIMV for chronic respiratory failure secondary to COPD. Subjects were grouped according to their body mass index (BMI. The first group consisted of subjects with BMI between 20 and 30 kg/m2, and the second group consisted of subjects with BMI >30 kg/m2. Data obtained at the first month’s visit for the following parameters were recorded: age, sex, comorbid diseases, smoking history, pulmonary function test, 6-minute walk test (6-MWT, and arterial blood gas analysis. Hospital admissions were recorded before and after the domiciliary NIMV usage. Mortality rate was searched from the electronic database. Overall, 118 subjects were enrolled. Thirty-eight subjects had BMI between 20 and 30 kg/m2, while 80 subjects had BMI >30 kg/m2. The mean age was 65.8±9.4 years, and 81% were male. The median follow-up time was 26 months and mortality rates were 32% and 34% for obese and nonobese subjects (P=0.67. Improvement in 6-MWT was protective against mortality. In conclusion, survival of obese patients with COPD using domiciliary NIMV was found to be better than those of nonobese patients, and the improvement in 6-MWT in such

  13. Perceived Factors Affecting Performance Of Extension Workers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on perceived factors affecting performance of extension workers in Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected from 83 Extension agents from the Imo State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). Results of the study revealed that the organizational factors that affect performance are ...

  14. Factors affecting the runoff response of watersheds to precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    DROZDOVÁ, Martina

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the factors that affect the drainage basin of the response. It contains a literature review, which deals with the hydrological cycle characteristics of precipitation, surface runoff and flood and erosion protection. The aim of the work is to evaluate the factors that adversely affect the runoff from the catchment.

  15. Factors Affecting Prenatal Care Utilization in East Wollega Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to identify factors affecting utilization of prenatal care and skilled birth attendant in East Wollega zone. Prenatal care and skilled birth attendant are crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn and help the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, ...

  16. The relationship between affective factors and the academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between affective factors and the academic achievement of students at the University of Venda. To this end, self-concept, motivation and attitude are the affective factors selected for the study. The general aim of the study is to determine the role of self-concept, ...

  17. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in prognosis coronary artery disease in patients with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Viktorovna Shpagina

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: 1. IGF-1 may be a useful indicator to assess the prognosis of CAD and CHF in patients with obesity. 2. Relative GH deficiency was more often associated with severe CAD in patients with obesity.

  18. Pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism is associated with gastric cancer prognosis and might affect mature let-7a expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ying Li, Qian Xu, Jingwei Liu, Caiyun He, Quan Yuan, Chengzhong Xing, Yuan Yuan Tumor Etiology and Screening Department of Cancer Institute and General Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, and Key Laboratory of Cancer Etiology and Prevention (China Medical University, Liaoning Provincial Education Department, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The relationship between the pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism and gastric cancer (GC risk has been reported. However, the role of this polymorphism in the prognosis of GC remains largely elusive. Sequenom MassARRAY platform method and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism were used to investigate pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 G→A in 334 GC patients. Real-time PCR detected expression of mature let-7a in serum and tissue. Patients with AA or GA+AA genotypes of the pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism demonstrated significantly longer survival time than those with the wild GG genotype. Stratified analysis indicated that survival time was significantly longer in women with AA or GA+AA genotypes and in Borrmann type I/II patients with GA heterozygote or GA+AA genotypes. AA genotype was more frequent in the lymphatic-metastasis-negative subgroup. Serum mature let-7a expression in healthy people with the GA heterozygote and the GA+AA genotype was higher than in those with the GG genotype, and the difference remained significant in the female healthy subgroup. Pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism might be a biomarker for GC prognosis, especially for female and Borrmann type I/II patients. The pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism might affect serum mature let-7a expression, and partly explain the mechanism of the relationship between the pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism and GC survival. Keywords: miRNA, let-7a, polymorphism, gastric cancer, prognosis, expression

  19. Risk factors affecting survival in heart transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenar, L; Cardo, M L; Martínez-Dolz, L; García-Palomar, C; Rueda, J; Zorio, E; Arnau, M A; Osa, A; Palencia, M

    2005-11-01

    Certain cardiovascular risk factors have been linked to morbidity and mortality in heart transplant (HT) patients. The sum of various risk factors may have a large cumulative negative effect, leading to a substantially worse prognosis and the need to consider whether HT is contraindicated. The objective of this study was to determine whether the risk factors usually available prior to HT result in an excess mortality in our setting that contraindicates transplantation. Consecutive patients who underwent heart transplantation from November 1987 to January 2004 were included. Heart-lung transplants, retransplants, and pediatric transplants were excluded. Of the 384 patients, 89% were men. Mean age was 52 years (range, 12 to 67). Underlying disease included ischemic heart disease (52%), idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (36%), valvular disease (8%), and other (4%). Variables considered risk factors were obesity (BMI >25), dyslipidemia, hypertension, prior thoracic surgery, diabetes, and history of ischemic heart disease. Survival curves by number of risk factors using Kaplan-Meier and log-rank for comparison of curves. Overall patient survival at 1, 5, 10, and 13 years was 76%, 68%, 54%, and 47%, respectively. Survival at 10 years, if fewer than two risk factors were present, was 69%; 59% if two or three factors were present; and 37% if more than three associated risk factors were present (P = .04). The presence of certain risk factors in patients undergoing HT resulted in lower survival rates. The combination of various risk factors clearly worsened outcomes. However, we do not believe this should be an absolute contraindication for transplantation.

  20. Uveal melanoma: Estimating prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Kaliki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the eye in adults, predominantly found in Caucasians. Local tumor control of uveal melanoma is excellent, yet this malignancy is associated with relatively high mortality secondary to metastasis. Various clinical, histopathological, cytogenetic features and gene expression features help in estimating the prognosis of uveal melanoma. The clinical features associated with poor prognosis in patients with uveal melanoma include older age at presentation, male gender, larger tumor basal diameter and thickness, ciliary body location, diffuse tumor configuration, association with ocular/oculodermal melanocytosis, extraocular tumor extension, and advanced tumor staging by American Joint Committee on Cancer classification. Histopathological features suggestive of poor prognosis include epithelioid cell type, high mitotic activity, higher values of mean diameter of ten largest nucleoli, higher microvascular density, extravascular matrix patterns, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, tumor-infiltrating macrophages, higher expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, and higher expression of human leukocyte antigen Class I and II. Monosomy 3, 1p loss, 6q loss, and 8q and those classified as Class II by gene expression are predictive of poor prognosis of uveal melanoma. In this review, we discuss the prognostic factors of uveal melanoma. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms "uvea," "iris," "ciliary body," "choroid," "melanoma," "uveal melanoma" and "prognosis," "metastasis," "genetic testing," "gene expression profiling." Relevant English language articles were extracted, reviewed, and referenced appropriately.

  1. Risk factors associated with prognosis of progressive stages of acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YE Peiyan

    2013-04-01

    level, TBil level, and Alb level as potential risk factors of death. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that colonic enema, hepatic encephalopathy, disease stage, WBC level, TBil level, and CHE level were associated with patient survival during the hospitalization period. ConclusionCHB patients with early ACLF have better prognosis than those with mid or late ACLF. Baseline levels of WBC, TBil, CHE, and Alb may influence a patient’s survival, regardless of ACLF stage. Supplemental treatment by colonic enema led to improved rates of survival in the ACLF patients.

  2. Concurrent infection of hepatitis B virus negatively affects the clinical outcome and prognosis of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV is hepatotropic and lymphotropic. HBV-infected individuals have an increased risk of developing malignant lymphoma, and the HBV infection rate in lymphoma patients is significantly higher than that in the general population. However, the exact mechanism and correlation between HBV infection and lymphoma onset and progression currently remain unclear. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL patients with different HBV infection statuses. The results showed that the HBV infection rate was significantly higher in patients with B-cell type and late stage of NHL. The chemotherapy efficacy for NHL patients with chronic active HBV infection was significantly lower than that for the patients with chronic inactive HBV infection, the patients with HBV carriers and the patients without HBV infection. In addition, the NHL chemotherapy activated HBV replication and caused significant liver dysfunction, which could further reduce the chemotherapy efficacy. Through Kaplan-Meier survival curve and log-rank analysis, we found that the HBV infection status in NHL patients was significantly correlated with the patients' progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS. Compared with the patients without HBV infection (PFS: 95% CI 47.915 to 55.640; OS: 95% CI 81.324 to 86.858, the PFS and OS of the patients with chronic active HBV infection were significantly shorter (PFS: 95% CI 9.424 to 42.589, P < 0.001; OS: 95% CI 42.840 to 82.259, P = 0.006. The study demonstrated that the sustained HBV replication in patients with chronic active HBV infection could be a key factor that influences the prognosis of NHL patients after chemotherapy, and thus may provide information for designing rational clinical treatments for NHL patients with different HBV infection statuses and improve the treatment efficacy and prognosis.

  3. Association of TNF polymorphisms with sarcoidosis, its prognosis and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in Asian Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Ghosh, B; Sharma, S K

    2008-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, an important proinflammatory cytokine, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis, a multi-systemic granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. Here, we report for the first time the association of TNF haplotypes and genotypes with sarcoidosis and its prognosis in the Indian population. Five potentially functional promoter polymorphisms in the TNFA gene and a LTA_NcoI polymorphism (+252 position) of the LTA gene were genotyped in a clinically well-defined cohort of North-Indian patients with sarcoidosis (n = 96) and their regional controls (n = 155). Serum TNF-α (sTNF-α) and serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) levels were measured and correlated with genotypes and haplotypes. The TNFA_-1031 and TNFA_-863 polymorphisms were identified as markers for disease onset (FET P = 0·006 and 0·042 for TNFA_-1031 and TNFA_-863, respectively). Additionally, the allele A of LTA_NcoI polymorphism was shown to be prevalent in the ‘no treatment’ group (FET P = 0·005), while the G allele was associated with frequent relapses on drug withdrawal (P = 0·057). Furthermore, the TNFA-308G>A and the TNFA-238G>A polymorphisms were found to influence sTNF-α (P = 0·054 and 0·0005, respectively) and SACE levels (P = 0·0017 and 0·056, respectively). The haplotype frequencies were significantly different in the patients and the controls (P = 0·0067). The haplotype GTCCGG was identified as the major risk/susceptibility haplotype (P = 0·003) and was associated with increased SACE levels in the patient population. In conclusion, our study suggests an association of TNF polymorphisms with sarcoidosis. PMID:18062795

  4. Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ( Coffea robusta ... of coffee in the study area was poor pricing and marketing systems; this is as a ... of quality control and relevant information on improved coffee technologies.

  5. Factors Affecting Behaviours that address HIV Risk among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction ... Main outcome measures: Sexual behavior and condom use, knowledge about ... attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS ...

  6. Motivation factors affecting employees job performance in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivation can be intrinsic, such as satisfaction and feelings of achievement; or extrinsic, such as rewards, punishment, and goal obtainment. The study assessed the motivating factors affecting the job performance of two oil palm companies' ...

  7. Factors that affect South African Reading Literacy Achievement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that affect South African Reading Literacy Achievement: evidence from prePIRLS 2011. ... achievement among Grade 4 learners in South Africa by utilising aspects of Carroll's model of school learning. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Multiple factors affecting South African anchovy recruitment in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple factors affecting South African anchovy recruitment in the spawning, transport and nursery. ... and are inversely linked to high rates of gonad atresia in anchovy and reduced subsequent recruitment. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Identifying factors affecting destination choice of medical tourists: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical tourism”, has emerged as a new source of competitive advantage all over the world. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect destination choice of medical tourists. Methods: We systematically searched relevant databases ...

  10. Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective service to pre and ... Small, micro and medium entrepreneurs play an important role in economic ... such as production, marketing and management to adequately service the ...

  11. Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts in Merinos divergently selected for reproduction. ... The fixed effect of birth year x sex interaction was significant, with rams showing higher mean values for FWEC than ewes ...

  12. Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of Smallholders ... socio-economic characteristics which influence technical efficiency in maize production. ... Ministry of Agriculture and livestock, records, books, reports and internet.

  13. Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to antihypertensive medications and blood pressure control among patients attending the family practice clinic in a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria.

  14. An Initial Investigation of Factors Affecting Multi-Task Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Branscome, Tersa A; Swoboda, Jennifer C; Fatkin, Linda T

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first in a series of investigations designed to increase fundamental knowledge and understanding of the factors affecting multi-task performance in a military environment...

  15. Factors Affecting Community Participation in O and OD Planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Community Participation in O and OD Planning and ... great success at start but later dropped in number of cattle taken for dipping. ... and to establish the measures taken by the district leadership in addressing the problems.

  16. Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. ... Two hundred maize marketers were selected from Vandeikya Local Area (LGA) of ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  17. Factors affecting the adoption and diffusion of Internet in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa ... Factors affecting the adoption and diffusion of Internet in higher educational institutions in Kenya ... communication Technologies (ICTs) such as the Internet, Learning ...

  18. factors affecting antenatal care service utilization in yem special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jhon

    assess antenatal care utilization and factors that affect it in Yem Special Woreda, South Western Ethiopia. METHODS: A ... A pre-tested structured questionnaire consisting of information on socio- ..... model and access to medical care: does it.

  19. Determining the Factors Affecting Labor Productivity of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdanur Dikmen

    2016-12-01

    Results: It was found that the 45.5% of nurses participated in the study were in the 23-53 age group, 79.5% were women, 76.9% married, 41.1% associate degree graduates. 42.3% of nurses' durations of professional experience were 0-5 years, 22.4% of nurses were clinical chief, 69.2% were working as shifts. Participants believe that the factors affecting the labor productivity were respectively organizational factors, ergonomic factors and personal factors. When organizational factors was examined; nurses stated that the lack of working personnel in the section, the low wages and unequal wages for the same work, the long working hours and the system which based on personal relations instead of merit were affecting productivity. The factors affecting labor productivity of nurses were not different according to age, gender, education level and marital status (p>0.05, but different according to mode of operation and years of experience (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to this study, it was found that there are many factors that affect the efficiency of the nurses. The most important factors affecting nurses' efficiency were determined as wage and working conditions. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(4.000: 334-342

  20. The quantum walk search algorithm: Factors affecting efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lovett, Neil B.; Everitt, Matthew; Heath, Robert M.; Kendon, Viv

    2011-01-01

    We numerically study the quantum walk search algorithm of Shenvi, Kempe and Whaley [PRA \\textbf{67} 052307] and the factors which affect its efficiency in finding an individual state from an unsorted set. Previous work has focused purely on the effects of the dimensionality of the dataset to be searched. Here, we consider the effects of interpolating between dimensions, connectivity of the dataset, and the possibility of disorder in the underlying substrate: all these factors affect the effic...

  1. Determining the Factors Affecting Labor Productivity of Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Yurdanur Dikmen; Dilek Kara Yilmaz; Handenur Basaran; Nasibe Yagmur Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the factors affecting the labor productivity of nurses. Material and Methods: The study which was planned as descriptive and analytical was carried out with 156 nurses who volunteered to participate in the study in a public hospital in the northwest of Turkey. Data was collected with the and ldquo;Participant Presentation Form and rdquo; and the questionnaire including the factors affecting labor productivity which was developed by Ozkoc (2005). ...

  2. Factors affecting dignity of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Simin; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas

    2016-12-01

    MS is one of the most common chronic diseases of the nervous system. Apart from disease progression, other complications such as unemployment, separation and divorce could potentially threat patients' dignity. Most of the previous studies have been done of maintaining patients' dignity in interaction with healthcare team, but studies on affecting factors of dignity in chronic patients in the society and in interaction with usual people are scarce. We aimed to investigate factors affecting dignity of Iranian patients with MS in daily living and in interaction of them with the society. In this qualitative study, 13 patients with multiple sclerosis were chosen by purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews were conducted until data saturation. The study was done in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Factors affecting dignity were classified as 'personal factors' and 'social factors'. Personal factors consist of the following subcategories: patients' communication with self, patients' knowledge, patients' values and beliefs and patients' resources. Social factors include others' communication with patients, social knowledge, social values and beliefs and social resources. Multiple personal and social factors interfere in perceived patient dignity. In fact, interaction between personal and social factors can be influential in final perceived dignity. By focusing on whole aspects of the patients' lives, we can identify dignity-promoting or dignity-threatening factors and help patients maintain their dignity by taking appropriate measures for moderating threatening factors and improving dignity enhancing ones. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  4. Personality factors and adult attachment affecting job mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, A.E.M.; Feij, J.A.; Krausz, M.; Taris, R.

    2003-01-01

    Past research has revealed that individuals' job mobility is affected by factors such as job satisfaction, specific career enhancing attributes and job availability. This study examined personality factors predicting voluntary internal and external job mobility. Three types of voluntary job mobility

  5. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin. Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...

  6. Factors Affecting Utilization of Skilled Birth Attendants by Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This underscores the need to investigate factors responsible for low use of skilled attendants at birth. The main purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting utilization of skilled attendants at birth by pregnant women in Kasama district in order to help contribute to the reduction of maternal and child complications.

  7. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin . Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...

  8. Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

  9. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azimi, Farideh; Kamali, Mohammad Bagher

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural development in Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have a better insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as a learning forum for bringing about changes for all participants, they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciative inquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting the facilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors...

  10. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-04-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia. Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  11. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  12. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Yan, Ng Sze; Zakuan, Norhayati; Bahari, Ahamad Zaidi; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  13. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured ques...

  14. Intellectual disability: definition, etiological factors, classification, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis Discapacidad intelectual: definición, factores etiológicos, clasificación, diagnóstico, tratamiento y prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Katz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Etiology and classification: Causal factors related with cognitive disability are multiples and can be classified as follows: Genetic, acquired (congenital and developmental, environmental and sociocultural. Likewise, in relation to the classification, cognitive disability has as a common denominator a subnormal intellectual functioning level; nevertheless, the extent to which an individual is unable to face the demands established by society for the individual’s age group has brought about four degrees of severity: Mild, moderate, severe and profound. Diagnostic: The clinical history must put an emphasis on healthcare during the prenatal, perinatal and postnatal period and include the results of all previous studies, including a genealogical tree for at least three generations and an intentional search for family antecedents of mental delay, psychiatric illnesses and congenital abnormalities. The physical exam should focus on secondary abnormalities and congenital malformations, somatometric measurements and neurological and behavioral phenotype evaluations. If it is not feasible to establish a clinical diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct high-resolution cytogenetic studies in addition to metabolic clinical evaluations. In the next step, if no abnormal data are identified, submicroscopic chromosomal disorders are evaluated. Prognosis: Intellectual disability is not curable; and yet, the prognostic in general terms is good when using the emotional wellbeing of the individual as a parameter. Conclusions: Intellectual disability should be treated in a comprehensive manner. Nevertheless, currently, the fundamental task and perhaps the only one that applies is the detection of the limitation and abilities as a function of subjects’ age and expectations for the future, with the only goal being to provide the support necessary for each one of the dimensions or areas in which the person’s life is expressed and exposed.Etiología y clasificaci

  15. Polysialic Acid Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (PSA-NCAM) is an adverse prognosis factor in glioblastoma, and regulates olig2 expression in glioma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoureux, Marie-Claude; Coulibaly, Béma; Chinot, Olivier; Loundou, Anderson; Metellus, Philippe; Rougon, Geneviève; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and frequent brain tumor, albeit without cure. Although patient survival is limited to one year on average, significant variability in outcome is observed. The assessment of biomarkers is needed to gain better knowledge of this type of tumor, help prognosis, design and evaluate therapies. The neurodevelopmental polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) protein is overexpressed in various cancers. Here, we studied its expression in GBM and evaluated its prognosis value for overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS). We set up a specific and sensitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for PSA-NCAM quantification, which correlated well with PSA-NCAM semi quantitative analysis by immunohistochemistry, and thus provides an accurate quantitative measurement of PSA-NCAM content for the 56 GBM biopsies analyzed. For statistics, the Spearman correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the consistency between the immunohistochemistry and ELISA data. Patients' survival was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method, and curves were compared using the log-rank test. On multivariate analysis, the effect of potential risk factors on the DFS and OS were evaluated using the cox regression proportional hazard models. The threshold for statistical significance was p = 0.05. We showed that PSA-NCAM was expressed by approximately two thirds of the GBM at variable levels. On univariate analysis, PSA-NCAM content was an adverse prognosis factor for both OS (p = 0.04) and DFS (p = 0.0017). On multivariate analysis, PSA-NCAM expression was an independent negative predictor of OS (p = 0.046) and DFS (p = 0.007). Furthermore, in glioma cell lines, PSA-NCAM level expression was correlated to the one of olig2, a transcription factor required for gliomagenesis. PSA-NCAM represents a valuable biomarker for the prognosis of GBM patients

  16. Factors Affecting Green Residential Building Development: Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Green residential buildings (GRBs are one of the effective practices of energy saving and emission reduction in the construction industry. However, many real estate developers in China are less willing to develop GRBs, because of the factors affecting green residential building development (GRBD. In order to promote the sustainable development of GRBs in China, this paper, based on the perspective of real estate developers, identifies the influential and critical factors affecting GRBD, using the method of social network analysis (SNA. Firstly, 14 factors affecting GRBD are determined from 64 preliminary factors of three main elements, and the framework is established. Secondly, the relationships between the 14 factors are analyzed by SNA. Finally, four critical factors for GRBD, which are on the local economy development level, development strategy and innovation orientation, developer’s acknowledgement and positioning for GRBD, and experience and ability for GRBD, are identified by the social network centrality test. The findings illustrate the key issues that affect the development of GRBs, and provide references for policy making by the government and strategy formulation by real estate developers.

  17. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Scott, Tammy; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis. Conversely, many dietary components such as curcumin, resveratrol, blueberry polyphenols, sulforaphane, salvionic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and diets enriched with polyphenols and PUFAs, as well as caloric restriction, physical exercise, and learning, have been shown to induce neurogenesis in adult brains. Although many of the underlying mechanisms by which nutrients and dietary factors affect adult neurogenesis have yet to be determined, nutritional approaches provide promising prospects to stimulate adult neurogenesis and combat neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the role of nutritional factors in modifying adult neurogenesis and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Factors affecting strategic plan implementation using interpretive structural modeling (ISM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Tajik, Hamidreza; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba

    2018-06-11

    Purpose Strategic planning is the best tool for managers seeking an informed presence and participation in the market without surrendering to changes. Strategic planning enables managers to achieve their organizational goals and objectives. Hospital goals, such as improving service quality and increasing patient satisfaction cannot be achieved if agreed strategies are not implemented. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting strategic plan implementation in one teaching hospital using interpretive structural modeling (ISM). Design/methodology/approach The authors used a descriptive study involving experts and senior managers; 16 were selected as the study sample using a purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a questionnaire designed and prepared based on previous studies. Data were analyzed using ISM. Findings Five main factors affected strategic plan implementation. Although all five variables and factors are top level, "senior manager awareness and participation in the strategic planning process" and "creating and maintaining team participation in the strategic planning process" had maximum drive power. "Organizational structure effects on the strategic planning process" and "Organizational culture effects on the strategic planning process" had maximum dependence power. Practical implications Identifying factors affecting strategic plan implementation is a basis for healthcare quality improvement by analyzing the relationship among factors and overcoming the barriers. Originality/value The authors used ISM to analyze the relationship between factors affecting strategic plan implementation.

  19. Empirical Analysis on Factors Affecting User Behavior in Social Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiayi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] This paper aims to discover the factors affecting user behavior in the derivative situation of e-commerce, social commerce, and explore the sustainable development and related marketing advice of it. [Method/process]This paper put forward a theoretical model of factors affecting user behavior in social commerce by integrating emotional state impact into the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R framework. 277 valid samples were collected by questionnaires and PLS. [Result/conclusion]The results show that information quality and tie strength significantly affect user emotional states, while emotional states positively affect user behavior. In addition, graphic features of business information have indirect effects on user emotional states, while it has direct effect on purchase intention.

  20. Factors Affecting Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf

    OpenAIRE

    Luc, J. E.; Crow, W. T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for eit...

  1. Various factors affecting /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy of liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoki, T; Morinari, H; Oono, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-10-01

    Various factors affecting /sup 67/Ga accumulation in liver cancer were studied in 38 patients with liver cancer (19 with hepatocellular carcinoma and 19 with metastatic liver cancer) who had received /sup 67/Ga-scintigraphy and liver scintigraphy. Besides histological types, the size, necrosis, vascularity and treatments of liver cancer, concentrations of transferrin (/sup 67/Ga binding protein) and iron in blood probably affected /sup 67/Ga accumulation in liver cancer.

  2. Investigating the factors affecting the investment decision in residential development.

    OpenAIRE

    Narang, Somil

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a rare insight into the motivation behind residential property investors when looking to purchase an apartment. The factors driving demand preferences for housing are constantly changing, difficult to measure, and often deemed to be a complex bundle of attributes. The project attempts to answer the following questions: What are the factors affecting the investment decision in a Residential Development? To identify the significance and weight of su...

  3. Factors Which Affect Academic Achievement of University Students

    OpenAIRE

    RENÇBER, Bahman Alp

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate by analysing factors affecting academic achievement of university students. Also effects of these factors are studied. For this purpose, the students attending “Statistics and Transport Technology” course at Gazi University, Industrial Arts Education and Arts Faculty, Industrial Technology Education Department, in the 2008-2009 academic year have been identified as the study universe. Analysis has been done by taking examples for this universe. The ...

  4. Factors associated with a poor prognosis for the IVF-ICSI live birth rate in women with rAFS stage III and IV endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pauline; Perrin, Jeanne; Mancini, Julien; Agostini, Aubert; Boubli, Léon; Courbiere, Blandine

    2017-07-01

    To assess the factors associated with a poor prognosis for a cumulative IVF live birth rate (LBR) in women with stage III and IV endometriosis according to the revised classification of the American Fertility Society (rAFS). A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014, in our Reproductive Medicine Center. We analyzed different factors associated with a poor prognosis for a cumulative IVF LBR in women with rAFS stage III and IV endometriosis. A total of 101 patients were included, representing 232 IVF-ICSI cycles and 212 embryo transfers. The primary endpoint was the cumulative LBR per cycle and per patient. The cumulative LBR per cycle was 14.7% (n = 34) and that per patient was 31.7% (n = 32). The cumulative LBR was significantly decreased by active smoking [ adj OR = 3.4, 95% CI (1.12-10.60), p = 0.031], poor ovarian response (POR) according to the Bologna criteria [ adj OR = 11.5, 95% CI (1.37-96.83), p = 0.024], and rAFS stage IV [ adj OR = 3.2, 95% CI (1.13-8.95), p = 0.024]. The cumulative LBR per women was 59.4% without factors associated with a poor prognosis and 25.6% in the case of one factor, and it decreased to 7.7% in the case of two or three factors (p endometriosis had a negative impact on the IVF-ICSI cumulative LBR for women with rAFS stage III and IV endometriosis. Because smoking dramatically decreases the LBR with endometriosis, stopping smoking before IVF-ICSI should be strongly advised.

  5. Formal Classroom Observations: Factors That Affect Their Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zeba

    2017-01-01

    Formal class room observation is a very delicate topic in any educational institution. It involves a series of emotions and sentiments that come with the package. In this paper, the researcher will attempt to analyze the factors that affect the process in a relatively significant manner and thereby contribute greatly to the success or failure of…

  6. Factors Affecting School Choice: What Do Malaysian Chinese Parents Want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Poh Chua; Christina Ong, Sook Beng; Tan, Swee Mee; Sim, Chzia Poaw; Xian Thoo, Raphael Yi

    2018-01-01

    Aiming to explore factors affecting Malaysian Chinese parents in sending their children to either national secondary schools or Chinese independent schools, 494 parents were surveyed using a questionnaire. Results showed that parents who sent their children to Chinese independent schools have different priorities compared to those who sent theirs…

  7. Factors Affecting Oil Palm Production in Ondo State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discovery of crude oil and the civil war adversely affected oil palm production in Nigeria. This has resulted in scarcity and high cost of palm products and palm oil. The study therefore investigated the factors influencing oil palm production in Ondo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty respondents were selected from ...

  8. Factors Affecting the Formation of Food Preferences in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alles-White, Monica L.; Welch, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    Identifies and discusses factors that affect the development of food preferences in preschool children, including familiarity, age, parents, peers, teachers, and programs designed to influence food habits. Makes recommendations to preschool and day care programs for creating an atmosphere conducive to trying new foods. (Author/DST)

  9. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  10. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plas...

  11. Factors affecting sustainable animal trypanosomosis control in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors affecting sustainable trypanosomiasis control in parts of Kaduna State within the sub-humid savannah ecological zone of Nigeria. Focus group discussions were ... More awareness and preference for pour-on and aerial spraying were higher than the use of traps, target or screens. Rearing of ...

  12. Factors affecting disclosure of serostatus to children attending Jinja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting disclosure of serostatus to children attending Jinja Hospital ... twenty children and all (ten) health workers at Jinja Hospital paediatric HIV clinic. ... and child attending psychosocial support group (OR 7.4 CI 3.6-15.3 p < 0.001).

  13. Factors Affecting Online Groupwork Interest: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the personal and contextual factors that may affect students' online groupwork interest. Using the data obtained from graduate students in an online course, both student- and group-level predictors for online groupwork interest were analyzed within the framework of hierarchical linear modeling…

  14. Factors Affecting the Effectiveness and Use of Moodle: Students' Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damnjanovic, Vesna; Jednak, Sandra; Mijatovic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the factors affecting the effectiveness of Moodle from the students' perspective. The research hypotheses derived from the suggested extended Seddon model have been empirically validated using the responses to a survey on e-learning usage among 255 users. We tested the model across higher education…

  15. Identifying factors affecting about outsourcing in paraclinical services

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Outsourcing refers to the transfer of services or functions to an outsider supplier, which controls them through a contract or cooperative. The main problem of senior managers in health organizations is determining the services which should be outsourced. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect ...

  16. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…

  17. Factors Affecting Loan Utilization And Repayment Patterns By Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified factors affecting loan utilization and repayment patterns by small holder farmers of the Nigerian Agricultural Co-operative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) Osogbo branch in Osun State. Two Local Government Areas with large number of loan beneficiaries from 2003 to 2008 in NACRDB were ...

  18. Unemployment in Kenya: Some economic factors affecting wage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the economic factors affecting wage employment in Kenya, where open unemployment fell from 15 per cent in 1998/1999 to 13 per cent in 2005/2006. As of 2005/2006, wage employment constituted 13 per cent of the total working population, which implies that doubling wage employment will absorb ...

  19. Examining the factors affecting willingness to use electronic banking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining the factors affecting willingness to use electronic banking: the ... which information technologies are accepted are of the research studies. ... Customers' understanding of the ease of use of e-banking systems has a significant impact on perceived usefulness and their attitude had. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Factors affecting mortality and epidemiological data in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Burns continue to be responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In this study we aimed to determine the factors affecting mortality and epidemiological data by examining the records of burned patients. Method. The hospital records of 980 patients who were hospitalised in the ...

  1. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  2. Factors Affecting Quality of Audit; Empirical Evidence from Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines factors affecting quality of audit using empirical evidence from Iran Quality of audit was seen as the degree to which an audit report is free from deficiencies and distortions which show up later on. The quality of an audit was measured in terms of an auditor's ability to report financial distortions willingly ...

  3. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Improved Rice Varieties in Borno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The study investigated the factors that affect adoption of improved rice varieties in the ... give a good results and also a threat to food security. Keywords: ..... decision of the farmers, however, inappropriate chain of supply/distributing the input or ...

  4. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller therapy in chest clinics in a sub-Saharan African setting: a cross-sectional study. ... Background: Adherence to controller therapy in asthma is a major concern during the management of the disease. Objective: To determine the adherence rate and identify the ...

  5. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  6. Factors Affecting Utilization of Cooking Banana among Households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated factors affecting utilization of cooking banana among households in Oguta area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 84 randomly selected respondents from six communities in the study area who were administered with structured questionnaire. Data analysis was by use of descriptive ...

  7. Factors affecting farmers' participation in irrigation schemes of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... those factors affecting farmers' participation in irrigated agriculture at the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority (LNRBDA) in Kwara State, Nigeria. One hundred and sixty (160) respondents were selected from communities around LNRBDA site at Oke Oyi for this study through a two-stage sampling procedures.

  8. Factors Affecting Academic Achievement of Students in Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors affecting academic achievement ofstudents in Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) in ChristianReligious Knowledge. A total of three hundred students in SS III from five secondary schools were randomly selected and used as sample for the study. Five hypotheses were tested, ...

  9. Teachers' Perception of the Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    perception of salary as a factor affecting job satisfaction. Also, there .... Thus workers now have higher purchasing power, are given opportunity to use their .... Z-Cal. Z-Crit Significant. Level decision. Female. 70 12.73 3.23. Teachers. 0.32. 1.96.

  10. Factors affecting sports participation among female students at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this study was to examine factors affecting sport participation among resident and non- resident female students at Tshwane University of Technology (TUT), Pretoria, South Africa. The study targeted all students participating in 12 registered sports but due to the fact that only a limited number of the total ...

  11. Scrutinizing the Factors Affecting Fluency of English among Arab Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghazali, Fawzi

    2017-01-01

    This research study investigates the cognitive, psychological and personal factors affecting the accuracy and fluency of English language usage among Arab learners. Early research led by Chomsky (1965) and Krashen (1981) suggested that an individual's Language Acquisition Device once triggered at the appropriate time and supported with adequate…

  12. factors affecting particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we report a range of factors which affect the retention of colloidal particles in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These results are observed among different sizes of polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in both aqueous and nonaqueous liquid carriers and very low density lipoproteins in a phosphate ...

  13. Motivation and Factors Affecting It among Health Professionals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Motivation is an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. This study assessed motivational status and factors affecting it among health professionals in public hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region. METHOD: Facility based cross-sectional survey ...

  14. Factors affecting guidance and counseling programme in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to establish the factors that affect guidance and counseling in primary schools. Guidance and counseling seems not to be adequately helping pupils with physical and psychological problems in Nairobi province of Kenya. Many primary schools are faced with indiscipline and poor performance ...

  15. Factors affecting mortality of critical care trauma patients | Hefny ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common mechanism of injury was road traffic collisions (72.3 %). The overall mortality was 13.9%. A direct logistic regression model has shown that factors that affected mortality were decreased GCS (p < 0.0001), mechanism of injury (p = 0.004) with burns having the highest mortality, increased age (p = 0.004), ...

  16. Factors Affecting Performance of Undergraduate Students in Construction Related Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…

  17. Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  18. Factors affecting the utilisation of electronic medical records system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi Medical Journal 29 (3): September 2017. Electronic medical ... care, as they enable storage of large amounts of data and ... EMRs. This study assessed factors that affect the use of EMRs in Malawi, particularly at Queen Elizabeth and Kamuzu Central ..... paperless hospitals in Norway : A socio-technical perspective.

  19. Factors Affecting Conservation Practice Behavior of CRP Participants in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwudili Onianwa; Gerald Wheelock; Shannon Hendrix

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the factors that affect conservation practice choices of CRP farmers in Alabama. From over 9,000 contracts enrolled in the state between 1986 and 1995, 594 were randomly selected for the study. A multiple-regression analysis was employed to analyze the data. Results indicate that education, ratio ofcropland in CRP, farm size, gender, prior crop...

  20. Factors affecting sustainability of land reform projects in Ehlanzeni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated factors affecting sustainability of land reform projects in Mpumalanga Province in Bushbuckridge Local Municipality (BLM) of Ehlanzeni District. The study was conducted between July and September 2014. A random sampling technique was used in selecting 31 key informants from the projects.

  1. Factors affecting in sacco dietary degradation by Ankole cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting in sacco dietary degradation by Ankole cattle grazing natural range pastures in Uganda. ... Keywords: Ankole cattle, dietary selection, dry matter disappearance, free water intake, in sacco degradation, lignification, live weight change, predictive model, water solubility. African Journal of Range & Forage ...

  2. Factors affecting quality of life in cancer patients undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting quality of life in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. ... Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QoL in cancer patients with solid tumors and at the different chemotherapy cycles (CT). ... Results: A significant relationship between the cancer type, pain intensity, and fatigue was found.

  3. Factors affecting compliance to treatment among children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND:This study aimed to determine the factors affecting compliance to treatment among children with epilepsy in Enugu,Nigeria. METHODS: Children with diagnosis of epilepsy were consecutively recruited.Their 6 months retrospective and 1 month prospective data were collected;and analyzed using SPSS ...

  4. Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

  5. Factors Affecting Time, Cost and Quality Management in Building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is an assessment of time, cost and quality management in the Nigerian construction industry, and it aims to explore time cost and quality management in the construction industry. The objective of the study is to identify factors affecting time; cost and quality management in building construction projects. This study ...

  6. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  7. Relevant Affect Factors of Smartphone Mobile Data Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Husnjak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are used to access a wide range of different information and communication services and perform functions based on data transfer. A number of subscription contracts for smartphones is rapidly increasing, and the development of mobile communications network provides higher speed of data transfer. The continuous increase in the average amount of data traffic per one subscriber contract leads to an increase in the total Mobile Data Traffic (MDT, globally. This research represents a summary of factors that affect the amount of smartphone MDT. Previous literature shows only a few of the factors individually that affect the realization of smartphone MDT. The results of the research clarify the ways which influence the amount of MDT generated by a smartphone. This paper increases the awareness of the users of the methods of generating smartphone MDT. The research also allows users to specify parameters that affect the prediction of generated MDT of a smartphone.

  8. Factors Affecting the Pharmacology of Antibody–Drug Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Lucas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in therapeutic proteins, including antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs, have created revolutionary drug delivery systems in cancer over the past decade. While these immunoconjugate agents provide several advantages compared to their small-molecule counterparts, their clinical use is still in its infancy. The considerations in their development and clinical use are complex, and consist of multiple components and variables that can affect the pharmacologic characteristics. It is critical to understand the mechanisms employed by ADCs in navigating biological barriers and how these factors affect their biodistribution, delivery to tumors, efficacy, and toxicity. Thus, future studies are warranted to better understand the complex pharmacology and interaction between ADC carriers and biological systems, such as the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS and tumor microenvironment. This review provides an overview of factors that affect the pharmacologic profiles of ADC therapies that are currently in clinical use and development.

  9. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W. [Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Dept 7610, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58103-6050 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  10. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W.

    2010-01-01

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market.

  11. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  12. Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, M.; Hassan, S.; Naseer, M.Z.; Baig, I.A.; Asma, J.

    2008-01-01

    The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)

  13. Exploring paraprofessional and classroom factors affecting teacher supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Dwight W; Ingram, Paul; Huffman, Jonathan; Mason, Rose; Wills, Howard

    2018-02-01

    Paraprofessionals serve a primary role in supporting students with disabilities in the classroom, which necessitates teachers' supervision as a means to improve their practice. Yet, little is known regarding what factors affect teacher supervision. We sought to identify how paraprofessional competence and classroom type affected the levels of teacher direction. We administered an adapted version of the Paraprofessional Needs, Knowledge & Tasks Survey and the Survey for Teachers Supervising Paraprofessionals to teachers supervising paraprofessionals in elementary schools. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the link between paraprofessional competence and classroom factors affecting the level of teacher supervision. Our results indicated that when teachers perceived paraprofessionals as being more skilled, they provided more supervision, and when more supervision was provided the less they thought paraprofessionals should be doing their assigned tasks. Additionally, paraprofessionals working in classrooms with more students with mild disabilities received less supervision than paraprofessionals working in classrooms with more students with moderate-to-severe disabilities. Those paraprofessionals in classrooms serving mostly children with mild disabilities were also perceived as having lower levels of skill competence than those serving in classrooms with students with more moderate-to-severe disabilities. By understanding the factors that affect teacher supervision, policy and professional development opportunities can be refined/developed to better support both supervising teachers and paraprofessionals and, in turn, improve the outcomes of children with disabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disease will go for you is called prognosis. It can be hard to understand what prognosis means ... prognosis include: The type of cancer and where it is in your body The stage of the ...

  15. Influential Factors Affecting Materials Management in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusoh Zairra Mat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects are more often than not plagued by poor performances such as delays, cost overrun, low productivity, construction wastes and compromised quality. Amongst the critical contributory factors of poor project performances, is the ineffectiveness of materials management occurring in the construction sites. Indeed, materials management is a very important component for construction projects. However, there are only limited numbers of research available regarding this topic. Thus, this research focuses its study on materials management, specifically in identifying the influential factors that affect materials management in the construction project activities. Literatures from books, journal articles and conference papers related to poor project performances and materials management have been reviewed. Consequently, this study sorted the salient influential factors and categorized them based on their specific group. Out of 47 factors identified, they are classified into 8 groups. They are (1 site condition; (2 planning and handling on site; (3 management; (4 materials; (5 supplier and manufacturer default; (6 transportation; (7 contractual; and (8 governmental interferences. In conclusion, this study contends that by identifying the influential factors affecting materials management, it will help construction players to avoid the occurrence of those factors and will minimize the negative impacts on the overall performance of construction projects. Hence, the handling-over of project will be according to schedule and not delayed by materials mismanagement.

  16. A review of affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Gardeshi, Zeinab Hamzeh; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Salehi, Fariba

    2014-12-01

    Sex is a complex, important and sensitive issue in human being and interwoven with the whole of human existence. Given the serious changes in attitude, function and behavior in sex, the need to address sexual function, especially sexual satisfaction, is felt completely. Sexual satisfaction has a very important role in creating marital satisfaction and any defect in sexual satisfaction is significantly associated with risky sexual behaviors, serious mental illness, social crimes and ultimately divorce. The aim of this study was to explore affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women based on an overview in scientific database. In this narrative review the researchers searched MEDLINE database, Google Scholar and Science Direct as well as Persian database like Scientific Information Database with search terms of sexual satisfaction and sexual function, restricted to English/ Persian language, during the 20 years ago. Then those articles written by renowned experts were selected. In this regard, 57 articles have been reviewed, which 30 articles related to this research have been extracted. The findings were divided in to four categories including: Demographic factors, Pathophysiological factors, Psychological factors and Sociocultural factors. Sexuality, especially sexual intimacy is sophisticated and yet elegant affair that the other persons has different definitions and different functions. Discrepancies in the results of the studies show that analysis of factors affecting sexual satisfaction regardless of the women's' sociocultural context, religious beliefs, and personal attitudes is undoubtedly inefficient, unscientific and irrational.

  17. Factors Affecting Adoption of Recommended Cauliflower Production Technology in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Raj Dhital

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Binary logit regression model of econometrics was used to identify the factors affecting adoption of recommended agricultural technology by the commercial farmers of Nepal. A survey was carried out in 2012 in 120 households from Kavre district, Nepal. The objective was to appraise factors affecting adoption of recommended technology of cauliflower, finding out the level of adoption, identifying the constraints of cauliflower cultivation, assessing the perceived level of satisfaction and studying the relationship of certain selected variables on the adoption. Education, Occupation, contact with Personal Localite sources of information, Group membership and Experience were the most influencing factors for adoption of recommended technology. Though, other factors were not strong enough to contribute significantly but indirectly influence the adoption decision of farmers as combined effects. Occupation was found as negatively associated. Landholding size was strongly and positively influencing among the non significant factors. The level of satisfaction and the constraints of cauliflower production were also identified. Transfer of technology will be effective if and only if the client adopts the technology. For an effective transfer of technology, it is better to go for activities for the welfare of the socioeconomic factors of the farmers.

  18. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  19. Factors affecting the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Holland

    Full Text Available Abstract Tissue repair is an essential process that reestablishes tissue integrity and regular function. Nevertheless, different therapeutic factors and clinical conditions may interfere in this process of periapical healing. This review aims to discuss the important therapeutic factors associated with the clinical protocol used during root canal treatment and to highlight the systemic conditions associated with the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth. The antibacterial strategies indicated in the conventional treatment of an inflamed and infected pulp and the modulation of the host's immune response may assist in tissue repair, if wound healing has been hindered by infection. Systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, can also inhibit wound healing. The success of root canal treatment is affected by the correct choice of clinical protocol. These factors are dependent on the sanitization process (instrumentation, irrigant solution, irrigating strategies, and intracanal dressing, the apical limit of the root canal preparation and obturation, and the quality of the sealer. The challenges affecting the healing process of endodontically treated teeth include control of the inflammation of pulp or infectious processes and simultaneous neutralization of unpredictable provocations to the periapical tissue. Along with these factors, one must understand the local and general clinical conditions (systemic health of the patient that affect the outcome of root canal treatment prediction.

  20. Nurse aide decision making in nursing homes: factors affecting empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Tanni; Yeatts, Dale E; Cready, Cynthia M

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate factors affecting structural empowerment among nurse aides in nursing homes. Structural empowerment can be defined as the actual rather than perceived ability to make autonomous decisions within an organisation. Given the paucity of research on the subject, this study helps to close the gap by identifying factors that affect nurse aide empowerment, that is, decision-making among nurse aides. The data for the study come from self-administered questionnaires distributed to direct-care workers (nurse aides) in 11 nursing homes in a southern state in the USA. Ordinary least square regression models were estimated to analyse the effects of demographic predictors, personal factors (competency, emotional exhaustion and positive attitude) and structural characteristics (coworker and supervisor support, information availability and shared governance) on nurse aide decision-making. Findings suggest race among demographic predictors, emotional exhaustion among personal characteristics, and supervisor support, and shared governance among structural factors, significantly affect nurse aide decision-making. It is important to explore race as one of the central determinants of structural empowerment among nurse aides. In addition, the nature and type of emotional exhaustion that propels decision-making needs to be further examined. The study shows the importance of shared governance and supervisor support for fostering nurse aide empowerment. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Factors Affecting Successful Implementation of Hospital Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzandipur, Mehrdad; Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Azimi, Esmaeil

    2016-02-01

    Today, the use of information systems in health environments, like any other fields, is necessary and organizational managers are convinced to use these systems. However, managers' satisfaction is not the only factor in successfully implementing these systems and failed information technology projects (IT) are reported despite the consent of the directors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the factors affecting the successful implementation of a hospital information system. The study was carried out as a descriptive method in 20 clinical hospitals that the hospital information system (HIS) was conducted in them. The clinical and paraclinical users of mentioned hospitals are the study group. 400 people were chosen as samples in scientific method and the data was collected using a questionnaire consisted of three main human, managerial and organizational, and technological factors, by questionnaire and interview. Then the data was scored in Likert scale (score of 1 to 5) and were analyzed using the SPSS software. About 75 percent of the population were female, with average work experience of 10 years and the mean age was 30 years. The human factors affecting the success of hospital information system implementation achieved the mean score of 3.5, both organizational and managerial factors 2.9 and technological factors the mean of 3. Human factors including computer skills, perceiving usefulness and perceiving the ease of a hospital information system use are more effective on the acceptance and successful implementation of hospital information systems; then the technological factors play a greater role. It is recommended that for the successful implementation of hospital information systems, most of these factors to be considered.

  2. Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Quran Firas A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

  3. Prune-belly syndrome: case series and review of the literature regarding early prenatal diagnosis, epidemiology, genetic factors, treatment, and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonni, Gabriele; Ida, Vito; Alessandro, Ventura; Bonasoni, Maria Paola

    2013-02-01

    Prune-belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by deficient abdominal muscles, urinary tract malformation, and in males, cryptorchidism and has an estimated incidence of 1 in 35,000 to 1 in 50,000 live births. The syndrome might be due to severe bladder outlet obstruction or to abdominal muscle deficiency secondary to a migrational defect of the lateral mesoblast between weeks 6 and 7 of pregnancy. The current review of the medical record reports a special focus on epidemiology, genetic factors, early prenatal diagnosis clusters, treatment, and prognosis of PBS.

  4. Factors affecting treatment adherence to atomoxetine in ADHD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treuer T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tamás Treuer,1 Luis Méndez,2 William Montgomery,3 Shenghu Wu4 1Neuroscience Research, Eli Lilly and Company, Budapest, Hungary; 2Eli Lilly de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence, Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 4Neuroscience Research, Eli Lilly Asia, Inc, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature related to research about the factors affecting treatment adherence and discontinuation of atomoxetine in pediatric, adolescent, and adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Medline was systematically searched using the following prespecified terms: “ADHD”, “Adherence”, “Compliance”, “Discontinuation”, and “Atomoxetine”. We identified 31 articles that met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. The findings from this review indicate that persistence and adherence to atomoxetine treatment were generally high. Factors found to influence adherence and nonadherence to atomoxetine treatment in ADHD in this review include age, sex, the definition of response used, length of treatment, initial dose of treatment, comorbid conditions, and reimbursement. Tolerability was cited as an important reason for treatment discontinuation. More research is needed to understand those factors that can help to identify patients at risk for poor adherence and interventions that could improve treatment adherence early in the stage of this illness to secure a better long-term prognosis. Keywords: atomoxetine, treatment discontinuation, adherence, compliance, ADHD medication, relapse

  5. Factors affecting smartphone adoption for accessing information in medical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahamtan, Iman; Pajouhanfar, Sara; Sedghi, Shahram; Azad, Mohsen; Roudbari, Masoud

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to acquire knowledge about the factors affecting smartphone adoption for accessing information in medical settings in Iranian Hospitals. A qualitative and quantitative approach was used to conduct this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 medical residents and interns in 2013 to identify determinant factors for smartphone adoption. Afterwards, nine relationships were hypothesised. We developed a questionnaire to test these hypotheses and to evaluate the importance of each factor. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the causal relations between model parameters and to accurately identify determinant factors. Eight factors were identified in the qualitative phase of the study, including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, training, internal environment, personal experience, social impacts, observability and job related characteristics. Among the studied factors, perceived usefulness, personal experience and job related characteristics were significantly associated with attitude to use a smartphone which accounted for 64% of the variance in attitude. Perceived usefulness had the strongest impact on attitude to use a smartphone. The factors that emerged from interviews were consistent with the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and some previous studies. TAM is a reliable model for understanding the factors of smartphone acceptance in medical settings. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  6. Factors Affecting Sarcopenia in Korean Adults by Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eun-Jung; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors affecting sarcopenia in different age groups among Korean adults aged 20 years or older. In this secondary analysis, data were collected from records for 17,968, participants who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008-2011. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the associated factors of sarcopenia by age groups. The prevalence of sarcopenia increased significantly with age. Physical activity, blood pressure, waist circumference, triglycerides, vitamin D level were found to be factors significantly associated with sarcopenia in all age groups. Total energy intake was found to be a factor that is significantly associated with sarcopenia among the adults aged 20-39 years. Fasting glucose, suicidal ideation, perceived health status, mobility problem, pain/discomfort, total energy intake were found to be factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults aged 40-64 years. Sex, residential area, smoking, drinking, fasting glucose, osteoarthritis, fall experience, usual activity problem, protein intake were factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults over 65 years of age. The findings show that sarcopenia in adults and the associated factors were different by age groups. Thus, these factors should be considered in the development of intervention programs for the care and prevention of sarcopenia, and such programs should be modified according to different age groups.

  7. Factors Affecting Surgical Decision-making—A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gunaratnam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Guidelines and Class 1 evidence are strong factors that help guide surgeons’ decision-making, but dilemmas exist in selecting the best surgical option, usually without the benefit of guidelines or Class 1 evidence. A few studies have discussed the variability of surgical treatment options that are currently available, but no study has examined surgeons’ views on the influential factors that encourage them to choose one surgical treatment over another. This study examines the influential factors and the thought process that encourage surgeons to make these decisions in such circumstances. Methods Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 32 senior consultant surgeons, surgical fellows, and senior surgical residents at the University of Toronto teaching hospitals. An e-mail was sent out for volunteers, and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis using open and axial coding. Results Broadly speaking there are five groups of factors affecting surgeons’ decision-making: medical condition, information, institutional, patient, and surgeon factors. When information factors such as guidelines and Class 1 evidence are lacking, the other four groups of factors—medical condition, institutional, patient, and surgeon factors (the last-mentioned likely being the most powerful—play a significant role in guiding surgical decision-making. Conclusions This study is the first qualitative study on surgeons’ perspectives on the influential factors that help them choose one surgical treatment option over another for their patients.

  8. Factors affecting affect cardiovascular health in Indonesian HIV patients beginning ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Birry; Wijaya, Ika Praseya; Rahmaniyah, Rizky; Ariyanto, Ibnu; Waters, Shelley; Estiasari, Riwanti; Price, Patricia

    2017-08-31

    We present a small longitudinal study of how demographic factors and persistent burdens of HIV and cytomegalovirus (CMV) influence cardiovascular health in young adults beginning ART in an inner-city clinic in Jakarta, Indonesia. ART-naïve HIV patients [n = 67; aged 31 (19 to 48) years] were enrolled in the JakCCANDO Project. Echocardiography and carotid Doppler ultrasonography were performed before ART (V0) and after 3, 6, and 12 months (V3-12). Antibodies reactive with CMV lysate or IE-1 protein were assessed at each timepoint and CMV DNA was identified at V0. Markers of adverse cardiovascular prognosis [left ventricular mass index, ejection fraction and carotid intimal media thickness (cIMT)] were similar to healthy controls, but increased at V12. Internal diameters of the carotid arteries and systolic blood pressure correlated with HIV disease severity at V0, but cardiac parameters and cIMT did not. E/A ratios (left ventricular diastolic function) were lower in patients with CMV DNA at V0, but this effect waned by V6. Levels of antibody reactive with CMV IE-1 correlated inversely with CD4 T cell counts at V0, and levels at V6-V12 correlated directly with the right cIMT. Overall the severity of HIV disease and the response to ART have only subtle effects on cardiovascular health in this young Asian population. CMV replication before ART may have a transient effect on cardiac health, whilst antibody reactive with CMV IE-1 may mark a high persistent CMV burden with cumulative effects on the carotid artery.

  9. Neurological follow-up of small-for-gestational age newborn infants: a study of risk factors related to prognosis at one year of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz D. Gherpelli

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine the relative importance of some risk factors and neurological prognosis in the first year of life, 37 small-for-gestational age newborns were followed prospectively to 1 year of conceptional age. An abnormal neurological examination was found in 51.3% of the newborns and, at 12 months, 32.5% were still considered abnormal. Only 8.1% of the group had severe neurological sequelae at 1 year of corrected age. The developmental tests showed little changes during the first year, with abnormality rates varying from 16.1 to 25%. The following risk factors were analyzed concerning their relation to neurological and developmental abnormalities: high-risk pregnancy, maternal hypertension, social class, pre-term birth, neonatal asphyxia and weight and height less than 2.5 percentile at the age of 1 year. The statistical analysis showed a high correlation between subnormal weight gain and neurological (p=0.000l and developmental (p=0.001 abnormalities at 1 year. None of the other risk factors were statistically related to neurological prognosis at 1 year.

  10. Factors Affecting Customer Retention in the Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghda Climis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study empirically investigated the factors that affect customer retention in the airline industry in North Cyprus. These factors were service quality attributes, perceived safety, customer satisfaction, loyalty reward program, relationship commitment and customer loyalty. The study also investigated four different groups for purposes of travel (business, education, vacation and family visit in the empirical model. Methodology: A descriptive approach was chosen to conduct this research. A quanhip between customer retention and the related study factors; however, not all of these relations are signifcant. The results also showed that the different purposes of travel had different influences on the variables regarding the positive and signifcant relations between them. Some independent variables had a negative effect on the dependent variables. Conclusions: This research was limited to one group and place: the students of Eastern Mediterranean University in North Cyprus. Originality: This study connected the retention, loyalty, satisfaction and service quality factors as attributes. In addition, this research was the frst to include other independent factors affecting satisfaction and loyalty in a comparison between four different groups regarding the purpose of travel in the airline industry.

  11. Cognitive Factors Affecting Freeze-like Behavior in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Michael W; Pocknell, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary research on survival-related defensive behaviors has identified physiological markers of freeze/flight/fight. Our research focused on cognitive factors associated with freeze-like behavior in humans. Study 1 tested if an explicit decision to freeze is associated with the psychophysiological state of freezing. Heart rate deceleration occurred when participants chose to freeze. Study 2 varied the efficacy of freezing relative to other defense options and found "freeze" was responsive to variations in the perceived effectiveness of alternative actions. Study 3 tested if individual differences in motivational orientation affect preference for a "freeze" option when the efficacy of options is held constant. A trend in the predicted direction suggested that naturally occurring cognitions led loss-avoiders to select "freeze" more often than reward-seekers. In combination, our attention to the cognitive factors affecting freeze-like behavior in humans represents a preliminary step in addressing an important but neglected research area.

  12. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

  13. Factors affecting the tissues composition of pork belly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duziński, K; Knecht, D; Lisiak, D; Janiszewski, P

    2015-11-01

    Bellies derived from the commercial population of pig carcasses are diverse in terms of tissue composition. Knowledge of the factors influencing it and the expected results, permits quick and easy evaluation of raw material. The study was designed to determine the factors affecting the tissues composition of pork bellies and to estimate their lean meat content. The research population (n=140 pig carcasses) was divided into groups according to sex (gilts, barrows), half-carcass mass (meat content class: S (⩾60%), E (55% to 60%), U (50% to 55%), R (meat content affected the growth of the fat and skin mass in a linear way. No differences were observed between class S and E in terms of belly muscle mass. A 0.37% higher share of belly in the half-carcass was found for barrows (Pmeat content in bellies, suggesting they may be used directly in the production line.

  14. Factors Affecting Microbial Contamination of Market Eggs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodová J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.

  15. Factors affecting metal and radionuclide pollution in the Baltic sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lodenius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available External pollution load in the Baltic Sea originates from urban, agricultural and industrial sources. Emissions of heavy metals have decreased substantially in the catchment area but the temporal trends are not always significant and differ with sample, area and pollutant. The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Many factors affect the future development of pollutant concentrations including anthropogenic emissions, political decisions and changes in salinity, temperature and water currents, in eutrophication and oxygen status, in fisheries and in atmospheric deposition of pollutants. Large scale changes like eutrophication and climate change affect ecosystems in many ways, directly and indirectly, causing biological and abiotic effects. These factors are interrelated and difficult to predict. Measures aiming to enhance the ecological status of the Baltic Sea will certainly give positive results but this will take at least several decades.

  16. Literature review of factors affecting continence after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Pacik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical prostatectomy (RP is the most common cause of stress urinary incontinence (UI in men. Several anatomic structures affect or may affect urinary continence - urethral sphincter, levator ani muscle, puboprostatic ligaments, bladder neck, endopelvic fascia, neurovascular bundle - and understanding of the anatomy of pelvic floor and urethra is crucial for satisfactory functional outcome of the procedure. Surgical techniques implemented to improve continence rates include nerve-sparing procedure, bladder neck preservation/plication, urethral length preservation, musculofascial reconstruction, puboprostatic ligaments preservation or seminal vesicle preservation. Perioperative (preoperative and postoperative pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT aims to shorten the duration of postoperative UI and thus, improve early continence rates postoperatively. In the review, complex information regarding anatomical, intra- and perioperative factors affecting urinary continence after RP is provided, including description of important anatomical structures, possible implications for surgical technique and evaluation of different PFMT strategies in perioperative period.

  17. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan, Yousef; Al-Fouzan, Rawan; Al-Ajlan, Sarah; Al-Saleh, Mervat

    2012-01-01

    Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression wer...

  18. Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugan, M.A.

    1990-03-01

    The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

  19. A STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING HEALING OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT ANASTOMOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Anjani; Amit; Vikram Singh; Rajesh; Jalaj

    2014-01-01

    : Aim of this prospective study to identify the factor which affects the morbidity and mortality of gastrointestinal anastomosis. This prospective study was conducted in G.R. Medical College from November 2012 to October 2013. Our study plan was approved by Ethical Committee of our institute 80 patients were included in this study who underwent gastrointestinal anastomosis whether elective or emergency irrespective of age and gender. A detailed history and relevant preoper...

  20. Motivation-One of the Affective Factors and its Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Fang-hua

    2014-01-01

    Affective factors play a positive role in English study and motivation is the most important. Higher motivation predicts better second language acquisition. The types of motivation are mainly divided into two:extrinsic motivation and intrinsic moti-vation. Teachers should study their students as well as the teaching materials and then select scientific methods and make good use of them to reinforce their students' motivation.

  1. Factors affecting customer satisfaction of online travel agencies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Sabyasachi; Kumar Chauhan, Ram; Chauhan, Kavita

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors affecting customer satisfaction for online travel agencies in India. It will help guide existing online travel agencies and future entrants to have an in-depth understanding of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in their domain. It will also help to improve their business operations and investment focus, which in turn will lead to greater customer satisfaction and loyalty. Design – This paper defines the concept of cust...

  2. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  3. Factors affecting polyamide prototypes design of Albedo dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, M.M.; Mauricio, C.L.P.; Fonseca, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    This work studies the most important factors which affect the response of albedo neutron dosemeters containing LiF TLDs with the aim to improve their sensitivity. It includes tests of thickness and shape of the polyamide moderator body prototypes, albedo window diameter and TLD position inside the moderator. Analyzing the results, an albedo neutron dosemeter prototype, B 4 C covered, was developed. The prototype has a response three times higher than the albedo dosemeter now in use in Brazil. (author)

  4. Factors Affecting Aggression in South Korean Middle School Students

    OpenAIRE

    MiJeong Park, PhD, RN; Jihea Choi, PhD, RN, CPNP; Seung-Joo Lim, PhD, RN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using...

  5. Control of exogenous factors affecting plasma homovanillic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Giordani, A B; Mohs, R C; Mykytyn, V V; Platt, S; Aryan, Z S; Davis, K L

    1987-04-01

    Measurements of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations appear to be a valid research strategy in psychiatric disorders in which a central dopamine (DA) abnormality has been implicated. This study provides guidance about the control of some of the exogenous factors affecting pHVA concentrations. Fasting for 14 hours eliminates the dietary effects on pHVA in healthy human subjects. Changing position, walking for 30 minutes, or smoking two cigarettes has no effect on pHVA concentrations.

  6. Parallel factor analysis PARAFAC of process affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewanchuk, A.M.; Ulrich, A.C.; Sego, D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Alostaz, M. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    A parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of oil sands process-affected water was presented. Naphthenic acids (NA) are traditionally described as monobasic carboxylic acids. Research has indicated that oil sands NA do not fit classical definitions of NA. Oil sands organic acids have toxic and corrosive properties. When analyzed by fluorescence technology, oil sands process-affected water displays a characteristic peak at 290 nm excitation and approximately 346 nm emission. In this study, a parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was used to decompose process-affected water multi-way data into components representing analytes, chemical compounds, and groups of compounds. Water samples from various oil sands operations were analyzed in order to obtain EEMs. The EEMs were then arranged into a large matrix in decreasing process-affected water content for PARAFAC. Data were divided into 5 components. A comparison with commercially prepared NA samples suggested that oil sands NA is fundamentally different. Further research is needed to determine what each of the 5 components represent. tabs., figs.

  7. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and

  8. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tatarinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  9. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Salih, Bilal; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Cohen, Irit; Bolshoy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases) may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content) tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  10. EXPLORING THE FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES’ ADOPTION AND USE OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majharul Talukder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the factors affecting innovation adoption by individual employees within an organization in Australia. Following a qualitative research approach, this paper uses a series of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions involving academic and administrative employees at a tertiary educational institution in Australia. The qualitative approach is adopted to have a deeper insight into the complexities and dynamism associated with the factors influencing innovation adoption process in organizational settings. The findings of this research highlight the need for broadening an understanding of the key factors affecting employee’s decisions to uptake the adoption of innovation. The results provide important clues for comprehending the factors influencing and determining the employee’s adoption and continued use of innovation in the work environment. In the face of the current trend towards end-user applications of technological innovation, the results suggest some guidelines for management toward effective and efficient adoption and use of innovation in organizational settings. This paper has highlighted the above findings and their implications for management practices related to innovation management in an Australian organizational setting. This paper also identifies possible limitations and future research potential in the relevant field.

  11. Factors affecting midwives' confidence in intrapartum care: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Carol; McGowan, Linda; Lavender, Tina

    2015-01-01

    midwives are frequently the lead providers of care for women throughout labour and birth. In order to perform their role effectively and provide women with the choices they require midwives need to be confident in their practice. This study explores factors which may affect midwives' confidence in their practice. hermeneutic phenomenology formed the theoretical basis for the study. Prospective longitudinal data collection was completed using diaries and semi-structured interviews. Twelve midwives providing intrapartum care in a variety of settings were recruited to ensure a variety of experiences in different contexts were captured. the principal factor affecting workplace confidence, both positively and negatively, was the influence of colleagues. Perceived autonomy and a sense of familiarity could also enhance confidence. However, conflict in the workplace was a critical factor in reducing midwives' confidence. Confidence was an important, but fragile, phenomenon to midwives and they used a variety of coping strategies, emotional intelligence and presentation management to maintain it. this is the first study to highlight both the factors influencing midwives' workplace confidence and the strategies midwives employed to maintain their confidence. Confidence is important in maintaining well-being and workplace culture may play a role in explaining the current low morale within the midwifery workforce. This may have implications for women's choices and care. Support, effective leadership and education may help midwives develop and sustain a positive sense of confidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mothers recovering from cocaine addiction: factors affecting parenting skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyer, S M

    2001-01-01

    To identify factors that may influence parenting by mothers who are recovering from cocaine addiction. Exploratory descriptive, with in-depth unstructured interviews. Interviews were conducted in the woman's home or in a treatment center. A convenience sample of 11 women recovering from cocaine addiction who were mothers of children 3 years of age and younger. A content analysis was used to analyze the interview data. Two themes, personal/psychologic factors and environmental/contextual factors, and four subthemes emerged. They identify issues that may affect parenting by mothers being treated for cocaine addiction. Subthemes included low self-esteem, difficulty developing a maternal identity, isolation from friends and family, and chronic life stress. This study provides a better understanding of the sources contributing to vulnerability in the parenting role for mothers recovering from cocaine addiction and will assist nurses in providing care for these mothers and their children.

  13. Factors affecting aggression in South Korean middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, MiJeong; Choi, Jihea; Lim, Seung-Joo

    2014-12-01

    The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regressions. Aggression had significant correlations with academic stress (r = .21, p decision-making competency (r = -.25, p emotional factors like depression and academic stress. Additionally, development of positive factors such as self esteem, decision-making skills, and happiness in middle school students is important to reduce aggression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. A Pattern to Evaluation of Motivational Factors Affecting Knowledge Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Hajian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the motivational factors affecting the willingness of employees to share knowledge and examine intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and influences on attitudes toward knowledge sharing and explicit and implicit knowledge sharing intention. Planned behavior pattern is used as a theoretical framework. This research was conducted in two phases. First, factors were identified according to the literature review and exploratory interviews. Then the impact of each factor was evaluated in terms of structural equation modeling. This is an empirical research and the research method is descriptive survey. Data was collected using a questionnaire and interview. The study was on the staff working in administrative units of Tehran Municipality and the number of staff at the time of study was 2230. Cluster sampling method and sample size based on population and using Cochran formula of 328 people determined that 35 persons were not held accountable. To determine the reliability of questionnaires, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated to 0.824 which was found at a high level. Data was analyzed by SPSS and LISREL software. Finally, the proposed pattern was confirmed. The results showed that the intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influence on the attitude of employees and the attitude influence on tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intention. Also, extrinsic motivational factors influence on tacit knowledge sharing intention and intrinsic motivational factors influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention. Extrinsic motivational factors influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention and intrinsic motivational factors influence on tacit knowledge sharing intention by the attitude and tacit knowledge sharing intention influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention.

  15. Factors affecting 30-month survival in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P A; Archana, S; Jayaraj, B S; Patil, Shekar; Chaya, S K; Shashidhar, H P; Sunitha, B S; Prabhakar, A K

    2012-10-01

    Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factors affecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients.

  16. An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuremoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

  17. Risk factors that influence suicidal behavior in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Albina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known in the literature that the incidence and prevalence of suicide and attempted suicide in psychiatric patients is significantly higher than in the general population. The paper examined risk factors for suicidal behavior in the category of admitted patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of sleep disorders and affective (Unipolar resp. Bipolar depression. Study activated by 80 patients, 40 in both diagnostic groups received treatment at the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Gornja Toponica near Nis. The work methodology used are: psychiatric interview, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, and the C-SSRS (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale- assessment tool that assesses suicidal ideation and behavior. The study results show that there is a relationship between suicidal behavior (suicide attempts and suicidal ideation and the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, positive history of previous suicide attempts, so that these factors are stronger, to the degree of suicidality higher. On this sample, clearly suicidal behavior, with the same purpose, intensity of suicidal thoughts and medical impairment after suicide attempts were significantly more frequent in patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder in the depressive phase of the illness. Patients with a previous suicide attempt, and poor personal and social circumstances had a higher rate of attempted suicide.

  18. Factors affecting yearly and monthly visits to Taipei Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ai-Tsen; Lin, Yann-Jou

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated factors affecting yearly and monthly numbers of visits to Taipei Zoo. Both linear and nonlinear regression models were used to estimate yearly visits. The results of both models showed that the "opening effect" and "animal star effect" had a significantly positive effect on yearly visits, while a SARS outbreak had a negative effect. The number of years had a significant influence on yearly visits. Results showed that the nonlinear model had better explanatory power and fitted the variations of visits better. Results of monthly model showed that monthly visits were significantly influenced by time fluctuations, weather conditions, and the animal star effect. Chinese New Year, summer vacation, numbers of holidays, and animal star exhibitions increased the number of monthly visits, while the number of days with temperatures at or below 15 °C, the number of days with temperatures at or above 30 °C, and the number of rainy days had significantly negative effects. Furthermore, the model of monthly visits showed that the animal star effect could last for over two quarters. The results of this study clarify the factors affecting visits to an outdoor recreation site and confirm the importance of meteorological factors to recreation use.

  19. A systematic study on factors affecting patient dose, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Akiyoshi; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Utsumi, Hiromoto; Ota, Masaji; Nakanishi, Takashi

    1979-01-01

    In the study of possible reduction in irradiation dose to patients during medical treatments, the following two methods can be considered: (1) To obtain absorbed doses for each part of a body in diagnostic X-ray examinations. (2) To obtain data on factors such as the tube voltage which may affect patient dose. There are a number of reports both at home and abroad concerning the above (1), but very few reports are available concerning the above (2). Moreover, most of them are on fragmentary aspects of each factor and no systematic reports have been made. For this reason, we have taken up, as factors affecting the patient dose, the field size, the tube voltage, and by checking them again, we wanted to obtain some systematic data. Our aim has been fully attained by conducting an experiment. In the ICRP's Publ. 26 issued last year, the idea of the critical organ which had not been fully elucidated in the Publ. 9 was abandoned. As a result, assessment of the irradiation doses has become more rational and the total risk for an individual was obtained. In Japan, the idea proposed in the Publ. 9 is adopted. Therefore, in this paper, we will raise some questions regarding the assessment of the irradiation doses, pointing out at the same time the rationality of the idea put forward in Publ. 26. (author)

  20. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Nazarpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental–emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse.

  1. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. External factors affecting data acquisition during corneal topography examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Méijome, José Manuel; Queirós, Antonio; Jorge, Jorge; Fernandes, Paulo; Cerviño, Alejandro; de Almeida, José Borges

    2007-03-01

    To analyze the factors affecting data acquisition during corneal topography examination with the Medmont E-300 videokeratoscope and to provide strategies to minimize their effects. Sixty eyes from thirty young adults were examined. A second observer registered incidences with the potential to affect data acquisition. Those factors were correlated with the difficulty of measurements as judged subjectively by the practitioner who performed the examination. Measurements of axial curvature were analyzed to evaluate the variability expressed as intrasession and intersession coefficient of variation and the standard error of the mean (SEM). The level of difficulty rated by the practitioner was in general low, with 70% of the eyes being easy or very easy to measure. For the remaining 30% of the eyes, corneal topography measurements were considered to be difficult (27%) or very difficult (3%). Of the external parameters investigated, only fixation instability (PSEM improved when three readings from each session were considered. The level of subjective difficulty found during videokeratoscopy examination is correlated strongly with fixation instability and the need for head reorientation in the chin rest, whereas tear-related events seem to be less relevant in the practitioner perception of test ease or difficulty. Those factors have relevance in measurement variability.

  3. Factors affecting cardiac rehabilitation referral by physician specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sherry L; Grewal, Keerat; Stewart, Donna E

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is widely underutilized because of multiple factors including physician referral practices. Previous research has shown CR referral varies by type of provider, with cardiologists more likely to refer than primary care physicians. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral in primary care physicians versus cardiac specialists. A cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of 510 primary care physicians and cardiac specialists (cardiologists or cardiovascular surgeons) in Ontario identified through the Canadian Medical Directory Online was administered. One hundred four primary care physicians and 81 cardiac specialists responded to the 26-item investigator-generated survey examining medical, demographic, attitudinal, and health system factors affecting CR referral. Primary care physicians were more likely to endorse lack of familiarity with CR site locations (P negatively impacting CR referral practices than cardiac specialists. Cardiac specialists were significantly more likely to perceive that their colleagues and department would regularly refer patients to CR than primary care physicians (P Marketing CR site locations, provision of standardized referral forms, and ensuring discharge summaries are communicated to primary care physicians may improve their willingness to refer to CR.

  4. A holistic approach to factors affecting depression in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerogianni, Georgia; Kouzoupis, Anastasios; Grapsa, Eirini

    2018-05-19

    Depression in dialysis populations is affected by co-morbid diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and immune dysfunction, and it also includes high suicide risk and frequent hospitalizations. Depressive disorders have a close association with malnutrition and chronic inflammation, as well as with cognitive impairment. Impaired cognitive function may be manifested as low adherence to dialysis treatment, leading to malnutrition. Additionally, chronic pain and low quality of sleep lead to high rates of depressive symptoms in haemodialysis patients, while an untreated depression can cause sleep disturbances and increased mortality risk. Depression can also lead to sexual dysfunction and non-adherence, while unemployment can cause depressive disorders, due to patients' feelings of being a financial burden on their family. The present review provides a holistic approach to the factors affecting depression in haemodialysis, offering significant knowledge to renal professionals.

  5. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured questionnaire; study reveals that service innovativeness, service reli- ability, service competitiveness and service consistency have significant influence on making customer satisfied and the operator’s network/signal coverage, pricing, offering, fulfillment of customer demand, value added service, brand value and op - erators contribution for society have insignificant influences on making customer satisfied at five percent level of significant at multiple regression analysis. On the basis of these findings; study concludes that in promoting customer satisfaction mobile service providers should be concerned for factors responsible for insignifi- cant influence on customer satisfaction and care of those factors have significant influence on promoting customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.

  6. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  7. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  8. The concept of and factors affecting transport accessibility of seaports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Dąbrowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport accessibility of seaports is a frequently studied area in economic research. In practice, port operators and authorities use it to promote their services and compete in the market. Up to this day, theoretical basis of seaports transport accessibility has not been properly described. The article attempts to systematize and expend the knowledge in this field. New definitions of transport availability from wider and narrower perspectives were suggested; different types of accessibility and their mutual relations were explained. These ideas were complemented by introducing classification of factors affecting transport accessibility of seaports.

  9. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academ...

  10. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemontt, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  11. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemontt, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  12. Job satisfaction and factors affecting motivation at Posti Oyj

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    The business trends and life style of humans are changing rapidly due to globalization and it visibly affects the work environment and employee’s attitude towards the work as the needs and desires of human being are changing too. In such circumstance, it is essential to have motivated team to survive in the market is vital agenda for the firms, where Posti Oyj is not an exception. It has become a challenge for HR officials to study about job satisfaction and motivation including factors affec...

  13. Factors Affecting Tourist Expenditure Coming To Mugla Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehime Korkmaz Bingöl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing tourist expenditure is a means to increase tourism income, which is extremely important for local economies. The purpose of this study is to understand the expending pattern of tourists coming to Mugla Region and provide empirical background for the policies to increase per tourist expenditure. The survey conducted at Dalaman International Airport and the data has been analyzed using OLS method. Nationality, age, accommodation type, pension type, credit card usage, availability of shopping facilities, standard of night life and entertainment, quality of food and beverage, length of holiday and group size has been found as significant factors affecting tourist expenditure

  14. Profile of Patients with Acute Poisoning and Factors Effecting Prognosis: A Retrospective Analysis in the Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Toptaş

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse demographic and epidemiologic characteristics, clinical course, laboratory results and prognosis of patients who were admitted to Haseki Training and Research Hospital Intensive Care Unit due to intoxication between 24.11 2007 and 21.02.2013. Methods: We evaluated age, gender, types of intoxication (accident, suicide, etiology, length of stay, mortality rate, duration of mechanical ventilation, and blood pressure, heart rate and symptoms at the time of admission. Patients who took multiple drugs were recorded. Liver and kidney function tests, blood glucose, complete blood count parameters, electrolytes and arterial blood gas values at the time of admission were evaluated. Results: A total of 59 cases of intoxication were studied. 59.7% of patients were male, 42.4% were female. The mean age was 32±13 years. 86.4% of cases occurred due to suicide attempts and 13.6%, accidentally. In our study, it was found that the most common intoxication agents were paracetamol and amitriptyline, and the most common cause of death was methyl alcohol intoxication. Conclusion: Our results showed that a significant portion of the intoxication cases admitted to the intensive care unit were young adults who attempted suicide by overdosing on drugs. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 29-33

  15. 78 FR 46418 - Proposed Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting... entitlement factors. Individual factors such as income, marital status, and the beneficiary's number of...

  16. Factors affecting intra-oral pH - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, C; Lee, J; Sander, S; Mei, L; Farella, M

    2016-10-01

    One of the greatest challenges to modern dentistry is the progressive destruction of tooth material due to chemical erosion. Dental erosion is the loss of dental hard tissue, without the action of bacteria, in which demineralisation of enamel and dentine results due to a decrease in intra-oral pH. The aim of this review was to appraise the scientific literature on the factors that can affect intra-oral pH. The review will examine (i) the protective role of human saliva, in terms of its mineral composition, flow rates and buffering systems and (ii) sources of in-mouth acids such as extrinsic acids, which are derived from the diet and environment, as well as intrinsic acids, which are related to disorders of the gastro-oesophageal tract. This review may assist clinicians to identify the risk factors for tooth wear and to recommend adequate preventive measures to patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmo Kang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service system such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - ‘wireless internet’ and ‘mobile applications’ - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

  18. Human Factors Affecting the Patient's Acceptance of Wireless Biomedical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensli, Rune; Boisen, Egil

    In monitoring arrhythmia, the quality of medical data from the ECG sensors may be enhanced by being based on everyday life situations. Hence, the development of wireless biomedical sensors is of growing interest, both to diagnose the heart patient, as well as to adjust the regimen. However, human factors such as emotional barriers and stigmatization, may affect the patient's behavior while wearing the equipment, which in turn may influence quality of data. The study of human factors and patient acceptance is important both in relation to the development of such equipment, as well as in evaluating the quality of data gathered from the individual patient. In this paper, we highlight some important aspects in patient acceptance by comparing results from a preliminary clinical trial with patients using a wireless ECG sensor for three days out-of-hospital service, to available published results from telehomecare projects, and discuss important aspects to be taken into account in future investigations.

  19. Extrinsic factors affecting accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters for LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managan, W.W.

    1976-08-01

    Assuming that ultrasonic flowmeters of suitable intrinsic accuracy are feasible, this report explores factors extrinsic to the flowmeter which affect the accuracy such as asymmetric flow profile, regions of high turbulence and thermal stratification. By integrating isovelocity flow profile maps, the predicted performance of various flowmeter configurations may be compared to experimental data. For the two pipe arrangements analyzed, the single diametral path flowmeter results were within 5 percent of true flow rate. Theoretical correction factors could reduce the error for the straight pipe but increased the error for asymmetrical flow. On the same pipe arrangements a four path ultrasonic flowmeter spaced for Gaussian integration gave less than 1 percent error. For more general conclusions a range of flow profiles produced by typical LMFBR piping arrangements must be analyzed

  20. Stability analysis of type 2 diabetes mellitus prognosis model with obesity as a trigger factor and metabolic syndrome as a risk factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, A. I.; Lestari, A. D.; Ratianingsih, R.; Puspitasari, J. W.

    2018-03-01

    Obesity is found in 90% of the world's patients with a type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosis. If it is not being treatment, the disease advances to a metabolic syndrome related to some atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. In this study, a mathematical model was constructed that represent the prognosis of type 2 DM. The prognosis is started from the transition of vulnerable people to overweight and obese. The advanced prognosis makes the type 2 DM sufferer become a metabolic syndrome. The model has no disease-free critical point, while the implicit endemic critical point is guaranteed for some requirements. The analysis of the critical point stability, by Jacobian matrix and Routh Hurwitz criteria, requires a parameter interval that identified from the characteristic polynomial. The requirements show that we have to pay attention to the transition rate of overweight to obese, more over the transition rate of obese to type 2 DM. The simulations show that the unstable condition of type 2 DM is easier to achieve because of the tightness of the parameter stability interval.

  1. Factors affecting the employability in people with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wo, Monica Chen Mun; Lim, Kheng Seang; Choo, Wan Yuen; Tan, Chong Tin

    2016-12-01

    People with epilepsy (PWE) are negatively prejudiced in their ability to work. This study aimed to examine demographic, clinical and psychological factors associated with employability in PWE. This study recruited epilepsy patients from a neurology clinic in Malaysia. Employability was measured using employment ratio, with a ratio ≥90% (ER90) classified as high employability. Basic demographic data such as age, gender, marital status, religion, education level and household income was collected. Clinical measures consisted of age of seizure onset, seizure frequency, type of epilepsy, aura, polytherapy, nocturnal seizures and seizure control. Psychological measures included Work Self-Determination Index (WSDI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Of 146 PWE, 64.4% had high employability. The participants were predominantly female (52%), Chinese (50.7%), single (50%), having tertiary education (55.5%) and focal epilepsy (72.6%). Clinically, only type of epilepsy was significantly correlated to employability of PWE. Employability of PWE was associated with ability to work (indicated by education level, work performance affected by seizures, ability to travel independently and ability to cope with stress at work) and family overprotection. The high employability group was found to have lower self-perceived stigma (ESS), higher self-determined motivation (WSDI), self-esteem (SES) and perceived social support (MSPSS), than the low employability group. Logistic regression analysis showed that tertiary education level (AOR 3.42, CI: 1.46-8.00), higher self-determination (WSDI, AOR 1.09, CI: 1.012-1.17), lower family overprotection (AOR 0.76, CI: 0.61-0.95), and generalised epilepsy (AOR 4.17, CI: 1.37-12.70) were significant predictors for higher employability in PWE. Ability to work (education level), clinical factor (type of epilepsy) and psychological factor (self-determined motivation and family

  2. COLLABORATION PRACTICE BETWEEN NURSES AND PHYSICIAN AND THE AFFECTING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwin Martiningsih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Collaboration is basically discuss about togetherness, cooperation, sharing tasks, equality, responsibility, and accountability. Purpose of this research was to learn the collaboration practice beetwen nurses and physician and the factors affecting. Method: Design of this research was correlational and comparational study, and population were the physician who work in Ngudi Waluyo Blitar hospitals, intensive cooperation with the nurse in the room, not holding structural positions and not studying, there are 19 peoples taken by total population and nurses who work in Ngudi Waluyo hospitals, not holding structural positions (Head of Division or Head of Section, having relationship with the physician and the samples were 31 peoples taken by probability proportional to size (PPS. Methods of data collection by giving questionnaire about the characteristics of respondents (nurses and physician and practice of collaboration scale. Data characteristics and attitudes of nurses and physicians about the practice of collaboration is analyzed with descriptive statistics, to know the differences between nurses and physicians attitude using mann whitney u test. To know affecting characteristic with nurses and physician attitude by multivariate analysis. Result: Results of mann whitney test p value is 0.611, which means that there is no difference between nurses and physician attitude in practice collaboration, and result of multivariate analysis the influence of nurse characteristics (age, education, functional potition, length of working with attitude are 0.460 or 46%, while 54% influenced by other factors, and the influence of physician characteristics (age, education, length of working with attitude are 0.435 or 43.5%, while 56.5% influenced by other factors. Discussion: Further need to study other factors that influence and research by observation the impact of collaboration between the nurse with physician on the service quality.

  3. Group decision-making: Factors that affect group effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Osmani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are operating in a dynamic and turbulent environment. In these conditions, they have to make decisions for new problems or situations. Most of decisions are therefore non-programmed and unstructured, accompanied by risk and uncertainty. Moreover, the problems and situations are complex. All organizations are oriented towards group decisionmaking processes, as useful tools to cope with uncertainty and complexity. Apart from the necessity, companies are turning towards participatory processes also to benefit from the important advantages that these processes offer. Organizations have realized the importance of group decision-making processes to contribute to the creation of sustainable competitive advantages. Main objective of this paper is to show that group decision-making processes do not offer guarantee for good decisions, because the effectiveness of group is affected by many factors. So, the first thing done in this paper is discussing about the benefits and limitations that accompany the use of groups with decision-making purpose. Afterwards, we stop on the different factors that influence the group’s ability to make good decisions. The aim is to emphasize that regardless of the many advantages of groups, some factors as group size, type of communication within the group, leadership style, the norms, the differentiation of roles and statuses, cohesion and compliance degree should be the main elements to keep into consideration because they affect the effectiveness of group. In this regard, is discussed how such factors influence the quality of decision and then we try to draw some conclusions that can improve and make better and easier group decision-making processes.

  4. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities

  5. Factors Affecting Husband Participation in Antenatal Care Attendance and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumaseuw, R.; Berliana, S. M.; Nursalam, N.; Efendi, F.; Pradanie, R.; Rachmawati, P. D.; Aurizki, G. E.

    2018-02-01

    The government has implemented several programs to prevent and reduce a mother’s mortality rate by enhancing active role of the family. The most responsible family member on maintaining the pregnancy and delivery process is the husband. The husband must be active to take care of his wife. Active participation of the husband in accompanying his wife during pregnancy and the delivery process is one of the substantial factors, which helps the husband to take decisions related to the health of his wife. This study aimed to identify variables and its trends, which significantly affect a husband’s participation in accompanying his wife during pregnancy and the delivery process. The data used in this study was from an Indonesian Demographic Health Survey 2012. The study used binary logistic regression as the analysis method. The result showed as many as 8,237 husbands accompanied their wife in antenatal care and the delivery process. The significant variables affecting the husband participation are the age of the wife, the education of wife, the education of the husband, the occupational status of the wife and the husband, the number of children, pregnancy status, and residency region. The possibility for a husband to accompany his wife is larger in several factors, such as the wife being between the ages of 21 - 35 years old, a husband who minimally graduated from junior high school, a working husband, as well as a wife, and the number of children less than and equal to two and the expected pregnancy. The government should consider those factors to create policy related women’s health and integrate the factors into various sectors.

  6. Loss of connective tissue growth factor as an unfavorable prognosis factor activates miR-18b by PI3K/AKT/C-Jun and C-Myc and promotes cell growth in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X; Zhen, Y; Yang, H; Wang, H; Zhou, Y; Wang, E; Marincola, F M; Mai, C; Chen, Y; Wei, H; Song, Y; Lyu, X; Ye, Y; Cai, L; Wu, Q; Zhao, M; Hua, S; Fu, Q; Zhang, Y; Yao, K; Liu, Z; Li, X; Fang, W

    2013-05-16

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has different roles in different types of cancer. However, the involvement and molecular basis of CTGF in tumor progression and prognosis of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have almost never been reported. In this study, we observed that downregulated CTGF expression was significantly associated with NPC progression and poor prognosis. Knockdown of CTGF markedly elevated the ability of cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Subsequently, we discovered that the reduction of CTGF increased the expression of miR-18b, an oncomir-promoting cell proliferation. Further, we discovered that attenuated CTGF-mediated upregulation of miR-18b was dependent on the increased binding of transcription factors Jun proto-oncogene (C-Jun) and v-Myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (C-Myc) to miR-18b promoter region via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. Finally, we further found that miR-18b directly suppressed the expression of CTGF in NPC. In clinical fresh specimens, miR-18b was widely overexpressed and inversely correlated with CTGF expression in NPC. Our studies are the first to demonstrate that reduced CTGF as an unfavorable prognosis factor mediates the activation of miR-18b, an oncomir directly suppresses CTGF expression, by PI3K/AKT/C-Jun and C-Myc and promotes cell growth of NPC.

  7. Factors that affect coseismic folds in an overburden layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaogang; Cai, Yongen

    2018-03-01

    Coseismic folds induced by blind thrust faults have been observed in many earthquake zones, and they have received widespread attention from geologists and geophysicists. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding fold kinematics; however, few have studied fold dynamics quantitatively. In this paper, we establish a conceptual model with a thrust fault zone and tectonic stress load to study the factors that affect coseismic folds and their formation mechanisms using the finite element method. The numerical results show that the fault dip angle is a key factor that controls folding. The greater the dip angle is, the steeper the fold slope. The second most important factor is the overburden thickness. The thicker the overburden is, the more gradual the fold. In this case, folds are difficult to identify in field surveys. Therefore, if a fold can be easily identified with the naked eye, the overburden is likely shallow. The least important factors are the mechanical parameters of the overburden. The larger the Young's modulus of the overburden is, the smaller the displacement of the fold and the fold slope. Strong horizontal compression and vertical extension in the overburden near the fault zone are the main mechanisms that form coseismic folds.

  8. The main factor affecting the competitiveness of Contractor Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurisra; Malahayati, Nurul; Mahmuddin

    2018-05-01

    Contractor companies must have the competitive advantage to compete in maintaining the survival of the company. Problems arise because quite a lot of advantages can be used and these advantages must be used appropriately to produce competitiveness for the company to continue to compete and to win the competition. This study aims to determine the main factors affecting the competitiveness of medium-class contractors in Banda Aceh. Data collection was obtained through questionnaires distributed to 31 middle-class contractors in Banda Aceh. Data processing and analysis is done by using descriptive analysis. Based on the result of descriptive analysis, it can be concluded that the most important competitiveness factor with a mean score value 4.52 is the relationship, and the factor that has the highest mean score value is the relationship with the government of 4.97, while the result of the ranking analysis is obtained 25 factor that is critical to the competitiveness of medium-class contractors in Banda Aceh.

  9. Factor affecting happiness among nursing students in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, W H; Jo, M J

    2016-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Despite the increased interest in nursing students' happiness in South Korea, few studies have attempted to identify factors influencing their happiness. Therefore, nursing educators should consistently investigate the factors influencing happiness and develop strategies to improve happiness among Korean nursing students. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study confirmed that there were positive correlations between grateful disposition, social support and happiness. In addition, grateful disposition and support from intimate people were identified as predictors of happiness in Korean nursing students. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Development of intervention programmes to help nursing students increase grateful disposition and support from intimate people may be helpful for improving happiness. These programmes can include activity, such as writing a gratitude journal, and extracurricular programmes, such as mentoring programmes between seniors and juniors and/or professor and student. Introduction Happiness is very important in the training and development of nursing students as future nurses. However, nursing students experience a high level of stress and low level of happiness in South Korea. Aim This study aimed to investigate factors that affect happiness among nursing students in South Korea. Method Data were collected from a total of 241 nursing enrolled in two 4-year baccalaureate nursing programmes in South Korea, using a self-administrated questionnaire. To identify predictors of happiness, stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Results The results indicated that grateful disposition and support from intimate people significantly predict happiness among Korean nursing students. These two factors accounted for 38.0% of the variance in happiness. Discussion This study indicated grateful disposition and support from intimate people as factors promoting happiness in nursing students. The findings

  10. PEA3/ETV4-related transcription factors coupled with active ERK signalling are associated with poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keld, R

    2011-06-28

    Background: Transcription factors often play important roles in tumourigenesis. Members of the PEA3 subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors fulfil such a role and have been associated with tumour metastasis in several different cancers. Moreover, the activity of the PEA3 subfamily transcription factors is potentiated by Ras-ERK pathway signalling, which is itself often deregulated in tumour cells.\\r\

  11. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  12. Identification and assessment of risk factors affecting construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sayed Bassiony Ahmed Abd El-Karim

    2017-08-01

    Unexpected increase in cost and delays in construction projects are caused by owner, contractor, environments, etc. in which several types of risk factors may occur concurrently. The effect of cost overrun and schedule overrun do not only influence the construction industry but the overall economy as well. Even though construction project increasing in cost and schedule has received extensive attention of researchers, but because of continuous changes and development in the field, the study considered of added value to the construction industry in Egypt, in addition to risk strategy and plan analysis. In order to meet the deadline of a project and due to the complex nature of construction projects, cost and scheduling should be flexible enough to accommodate changes without negatively affecting the overall project cost and duration. As such, the objectives of the presented research in this paper are to identify, study, and assess the effect of the factors that affect cost and time contingency. Data are collected from sixteen construction companies in Egypt. The collected data, output charts and analyses spreadsheets will be used for the development of computerized model built by the authors with identification abbreviation RIAM.

  13. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.

  14. Effect of Factor XIII-A G185T Polymorphism on Visual Prognosis after Photodynamic Therapy for Neovascular Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Parmeggiani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macular degenerations represent leading causes of central blindness or low vision in developed countries. Most of these severe visual disabilities are due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD and pathologic myopia (PM, both of which are frequently complicated by subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV. Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (PDT-V is still employed for CNV treatment in selected cases or in combined regimen. In Caucasian patients, the common polymorphism G185T of factor XIII-A gene (FXIII-A-G185T; rs5985 has been described as predictor of poor angiographic CNV responsiveness to PDT-V. Nevertheless, the prognostic implications of this pharmacogenetic determinant on long-term visual outcome after a PDT-V regimen have not been evaluated. We retrospectively selected Caucasian patients presenting with treatment-naive CNV and receiving standardized PDT-V protocol for two years. The study population included patients affected by subfoveal CNV secondary to AMD or PM. We assessed the correlations between the polymorphic allele T of FXIII-A-G185T and: (1 total number of photodynamic treatments; and (2 change in visual acuity from baseline to the end of the follow-up period. Considering a total study population of 412 patients with neovascular AMD or PM, the carriers of 185 T-allele of FXIII-A (GT or TT genotype received a higher number of photodynamic treatments than patients without it (GG wild-type genotype (p < 0.01; mean number of PDT-V: 5.51 vs. 3.76, respectively. Moreover, patients with 185 T-allele of FXIII-A had a more marked worsening of visual acuity at 24 months than those with the GG-185 wild genotype (p < 0.01; mean difference in logMAR visual acuity: 0.22 vs. 0.08, respectively. The present findings show that the G185T polymorphism of the FXIII-A gene is associated with significant differences in the long-term therapeutic outcomes of patients treated with standardized PDT-V protocol. The comprehensive appraisal of

  15. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, R.; Levanon, D.; Hadar, Y.; Chet, I.

    1995-01-01

    Amir, R., Levanon, D., Hadar, Y., and Chet, I. 1995. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta. Experimental Mycology 19, 61-70. Morchella esculenta was grown on square split plates, forming sclerotia on one side and mycelium on the other. After the fungus ceased to colonize and before sclerotial initials appeared, [ 14 C]3-O-methyl glucose was added to the edge of the plate on the mycelial side. The effect of various activities in the mycelium (source) and sclerotia (sink) on sclerotial formation and translocation were examined using inhibitors and water potential changes of the media. Sodium azide or cycloheximide applied separately to both sides inhibited both sclerotial formation and translocation, showing that processes in the source and sink depend on metabolic activities as well as protein synthesis. The use of nikkomycin inhibited sclerotial formation, without affecting translocation to the sclerotia. Since the hyphal tips swelled and burst, the translocated compounds were lost to the media. In a strain defective in sclerotial formation, used as a control, no translocation took place, showing that there is a connection between sclerotial formation and translocation. Reversal of the water potential gradient between the two media (lower on the mycelial side), reduced the formation of sclerotia and translocation to them. Translocation to Morchella sclerotia takes place via turgor driven mass flow, but is nevertheless affected by activities in both the source and the sink. (author)

  16. Factors affecting the reproductive potential of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folman, Y.; Rosenberg, M.; Kaim, M.

    1990-01-01

    Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P 4 ) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (≤2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (≥4.1 ng/mL) P 4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P 4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

  17. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  18. Companion of choice at birth: factors affecting implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar; Portela, Anayda

    2017-08-31

    Two recent recommendations made by the World Health Organization confirm the benefits of companion of choice at birth on labour outcomes; however institutional practices and policies do not always support its implementation in different settings around the world. We conducted a review to determine factors that affect implementation of this intervention considering the perspectives and experiences of different stakeholders and other institutional, systemic barriers and facilitators. Forty one published studies were included in this review. Thirty one publications were identified from a 2013 Cochrane review on the effectiveness of companion of choice at birth. We also reviewed 10 qualitative studies conducted alongside the trials or other interventions on labour and birth companionship identified through electronic searches. The SURE (Supporting the Use of Research Evidence) framework was used to guide the thematic analysis of implementation factors. Women and their families expressed appreciation for the continuous presence of a person to provide support during childbirth. Health care providers were concerned about the role of the companion and possible interference with activities in the labour ward. Allocation of resources, organization of care, facility-related constraints and cultural inclinations were identified as implementation barriers. Prior to introducing companion of choice at birth, understanding providers' attitudes and sensitizing them to the evidence is necessary. The commitment of the management of health care facilities is also required to change policies, including allocation of appropriate physical space that respects women's privacy. Implementation research to develop models for different contexts which could be scaled up would be useful, including documentation of factors that affected implementation and how they were addressed. Future research should also focus on documenting the costs related to implementation, and on measuring the impact of

  19. [Factors affecting re-smoking in male workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Hoon; Ha, Hee-Sook; Kam, Sin; Lim, Ji-Seun; Kang, Yune-Sik; Lee, Duk-Hee; Chun, Byung-Yeol

    2005-05-01

    This study was performed to examine the factors affecting re-smoking in male workers. A self-administrated questionnaire survey was conducted during April 2003 to examine the smoking state of 1,154 employees of a company that launched a smoking cessation campaign in 1998. Five hundred and eighty seven persons, who had stopped smoking for at least one week, were selected as the final study subjects. This study collected data on smoking cessation success or failure for 6 months, and looked at the factors having an effect on resmoking within this period. This study employed the Health Belief Model as its theoretical basis. The re-smoking rate of the 587 study subjects who had stopped smoking for at least one week was 44.8% within the 6 month period. In a simple analysis, the resmoking rates were higher in workers with a low age, on day and night shifts, blue collar, of a low rank, where this was their second attempt at smoking cessation and for those with a shorter job duration (pHeath Belief Model, re-smoking was significantly related with the perceived susceptibility factor, economic advantages of smoking cessation among the perceived benefits factor, the degree of cessation trial's barrier of the perceived barriers factor, smoking symptom experience, recognition of the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke and the existence of chronic disease due to smoking (psmoking, the significant variables were age, perceived susceptibility for disease, economic advantages due to smoking cessation, the perceived barrier for smoking cessation, recognition on the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke, the existence of chronic disease due to smoking and the number of attempts at smoking cessation (psmoking ban policy within the work place, health education that improves the knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and the harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke will be required, as well as counter plans to reduce the barriers for smoking

  20. Rapid progression of gliomatosis cerebri to secondary glioblastoma, factors that affects the progression rate: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Yu, In Kyu; Kim, Seung Min; Kim, Joo Heon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Seung Yeon [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Glioblastomas may develop de novo or through progression from low-grade or anaplastic astrocytomas. The term 'primary glioblastoma' refers to a glioblastoma that lacks a precursor lesion and has a clinical history of less than three months. On the other hand, the term 'secondary glioblastoma' indicates that the glioblastoma has progressed from a low-grade tumor after a long latency period and often manifests in younger patients. These subtypes of glioblastoma develop via different genetic pathways, and they differ in prognosis and response to therapy. Thus, differential diagnosis of these subtypes and prediction of the factors that affect the progression from low-grade diffuse astrocytoma to secondary glioblastoma would be clinically very important. We present a rare case of secondary glioblastoma, which developed only three months after the follow up imaging evaluations, with a history of low grade glioma, and present the factors that cause rapid progression.

  1. Factors Affecting Healthful Eating Among Touring Popular Musicians and Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Erin; Kelly, Patrick; Kress, Kathleen; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining good health is essential for touring musicians and singers. The stressful demands of touring may impact food choices, leading to detrimental effects on health and performance. This exploratory pilot study aimed to assess factors affecting healthful eating of touring musicians and singers. A 46-item survey was used to assess food- and nutrition-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviors, and environmental factors, as well as lifestyle, musical background, and demographic data. Participants (n=35) were recruited from a musicians' assistance foundation as well as touring musical theater productions and a music festival. Results indicate that touring musicians and singers had positive attitudes regarding healthful foods. Of 35 respondents, 80.0% indicated eating healthful food was important to them. Respondents reported feeling confident selecting (76.5%) and preparing (82.4%) healthful foods; however, they showed uncertainty when determining if carbohydrate-containing foods should be consumed or avoided. Respondents indicated environmental factors including availability and cost of healthy food options and tour schedules limited access to healthful foods. Venues (73.5%), fast food restaurants (67.6%), and airports (64.7%) were the most frequently identified locations in need of offering more healthful food choices. Respondents (52.9%) indicated more support from others while touring would help them make healthier food choices. More research is needed to develop mobile wellness programs as well as performance-based nutrition guidelines for musicians and singers that address the unique demands associated with touring.

  2. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  3. Risk factors affecting chronic rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Jae Jung

    2014-03-01

    Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We analyzed risk factors causing plantar fascia rupture in the presence of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed 286 patients with plantar fasciitis who were referred from private clinics between March 2004 and February 2008. Patients were divided into those with or without a plantar fascia rupture. There were 35 patients in the rupture group and 251 in the nonrupture group. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for plantar fascia rupture were compared between the 2 groups. We compared age, gender, the affected site, visual analog scale pain score, previous treatment regimen, body mass index, degree of ankle dorsiflexion, the use of steroid injections, the extent of activity, calcaneal pitch angle, the presence of a calcaneal spur, and heel alignment between the 2 groups. Of the assessed risk factors, only steroid injection was associated with the occurrence of a plantar fascia rupture. Among the 35 patients with a rupture, 33 had received steroid injections. The odds ratio of steroid injection was 33. Steroid injections for plantar fasciitis should be cautiously administered because of the higher risk for plantar fascia rupture. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  4. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.

  5. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  6. Factors Affecting Accidents Risks among Truck Drivers In Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshamly Ahmed Fathalla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is ranked among the countries with the highest rates of road accidents. According to the American Chamber of Commerce more than 96% of Egypt's goods are transported by trucks and due to their large volume and excessive weight, the severity and number of truck accident fatalities are much higher than other vehicles in Egypt. The present study aims at identifying truck driver's behavior and its influence on crash involvement. Due to the shortage in recording accident data and the inaccurate road accident audit, data was collected from several governorates in Egypt through questionnaire. Questionnaire forms were filled out through personal interviews with truck drivers. The total number of respondents was 643. The final analysis was made on the 615 questionnaires with complete answers. The data was analyzed and logistic regression was applied to accident related data to examine the contributing factors affecting accident occurrence of truck drivers. Results showed that fatigue in terms of driving hours (continuous and total and lack of sleep, drug use during driving, and driver obesity are the most influencing factors on the occurrence of truck accidents in Egypt. The findings of this research highlight the important role human factors have on the risk of crash involvement amongst Egypt's truck drivers and the need to improve their work conditions.

  7. Illness Progression as a Function of Independent and Accumulating Poor Prognosis Factors in Outpatients With Bipolar Disorder in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Lori L.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Grunze, Heinz; Frye, Mark A.; Suppes, Trisha; McElroy, Susan L.; Keck, Paul E.; Rowe, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Many patients with bipolar disorder in the United States experience a deteriorating course of illness despite naturalistic treatment in the community. We examined a variety of factors associated with this pattern of illness progression. Method: From 1995 to 2002, we studied 634 adult outpatients with bipolar disorder (mean age of 40 years) emanating from 4 sites in the United States. Patients gave informed consent and completed a detailed questionnaire about demographic, vulnerability, and course-of-illness factors and indicated whether their illness had shown a pattern of increasing frequency or severity of manic or depressive episodes. Fifteen factors previously linked in the literature to a poor outcome were examined for their relationship to illness progression using Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by a 2-sample Wilcoxon rank sum (Mann-Whitney) test, χ2, and logistical regression. Results: All of the putative poor prognosis factors occurred with a high incidence, and, with the exception of obesity, were significantly (P bipolar disorder from onset to study entry in adulthood. The identification of these factors provides important targets for earlier and more effective therapeutic intervention in the hope of achieving a more benign course of bipolar disorder. PMID:25834764

  8. Utility of Inflammatory Marker- and Nutritional Status-based Prognostic Factors for Predicting the Prognosis of Stage IV Gastric Cancer Patients Undergoing Non-curative Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimatsu, Kenji; Fukino, Nobutada; Ogasawara, Yasuo; Saino, Yoko; Oida, Takatsugu

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to compare the utility of various inflammatory marker- and nutritional status-based prognostic factors, including many previous established prognostic factors, for predicting the prognosis of stage IV gastric cancer patients undergoing non-curative surgery. A total of 33 patients with stage IV gastric cancer who had undergone palliative gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy were included in the study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the relationships between the mGPS, PNI, NLR, PLR, the CONUT, various clinicopathological factors and cancer-specific survival (CS). Among patients who received non-curative surgery, univariate analysis of CS identified the following significant risk factors: chemotherapy, mGPS and NLR, and multivariate analysis revealed that the mGPS was independently associated with CS. The mGPS was a more useful prognostic factor than the PNI, NLR, PLR and CONUT in patients undergoing non-curative surgery for stage IV gastric cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Gender, histology, and time of diagnosis are important factors for prognosis: analysis of 1499 never-smokers with advanced non-small cell lung cancer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Takada, Minoru; Kubo, Akihito; Matsumura, Akihide; Fukai, Shimao; Tamura, Atsuhisa; Saito, Ryusei; Kawahara, Masaaki; Maruyama, Yosihito

    2010-07-01

    There has been a growing interest in lung cancer in never-smokers. Utilizing a database from the National Hospital Study Group for Lung Cancer, information for never-smokers and ever-smokers with advanced non-small cell lung cancer was obtained from 1990 to 2005, including clinicopathologic characteristics, chemotherapy response, and survival data. Time of diagnosis was classified into two periods: 1990-1999 and 2000-2005. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox regression and logistic regression method, including gender, age, performance status, histology, stage, and period of diagnosis. There were 1499 never-smokers and 3455 ever-smokers with advanced stage IIIB and IV diseases who received cytotoxic chemotherapy. Never-smokers generally included more females, were younger, with better performance status and more adenocarcinoma diagnosed (p time of diagnosis are important factors for prognosis in these patients.

  10. Outcome of older persons admitted to intensive care unit, mortality, prognosis factors, dependency scores and ability trajectory within 1 year: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Level, Claude; Tellier, Eric; Dezou, Patrick; Chaoui, Karim; Kherchache, Aissa; Sejourné, Philippe; Rullion-Pac Soo, Anne Marie

    2017-12-06

    The outcome and functional trajectory of older persons admitted to intensive care (ICU) unit remain a true question for critical care physicians and geriatricians, due to the heterogeneity of geriatric population, heterogeneity of practices and absence of guidelines. To describe the 1-year outcome, prognosis factors and functional trajectory for older people admitted to ICU. In a prospective 1-year cohort study, all patients aged 75 years and over admitted to our ICU were included according to a global comprehensive geriatric assessment. Follow-up was conducted for 1 year survivors, in particular, ability scores and living conditions. Of 188 patients included [aged 82.3 ± 4.7 years, 46% of admissions, median SAPS II 53.5 (43-74), ADL of Katz's score 4.2 ± 1.6, median Barthel's index 71 (55-90), AGGIR scale 4.5 ± 1.5], the ICU, hospital and 1-year mortality were, respectively, 34, 42.5 and 65.5%. Prognosis factors were: SAPS 2, mechanical ventilation, comorbidity (Lee's and Mc Cabe's scores), disability scores (ADL of Katz's score, Barthel's index and AGGIR scale), admission creatinin, hypoalbuminemia, malignant haemopathy, cognitive impairment. One-year survivors lived in their own home for 83%, with a preserved physical ability, without significant variation of the three ability assessed scores compared to prior ICU admission. The mortality of older people admitted to ICU is high, with a significant impact of disabilty scores, and preserved 1-year survivor independency. Other studies, including a better comprehensive geriatric assessment, seem necessary to determine a predictive "phenotype" of survival with a "satisfactory" level of autonomy.

  11. The correlations between alteration of p16 gene and clinicopathological factors and prognosis in squamous cell carcinomas of the buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuying; Wang, Jie; Dong, Fusheng; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Yinghuai

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate relationships between the alteration of p16 gene and the clinical status and prognosis of the patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa. Thirty buccal cancers were included in the analysis. Deletion analysis was performed by PCR. Point mutation analysis was used by PCR-SSCP and direct sequencing. Methylation-specific PCR methods were adopted for the evaluation of p16 methylation. The correlation between alteration of p16 gene and clinicopathological factors buccal cancer was evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression were used to investigate the relationship between p16 alteration and survival time. The frequency of p16 alteration was 63.3% in buccal carcinomas. P16 deletion was associated significantly with tumor size (P = 0.01). P16 point mutation was associated significantly with differentiation (P = 0.006). P16 methylation was associated significantly with nodes metastasis (P = 0.027). The overall survival rate of 30 buccal carcinomas was 53.3%. The Log-rank test (P = 0.021) and univariate Cox regression analysis (P = 0.030) revealed that p16 methylation was significantly associated with the overall survival rate. Multivariate analysis showed that p16 deletion, p16 mutation, and p16 methylation were not statistically significant. The alterations of p16 gene may play a major role in malignancy and development and metastases of buccal carcinoma and may be an excellent marker of aggressive clinical behavior. P16 methylation has a prognostic value in buccal carcinoma but not an independent prognosis factor. P16 point mutation and p16 deletion have not prognostic significance in buccal carcinoma. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fouzan, Rawan; Al-Ajlan, Sarah; Marwan, Yousef; Al-Saleh, Mervat

    2012-01-01

    Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students' sociodemographic and academic factors. Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7%) decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2%) students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties - 18 (12.5%), 17 (11.8%), and 16 (11.1%) students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4%) of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8%) and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3%) were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498-6.065) more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002). A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

  13. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan Al-Fouzan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results: Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7% decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2% students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%, 17 (11.8%, and 16 (11.1% students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4% of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8% and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3% were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065 more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002. Conclusion : A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

  14. Factors affecting compliance with measles vaccination in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimmasane, Maniphet; Douangmala, Somthana; Koffi, Paulin; Reinharz, Daniel; Buisson, Yves

    2010-09-24

    In line with WHO objectives, the Lao Government is committed to eliminate measles by 2012. Yet from 1992 to 2007, the annual incidence of measles remained high while the vaccination coverage showed a wide diversity across provinces. A descriptive study was performed to determine factors affecting compliance with vaccination against measles, which included qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative study used a convenience sample of 13 persons in charge of the vaccination program, consisting of officials from different levels of the health care structure and members of vaccination teams. The quantitative study performed on the target population consisted of a matched, case-control survey conducted on a stratified random sample of parents of children aged 9-23 months. Overall, 584 individuals (292 cases and 292 controls) were interviewed in the three provinces selected because of low vaccination coverage. On the provision of services side (supply), the main problems identified were a lack of vaccine supply and diluent, a difficulty in maintaining the cold chain, a lack of availability and competence among health workers, a lack of coordination and a limited capacity to assess needs and make coherent decisions. In the side of the consumer (demand), major obstacles identified were poor knowledge about measles immunization and difficulties in accessing vaccination centers because of distance and cost. In multivariate analysis, a low education level of the father was a factor of non-immunization while the factors of good compliance were high incomes, spacing of pregnancies, a feeling that children must be vaccinated, knowledge about immunization age, presenting oneself to the hospital rather than expecting the mobile vaccination teams and last, immunization of other family members or friends' children. The main factors affecting the compliance with vaccination against measles in Laos involve both the supply side and the demand side. Obtaining an effective

  15. SOME ENVIRONMENTEAL FACTORS AFFECTING BROILER HOUSING IN WINTER SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850.2 W/ºC , 0.34 kg /h. ºC and 308.9 kJ/h. kg at the first week of age to 6213.4 W/ºC , 0.36 kg /h. ºC and 19.3 kJ/h. kg at the end of the life respectively

  16. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  17. Analysis of factors affecting the effect of stope leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wangnan; Dong Chunming

    2014-01-01

    The industrial test and industrial trial production of stope leaching were carried out at Taoshan orefield of Dabu deposit. The results of test and trial production showed obvious differences in leaching rate and leaching time. Compared with industrial trial production of stope leaching, the leaching rate of industrial test was higher, and leaching time was shorter. It was considered that the blasting method and liquid arrangement were the main factors affecting the leaching rate and leaching time according to analysis. So we put forward the following suggestions: the technique of deep hole slicing tight-face blasting was used to reduce the yield of lump ores, the effective liquid arrangement methods were adopted to make the lixiviant infiltrating throughout whole ore heap, and bacterial leaching was introduced. (authors)

  18. Factors and mechanisms affecting corrosion of steel in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehqanian, Ch.

    1986-01-01

    Atomic power plants possess reinforced concrete structures which are exposed to sea water or sea atmosphere. Sea water or its surrounding environment contain very corrosive species which cause corrosion of metal in concrete. It should be mentioned that corrosion of steel in concrete is a complex problem that is not completely understood. Some of the factors which influence the corrosion mechanism and can be related to the pore solution composition is discussed. Chloride ion caused problems are the main source of the corrosion damage seen on the reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion rate in concrete varies and depends on the way chloride ion diffuses into concrete. In addition, the associated cations can influence diffusion of chloride into concrete. The type of portland cement and also the concrete mix design all affect the corrosion behaviour of steel in concrete

  19. Analysis of Factors Affecting Inflation in Indonesia: an Islamic Perspective

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    Elis Ratna Wulan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors affecting inflation. The research is descriptive quantitative in nature. The data used are reported exchange rates, interest rates, money supply and inflation during 2008-2012. The research data was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed in the year 2008-2012 the condition of each variable are (1 the rate of inflation has a negative trend, (2 the interest rate has a negative trend, (3 the money supply has a positive trend, (4 the value of exchange rate has a positive trend. The test results by using multiple linear regression analysis result that variable interest rates, the money supply and the exchange rate of the rupiah significant effect on the rate of inflation.

  20. An Analysis on the Contextual Factors Affecting Motivation in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>For us Chinese,a foreign language is something to be acquired as a kind of communicative tool,so we can infer that an effective way in SLA(Second Language Acquisition) must be learning the target language in a communicative context.A communicative context certainly concerns not only the interactional classroom activities designed in accordance with some stated curriculum tasks to lead the L2 students to learning swimming by swimming,but also other relevant elements which have a lot to do with all the situational,interactional and cultural contexts.In order to lessen some potential sources of conflict between L2 teacher and L2 learner,this article is an attempt to urge a careful study on the contextual factors affecting motivation in SLA.

  1. Factors affecting the electrostatic charge of ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorite, I.; Romero, J.; Fernandez, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of electrostatic charge in ceramic powders takes place when the particle surfaces enter in contact between them or with the containers. The accumulation of electrostatic charge is of relevance in ceramic powders in view of their insulating character and the risk of explosions during the material handling. In this work the main factors that affect the appearance of intrinsic charge and tribo-charge in ceramic powder have been studied. In ceramic powders of alumina it has been verified that the smallest particle sizes present an increase of the electrostatic charge of negative polarity. A correlation has been observed between the nature of the OH -surface groups and the electrostatic charge. The intrinsic charge and the tribocharge in ceramic powders can be diminished by compensating the surface groups that support the charge. The dry dispersion of nanoparticles on microparticles allows surface charge compensation with a noticeable modification of the powder agglomeration. (Author) 19 refs.

  2. FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Buňka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ˂2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ˂30 mg.l-1; spermidine ˂10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ˂5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

  3. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2017-06-01

    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  4. Risk factors that affect metabolic health status in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaogullari, Selin; Demirel, Fatma; Hatipoglu, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    While some obese children are metabolically healthy (MHO), some have additional health problems, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, which increase mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. These children are metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. In this study we assessed the factors that affect metabolic health in obesity and the clinical and laboratory findings that distinguish between MHO and MUO children. In total, 1085 patients aged 6-18 years, with age- and sex-matched BMI exceeding the 95th percentile were included in the study (mean 11.1±2.9 years, 57.6% female, 59.7% pubertal). Patients without dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, or hypertension were considered as MHO. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL, triglyceride over 150 mg/dL, LDL over 130 mg/dL, or HDL under 40 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model of assesment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Hepatosteatosis was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound. Duration of obesity, physical activity and nutritional habits, screen time, and parental obesity were questioned. Thyroid and liver function tests were performed. Six hundred and forty-two cases (59.2%) were MUO. Older age, male sex, increased BMI-SDS, and sedentary lifestyle were associated with MUO. Excessive junk food consumption was associated with MUO particularly among the prepubertal obese patients. Our results revealed that the most important factors that affect metabolic health in obesity are age and BMI. Positive effects of an active lifestyle and healthy eating habits are prominent in the prepubertal period and these habits should be formed earlier in life.

  5. Factors affecting sorption of radiocobalt by river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Din, M.R.E.; Ramadan, A.B.; Atta, E.R.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the principal factors affecting the interaction of radio cobalt with fresh water sediments and their importance for migration of radio cobalt in surface water streams. The uptake percent (U%) of radio cobalt by Ismailia Cannal bottom sediments (ICUBS) have been studied as a function of contact time, ph, competing ion, carrier concentration and natural ligands such as humic acid using batch technique. Mineralogical analyses of the sediment samples were carried out. The amount sorbed per gram sediment, (X/m), increased as the carrier concentration increased from 10 -8 mol. Following a Freundlich type isotherm. The uptake of radio cobalt was found to be affected by changing in the ph of the aqueous phase. Presence of Mg 24 ions as competing cation decreases the sorption of 60 Co. Presence of humic acid shows a slight effect on the sorption of 60 Co. Desorption of the investigated metal ion from the loaded sediment samples was also studied. A mathematical model for the migration of the investigated radioisotope in Ismailia canal water stream was developed to predict the concentrations of cobalt ion at different distances in X-direction

  6. Factors Affecting Antenatal Corticosteroid Administration from the Obstetricians’ Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Kurtoğlu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the factors affecting antenatal corticosteroid administration from the obstetricians’ viewpoint. STUDY DESIGN: The pregnant women who delivered between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation were divided into two groups: Group 1, pregnant patients given corticosteroid therapy; Group 2, pregnant patients who were not given corticosteroid therapy. The indications for delivery, gestational week at administration, dosing, residence and manner of transfer of the patients to the tertiary center, and the interval between admission to hospital and delivery were evaluated. RESULTS: The percentage of patients who received antenatal corticosteroid treatment was 68.4%, whereas 31.6% of the pregnant women didn’t receive corticosteroid therapy. The most common indications for preterm delivery were preterm labor and severe preeclampsia. The interval between admission to hospital and delivery was significantly higher in group 1. CONCLUSION: Even though obstetricians are aware of the importance of corticosteroid treatment in preterm deliveries, indications for impending delivery can affect administration of the therapy.

  7. Factors affecting the diagnostic delay in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellura, Eleonora; Spataro, Rossella; Taiello, Alfonsa Claudia; La Bella, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    Although amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relentlessly progressive disorder, early diagnosis allows a prompt start with the specific drug riluzole and an accurate palliative care planning. ALS at onset may however mimic several disorders, some of them treatable (e.g., multifocal motor neuropathy) or epidemiologically more frequent (e.g., cervical myelopathy). To study the delay from onset to diagnosis in a cohort of ALS patients and to the variables that may affect it. We performed a retrospective analysis of the diagnostic delays in a cohort of 260 patients affected by ALS (M/F = 1.32) followed at our tertiary referral ALS Center between 2000 and 2007. The median time from onset to diagnosis was 11 months (range: 6-21) for the whole ALS cohort, 10 months (range: 6-15) in bulbar-onset (n = 65) and 12 months (range: 7-23) in spinal-onset (n = 195) patients (p = 0.3). 31.1% of patients received other diagnoses before ALS and this led to a significant delay of the correct diagnosis in this group (other diagnoses before ALS, n = 81: median delay, 15 months [9.75-24.25] vs ALS, n = 179, median delay, 9 months [6-15.25], p heuristics might represent an important contributing factor. Furthermore, the length of the differential diagnosis from other disorders and delays in referral to the neurologist seems to be positively associated with the delay in diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors affecting jail detention of defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Annette; Otto, Randy; Finch, Jacquelyn; Ringhoff, Daniel; Kimonis, Eva R

    2010-01-01

    The movement of defendants through the legal process who have been adjudicated incompetent to proceed is little studied, yet it is important. The purpose of this study was to provide empirical data regarding factors that affected the amount of time defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed and ordered to undergo hospitalization remained in jail while awaiting transfer to a state hospital. Statewide data collected in Florida between July 2005 and June 2008 were used to determine the lengths of time incompetent defendants spent at certain stages in the legal process. The addition of forensic bed capacity following media attention and litigation resulted in a significant decrease in the amount of time defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed waited in jail for transfer to a state hospital for treatment. The amount of time it took for completed commitment orders to be submitted to the state mental health authority by the Clerks of Court of each county accounted for a meaningful portion of days defendants spent in jail awaiting transfer to a state hospital, with considerable variation across counties with respect to waiting times. These findings reflect how various stakeholders can affect the amount of time defendants spend in jail while awaiting hospitalization. These issues are discussed in the context of controversy related to Florida's forensic mental health system, as well as issues related to the political process and funding of the state's mental health authority. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatments being used today. Still, your doctor may tell you that you have a good prognosis if ... to respond well to treatment. Or, he may tell you that you have a poor prognosis if ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prognosis Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what ...

  11. Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis is the main video in the NCI Prognosis Video Series, which offers the perspectives of three cancer patients and their doctor, an oncologist who is also a national expert in doctor-patient communication.

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... doctor may tell you that you have a good prognosis if statistics suggest that your cancer is ... about how to discuss prognosis with their patients. Good communication, he says, is part of providing good ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis ... Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Diagnosis & Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what she'd like to know of her prognosis. Credit: National ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during a certain period of time after diagnosis. Disease-free survival This statistic is the percentage of ... discuss cancer prognosis (the likely course of the disease). Learn key points about prognosis and how to ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your situation is in the best position to discuss your prognosis and explain what the statistics may ... situation best is in the best position to discuss your prognosis. Survival statistics most often come from ...

  17. Outcome, comorbidity and prognosis in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielska, Gabriela; Kacperska, Iwona

    2017-04-30

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a relatively common disorder, especially in adolescent and young adult women. The lifetime prevalence of AN in females ranges from 1.2 to 2.2%. The prevalence in males is 10-times lower. The condition is associated with a high risk of chronic course and poor prognosis in terms of treatment and the risk of death. Longer follow-up periods seemed to correspond with increased improvement rates and increased mortality. Onset of the disorder during adolescence is associated with better prognosis. It is reported that as much as 70% to over 80% of patients in this age group achieve remission. Worse outcomes are observed in patients who required hospitalization and in adults. Recent studies indicate improved prognosis for cure and lower mortality rates than previously reported. However, the recovery can take several years and AN is associated with high risk of developing other psychiatric disorders during the patients' lifetime, even after recovery from AN (mainly: affective disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, substance abuse disorders). Studies indicate that bulimic symptoms often occur in the course of anorexia nervosa (especially within 2-3 years from the onset of AN). The authors present a review of literature on the course, comorbidity, mortality, and prognostic factors in AN. Better knowledge of the course of anorexia can contribute to more realistic expectations of the pace of symptomatic improvement, as well as to a creation of therapeutic programs which are better adapted to the needs of the patients.

  18. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed quality, crop year, planting date (even in the same crop year, and planting location. Most varieties (except for Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 had significantly higher isoflavone content when planted in early rather than in late dry season. Additionally, seed viability as well as long-term storage at 10∘C or at ambient condition seemed unlikely to affect isoflavone content in Thai soybean varieties. Isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand depends on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Some varieties (Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 exhibited moderately high isoflavone content regardless of sowing date. Soybeans with decreased seed viability still retained their isoflavone content.

  19. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  20. Factors Affecting Mortality in Elderly Patients Hospitalized for Nonmalignant Reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teslime Ayaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elderly population is hospitalized more frequently than young people, and they suffer from more severe diseases that are difficult to diagnose and treat. The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting mortality in elderly patients hospitalized for nonmalignant reasons. Demographic data, reason for hospitalization, comorbidities, duration of hospital stay, and results of routine blood testing at the time of first hospitalization were obtained from the hospital records of the patients, who were over 65 years of age and hospitalized primarily for nonmalignant reasons. The mean age of 1012 patients included in the study was 77.8 ± 7.6. The most common reason for hospitalization was diabetes mellitus (18.3%. Of the patients, 90.3% had at least a single comorbidity. Whilst 927 (91.6% of the hospitalized patients were discharged, 85 (8.4% died. Comparison of the characteristics of the discharged and dead groups revealed that the dead group was older and had higher rates of poor general status and comorbidity. Differences were observed between the discharged and dead groups in most of the laboratory parameters. Hypoalbuminemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypopotassemia, hypernatremia, hyperuricemia, and high TSH level were the predictors of mortality. In order to meet the health necessities of the elderly population, it is necessary to well define the patient profiles and to identify the risk factors.

  1. Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Ho; Jeong, Won Mee; Yu, Seung Hum; Lee Sun Hee; Sohn, Tae Yong

    1997-01-01

    Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future

  2. Validating YouTube Factors Affecting Learning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Yoga; Hartanto, Rudy; Suning Kusumawardani, Sri

    2018-03-01

    YouTube is often used as a companion medium or a learning supplement. One of the educational places that often uses is Jogja Audio School (JAS) which focuses on music production education. Music production is a difficult material to learn, especially at the audio mastering. With tutorial contents from YouTube, students find it easier to learn and understand audio mastering and improved their learning performance. This study aims to validate the role of YouTube as a medium of learning in improving student’s learning performance by looking at the factors that affect student learning performance. The sample involves 100 respondents from JAS at audio mastering level. The results showed that student learning performance increases seen from factors that have a significant influence of motivation, instructional content, and YouTube usefulness. Overall findings suggest that YouTube has a important role to student learning performance in music production education and as an innovative and efficient learning medium.

  3. The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.-S.; Chen, Y.-T.; Chen, W.-D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship.

  4. Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Immigrant Korean Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ji-Young; Cha, Sunkyung; Moon, Hyunjung; Ruggiero, Jeanne S; Jang, Haeran

    2016-03-01

    An increasing number of foreign-born nurses are working in the United States. Nurses' job satisfaction is a critical issue for quality patient care. The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting the job satisfaction of immigrant Korean nurses. We used a cross-sectional mailed survey design. A convenience sample (n = 105) of members of the Greater New York Korean Nurses Association currently working or had previously worked in the United States completed the questionnaires. We used hierarchical regression to test the effects of acculturation and life satisfaction on job satisfaction. Most participants were female (n = 98, 93.3%) aged 27 to 70 years (mean = 52.27 years, SD = 10.67). In the regression model, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and perceived stress predicted job satisfaction (F = 5.127, p job satisfaction. U.S. nurses need to gain insight into factors influencing job satisfaction in Korean nurses to promote retention and quality care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Factors affecting mechanical nociceptive thresholds in healthy sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalon, Elena; Maes, Dominiek; Piepers, Sofie; Taylor, Polly; van Riet, Miriam M J; Janssens, Geert P J; Millet, Sam; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-05-01

    To describe anatomical and methodological factors influencing mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) and intra-site variability in healthy sows. Prospective, randomized validation. Eight pregnant, healthy, mixed-parity sows (176-269 kg). Repeated MNT measurements were taken: 1) with a hand-held probe and a limb-mounted actuator connected to a digital algometer; 2) at nine landmarks on the limbs and tail; and 3) at 1 and 3 minute intervals. Data were analysed using linear mixed regression models. The MNTs (±SEM) of the limbs were lower with the probe (14.7 ± 1.2 N) than with the actuator (21.3 ± 1.2 N; p testing compared with day 1 (p < 0.001). The mean CV (±SE) was 38.9% (±1.1%). MNTs and intra-site variability in healthy sows were affected by several factors, indicating that this methodology requires considerable attention to detail. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  6. Factors affecting RAIU in hyperthyroidism patients: an analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Yi; Liu Jianfeng; Zhang Xiuli

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the factors affecting thyroid radioiodine uptake (RAIU) of hyperthyroidism patients. Methods; RAIU was performed in 106 hyperthyroidism patients. Some factors were studied to analyze influences on the peak of RAIU, including patients' age and sex, gland weight, taking antithyroid drugs (ATD) or not, time of ATD taking and withdrawal. Results: Patients' RAIU peak had no significant difference for different ages and sex (F=1.68, P=0.1439). If preparation was performed according to the requirements before RAIU measurement, taking ATD or not had no influence on RAIU (t=1.1362, P=0.2625). RAIU peak was different between patients whose gland weight was ≤ 30 g and >30 g. Conclusions: Age and sex have no influence on RAIU. As long as ATD was discontinued at least one week before RAIU measurement, time of taking ATD and discontinuation have no influence on RAIU, and the result of measurement coincide with that of patients who do not take medicine. RAIU peak has relation with gland weight, and RAIU of people with gland weight ≤30 g was lower than that of people with gland weight >30 g

  7. MICROECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING BANKS’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUŢU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are important cells in the economy as they have a significant role by maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. They refocus the resources from those who have surplus to those which have a deficit. Therefore, as any other enterprises, performance is highly desirable for banks and, then, it is crucial to discover what the main factors that influence this objective are. So, this paper analyzes the microeconomic factors affecting bank’s financial performance focusing on 11 entities for the period between 2003 and 2013. The performance is measured by return on assets. The independent variables used are bank’s size, financial leverage,loans to assets ratio, deposits to assets ratio, number of employees, liquidity, net result and monetary policy rate. The results show that bank’s size, loans to assets ratio and liquidity have not a significant impact on performance. Financial leverage has a negative impact, meanwhile the number of employees, deposits to assets ratio and net result have a positive effect.

  8. Study of the factors affecting radon diffusion through building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following - decay of 226 Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. Radon can originate from the deeply buried deposit beneath homes and can migrate to the surface of earth. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. It is well known that for building construction materials the porosity, permeability and the diffusion coefficient are the parameters, which can quantify the materials capability to hinder the flow of radon soil gas. An increase in porosity will provide more air space within the material for radon to travel, thus reducing its resistance to radon transport. The permeability of material describes its ability to act as a barrier to gas movement when a pressure gradient exists across it and is closely related to the porosity of material. The radon diffusion coefficient of a material quantifies the ability of radon gas to move through it when a concentration gradient is the driving force. This parameter depends upon the porosity and permeability of the medium. As diffusion process is the major contributor to indoor levels, therefore, the factors affecting the diffusion process need to be kept in consideration. Keeping this in mind the experimental arrangements have been made for control study of radon diffusion through some building materials to observe the effects of different factors viz.; compaction, grain size, temperature, humidity and the mixing of these materials etc. For the present study alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the recording of alpha tracks caused by radon gas after its diffusion through the

  9. Sensory factors affecting female consumers' acceptability of nail polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C; Koppel, K; Adhikari, K

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine what sensory factors impact consumers' acceptability of nail polishes, to explore how these sensory factors impact consumers' acceptability of nail polishes, to investigate whether there are any consumer segments according to their overall acceptability on different nail polishes and to scrutinize how the consumer segments are related to the sensory factors. Ninety-eight females participated in a nail polish consumer study at Kansas State University. Eight commercial products belonging to four categories - regular (REG), gel (GEL), flake (FLK) and water-based (WAT) - were evaluated. Each nail polish sample was evaluated twice by each participant in two different tasks - a task devoted to applying and evaluating the product and a task devoted to observing the appearance and evaluating the product. Pearson's correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), external preference mapping, cluster analysis and internal preference mapping were applied for data analysis. Participants' scores of overall liking of the nail polishes were similar in the application task and in the observation task. In general, participants liked the REG and GEL product samples more than the FLK and WAT samples. Among all the sensory attributes, appearance attributes were the major factors that affected participants' overall liking. Aroma seemed to be a minor factor to participants' overall liking. Some sensory attributes, such as runny, shininess, opacity, spreadability, smoothness, coverage and wet appearance, were found to drive participants' overall acceptability positively, whereas others such as pinhole, fatty-edges, blister, brushlines, pearl-like, flake-protrusion, glittery and initial-drag impacted participants' overall acceptability negatively. Four clusters of participants were identified according to their overall liking scores from both the application task and the observation task. Participants' acceptability, based on different

  10. Identifying Nonprovider Factors Affecting Pediatric Emergency Medicine Provider Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Fareed; Breslin, Kristen; Mullan, Paul C; Tillett, Zachary; Chamberlain, James M

    2017-10-31

    The aim of this study was to create a multivariable model of standardized relative value units per hour by adjusting for nonprovider factors that influence efficiency. We obtained productivity data based on billing records measured in emergency relative value units for (1) both evaluation and management of visits and (2) procedures for 16 pediatric emergency medicine providers with more than 750 hours worked per year. Eligible shifts were in an urban, academic pediatric emergency department (ED) with 2 sites: a tertiary care main campus and a satellite community site. We used multivariable linear regression to adjust for the impact of shift and pediatric ED characteristics on individual-provider efficiency and then removed variables from the model with minimal effect on productivity. There were 2998 eligible shifts for the 16 providers during a 3-year period. The resulting model included 4 variables when looking at both ED sites combined. These variables include the following: (1) number of procedures billed by provider, (2) season of the year, (3) shift start time, and (4) day of week. Results were improved when we separately modeled each ED location. A 3-variable model using procedures billed by provider, shift start time, and season explained 23% of the variation in provider efficiency at the academic ED site. A 3-variable model using procedures billed by provider, patient arrivals per hour, and shift start time explained 45% of the variation in provider efficiency at the satellite ED site. Several nonprovider factors affect provider efficiency. These factors should be considered when designing productivity-based incentives.

  11. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  12. Adverse psychosocial factors predict poorer prognosis in HIV disease: a meta-analytic review of prospective investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Yoichi; Vedhara, Kavita

    2009-05-01

    There is a growing epidemiological literature focusing on the association between psychosocial stress and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), but inconsistent findings have been published. We aimed to quantify the association between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV disease progression. We searched Medline; PsycINFO; Web of Science; PubMed up to 19 January 2009, and included population studies with a prospective design that investigated associations between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV disease progression or AIDS. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, quality, and estimates of associations. The overall meta-analysis examined 36 articles including 100 psychosocial and disease related relationships. It exhibited a small, but robust positive association between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV progression (correlation coefficient as combined size effect 0.059, 95% confidence interval 0.043-0.074, p<0.001). Notably, sensitivity analyses showed that personality types or coping styles and psychological distress were more strongly associated with greater HIV disease progression than stress stimuli per se, and that all of the immunological and clinical outcome indicators (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome stage, CD4+ T-cell decline, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome mortality, and human immunodeficiency virus disease or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome symptoms) except for viral load exhibited detrimental effects by adverse psychosocial factors. In conclusion, the current review reveals a robust relationship between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV disease progression. Furthermore, there would appear to be some evidence for particular psychosocial factors to be most strongly associated with HIV disease progression.

  13. Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis of Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma for Surgery and Relationships with the BRAFV600E Mutational Status and Expression of Angiogenic Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenlei Shi

    Full Text Available To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC for surgery by comparing the difference between PTMC and larger papillary thyroid carcinoma (LPTC.We analyzed the differences in the clinicopathological characteristics, prognosis, B-type RAF kinase (BRAFV600E mutational status and expression of angiogenic factors, including pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF, and hypoxia-inducible factor alpha subunit (HIF-1α, between PTMC and LPTC by retrospectively reviewing the records of 251 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, 169 with PTMC, and 82 with LPTC (diameter >1 cm.There were no significant differences in the gender, age, multifocality, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, TNM stage, PEDF protein expression, rate of recurrence, or mean follow-up duration between patients with PTMC or LPTC. The prevalence of extrathyroidal invasion (EI, lymph node metastasis (LNM, and BRAF mutation in patients with PTMC was significantly lower than in patients with LPTC. In addition, in PTMC patients with EI and/or LNM and/or positive BRAF (high-risk PTMC patients, the prevalence of extrathyroidal invasion, Hashimoto's disease, lymph node metastasis, tumor TNM stage, PEDF positive protein expression, the rate of recurrent disease, and the mRNA expression of anti-angiogenic factors was almost as high as in patients with larger PTC, but with no significant difference.Extrathyroid invasion, lymph node metastases, and BRAFV600E mutation were the high risk factors of PTMC. PTMC should be considered for the same treatment strategy as LPTC when any of these factors is found. Particularly, PTMC with BRAFV600E gene mutations needed earlier surgical treatment. In addition, the high cell subtype of PTMC with BRAFV600E gene mutation is recommended for total thyroidectomy in primary surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence.

  14. Chemokine-like factor-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing 3 expression is associated with a favorable prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tianci; Shu, Tianci; Dong, Siyuan; Li, Peiwen; Li, Weinan; Liu, Dali; Qi, Ruiqun; Zhang, Shuguang; Zhang, Lin

    2017-05-01

    Decreased expression of human chemokine-like factor-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing 3 (CMTM3) has been identified in a number of human tumors and tumor cell lines, including gastric and testicular cancer, and PC3, CAL27 and Tca-83 cell lines. However, the association between CMTM3 expression and the clinicopathological features and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between CMTM3 expression and clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in ESCC. CMTM3 mRNA and protein expression was analyzed in ESCC and paired non-tumor tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to plot survival curves and the Cox proportional hazards regression model was also used for univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The results revealed that CMTM3 mRNA and protein expression levels were lower in 82.5% (30/40) and 75% (30/40) of ESCC tissues, respectively, when compared with matched non-tumor tissues. Statistical analysis demonstrated that CMTM3 expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.002) and clinical stage (P<0.001) in ESCC tissues. Furthermore, the survival time of ESCC patients exhibiting low CMTM3 expression was significantly shorter than that of ESCC patients exhibiting high CMTM3 expression (P=0.01). In addition, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the overall survival time of patients exhibiting low CMTM3 expression was significantly decreased compared with patients exhibiting high CMTM3 expression (P=0.010). Cox multivariate analysis indicated that CMTM3 protein expression was an independent prognostic predictor for ESCC after resection. This study indicated that CMTM3 expression is significantly decreased in ESCC tissues and CMTM3 protein expression in resected tumors may present an effective prognostic

  15. β-Catenin/POU5F1/SOX2 transcription factor complex mediates IGF-I receptor signaling and predicts poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuan; Xie, Dan; Yu, Shi-Cang; Yang, Xiao-Jun; He, Li-Ru; Yang, Jing; Ping, Yi-Fang; Wang, Bin; Yang, Lang; Xu, Sen-Lin; Cui, Wei; Wang, Qing-Liang; Fu, Wen-Juan; Liu, Qing; Qian, Cheng; Cui, You-Hong; Rich, Jeremy N; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Zhang, Xia; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2013-05-15

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSLC) are crucial in tumor initiation and progression; however, the underlying mechanism for the self-renewal of cancer cells remains undefined. In the study, immunohistochemical analysis of specimens freshly excised from patients with lung adenocarcinoma showed that high expression of insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) in lung adenocarcinoma cells was positively correlated with the expressions of cancer stem cell markers CD133 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A1 (ALDH1A1). IGF-IR activation enhanced POU class 5 homeobox 1 (POU5F1) expression on human lung adenocarcinoma stem-like cells (LACSLC) through PI3K/AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin cascade. POU5F1 could form a novel complex with β-catenin and SOX2 to bind Nanog promoter for transcription to maintain self-renewal of LACSLCs, which was dependent on the functional IGF-IR. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of IGF-IR abrogated LACSLC capabilities for self-renewal and tumorigenicity in vitro. In an in vivo xenograft tumor model, knockdown of either IGF-IR or POU5F1 impeded tumorigenic potentials of LACSLCs. By analyzing pathologic specimens excised from 200 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, we found that colocalization of highly expressed IGF-IR with β-catenin and POU5F1 predicted poor prognosis. Taken together, we show that IGF-IR-mediated POU5F1 expression to form a complex with β-catenin and SOX2 is crucial for the self-renewal and oncogenic potentials of LACSLCs, and the integrative clinical detection of the expressions of IGF-IR, β-catenin, and POU5F1 is indicatory for predicting prognosis in the patients of lung adenocarcinoma. ©2013 AACR.

  16. Improved survival and renal prognosis of patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy with improved control of risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrésdóttir, Gudbjörg; Jensen, Majken; Carstensen, Bendix

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term survival, development of renal end points, and decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN) after renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibition and multifactorial treatment of cardiovascular risk factors ha...

  17. Factors affecting quality of social interaction park in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangunsong, N. I.

    2018-01-01

    The existence of social interactions park in Jakarta is an oasis in the middle of a concrete jungle. Parks is a response to the need for open space as a place of recreation and community interaction. Often the social interaction parks built by the government does not function as expected, but other functions such as a place to sell, trash, unsafe so be rarely visited by visitors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that affect the quality of social interaction parks in Jakarta by conducting descriptive analysis and correlation analysis of the variables assessment. The results of the analysis can give an idea of social interactions park based on community needs and propose the development of social interactioncity park. The object of study are 25 social interaction parks in 5 municipalities of Jakarta. The method used is descriptive analysis method, correlation analysis using SPSS 19 and using crosstab, chi-square tests. The variables are 5 aspects of Design, Plants composition: Selection type of plant (D); the beauty and harmony (Ind); Maintenance and fertility (P); Cleanliness and Environmental Health (BS); Specificity (Drainage, Multi Function garden, Means, Concern/Mutual cooperation, in dense settlements) (K). The results of analysis show that beauty is the most significant correlation with the value of the park followed by specificity, cleanliness and maintenance. Design was not the most significant variable affecting the quality of the park. The results of this study can be used by the Department of Parks and Cemeteries as input in managing park existing or to be developed and to improve the quality of social interaction park in Jakarta.

  18. Recurrens Rates and Affecting Factors in Patients Operated for Endometrioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Eftal Taner

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate reurrens rates and affecting factors in patients operated for endometrioma.\tMATERIAL-METHOD: The cases operated for over cyst diagnosis and pathologically endometrioma diagnosis between the years 2000-2004 has been reviewed retrospectively. Cases’s age, cyst diameter, endometriosis stage and operation procedure have been recorded and the cases that have recurrence and factors affecting recurrence are evaluated.\tRESULTS: Results: 51 of 137 (37.3% cases with endometrioma that have average age of 29.1 in course of operation ± 5.4 had left side, 37 of 137(27% had right side and 49 of 137 (35.7% had bilateral endometrioma. Average diameter of endometriomas was 5.1 ±1.9 cm (1-1.5 cm. After average 3.3±1.8 years from first operation time in 42 cases(30.6% had recurrence. in the left over recurrence rate was signifciantly high (10.8% to 41.2% than right over. For recurrence rate There were no significiant diference between the 102 cases that had laparoscopy and 35 cases that had laparotomy according to cyst diameter, case ages and type of operation.\tWhen the cases were reviewed according to endometriozis staging, There were significiantly high recurrence rate at stage III (28.9% and stage IV(46.0%. With respect to the operation type, patients that had one-sided ooferektomi,relapse is not seen. Patients that had fenestration and ablation as operation, relapse rate is 52.9% significiantly higher than patients that had kistektomi (26.9%.Despite decrease in preoperative complaints (dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, chronic pelvic pain in early postoperative period, they recurred in late postoperative period. 47(56% of 84 patients who have fertility desire gave live birth unfortunately 12(14.3% of them.\tCONCLUSION: Recurrence rates were signifiantly higher in cases with lift sided endometrioma, advanced stafe of endometriosis and in patient udergone fenestration and ablation for treatment.

  19. Factors affecting bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi, Azin; Mohajeri-Tehrani, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD). Methods 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years) participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patient's quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29). Results Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs) pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001), but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL), disease duration and BMD of both site. Conclusion As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols

  20. Factors affecting rural volunteering in palliative care - an integrated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittall, Dawn; Lee, Susan; O'Connor, Margaret

    2016-12-01

    To review factors shaping volunteering in palliative care in Australian rural communities using Australian and International literature. Identify gaps in the palliative care literature and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Proquest, Scopus, Sage Premier, Wiley online, Ovid, Cochran, Google Scholar, CINAHL and Informit Health Collection. The literature was synthesised and presented in an integrated thematic narrative. Australian Rural communities. While Australia, Canada, the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) are leaders in palliative care volunteer research, limited research specifically focuses on volunteers in rural communities with the least occurring in Australia. Several interrelated factors influence rural palliative care provision, in particular an increasingly ageing population which includes an ageing volunteer and health professional workforce. Also current and models of palliative care practice fail to recognise the innumerable variables between and within rural communities such as distance, isolation, lack of privacy, limited health care services and infrastructure, and workforce shortages. These issues impact palliative care provision and are significant for health professionals, volunteers, patients and caregivers. The three key themes of this integrated review include: (i) Geography, ageing rural populations in palliative care practice, (ii) Psychosocial impact of end-end-of life care in rural communities and (iii) Palliative care models of practice and volunteering in rural communities. The invisibility of volunteers in rural palliative care research is a concern in understanding the issues affecting the sustainability of quality palliative care provision in rural communities. Recommendations for future Australian research includes examination of the suitability of current models of palliative care practice in addressing the needs of rural communities; the recruitment

  1. Reproductive factors affecting the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ferda; Demirbag, Derya; Rodoplu, Meliha

    2005-03-01

    Osteoporosis has been defined as a metabolic bone disease characterized by a loss of bone mineral density (BMD) greater than 2.5 standard deviations below young adult peak bone mass or the presence of fracture. By considering that some factors related to female reproductive system might influence the ultimate risk of osteoporosis, we aimed to investigate if a relationship exists between the present BMD of postmenopausal women with their past and present reproductive characteristics. The present study focused on how BMD could be affected by the following factors in postmenopausal women, such as age at menarche, age at first pregnancy, the number of pregnancies and total breast-feeding time. We reviewed detailed demographic history of 303 postmenopausal women. According to the results of the present study, a negative correlation was found between the number of parities and BMD. The BMD values decreased as the number of pregnancies increased. When the BMD values for lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle were investigated, it was observed that a significant difference exists between the women with no child birth and those with more than five parities. There was a significant relationship between age at first pregnancy and BMD values at the lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle. Women who had five or more abortions were found to have significantly lower spine BMD values compared to women who had no abortions or women who had one or two abortions. These findings indicate that the increased risk of osteoporosis is associated with the increased number of pregnancies and abortions and higher age at first pregnancy.

  2. Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yoshihisa

    1991-01-01

    The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169 Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198 Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

  3. Factors affecting the diffusion of online end user literature searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, J S

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at those institutions were surveyed by mail with electronic mail follow-up. Multiple regression analysis was performed. The survey yielded a 41% response rate with electronic mail follow-up being particularly effective. Two dependent variables, internal diffusion (spread of diffusion) and infusion (depth of diffusion), were measured. There was little correlation between them, indicating they measured different things. Fifteen independent variables clustered into three attribute sets were measured. The innovation attributes set was significant for both internal diffusion and infusion. Significant individual variables were visibility for internal diffusion and image enhancement effects (negative relation) as well as visibility for infusion (depth of diffusion). Organizational attributes were also significant predictors for both dependent variables. No individual variables were significant for internal diffusion. Communication, management support (negative relation), rewards, and existence of champions were significant for infusion. Marketing attributes were not significant predictors. Successful diffusion of online end user literature searching is dependent on the visibility of the systems, communication among, rewards to, and peers of possible users who promote use (champions). Personal image enhancement effects have a negative relation to infusion, possibly because the use of intermediaries is still seen as the more luxurious way to have searches done. Management support also has a negative relation to

  4. Factors affecting the adoption of quality assurance technologies in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, John

    2013-01-01

    In the light of public concern and of strong policy emphasis on quality and safety in the nursing care of patients in hospital settings, this paper aims to focus on the factors affecting the adoption of innovative quality assurance technologies. Two sets of complementary literature were mined for key themes. Next, new empirical insights were sought. Data gathering was conducted in three phases. The first involved contact with NHS Technology Hubs and other institutions which had insights into leading centres in quality assurance technologies. The second phase was a series of telephone interviews with lead nurses in those hospitals which were identified in the first phase as comprising the leading centres. The third phase comprised a series of face to face interviews with innovators and adopters of healthcare quality assurance technologies in five hospital trusts. There were three main sets of findings. First, despite the strong policy push and the templates established at national level, there were significant variations in the nature and robustness of the quality assurance toolkits that were developed, adapted and adopted. Second, in most of the adopting cases there were important obstacles to the full adoption of the toolkits that were designed. Third, the extent and nature of the ambition of the developers varied dramatically - some wished to see their work impacting widely across the health service; others had a number of different reasons for wanting to restrict the impact of their work. The general concerns about front-line care and the various inquiries into care quality failures emphasise the need for improved and consistent care quality assurance methodologies and practice. The technology adoption literature gives only partial insight into the nature of the challenges; this paper offers specific insights into the factors inhibiting the full adoption of quality assurance technologies in ward-based care.

  5. Risk factors affecting injury severity determined by the MAIS score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sara; Amorim, Marco; Couto, Antonio

    2017-07-04

    Traffic crashes result in a loss of life but also impact the quality of life and productivity of crash survivors. Given the importance of traffic crash outcomes, the issue has received attention from researchers and practitioners as well as government institutions, such as the European Commission (EC). Thus, to obtain detailed information on the injury type and severity of crash victims, hospital data have been proposed for use alongside police crash records. A new injury severity classification based on hospital data, called the maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS), was developed and recently adopted by the EC. This study provides an in-depth analysis of the factors that affect injury severity as classified by the MAIS score. In this study, the MAIS score was derived from the International Classification of Diseases. The European Union adopted an MAIS score equal to or greater than 3 as the definition for a serious traffic crash injury. Gains are expected from using both police and hospital data because the injury severities of the victims are detailed by medical staff and the characteristics of the crash and the site of its occurrence are also provided. The data were obtained by linking police and hospital data sets from the Porto metropolitan area of Portugal over a 6-year period (2006-2011). A mixed logit model was used to understand the factors that contribute to the injury severity of traffic victims and to explore the impact of these factors on injury severity. A random parameter approach offers methodological flexibility to capture individual-specific heterogeneity. Additionally, to understand the importance of using a reliable injury severity scale, we compared MAIS with length of hospital stay (LHS), a classification used by several countries, including Portugal, to officially report injury severity. To do so, the same statistical technique was applied using the same variables to analyze their impact on the injury severity classified according to LHS

  6. [Factors affecting biological removal of iron and manganese in groundwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gang; He, Sheng-Bing; Wang, Xin-Ze

    2006-01-01

    Factors affecting biological process for removing iron and manganese in groundwater were analyzed. When DO and pH in groundwater after aeration were 7.0 - 7.5 mg/L and 6.8 - 7.0 respectively, not only can the activation of Mn2+ oxidizing bacteria be maintained, but also the demand of iron and manganese removal can be satisfied. A novel inoculating approach of grafting mature filter material into filter bed, which is easier to handle than selective culture media, was employed in this research. However, this approach was only suitable to the filter material of high-quality manganese sand with strong Mn2+ adsorption capacity. For the filter material of quartz sand with weak adsorption capacity, only culturing and domesticating Mn2+ oxidizing bacteria by selective culture media can be adopted as inoculation in filter bed. The optimal backwashing rate of biological filter bed filled with manganese sand and quartz sand should be kept at a relatively low level of 6 - 9 L/(m2 x s) and 7 -11 L/( m2 x s), respectively. Then the stability of microbial phase in filter bed was not disturbed, and iron and manganese removal efficiency recovered in less than 5h. Moreover, by using filter material with uniform particle size of 1.0 - 1.2 mm in filter bed, the filtration cycle reached as long as 35 - 38h.

  7. Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, K M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

  8. Factors affecting graded and ungraded memory loss following hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris; Sekeres, Melanie J

    2013-11-01

    This review evaluates three current theories--Standard Consolidation (Squire & Wixted, 2011), Overshadowing (Sutherland, Sparks, & Lehmann, 2010), and Multiple Trace-Transformation (Winocur, Moscovitch, & Bontempi, 2010)--in terms of their ability to account for the role of the hippocampus in recent and remote memory in animals. Evidence, based on consistent findings from tests of spatial memory and memory for acquired food preferences, favours the transformation account, but this conclusion is undermined by inconsistent results from studies that measured contextual fear memory, probably the most commonly used test of hippocampal involvement in anterograde and retrograde memory. Resolution of this issue may depend on exercising greater control over critical factors (e.g., contextual environment, amount of pre-exposure to the conditioning chamber, the number and distribution of foot-shocks) that can affect the representation of the memory shortly after learning and over the long-term. Research strategies aimed at characterizing the neural basis of long-term consolidation/transformation, as well as other outstanding issues are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Some factors affecting the in vitro culture of banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadi, T.A.N.; Khan, N.H.; Rehman, Z.U.

    2006-01-01

    Factors affecting in vitro regeneration of shoots in shoot tip explant cultures of banana cultivar 'Basrai', such as solid and liquid media, growth regulators, vitamins, and antioxidants were studied. Three-quarters strength of MS liquid medium supplemented with 17.75 micro m 6-benzyladenine (BA), 11.42 micro M indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 205 micro M adenine sulphate induced the formation of mean number of 12.3 shoots, with the mean length of 3.0 cm, after three weeks of culture. Maximum shoot multiplication (14.33) occurred in liquid medium containing 22.19 micro M BA. Addition of 2.0% activated charcoal (AC) to the liquid medium improved quality of the regenerated plants with expanded and glossy leaves, though the number of shoots was reduced (13.66). Profuse formation of roots was characteristically induced by AC. Addition of citric acid (CA) to the medium caused decline in morphogenetic expression of the cultures. (author)

  10. Statistical factors affecting the success of nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunder, S.; Stephenson, J.R.; Hochman, D.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a statistical analysis to determine the operational, financial, technical, and managerial factors that most significantly affect the success of nuclear operations. The study analyzes data for over 70 nuclear plants and 40 operating companies over a period of five years in order to draw conclusions that they hope will be of interest to utility companies and public utility commissions as they seek ways to improve rates of success in nuclear operations. Some of these conclusions will not be surprising--for example, that older plants have heavier maintenance requirements--but others are less intuitive. For instance, the observation that operators of fewer plants have lower costs suggests that any experience curve benefits associated with managing multiple nuclear facilities is overshadowed by the logistic problems of multiple facilities. After presenting a brief history of nuclear power in America, the authors outline the motivations of the study and the methodology of their analysis. They end the article with the results of the study and discuss some of the managerial implications of these findings

  11. Nonfocal renal biopsies: adequacy and factors affecting a successful outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Mark A; Atri, Mostafa; O'Malley, Martin; Jacks, Lindsay; John, Rohan; Herzenberg, Andrew; Reich, Heather; Ghai, Sangeet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors affecting the success of ultrasound-guided core biopsy of kidneys and determine the optimum number of passes. This retrospective study evaluated 484 nonfocal renal biopsies performed with 18-gauge side-notch biopsy needles. Number of biopsy passes, serum creatinine, body mass index, needle type, transplant age, kidney size, diabetic status, and operator were evaluated as predictors of the number of biopsy passes. Four hundred seventy-four biopsies (338 transplant, 136 native) were included with mean number of passes 2.87 (3.1 native vs 2.78 transplant; P = 0.002). Mean number of glomeruli yielded per pass was 6.9 (7.2 transplant vs 6.1 native; P = 0.0002) with 3 passes adequate for histological diagnosis in 84% of biopsies. Native kidney, increasing serum creatinine level, trainee biopsy operator, and use of a Temno needle were found to be independent predictors of having more than 3 biopsy passes on multivariate analysis. Age, sex, body mass index, diabetic status, and kidney size were not associated with the number of biopsy passes. The success of a nonfocal renal biopsy has many influencing variables, and in the absence of an on-site electron microscopy technologist to immediately evaluate biopsy samples, 3 passes with an 18-gauge needle would be adequate in 84% of kidneys to achieve a histological diagnosis, with 2 passes needed for transplant kidneys to meet the Banff 97 criteria.

  12. Chordoma: review of clinico radiological features and factors affecting survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, M.Y.S.

    2001-01-01

    This study reviews the clinico radiological features of cranial and sacrospinal chordomas and identifies factors affecting survival. Nineteen patients seen between January 1980 and December 2000 with histopathological diagnosis of chordomas were retrospectively reviewed with reference to clinical presentation, imaging features, treatment modalities and post-therapy status. Eight had tumours in the skull base while 11 patients had spinal and sacro-coccygeal lesions. Surgical resection was performed in 16 patients whose subsequent natural history was used to identify clinical indicators that may influence survival. Completeness of resection, age, gender and postoperative irradiation were subjected to analysis using the Cox proportional hazard models. Kaplan-Meir survival curves illustrate the survival distributions. Diplopia and facial pain are prime clinical presentations in cranial lesions, while extremity weakness and a sacrogluteal mass are common complaints in the sacrospinal group. Lesional calcifications are present in 40% while an osteolytic soft tissue mass is detectable by CT in all cases. Heterogeneous signals and internal septations on T 2 -weighted MRI are predominant features. In sacrospinal tumours, complete excision with adjuvant radiotherapy achieves the best results with a disease-free survival of more than 5 years. The clinical and imaging findings in this study are in accordance with those of other series. Except for complete surgical excision followed by radiotherapy in the subset of patients with sacrospinal tumours, none of the other clinical indicators show a statistical significant influence on survival. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  13. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  14. Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

  15. Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Regina S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    1994-01-01

    Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species. Experimental Mycology, 18, 230-246. Twelve isolates representing four species of Colletotrichum were transformed either by enhanced protoplast, restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI), or electroporation-mediated protocols. The enhanced protoplast transformation protocol resulted in 100- and 50-fold increases in the transformation efficiencies of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. magna , respectively. REMI transformation involved the use of Hin dIII and vector DNA linearized with HindIII to increase the number of integration events and potential gene disruptions in the fungal genome. Combining the enhanced protoplast and the REMI protocols resulted in a 22-fold increase in the number of hygromycin/nystatin-resistant mutants in C. lindemuthianum . Electroporation-mediated transformation was performed on mycelial fragments and spores of four Colletotrichum species, resulting in efficiencies of up to 1000 transformants/μg DNA. The pHA1.3 vector which confers hygromycin resistance contains telomeric sequences from Fusarium oxysporum , transforms by autonomous replication and genomic integration, and was essential for elevated transformation efficiencies of 100 to 10,000 transformants/μg DNA. Modifications of pHA1.3 occurred during bacterial amplification and post fungal transformation resulting in plasmids capable of significantly elevated transformation efficiencies in C. lindemuthianum.

  16. Mechanical factors affecting reliability of pressure components (fatigue, cracking)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebey, J.; Garnier, C.; Roche, R.; Barrachin, B.

    1978-01-01

    The reliability of a pressure component can be seriously affected by the formation and development of cracks. The experimental studies presented in this paper are devoted to three different aspects of crack propagation phenomena which have been relatively little described. In close connection with safety analyses of PWR, the authors study the influence of the environment by carrying out fatigue tests with samples bathed in hot pressurized water. Ferritic, austenitic and Incolloy 800 steels were used and the results are presented in the form of fatigue curves in the oligocyclic region. The second part of the paper relates to crack initiation cirteria in ductile steels weakened by notches. The CT samples used make it possible to study almost all types of fracture (ductile, intermediate and brittle). The use of two criteria based on the load limit and on the toughness of the material constitutes a practical way of evaluating crack propagation conditions. A series of tests carried out on notched spherical vessels of different size shows that large vessels are relatively brittle; fast unstable fracture is observed as size increases. Crack growth rate in PWR primary circuits (3/6 steel) is studied on piping elements (0.25 scale) subjected to cyclic stress variations (285 0 C and with pressure varying between 1 and 160 bar in each cycle). By calculating the stress intensity factor, correlation with results obtained in the laboratory on CT samples is possible. (author)

  17. Non-auditory factors affecting urban soundscape evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; Hong, Joo Young; Cabrera, Densil

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  18. Factors Affecting Rural Households’ Resilience to Food Insecurity in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboubakr Gambo Boukary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Niger faces many natural and human constraints explaining the erratic evolution of its agricultural production over time. Unfortunately, this is likely to cause a decline in the food supply. This study attempts to identify factors affecting rural households’ resilience to food insecurity in Niger. For this, we first create a resilience index by using principal component analysis and later apply structural equation modeling to identify its determinants. Data from the 2010 National Survey on Households’ Vulnerability to Food Insecurity done by the National Institute of Statistics is used. The study shows that asset and social safety net indicators are significant and have a positive impact on households’ resilience. Climate change approximated by long-term mean rainfall has a negative and significant effect on households’ resilience. Therefore, to strengthen households’ resilience to food insecurity, there is a need to increase assistance to households through social safety nets and to help them gather more resources in order to acquire more assets. Furthermore, early warning of climatic events could alert households, especially farmers, to be prepared and avoid important losses that they experience anytime an uneven climatic event occurs.

  19. Some factors affecting acceptance of family planning in Manus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avue, B; Freeman, P

    1991-12-01

    This paper examines selected factors affecting the acceptance and delivery of modern family planning from health centres in Manus. A survey was carried out of mothers attending Maternal and Child Health clinics and a written questionnaire was given to health workers. The survey of mothers demonstrated the importance of the husband's approval for contraceptive practice and showed that knowledge about traditional methods of family planning is widespread. The health workers' questionnaire demonstrated a high level of dissatisfaction with the current family planning program delivered by health clinics: 45% found the program ineffective; 68% wrote that health workers' attitudes discouraged mothers from attending for family planning. The perceived and actual benefits and costs of children and the role of men should be assessed locally before planning future family planning programs. Widespread retraining and motivating of health workers is essential if improved coverage is to be achieved through health services. The efficacy of alternative methods of delivery of family planning such as local community-based and social marketing programs should also be investigated.

  20. Potential factors affecting accumulation of unsupported 210Pb in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailović, Aleksandra; Vučinić Vasić, Milica; Todorović, Nataša; Hansman, Jan; Vasin, Jovica; Krmar, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    Airborne 210 Pb, daughter of 222 Rn, is frequently used as a tracer in different studies concerning atmospheric transport, sedimentation, soil erosion, dating, etc. Concentration of 210 Pb was measured in 40 soil samples collected in urban and industrial areas in order to get evidence of possible influence of some factors on accumulation of airborne 210 Pb in soil. Different soil properties such as the content of organic matter, free CaCO 3 , and available phosphorus (P 2 O 5 ) were measured to explore their possible correlation with the amount of 210 Pb. Special attention was given to the correlation between 210 Pb and stable lead accumulated in the soil. Several samples were taken near a battery manufacturer to check if extremely high concentrations of lead can affect the uptake of the airborne 210 Pb in soil. Soil samples were also taken at different depths to investigate the penetration of lead through the soil. - Highlights: • 210 Pb and 137 Cs were measured in samples of urban soil. • Organic matter, free CaCO 3 content, available phosphorus, and lead were measured in soil samples. • There is no statistically significant correlation between 210 Pb and lead, CaCO 3 and phosphorus. • A strong positive correlation between 210 Pb and organic matter was observed

  1. Factors Affecting Hemodialysis Patients' Satisfaction with Their Dialysis Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al Eissa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the degree of satisfaction among hemodialysis patients and the factors influencing this satisfaction. Methods. Patients were recruited from 3 Saudi dialysis centers. Demographic data was collected. Using 1 to 10 Likert scale, the patients were asked to rate the overall satisfaction with, and the overall impact of, their dialysis therapy on their lives and to rate the effect of the dialysis therapy on 15 qualities of life domains. Results. 322 patients were recruited (72.6% of the total eligible patients. The mean age was 51.7 years (±15.4; 58% have been on dialysis for >3 years. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 3.2 (±2, and Kt/V was 1.3 (±0.44. The mean satisfaction score was (7.41 ± 2.75 and the mean score of the impact of the dialysis on the patients' lives was 5.32 ± 2.55. Male patients reported worse effect of dialysis on family life, social life, energy, and appetite. Longer period since the commencement of dialysis was associated with adverse effect on finances and energy. Lower level of education was associated with worse dialysis effect on stress, overall health, sexual life, hobbies, and exercise ability. Conclusion. The level of satisfaction is affected by gender, duration on dialysis, educational level, and standard of care given.

  2. Psychosocial Factors Affecting Smartphone Addiction in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aker, Servet; Şahin, Mustafa Kürşat; Sezgin, Serap; Oğuz, Gülay

    Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate psychosocial factors affecting smartphone addiction in university students. The study was performed among students at the Ondokuz Mayis University Samsun School of Health (Samsun, Turkey) on October-December 2015. Four hundred ninety-four students possessing smartphones and agreeing to participate were included. A sociodemographic data form produced by the authors and consisting of 10 questions was administered together with a questionnaire involving the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version (SAS-SV), the Flourishing Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. The questionnaires were applied in a class environment at face-to-face interviews. SAS-SV scores of 6.47% of students were "significantly higher" than the participating group mean SAS-SV score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that depression, anxiety and insomnia, and familial social support statistically, significantly predicted smartphone addiction. Further studies of smartphone addiction in different age groups and with different educational levels are now needed.

  3. Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab National Bank and State Bank of India and Canara Bank. The sample size of 450 has been taken from among the urban population of above 18 years of age. The result indicates that the educated respondents use the service of internet banking. Based on occupation we can say that the service class and the business class is the one who use internet banking service to nearly 2 times as other occupation. The high income respondents having more than 1 lack income prefer to use this service. The private sector bank account holders use this service as compared to public sector banks. The banking attributes i.e. convenience and security do have very attentive influence on the use of Internet banking.

  4. Affective and cognitive factors influencing sensitivity to probabilistic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Sawicki, Przemyslaw

    2011-11-01

    In study 1 different groups of female students were randomly assigned to one of four probabilistic information formats. Five different levels of probability of a genetic disease in an unborn child were presented to participants (within-subject factor). After the presentation of the probability level, participants were requested to indicate the acceptable level of pain they would tolerate to avoid the disease (in their unborn child), their subjective evaluation of the disease risk, and their subjective evaluation of being worried by this risk. The results of study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that an experience-based probability format decreases the subjective sense of worry about the disease, thus, presumably, weakening the tendency to overrate the probability of rare events. Study 2 showed that for the emotionally laden stimuli, the experience-based probability format resulted in higher sensitivity to probability variations than other formats of probabilistic information. These advantages of the experience-based probability format are interpreted in terms of two systems of information processing: the rational deliberative versus the affective experiential and the principle of stimulus-response compatibility. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Factors affecting groundnut yield in pothwar region of Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, M.; Tariq, S.A.; Nasir, M.; Saeed, R.; Mahmood, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Groundnut being an important oilseed crop in the Pothwar region of Pakistan has the productivity level of 609 kg ha/sup -1/ , much lower from the potential yield of 3000 kg ha/sup -1/. Present study was designed to explore factors affecting productivity of groundnut along with its profitability analysis. The sample farms were classified into small, medium and large farms. Farm-level crop data were gathered during two cropping seasons i.e., rabi 2008-09 and kharif 2009. One hundred and forty groundnut producers were selected for collecting data using the well-structured questionnaire from two important districts recognised for area and production of groundnut. Results showed that large farmers allocated significantly higher area (34 percent) to groundnut cultivation compared to other categories of farmers. The gross margins were also significantly higher at large farms. Ploughing frequency, seed rate and labor man-days have positive relationship with groundnut productivity. Therefore, the provision of improved groundnut production technologies package and improved seed to groundnut growers may enhance the productivity and area under this crop. (author)

  6. Factors Affecting the Habitability of Earth-like Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria; NAI-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team

    2014-03-01

    Habitability is a measure of an environment's potential to support life. For exoplanets, the concept of habitability can be used broadly - to inform our calculations of the possibility and distribution of life elsewhere - or as a practical tool to inform mission designs and to prioritize specific targets in the search for extrasolar life. Although a planet's habitability does depend critically on the effect of stellar type and planetary semi-major axis on climate balance, work in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology has identified many additional factors that can affect a planet's environment and its potential ability to support life. Life requires material for metabolism and structures, a liquid medium for chemical transport, and an energy source to drive metabolism and other life processes. Whether a planet's surface or sub-surface can provide these requirements is the result of numerous planetary and astrophysical processes that affect the planet's formation and evolution. Many of these factors are interdependent, and fall into three main categories: stellar effects, planetary effects and planetary system effects. Key abiotic processes affecting the resultant planetary environment include photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2003; 2005), stellar effects on climate balance (e.g. Joshii et al., 2012; Shields et al., 2013), atmospheric loss (e.g. Lopez and Fortney, 2013), and gravitational interactions with the star (e.g. Barnes et al., 2013). In many cases, the effect of these processes is strongly dependent on a specific planet's existing environmental properties. Examples include the resultant UV flux at a planetary surface as a product of stellar activity and the strength of a planet's atmospheric UV shield (Segura et al., 2010); and the amount of tidal energy available to a planet to drive plate tectonics and heat the surface (Barnes et al., 2009), which is in turn due to a combination of stellar mass, planetary mass and composition, planetary orbital

  7. The outcome and prognosis factors of adolescent nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated in a single institute-analysis of 148 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Su; Gao Li; Yi Junlin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, outcome and prognostic factors of adolescent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Between Jan 1990 and Dec 2009, totally 148 pathological confirmed nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with age ≤20 years were treated in our hospital, including stage II 8, stage III 58, stage IV 81, and unknown 1 when restaged by TNM system (UICC 2002), ninety-four (63.5%) patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, 54 (36.5%)patients were treated with radiotherapy combined with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up time for all patients was 44.5 months. The 5-year overall survival (OS), local-regional control (LRC) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were 82.9%, 85.1% and 78.6%. There were 42 patients (28.4%) failed with 16 regional recurrence and 29 distant metastasis, and 3 with both; bone metastasis was the most common site of distant metastasis(22/29). In univariate analysis,the adverse prognostic factors for OS were stage T 4 (χ 2 =5.61, P=0.018), radiation dose 2 =5.30, P=0.021), for LRC was radiation dose 2 =4.24, P=0.039). In multivariate analysis, radiation dose 4 were the independent prognostic factors for OS (χ 2 =5.73, 5.56, P=0.017, 0.018), for LRC was radiation dose 2 =5.81, P=0.016). Conclusions: The outcome of the present series was excellent, total nasopharyngeal radiation dose less than 70 Gy is inappropriate. Reduce the distant metastasis and late toxicities were the future direction for the treatment of adolescent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (authors)

  8. Increased expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha transcribed by promoter 2 indicates a poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Shao-hang; Lu, Shi-xun; Liu, Li-li; Zhang, Chris Zhiyi; Yun, Jing-ping

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) plays an important role in tumourigenesis. There is growing evidence indicating that HNF4α transcribed by promoter 1 (P1-HNF4α) is expressed at relatively low levels in HCC and its presence predicts a favourable outcome for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the role of HNF4α transcribed by promoter 2 (P2-HNF4α) in HCC remains unclear. Methods: A total of 615 HCC specimens were obtained to construct tissue microarrays and pe...

  9. The impact of obesity on risk factors and prevalence and prognosis of coronary heart disease-the obesity paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, Alban; Lavie, Carl J; Milani, Richard V

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a host of cardiovascular risk factors and its prevalence is rising rapidly. Despite strong evidence that obesity predisposes to the development and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD), numerous studies have shown an inverse relationship between various measures of obesity (most commonly body mass index) and outcomes in established CHD. In this article we review the evidence surrounding the ≪obesity paradox≫ in the secondary care of CHD patients and the CHD presentations where a paradox has been found. Finally we discuss the impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and a number of mechanisms which may offer potential explanations for this puzzling phenomenon. © 2014.

  10. Leucocyte count in young adults with first-ever ischaemic stroke: associated factors and association on prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikinheimo, Terttu; Putaala, Jukka; Haapaniemi, Elena; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2015-02-01

    Limited data exist on the associated factors and correlation of leucocyte count to outcome in young adults with first-ever ischaemic stroke. Our objectives were to investigate factors associated with elevated leucocyte count and whether there is correlation between leucocyte count and short- and long-term outcomes. Of our database of 1008 consecutive patients aged 15 to 49, we included those with leucocyte count measured within the first two days from stroke onset. Outcomes were three-month and long-term disability, death, and vascular events. Linear regression was used to explore baseline variables associated with leucocyte count. Logistic regression and Cox proportional models studied the association between leucocyte count and clinical outcomes. In our study cohort of 781 patients (61.7% males; mean age 41.4 years), mean leucocyte count was high: 8.8 ± 3.1 × 10(9) cells/L (Reference range: 3.4-8.2 × 10(9) cells/L). Higher leucocyte levels were associated with dyslipidaemia, smoking, peripheral arterial disease, stroke severity, and lesion size. After adjustment for age, gender, relevant risk factors, both continuous leucocyte count and the highest quartile of leucocyte count were independently associated with unfavourable three-month outcome. Regarding events in the long-term (follow-up 8.1 ± 4.2 years in survivors), no association between leucocyte count and the event risks appeared. Among young stroke patients, high leucocyte count was a common finding. It was associated with vascular disease and its risk factors as well as severity of stroke, but it was also independently associated with unfavourable three-month outcome in these patients. There was no association with the long-term outcome. [Correction added on 31 October 2013 after first online publication: In the Results section of the Abstract, the cohort of 797 patients in this study was corrected to 781 patients.]. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  11. Social cognition in schizophrenia: cognitive and affective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Ido; Leiser, David; Levine, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Social cognition refers to how people conceive, perceive, and draw inferences about mental and emotional states of others in the social world. Previous studies suggest that the concept of social cognition involves several abilities, including those related to affect and cognition. The present study analyses the deficits of individuals with schizophrenia in two areas of social cognition: Theory of Mind (ToM) and emotion recognition and processing. Examining the impairment of these abilities in patients with schizophrenia has the potential to elucidate the neurophysiological regions involved in social cognition and may also have the potential to aid rehabilitation. Two experiments were conducted. Both included the same five tasks: first- and second-level false-belief ToM tasks, emotion inferencing, understanding of irony, and matrix reasoning (a WAIS-R subtest). The matrix reasoning task was administered to evaluate and control for the association of the other tasks with analytic reasoning skills. Experiment 1 involved factor analysis of the task performance of 75 healthy participants. Experiment 2 compared 30 patients with schizophrenia to an equal number of matched controls. Results. (1) The five tasks were clearly divided into two factors corresponding to the two areas of social cognition, ToM and emotion recognition and processing. (2) Schizophrenics' performance was impaired on all tasks, particularly on those loading heavily on the analytic component (matrix reasoning and second-order ToM). (3) Matrix reasoning, second-level ToM (ToM2), and irony were found to distinguish patients from controls, even when all other tasks that revealed significant impairment in the patients' performance were taken into account. The two areas of social cognition examined are related to distinct factors. The mechanism for answering ToM questions (especially ToM2) depends on analytic reasoning capabilities, but the difficulties they present to individuals with schizophrenia are due

  12. Risk factors and prognosis for neonatal sepsis in southeastern Mexico: analysis of a four-year historic cohort follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Yelda A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal sepsis is a worldwide public health issue in which, depending on the studied population, marked variations concerning its risk and prognostic factors have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess risk and prognostic factors for neonatal sepsis prevailing at a medical unit in southeastern Mexico. Thus, we used a historic cohort design to assess the association between a series of neonates and their mothers, in addition to hospital evolution features and the risk and prognosis of neonatal sepsis (defined by Pediatric Sepsis Consensus [PSC] criteria in 11,790 newborns consecutively admitted to a Neonatology Service in Mérida, Mexico, between 2004 and 2007. Results Sepsis was found in 514 of 11,790 (4.3 % newborns; 387 of these cases were categorized as early-onset (72 h (24.7 %. After logistic regression, risk factors for sepsis included the following: low birth weight; prematurity; abnormal amniotic fluid; premature membrane rupture (PMR at >24 h; respiratory complications, and the requirement of assisted ventilation, O2 Inspiration fraction (IF >60 %, or a surgical procedure. Some of these factors were differentially associated with early- or late-onset neonatal sepsis. The overall mortality rate of sepsis was 9.5 %. A marked difference in the mortality rate was found between early- and late-onset sepsis (p >0.0001. After Cox analysis, factors associated with mortality in newborns with sepsis comprised the following: prematurity; low birth weight; low Apgar score; perinatal asphyxia, and the requirement of any invasive medical or surgical procedure. Conclusions The incidence of neonatal sepsis in southeastern Mexico was 4.3 %. A different risk and prognostic profile between early- and late-onset neonatal sepsis was found.

  13. Factors associated with a bad functional prognosis in early inflammatory back pain: results from the DESIR cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, C; Dougados, M; Combe, B

    2016-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a heterogeneous disease with hardly predictable potential courses. We aimed at determining prognostic factors of bad functional outcome at 2 years in patients with early inflammatory back pain (IBP). Data from patients included in the French multicentre devenir des spondylarthropathies indifférenciées récentes (DESIR) cohort, that is, suffering from IBP starting before 50 years of age and lasting for 3-36 months, were used. A bad functional outcome at 24 months was defined as an increase in bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), or BASFI at 2 years higher than the 75th centile in the cohort. Demographic, clinical, biological and radiological data collected at inclusion were compared in patients with bad functional outcome versus others, by χ(2) test, then by a multivariate logistic regression model with stepwise selection of relevant factors. 513 patients (54.4% females, 72.2% fulfilling ASAS criteria) were assessed. Of those, 130 (25.3%) fulfilled the aforementioned criteria of a bad functional outcome (BASFI increase ≥4 units or ≥36 at 2 years). Multivariate analysis revealed that not fulfilling ASAS criteria, female sex, age >33 years, lower educational level, active smoking status and high disease activity according to bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) at baseline were independently associated with a bad functional outcome at 24 months. Sensitivity analyses restricted to patients fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA resulted in similar results. We observed, in a large prospective cohort of patients with early IBP, formerly described bad prognostic factors, especially a low educational level, an older age and a high disease activity at onset, and revealed that active smoking status and female sex were also independently associated with a poor outcome. Fulfilment of ASAS criteria, on the other hand, was predictive of a better outcome, most likely due to the more consensual

  14. Human likeness: cognitive and affective factors affecting adoption of robot-assisted learning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon

    2016-07-01

    With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.

  15. Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of clod steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, K J; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Courington, S M; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2002-02-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of clod steaks (n = 1,264) as influenced by USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), city (Chicago and Philadelphia), consumer segment (Beef Loyals, who are heavy consumers of beef; Budget Rotators, who are cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and Variety Rotators, who have higher incomes and education and split their meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, and cooking method. Consumers evaluated each steak for Overall Like, Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavor Like, and Flavor Amount using 10-point scales. Grilling was the predominant cooking method used, and steaks were cooked to medium-well and greater degrees of doneness. Interactions existed involving the consumer-controlled factors of degree of doneness and(or) cooking method for all consumer-evaluated traits for the clod steak (P affect any consumer evaluation traits or Warner-Bratzler shear force values (P > 0.05). One significant main effect, segment (P = 0.006), and one significant interaction, cooking method x city (P = 0.0407), existed for Overall Like ratings. Consumers in the Beef Loyals segment rated clod steaks higher in Overall Like than the other segments. Consumers in Chicago tended to give more uniform Overall Like ratings to clod steaks cooked by various methods; however, consumers in Philadelphia gave among the highest ratings to clod steaks that were fried and among the lowest to those that were grilled. Additionally, although clod steaks that were fried were given generally high ratings by consumers in Philadelphia, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks cooked in this manner significantly lower than those in Philadelphia. Conversely, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks that were grilled significantly higher than consumers in Philadelphia. Correlation and stepwise regression analyses indicated that Flavor Like was driving customer satisfaction of the

  16. Affect and Health Behavior Co-Occurrence: The Emerging Roles of Transdiagnostic Factors and Sociocultural Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of scientific work addressing relations among affective states and health correlates has focused primarily on their co-occurrence and a limited range of health conditions. We have developed a Special Issue to highlight recent advances in this emerging field of work that addresses the nature and interplay between affective states and disorders, in terms of their impact and consequences from health status and behavior. This Special Issue is organized into three parts classified as (a) co-occurrence and interplay between (b) transdiagnostic factors and (c) sociocultural factors. It is hoped that this issue will (a) alert readers to the significance of this work at different levels of analysis, (b) illustrate the many domains currently being explored via innovative approaches, and (c) identify fecund areas for future systematic study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Do breast implants adversely affect prognosis among those subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer? Findings from an extended follow-up of a Canadian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Eric; Holowaty, Eric J; Pan, Sai Yi; Xie, Lin; Villeneuve, Paul J; Morrison, Howard; Brisson, Jacques

    2012-10-01

    Cosmetic breast implants may impair the ability to detect breast cancers. The aims of this study were to examine whether implants and implant characteristics are associated with more advanced breast tumors at diagnosis and poorer survival. Study population includes all invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed during follow-up of the large Canadian Breast Implant Cohort. A total of 409 women with cosmetic breast implants and 444 women with other cosmetic surgery were diagnosed with breast cancer. These women were compared for stage at diagnosis using multinomial logistic regression models. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for breast cancer-specific mortality analyses. Comparisons were also conducted according to implant characteristics. Compared with women with other cosmetic surgery, those with cosmetic breast implants had at later stage breast cancer diagnosis (OR of having stage III/IV vs. stage I at diagnosis: 3.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.81-5.10; P breast cancer-specific mortality rate for women with breast implants relative to surgical controls was observed (HR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.94-1.83, P = 0.11). No statistically significant differences in stage and breast cancer mortality were observed according to implant characteristics. At diagnosis, breast cancers tended to be at more advanced stages among women with cosmetic breast implants. Breast cancer-specific survival was lower in these women although the reduction did not reach statistical significance. Further investigations of the effect of breast implants on breast cancer prognosis are warranted. 2012 AACR

  18. Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2013-01-01

    In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating

  19. Factors affecting stall use for different freestall bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Storch, A M; Palmer, R W; Kammel, D W

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare stall use (stall occupancy and cow position) by barn side for factors affecting stall use. A closed circuit television system recorded stall use four times per day for a 9-mo period starting May 9, 2001. Six factors were analyzed: stall base, distance to water, stall location within stall base section, stall location within barn, inside barn temperature, and length of time cows were exposed to stall bases. Two barn sides with different stocking densities were analyzed: low (66%), with cows milked by robotic milker; and high (100%), with cows milked 2X in parlor. Six stall base types were tested: two mattresses, a waterbed, a rubber mat, concrete, and sand (high side only). The base types were grouped 3 to 7 stalls/section and randomly placed in each row. Cows spent more time in mattress-based stalls, but the highest percentage lying was in sand-based stalls. The following significant stall occupancy percentages were found: sand had the highest percentage of cows lying on the high stocking density side (69%), followed by mattress type 1 (65%) > mattress type 2 (57%) > waterbed (45%) > rubber mat (33%) > concrete (23%). Mattress type 1 had the highest percentage stalls occupied (88%), followed by mattress type 2 (84%) > sand (79%) > soft rubber mat (65%) > waterbed (62%) > concrete (39%). On the low stocking rate side, mattress type 1 had the highest percentage cows lying (45%) and occupied (59.6%), followed by mattress type 2 > waterbed > soft rubber mat > concrete. Cow lying and stalls occupied percentages were highest for stalls 1) not at the end of a section, and 2) on the outside row, and varied by base type for time cows exposed to stalls and inside barn temperature. Lying and occupied percentages were different for different mattress types. The percentage of stalls with cows standing was higher for mat and mattress-based stalls. Results show mattress type 1 and sand to be superior and rubber mats and concrete inferior

  20. Agricultural factors affecting Fusarium communities in wheat kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Ida; Friberg, Hanna; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula

    2017-07-03

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of cereals caused by Fusarium fungi. The disease is of great economic importance especially owing to reduced grain quality due to contamination by a range of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium. Disease control and prediction is difficult because of the many Fusarium species associated with FHB. Different species may respond differently to control methods and can have both competitive and synergistic interactions. Therefore, it is important to understand how agricultural practices affect Fusarium at the community level. Lower levels of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of organically produced cereals compared with conventionally produced have been reported, but the causes of these differences are not well understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of agricultural factors on Fusarium abundance and community composition in different cropping systems. Winter wheat kernels were collected from 18 organically and conventionally cultivated fields in Sweden, paired based on their geographical distance and the wheat cultivar grown. We characterised the Fusarium community in harvested wheat kernels using 454 sequencing of translation elongation factor 1-α amplicons. In addition, we quantified Fusarium spp. using real-time PCR to reveal differences in biomass between fields. We identified 12 Fusarium operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with a median of 4.5 OTUs per field. Fusarium graminearum was the most abundant species, while F. avenaceum had the highest occurrence. The abundance of Fusarium spp. ranged two orders of magnitude between fields. Two pairs of Fusarium species co-occurred between fields: F. poae with F. tricinctum and F. culmorum with F. sporotrichoides. We could not detect any difference in Fusarium communities between the organic and conventional systems. However, agricultural intensity, measured as the number of pesticide applications and the amount of nitrogen fertiliser applied, had an

  1. Reconstruction in oral malignancy: Factors affecting morbidity of various procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Suvadip; Chakrabarti, Preeti Rihal; Desai, Sanjay M.; Agrawal, Deepak; Mehta, Dharmendra Y.; Pancholi, Mayank

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objective: (1) To study the age and sex distribution of patient with oral malignancies. (2) To analyze various types of surgery performed. (3) Evaluation of reconstruction and factors affecting complications and its relation to the type of reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Cases of oral malignancies, undergoing surgery for the same in Sri Aurobindo Medical College and PG Institute, Indore from the period from October 1, 2012, to March 31, 2015. Results: Out of analysis of 111 cases of oral malignancy, 31 (27.9%) cases were in the fifth decade of life with male to female ratio 1.9:1. The commonest site of cancer was buccal mucosa. Forty-seven cases (43.2%) were in stage IVa. Diabetes was the most common co-morbidity reported, accounting for 53.9% of cases with reported morbidity. Tobacco chewing was the common entity in personal habits. All the cases underwent neck dissection along with resection of the primary. Hemimandibulectomy was the most preferred form of primary resection accounting for 53.15% (59 cases), followed by wide resection of primary 27% (30 cases). Pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flap only was the most common reconstruction across the study population. PMMC alone accounted for 38.7% (43 cases). The infection rate was 16.21%. PMMC alone accounted for 5 out of 18 (27.8%) of total infection rate, and 4.5% of the total study population. PMMC + deltopectoral accounted for 5 out of 18 (27.8%) of total infection rate, and 4.5% of the total study population. Conclusion: PMMC is a major workhorse for reconstruction with better functional outcome and acceptance among operated patients. PMID:26981469

  2. Factors affecting the academic performance of optometry students in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kajal; Naidoo, Kovin; Bilotto, Luigi; Loughman, James

    2015-06-01

    The Mozambique Eyecare Project is a higher education partnership for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a model of optometry training at UniLúrio in Mozambique. There are many composite elements to the development of sustainable eye health structures, and appropriate education for eye health workers remains a key determinant of successful eye care development. However, from the first intake of 16 students, only 9 students graduated from the program, whereas only 6 graduated from the second intake of 24 students. This low graduation rate is attributable to a combination of substandard academic performance and student dropout. The aim of this article was to identify factors affecting the academic performance of optometry students in Mozambique. Nine lecturers (the entire faculty) and 15 students (9 from the first intake and 6 from the second) were recruited to the study. Clinical competency assessments were carried out on the students, semistructured individual interviews were conducted with the course lecturers, and a course evaluation questionnaire was completed by students. The results were combined to understand the complexities surrounding the optometry student training and performance. One student out of nine from the first intake and three students out of six from the second were graded as competent in all the elements of the refraction clinical competency examination. Analysis of data from the interviews and questionnaire yielded four dominant themes that were viewed as important determinants of student refraction competencies: student learning context, teaching context, clinic conditions and assessment, and the existing operating health care context. The evaluations have helped the university and course partners to better structure the teaching and adapt the learning environments by recommending a preparatory year and a review of the curriculum and clinic structure, implementing more transparent entry requirements, increasing awareness of

  3. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD AROMATIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н.Ye. Dubova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The specific understanding of food philosophy according to the facts of development of cooking technologies and growth rate of food range is given. As it has been proven by historical stages of production of flavorings, aroma is one of the important organoleptic ingredients for food developers. A review of food production based on development of nanotechnologies, as well as promising and cautioning publications on nanotechnologies in the food sector is presented. On the basis of the literary analysis, the future impact of nanotechnologies on the evolution of the aromatization process of food products is predicted. It has been determined that the peculiarity of the development mentioned above lies in the use of plant enzymes and / or flavor precursors in the nanoscale range. The example of enzymatic breakdown of polyunsaturated fatty acids of plant cell membranes as one of the ways of creating fresh flavor of many fruits, namely C6-C9 aldehydes and alcohols, is considered. It is noted that green fresh aromatic ingredients are needed to improve the organoleptic profile of foods from heat-treated vegetables, melons and gourds. The following factors affecting the development of food aromatization are defined: the decreased differentiation of principles of healthy nutrition and fast food, repetition of natural processes of aroma formation, application of wild green leafy vegetables, and evolution of medical nutrition. The information on food aromatization by packing with autonomous mixing and their approximate assortment is given. The innovations in food aromatization are aimed at quality nutrition, time saving, recreation and entertainment, meeting specific needs (vegetarian dishes, restrictive diets.

  4. Factors affecting the next generation of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remick, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    For both financial, environmental and health reasons, and because of external and internal factors affecting this nation's energy supply, nuclear power will likely play a part in supplying this nation's energy in the coming decades. I believe this to be true for some other parts of the world as well. Even some severe critics of the nuclear power industry and the NRC might agree with me on this point. Increasing concern with the environmental consequences of the burning of fossil fuels has led some former opponents of the use of nuclear power to balance anew the risks and benefits of nuclear power and to modify to some degree their former opposition. A related concern with the adequacy of the energy supply is leading others to modify their positions. According to analyses done by the U.S. Department of Energy, after 1994 the United States will no longer be able to assure all its citizens a reliable supply of electricity. Already, many areas of the country are in need of additional electric capacity. In both Sweden and Switzerland, similar concerns have led to the adoption by many of more compromising positions. Some critics of nuclear power may in the end still reject it as an alternative, but, with the increased pressures on the environment and on our energy supply, nuclear power is an alternative which cannot be rejected without the most serious consideration. This should be, I believe, a point of consensus among us. In sum, there is a future for nuclear power in the sense that there is a use for it

  5. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers.

  6. Factors affecting the next generation of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remick, F J [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-07-01

    For both financial, environmental and health reasons, and because of external and internal factors affecting this nation's energy supply, nuclear power will likely play a part in supplying this nation's energy in the coming decades. I believe this to be true for some other parts of the world as well. Even some severe critics of the nuclear power industry and the NRC might agree with me on this point. Increasing concern with the environmental consequences of the burning of fossil fuels has led some former opponents of the use of nuclear power to balance anew the risks and benefits of nuclear power and to modify to some degree their former opposition. A related concern with the adequacy of the energy supply is leading others to modify their positions. According to analyses done by the U.S. Department of Energy, after 1994 the United States will no longer be able to assure all its citizens a reliable supply of electricity. Already, many areas of the country are in need of additional electric capacity. In both Sweden and Switzerland, similar concerns have led to the adoption by many of more compromising positions. Some critics of nuclear power may in the end still reject it as an alternative, but, with the increased pressures on the environment and on our energy supply, nuclear power is an alternative which cannot be rejected without the most serious consideration. This should be, I believe, a point of consensus among us. In sum, there is a future for nuclear power in the sense that there is a use for it.

  7. Factors Affecting Social Network Use by Students in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhi Kristianto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Indonesia is one of the world’s most populated countries with a high penetration of internet usage there has been little research on SNS usage in Indonesia, especially involving children. Instead, SNS research in Indonesia has focused on university students and political, marketing, and disaster mitigation issues. Aim/Purpose: In order to address this gap a theoretical model is formulated from a review of previous studies incorporating basic constructs found in the Technology Acceptance Model (Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and Attitude as well as other influences, motivations, and individual characteristics that affect a child’s attitude toward the use of SNS. Methodology\t: The model is evaluated and developed using data collected from 460 children in primary school grades 4, 5, and 6 in five cities in Indonesia. The statistical techniques implemented with SPSS and Amos computer software (t-tests, correlation coefficients, principal component factor analysis, Cronbach alpha coefficients, and structural equation modeling (SEM analysis. Findings: The results confirm many of the effects on a child’s attitude toward SNS reported in previous studies due to: the usefulness and ease of use of SNS; parental influence; feelings of flow experience and risk; and the child’s level of access, technical expertise, and experience with SNS. New findings include significant correlations and causal effects involving: the influences of peers and parents; the child’s level of technical expertise; and feelings of flow experience. Contribution: Despite limitations related to sampling and the administration of a questionnaire among young children, the findings contribute to theory as well as practice and provide guidance on effective ways to improve children’s attitudes towards the use of SNS.

  8. Factors affecting members' evaluation of agri-business ventures' effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyyed Mahmoud; Hedjazi, Yousef

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents work to identify factors affecting effectiveness of agri-business ventures (A-BVs) on the side of providers as perceived by their members. A survey was conducted among 95 members of A-BVs in Zanjan province, Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire was designed. Two distinct groups of A-BVs with low (group 1) and high (group 2) perceived (evaluated) levels of effectiveness were revealed. The study showed that there were significant differences between the two groups on important characteristics of A-BVs and their members. The study also found that there were statistically significant relationships between A-BVs' governance structure and capacity, management and organization characteristics and the perceived effectiveness, whereas there were no statistically significant relationships between A-BVs' advisory methods characteristic applied by members and the perceived effectiveness. Logistic regression results also showed that level of application of rules encouraging members' active participation in important decision makings, clear terms of reference to guide contracting procedures, roles, and responsibilities of parties involved, type of people served and geographical area of program coverage, and members' ability to use Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) were predictors of the perceived (evaluated) effectiveness of A-BVs. The study showed that evaluation of members of effectiveness of A-BVs would not be the same. It is suggested that Iranian public agricultural extension organization, as responsible organization for monitoring and evaluating services conducted by A-BVs, considered these differences between members with different levels of some important variables. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha transcribed by promoter 2 indicates a poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shao-Hang; Lu, Shi-Xun; Liu, Li-Li; Zhang, Chris Zhiyi; Yun, Jing-Ping

    2017-10-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) plays an important role in tumourigenesis. There is growing evidence indicating that HNF4α transcribed by promoter 1 (P1-HNF4α) is expressed at relatively low levels in HCC and its presence predicts a favourable outcome for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the role of HNF4α transcribed by promoter 2 (P2-HNF4α) in HCC remains unclear. A total of 615 HCC specimens were obtained to construct tissue microarrays and perform immunohistochemistry. The relationship between P2-HNF4α and clinical features of HCC patients were analysed. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to assess the prognostic value of P2-HNF4α. The results showed that the expression of P2-HNF4α in HCC was noticeably increased in HCC tissues compared with the nontumourous tissues. In addition, P1-HNF4α expression was negatively correlated with P2-HNF4α expression ( p  = 0.023). High P2-HNF4α expression was significantly associated with poor differentiation of HCC ( p = 0.002) and vascular invasion ( p = 0.017). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that P2-HNF4α expression was closely correlated with overall survival in the training group ( p = 0.01), validation group ( p = 0.034), and overall group of patients with HCC ( p P2-HNF4α, different from P1-HNF4α, is markedly upregulated and serves as an oncogene-associated protein in HCC. Our study therefore provides a promising biomarker for prognostic prediction and a potential therapeutic target for HCC.

  10. Association of microRNA-200c expression levels with clinicopathological factors and prognosis in endometrioid endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Milosz; Danielska, Justyna; Domanska-Senderowska, Daria; Dzieniecka, Monika; Szymanska, Bozena; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2018-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of gene expression, which play an important role in many critical cellular processes including apoptosis, proliferation and cell differentiation. Aberrant miRNA expression has been reported in a variety of human malignancies. Therefore, miRNAs may be potentially used as cancer biomarkers. miRNA-200c, which is a member of the miRNA-200 family, might play an essential role in tumor progression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic and clinical significance of miRNA-200c in women with endometrioid endometrial cancer. Total RNA extraction from 90 archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of endometri-oid endometrial cancer and 10 normal endometrium samples was performed. After cDNA synthesis, real-time polymerase chain reaction was conducted and relative expression of miRNA-200c was assessed. Then, miRNA-200c expression levels were evaluated with regard to clinicopathological characteristics. The expression levels of miRNA-200c were significantly increased in endometrioid endometrial cancer samples. Expression of miRNA-200c maintained at significantly higher levels in the early stage endometrioid endometrial cancer compared with more advanced stages. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, lower levels of miRNA-200c expression were associated with inferior survival. Expression levels of miRNA-200c might be associated with clinicopathological factors and survival in endometrioid endometrial cancer. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Factors affecting professional delay in diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaelbeigi, Farhad; Hadji, Maryam; Harirchi, Iraj; Omranipour, Ramesh; vand Rajabpour, Mojtaba; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2014-04-01

    Oral cancer is the most common malignant tumor among head and neck cancers. Delay in diagnosis affects the treatment and prognosis of oral cancer. We measured the professional delay in the diagnosis and its attributes in the Cancer Institute of Iran, the largest referral center for oral cancer patients in the country.  We interviewed oral cancer patients to measure the delay and used case-control approach to study association of various prognostic factors with professional delay and tumor stage. Out of 206 patients, 71.4% were diagnosed at the advanced stage. The median of the patient, professional and total delays were 45, 86 and 140 day, receptively. In the univariate model, prescription of medicines like analgesics (OR = 5.3, 95% CI 2.2-12.9) and history of dental procedure (OR=6.8, 95% CI 1.7-26.9) were associated with higher risk of delay compared to patient who were biopsied from the beginning. History of loose teeth increased risk of delay 4 times (OR = 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.8). Patients with primary education had 70% lower risk of delay compared to the illiterate patients (OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.7) and the risk was lower among patients who had diploma (OR = 0.04, 95% CI 0-0.7) and college education (OR = 0.1, 95% CI 0-0.4). The delayed patients were diagnosed in more advanced stage compared to the patients without delay (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.4). Development of a national guideline for follow-up of oral lesions, training and awareness of health care professionals about oral cancer diagnosis may decrease the delay and improve the oral cancer outcome in Iran.

  12. Spinal cord injuries related to cervical spine fractures in elderly patients: factors affecting mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Parham; Roffey, Darren M; Brikeet, Yasser A; Tsai, Eve C; Bailey, Chris S; Wai, Eugene K

    2013-08-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) related to cervical spine (C-spine) fractures can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Aggressive treatment often required to manage instability associated with C-spine fractures is complicated and hazardous in the elderly population. To determine the mortality rate of elderly patients with SCIs related to C-spine fractures and identify factors that contribute toward a higher risk for negative outcomes. Retrospective cohort study at two Level 1 trauma centers. Thirty-seven consecutive patients aged 60 years and older who had SCIs related to C-spine fractures. Level of injury, injury severity, preinjury medical comorbidities, treatment (operative vs. nonoperative), and cause of death. Hospital medical records were reviewed independently. Baseline radiographs and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined to permit categorization according to the mechanistic classification by Allen and Ferguson of subaxial C-spine injuries. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to in-hospital mortality and ambulation at discharge. There were no funding sources or potential conflicts of interest to disclose. The in-hospital mortality rate was 38%. Respiratory failure was the leading cause of death. Preinjury medical comorbidities, age, and operative versus nonoperative treatment did not affect mortality. Injury level at or above C4 was associated with a 7.1 times higher risk of mortality compared with injuries below C4 (p=.01). Complete SCI was associated with a 5.1 times higher risk of mortality compared with incomplete SCI (p=.03). Neurological recovery was uncommon. Apart from severity of initial SCI, no other factor was related to ambulatory disposition at discharge. In this elderly population, neurological recovery was poor and the in-hospital mortality rate was high. The strongest risk factors for mortality were injury level and severity of SCI. Although each case of SCI

  13. Analysis of Factors Affecting Patients’ Compliance to Topical Antiglaucoma Medications in Egypt as a Developing Country Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla B. Abu Hussein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study factors affecting patients’ compliance to antiglaucoma medications in Egypt where there are unique factors as a developing country. Patients and Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study on 440 Egyptian patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG recruited for over two years. The patients were thoroughly interviewed about their age, education level, duration of glaucoma, difficulty in instilling the drops, medication regimens, a family history of glaucoma, knowledge of the disease, and the presence of medical insurance. Results. 236 (53.6% were noncompliant compared to 204 (46.4% who were compliant. Females had a tendency for higher compliance (p=0.061. Patient age above 50 years and low level of education and negative family history of glaucoma were factors significantly associated with poor compliance (p<0.0001. Polytherapy and lack of medical insurance could be contributing factors. Conclusion. Egyptian patients have a high rate of noncompliance compared to the average in literature. Great effort is needed in educating patients about the importance of medications and the risk and the prognosis of this disease. Economic factors must also be taken into consideration in developing countries with large number of poor patients. We recommend simplifying drug regimens, incorporating electronic dose monitors, and creating reminders for follow-up visits of glaucoma patients.

  14. Depression as a risk factor for poor prognosis among patients with acute coronary syndrome: systematic review and recommendations: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, Judith H; Froelicher, Erika S; Blumenthal, James A; Carney, Robert M; Doering, Lynn V; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Freedland, Kenneth E; Jaffe, Allan S; Leifheit-Limson, Erica C; Sheps, David S; Vaccarino, Viola; Wulsin, Lawson

    2014-03-25

    Although prospective studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses have documented an association between depression and increased morbidity and mortality in a variety of cardiac populations, depression has not yet achieved formal recognition as a risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome by the American Heart Association and other health organizations. The purpose of this scientific statement is to review available evidence and recommend whether depression should be elevated to the status of a risk factor for patients with acute coronary syndrome. Writing group members were approved by the American Heart Association's Scientific Statement and Manuscript Oversight Committees. A systematic literature review on depression and adverse medical outcomes after acute coronary syndrome was conducted that included all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, and composite outcomes for mortality and nonfatal events. The review assessed the strength, consistency, independence, and generalizability of the published studies. A total of 53 individual studies (32 reported on associations with all-cause mortality, 12 on cardiac mortality, and 22 on composite outcomes) and 4 meta-analyses met inclusion criteria. There was heterogeneity across studies in terms of the demographic composition of study samples, definition and measurement of depression, length of follow-up, and covariates included in the multivariable models. Despite limitations in some individual studies, our review identified generally consistent associations between depression and adverse outcomes. Despite the heterogeneity of published studies included in this review, the preponderance of evidence supports the recommendation that the American Heart Association should elevate depression to the status of a risk factor for adverse medical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

  15. Factors affecting on longevity in Northern Khorasan Kordish sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    razieh saghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The longevity is normally defined as the length of its productive life in the flock, which is the amount of time an animal spends producing (1. Longevity reflects the ability of ewe to avoid being culled for low production, low fertility, illness and influences the number and cost of replacements required to maintain the flock size. The benefit of increasing longevity are increased average age of the flock, having more ewes available for sale at the end of their four parity, having more ewe lambs to sell, and higher productivity from a slightly older flock age profile (2. Sheep population of Khorasan province (10. In sheep production, longevity has an important influence on the economic returns. Reliable estimates of non genetic effects of longevity are needed to aid establishing an efficient strategy for improving ewe productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was the factors affecting on longevity in Northern Khorasan Kordish sheep. We want to determine effect of environmental and non-genetic factors on longevity. Material and Methods In order to investigate on factors affecting longevity trait in Northen Khorasan Kordish sheep, records of 7469 sheep (187 sire and 2258 dam between 1990 to 2012 that were collected by breeding station of Hossein Abad in Shirvan (This city is located in the north of Mashhad were used. Flock has been kept under village system. Breeding ewes were identified in the data set as those that lambed at 2 year of age and culled at 6 to 7 year of age duo to oldness. Ram kept until a male offspring was available for replacement. In this study longevity was defined as the age of a ewe (in day when it leaves the flock. Ewes were generally removed from the flock due to poor production, low fertility, death and illness. Ewes were identified as being removed from the flock if a lambing record was present at n year of age but not at n+1 years of age. All females were culled before reaching 7 years of age

  16. Investigation of factors affecting the intelligence quotient (IQ) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mirgissa

    significant effect on IQ levels: diagnosis of cerebral palsy, age at onset of speech, duration of education, age at onset of ... addition to biological factors, psychological and social risk factors ..... the child's gender, parents' skin color, number of.

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our information on Coping With Cancer helpful. Understanding Statistics About Survival Doctors estimate prognosis by using statistics that researchers have collected over many years about ...

  18. Factors affecting rotator cuff healing after arthroscopic repair: osteoporosis as one of the independent risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seok Won; Oh, Joo Han; Gong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Joon Yub; Kim, Sae Hoon

    2011-10-01

    The prognostic factors associated with structural outcome after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair have not yet been fully determined. The hypothesis of this study was that bone mineral density (BMD) is an important prognostic factor affecting rotator cuff healing after arthroscopic cuff repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Among 408 patients who underwent arthroscopic repair for full-thickness rotator cuff tear between January 2004 and July 2008, 272 patients were included whose postoperative cuff integrity was verified by computed tomography arthrography (CTA) or ultrasonography (USG) and simultaneously who were evaluated by various functional outcome instruments. The mean age at the time of operation was 59.5 ± 7.9 years. Postoperative CTA or USG was performed at a mean 13.0 ± 5.1 months after surgery, and the mean follow-up period was 37.2 ± 10.0 months (range, 24-65 months). The clinical, structural, and surgery-related factors affecting cuff integrity including BMD were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate analysis. Evaluation of postoperative cuff integrity was performed by musculoskeletal radiologists who were unaware of the present study. The failure rate of rotator cuff healing was 22.8% (62 of 272). The failure rate was significantly higher in patients with lower BMD (P cuff healing failure following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Bone mineral density, as well as FI of the infraspinatus and amount of retraction, was an independent determining factor affecting postoperative rotator cuff healing. Further studies with prospective, randomized, and controlled design are needed to confirm the relationship between BMD and postoperative rotator cuff healing.

  19. The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor results in a worse prognosis for patients with rectal cancer treated with preoperative radiotherapy: a multicenter, retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giralt, Jordi; Heras, Manuel de las; Cerezo, Laura; Eraso, Aranzazu; Hermosilla, Edurado; Velez, Dolores; Lujan, Juan; Espin, Eloi; Rossello, Jose; Majo, Joaquin; Benavente, Sergi; Armengol, Manel; Torres, I. de

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is observed in 50-70% of colorectal carcinoma and is associated with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of EGFR status before radiotherapy in a group of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with preoperative radiotherapy. Patients and methods: Eighty-seven patients were studied retrospectively. Treatment consisted of pelvic radiotherapy, in 50 patients with concomitant chemotherapy and surgical resection. Immunohistochemistry for EGFR was determined at the preradiation biopsy and in the resected specimens. Immunohistochemical analysis for EGFR expression was evaluated according to extension and staining intensity. We defined positive staining (EGFR positive), when extension was 5% or more. Results: A total of 52 of 87 tumors showed EGFR positive status at biopsy (60%) and EGFR expression was associated neither with clinical tumor stage nor with clinical nodal stage. EGFR positive expression was linked to a lack of pathologic complete response to preoperative radiotherapy (P=0.006). Disease-free survival was lower among patients with EGFR positive status before radiotherapy (P=0.003). In a multivariate analysis EGFR expression at biopsy was a statistically significant predictor of disease-free survival, RR=2.88 (1.1-7.8), P=0.036. Conclusions: EGFR is expressed in a significant number of rectal tumors. EGFR-positive expression before radiotherapy is an indicator for poor response and low disease-free survival

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Factors affecting pregnancy outcome in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for Assisted Reproductive Technology Registry.' As several factors may influence the likelihood of pregnancy from GIFT, it is difficult to assess the contribution of a single factor. Some of the factors that have been investigated include oocyte maturity,' number of oocytes transferred,' age,' sperm characteristics/7 fertilisation of ...