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Sample records for factors affecting plasma

  1. Factors which affect operation of a plasma focus in various gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1987-06-01

    It is shown that the axial transit time t a and γ, the ratio of specific heats, are the main factors which affect the operation of a plasma focus in various gases. An energy balance theory is used to explore this dependence. The results are consistent with previous calculations and with experiment. (author). 12 refs

  2. Factors affecting plasma chemistry values of the Spanish Imperial Eagle, Aquila adalberti

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Miguel; Dobado-Berrios, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Studies in endangered raptors have given reference values for some blood constituents of metabolic, veterinary, ecological and/or taxonomic interest. However, the variations in such values with physiological and external factors are poorly known. In the present study, the influence of sex, age, nutritional state and local environment was tested on up to 19 plasma variables in the Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti). Our results showed that differences between sexes were not significant ...

  3. Glycosaminoglycans affect the interaction of human plasma kallikrein with plasminogen, factor XII and inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozzo A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Human plasma kallikrein, a serine proteinase, plays a key role in intrinsic blood clotting, in the kallikrein-kinin system, and in fibrinolysis. The proteolytic enzymes involved in these processes are usually controlled by specific inhibitors and may be influenced by several factors including glycosaminoglycans, as recently demonstrated by our group. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of glycosaminoglycans (30 to 250 µg/ml on kallikrein activity on plasminogen and factor XII and on the inhibition of kallikrein by the plasma proteins C1-inhibitor and antithrombin. Almost all available glycosaminoglycans (heparin, heparan sulfate, bovine and tuna dermatan sulfate, chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates reduced (1.2 to 3.0 times the catalytic efficiency of kallikrein (in a nanomolar range on the hydrolysis of plasminogen (0.3 to 1.8 µM and increased (1.9 to 7.7 times the enzyme efficiency in factor XII (0.1 to 10 µM activation. On the other hand, heparin, heparan sulfate, and bovine and tuna dermatan sulfate improved (1.2 to 3.4 times kallikrein inhibition by antithrombin (1.4 µM, while chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates reduced it (1.3 times. Heparin and heparan sulfate increased (1.4 times the enzyme inhibition by the C1-inhibitor (150 nM.

  4. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Walz

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements.Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD, cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal, type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle, time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array. Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model.The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes.VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  5. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Johanna M; Boehringer, Daniel; Deissler, Heidrun L; Faerber, Lothar; Goepfert, Jens C; Heiduschka, Peter; Kleeberger, Susannah M; Klettner, Alexa; Krohne, Tim U; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole; Ziemssen, Focke; Stahl, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements. Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center) twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD), cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal), type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle), time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes) and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array). Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model. The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes. VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  6. The effect of recombinant erythropoietin on plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients with affective disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Hoejman, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The study aims to investigate the effect of repeated infusions of recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) on plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients with affective disorders. In total, 83 patients were recruited: 40 currently depressed patients with treatment......-resistant depression (TRD) (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items (HDRS-17) score >17) (study 1) and 43 patients with bipolar disorder (BD) in partial remission (HDRS-17 and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) ≤ 14) (study 2). In both studies, patients were randomised to receive eight weekly EPO (Eprex; 40,000 IU...... to a role of neurotrophic factors in the potential effects of EPO seen in TRD and BD. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these effects and the interaction between EPO and peripheral levels on BDNF need to be further elucidated in human studies including a broad range of biomarkers. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  7. Factors affecting hematology and plasma biochemistry in the southwest carpet python (Morelia spilota imbricata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gillian L; Fleming, Patricia A; Twomey, Leanne; Warren, Kristin A

    2012-04-01

    Despite increased worldwide popularity of keeping reptiles as pets, we know little about hematologic and biochemical parameters of most reptile species, or how these measures may be influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Blood samples from 43 wild-caught pythons (Morelia spilota imbricata) were collected at various stages of a 3-yr ecological study in Western Australia. Reference intervals are reported for 35 individuals sampled at the commencement of the study. As pythons were radiotracked for varying lengths of time (radiotransmitters were surgically implanted), repeated sampling was undertaken from some individuals. However, because of our ad hoc sampling design we cannot be definitive about temporal factors that were most important or that exclusively influenced blood parameters. There was no significant effect of sex or the presence of a hemogregarine parasite on blood parameters. Erythrocyte measures were highest for pythons captured in the jarrah forest and at the stage of radiotransmitter implantation, which was also linked with shorter time in captivity. Basophil count, the only leukocyte influenced by the factors tested, was highest when the python was anesthetized, as was globulin concentration. Albumin and the albumin:globulin ratio were more concentrated in summer (as was phosphorous) and at the initial stage of radiotransmitter placement (as was calcium). No intrinsic or extrinsic factors influenced creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, uric acid, or total protein. This study demonstrates that factors including season, location, surgical radiotransmitter placement, and anesthetic state can influence blood parameters of M. s. imbricata. For accurate diagnosis, veterinarians should be aware that the current reference intervals used to identify the health status of individuals for this species are outdated and the interpretation and an understanding of the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors are limited.

  8. Pre-analytical and Analytical Variables Affecting the Measurement of Plasma-Derived Microparticle Tissue Factor Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, RD; Barcel, DA; Williams, JC; Wang, JG; Boles, JC; Manly, DA; Key, NS; Mackman, N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Elevated levels of tissue factor positive (TF+) microparticles (MPs) are observed in plasma from a variety of patients with an increased risk of thrombosis. We and others have described the measurement of TF activity in MPs isolated from plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-analytical and analytical variables on TF activity of MPs isolated from blood of healthy volunteers treated ex vivo with or without bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Materials and Methods We evaluated the following parameters: use of different centrifugation speeds to isolate the MPs; comparison of TF activity of MPs isolated from platelet poor plasma versus platelet free plasma; effect of freeze/thaw on MP TF activity; and comparison of the MP TF activity assay with the measurement of TF protein by ELISA or flow cytometry. Results MPs prepared from platelet poor plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g or 100,000 × g for 15 minutes had similar levels of TF activity. However, significantly less TF activity was found in MPs isolated from platelet free plasma compared with platelet poor plasma. Interestingly, freeze/thawing of the plasma showed donor to donor variation in MP TF activity, with a moderate increase in some individuals. Conclusion TF+ MPs can be quantitatively isolated from platelet poor or platelet free plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g for 15 minutes. Measurement of MP TF activity in plasma can be used to detect a prothrombotic state in patients with various diseases. PMID:21737126

  9. Hormone therapy affects plasma measures of factor VII-activating protease in younger postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Jørn Sidelmann; Skouby, S.O.; Vitzthum, F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Current reviews indicate that hormone therapy (HT) has a protective role in coronary heart disease (CHD) in younger postmenopausal women, whereas HT contributes to CHD in older women Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) is a serine protease that accumulates in unstable atherosclerotic...... for the determination of FSAP antigen and FSAP activity. Results The FSAP measures were comparable at baseline. No significant changes were observed in the control group after 12 months. HT in general induced a significant increase in FSAP antigen (7.7 mu g/ml at baseline and 8.0 mu g/ml after 12 months, p = 0...

  10. Microwave induced plasma for solid fuels and waste processing: A review on affecting factors and performance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Guan Sem; Faizal, Hasan Mohd; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2017-11-01

    High temperature thermal plasma has a major drawback which consumes high energy. Therefore, non-thermal plasma which uses comparatively lower energy, for instance, microwave plasma is more attractive to be applied in gasification process. Microwave-induced plasma gasification also carries the advantages in terms of simplicity, compactness, lightweight, uniform heating and the ability to operate under atmospheric pressure that gains attention from researchers. The present paper synthesizes the current knowledge available for microwave plasma gasification on solid fuels and waste, specifically on affecting parameters and their performance. The review starts with a brief outline on microwave plasma setup in general, and followed by the effect of various operating parameters on resulting output. Operating parameters including fuel characteristics, fuel injection position, microwave power, addition of steam, oxygen/fuel ratio and plasma working gas flow rate are discussed along with several performance criteria such as resulting syngas composition, efficiency, carbon conversion, and hydrogen production rate. Based on the present review, fuel retention time is found to be the key parameter that influences the gasification performance. Therefore, emphasis on retention time is necessary in order to improve the performance of microwave plasma gasification of solid fuels and wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors affecting nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.

    1995-01-01

    Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos

  12. Factors affecting ion kinetic temperature, number density, and containment time in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The degree of toroidal symmetry of the plasma, the number of midplane electrode rings, the configuration of electrode rings, and the location of the diagnostic instruments with respect to the electrode rings used to generate the plasma are discussed. Impurities were deliberately introduced into the plasma, and the effects of the impurity fraction on ion kinetic temperature and electron number density were observed. It is concluded that, if necessary precautions are taken, the plasma communicates extremely well along the magnetic field lines and displays a high degree of symmetry from sector to sector for a wide range of electrode ring configurations and operating conditions. Finally, some characteristic data taken under nonoptimized conditions are presented, which include the highest electron number density and the longest particle containment time (1.9 msec) observed. Also, evidence from a paired comparison test is presented which shows that the electric field acting along the minor radius of the toroidal plasma improves the plasma density and the calculated containment time more than an order of magnitude if the electric field points inward, relative to the values observed when it points (and pushes ions) radially outward.

  13. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  14. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  15. Factors affecting mining costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: investment decision-making, unit cost factors (declining ore grade, low-price contracts, ore grade/output relationship, above average cost increases). Economic, environmental, sociological and political aspects are considered. (U.K.)

  16. An Onion Byproduct Affects Plasma Lipids in Healthy Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan-Marin, E.; Jensen, R. I.; Krath, Britta

    2010-01-01

    lipids and on factors affecting cholesterol metabolism in healthy rats have been investigated. The OBP or its fractions did not significantly reduce cholesterol or down-regulate hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) gene expression. The OR even had the effect of increasing...... that the controls could be completely separated from OBP, OE, and OR groups in the scores plot and also that OE and OR groups were separated. Plasma lipids and bile acid excretion were the discriminating loading factors for separating OE and OR but also contributed to the separation of onion-fed animals...... and controls. It was concluded that the onion byproduct did not present significant beneficial effects on individual markers related to plasma lipid transport in this healthy rat model but that onion byproduct contains factors with the ability to modulate plasma lipids and lipoprotein levels....

  17. Factors affecting construction performance: exploratory factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soewin, E.; Chinda, T.

    2018-04-01

    The present work attempts to develop a multidimensional performance evaluation framework for a construction company by considering all relevant measures of performance. Based on the previous studies, this study hypothesizes nine key factors, with a total of 57 associated items. The hypothesized factors, with their associated items, are then used to develop questionnaire survey to gather data. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to the collected data which gave rise 10 factors with 57 items affecting construction performance. The findings further reveal that the items constituting ten key performance factors (KPIs) namely; 1) Time, 2) Cost, 3) Quality, 4) Safety & Health, 5) Internal Stakeholder, 6) External Stakeholder, 7) Client Satisfaction, 8) Financial Performance, 9) Environment, and 10) Information, Technology & Innovation. The analysis helps to develop multi-dimensional performance evaluation framework for an effective measurement of the construction performance. The 10 key performance factors can be broadly categorized into economic aspect, social aspect, environmental aspect, and technology aspects. It is important to understand a multi-dimension performance evaluation framework by including all key factors affecting the construction performance of a company, so that the management level can effectively plan to implement an effective performance development plan to match with the mission and vision of the company.

  18. [Evaluation of leptin levels in plasma and their reliance on other hormonal factors affecting tissue fat levels in people with various levels of endogenous cotisol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaczyk, Maciej G

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of leptin (LEP) shed new light on mechanisms regulating body fat mass (BFM). In this aspect, interactions between LEP and glucocorticoids at hypothalamic level may be of great importance. Factors that influence plasma LEP levels have not been fully recognized and available data on LEP levels are often inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate absolute and BFM-corrected plasma LEP levels and their diurnal variation, as well as to assess the relationship between LEP levels, body fat distribution, and hormones influencing body fat in subjects with various levels of endogenous cortisol and different nutritional status. Group I was composed of 14 women aged 14-58 yrs, BMI of 23.9-37.1 kg/m2, with hypercortisolism due to ACTH-dependent and ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (CUS). 17 women with visceral obesity (OTY) and normal or disturbed carbohydrate metabolism, i.e. impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM), aged 24 do 50 yrs, BMI 30.0-46.1 kg/m2, were included in group II. Group III consisted of 14 women with Addison's disease (AD), aged 18 do 63 yrs, BMI 15.4-31.6 kg/m2. The control group IV (KON) included 17 healthy women with normal BMI. BMI, WHR, body composition, and body fat distribution (DEXA method) were assessed in all subjects. Basal plasma levels of LEP, beta-endorphin (B-EP), cortisol (F), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured with RIA test kits. Plasma adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) levels, serum levels of insulin (IRI) and growth hormone (GH) were measured with IRMA test kits. Blood glucose (G) concentration was determined with an enzymatic method. Adiposity-corrected LEP levels were expressed as LEP/BFM and LEP/%BF indices. Fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) was also calculated. Higher BFM and %BF values were found in the OTY group as compared with CUS KON and AD groups. BFM distribution did not differ in KON and AD groups whereas CUS subjects exhibited a higher accumulation of fat in the trunk

  19. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of af...

  20. Dietary factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Torsten

    2014-07-01

    While many epidemiological studies have associated the consumption of polyphenols within fruits and vegetables with a decreased risk of developing several chronic diseases, intervention studies have generally not confirmed these beneficial effects. The reasons for this discrepancy are not fully understood but include potential differences in dosing, interaction with the food matrix, and differences in polyphenol bioavailability. In addition to endogenous factors such as microbiota and digestive enzymes, the food matrix can also considerably affect bioaccessibility, uptake, and further metabolism of polyphenols. While dietary fiber (such as hemicellulose), divalent minerals, and viscous and protein-rich meals are likely to cause detrimental effects on polyphenol bioaccessibility, digestible carbohydrates, dietary lipids (especially for hydrophobic polyphenols, e.g., curcumin), and additional antioxidants may enhance polyphenol availability. Following epithelial uptake, polyphenols such as flavonoids may reduce phase II metabolism and excretion, enhancing polyphenol bioavailability. Furthermore, polyphenols may act synergistically due to their influence on efflux transporters such as p-glycoprotein. In order to understand polyphenol bioactivity, increased knowledge of the factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability, including dietary factors, is paramount. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  1. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  2. Factors that affect keratotomy depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, U; Bordin, P; Rimondi, A P; Sichirollo, R

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigated nine factors which can affect the depth of incisions performed during refractive keratotomy: (1) vertical vs oblique-cutting edge of the knife blade, (2) direction of cutting, (3) cutting velocity, (4) American vs Russian technique, (5) intraocular pressure (IOP), (6) initial vs final incisions, (7) sharpness of knife blade, (8) single vs double footplate, and (9) square vs double-edged blade. These variables were examined independently, performing at least 40 incisions for each experimental parameter studied. The depth of the resulting incisions was measured histologically using the micrometer eyepiece. The average and the standard deviation were calculated. The paired Student's t-test was used to establish significant differences between the two conditions investigated for each parameter. Factors that were demonstrated to increase significantly the depth of the incisions included: the vertical-cutting edge, the triple-edged diamond knife, the sharpness of the knife, and the single foot knife. High velocity in performing the incisions and, to a lesser extent, low IOP were the main factors that induced irregularity in depth.

  3. Psychological Factors Affecting Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sati Unal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was performed to determine the psychological factors affecting infertile women presenting at the infertility outpatients department. METHOD: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women who presented at the IVF center of a special branch hospital or a university hospital, March 2008 through September 2008, as determined by the non-random sampling method. All participating women gave their informed consent. The data were collected using the Data Form that consisted of questions on socio-demographic features and the Infertility Distress Scale (IDS. In the results, percentages were provided along with the Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U and Spearman correlation tests. RESULTS: The mean IDS was 39.01±9.6. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between the mean IDS score and age (r=0.106, p=0.048, marriage duration (r=0.232, p<0.001 and duration of desire to have a child (r=0.217, p<0.001. Women who were primary school graduates (X²=13.03, p=0.004, did not work (p=0.007, had no social security benefits (p=0.021 or from low socioeconomic status (X²=24.85, p<0.001 had significantly higher mean IDS scores. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show women become more adversely affected by infertility as their age, duration of marriage, and duration of desire to have a child increase. Women who are primary school graduates, do not work, have no social security benefits or have lower income are affected more negatively. We believe that taking these features into account when evaluating and planning supportive approaches for women presenting at the infertility treatment center and determining the psychological state of the women using the IDS will increase treatment success. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 481-486

  4. Respiratory mechanics and plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 are affected by gas humidification during mechanical ventilation in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hernández-Jiménez

    Full Text Available The use of dry gases during mechanical ventilation has been associated with the risk of serious airway complications. The goal of the present study was to quantify the plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 and to determine the radiological, hemodynamic, gasometric, and microscopic changes in lung mechanics in dogs subjected to short-term mechanical ventilation with and without humidification of the inhaled gas. The experiment was conducted for 24 hours in 10 dogs divided into two groups: Group I (n = 5, mechanical ventilation with dry oxygen dispensation, and Group II (n = 5, mechanical ventilation with oxygen dispensation using a moisture chamber. Variance analysis was used. No changes in physiological, hemodynamic, or gasometric, and radiographic constants were observed. Plasma TNF-alpha levels increased in group I, reaching a maximum 24 hours after mechanical ventilation was initiated (ANOVA p = 0.77. This increase was correlated to changes in mechanical ventilation. Plasma IL-6 levels decreased at 12 hours and increased again towards the end of the study (ANOVA p>0.05. Both groups exhibited a decrease in lung compliance and functional residual capacity values, but this was more pronounced in group I. Pplat increased in group I (ANOVA p = 0.02. Inhalation of dry gas caused histological lesions in the entire respiratory tract, including pulmonary parenchyma, to a greater extent than humidified gas. Humidification of inspired gases can attenuate damage associated with mechanical ventilation.

  5. Respiratory mechanics and plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 are affected by gas humidification during mechanical ventilation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jiménez, Claudia; García-Torrentera, Rogelio; Olmos-Zúñiga, J Raúl; Jasso-Victoria, Rogelio; Gaxiola-Gaxiola, Miguel O; Baltazares-Lipp, Matilde; Gutiérrez-González, Luis H

    2014-01-01

    The use of dry gases during mechanical ventilation has been associated with the risk of serious airway complications. The goal of the present study was to quantify the plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 and to determine the radiological, hemodynamic, gasometric, and microscopic changes in lung mechanics in dogs subjected to short-term mechanical ventilation with and without humidification of the inhaled gas. The experiment was conducted for 24 hours in 10 dogs divided into two groups: Group I (n = 5), mechanical ventilation with dry oxygen dispensation, and Group II (n = 5), mechanical ventilation with oxygen dispensation using a moisture chamber. Variance analysis was used. No changes in physiological, hemodynamic, or gasometric, and radiographic constants were observed. Plasma TNF-alpha levels increased in group I, reaching a maximum 24 hours after mechanical ventilation was initiated (ANOVA p = 0.77). This increase was correlated to changes in mechanical ventilation. Plasma IL-6 levels decreased at 12 hours and increased again towards the end of the study (ANOVA p>0.05). Both groups exhibited a decrease in lung compliance and functional residual capacity values, but this was more pronounced in group I. Pplat increased in group I (ANOVA p = 0.02). Inhalation of dry gas caused histological lesions in the entire respiratory tract, including pulmonary parenchyma, to a greater extent than humidified gas. Humidification of inspired gases can attenuate damage associated with mechanical ventilation.

  6. Factors affecting dental service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Baldacchino, Donia

    2015-01-01

    Measuring dental clinic service quality is the first and most important factor in improving care. The quality provided plays an important role in patient satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting dental service quality from the patients' viewpoint. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in a dental clinic in Tehran between January and June 2014. A sample of 385 patients was selected from two work shifts using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The data were collected, a self-administered questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study, based on the Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model of service quality which consisted of two parts: the patients' demographic characteristics and a 30-item questionnaire to measure the five dimensions of the service quality. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 18.0 through some descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, as well as analytical methods, including confirmatory factor. Results showed that the correlation coefficients for all dimensions were higher than 0.5. In this model, assurance (regression weight=0.99) and tangibility (regression weight=0.86) had, respectively, the highest and lowest effects on dental service quality. The Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model is suitable to measure quality in dental services. The variables related to dental services quality have been made according to the model. This is a pioneering study that uses Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model and CFA in a dental setting. This study provides useful insights and guidance for dental service quality assurance.

  7. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  8. Factor VIII and fibrinogen recovery in plasma after Theraflex methylene blue-treatment: effect of plasma source and treatment time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaille, André; Reichenberg, Stefan; Najdovski, Tome; Cellier, Nicolas; de Valensart, Nicolas; Deneys, Véronique

    2014-04-01

    The quality of fresh-frozen plasma is affected by different factors. Factor VIII is sensitive to blood component storage processes and storage as well as pathogen-reduction technologies. The level of fibrinogen in plasma is not affected by the collection processes but it is affected by preparation and pathogen-reduction technologies. The quality of plasma from whole blood and apheresis donations harvested at different times and treated with a pathogen-reduction technique, methylene blue/light, was investigated, considering, in particular, fibrinogen and factor VIII levels and recovery. The mean factor VIII level after methylene blue treatment exceeded 0.5 IU/mL in all series. Factor VIII recovery varied between 78% and 89% in different series. The recovery of factor VIII was dependent on plasma source as opposed to treatment time. The interaction between the two factors was statistically significant. Mean levels of fibrinogen after methylene blue/light treatment exceeded 200 mg/dL in all arms. The level of fibrinogen after treatment correlated strongly with the level before treatment. There was a negative correlation between fibrinogen level before treatment and recovery. Pearson's correlation coefficient between factor VIII recovery and fibrinogen recovery was 0.58. These results show a difference in recovery of factor VIII and fibrinogen correlated with plasma source. The recovery of both factor VIII and fibrinogen was higher in whole blood plasma than in apheresis plasma. Factor VIII and fibrinogen recovery did not appear to be correlated.

  9. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  10. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    OpenAIRE

    Yongi-Mi Kim

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR); yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider univers...

  11. Factors That Affect Software Testability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, Jeffrey M.

    1991-01-01

    Software faults that infrequently affect software's output are dangerous. When a software fault causes frequent software failures, testing is likely to reveal the fault before the software is releases; when the fault remains undetected during testing, it can cause disaster after the software is installed. A technique for predicting whether a particular piece of software is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is found in [Voas91b]. A piece of software that is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have high testability. A piece of software that is not likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have low testability. It is preferable to design software with higher testabilities from the outset, i.e., create software with as high of a degree of testability as possible to avoid the problems of having undetected faults that are associated with low testability. Information loss is a phenomenon that occurs during program execution that increases the likelihood that a fault will remain undetected. In this paper, I identify two brad classes of information loss, define them, and suggest ways of predicting the potential for information loss to occur. We do this in order to decrease the likelihood that faults will remain undetected during testing.

  12. Factors affecting calculation of L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotola, Mark P.

    2001-08-01

    A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient

  13. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit latrines in slums areas of Uganda fill up faster than might be expected from some estimates owing to inappropriate use and failure to consider critical factors affecting sludge accumulation rates at the planning, design and construction stages. This study sought to investigate factors affecting filling rates of lined pit latrines ...

  14. Basic Market Factors Affecting Innovative Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Sergeevich Morozov; Natalia Nikolaevna Taskaeva

    2016-01-01

    This article contains the results of the authors' complete research on basic market factors affecting innovative activities. Innovations are perceived to ensure competitiveness of goods produced by enterprises and of sustainable success of companies or corporations in the market on the whole. All market factors affecting innovative activities are ranked by the authors to internal and external. The authors emphasized the importance of innovation factors for the development of small and medium-...

  15. Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) fertility affecting factors

    OpenAIRE

    JONÁŠOVÁ, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    Usually, Pteridium aquilinum reproduces vigorously by the use of rhizomes. An occurence of fertile populations is rather rarely recorded. The aim of this bachelor thesis was to estimate the cause and factors affecting the fertility.

  16. Factor affecting Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato is a very important food crop and is adversely affected by fungus. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation can play an important role in the improvement of potato. The present study was conducted to optimize the different factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chitinase gene. Nodes were used as ...

  17. Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, Brison

    This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…

  18. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  19. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  20. Flavanol plasma bioavailability is affected by metabolic syndrome in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margalef, M.; Pons, Z.; Iglesias-Carres, L.; Bravo, F.I.; Muguerza, B.; Arola-Arnal, A.

    2017-01-01

    Flavanols, which exert several health benefits, are metabolized after ingestion. Factors such as the host physiological condition could affect the metabolism and bioavailability of flavanols, influencing their bioactivities. This study aimed to qualitatively evaluate whether a pathological state

  1. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongi-Mi Kim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR; yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider university guidelines, review other websites, and consult with experts and other divisions within the library; however, resources and training for the design process are lacking. While website designers assess their websites as highly successful, user evaluations are somewhat lower. Accordingly, use is low, and users rely heavily on commercial websites. Suggestions for enhancing the usage of ULWR are provided.

  2. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship and Business Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tur-Porcar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is becoming increasingly important for society, and the creation of business ventures is one area where sustainability is critical. We examined the factors affecting actions that are designed to foster business sustainability. These factors are related to the environment, behavior, human relations, and business activity. Based on questionnaire responses from experts, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method was used to rank sustainable business criteria according to their importance for entrepreneurs starting sustainable businesses. The results indicate that the most important drivers of sustainable entrepreneurship are behavioral factors and business factors. Ethical principles and values, together with competitive intelligence, are crucial for undertaking actions that lead to sustainability.

  3. Factors Affecting the Productivity of Government Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. Haenisch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While there have been a variety of studies concerning government worker motivation and productivity, few, if any, studies have focused specifically on state government workers’ perceptions about what factors affect their productivity. With more than 5 million workers employed by state governments in the United States, any improvement in state workplace productivity could have significant financial and service impact for society. In this study, state government workers identified those factors perceived as most affecting their workplace productivity. Data were collected through a survey offered to state government workers in the state of Wyoming. Factor analysis was used to derive key productivity factors from survey responses. The results indicate that state government workers appreciate having freedom and autonomy, like their jobs and the sense of achievement, and welcome teamwork, but feel limited by poor supervision and management, poor communications, and insufficient budgets and staffing. To improve productivity, the workers would eliminate bureaucracy, supervise better, and improve communication.

  4. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  5. Factors affecting Child Labour in India

    OpenAIRE

    Maheshwari Mridul; Singh, Manjari

    2008-01-01

    Child labour in India is a critical socio-economic problem that needs special attention of policy makers. In order to make effective policies to reduce child labour it is important to understand the specific factors that affect it in different situations. The paper empirically examines these factors across 35 Indian states and union territories at three levels of aggregation: total population, rural/urban, and male/female. The results showed that education, fertility, and workforce participat...

  6. Statistical Assessment Of Critical Factors Affecting Computer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the findings of a statistical assessment of some factors affecting computer application in information resource sharing. Secondary and primary data were employed in this study. Quota and random sampling were used to administer questionnaires using Interviewer -administered methodology of data ...

  7. Factors affecting spermatozoa morphology in beef bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting sperm morphology of bulls (n=908) collected at 320 days of age. Bulls were a composite breed (50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, and 25% Tarentaise) born from 2002 to 2008 to dams fed levels of feed during mid and late gestation that were expe...

  8. Personal factors affecting organizational commitment of records ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated personal factors affecting organizational commitment among records management personnel in the state universities in Nigeria. Simple cluster sampling with equal allocation method was used to select 180 records management personnel from the study population. A five item organizational ...

  9. Workplace, Biographical and Motivation Factors Affecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the findings of a survey on how workplace, biographical and motivational factors affect the organisational commitment of records officers in federal universities in Nigeria. Single stage random sampling, with equal allocation method, was used to administer questionnaire on 300 sampled participants from ...

  10. INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN FACTORS AFFECTING LABOUR MOBILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SELLIER, F.; ZARKA, C.

    THE GEOGRAPHICAL, OCCUPATIONAL, AND INTERFIRM MOBILITY, AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING THESE MOVEMENTS FOR WORKERS IN FRANCE, ITALY, GERMANY, AND SWEDEN IN THE PERIOD SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR ARE STUDIED. DATA OBTAINED FROM INDUSTRIAL SURVEYS AND GENERAL CENSUSES WERE USED TO COMPARE THE FOUR COUNTRIES WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH THE UNITED STATES.…

  11. Factors affecting endoglucanase production by Trichoderma reesei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to screen parameters affecting the production of endoglucanase by Trichoderma reesei RUT C-30 on solid state fermentation of oil palm empty fruit bunch using the Plackett-Burman design. Factors involved in the screening process were peptone concentration, urea concentration, ammonium sulfate ...

  12. Prognostic factors affecting outcome of intrauterine insemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOI: 10.4103/TJOG.TJOG_55_17. How to cite this article: Loto OM, Akindojutimi JA, Akinwole KD,. Ademulegun TV, Akinmade O. Prognostic factors affecting outcome ... follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, and estradiol on day 2 or day 3 of the ... were also screened for HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis using the ...

  13. Rapid formation of plasma protein corona critically affects nanoparticle pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzer, Stefan; Docter, Dominic; Kuharev, Jörg; Musyanovych, Anna; Fetz, Verena; Hecht, Rouven; Schlenk, Florian; Fischer, Dagmar; Kiouptsi, Klytaimnistra; Reinhardt, Christoph; Landfester, Katharina; Schild, Hansjörg; Maskos, Michael; Knauer, Shirley K.; Stauber, Roland H.

    2013-10-01

    In biological fluids, proteins bind to the surface of nanoparticles to form a coating known as the protein corona, which can critically affect the interaction of the nanoparticles with living systems. As physiological systems are highly dynamic, it is important to obtain a time-resolved knowledge of protein-corona formation, development and biological relevancy. Here we show that label-free snapshot proteomics can be used to obtain quantitative time-resolved profiles of human plasma coronas formed on silica and polystyrene nanoparticles of various size and surface functionalization. Complex time- and nanoparticle-specific coronas, which comprise almost 300 different proteins, were found to form rapidly (<0.5 minutes) and, over time, to change significantly in terms of the amount of bound protein, but not in composition. Rapid corona formation is found to affect haemolysis, thrombocyte activation, nanoparticle uptake and endothelial cell death at an early exposure time.

  14. Factors affecting patient dose in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, J.L.

    1994-03-01

    The report, Factors Affecting Patient Dose in Diagnostic Radiology is divided into three main sections. Part one is introductory and covers the basic principles of x-ray production and image formation. It includes discussion of x-ray generators and x-ray tubes, radiation properties and units, specification and measurement of x-ray beams, methods of patient dose measurement, radiation effects, radiation protection philosophy and finally the essentials of imaging systems. Part two examines factors affecting the x-ray output of x-ray machines and the characteristics of x-ray beams. These include the influence of heat ratings, kVp, waveform, exposure timer, filtration, focus-film distance, beam intensity distribution, x-ray tube age and focal spot size. Part three examines x-ray machine, equipment and patient factors which affect the dose received by individual patients. The factors considered include justification of examinations, choice of examination method, film/screen combinations, kVp, mAs, focus-film distance, collimation and field size, exposure time, projection, scatter, generator calibration errors, waveform, filtration, film processing and patient size. The patient dose implications of fluoroscopy systems, CT scanners, special procedures and mammography are also discussed. The report concludes with a brief discussion of patient dose levels in New Zealand and dose optimisation. 104 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs

  15. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    ’s telecommunications market with the European market. The market reflects all the global trends, a gradually growing significance of mobile telecommunications services, broadband Internet access, construction of offers directed towards clients’ needs, and a strong trend towards market consolidation, which...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level...

  16. Factors Affecting Students’ Achievement in Mathematics ∗

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem SAVAŞ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the factors that affect students’ mathematics achievement in secondary school mathematics grades of 6th, 7th and 8th were explored. For this purpose, the factors that affect mathematics education and mathematics achievement such as type of school, family income, studying time and students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses have been investigated. The sample of the study consisted of 275 students from one private (n=58 and two state schools (n= 217 in Van. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and Chi-Square analysis. The result of study showed that type of school, family income, studying time, students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses had statistically significant effects on students’ mathematics achievement.

  17. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having th...

  18. Factors affecting the rural domestic waste generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Darban Astane

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to evaluate the quantity and quality of rural domestic waste generation and to identify the factors affecting it in rural areas of Khodabandeh county in Zanjan Province, Iran. Waste samplings consisted of 318 rural households in 11 villages. In order to evaluate the quality and quantity of the rural domestic waste, waste production was classified into 12 groups and 2 main groups of organic waste and solid waste. Moreover, kriging interpolation technique in ARC-GIS software was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the generated domestic waste and ultimately multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors affecting the generation of domestic waste. The results of this study showed that the average waste generated by each person was 0.588 kilograms per day. with the share of organic waste generated by each person being 0.409 kilograms per day and the share of solid waste generated by each person being 0.179 kilograms per day. The results from spatial distribution of waste generation showed a certain pattern in three groups and a higher rate of waste generation in the northern and northwestern parts, especially in the subdistrict. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the households’ income, assets, age, and personal attitude are respectively the most important variables affecting waste generation. The housholds’ attitude and indigenous knowledge on efficient use of materials are also the key factors which can help reducing waste generation.

  19. Risk factors affecting prognosis in infantile spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul Mert, Gulen; Herguner, Mihriban Ozlem; Incecik, Faruk; Altunbasak, Sakir; Sahan, Duygu; Unal, Ilker

    2017-11-01

    To assess risk factors that affect epilepsy prognosis and neurodevelopmental outcome and response to treatment in patients diagnosed with infantile spasm. In this study, demographics, treatment modalities, etiologies, risk factors affecting neurodevelopmental outcome and epilepsy prognosis were assessed retrospectively at the end of a minimum 24-months follow-up of 104 patients diagnosed with infantile spasm from May 2012 to October 2015. Neonatal seizure during neonatal period, abnormal head circumference, young age at the time of presentation and early gestational age, symptomatic etiology, abnormal initial examination and abnormal development test at the time of diagnosis, consanguinity, the medical center where treatment was started in the second center or beyond and magnetic resonance imaging finding were found to be statistically significant for poor prognosis in terms of neurodevelopment (p Infantile spasm is an age-related epileptic encephalopathy, and it was observed that it is still catastrophic, and that the most important factor affecting prognosis of epilepsy is etiology, age at the time of presentation and the medical center where treatment was started in the second center or beyond.

  20. Factors Affecting Health Care Utilization in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouraei Motlagh, Soraya; Sabermahani, Asma; Hadian, Mohammad; Lari, Mohsen Asadi; Mahdavi, Mohamad Reza Vaez; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan

    2015-04-19

    Successful health system planning and management is dependent on well informed decisions, so having complete knowledge about medical services' utilization is essential for resource allocation and health plans. The main goal of this study is identification of factors effecting inpatient and outpatient services utilization in public and private sectors. This study encompasses all regions of Tehran in 2011 and uses Urban HEART questionnaires. This population-based survey included 34700 households with 118000 individuals in Tehran. For determining the most important factors affected on health services consumption, logit model was applied. Regarding to the finding, the most important factors affected on utilization were age, income level and deciles, job status, household dimension and insurance coverage. The main point was the negative relationship between health care utilization and education but it had a positive relationship with private health care utilization. Moreover suffering from chronic disease was the most important variable in health care utilization. According to the mentioned results and the fact that access has effect on health services utilization, policy makers should try to eliminate financial access barriers of households and individuals. This may be done with identification of households with more than 65 or smaller than 5 years old, people in low income deciles or with chronic illness. According to age effect on health services usage and aging population of Iran, results of this study show more importance of attention to aged population needs in future years.

  1. Factors affecting the overcrowding in outpatient healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The expansion of outpatient services and the desire to provide more outpatient care than inpatient care create some problems such as the overcrowding in the outpatient clinics. Given the importance of overcrowding in the outpatient clinics, this qualitative study aimed to determine the factors influencing the overcrowding in the specialty and subspecialty clinic of a teaching hospital. This was a qualitative study conducted in the specialty and subspecialty clinic of a hospital using content analysis method in the period of January to March 2014. The study population was all managers and heads of the outpatient wards. The studied sample consisted of 22 managers of the clinic wards who were selected using the purposive sampling method. The required data was collected using semi-structured interviews. The collected data was analyzed using conventional content analysis and the MAXQDA 10.0 software. Three themes were identified as the main factors affecting the overcrowding including the internal positive factors, internal negative factors, and external factors. Despite the efforts made to eliminate overcrowding, and reduce waiting times and increase access to the services for patients, the problem of overcrowding still has remained unresolved. In addition, the use of some strategies such as clarifying the working processes of the clinic for staff and patients and the relationships between the clinic and other wards especially emergency department, as well as using a simple triage system on the patients' arrival at the clinic are recommended.

  2. Coagulation Factors Level in Fresh Frozen Plasma in Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coagulation Factors Level in Fresh Frozen Plasma in Rwanda. ... Factor X, Von Willbrand Factor, Protein C and Antithrombin decreased from baseline up to three months and then Factor VIII, Factor IX, Factor XI, Factor XII and Protein S, remained constant from baseline up to one month and decreased up to three months.

  3. Early life factors that affect allergy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of allergic disease continues to rise in industrialized countries. The rapid increase in the incidence of allergic disease throughout the past half century suggests that recently altered environmental factors are driving allergy development. Accumulating evidence suggests that environmental experiences that occur during the first months of life can influence the risk of allergic sensitization. In this Review, we present the evidence relating to specific early life exposures that affect future allergy development, and discuss how these exposures may promote either tolerance or allergic sensitization.

  4. State based factors affecting inward FDI employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Kornecki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical research investigates state based factors affecting the inward FDI employment among fifty states of the United States, uses annual data for the period of time from 1997 to 2007 and identifies several state-specific determinants of FDI employment. The results indicate that the major factors exerting positive impact on inward US FDI employment are: real wages, infrastructure, unionization level, educational attainment, FDI stock and manufacturing density.  In addition, the results show that gross state product growth rate, real per capita taxes and share of scientists and engineers have negative impact on FDI employment. Our findings indicate the importance of selected variables in evaluating the effects of FDI flow.Keywords: FDI, Growth, Employment, State, Economy

  5. Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

  6. Factors affecting academic leadership in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martires, Kathryn J; Aquino, Lisa L; Wu, Jashin J

    2015-02-01

    Although prior studies have examined methods by which to recruit and retain academic dermatologists, few have examined factors that are important for developing academic leaders in dermatology. This study sought to examine characteristics of dermatology residency programs that affect the odds of producing department or division chairs/chiefs and program directors (PDs). Data regarding program size, faculty, grants, alumni residency program attended, lectures, and publications for all accredited US dermatology residency programs were collected. Of the 103 programs examined, 46% had graduated at least 1 chair/chief, and 53% had graduated at least 1 PD. Results emphasize that faculty guidance and research may represent modifiable factors by which a dermatology residency program can increase its graduation of academic leaders.

  7. Contextual factors affecting health information system strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James C

    2017-12-01

    At the turn of the century, several major efforts were initiated to combat HIV/AIDS and other major epidemics affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). They were accompanied by initiatives to enable recipient countries to collect and use data to guide their public health programmes. These health information systems (HIS) typify systems in that they have multiple interacting components, and they are embedded within larger systems. Components of a larger system act as the context for all lower-level systems. Their effects can be pervasive, and thus be taken for granted or regarded as unchangeable. We identify four contextual factors that affect efforts to strengthen HIS: hierarchical roles, aid funding, corruption, and competing priorities. We provide examples of each as experienced by those working to strengthen HIS in LMICs. Each of these contextual factors can seriously diminish the effectiveness of HIS strengthening efforts and their long-term sustainability. We propose research questions about each that would enable those engaged in HIS strengthening to work effectively and sustainably.

  8. Some possible factors affecting horse welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Fejsáková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of various stimuli that confound interpretation of assessed indicators of horse welfare during rest and working period by the use of non-invasive methods of sampling. In total, 40 horses of different breeds and used for different purposes in Slovakia were used. The following indicators were tested: concentration of cortisol in saliva and 11,17-dioxoandrostanes in faeces measured by Elisa methods, heart rate and heart rate variability recording with the Polar Heart Rate Monitor and presence of stereotypical behaviour assessed with a horse questionnaire survey. The evaluated physiological responses were mostly affected by the type of work undertaken, especially horse movement intensity (P P P < 0.05 compared to horses without stereotypical behaviour. Horse breed, age, sex and stabling conditions affected only some of the heart rate indicators. The type of riding style had no fundamental influence on evaluated indicators. These observations highlight the difficulties in determining the welfare status in horses, since measurements can be affected by many factors that need to be investigated for achieving relevant outcomes. This is the first study in Slovakia focusing on the evaluation of horse welfare by non-invasive sampling.

  9. Analysis of surface roughness and surface heat affected zone of steel S355J0 after plasma arc cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatala, Michal; Chep, Robert; Pandilov, Zoran

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with thermal cutting technology of materials with plasma arc. In the first part of this paper the theoretical knowledge of the principles of plasma arc cutting and current use of this technology in industry are presented. The cut of products with this technology is perpendicular and accurate, but the use of this technology affects micro-structural changes and depth of the heat affected zone (HAZ). This article deals with the experimental evaluation of plasma arc cutting technological process. The influence of technological factors on the roughness parameter Ra of the steel surface EN S355J0 has been evaluated by using planned experiments. By using the factor experiment, the significance of the four process factors such as plasma burner feed speed, plasma gas pressure, nozzle diameter, distance between nozzle mouth and material has been analyzed. Regression models obtained by multiple linear regression indicate the quality level of observed factors function. The heat from plasma arc cutting affects the micro-structural changes of the material, too.

  10. Assisted suicide: factors affecting public attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, L T; Yeatts, D E

    Public support for assisted suicide has been growing despite the ethical questions raised by members of the medical profession. Previous research suggests that age, gender, experience, and religiosity are factors affecting individuals' attitudes. This study examines the effect of demographic and ideological factors, as well as individuals' caregiving experiences, on attitudes toward assisted suicide. Random-digit-dialing procedures produced a sample of 156 residents of Denton, Texas, in March 1998. T-tests were conducted to measure significance, while gamma values were used to measure level of association and percent reduction in error. The data indicate that age, gender, and caregiving experience were not significant predictors of attitudes. Situational factors, including whether a physician or friend/family member should assist and whether a child or a terminally ill patient experiencing no pain should receive assistance, all were highly significant and positively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide. Respondents were most likely to support physician-assisted suicide for individuals experiencing no pain. The data also indicated that the depth of commitment to the beliefs that suffering has meaning, that life belongs to God, and that physician-assisted suicide is murder, were highly significant and negatively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide.

  11. CRITICAL THINKING AND ITS AFFECTING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Slameto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to measure the success rate achieved by the alumni of Open/Distance Learning (O/DL, the Bachelor Education In-service Teachers Program (BEITP, Staya Jacana Christian University(SWCU, Salatiga in their critical thinking habit that lead to their success, and to find factors which determined their critical thinking habit. The factors concerned were student factor (learning motivation, alumni’s readiness to enter ICT community, prerequisite or teacher factor (teacher’s ability in creating and using a new instructional context. This quantitative research belongs to the causality ex-post facto research. The data source was one class of O/ DL, the BEITP, SWCUstudents, who were chosen out of four classes, as many as 32 alumni in the academic year 2015/2016. Data were screened using a self-rating scale, which consisted of 40 items tested valid and reliable, and then reduced to 5 variablas. The BEITP, SWCU Salatiga had graduated most of its alumni who owned critical thinking habit at a high rate. The critical thinking habit was affected by the instructional contexts which enabled a new situation (Model 1, alumni’s readiness to enter the ICT community (Model 2, pre-requisite, i.e., mastery of previous lecture materials (Model 3, and student’s learning motivation (Model 4 to reach 81%. The alumni’s critical thinking habit of 51.20% was determined by the teacher’s role in developing instructional contexts which made a new situation possible. This finding was useful for educational quality management for the effectiveness and productivity of higher education, which should have been focused on the teacher in developing an instructional strategy based on context, alumni readiness to enter the ICT community, prerequisite, and student’s learning motivation.

  12. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  13. Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Tomohiro; Kahn, B.

    1989-09-01

    In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

  14. Factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sanaa Abd El Azim

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, on 207 student nurses from four different grades. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, consisted of 30 items, was used to measure the students' assertiveness level and a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer was used to measure students' psychological empowerment. The study results showed that 60.4% of the students were assertive, while about half of the students were empowered. A positive relation between student assertiveness and psychological empowerment was detected. Moreover, positive relations regarding family income and students' assertiveness and psychological empowerment were determined. The study recommended introduction of specific courses aiming at enhancing the acquisition of assertiveness skills, in addition, nurse educators must motivate their students to express their opinion and personal rights and also they must pay attention for students' empowerment and enhance students' autonomy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Emergency Nurses' Perspectives: Factors Affecting Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Carol L; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V

    2016-05-01

    Caring is a universal phenomenon. However, as a result of higher patient acuity and staff shortages within the chaotic ED environment, caring behaviors may be in peril. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the meaning of caring from the perspective of emergency nurses. Exploring nurses' perspectives of caring is central to improving staffing and retention issues in this unique work environment. As part of a larger study, a subsample of emergency nurses who work in public hospitals in Manitoba, Canada (n = 17) were interviewed. A qualitative descriptive design was used to gain insight into the caring perspectives of nurses by asking them, "What does caring meaning to you?" and "What affects caring in your practice in the emergency department?" Emerging themes were extracted through analysis of audio tapes and transcripts. Advocacy and holistic care emerged as major themes in the meaning of caring for emergency nurses. Caring was affected by a number of factors, including workload, lack of time, staffing issues, shift work, and lack of self-care. However, lack of management support was the most consistent hindrance to caring identified by study participants. Caring continues to be a unifying concept in nursing; however, influencing factors continue to undermine caring for emergency nurses. Caring is not subsidiary to nursing; it is the central core of nursing. Therefore, fostering a caring working environment is essential for nurses to practice holistic nursing care. It is also imperative to job satisfaction and the retention of emergency nurses. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors affecting food selection in Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, M; Riediger, N; Moghadasian, M H

    2008-11-01

    To establish health-related reasons behind Canadian food choices, and how variables such as education, income, gender, ethnicity and age may affect food selection. Approximately 98 733 Canadians responded to the 12 questions regarding food choices in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.1, conducted by the Canadian Government in 2003. These included 13 727 adolescents (12-19 years), 19 089 young adults (20-34 years), 31 039 middle-aged adults (35-54 years), 25 338 older adults (55-74 years) and 9580 elderly (75+ years). Approximately 70% of Canadian adolescents in the sample indicated that their food choices were independent of health concerns. Body weight management was a major concern for food selection by adolescents and adults, while the elderly stated heart disease as their main concern. Among all participants, females, and individuals with high levels of education and income reported the highest response to choosing or avoiding foods due to health concerns and food content. Our data indicate that several factors significantly affect food choices for health-related reasons in the Canadian population. Among them, age- and gender-related gaps, particularly between adolescents and adults, are profound. This observation may urge authorities to implement effective strategies to educate Canadians, especially adolescents, that selection of appropriate foods may prevent chronic diseases.

  17. Ranking agility factors affecting hospitals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdi Talarposht

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were selected hospitals. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from the health centers. The construct validity of the questionnaire was approved by confirmatory factor analysis test and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α=0.97. All data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Friedman tests. Findings: The development of staff skills, the use of information technology, the integration of processes, appropriate planning, and customer satisfaction and product quality had a significant impact on the agility of public hospitals of Iran (P<0.001. New product introductions had earned the highest ranking and the development of staff skills earned the lowest ranking. Conclusion: The new product introduction, market responsiveness and sensitivity, reduce costs, and the integration of organizational processes, ratings better to have acquired agility hospitals in Iran. Therefore, planners and officials of hospitals have to, through the promotion quality and variety of services customer-oriented, providing a basis for investing in the hospital and etc to apply for agility supply chain public hospitals of Iran.

  18. [Wilson disease - factors affecting clinical presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Tomasz; Członkowska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD) is a genetic disorder with copper metabolism disturbances leading to copper accumulation in many organs with their secondary damage. It is caused by mutation in the ATP7B gene on chromosome 13, which encodes ATP-ase 7B involved in copper transport. The age of neurologic symptom onset in WD is 20-30 years, but there is a wide spectrum of disease including: age at onset, clinical signs and treatment efficacy. More than 500 mutations of ATP7B have been described so far, but the WD genotype does not explain the disease variability. Several other factors are suspected to influence WD presentation, including polymorphisms in the genes encoding: apolipoprotein E, prion-related protein, methyltenetetrahydrofolate reductase, Murr1, antioxidant-1, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis as well as iron metabolism disturbances, gender impact, inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress. The explanation of their significance can change the therapy of WD. The aim of our study was to review and assess the clinical significance of the factors affecting WD presentation.

  19. Environmental Factors Affecting Where People Geocache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Golbeck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from OpenCaching.com and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.

  20. Factors affecting seismic response of submarine slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biscontin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.

  1. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  2. Factors Affecting the Underperformance of Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeeka Amarasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama is the largest factory of Brandix Group of Companies catering to VS Pink. It has a labour force of 1250 employees including a direct labour force of 659. Production capabilities have been extended to in-house printing and embroidery sections in addition to cutting and shipping facilities. Like other apparel manufacturers in the industry, BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama also faces much competition and problems in its day to day business operations. One of the major issues so faced is On-Time-Delivery due to underperformance of the employees. Therefore, with the objectives of studying factors affecting the underperformance of the employees of the production department, analysing and identifying such factors, and providing recommendations, a few variables i.e. machines and methods, skill level, financial incentives, leadership practices and working conditions were identified as having a potential impact over the performance of the production employees. Stratified random sampling method was used to select 64 team members from the 32 production modules, and research work continued to collate primary data through administrating a structured questionnaire among selected associates. Null and alternative hypotheses were tested using correlations, and the data is presented as graphical pictures, tables, and in narrative form. However, there were a few limitations such as management influence, sample basis selection, service period, level of understating, time availability and commitment, time availability for the study etc. which may have had an impact over the research findings.

  3. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Liutvinavičius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient  attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  4. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilijus Sakalauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  5. Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Pınar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Başkent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

  6. Common studied polymorphisms do not affect plasma cytokine levels upon endotoxin exposure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, Sarah; Krabbe, K.S.; Berg, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in promoter regions of genes of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-18, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-6 and IL-10 affect the cytokine response during a controlled......-607, IFN-gamma+874, IL-6-174, IL-10-592 and IL-10-1082) and endotoxin-induced changes in plasma levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10. IL-18 levels were unaffected by endotoxin. In conclusion, the investigated SNPs did not affect endotoxin-induced low-grade cytokine production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-18 or IL......-10 in healthy young men. Previous reports of a major heritability factor in the inflammatory response may be due to other target genes or effects in older age groups or women Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  7. Factors affecting infant and child mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlakha, A L; Suchindran, C M

    1985-10-01

    This paper examines the determinants of infant and child mortality variations in Jordan, Yemen, Egypt, and Tunisia using data from WFS surveys. The analysis considers biological correlates of mortality--mother's age, birth order, birth interval, and previous infant loss--and several social factors--mother's and father's education, mother's residence, father's occupation, and mother's work experience since marriage. The estimates for the 4 countries show large variations in the mortality rates and an expected pattern of declining infant and child mortality during the period of 20 years prior to the survey. Further, the proportionate decline in child mortality in each country was generally greater than the proportionate decline in infant mortality. A persistent pattern of higher child mortality for females than for males is found, suggesting preferential care and treatment of male offspring. The higher mortality risk is found for infants born to very young and very old mothers, with short previous birth intervals, of higher birth orders, and where the previous infant had died. Among the socioeconomic characteristics, the education of the mother and rural-urban residence are found to affect infant survival. In childhood, among the demographic factors, only birth interval shows a significant effect on mortality. The risk of child mortality decreases considerably with the increase in the birth interval. The analysis of the effect of breastfeeding on mortality, although based on limited information, clearly shows the beneficial effect of breastfeeding on the infant's survival, especially during the early months of life. For all countries, the mortality rate for the non-breastfeeders is substantially higher than for the breastfeeders even when the effect of the other covariates is controlled.

  8. Factors Affecting Internationalization of Indonesia Franchise Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Halim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Franchise is one of successful business strategies in business expansion. Franchise format has been already adopted in all countries. The success is proven in the world and also in Indonesia. Franchise system can be implemented not only in franchisor country but also in other countries. The spirit of internalization is not only because of market saturated, but also to increase reputation of franchise companies and to follow competitors or customers. Important thing discussed in this research is the franchise life-cycle, franchise growth model, and franchise companies’ profile.  It is found that the Indonesia franchise companies are in the introduction stage. The stage in life-cycle shows its reputation. This study used literature review as methodology, and the purpose of this study is to give a big picture for Indonesia franchise companies to make internationalization. There are some Indonesia franchise business profiles in the discussion part. The factors affecting franchise internationalization were analyzed by PESTEL analysis. Some strategies should be prepared in making decision to go international.  At the end, there are some recommendations and future research relating to internationalize franchise business.

  9. Factors affecting coastal wetland loss and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, D.R.; Phillips, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    Opening paragraph: Tidal and nontidal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed provide vital hydrologic, water-quality, and ecological functions. Situated at the interface of land and water, these valuable habitats are vulnerable to alteration and loss by human activities including direct conversion to non-wetland habitat by dredge-and-fill activities from land development, and to the effects of excessive nutrients, altered hydrology and runoff, contaminants, prescribed fire management, and invasive species. Processes such as sea-level rise and climate change also impact wetlands. Although local, State, and Federal regulations provide for protection of wetland resources, the conversion and loss of wetland habitats continue in the Bay watershed. Given the critical values of wetlands, the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement has a goal to achieve a net gain in wetlands by restoring 25,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands by 2010. The USGS has synthesized findings on three topics: (1) sea-level rise and wetland loss, (2) wetland restoration, and (3) factors affecting wetland diversity.

  10. Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien T. Supangco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality

  11. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  12. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin HK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyekyung Jin,1 Yeonhee Kim,2 Sandy Jeong Rhie1,3 1College of Pharmacy, 2Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, 3Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160 aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15. The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=-0.215, P=0.022, sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=-0.335, P=0.000, education level (β=-0.153, P=0.045, health-related problems (β=-0.239, P=0.004, and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018. Conclusion: In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists

  13. Factors Affecting Effectiveness of Fecal Microbiota Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Danielle; Mcgraw, Patty; Duffalo, Chad; Drees, Marci; Depalma, Fedele; Herdman, Christine; Myerson, Scott; Bacon, Alfred E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is an effective treatment for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). With more widespread use of this intervention, variable cure rates (70–95%) have been observed. We conducted this study to identify specific patient- and procedure-level factors affecting FMT effectiveness, hypothesizing that those patients with higher comorbidity, inadequate bowel preparation, and shorter retention of transplant would fail more frequently. Methods At our 2-hospital, >1100-bed community-based academic center, we prospectively followed patients pre/post-FMT between June 2014-April 2017. To undergo FMT, patients must have ≥2 CDI relapses and failed vancomycin taper. We entered all FMT patients into a registry and followed them regularly for up to 1 year, collecting age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, number of CDI relapses, Boston bowel prep score, and stool retention time. FMT donor stool was obtained from OpenBiome (Boston, MA). We defined failure as recurrent CDI requiring treatment ≤8 weeks after FMT. We used 1-sided t-tests to test our hypotheses. Results During the study period, 41 patients (mean age 65 years, SD 17.6) underwent FMT. Most (37, 90%) were performed via colonoscopy, 1 via upper endoscopy, and 3 via oral preparation (capsules). FMT failure occurred in 10 patients (24.4%). Nearly half (n = 20) reported adverse events, including constipation, gas, abdominal pain, blood in stool, and fatigue. Three patients expired from comorbid disease, and 3 were lost to follow-up. Patients with higher Charlson scores failed more frequently (P = 0.04), and history of tumor (P = 0.03) and pulmonary disease (P = 0.04) were both associated with failure. No other factors, including age, retention time, and Boston bowel prep score, were associated with failure. Conclusion This study found that patients with multiple comorbid conditions, as defined by the Charlson index, are at risk for FMT failure. However, quality of

  14. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer ... learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. This ...

  15. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P ...Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover......, a subset of samples from 24 sows fed twice daily in Exp. 1 was combined with data obtained from 30 sows sampled using jugular vein catheters. All sows in Exp. 2 were fed twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) and blood samples collected repeatedly 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding (other conditions were...

  16. Factors affecting the quality of cryoprecipitate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Subramaniyan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The factor VIII recovery in CRYO improves significantly with higher baseline factor VIII: C levels, blood group A donor, and rapid freezing using blast freezer. Rapid freezing also increases the fibrinogen yield.

  17. Hospital Views of Factors Affecting Telemedicine Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Kimberly A S; Ward, Marcia M; Mueller, Keith J

    2015-04-01

    Telemedicine (also known as telehealth) is a means to increase access to care, one of the foundations of the Triple Aim. However, the expansion of telemedicine services in the United States has been relatively slow. We previously examined the extent of uptake of hospital based telemedicine using the 2013 HIMSS (Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society) Analytics national database of 4,727 non-specialty hospitals. Our analysis indicated that the largest percentage of operational telemedicine implementations (15.7 percent) was in radiology departments, with a substantial number in emergency/trauma care (7.5 percent) and cardiology/stroke/heart attack programs (6.8 percent). However, existing databases are limited because they do not identify whether a respondent hospital is a "hub" (providing telemedicine services) or a "spoke" (receiving telemedicine services). Therefore, we used data from interviews with hospital representatives to deepen the research and understanding of telemedicine use and the factors affecting that use. Interviews were conducted with key informants at 18 hub hospitals and 18 spoke hospitals to explore their perceptions of barriers and motivators to telemedicine adoption and expansion. Key Findings. (1) Respondents from both hub and spoke hospitals reported that telemedicine helps them meet their mission, enhances access, keeps lower-acuity patients closer to home, and helps head off competition. (2) Respondents from both hub and spoke hospitals reported licensing and credentialing to be significant barriers to telemedicine expansion. Thus, half of hubs provide services only within their state. (3) A variety of one-time funding sources have been used to initiate and grow telemedicine services among hubs and spokes. However, reimbursement issues have impeded the development of workable business models for sustainability. Hub hospitals shoulder the responsibility for identifying sustainable business models. (4) Although respondents

  18. Demographic, ergonomic and psychosocial factors affecting work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders have been associated with demographic factors, work stresses and psycho-social stress symptoms. The study aimed to evaluate factors associated with MSDs in different body regions among Indian tobacco processing workers. A group of 450 tobacco processing workers participated ...

  19. Factors Affecting Success of Training Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogala, Piotr; Batko, Roman; Wawak, Slawomir

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the key factors which influence the functioning quality and success of training companies. Based on an analysis of the requirements included in the quality management system standards for providers of education and training services, a set of twenty factors has been developed. This was followed by a survey for…

  20. Investigation of plasma induced electrical and chemical factors and their contribution processes to plasma gene transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Masafumi; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Motomura, Hideki; Kido, Yugo; Satoh, Susumu

    2016-09-01

    This study has been done to know what kind of factors in plasmas and processes on cells induce plasma gene transfection. We evaluated the contribution weight of three groups of the effects and processes, i.e. electrical, chemical and biochemical ones, inducing gene transfection. First, the laser produced plasma (LPP) was employed to estimate the contribution of the chemical factors. Second, liposomes were fabricated and employed to evaluate the effects of plasma irradiation on membrane under the condition without biochemical reaction. Third, the clathrin-dependent endocytosis, one of the biochemical processes was suppressed. It becomes clear that chemical factors (radicals and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species) do not work by itself alone and electrical factors (electrical current, charge and field) are essential to plasma gene transfection. It turned out the clathrin-dependent endocytosis is the process of the transfection against the 60% in all the transfected cells. The endocytosis and electrical poration are dominant in plasma gene transfection, and neither permeation through ion channels nor chemical poration is dominant processes. The simultaneous achievement of high transfection efficiency and high cell survivability is attributed to the optimization of the contribution weight among three groups of processes by controlling the weight of electrical and chemical factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Factors affect equity investors in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Niavand

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial specialist conduct is a focal idea in the behavioral fund which breaks down the impact of different factors on singular value speculator basic leadership. The nature and centrality of these factors on financial specialist basic leadership can be unique and intriguing in different nations. This investigation, thusly, looks at the impact of financial, and behavioral, factors in molding the venture conduct of value speculators in India. The factor incorporates advocate suggestion, unbiased data, individual back requirements, bookkeeping data, established riches expansion and mental self-view/firm-picture incident. The examination found the solid impact of mental self-portrait/firm-picture occurrence, unbiased data, and supporter suggestion on value speculator basic leadership. While, no impacts of variables like great riches amplification, bookkeeping data, and individual budgetary needs are found on value financial specialist's basic leadership with regards to India.

  2. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid

  3. External risk factors affecting construction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia

    2017-11-01

    Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.

  4. Factors Affecting Organizational Commitment in Navy Corpsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Kewley, Stephanie; Dell'Acqua, Renée G; Thomsen, Cynthia J

    2017-07-01

    Organizational commitment is a psychological state that has a strong impact on the likelihood that employees will remain with an organization. Among military personnel, organizational commitment is predictive of a number of important outcomes, including reenlistment intentions, job performance, morale, and perceived readiness. Because of the unique challenges and experiences associated with military service, it may be that organizational commitment is even more critical in the military than in civilian populations. Despite the essential role that they play in protecting the health of other service members, little is known about the factors that influence Navy Corpsmen's organizational commitment. This study investigated demographic and psychosocial factors that may be associated with organizational commitment among Corpsmen. Surveys of organizational commitment and possible demographic and psychosocial correlates of organizational commitment were completed by 1,597 male, active duty Navy Corpsmen attending Field Medical Training Battalion-West, Camp Pendleton, California. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors of organizational commitment. Of the 12 demographic and psychosocial factors examined, 6 factors emerged as significant predictors of organizational commitment in the final model: preservice motivation to be a Corpsman, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, confidence regarding promotions, occupational self-efficacy, social support for a Corpsman career, and lower depression. Importantly, a number of the factors that emerged as significant correlates of organizational commitment in this study are potentially modifiable. These factors include confidence regarding promotions, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, and occupational self-efficacy. It is recommended that military leaders and policy-makers take concrete steps to address these factors, thereby strengthening

  5. COAGULATION FACTORS LEVEL IN FRESH FROZEN PLASMA IN RWANDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwamungu, S; Nyamache, A K; Masaisa, F; Njoki, S K; Abdalah, F; Saibu, K; Ndahiriwe, O; Agwata, D

    2014-02-01

    Objectives: To determine the level of coagulation factors and inherited inhibitors in Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) and to evaluate Prothrombin Time and activated partial thrombin time in fresh frozen plasma. Cross-sectional study. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology in Medical Laboratory Sciences. Eighteen blood bags collected from voluntary blood donors. Coagulation factors and inhibitors levels, Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial thrombin Time (APTT) remained within the reference range requested by quality assurance regulations after three months of storage. APTT and PT show an increase from baseline to one month then remain constant up to three months, while, Fibrinogen, Factor II, Factor V, Factor VII, Factor X, Von Willbrand Factor, Protein C and Antithrombin decreased from baseline up to three months and then Factor VIII, Factor IX, Factor XI, Factor XII and Protein S, remained constant from baseline up to one month and decreased up to three months. There is good retention of all coagulation factors and inhibitors in plasma produced from whole blood within eight hours of collection, stored at minus 18 degrees C for three months.

  6. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  7. Common and rare gene variants affecting plasma LDL cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, John R; Hooper, Amanda J

    2008-02-01

    The plasma level of LDL cholesterol is clinically important and genetically complex. LDL cholesterol levels are in large part determined by the activity of LDL receptors (LDLR) in the liver. Autosomal dominant familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) - with its high LDL cholesterol levels, xanthomas, and premature atherosclerosis - is caused by mutations in either the LDLR or in APOB - the protein in LDL recognised by the LDLR. A third, rare form - autosomal recessive hypercholesterolaemia - arises from mutations in the gene encoding an adaptor protein involved in the internalisation of the LDLR. A fourth variant of inherited hypercholesterolaemia was recently found to be associated with missense mutations in PCSK9, which encodes a serine protease that degrades LDLR. Whereas the gain-of-function mutations in PCSK9 are rare, a spectrum of more frequent loss-of-function mutations in PCSK9 associated with low LDL cholesterol levels has been identified in selected populations and could protect against coronary heart disease. Heterozygous familial hypobetalipoproteinaemia (FHBL) - with its low LDL cholesterol levels and resistance to atherosclerosis - is caused by mutations in APOB. In contrast to other inherited forms of severe hypocholesterolaemia such as abetalipoproteinaemia - caused by mutations in MTP - and homozygous FHBL, a deficiency of PCSK9 appears to be benign. Rare variants of NPC1L1, the gene encoding the putative intestinal cholesterol receptor, have shown more modest effects on plasma LDL cholesterol than PCSK9 variants, similar in magnitude to the effect of common APOE variants. Taken together, these findings indicate that heritable variation in plasma LDL cholesterol is conferred by sequence variation in various loci, with a small number of common and multiple rare gene variants contributing to the phenotype.

  8. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING APPLE PRODUCTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Apple (Malus domestica) accounts for 50% of the world's deciduous fruit tree production. Apple, commonly known as a temperate crop, has become a gainful cash crop for the people in south-western Uganda. The objective of the study was to determine the various costs involved and how different socio-economic factors.

  9. Factors Affecting the Internal Audit Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mustika, Adhista Cahya

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the factors that influence the internal audit effectiveness, including internal auditor competencies, internal auditor independence, auditee support to internal audit activity, and the internal and external auditor relationship. Using the internal auditor inspectorate in Java Province, Indonesia, we found that the internal audit effectiveness can be attained through increase internal audit competence, independence and strong relationship between internal and external auditor....

  10. Factors Affecting the Thickness of Thermal Aureoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Annen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Intrusions of magma induce thermal aureoles in the country rock. Analytical solutions predict that the thickness of an aureole is proportional to the thickness of the intrusion. However, in the field, thermal aureoles are often significantly thinner or wider than predicted by simple thermal models. Numerical models show that thermal aureoles are wider if the heat transfer in the magma is faster than in the country rock due to contrasts in thermal diffusivities or the effect of magma convection. Large thermal aureoles can also be caused by repeated injection close to the contact. Aureoles are thin when heat transfer in the country rock is faster than heat transfer within the magma or in case of incrementally, slowly emplaced magma. Absorption of latent heat due to metamorphic reactions or water volatilization also affects thermal aureoles but to a lesser extent. The way these parameters affect the thickness of a thermal aureole depends on the isotherm under consideration, hence on which metamorphic phase is used to draw the limit of the aureole. Thermal aureoles provide insight on the dynamics of intrusions emplacement. Although available examples are limited, asymmetric aureoles point to magma emplacement by over-accretion for mafic cases and by under-accretion for felsic cases, consistent with geochronological data.

  11. Internal factors affecting the jury members verdict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of socio-demographic and individual psychological characteristics that influence the verdict of jury. The study involved 38 men and women aged 25 to 64 years. With the help of a questionnaire, developed on the basis of legal development model by J. Tapp and F. Levine, we revealed levels of jury members’ legal conscience, which, together with socio-demographic characteristics and personality characteristics of the subjects, identified by R. Cattell 16PF Questionnaire, were related to the responses on the Questionnaire while returning verdict on specially selected criminal cases with implicit guilt of the defendant. According to the study, it was determined that the socio-demographic characteristics of the jurors did not significantly affect their verdict, and among the psychological characteristics of the jurors the greatest impact on their verdict has the level of legal development. Thus, depending on the nature of the crime (violent, non-violent or committed through negligence, the same level of legal conscience differently affect the decision of jurors.

  12. Factors affecting escape distance in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto J. Piratelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The flight initiation distance has been used either to understand the cost-benefit trade-offs related to the risk of predation or as an important tool for wildlife managers. Although this variable is well-discussed for temperate regions, it is still poorly known in the Neotropics. Here we analyze the escape behavior of birds from southeastern Brazil, comparing an urban to a non-urban area. We tested for the influence of sites (urban vs. non-urban area, approaching (by one vs. two people, daytime (morning vs. afternoon, seasons (breeding vs. non-breeding and body mass on the determination of the initial (FID and final (FFD flight distances across different bird species. We predict that FID will be greater in rural areas and under a greater threat (higher number of predators approaching in the afternoon and in the non-breeding season. We also expect a direct relationship between body mass and FID and between FID and FFD. We sampled 11 species after measuring 331 escape behaviors, and we confirmed our predictions for sites (five species, daytime (one species and rejected our premise about seasons for one species. Mean FID was strongly affected by body mass, and directly affected FFD. Adjustments in FID are, most likely, an important adaptive trait in urban habitats and may partially explain the predominance of species with higher ecological plasticity in cities.

  13. Dynamic and Static Exercises Differentially Affect Plasma Cytokine Content in Elite Endurance- and Strength-Trained Athletes and Untrained Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilevich, Leonid V; Zakharova, Anna N; Kabachkova, Anastasia V; Kironenko, Tatyana A; Orlov, Sergei N

    2017-01-01

    Extensive exercise increases the plasma content of IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and several other cytokines via their augmented transcription in skeletal muscle cells. However, the relative impact of aerobic and resistant training interventions on cytokine production remains poorly defined. In this study, we compared effects of dynamic and static load on cytokine plasma content in elite strength- and endurance-trained athletes vs. healthy untrained volunteers. The plasma cytokine content was measured before, immediately after, and 30 min post-exercise using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pedaling on a bicycle ergometer increased IL-6 and IL-8 content in the plasma of trained athletes by about 4- and 2-fold, respectively. In contrast to dynamic load, weightlifting had negligible impact on these parameters in strength exercise-trained athletes. Unlike IL-6 and IL-8, dynamic exercise had no impact on IL-15 and LIF, whereas static load increases the content of these cytokines by ~50%. Two-fold increment of IL-8 content seen in athletes subjected to dynamic exercise was absent in untrained individuals, whereas the ~50% increase in IL-15 triggered by static load in the plasma of weightlifting athletes was not registered in the control group. Thus, our results show the distinct impact of static and dynamic exercises on cytokine content in the plasma of trained athletes. They also demonstrate that both types of exercises differentially affect cytokine content in plasma of athletes and untrained persons.

  14. How ageing and social factors affect memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, F C; Kaplan, C D; Ponds, R W; Diederiks, J P; Jolles, J

    1999-07-01

    To explore the relationships between lifestyle and memory, and determine whether social factors influence memory. the relationship between memory and lifestyle was examined in 497 adults aged 25-80 years, using the Mectamemory in Adulthood questionnaire. We asked about sports activity and perceived activity, participation in voluntary organizations and social contacts. Activity and frequent contact with friends and family were related to higher memory capacity scores. Those with higher capacity scores were also younger, had better health and a stronger internal locus of control. In contrast, people with higher anxiety scores had more symptoms and less education, and were more externally oriented. people who consider themselves socially and physically active also consider their memory capacity to be good and are less anxious about their memory than less socially and physically active people. Perceived memory change appears to be predominantly influenced by ageing, whereas memory capacity and memory anxiety are more influenced by social factors.

  15. Factors Affecting Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the factors influencing labour productivity in the manufacturing business sector in 20042008. Labour productivity was analyzed in the context of the assets productivity, technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, wages, value added and depreciation costs, and using linear stepwise regression. The study shows that despite significant progress, the level of labour productivity in domestic manufacturing significantly lower than the average in the European Union. Lower than in Poland, the level of labour productivity gain only companies in Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Estimated parameters of the regression function showed that the most important determinants of labour productivity in manufacturing are technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, assets productivity, level of added value in relation to revenues. These factors explain the variability of labour productivity in 20042008 in a high degree.

  16. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    A review is given of the factors determining placental oxygen transfer and the oxygen supply to the fetus. In the case of continuous variables, such as the rate of placental blood flow, it is not possible to trace evolutionary trends. Discontinuous variables, for which we can define character...... states, are more amenable to analysis. This is exemplified by factors contributing, respectively, to blood oxygen affinity and placental diffusing capacity. Comparative genomics has given fresh insight into the evolution of the beta-globin gene complex. In higher primates, duplication of an embryonic...... gene yielded HBG-T2, a gene that is expressed in the fetus and confers high oxygen affinity on its haemoglobin. A separate event in ruminants involved duplication of an adult gene, again resulting in a fetally expressed variant (HBB-T3) that conveys high oxygen affinity. In rodents and lagomorphs...

  17. Release kinetics of platelet-derived and plasma-derived growth factors from autologous plasma rich in growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Zalduendo, Mari Mar; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Orive, Gorka

    2013-10-01

    Many studies have evaluated the biological effects of platelet rich plasma reporting the final outcomes on cell and tissues. However, few studies have dealt with the kinetics of growth factor delivery by plasma rich in growth factors. Venous blood was obtained from three healthy volunteers and processed with PRGF-Endoret technology to prepare autologous plasma rich in growth factors. The gel-like fibrin scaffolds were then incubated in triplicate, in a cell culture medium to monitor the release of PDGF-AB, VEGF, HGF and IGF-I during 8 days of incubation. A leukocyte-platelet rich plasma was prepared employing the same technology and the concentrations of growth factors and interleukin-1β were determined after 24h of incubation. After each period, the medium was collected, fibrin clot was destroyed and the supernatants were stored at -80°C until analysis. The growth factor delivery is diffusion controlled with a rapid initial release by 30% of the bioactive content after 1h of incubation and a steady state release when almost 70% of the growth factor content has been delivered. Autologous fibrin matrix retained almost 30% of the amount of the growth factors after 8 days of incubation. The addition of leukocytes to the formula of platelet rich plasma did not increase the concentration of the growth factors, while it drastically increased the presence of pro-inflammatory IL-1β. Further studies employing an in vitro inflammatory model would be interesting to study the difference in growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines between leukocyte-free and leukocyte-rich platelet rich plasma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Emma; Sadler, Jon P.; Telfer, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

  19. Factors affecting accelerated testing of polymer photostability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Jan; Pilař, Jan; Billingham, N. C.; Marek, Antonín; Horák, Zdeněk; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2006), s. 417-422 ISSN 0141-3910. [International Conference on Modification, Degradation , Stabilization Conference /3./. Lyon, 29.08.2004-02.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/1243; GA ČR GA202/01/0518; GA MŠk ME 543 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : photodegradation * photostabilization * testing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2006

  20. Factors affecting methanol content of fermented plant beverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting methanol content of fermented plant beverage containing Morinda citrifolia. Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Supakan Jantavong, Chakkrapong Kruatama, Sartjin Peerajan, Sasithorn Sirilun, Lalida Shank ...

  1. Platelet-rich plasma affects bacterial growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Erminia; Filardo, Giuseppe; Canella, Valentina; Berlingeri, Andrea; Bielli, Alessandra; Cattini, Luca; Landini, Maria Paola; Kon, Elizaveta; Marcacci, Maurilio; Facchini, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a blood derivative rich in platelets, is a relatively new technique used in tissue regeneration and engineering. The increased quantity of platelets makes this formulation of considerable value for their role in tissue healing and microbicidal activity. This activity was investigated against five of the most important strains involved in nosocomial infections (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus faecalis) to understand the prophylactic role of pure (P)-PRP. Microbicidal proteins released from activated P-PRP platelets were also determined. The microbicidal activity of P-PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) was evaluated on different concentrations of the five bacterial strains incubated for 1, 2, 4 and 18 h and plated on agar for 18-24 h. P-PRP and PPP-released microbicidal proteins were evaluated by means of multiplex bead-based immunoassays. P-PRP and PPP inhibited bacterial growth for up to 2 h of incubation. The effect of P-PRP was significantly higher than that of PPP, mainly at the low seeding concentrations and/or shorter incubation times, depending on the bacterial strain. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-3, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-5 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-1 were the molecules mostly related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis inhibition. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were less influenced. The present results show that P-PRP might supply an early protection against bacterial contaminations during surgical interventions because the inhibitory activity is already evident from the first hour of treatment, which suggests that physiological molecules supplied in loco might be important in the time frame needed for the activation of the innate immune response. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Socioeconomic factors that affect international caries levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehnelt, D E; Kiyak, H A

    2001-06-01

    Health policy makers have examined the impact of economic policies and a nation's social development on the health of its population. The purpose of this research was to investigate the association between health care expenditures, socioeconomic factors, and caries levels in 109 countries representing an array of social and economic conditions, and to determine how such factors are related to caries experience at different levels of economic development. Countries were divided into established market economies and three groups of developing nations, based on their GNP (high, medium, low income). Total health expenditures as percent GDP and as US dollars per capita, public expenditures and aid flow as percent of total health expenditures, dentists per 100,000 population, per capita sugar consumption, and urbanization of the population were compared among these countries. Correlations between these variables, and decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) of 12-year-olds in these countries were assessed. The highest correlations were found between DMFT and public expenditures, sugar consumption, and urbanization. Highly significant differences emerged across nation groups by stages of development on several variables. The findings suggest that it is important to consider the stage of development of a given country when planning caries prevention policies and programs. Such a contextual approach is more likely to be successful in reducing caries levels.

  3. Factors affecting outcome after traumatic limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Z B; De'Ath, H D; Sharp, G; Tai, N R M

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic leg amputation commonly affects young, active people and leads to poor long-term outcomes. The aim of this review was to describe common causes of disability and highlight therapeutic interventions that may optimize outcome after traumatic leg amputation. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, Embase and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases was performed, using the terms 'leg injury', 'amputation' and 'outcome'. Articles reporting outcomes following traumatic leg amputation were included. Studies demonstrated that pain, psychological illness, decreased physical and vocational function, and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were common causes of disability after traumatic leg amputation. The evidence highlights that appropriate preoperative management and operative techniques, in conjunction with suitable rehabilitation and postoperative follow-up, can lead to improved treatment outcome and patient satisfaction. Patients who undergo leg amputation after trauma are at risk of poor long-term physical and mental health. Clinicians involved in their care have many opportunities to improve their outcome using a variety of therapeutic variables. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  5. Factors affecting radiocaesium transfer to ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Howard, B.J.; Vandecasteele, C.; Mayes, R.W.; Belli, M.; Sansone, U.; Stakelum, G.; Colgan, P.A.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Crout, N.M.J.; Jones, B.E.V., Hove, K.; ITE, Merlewood; CEN, Mol; MLURI, Aberdeen; ENEA-DISP, Rome; MPRC, Fermoy; RPII, Dublin; Ioannina Univ., Nuclear Physics; Nottingham Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala; Agricultural Univ., Aas

    1993-01-01

    The studies performed in the 2 year CEG/DG XII Radiation Protection Programme described here have tried to identify and quantify some of the most important factors influencing the radiocaesium levels in animal food products. The programme involved 9 laboratories in 6 countries: Belgium, Ireland, Greece, Italy, Sweden and the UK. Scientists from Norway and Germany also participated on an informal basis and are formally involved in a subsequent project. Experimental studies have largely been conducted using sheep, although some comparative studies have been performed with dairy cattle. In parallel to the experimental studies, a number of research models have been developed by participants in Greece and the UK to be interactively used with a number of different aspects in the programme. This presentation gives a short overview and discussion of the main findings of this project. (orig./DG)

  6. Experimental Study of Factors Affecting Soil Erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, G. A.; Bushueva, O. G.; Gorobets, A. V.; Dobrovolskaya, N. G.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Litvin, L. F.; Maksimova, I. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of different factors and preparation conditions of monofraction samples from the arable horizon of leached chernozem on soil erodibility and its relationship with soil tensile strength (STS) has been studied. The exposure of samples at 38°C reduces their erodibility by two orders of magnitude. The drying of samples, on the contrary, increases their erodibility. It has been shown that erodibility decreases during the experiment. It has been found that the inoculation of soil with yeast cultures ( Naganishia albida, Lipomyces tetrasporus) reliably increases the STS value in 1.5-1.9 times. The sterile soil is eroded more intensively than the unsterile soil: at 4.9 and 0.3 g/(m2 s), respectively. The drying of soil followed by wetting to the initial water content (30%) has no significant effect on the STS value in almost all experimental treatments.

  7. Factors affecting intraocular pressure in lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofri, Ron; Steinmetz, Andrea; Thielebein, Jens; Horowitz, Igal H; Oechtering, Gerhard; Kass, Philip H

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a detailed analysis of the relationship between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in lions. Tonometry was conducted in 33 lions aged 5 days to 80 months. Age was significantly associated with IOP (Plions 1 year old, respectively. IOP linearly rose with age during the first 20 months of life, plateaued until approximately 40 months, and then gradually declined (r=0.85). Age-related changes in IOP were highly correlated with ultrasonographic measurements of intraocular dimensions (r > or = 0.72), and may be a determinant factor in developmental ocular growth. The dramatic rise in IOP of young lions is similar to that observed in children, but has not been previously demonstrated in animals. Significant IOP differences between lion sub-species were also demonstrated.

  8. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan FERENCZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  9. Diurnal variation of von Willebrand factor in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm, Annette; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Jørgensen, Henrik L

    2014-01-01

    thoroughly tested. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether VWF antigen and VWF activity in plasma display a diurnal profile in healthy young males, and whether such variation is related to changes in release or elimination. METHODS: Plasma from 20 healthy young males was collected at 9 time-points over 24 h (15 h......BACKGROUND: Quantitation of von Willebrand factor (VWF) in plasma is a central element in assessing von Willebrand disease (VWD). VWF activity is known to vary, which has partly been ascribed to biological and preanalytical variation. However, a possible diurnal expression of VWF has not been...... of light and 9 h of darkness); the plasma concentration of melatonin was used as an internal control to confirm the normal 24-h rhythms of the individual participants. RESULTS: The data, analyzed by rhythmometric statistics, revealed a significant variation (P = 0.02) and total amplitude of 22.6% in VWF...

  10. Factors affecting the performance of Pantaneiro horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo da Silva e Souza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess the physical performance of Pantaneiro horses with and without equine infectious anemia (EIA under functional conditions of cattle management. The horses were subjected to a performance test and split into two groups according to a completely randomized design: animals were chosen from populations testing positive and negative for EIA. Performance was measured as a function of a data envelopment analysis (DEA model considering four outputs and one unitary input. The output measures were the distance achieved in the performance test, hematocrit as a weighted average over the test duration, respiratory rate as weighted average over the test duration, and the level of lactic acid at the test termination. Weights for the hematocrit and the respiratory rate output variables were determined by means of factor analysis. The performance score was a weighted average of the output variables with the weights defined by the averages of the optimum individual multipliers in the DEA analysis. Contextual variables of interest were age, horse weight, room temperature, and corporal temperature. Only groups and room temperature were statistically significant effects, as indicated by a bootstrap analysis. The performance of group positive for EIA is significantly lower than that of the group negative for EIA and room temperature has a negative effect.

  11. Factors Affecting Hypertension among the Malaysian Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ataollahi Eshkoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common chronic disease in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, nutritional parameters, and blood elements on the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. This research was conducted on a group of 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of hypertension in respondents. Approximately, 45.61% of subjects had hypertension. The findings indicated that the female gender (Odds ratio (OR = 1.54, an increase in body weight (OR = 1.61, and an increase in the blood levels of albumin (OR = 1.51, glucose (OR = 1.92, and triglycerides (OR = 1.27 significantly increased the risk of hypertension in subjects (p < 0.05. Conversely, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates (OR = 0.74, and blood cholesterol level (OR = 0.42 significantly reduced the risk of hypertension in samples (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that ethnicity was a non-relevant factor to increase the risk of hypertension in subjects. It was concluded that female gender, an increase in body weight, and an increase in the blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, and albumin enhanced the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. In addition, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates and blood cholesterol level decreased hypertension in subjects.

  12. Factors Affecting Patient Satisfaction During Endoscopic Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M. O.; Shafqat, F.; Ahmed, S.; Niazi, T. K.; Khokhar, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality and patient satisfaction in Endoscopy Unit of Shifa International Hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Division of Gastroenterology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Quality and patient satisfaction after the endoscopic procedure was assessed using a modified GHAA-9 questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 1028 patients were included with a mean age of 45 A+- 14.21 years. Out of all the procedures, 670 (65.17%) were gastroscopies, 181 (17.60%) were flexible sigmoidoscopies and 177 (17.21%) were colonoscopies. The maximum unsatisfactory responses were on the waiting time before the procedure (13.13 %), followed by unsatisfactory explanation of the procedure and answers to questions (7.58%). Overall, unsatisfied impression was 4.86%. The problem rate was 6.22%. Conclusion: The quality of procedures and level of satisfaction of patients undergoing a gastroscopy or colonoscopy was generally good. The factors that influence the satisfaction of these patients are related to communication between doctor and patient, doctor's manner and waiting time for the procedure. Feedback information in an endoscopy unit may be useful in improving standards, including the performance of endoscopists. (author)

  13. Quran Literacy Barriers and Factors Affecting Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Feizi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Holy Quran is the greatest gift of God to mankind and is the most precious legacy of So, in order to govern a society guided by Quran and the teachings of Quran by life style based on it, it is necessary that academic community pays attention to Quran education on their pattern Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate Quran literacy of the academic community. This study is intended to provide information to the student community planning principles for designing and implementing Quran based activities. Material and Methods: This study was a descriptive survey. A researcher-made questionnaire with content validation was used to collect data. The population consisted of 840 students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Descriptive statistics by SPSSS 11 software was used for data analysis. Results: Analysis of the findings indicated that 37.2% of the participants were male and 62.8% were females. Thirty percent were non-native students and 69.6% of them were natives. More than 80% of the participants had Quran literacy. The results  showed no significant relationship between academic major (p>%94, gender( p>%07 and familiarity with Quran and being native or non-native( p>%79  Individuals who had Tajvid voice and tone literacy with 35.5%, common meanings and interpretations with 23.1%, translation with 12.9%, sound and tone with 13.4% and Tajvid with 1.5%, respectively. Determinants affecting on Quran literacy includes father’s job, school education, high interest in Quran education and family members’ familiarity with Quran. The most frequent obstacle include:  educational priorities, lack of time, apathy and no interest in Quran. Conclusion: Since Quran is for everyone and Quran activities are distributed among different academic majors, no significant relationship was found between gender (p>%07, academic major (p>%94 and being native or non-native (p>%79. As a result, paying attention to Quran verses

  14. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and insulin-like growth factor I levels in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Shinya; Fujiwara, Masayoshi; Handa, Hiroshi; Fujie, Tatsuro; Aoki, Yoshiyuki; Hashimoto, Kozo; Terada, Yoshio; Sugimoto, Tamotsu

    2012-04-01

    We aimed to assess whether obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) affects plasma IGF-1 and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) levels in men, factors implicated in the development of age-related metabolic disorders. We conducted a cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical study. We measured plasma IGF-1 and DHEA-S levels in 191 non-drug-treated Japanese men (34 primary snorers (PS), 88 patients with mild-to-moderate OSAS and 69 patients severe OSAS ). Plasma IGF-1 and DHEA-S were negatively correlated with age. Plasma IGF-1 was also negatively correlated with plasma glucose, HOMA-IR and systolic blood pressure and apnoea parameters such as the apnoea-hypopnea index, minimum oxygen saturation and slow-wave sleep (SWS) time. Plasma DHEA-S was associated with plasma glucose, HbA1c and free fatty acid and was negatively correlated with SWS time. To eliminate the influence of age, PS, patients with mild-to-moderate OSAS and severe OSAS were divided into three groups by age: young (plasma IGF-1 or DHEA-S levels, respectively, than did the corresponding snorers and mild-to-moderate OSAS groups. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy for generally 16-18 months increased plasma IGF-1 levels in patients with severe OSAS aged Plasma DHEA-S levels were increased in patients with severe OSAS aged plasma IGF-1 and DHEA-S levels in younger, but not elderly Japanese men, which is potentially associated with the development of metabolic abnormalities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Factors affecting mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczak, Andrew M; Ranheim, Birgit; Fosse, Torunn K; Hild, Sophie; Nordgreen, Janicke; Moe, Randi O; Zanella, Adroaldo J

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the stability and repeatability of measures of mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets and to examine potentially confounding factors when using a hand held algometer. Descriptive, prospective cohort. Forty-four piglets from four litters, weighing 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) at 2 weeks of age. Mechanical thresholds were measured twice on each of 2 days during the first and second week of life. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design to test the effects of behavior prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, and repetition within day. The effect of body weight and the interaction between piglet weight and behaviour were also tested. Piglet was entered into the model as a random effect as an additional test of repeatability. The effect of repeated testing was used to test the stability of measures. Pearson correlations between repeated measures were used to test the repeatability of measures. Variance component analysis was used to describe the variability in the data. Variance component analysis indicated that piglet explained only 17% of the variance in the data. All variables in the model (behaviour prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, repetition within day, body weight, the interaction between body weight and behaviour, piglet identity) except sex had a significant effect (p testing and measures changed with repeated testing and increased with increasing piglet weight, indicating that time (age) and animal body weight should be taken into account when measuring mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. Mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds can be used both for testing the efficacy of anaesthetics and analgesics, and for assessing hyperalgesia in chronic pain states in research and clinical settings. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  16. Plasma levels of hypoxia-regulated factors in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioanna, Zygoula; Christian, Schori; Christian, Grimm; Daniel, Barthelmes

    2018-02-01

    Various hypoxia-related proteins are differentially expressed in the retina and secreted to the vitreous and/or aqueous humor of patients affected by dry or neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). To determine whether these conditions alter concentrations of cytokines also in the systemic circulation, we measured plasma levels of six hypoxia-related proteins. Plasma was prepared from EDTA blood that was collected from patients affected by dry AMD (n = 5), nAMD (n = 11), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR; n = 9), and patients with an epiretinal membrane (ERM; n = 11). ERM samples served as negative controls, PDR samples as positive controls. Protein concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), erythropoietin (EPO), angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), placental growth factor (PlGF), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The concentration of PlGF was significantly increased in plasma of patients affected by nAMD. Although no statistically significant differences were found for EPO, ANGPTL4, PlGF, TNF-α, and PEDF, the mean concentration of VEGF was lowest in the nAMD group. Plasma concentrations of the six factors did not correlate with gender or age of patients. nAMD may increase plasma concentrations of PlGF, making it a candidate as a biomarker for the neovascular form of AMD. Other factors, however, were not differentially regulated, suggesting that their systemic concentrations are not generally increased in hypoxia-related retinal diseases.

  17. Perceived Factors Affecting Performance Of Extension Workers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on perceived factors affecting performance of extension workers in Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected from 83 Extension agents from the Imo State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). Results of the study revealed that the organizational factors that affect performance are ...

  18. Selected socio-demographic factors affecting involvement of farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected socio-demographic factors affecting involvement of farmers in part-time farming in Emohua, Rivers State. DO Onu. Abstract. The study investigates selected socio-demographic factors affecting involvement of farmers in part-time farming in Emohua, Rivers State. Structured questionnaire was administered to 87 ...

  19. Gender analysis of factors affecting facilitation of agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the various identified job related factors that affect facilitators in Enugu NFDP III only insufficient authority (t= 1.17) was perceived differently by both men and women facilitators. The results also show that from the various identified employee/personnel factors that affect facilitators in Enugu NFDP III, involvement in ...

  20. Motivation factors affecting employees job performance in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivation factors affecting employees job performance in selected agricultural oil palm industries in Edo State, Nigeria. ... Motivation can be intrinsic, such as satisfaction and feelings of achievement; or extrinsic, such as rewards, punishment, and goal obtainment. The study assessed the motivating factors affecting the job ...

  1. A Multivariate Analysis of Factors Affecting Adoption of Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internal factors that affect the adoption and use of agricultural technologies include farmers' attitude ... Single probit and logit models are often employed to model discrete choices such as adoption of improved ..... suggests that there are unobservable factors affecting both choices and reveals an association after controlling ...

  2. The relationship between affective factors and the academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between affective factors and the academic achievement of students at the University of Venda. To this end, self-concept, motivation and attitude are the affective factors selected for the study. The general aim of the study is to determine the role of self-concept, ...

  3. Depolarization affects lateral microdomain structure of yeast plasma membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herman, P.; Večeř, J.; Opekarová, Miroslava; Veselá, Petra; Jančíková, I.; Zahumenský, J.; Malínský, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 3 (2015), s. 419-434 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0720 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : gel microdomains * lipid order * transmembrane potential Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 4.237, year: 2015

  4. The Hematocrit Affects the Volume of Plasma Treated With Coupled Plasma Filtration and Adsorption With Predilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finazzi, Stefano; Garbero, Elena; Trussardi, Giampietro; Bertolini, Guido

    2017-05-01

    Coupled plasma filtration and adsorption (CPFA) is an extracorporeal blood purification technique proposed for the treatment of septic-shock. By removing pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators from plasma, CPFA is supposed to have a therapeutic effect on the abnormal inflammatory response seen in this condition. Recently, blood predilution with citrate solution has been adopted to prevent clotting in the CPFA circuit-one of the main problems of the technique. Taking into account the patient's hematocrit, we worked out a formula for the volume of plasma effectively treated by CPFA after predilution. Neglecting this effect, as is commonly done, introduces significant distortions in the estimation of the volume, possibly causing under-treatment. The distortion is stronger when the hematocrit and the predilution fraction are large and weaker when both values shrink. By correctly indicating the daily dose of plasma adsorption received by patients, this formula is essential for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of CPFA and, subsequently, establishing its optimal doses. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baygeldi, Serdar; Karakose, Oktay; Özcelik, Kazım Caglar; Pülat, Hüseyin; Damar, Sedat; Eken, Hüseyin; Zihni, İsmail; Çalta, Alpaslan Fedai; Baç, Bilsel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients' age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate), hematocrit (HCT) value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation), trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS), and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3%) and 28 females (25.7%), and the mean age was 37.6 ± 18.28 (15-78) years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3%) traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle), 27 (24.7%) falling from a height, 14 (12.9%) assaults, 5 (4.5%) sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5%) gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3%) of grade I, 32 (46.4%) of grade II, 22 (31.8%) of grade III, and 1 (1.5%) of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in 21

  6. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Baygeldi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients’ age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate, hematocrit (HCT value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation, trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS, and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3% and 28 females (25.7%, and the mean age was 37.6±18.28 (15–78 years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3% traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle, 27 (24.7% falling from a height, 14 (12.9% assaults, 5 (4.5% sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5% gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3% of grade I, 32 (46.4% of grade II, 22 (31.8% of grade III, and 1 (1.5% of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in

  7. coagulation factors level in fresh frozen plasma in rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-02

    Feb 2, 2014 ... National Centre for Blood Transfusion Division/Kigali-Rwanda, D. Agwata, BSc, MSc, Medical Laboratory Sciences,. Jomo Kenyatta University Of Agriculture and Technology. COAGULATION FACTORS LEVEL IN FRESH FROZEN PLASMA IN RWANDA. S. UWAMUNGU, A. K. NYAMACHE, F. MASAISA, ...

  8. Tissue factor-dependent activation of tritium-labeled factor IX and factor X in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.A.; Jesty, J.

    1984-01-01

    A comparism was made of the tissue factor-dependent activation of tritium-labeled factor IX and factor X in a human plasma system and a study was made of the role of proteases known to stimulate factor VII activity. Plasma was defibrinated by heating and depleted of its factors IX and X by passing it through antibody columns. Addition of human brain thromboplastin, Ca2+, and purified 3H-labeled factor X to the plasma resulted, after a short lag, in burst-like activation of the factor X, measured as the release of radiolabeled activation peptide. The progress of activation was slowed by both heparin and a specific inhibitor of factor Xa but factor X activation could not be completely abolished by such inhibitors. In the case of 3H-factor IX activation, the rate also increased for approximately 3 min after addition of thromboplastin, but was not subsequently curtailed. A survey of proteases implicated as activators of factor VII in other settings showed that both factor Xa and factor IXa could accelerate the activation of factor IX. However, factor Xa was unique in obliterating activation when present at concentrations greater than approximately 1 nM. Heparin inhibited the tissue factor-dependent activation of factor IX almost completely, apparently through the effect of antithrombin on the feedback reactions of factors Xa and IXa on factor VII. These results suggest that a very tight, biphasic control of factor VII activity exists in human plasma, which is modulated mainly by factor Xa. At saturation of factor VIIa/tissue factor, factor IX activation was significantly more rapid than was previously found in bovine plasma under similar conditions. The activation of factor X at saturation was slightly more rapid than in bovine plasma, despite the presence of heparin

  9. Phytosterol supplementation does not affect plasma antioxidant capacity in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sialvera, Theodora-Eirini; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Richter, Dimitris J; Yfanti, Georgia; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Micha, Renata; Goumas, Giorgos; Diamantopoulos, Emmanouil; Zampelas, Antonis

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have observed decreased levels of lipophilic antioxidants after supplementation with phytosterols and stanols. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of phytosterol supplementation on plasma total antioxidant capacity in patients with metabolic syndrome. In a parallel arm, randomized placebo-controlled design, 108 patients with metabolic syndrome were assigned to consume yogurt beverage which provided 4 g of phytosterols per day or yogurt beverage without phytosterols. The duration of the study was 2 months and the patients in both groups followed their habitual westernized type diet. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and after 2 months, and the total antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured using the ferric reducing antioxidant power of plasma and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. After 2 months of intervention, plasma total antioxidant capacity did not differ between and within the intervention and the control groups. Phytosterol supplementation does not affect plasma antioxidant status.

  10. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations during military training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Suzuki

    Full Text Available Decreased concentrations of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and serum BDNF have been proposed to be a state marker of depression and a biological indicator of loaded psychosocial stress. Stress evaluations of participants in military mission are critically important and appropriate objective biological parameters that evaluate stress are needed. In military circumstances, there are several problems to adopt plasma BDNF concentration as a stress biomarker. First, in addition to psychosocial stress, military missions inevitably involve physical exercise that increases plasma BDNF concentrations. Second, most participants in the mission do not have adequate quality or quantity of sleep, and sleep deprivation has also been reported to increase plasma BDNF concentration. We evaluated plasma BDNF concentrations in 52 participants on a 9-week military mission. The present study revealed that plasma BDNF concentration significantly decreased despite elevated serum enzymes that escaped from muscle and decreased quantity and quality of sleep, as detected by a wearable watch-type sensor. In addition, we observed a significant decrease in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF during the mission. VEGF is also neurotrophic and its expression in the brain has been reported to be up-regulated by antidepressive treatments and down-regulated by stress. This is the first report of decreased plasma VEGF concentrations by stress. We conclude that decreased plasma concentrations of neurotrophins can be candidates for mental stress indicators in actual stressful environments that include physical exercise and limited sleep.

  11. A systematic review of factors affecting energy intake of adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: No studies investigated all factors affecting energy intake among adolescents. Some studies found mixed association among the determinants of EI in adolescent girls. However, a number of reviews confirm that many factors namely physical activity level, socio-economic status, diet, individual and social factors do ...

  12. Determination of deferasirox plasma concentrations: do gender, physical and genetic differences affect chelation efficacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Francesca; Puntoni, Matteo; Marini, Valeria; Fucile, Carmen; Milano, Giulia; Robbiano, Luigi; Perrotta, Silverio; Pinto, Valeria; Martelli, Antonietta; Forni, Gian Luca

    2015-04-01

    Bioavailability of deferasirox (DFX) is significantly affected by the timing of administration relative to times and to composition of meals. Its elimination half-life is also highly variable - in some patients as a result of gene polymorphisms. Understanding whether deferasirox plasma levels are related to specific characteristics of patients could help physicians to devise a drug regimen tailored the individual patient. We analyzed deferasirox plasma concentrations (CDFX ) in 80 patients with transfusion-dependent anemias, such as thalassemia, by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. We used a multivariate linear regression model to find significant associations between CDFX and clinical/demographical characteristics of patients. All patients were genotyped for UGT1A1. Fifty-six patients were female, 24 were male, the great majority (88%) affected by β-thalassemia, and 15 were children and adolescents. No statistical correlation was detectable between CDFX and DFX dose (P = 0.6). Age, time from last drug intake to blood sampling, and ferritin levels in the 6 months before study initiation were significantly and inversely associated with CDFX in univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, the only two factors independently and inversely associated with CDFX levels were time from last drug intake to blood sampling and ferritin levels (P = 0.006). A significant inverse correlation (P = 0.03) was observed between CDFX and UGT1A1*28 gene polymorphism, but only in patients with levels of lean body mass (LBM) below the median (P for interaction = 0.05). The results could indicate that a higher plasma DFX concentration could be associated with greater chelation efficacy. As a correlation between dose and CDFX was not demonstrated, it seems useful to monitor the concentrations to optimize and determine the most appropriate dose for each patient. Interesting results emerged from the analysis of genetic and physical characteristics of

  13. Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee (Coffea robusta Rio Nunes) in Kogi State, Nigeria. M Idrisu, FD Babalola, IU Mokwunye, CF Anagbogu, IA Aderolu, O Ugioro, EU Asogwa, I Ndagi, FC Mokwunye ...

  14. An Initial Investigation of Factors Affecting Multi-Task Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Branscome, Tersa A; Swoboda, Jennifer C; Fatkin, Linda T

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first in a series of investigations designed to increase fundamental knowledge and understanding of the factors affecting multi-task performance in a military environment...

  15. Identifying factors affecting destination choice of medical tourists: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical tourism”, has emerged as a new source of competitive advantage all over the world. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect destination choice of medical tourists. Methods: We systematically searched relevant databases ...

  16. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Improved Rice Varieties in Borno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    -adopters. ... give a good results and also a threat to food security. Keywords: ..... government instead of planting. Table 2: Institutional factors that affect adoption of improved rice varieties. Variables. Categories Numbers. Fast. Adopters. Slow.

  17. Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to antihypertensive medications and blood pressure control among patients attending the family practice clinic in a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria.

  18. Individual differences in plasma ALT, AST and GGT: contributions of genetic and environmental factors, including alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, J B; Martin, N G

    1985-01-01

    The causes of individuality of the plasma enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT; EC 2.6.1.2), aspartate aminotransferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT; EC 2.3.2.2) were investigated in a study of 206 pairs of twins. Between-person variance was greater in men than women, while within-person variation was similar in both sexes. Plasma ALT and AST levels were affected by genetic factors, while GGT was affected by some environmental factor shared by co-twins. In the men, alcohol intake had a significant but small effect on all three enzyme levels, and since alcohol consumption was highly heritable, this appeared as a genetic influence on enzyme activities. The major factors involved in the observed correlations between these enzymes were a non-shared environmental factor other than alcohol affecting ALT, AST and GGT, and a genetic factor affecting only ALT and AST.

  19. Factors That Affect the Feeling of Happiness in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Atif NAWAZ; Noreen AFZAL; Kiran SHEHZADI

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the answers to questionnaires distributed among 140 people in Israel and identified the main factors that have an affect over feeling of happiness?. We estimated an econometric equation with happiness as the dependent variable. Our findings show that feeling of happiness? among women is mainly affected by satisfaction from marital status; a variable that also has a large effect on males? sense of happiness. Among men, the most important factor is satisfaction during...

  20. Exercise and the platelet activator calcium chloride both influence the growth factor content of platelet-rich plasma (PRP): overlooked biochemical factors that could influence PRP treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamilton, Bruce; Tol, Johannes L.; Knez, Wade; Chalabi, Hakim

    2015-01-01

    There is strong evidence that exercise affects platelet haemostasis factors, but this potential effect on growth factor concentrations in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has never been studied. In addition, there is a paucity of studies focusing on the effects of activating agents used in conjunction

  1. Factors Affecting Women's Participation In The Labour Force In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, their contributions are hampered by certain impediments that affect them as individuals. More women work today than ever before. This paper examines factors that affect women's active participation in the labour force and discusses some measures for correcting this anomaly. Journal of Agriculture and Social ...

  2. Affective factors which relate to dance on secondary school level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between dance achievement and motivation, anxiety or self-concept. Similarly, no significant differences could be identified between the affective factors in the different grades. Keywords: Motivation; Stress; Anxiety; Self-concept; Affective variables; Dance achievement. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical ...

  3. Factors Affecting Soil Quality Maintenance in Northern Katsina State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting soil quality maintenance in the area according to the findings are natural and man-induced, including agricultural practices in general and deforestation, soil degradation and erosion, as well as biodiversity loss in particular. The results also indicated that values of the selected elements affecting soil quality ...

  4. Factors affecting dignity of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Simin; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas

    2016-12-01

    MS is one of the most common chronic diseases of the nervous system. Apart from disease progression, other complications such as unemployment, separation and divorce could potentially threat patients' dignity. Most of the previous studies have been done of maintaining patients' dignity in interaction with healthcare team, but studies on affecting factors of dignity in chronic patients in the society and in interaction with usual people are scarce. We aimed to investigate factors affecting dignity of Iranian patients with MS in daily living and in interaction of them with the society. In this qualitative study, 13 patients with multiple sclerosis were chosen by purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews were conducted until data saturation. The study was done in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Factors affecting dignity were classified as 'personal factors' and 'social factors'. Personal factors consist of the following subcategories: patients' communication with self, patients' knowledge, patients' values and beliefs and patients' resources. Social factors include others' communication with patients, social knowledge, social values and beliefs and social resources. Multiple personal and social factors interfere in perceived patient dignity. In fact, interaction between personal and social factors can be influential in final perceived dignity. By focusing on whole aspects of the patients' lives, we can identify dignity-promoting or dignity-threatening factors and help patients maintain their dignity by taking appropriate measures for moderating threatening factors and improving dignity enhancing ones. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  5. Dependence of radial thermal diffusivity on parameters of toroidal plasma affected by resonant magnetic perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ryutaro; Nunami, Masanori; Satake, Shinsuke; Takamaru, Hisanori; Okamoto, Masao

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how the neoclassical thermal diffusivity of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is modified by the effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), using a drift-kinetic simulation code for calculating the radial thermal diffusivity of ion in the perturbed region under an assumption of zero electric field. Here, the perturbed region is assumed to be generated on and near the resonance surfaces, and is wedged in between the regular closed magnetic surfaces. We find that the dependence of the radial thermal diffusivity on parameters of the toroidal plasma is represented as χ r =χ r (0) {1+ c 0 (ω b /ν eff Δ b 2 ) r || 2 >/|B t0 | 2 }, where χ (0) r is the neoclassical thermal diffusivity and c 0 is a positive coefficient. Here, ω b is the bounce frequency, ν eff is the effective collision frequency, Δ b is the banana width, 〈‖δB r ‖ 2 〉 1/2 is the strength of the RMPs in the radial directions, and |B t0 | is the strength of the magnetic field on the magnetic axis. The value of c-tilde 0 :=c 0 /(qR ax /√(ε t )) 2 is significantly reduced to c-tilde 0 ∼10 -4 in the simulations because of the drift motion affected by the Coulomb collision, as contrasted with c-tilde 0 =π predicted by the so-called field-line diffusion theory, where q is the safety factor, R ax is the major radius of the magnetic axis, and ϵ t is the inverse aspect ratio. (paper)

  6. Factors Affecting Utilization of Skilled Birth Attendants by Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This underscores the need to investigate factors responsible for low use of skilled attendants at birth. The main purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting utilization of skilled attendants at birth by pregnant women in Kasama district in order to help contribute to the reduction of maternal and child complications.

  7. Prognostic factors affecting the survival of patients with multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective analysis of data concerning 86 patients with multiple myeloma was carried out in order to evaluate factors affecting survival. The overall median survival was 621 days. In a univariate analysis the follOWing factors were significantly associated with poor survival: serum creatinine ≥ 150 mmol/l, haemoglobin ...

  8. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  9. Factors affecting the voluntary feed intake of sheep grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors which are detrimental to forage quality such as oxalates and nitrates are higher in the young and actively growing material than in older material, while the in vitro production of foam seems unrelated to forage quality and remained high despite changes in other factors which detrimentally affected forage quality.

  10. Socioeconomic factors affecting presentation of patients with post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: As the etiological factors of burn injuries vary considerably in different communities, careful analysis of the epidemiological features in every community is needed to formulate a sound prevention programme. The present study attempts to analyze the demographic factors affecting the presentation of post burn ...

  11. Personality factors and adult attachment affecting job mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, A.E.M.; Feij, J.A.; Krausz, M.; Taris, R.

    2003-01-01

    Past research has revealed that individuals' job mobility is affected by factors such as job satisfaction, specific career enhancing attributes and job availability. This study examined personality factors predicting voluntary internal and external job mobility. Three types of voluntary job mobility

  12. Perceptions and factors affecting utilization of health services in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the presence of health facilities alone is not enough to guarantee use as other socioeconomic factors could influence access and utilization. This study assessed the community perceptions and factors affecting the utilization of health services in a rural community in Southern Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional ...

  13. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin. Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...

  14. Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

  15. Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

  16. Greater variation in affect is associated with lower fasting plasma glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjai Gupta

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This study has shown an inverse association between changes in affect and fasting plasma glucose. This unexpected finding suggests that the association between affect and glucose is more complex than previously thought. Fasting blood glucose may reflect the operation of homeostatic mechanisms that are disturbed in certain mental states and are associated, therefore, with altered risk of diabetes and related metabolic conditions. This may have implications for the management of those with such conditions and with mental disorders.

  17. Effect of tissue and plasma factors on kidney proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, A M; García, A L; Errecalde, A L; Badrán, A F

    1997-04-01

    Liver extract, plasma from intact mice, ES2 tumour extract and plasma from tumour bearing mice has an inhibiting effect on the mitotic activity of hepatocytes and duodenal enterocytes. In the present experiments, the effect of these treatments on the mitotic activity of renal tubular cells was studied. C3HS 28 day-old male mice, standardized for periodicity analysis were used. The determination of normal mitotic circadian curve of the renocytes was done. A second batch of mice were injected with 0.01 ml/gr of either liver extract, plasma from intact mice, ES2 tumour extract or plasma from tumour bearing mice, at 16:00 hours and controlled at 08:00, 12:00 and 16:00 hs during 2 consecutive days post treatment. Colchicine (2 micrograms/gr) was injected 4 hours before killing. Kidneys were processed for histology and mitotic index determinations. Results were expressed as colchicine metaphases per 1000 nuclei, and showed that mitotic activity values of treated animals were significantly lower than those of controls. In conclusion, mitotic activity inhibition of renocytes may be due to some non specific plasmatic and/or tissue factors.

  18. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-04-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia. Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  19. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  20. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Yan, Ng Sze; Zakuan, Norhayati; Bahari, Ahamad Zaidi; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  1. Prostaglandins release plasma 'reciprocal coupling factor' in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoult, J. R.; Moore, P. K.

    1981-01-01

    1. Prostaglandins E1, E2, I2 and endoperoxide analogue U46619 injected intra-arterially (i.a.) into anaesthetized rats at 2 micrograms/kg caused a substantial increase within 60 min of the plasma activity of prostaglandin 'reciprocal coupling factor' (RCF). RCF is the provisional name for the component(s) of plasma which inhibit microsomal prostaglandin synthesis and enhance cytosolic prostaglandin breakdown. 2. RCF is not released by inactive metabolite 13,14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin E2 (10 micrograms/kg, i.a.) or acetylcholine or histamine (2 micrograms/kg, i.a.). 3. We suggest that release by prostaglandins of RCF would provide the basis in vivo for a negative feedback mechanism controlling the activity of the prostaglandin system. PMID:7032632

  2. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Scott, Tammy; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis. Conversely, many dietary components such as curcumin, resveratrol, blueberry polyphenols, sulforaphane, salvionic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and diets enriched with polyphenols and PUFAs, as well as caloric restriction, physical exercise, and learning, have been shown to induce neurogenesis in adult brains. Although many of the underlying mechanisms by which nutrients and dietary factors affect adult neurogenesis have yet to be determined, nutritional approaches provide promising prospects to stimulate adult neurogenesis and combat neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the role of nutritional factors in modifying adult neurogenesis and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Factors Affecting Green Residential Building Development: Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Green residential buildings (GRBs are one of the effective practices of energy saving and emission reduction in the construction industry. However, many real estate developers in China are less willing to develop GRBs, because of the factors affecting green residential building development (GRBD. In order to promote the sustainable development of GRBs in China, this paper, based on the perspective of real estate developers, identifies the influential and critical factors affecting GRBD, using the method of social network analysis (SNA. Firstly, 14 factors affecting GRBD are determined from 64 preliminary factors of three main elements, and the framework is established. Secondly, the relationships between the 14 factors are analyzed by SNA. Finally, four critical factors for GRBD, which are on the local economy development level, development strategy and innovation orientation, developer’s acknowledgement and positioning for GRBD, and experience and ability for GRBD, are identified by the social network centrality test. The findings illustrate the key issues that affect the development of GRBs, and provide references for policy making by the government and strategy formulation by real estate developers.

  4. WARMING-UP AFFECTS PERFORMANCE AND LACTATE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN PLASMA AND RED BLOOD CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Wahl

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Warming-up (WU is a widely used preparation for training and competition. However, little is known about the potential mechanisms of WU on performance and on the lactate distribution in the blood compartment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether different WU procedures affect performance and lactate distribution between plasma and red blood cells (RBCs after maximal exercise. At three different occasions eleven subjects performed one 30 s maximal effort exercise on a cycle ergometer. Before each exercise, subjects warmed up at different intensities: 1. no WU (NWU; 2. extensive WU (EWU; 3. intensive WU (IWU. Blood samples were taken under resting conditions, after WU, and in 1 minute intervals during recovery to determine lactate concentrations [LA] in whole blood ([LA]WB, plasma ([LA]plasma and erythrocytes ([LA]RBC. Mean power output was +58 Watt (EWU and +60 Watt (IWU higher compared to NWU. For each WU condition [LA]plasma and [LA]RBC differed significantly at any time point, showing greater [LA]plasma compared to [LA]RBC. The maximal effort exercise caused a rapid decrease of the [LA]RBC/[LA]plasma ratio. [LA]RBC reached the peak 3-5 minutes later than [LA]plasma depending on the WU condition. The initial increments in [LA]RBC were 10-16% lower after IWU compared to NWU and EWU. The lower increment of [LA]RBC after IWU might be due to a "higher preloading" with lactate before exercise, causing a smaller initial [LA] gradient between plasma and RBCs. It seems that the influx decreases with increasing intracellular [LA]. Another possibility one could speculate about is, that the extracellular increase in [LA] inhibits the outflux of lactate produced by the RBC itself. This inhibited export of lactate from RBCs may lead to an intracellular lactate accumulation. But the relatively fast increase in [LA]RBC and other investigations partly contradicts this possibility

  5. Factors Affecting Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. METHODS From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr...

  6. Investigation on Factors Affecting to the Career Development

    OpenAIRE

    永久, 理恵; 井田, 政則

    2013-01-01

    The factors affecting to the career development were examined in light of the problem with young workers of their job quitting and hopping at early stage. The investigation was carried out with questionnaire given to 277 business persons working in several Japanese companies. We examined how the four major factors consisting of career development, i.e.“organizational socialization”,“ psychological variables of career self-reliance”,“ behavioral variables of career self-reliance”and“ meaning o...

  7. Factors Affecting Successful Implementation of Hospital Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Farzandipur, Mehrdad; jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Azimi, Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Today, the use of information systems in health environments, like any other fields, is necessary and organizational managers are convinced to use these systems. However, managers? satisfaction is not the only factor in successfully implementing these systems and failed information technology projects (IT) are reported despite the consent of the directors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the factors affecting the successful implementation of a hospital information system. ...

  8. Two Fundamental Factors Affecting Concept Difficulty (in Chinese)

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Z. F.; Yang, Z. L.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of the improved materials, many factors affecting the concept difficulty were generalized as the following two fundamental factors: attribute saliency (AS) and attribute frequency (AF). The more salient the relevant attribute, or the more frequent it appears in the positive examples, the easier the concept, and vice versa. When the AS or AF of an irrelevant attribute is greater, it will disturb the correct concept formation. In addition, a somewhat strange result was noticed that...

  9. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n = 154 Blue-faced Leicester×Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal charact...

  10. Factors Affecting the Value Relevance of Accounting Information

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Dehghan Nayeri; Ali Faal Ghayoumi; Mohammad Ali Bidari

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the factors affecting the value relevance of accounting information for investors in the Tehran Stock Exchange over the period of six years. In this study, the effect of four factors; being profitable or loss generating, company size, earnings stability and company growth on the value relevance of accounting information have been studied. For this purpose Ohlson model and the cumulative regression analysis is used in order to examine the hypotheses and as the basis ...

  11. Factors affecting implementation of practical activities in science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at assessing factors affecting implementation of practical activities in science education in some selected secondary and preparatory schools of Afar Region. Practical activity is at the heart of mastery of science discipline and it is believed that if there is no practice either individually or in a group, all what ...

  12. Factors affecting performance of Facilitators in the Fadama 111 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting performance of Facilitators in the Fadama 111 Development Project in Enugu State, Nigeria. ... Also employee-related issues associated with performance of facilitators were involvement in religious activities (M=3. 37), academic background (M= 3.34) health status (M= 3.26), extended family burdens (M= ...

  13. Factors Affecting Quality of Audit; Empirical Evidence from Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines factors affecting quality of audit using empirical evidence from Iran Quality of audit was seen as the degree to which an audit report is free from deficiencies and distortions which show up later on. The quality of an audit was measured in terms of an auditor's ability to report financial distortions willingly ...

  14. Factors affecting farmers' participation in irrigation schemes of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... those factors affecting farmers' participation in irrigated agriculture at the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority (LNRBDA) in Kwara State, Nigeria. One hundred and sixty (160) respondents were selected from communities around LNRBDA site at Oke Oyi for this study through a two-stage sampling procedures.

  15. Factors Affecting Academic Achievement of Students in Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors affecting academic achievement ofstudents in Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) in ChristianReligious Knowledge. A total of three hundred students in SS III from five secondary schools were randomly selected and used as sample for the study. Five hypotheses were tested, ...

  16. Factors affecting profit in dairying: conclusions from Natal study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting profit in dairying: conclusions from Natal study group results. P.G. Stewart. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  17. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Adoption of Improved Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result shows that the major factors affecting adoption of improved cassava varieties were adaptability of the technology compatibility, age, educational status, sex and complexity of the technology. The result also reviewed that more of elderly people farmed cassava in the study area and the farmers were more of women ...

  18. Factors affecting disclosure of serostatus to children attending Jinja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was to determine the rate of HIV disclosure by the parents/caretakers to their children and other factors affecting disclosure. Methods: A cross sectional study ... judgment of the counselor and parent/guardian.14 The. Correaponding author: ..... depression resulting from disclosure and thoughts of dying after disclosure.

  19. Factors Affecting Students' Performance and Practice on Map ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Students' Performance and Practice on Map Reading Skills: A Case Study of Selected Secondary Schools in Asela Town, Ethiopia. ... students to work hard persevere to succeed, identifying effective study techniques, the students' willingness to do school activities and coverage of textbooks' contents.

  20. Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçüközer, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A).…

  1. Factors affecting mortality of critical care trauma patients | Hefny ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common mechanism of injury was road traffic collisions (72.3 %). The overall mortality was 13.9%. A direct logistic regression model has shown that factors that affected mortality were decreased GCS (p < 0.0001), mechanism of injury (p = 0.004) with burns having the highest mortality, increased age (p = 0.004), ...

  2. Factors affecting particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. In this paper, we report a range of factors which affect the retention of colloidal particles in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These results are observed among different sizes of polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in both aqueous and nonaqueous liquid carriers and very low density lipoproteins in ...

  3. Factors Affecting Loan Utilization And Repayment Patterns By Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Loan Utilization And Repayment Patterns By Small Holder Farmers Of The Nigeria Agricultural Cooperative And Rural Development Bank ... that 35.8% of the beneficiaries were between the age brackets of 51- 60 years, about 61.3% of the respondents had a minimum of secondary school education.

  4. Factors affecting teachers' participation in professional learning activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, C.H.E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes two studies into teacher workplace learning. The first study aimed at developing a definition of teacher learning at the workplace and at exploring factors that may affect teacher learning at the workplace. Based on a conceptualization of teacher workplace learning as

  5. Factors affecting the development of collaborative improvement with strategic suppliers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaltoft, Rasmus; Boer, Harm; Corso, Mariano; Gertsen, Frank; Gieskes, J.F.B.; Middel, H.G.A.; Steendahl Nielsen, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    The research presented in this paper was aimed at increasing the current understanding of the process of developing collaborative improvement in Extended Manufacturing Enterprises (EME). Theory suggests a number of factors to affect that process, including shared sense of direction (i.e. vision),

  6. Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at assessing the socio-economic factors affecting the efficiency of maize marketing in Benue State, with a view to determining the implications for food security in Nigeria. Two hundred maize marketers were selected from Vandeikya Local Area (LGA) of Benue State with the aid of stratified random sampling ...

  7. Factors Affecting the Technology Readiness of Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Stephanie E.

    2010-01-01

    Federal government policies are promoting diffusion of technologies into the healthcare system. If health professionals reject the new technologies planned for the healthcare system, it could result in costly failures, delays, and workforce problems. There is a lack of knowledge about factors that affect technology readiness (TR), defined as the…

  8. Factors Affecting Time, Cost and Quality Management in Building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is an assessment of time, cost and quality management in the Nigerian construction industry, and it aims to explore time cost and quality management in the construction industry. The objective of the study is to identify factors affecting time; cost and quality management in building construction projects. This study ...

  9. factors affecting particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we report a range of factors which affect the retention of colloidal particles in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These results are observed among different sizes of polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in both aqueous and nonaqueous liquid carriers and very low density lipoproteins in a phosphate ...

  10. Pregnancy outcome and factors affecting vaginal delivery of twins at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study aims to determine the differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between caesarean and vaginal deliveries and the factors affecting vaginal delivery in twin pregnancy. Materials and Methods: An observational study to audit twin pregnancies delivered at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital ...

  11. Factors Affecting Soil Quality Maintenance In Northern Katsina State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting soil quality maintenance in the area according to the findings are natural and man-induced, including agricultural practices in general and ..... Global warming. 5. 3.03. Total. 165. 100. As the presence of vegetation helps to shield the soil from the direct ray of the sun so it helps to act as wind-brake. The.

  12. Factors affecting the referral of primary health care doctors toward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Few eligible candidates are referred from primary care for bariatric surgery in spite of improvement in its safety and efficacy. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting primary care physicians' (PCPs) referral to bariatric surgery in morbid obesity. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional ...

  13. Factors affecting medical waste management in lowlevel health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting medical waste management in lowlevel health facilities in Tanzania S. V.. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Medical waste transportation is a serious problem, as 71% of the facilities in Kinondoni carry the wastes on hands to the disposal sites while in Ilala, 40% of LLHFs use ...

  14. Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction Of Rangers In Yankari Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to identify the various factors affecting the job satisfaction level of rangers in Yankari Game Reserve, Bauchi, Nigeria. Data were collected using structured questionnaire comprising four facets: personal characteristics of the rangers, job satisfaction, motivation, and work environment. Data were ...

  15. Factors affecting the adoption of information technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting the adoption of information technologies in academic libraries in Imo State. ... be made available to academic libraries in Imo state so that they can provide IT based library resources for optimal library services . Key Words: Information , Tech nology, Academic , libraries , Globalization, Automation, Nigerian.

  16. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller therapy in chest clinics in a sub-Saharan African setting: a cross-sectional study. ... Background: Adherence to controller therapy in asthma is a major concern during the management of the disease. Objective: To determine the adherence rate and identify the ...

  17. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  18. Factors affecting sustainability of land reform projects in Ehlanzeni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated factors affecting sustainability of land reform projects in Mpumalanga Province in Bushbuckridge Local Municipality (BLM) of Ehlanzeni District. The study was conducted between July and September 2014. A random sampling technique was used in selecting 31 key informants from the projects.

  19. Factors affecting use of fission foils as dosimetry sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.J.; Vehar, D.W.; Kelly, J.G.; Holm, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    Fission foils are commonly used as dosimetry sensors. They play a very important role in neutron spectrum determinations. This paper provides a combination of experimental measurements and calculations to quantify the importance and synergy of several factors that affect the fission response of a dosimeter. Only when these effects are properly treated can fission dosimeters be used with sufficient fidelity

  20. Unemployment in Kenya: Some economic factors affecting wage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the economic factors affecting wage employment in Kenya, where open unemployment fell from 15 per cent in 1998/1999 to 13 per cent in 2005/2006. As of 2005/2006, wage employment constituted 13 per cent of the total working population, which implies that doubling wage employment will absorb ...

  1. Factors affecting mortality and epidemiological data in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Burns continue to be responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In this study we aimed to determine the factors affecting mortality and epidemiological data by examining the records of burned patients. Method. The hospital records of 980 patients who were hospitalised in the ...

  2. Factors Affecting Oil Palm Production in Ondo State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discovery of crude oil and the civil war adversely affected oil palm production in Nigeria. This has resulted in scarcity and high cost of palm products and palm oil. The study therefore investigated the factors influencing oil palm production in Ondo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty respondents were selected from ...

  3. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…

  4. Factors Affecting Students' Enrolment and Dropout at The Open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting student enrolment and dropout were identified at OUT Lindi Region with strategies for increasing enrolment while reducing dropout. Quantitative and qualitative methods that involved documentary survey, questionnaires and interviews were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed by Statistix ...

  5. Motivation and Factors Affecting It among Health Professionals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Motivation is an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. This study assessed motivational status and factors affecting it among health professionals in public hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region. METHOD: Facility based cross-sectional survey ...

  6. Factors Affecting Utilization of Cooking Banana among Households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated factors affecting utilization of cooking banana among households in Oguta area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 84 randomly selected respondents from six communities in the study area who were administered with structured questionnaire. Data analysis was by use of descriptive ...

  7. Factors affecting sustainable animal trypanosomosis control in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors affecting sustainable trypanosomiasis control in parts of Kaduna State within the sub-humid savannah ecological zone of Nigeria. Focus group discussions were ... More awareness and preference for pour-on and aerial spraying were higher than the use of traps, target or screens. Rearing of ...

  8. A study of the factors affecting the range of airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, David

    1937-01-01

    A study was made of the most important factors affecting the range of airplanes. Numerical examples are given showing the effects of different variables on the range of a two-engine airplane. The takeoff problems of long-range airplanes are analyzed.

  9. Factors Affecting School Choice: What Do Malaysian Chinese Parents Want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Poh Chua; Christina Ong, Sook Beng; Tan, Swee Mee; Sim, Chzia Poaw; Xian Thoo, Raphael Yi

    2018-01-01

    Aiming to explore factors affecting Malaysian Chinese parents in sending their children to either national secondary schools or Chinese independent schools, 494 parents were surveyed using a questionnaire. Results showed that parents who sent their children to Chinese independent schools have different priorities compared to those who sent theirs…

  10. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  11. Client financial support for mitigating cost factors affecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed effects of client financial support for mitigating the effects of cost factors affecting the performance of Small Scale Contractors (SSC) in Nigeria. Exploratory and descriptive designs were adopted. A total of 550 questionnaires were administered to key construction industry stakeholders in northern Nigeria ...

  12. motivation factors affecting employees job performance in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADEOGUN

    The study assessed the motivating factors affecting the job performance of two oil palm companies' employees, in Edo State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of this study were to; ascertain the socio- economic characteristics of employees, the challenges faced by both employees and management of selected companies ...

  13. Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

  14. Factors affecting the Timely Completion of Doctoral Degree in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-five doctoral graduates in library and information science (LIS) of Nigerian universities from 2009 to 2013 were surveyed in order to determine factors affecting the timely completion of doctoral degree programme in LIS in Nigerian universities. Using social survey design, a questionnaire purposely designed for the ...

  15. Teachers' Perception of the Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    perception of salary as a factor affecting job satisfaction. Also, there ... job satisfaction. Based on the findings, recommendations were made. Introduction. Education is a lifelong affair aimed at bringing positive changes to the individual, his family and the .... The government and all employers of labour normally embark on ...

  16. Identifying factors affecting about outsourcing in paraclinical services

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Outsourcing refers to the transfer of services or functions to an outsider supplier, which controls them through a contract or cooperative. The main problem of senior managers in health organizations is determining the services which should be outsourced. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect ...

  17. Factors Affecting Performance of Undergraduate Students in Construction Related Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…

  18. Determinant of Factors Affecting Investment of Farmers in three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work was carried out to ascertain the factors affecting investment of farmers in the three management systems of cocoa production in Abia State. Specific farmers investment areas are with respect to the management systems involving owner-managed, lease and share-crop production systems. Questionnaires ...

  19. Factors affecting in sacco dietary degradation by Ankole cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting in sacco dietary degradation by Ankole cattle grazing natural range pastures in Uganda. ... Keywords: Ankole cattle, dietary selection, dry matter disappearance, free water intake, in sacco degradation, lignification, live weight change, predictive model, water solubility. African Journal of Range & Forage ...

  20. Factors affecting compliance to treatment among children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND:This study aimed to determine the factors affecting compliance to treatment among children with epilepsy in Enugu,Nigeria. METHODS: Children with diagnosis of epilepsy were consecutively recruited.Their 6 months retrospective and 1 month prospective data were collected;and analyzed using SPSS ...

  1. Factors affecting sports participation among female students at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this study was to examine factors affecting sport participation among resident and non- resident female students at Tshwane University of Technology (TUT), Pretoria, South Africa. The study targeted all students participating in 12 registered sports but due to the fact that only a limited number of the total ...

  2. Scrutinizing the Factors Affecting Fluency of English among Arab Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghazali, Fawzi

    2017-01-01

    This research study investigates the cognitive, psychological and personal factors affecting the accuracy and fluency of English language usage among Arab learners. Early research led by Chomsky (1965) and Krashen (1981) suggested that an individual's Language Acquisition Device once triggered at the appropriate time and supported with adequate…

  3. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Acquisition of Vocational Skills in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study on socio-economic factors affecting vocational skills acquisition was undertaken in two Obudu and Ogoja Local Areas in the Northern Senatorial District of Cross River Sate of Nigeria. One hundred and seventy three (173) respondents were examined, using gender, age, marital status, literacy status, ...

  4. extrinsic factors that affect employee job satisfaction in faith based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general objective of this study was to identify the extrinsic factors affect employee job satisfaction at the Faith based organizations. For the research methodology, the study used the descriptive research design. The population for the study was the 161 employees of the Nairobi Chapel. Stratified random sampling ...

  5. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  6. Factors Affecting the Pharmacology of Antibody–Drug Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Lucas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in therapeutic proteins, including antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs, have created revolutionary drug delivery systems in cancer over the past decade. While these immunoconjugate agents provide several advantages compared to their small-molecule counterparts, their clinical use is still in its infancy. The considerations in their development and clinical use are complex, and consist of multiple components and variables that can affect the pharmacologic characteristics. It is critical to understand the mechanisms employed by ADCs in navigating biological barriers and how these factors affect their biodistribution, delivery to tumors, efficacy, and toxicity. Thus, future studies are warranted to better understand the complex pharmacology and interaction between ADC carriers and biological systems, such as the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS and tumor microenvironment. This review provides an overview of factors that affect the pharmacologic profiles of ADC therapies that are currently in clinical use and development.

  7. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W.

    2010-01-01

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  8. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W. [Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Dept 7610, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58103-6050 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  9. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of children exposed at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerit, I.; Levy, A.; Cernjavski, L.; Alaoui-Youssefi, A.; Pogossian, A.; Quastel, M.; Goldsmith, J.; Merkin, L.; Riklis, E.

    1997-01-01

    Clastogenic factors (CFs), as they were described previously in accidentally or therapeutically irradiated persons, in A-bomb survivors and in liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, were also detected in the plasma of Chernobyl-exposed children. A high percentage of plasma ultrafiltrates from 170 children, immigrated to Israel in 1990, exerted clastogenic effects in test cultures set up with blood from healthy donors. The differences were highly significant in comparison to children immigrated from 'clean' cities of the former Soviet Union or children born in Israel. The percentage of CF-positive children and the mean values of the adjusted clastogenic scores (ACS) were higher for those coming from Gomel and Mozyr, which are high exposure sites (IAEA measurements), compared to those coming from Kiev. There was no correlation between residual 137-Caesium body burden and presence of CFs. However, both measurements were not done at the same time (in 1990 and 1992-1994, respectively). Also no relationship could be revealed between enlargement of the thyroid gland and CF-positivity. CFs are not only observed after irradiation, but in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases with autoimmune reactions. They were also described in the congenital breakage syndromes, which are hereditary diseases with the highest cancer incidence in humans. Whether the clastogenic effects continuously produced by circulating CFs represent a risk factor for malignant late effects deserves further study and follow-up. Since CF formation and CF action are mediated by superoxide radicals, prophylactic treatment with antioxidants may be suggested for Chernobyl-exposed children, whose plasma induces a strongly positive CF-test

  10. Interactions between genetic variants of folate metabolism genes and lifestyle affect plasma homocysteine concentrations in the Boston Puerto Rican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of studies investigating relationships between lifestyle factors and elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy), an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, are conflicting. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic and lifestyle factors and their interactions on plasma Hcy c...

  11. Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, M.; Hassan, S.; Naseer, M.Z.; Baig, I.A.; Asma, J.

    2008-01-01

    The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)

  12. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites......, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were......Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg...

  13. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg...... and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites......, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were...

  14. Exploring paraprofessional and classroom factors affecting teacher supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Dwight W; Ingram, Paul; Huffman, Jonathan; Mason, Rose; Wills, Howard

    2018-02-01

    Paraprofessionals serve a primary role in supporting students with disabilities in the classroom, which necessitates teachers' supervision as a means to improve their practice. Yet, little is known regarding what factors affect teacher supervision. We sought to identify how paraprofessional competence and classroom type affected the levels of teacher direction. We administered an adapted version of the Paraprofessional Needs, Knowledge & Tasks Survey and the Survey for Teachers Supervising Paraprofessionals to teachers supervising paraprofessionals in elementary schools. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the link between paraprofessional competence and classroom factors affecting the level of teacher supervision. Our results indicated that when teachers perceived paraprofessionals as being more skilled, they provided more supervision, and when more supervision was provided the less they thought paraprofessionals should be doing their assigned tasks. Additionally, paraprofessionals working in classrooms with more students with mild disabilities received less supervision than paraprofessionals working in classrooms with more students with moderate-to-severe disabilities. Those paraprofessionals in classrooms serving mostly children with mild disabilities were also perceived as having lower levels of skill competence than those serving in classrooms with students with more moderate-to-severe disabilities. By understanding the factors that affect teacher supervision, policy and professional development opportunities can be refined/developed to better support both supervising teachers and paraprofessionals and, in turn, improve the outcomes of children with disabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influential Factors Affecting Materials Management in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusoh Zairra Mat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects are more often than not plagued by poor performances such as delays, cost overrun, low productivity, construction wastes and compromised quality. Amongst the critical contributory factors of poor project performances, is the ineffectiveness of materials management occurring in the construction sites. Indeed, materials management is a very important component for construction projects. However, there are only limited numbers of research available regarding this topic. Thus, this research focuses its study on materials management, specifically in identifying the influential factors that affect materials management in the construction project activities. Literatures from books, journal articles and conference papers related to poor project performances and materials management have been reviewed. Consequently, this study sorted the salient influential factors and categorized them based on their specific group. Out of 47 factors identified, they are classified into 8 groups. They are (1 site condition; (2 planning and handling on site; (3 management; (4 materials; (5 supplier and manufacturer default; (6 transportation; (7 contractual; and (8 governmental interferences. In conclusion, this study contends that by identifying the influential factors affecting materials management, it will help construction players to avoid the occurrence of those factors and will minimize the negative impacts on the overall performance of construction projects. Hence, the handling-over of project will be according to schedule and not delayed by materials mismanagement.

  16. Factors affecting surface and release properties of thin PDMS films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Junker, Michael Daniel; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2013-01-01

    Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are commonly used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP). DEAP films are used in making actuators, generators and sensors. In the large scale manufacture of DEAP films, release of films from the substrate (carrier web) induces some defects and pre......-strain in the films which affect the overall performance of the films. The current research is directed towards investigating factors affecting the peel force and release of thin, corrugated polydimethylsiloxane films used in DEAP films. It has been shown that doping the PDMS films with small quantities...

  17. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  18. Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahieh Moradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

  19. Factors affecting the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Holland

    Full Text Available Abstract Tissue repair is an essential process that reestablishes tissue integrity and regular function. Nevertheless, different therapeutic factors and clinical conditions may interfere in this process of periapical healing. This review aims to discuss the important therapeutic factors associated with the clinical protocol used during root canal treatment and to highlight the systemic conditions associated with the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth. The antibacterial strategies indicated in the conventional treatment of an inflamed and infected pulp and the modulation of the host's immune response may assist in tissue repair, if wound healing has been hindered by infection. Systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, can also inhibit wound healing. The success of root canal treatment is affected by the correct choice of clinical protocol. These factors are dependent on the sanitization process (instrumentation, irrigant solution, irrigating strategies, and intracanal dressing, the apical limit of the root canal preparation and obturation, and the quality of the sealer. The challenges affecting the healing process of endodontically treated teeth include control of the inflammation of pulp or infectious processes and simultaneous neutralization of unpredictable provocations to the periapical tissue. Along with these factors, one must understand the local and general clinical conditions (systemic health of the patient that affect the outcome of root canal treatment prediction.

  20. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes J; Skouby, Sven O; Kluft, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use influences the hemostatic system significantly and is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has potential effects on hemostasis. The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene expresses a FSAP...... alloenzyme with reduced pro-fibrinolytic activity. Presently, we address whether OC use and OC formulation affect FSAP measures in human blood. Healthy women (n=588) were allocated to six cycles of OCs with estrogen contents of 20µg (n=158), 30µg (n=284), 35µg (n=79) or 50µg (n=67) combined with various...... progestins. FSAP genotypes, FSAP and factor VII (FVII) plasma measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 cycles of OC. The 1601GA genotype was present in 49 (8.3%) of the women and was associated with significantly reduced levels of FSAP (P=0.001). OC use increased FSAP antigen by 25% and FSAP activity...

  1. Sequential plasma angiogenic factors levels in women with suspected preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltajian, Kedak; Bajracharya, Surichhya; Salahuddin, Saira; Berg, Anders H; Geahchan, Carl; Wenger, Julia B; Thadhani, Ravi; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Rana, Sarosh

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in circulating angiogenic factors are associated with the diagnosis of preeclampsia and correlate with adverse perinatal outcomes during the third trimester. Analysis of the sequential levels of plasma angiogenic factors among patients admitted for evaluation of preeclampsia. We performed an observational study among women with singleton pregnancies admitted to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, for evaluation of preeclampsia at less than 37 weeks of gestation. Plasma samples were collected on admission and daily for the first 3 days and then weekly until delivery. Doppler ultrasound was performed on admission (within 48 hours) and then weekly (within 24 hours of blood collection) to evaluate uteroplacental and umbilical blood flows. Maternal demographics, hospital course, mode of delivery, diagnosis of hypertensive disorder, adverse maternal outcomes (elevated liver function enzymes, low platelet count, pulmonary edema, cerebral hemorrhage, convulsion, acute renal insufficiency, or maternal death), and adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes (small for gestational age, abnormal umbilical artery Doppler, fetal death, and neonatal death) were recorded. Circulating angiogenic factors (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase and placental growth factor were measured on automated platform in a single batch after delivery and in a blinded fashion. Data are presented as median (25th to 75th centile), mean, or proportions as appropriate. During the study period, data from 100 women were analyzed for the study, and 43 had adverse outcomes. Women with adverse outcomes had lower gestational age of delivery, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures during hospitalization, and lower birthweight and placental weight (all P preeclampsia, women at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes have higher soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase/placental growth factor ratio on admission, which continued to rise until delivery. Women with high soluble fms-like tyrosine

  2. Factors Affecting Successful Implementation of Hospital Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzandipur, Mehrdad; Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Azimi, Esmaeil

    2016-02-01

    Today, the use of information systems in health environments, like any other fields, is necessary and organizational managers are convinced to use these systems. However, managers' satisfaction is not the only factor in successfully implementing these systems and failed information technology projects (IT) are reported despite the consent of the directors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the factors affecting the successful implementation of a hospital information system. The study was carried out as a descriptive method in 20 clinical hospitals that the hospital information system (HIS) was conducted in them. The clinical and paraclinical users of mentioned hospitals are the study group. 400 people were chosen as samples in scientific method and the data was collected using a questionnaire consisted of three main human, managerial and organizational, and technological factors, by questionnaire and interview. Then the data was scored in Likert scale (score of 1 to 5) and were analyzed using the SPSS software. About 75 percent of the population were female, with average work experience of 10 years and the mean age was 30 years. The human factors affecting the success of hospital information system implementation achieved the mean score of 3.5, both organizational and managerial factors 2.9 and technological factors the mean of 3. Human factors including computer skills, perceiving usefulness and perceiving the ease of a hospital information system use are more effective on the acceptance and successful implementation of hospital information systems; then the technological factors play a greater role. It is recommended that for the successful implementation of hospital information systems, most of these factors to be considered.

  3. Factors Affecting Accuracy of Data Abstracted from Medical Records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith N Zozus

    Full Text Available Medical record abstraction (MRA is often cited as a significant source of error in research data, yet MRA methodology has rarely been the subject of investigation. Lack of a common framework has hindered application of the extant literature in practice, and, until now, there were no evidence-based guidelines for ensuring data quality in MRA. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the accuracy of data abstracted from medical records and to generate a framework for data quality assurance and control in MRA.Candidate factors were identified from published reports of MRA. Content validity of the top candidate factors was assessed via a four-round two-group Delphi process with expert abstractors with experience in clinical research, registries, and quality improvement. The resulting coded factors were categorized into a control theory-based framework of MRA. Coverage of the framework was evaluated using the recent published literature.Analysis of the identified articles yielded 292 unique factors that affect the accuracy of abstracted data. Delphi processes overall refuted three of the top factors identified from the literature based on importance and five based on reliability (six total factors refuted. Four new factors were identified by the Delphi. The generated framework demonstrated comprehensive coverage. Significant underreporting of MRA methodology in recent studies was discovered.The framework generated from this research provides a guide for planning data quality assurance and control for studies using MRA. The large number and variability of factors indicate that while prospective quality assurance likely increases the accuracy of abstracted data, monitoring the accuracy during the abstraction process is also required. Recent studies reporting research results based on MRA rarely reported data quality assurance or control measures, and even less frequently reported data quality metrics with research results. Given the demonstrated

  4. Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quran, Firas A; Al-Ghalayini, Raed F; Al-Zu'bi, Bashar N

    2011-12-21

    The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males) divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The highest percentage of males within groups (58%) was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

  5. Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Quran Firas A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

  6. Factors affecting smartphone adoption for accessing information in medical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahamtan, Iman; Pajouhanfar, Sara; Sedghi, Shahram; Azad, Mohsen; Roudbari, Masoud

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to acquire knowledge about the factors affecting smartphone adoption for accessing information in medical settings in Iranian Hospitals. A qualitative and quantitative approach was used to conduct this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 medical residents and interns in 2013 to identify determinant factors for smartphone adoption. Afterwards, nine relationships were hypothesised. We developed a questionnaire to test these hypotheses and to evaluate the importance of each factor. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the causal relations between model parameters and to accurately identify determinant factors. Eight factors were identified in the qualitative phase of the study, including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, training, internal environment, personal experience, social impacts, observability and job related characteristics. Among the studied factors, perceived usefulness, personal experience and job related characteristics were significantly associated with attitude to use a smartphone which accounted for 64% of the variance in attitude. Perceived usefulness had the strongest impact on attitude to use a smartphone. The factors that emerged from interviews were consistent with the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and some previous studies. TAM is a reliable model for understanding the factors of smartphone acceptance in medical settings. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  7. Factors Affecting Sarcopenia in Korean Adults by Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eun-Jung; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors affecting sarcopenia in different age groups among Korean adults aged 20 years or older. In this secondary analysis, data were collected from records for 17,968, participants who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008-2011. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the associated factors of sarcopenia by age groups. The prevalence of sarcopenia increased significantly with age. Physical activity, blood pressure, waist circumference, triglycerides, vitamin D level were found to be factors significantly associated with sarcopenia in all age groups. Total energy intake was found to be a factor that is significantly associated with sarcopenia among the adults aged 20-39 years. Fasting glucose, suicidal ideation, perceived health status, mobility problem, pain/discomfort, total energy intake were found to be factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults aged 40-64 years. Sex, residential area, smoking, drinking, fasting glucose, osteoarthritis, fall experience, usual activity problem, protein intake were factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults over 65 years of age. The findings show that sarcopenia in adults and the associated factors were different by age groups. Thus, these factors should be considered in the development of intervention programs for the care and prevention of sarcopenia, and such programs should be modified according to different age groups.

  8. Factors Affecting Surgical Decision-making—A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gunaratnam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Guidelines and Class 1 evidence are strong factors that help guide surgeons’ decision-making, but dilemmas exist in selecting the best surgical option, usually without the benefit of guidelines or Class 1 evidence. A few studies have discussed the variability of surgical treatment options that are currently available, but no study has examined surgeons’ views on the influential factors that encourage them to choose one surgical treatment over another. This study examines the influential factors and the thought process that encourage surgeons to make these decisions in such circumstances. Methods Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 32 senior consultant surgeons, surgical fellows, and senior surgical residents at the University of Toronto teaching hospitals. An e-mail was sent out for volunteers, and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis using open and axial coding. Results Broadly speaking there are five groups of factors affecting surgeons’ decision-making: medical condition, information, institutional, patient, and surgeon factors. When information factors such as guidelines and Class 1 evidence are lacking, the other four groups of factors—medical condition, institutional, patient, and surgeon factors (the last-mentioned likely being the most powerful—play a significant role in guiding surgical decision-making. Conclusions This study is the first qualitative study on surgeons’ perspectives on the influential factors that help them choose one surgical treatment option over another for their patients.

  9. Factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in bushehr, southern iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza

    2012-07-01

    Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr, Southern Iran and Pars Clinic, Iran were enrolled by a simple random sampling method. They all completed a questionnaire to consider reasons for cosmetic procedures. The collected data were statistically analyzed. Demographical, sociological and psychological factors such as age, gender, educational level, marital status, media, perceived risks, output quality, depression and self-improvement were determined as factors affecting tendency of individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery in this region. Trend to undergo cosmetic surgery was more prevalent in educational below bachelor degree, married subjects, women population of 30-45 years age group. Education level, age, marital status and gender were respectively the influential factors in deciding to undergo cosmetic surgery. Among the socio-psychological factors, self-improvement, finding a better job opportunity, rivalry, media, health status as well as depression were the most persuasive factors to encourage people to undergo cosmetic surgery too. Cost risk was not important for our samples in decision making to undergo cosmetic surgery. We need to fully understand the way in which the combination of demographic, social and psychological factors influence decision-making to undergo cosmetic surgery.

  10. Factors Affecting Customer Retention in the Airline Industry

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    Raghda Climis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study empirically investigated the factors that affect customer retention in the airline industry in North Cyprus. These factors were service quality attributes, perceived safety, customer satisfaction, loyalty reward program, relationship commitment and customer loyalty. The study also investigated four different groups for purposes of travel (business, education, vacation and family visit in the empirical model. Methodology: A descriptive approach was chosen to conduct this research. A quanhip between customer retention and the related study factors; however, not all of these relations are signifcant. The results also showed that the different purposes of travel had different influences on the variables regarding the positive and signifcant relations between them. Some independent variables had a negative effect on the dependent variables. Conclusions: This research was limited to one group and place: the students of Eastern Mediterranean University in North Cyprus. Originality: This study connected the retention, loyalty, satisfaction and service quality factors as attributes. In addition, this research was the frst to include other independent factors affecting satisfaction and loyalty in a comparison between four different groups regarding the purpose of travel in the airline industry.

  11. Evaluative feedback delivery and the factors that affect success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Whyte, Cristina E

    2018-04-01

    This study examines the factors that can affect the credibility, influence, and utility of evaluative feedback. These factors include the delivery strategy, accuracy, and type (positive/negative) of feedback provided. In this study over 500 participants were asked to complete a task, and were then randomly assigned to different conditions with varied feedback delivery methods, feedback accuracy, and types of feedback (positive/negative). Then they were asked questions about the feedback's credibility, influence, and utility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

  13. Factors affecting the tissues composition of pork belly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duziński, K; Knecht, D; Lisiak, D; Janiszewski, P

    2015-11-01

    Bellies derived from the commercial population of pig carcasses are diverse in terms of tissue composition. Knowledge of the factors influencing it and the expected results, permits quick and easy evaluation of raw material. The study was designed to determine the factors affecting the tissues composition of pork bellies and to estimate their lean meat content. The research population (n=140 pig carcasses) was divided into groups according to sex (gilts, barrows), half-carcass mass (meat content class: S (⩾60%), E (55% to 60%), U (50% to 55%), R (meat content affected the growth of the fat and skin mass in a linear way. No differences were observed between class S and E in terms of belly muscle mass. A 0.37% higher share of belly in the half-carcass was found for barrows (Pmeat content in bellies, suggesting they may be used directly in the production line.

  14. Review: Factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Bertelsen, Maja; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    This review assesses factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs. Fouling of the pen happens when pigs change their excretory behaviour from occurring in the designated dunging area to the lying area. This can result in a lower hygiene, bad air quality, extra work for the fa......This review assesses factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs. Fouling of the pen happens when pigs change their excretory behaviour from occurring in the designated dunging area to the lying area. This can result in a lower hygiene, bad air quality, extra work...... that also fits the weight of the pigs in different stages of the production. All in all, fouling of the pen in conventional slaughter pigs is a multifactorial problem, but it is important to focus on increasing the comfortability, and especially the climate, of the designated lying area....

  15. Factors affecting metal and radionuclide pollution in the Baltic sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lodenius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available External pollution load in the Baltic Sea originates from urban, agricultural and industrial sources. Emissions of heavy metals have decreased substantially in the catchment area but the temporal trends are not always significant and differ with sample, area and pollutant. The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Many factors affect the future development of pollutant concentrations including anthropogenic emissions, political decisions and changes in salinity, temperature and water currents, in eutrophication and oxygen status, in fisheries and in atmospheric deposition of pollutants. Large scale changes like eutrophication and climate change affect ecosystems in many ways, directly and indirectly, causing biological and abiotic effects. These factors are interrelated and difficult to predict. Measures aiming to enhance the ecological status of the Baltic Sea will certainly give positive results but this will take at least several decades.

  16. Factors Affecting Microbial Contamination of Market Eggs: A Review

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    Svobodová J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.

  17. Factors that affect tube-tubesheet joint integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    There are several factors that can affect the degree of integrity of the tube-tubesheet joint: the tube sheet design as to the material selection and the quality and spacing of the machined holes; the selection of tubes as to material and quality; the quality of the fabrication tooling and the parameters for their use. All comments in this paper are with respect to mechanical roller expansion. (author)

  18. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  19. Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

    1983-09-01

    An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

  20. Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugan, M.A.

    1990-03-01

    The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

  1. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article

    OpenAIRE

    Soheila Nazarpour; Masoumeh Simbar; Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical fa...

  2. Factors affecting adolescents’ choice of branded vs. fashionable clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Mónica Sofia Ramos

    2011-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics The aim of this project is to analyse the importance of branded and fashionable clothing, and which of them is the most important for adolescents when choosing their clothes, according with gender and age. The research analysed how three factors (peers’ influence, materialistic behaviour and self-esteem) affected adolescents’ clothing choice...

  3. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan, Yousef; Al-Fouzan, Rawan; Al-Ajlan, Sarah; Al-Saleh, Mervat

    2012-01-01

    Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression wer...

  4. Factors Affecting Post-Service Wage Growth for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    block number) FIELD GROUP SUBGROUP National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY I, veterans, local unemployment 19. ABSTRACT (continue on reverse if...ings in these two years was the local unemployment rate. It was also discovered that the determinants of earnings in 1982 differed significantly...analyzes factors affecting the post-service -arnings and wage growth of veterans. The 1979-1987 National Longitudi-’nal Survey of Youth was tlbe

  5. Experimental validation of a Lyapunov-based controller for the plasma safety factor and plasma pressure in the TCV tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavkov, B.; Witrant, E.; Prieur, C.; Maljaars, E.; Felici, F.; Sauter, O.; the TCV-Team

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, model-based closed-loop algorithms are derived for distributed control of the inverse of the safety factor profile and the plasma pressure parameter β of the TCV tokamak. The simultaneous control of the two plasma quantities is performed by combining two different control methods. The control design of the plasma safety factor is based on an infinite-dimensional setting using Lyapunov analysis for partial differential equations, while the control of the plasma pressure parameter is designed using control techniques for single-input and single-output systems. The performance and robustness of the proposed controller is analyzed in simulations using the fast plasma transport simulator RAPTOR. The control is then implemented and tested in experiments in TCV L-mode discharges using the RAPTOR model predicted estimates for the q-profile. The distributed control in TCV is performed using one co-current and one counter-current electron cyclotron heating actuation.

  6. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and

  7. Factors Affecting Canagliflozin-Induced Transient Urine Volume Increase in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Takano, Kazuhiko; Iijima, Hiroaki; Kubo, Hajime; Maruyama, Nobuko; Hashimoto, Toshio; Arakawa, Kenji; Togo, Masanori; Inagaki, Nobuya; Kaku, Kohei

    2017-02-01

    Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors exhibit diuretic activity, which is a possible mechanism underlying the cardiovascular benefit of these inhibitors. However, the osmotic diuresis-induced increase in urine volume, and the risk of dehydration have been of concern with SGLT2 inhibitor treatment. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin-induced diuresis in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Thirteen T2DM patients received a daily oral dose of 100 mg canagliflozin before breakfast for 6 days. Blood and urine samples were collected at predetermined time points. The primary endpoint was evaluation of correlations between changes from baseline in urine volume and factors that are known to affect urine volume and between actual urine volume and these factors. Canagliflozin transiently increased urine volume and urinary sodium excretion on Day 1 with a return to baseline levels thereafter. Canagliflozin administration increased urinary glucose excretion, which was sustained during repeated-dose administration. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels decreased, while plasma renin activity increased. On Day 1 of treatment, changes in sodium and potassium excretion were closely correlated with changes in urine output. A post hoc multiple regression analysis showed changes in sodium excretion and water intake as factors that affected urine volume change at Day 1. Furthermore, relative to that at baseline, canagliflozin decreased blood glucose throughout the day and increased plasma total GLP-1 after breakfast. Canagliflozin induced transient sodium excretion and did not induce water intake at Day 1; hence, natriuresis rather than glucose-induced osmotic diuresis may be a major factor involved in the canagliflozin-induced transient increase in urine output. In addition, canagliflozin decreased plasma ANP and NT-proBNP levels and

  8. Factors affecting midwives' confidence in intrapartum care: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Carol; McGowan, Linda; Lavender, Tina

    2015-01-01

    midwives are frequently the lead providers of care for women throughout labour and birth. In order to perform their role effectively and provide women with the choices they require midwives need to be confident in their practice. This study explores factors which may affect midwives' confidence in their practice. hermeneutic phenomenology formed the theoretical basis for the study. Prospective longitudinal data collection was completed using diaries and semi-structured interviews. Twelve midwives providing intrapartum care in a variety of settings were recruited to ensure a variety of experiences in different contexts were captured. the principal factor affecting workplace confidence, both positively and negatively, was the influence of colleagues. Perceived autonomy and a sense of familiarity could also enhance confidence. However, conflict in the workplace was a critical factor in reducing midwives' confidence. Confidence was an important, but fragile, phenomenon to midwives and they used a variety of coping strategies, emotional intelligence and presentation management to maintain it. this is the first study to highlight both the factors influencing midwives' workplace confidence and the strategies midwives employed to maintain their confidence. Confidence is important in maintaining well-being and workplace culture may play a role in explaining the current low morale within the midwifery workforce. This may have implications for women's choices and care. Support, effective leadership and education may help midwives develop and sustain a positive sense of confidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Pattern to Evaluation of Motivational Factors Affecting Knowledge Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Hajian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the motivational factors affecting the willingness of employees to share knowledge and examine intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and influences on attitudes toward knowledge sharing and explicit and implicit knowledge sharing intention. Planned behavior pattern is used as a theoretical framework. This research was conducted in two phases. First, factors were identified according to the literature review and exploratory interviews. Then the impact of each factor was evaluated in terms of structural equation modeling. This is an empirical research and the research method is descriptive survey. Data was collected using a questionnaire and interview. The study was on the staff working in administrative units of Tehran Municipality and the number of staff at the time of study was 2230. Cluster sampling method and sample size based on population and using Cochran formula of 328 people determined that 35 persons were not held accountable. To determine the reliability of questionnaires, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated to 0.824 which was found at a high level. Data was analyzed by SPSS and LISREL software. Finally, the proposed pattern was confirmed. The results showed that the intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influence on the attitude of employees and the attitude influence on tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intention. Also, extrinsic motivational factors influence on tacit knowledge sharing intention and intrinsic motivational factors influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention. Extrinsic motivational factors influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention and intrinsic motivational factors influence on tacit knowledge sharing intention by the attitude and tacit knowledge sharing intention influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention.

  10. Survey on Factors Affecting the Recurrence of Multiple sclerosis Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanzadeh F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic and progressive disease of the central nervous system. The identification of effective factors and patient education on the prevention of exposure to these factors can be effective in reducing relapses. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the factors that affect recurrence in patients with multiple sclerosis. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 402 MS patients referred to the MS Association of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. The study participants were selected using purposive sampling method. Data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire and a 40-item researcher-made questionnaire concerning factors affecting the recurrence of MS. The 40-item questionnaire consisted of 4 domains personal factors, medical condition, pharmaceutical conditions, and environmental factors. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 21 and Mann Whitney, Pearson correlation, Kruskal Wallis, and chi-square statistical tests. Results: Among the patients, 21/4% were male and 78/6% female. Most patients were 20-29 years old. The highest prevalence of recurrence of MS was observed in the summer (70.8% and in August (50.3%. There was no significant relationship between patient’s gender and their views about the relationship between infections, fatigue, and heat and recurrence of MS. However, a higher rate of women believed stress (P < 0.029 and sexual development (P < 0.001 to be effective on the incidence of MS recurrence, in comparison to men. Conclusion: Most patients with MS are women, and they believe stress to be more effective on the incidence of MS attack recurrence. Therefore, nurses, as the primary care educators, can improve the patients’ capability, disease management, and quality of life through training of stress management techniques.

  11. Factors Affecting Students Attitudes towards E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Jovic

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available E-learning is becoming a widespread method of gaining knowledge in a global environment. Accessibility and variety of online content encourage more people to get involved in learning from digital resources. However, there has been limited research exploring the factors that could influence students attitudes regarding e-learning. In this study, field research was conducted to determine which factors affect students attitudes towards e-learning. The questionnaire was developed to collect data about factors that influence attitudes towards e-learning. A total of 286 students were the study cohort. Three factors were identified using principal component analysis: e-learning usefulness, ease of use, and content design. Regression analysis was conducted to determine the strength of the factors influencing attitudes towards e-learning. All factors had a significant influence on attitude towards e-learning. Usefulness of e-learning had the strongest impact on students e-learning intention. Our study will contribute to the existing work in this field by emphasizing the importance of perception of content design on attitudes towards e-learning.

  12. Heat Shock Factor 1 Deficiency Affects Systemic Body Temperature Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenwerth, Marc; Noichl, Erik; Stahr, Anna; Korf, Horst-Werner; Reinke, Hans; von Gall, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a ubiquitous heat-sensitive transcription factor that mediates heat shock protein transcription in response to cellular stress, such as increased temperature, in order to protect the organism against misfolded proteins. In this study, we analysed the effect of HSF1 deficiency on core body temperature regulation. Body temperature, locomotor activity, and food consumption of wild-type mice and HSF1-deficient mice were recorded. Prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were measured by ELISA. Gene expression in brown adipose tissue was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Hypothalamic HSF1 and its co-localisation with tyrosine hydroxylase was analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. HSF1-deficient mice showed an increase in core body temperature (hyperthermia), decreased overall locomotor activity, and decreased levels of prolactin in pituitary and blood plasma reminiscent of cold adaptation. HSF1 could be detected in various hypothalamic regions involved in temperature regulation, suggesting a potential role of HSF1 in hypothalamic thermoregulation. Moreover, HSF1 co-localises with tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, suggesting a potential role of HSF1 in the hypothalamic control of prolactin release. In brown adipose tissue, levels of prolactin receptor and uncoupled protein 1 were increased in HSF1-deficient mice, consistent with an up-regulation of heat production. Our data suggest a role of HSF1 in systemic thermoregulation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuremoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

  14. Risk factors that influence suicidal behavior in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Albina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known in the literature that the incidence and prevalence of suicide and attempted suicide in psychiatric patients is significantly higher than in the general population. The paper examined risk factors for suicidal behavior in the category of admitted patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of sleep disorders and affective (Unipolar resp. Bipolar depression. Study activated by 80 patients, 40 in both diagnostic groups received treatment at the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Gornja Toponica near Nis. The work methodology used are: psychiatric interview, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, and the C-SSRS (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale- assessment tool that assesses suicidal ideation and behavior. The study results show that there is a relationship between suicidal behavior (suicide attempts and suicidal ideation and the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, positive history of previous suicide attempts, so that these factors are stronger, to the degree of suicidality higher. On this sample, clearly suicidal behavior, with the same purpose, intensity of suicidal thoughts and medical impairment after suicide attempts were significantly more frequent in patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder in the depressive phase of the illness. Patients with a previous suicide attempt, and poor personal and social circumstances had a higher rate of attempted suicide.

  15. Factors affecting adipose tissue development in chickens: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Kim, Woo Kyun; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-10-01

    The intense genetic selection for rapid growth in broilers has resulted in an increase in voluntary feed intake and growth rate, accompanied by increased fat deposition in adipose tissue depots throughout the body. Adipose tissue expansion is a result of the formation of adipocytes (several processes collectively referred to as adipogenesis) and cellular accumulation of triacylglycerols inside lipid droplets. In mammals, different anatomical depots are metabolically distinct. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development have been characterized in mammalian models, whereas information in avian species is scarce. The purpose of this review is to describe factors regulating adipogenesis in chickens, with an emphasis on dietary factors and the broiler. Results from many studies have demonstrated effects of dietary nutrient composition on adipose tissue development and lipid metabolism. Transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins α and β, and sterol regulatory element binding proteins orchestrate a series of cellular events that lead to an increase in activity of fatty acid transport proteins and enzymes that are responsible for triacylglycerol synthesis. Understanding the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development may provide a practical strategy to affect body composition of the commercial broiler while providing insights on diets that maximize conversion into muscle rather than fat and affect depot-dependent deposition of lipids. Because of the propensity to overeat and become obese, the broiler chicken also represents an attractive biomedical model for eating disorders and obesity in humans. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Factors affecting stair-ascent patterns in unilateral transfemoral amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Tominaga, Shuichi; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamasaki, Nobuya; Ogata, Toru

    2013-06-01

    Patterns and ease of stair ambulation influence amputees' level of satisfaction with their rehabilitation, confidence level, and motivation for continued rehabilitation, demonstrating the importance of stair-ascent data for rehabilitation. However, little is known about the determinants of stair-ascent patterns in unilateral transfemoral amputees. To investigate the factors affecting stair-ascent patterns in transfemoral amputees. Cross-sectional survey. Stair-ascent patterns were evaluated using the Stair Assessment Index. We collected Stair Assessment Index data as well as demographic and clinical data (sex, age, height, mass, amputation side, reason for amputation, time since amputation, and residual limb length) from 25 transfemoral amputees. Statistical analyses revealed that age was negatively correlated and time since amputation was positively correlated with Stair Assessment Index. In contrast, height, body mass, and residual limb lengths were not correlated with Stair Assessment Index. The results of this study suggest that in unilateral transfemoral amputee, (1) both age and time since amputation could affect stair-climbing patterns and (2) residual limb length should not be a limiting factor for stair climbing if the transfemoral amputee has a certain minimum residual limb length. Rehabilitation teams should carefully consider nonmodifiable predisposing factors such as age and time since amputation. However, they may be able to carry on stair-ascent rehabilitation for transfemoral amputees disregarding residual limb length (depending on the length).

  17. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Nazarpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental–emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse.

  18. Factors affecting yearly and monthly visits to Taipei Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ai-Tsen; Lin, Yann-Jou

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated factors affecting yearly and monthly numbers of visits to Taipei Zoo. Both linear and nonlinear regression models were used to estimate yearly visits. The results of both models showed that the "opening effect" and "animal star effect" had a significantly positive effect on yearly visits, while a SARS outbreak had a negative effect. The number of years had a significant influence on yearly visits. Results showed that the nonlinear model had better explanatory power and fitted the variations of visits better. Results of monthly model showed that monthly visits were significantly influenced by time fluctuations, weather conditions, and the animal star effect. Chinese New Year, summer vacation, numbers of holidays, and animal star exhibitions increased the number of monthly visits, while the number of days with temperatures at or below 15 °C, the number of days with temperatures at or above 30 °C, and the number of rainy days had significantly negative effects. Furthermore, the model of monthly visits showed that the animal star effect could last for over two quarters. The results of this study clarify the factors affecting visits to an outdoor recreation site and confirm the importance of meteorological factors to recreation use.

  19. Gender differences in factors affecting health care administration career development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, A; Borkowski, S C

    1995-01-01

    At first glance, a woman's prospects for a career in health administration seem encouraging. More than half of the recent graduates of health administration master's programs are female, and initially post-master's salaries are comparable with those of male graduates. Unfortunately, opportunities for promotion and financial benefits seem to decrease for women and expand for men as their respective careers progress. This study found that, with the same educational background, men earned an average of $51,491 annually, compared to $50,839 for women, in health care administration. We examined gender differences in organizational and individual factors that have been modeled as influences on career development. These factors include financial and nonfinancial benefits, access to training programs, success factors, demographics, and motivating factors underlying education, employment, and career choices. Some evidence of gender differences in the organizational and individual factors affecting career development is provided. Academic and professional strategies addressing these differences are suggested for consideration by both professional and university administrators.

  20. Analysis and Measurement of Buildability Factors Affecting Edge Formwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Jarkas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Labour productivity is affected by several factors, but buildability is among the most important. Nevertheless, a thoroughexamination of the literature revealed a dearth of research into the influence of buildability factors on labour productivityof in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the formwork trade level. Although edge formwork is an importantlabour intensive activity, most often, its labour cost is either crudely estimated or lumped within the formwork cost of otheractivities. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate and quantify the effects and relative influence of the followingbuildability factors on its labour productivity: (a depth of slab being edge-formed; (b slab geometric factor; and (ctype of formwork material used. To achieve this objective, a sufficiently large volume of productivity data was collected andanalyzed using the multiple categorical-regression method. As a result, the effects and relative influence of the buildabilityfactors investigated are determined. The findings show significant effects of these factors on edge formwork labour productivity,which can be used to provide designers feedback on how well their designs consider the requirements of buildabilityprinciples, and the consequences of their decisions on labour efficiency. On the other hand, the depicted patterns of resultsmay provide guidance to construction managers for effective activity planning and efficient labour utilization.

  1. Endodontic or dental implant therapy: the factors affecting treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Goodacre, Charles J

    2006-07-01

    Clinicians are confronted with difficult choices regarding whether a tooth with pulpal and/or periapical disease should be saved through endodontic treatment or be extracted and replaced with an implant. The authors examined publications (research, literature reviews and systematic reviews) related to the factors affecting decision making for patients who have oral diseases or traumatic injuries. The factors to be considered included patient-related issues (systemic and oral health, as well as comfort and treatment perceptions), tooth- and periodontium-related factors (pulpal and periodontal conditions, color characteristics of the teeth, quantity and quality of bone, and soft-tissue anatomy) and treatment-related factors (the potential for procedural complications, required adjunctive procedures and treatment outcomes). On the basis of survival rates, it appears that more than 95 percent of dental implants and teeth that have undergone endodontic treatment remain functional over time. Clinicians need to consider carefully several factors before choosing whether to perform endodontic therapy or extract a tooth and place an implant. The result should be high levels of comfort, function, longevity and esthetics for patients.

  2. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured questionnaire; study reveals that service innovativeness, service reli- ability, service competitiveness and service consistency have significant influence on making customer satisfied and the operator’s network/signal coverage, pricing, offering, fulfillment of customer demand, value added service, brand value and op - erators contribution for society have insignificant influences on making customer satisfied at five percent level of significant at multiple regression analysis. On the basis of these findings; study concludes that in promoting customer satisfaction mobile service providers should be concerned for factors responsible for insignifi- cant influence on customer satisfaction and care of those factors have significant influence on promoting customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.

  3. Crystal Structure of Human Plasma Platelet-Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, U.; Bahnson, B

    2008-01-01

    Human plasma platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase functions by reducing PAF levels as a general anti-inflammatory scavenger and is linked to anaphylactic shock, asthma, and allergic reactions. The enzyme has also been implicated in hydrolytic activities of other pro-inflammatory agents, such as sn-2 oxidatively fragmented phospholipids. This plasma enzyme is tightly bound to low and high density lipoprotein particles and is also referred to as lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A{sub 2}. The crystal structure of this enzyme has been solved from x-ray diffraction data collected to a resolution of 1.5{angstrom}. It has a classic lipase {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase fold, and it contains a catalytic triad of Ser{sup 273}, His{sup 351}, and Asp{sup 296}. Two clusters of hydrophobic residues define the probable interface-binding region, and a prediction is given of how the enzyme is bound to lipoproteins. Additionally, an acidic patch of 10 carboxylate residues and a neighboring basic patch of three residues are suggested to play a role in high density lipoprotein/low density lipoprotein partitioning. A crystal structure is also presented of PAF acetylhydrolase reacted with the organophosphate compound paraoxon via its active site Ser{sup 273}. The resulting diethyl phosphoryl complex was used to model the tetrahedral intermediate of the substrate PAF to the active site. The model of interface binding begins to explain the known specificity of lipoprotein-bound substrates and how the active site can be both close to the hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface and at the same time be accessible to the aqueous phase.

  4. A sensitive, accurate assay for extrinsic pathway inhibitor (EPI) activity in rabbit plasma: Paradoxical effect of excess exogenous factor X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warr, T.A.; Rao, L.V.; Rapaport, S.I.

    1990-01-01

    A sensitive assay is described for the measurement of rabbit plasma EPI activity in experimental studies of induced hypercoagulable states in this species. It is based upon the ability of a dilution of rabbit plasma to inhibit human factor VIIa/rabbit brain tissue factor (TF) catalyzed activation of human factor IX (tritiated activation peptide release assay). Addition of 3 H-factor IX to the reaction mixture is delayed for 45 minutes to allow full inhibition by EPI/factor Xa complex before the residual catalytic activity of factor VIIa/TF is measured. Although the diluted rabbit plasma test sample contains both EPI and factor X, supplemental factor X is added to the reaction mixture to assure that only EPI content of the test sample affects the assay result. However, the final concentration of factor X in the reaction mixture is critical. Too high a concentration of factor X diminishes the sensitivity of the assay. The reason for this phenomenon, which was observed with both human and rabbit factor X preparations, is unknown

  5. Determination of factors affecting seafood consumption pattern and consumption frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tolga Tolon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Current seafood consumption pattern, consumer profile and factors affecting seafood consumption amount and frequency of the consumers residing in coastal region (İzmir, mixed region (Adana and countryside region (Ankara of Turkey were researched in this study. It is aimed to provide source to researchers and relevant institutions who are willing to guide the future sectoral initiatives and conduct more extensive research on seafood consumer habits. In this context, the research population was determined according to their distance to the sea and their populations by purposive sampling method. 43 % of total 400 survey was conducted in Ankara, 36% in İzmir and 21% in Adana by face to face interviews. According to the survey results, 6% of respondents never consume seafood, 25% once a month, 28% once every two weeks, and 42% consume once and more than once in a week. The most seafood consumption frequency was identified in Izmir. Nearly 90% of consumers in the entire regions prefer to consume seafood in fresh type. According to the answers of all consumers 4 major factors affecting seafood consumption preferences and habits in a negative way were "high price, cannot be easily found in the market, not recognition of seafood varieties and disfavor of the flavor of seafood". The relationship between frequency of seafood consumption and education level of consumer’s variables is determined as linear and strong but the relationship between consumer age and seafood consumption frequency is determined as reverse.  On the factors affecting choice of seafood consumption in a positive way, 71% of consumers stated the beneficial to health perception and taste of seafood as the most important reason for their preference. Therefore, the relationship between consumption trend and beneficial to health perception of seafood is determined as linear and strong.Keywords: Seafood, consumption pattern, consumer behaviour, seafood marketing

  6. Zinc and copper levels in the plasma of Nubian goat as affected by the physiological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Tag-Eldin Mohamed

    1997-11-01

    This study is undertaken directed to determine the blood concentration of micro (trace) minerals, particularly zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in dairy goats as affected by the different physiological status. Animals selected were the Nubian goats as an important dairy breed in sudan. The animals were divided into eight groups as follows: Young animals (4-6 month old), adult animals (9-12 month old), up to 50 days after first kidding, up to 50 days after second kidding, up to 50 days after third kidding, low yielder, high yielder. Each of the above groups consisted of 5 animals. The analysis was carried by using the spectrophotometer technique and the results revealed that, plasma Zn concentration decreased with increase of age while that of Cu increased with the increase of age. The plasma Zn level showed continuous increase through first pregnancy, after first kidding, after second kidding and after third kidding. It increased in the lactating animals. The plasma Cu concentration fluctuated throughout the groups with different physiological status, it showed the same levels in the pregnant group, up to 50 days after second kidding, and up to 50 days after third kidding groups, while it showed a marked decrease in the group of up to 50 days after first kidding. No significant differences were observed between the low lactating and the high lactating groups. (Author)

  7. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemontt, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  8. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemontt, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  9. Factors Affecting e-Payment Adoption in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Roya Gholami; Augustine Ogun; Elizabeth Koh; John Lim

    2010-01-01

    The payment system of a country plays a crucial role in its economy; however, despite the benefits of e-Payment and efforts by financial authorities, Nigeria still has a low e-Payment adoption rate. In this regard, there is an urgent need to investigate the factors that affect individuals’ intention to adopt e-Payment. Drawing on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model, this paper develops a theoretical model for e-Payment adoption in Nigeria. Additionally, a su...

  10. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  11. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  12. Factors Affecting Tourist Expenditure Coming To Mugla Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehime Korkmaz Bingöl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing tourist expenditure is a means to increase tourism income, which is extremely important for local economies. The purpose of this study is to understand the expending pattern of tourists coming to Mugla Region and provide empirical background for the policies to increase per tourist expenditure. The survey conducted at Dalaman International Airport and the data has been analyzed using OLS method. Nationality, age, accommodation type, pension type, credit card usage, availability of shopping facilities, standard of night life and entertainment, quality of food and beverage, length of holiday and group size has been found as significant factors affecting tourist expenditure

  13. Factors Affecting QOL of the Elderly Home-bound Patients

    OpenAIRE

    武政, 誠一; 嶋田, 智明; 日高, 正巳; 石川, 司; 池田, 亨; 河波, 恭弘; 末永, 英文

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors affecting the quali- ty of life (QOL) of the elderly home-bound patients. Data were collected from 56 chronically disabled elderly persons (mean age of 76.7 years) who need a long-term home-based care. They were assessed on health status, QOL, functional capacity, and family functioning as well as socio-economic condition. The QOL was evaluated by using Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGC Morale Scale). The Activities of daily l...

  14. Job satisfaction and factors affecting motivation at Posti Oyj

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    The business trends and life style of humans are changing rapidly due to globalization and it visibly affects the work environment and employee’s attitude towards the work as the needs and desires of human being are changing too. In such circumstance, it is essential to have motivated team to survive in the market is vital agenda for the firms, where Posti Oyj is not an exception. It has become a challenge for HR officials to study about job satisfaction and motivation including factors affec...

  15. Factors affecting the quality of external auditing services

    OpenAIRE

    Alaraji Fedaa Abd Almajid Sabbar; Al-Dulaimi Zaid Yaseen Saud; Sabri Thamer Mahdi Muhamed; Ion Elena Iuliana

    2017-01-01

    This study is aim to adopt knowledge the specific concept to external audit quality and which are the factors that affecting on those qualities in the State of Iraq. As well as, to knowledge the range of depend this job in Iraq on international or local criterion to external audit quality or not. Also, to identify the satisfaction of interested parties about job of audit on service of external audit or not. According to viewpoint external audit the workers in this job and interested parties a...

  16. Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmo Kang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service system such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - ‘wireless internet’ and ‘mobile applications’ - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

  17. Extrinsic factors affecting accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters for LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managan, W.W.

    1976-08-01

    Assuming that ultrasonic flowmeters of suitable intrinsic accuracy are feasible, this report explores factors extrinsic to the flowmeter which affect the accuracy such as asymmetric flow profile, regions of high turbulence and thermal stratification. By integrating isovelocity flow profile maps, the predicted performance of various flowmeter configurations may be compared to experimental data. For the two pipe arrangements analyzed, the single diametral path flowmeter results were within 5 percent of true flow rate. Theoretical correction factors could reduce the error for the straight pipe but increased the error for asymmetrical flow. On the same pipe arrangements a four path ultrasonic flowmeter spaced for Gaussian integration gave less than 1 percent error. For more general conclusions a range of flow profiles produced by typical LMFBR piping arrangements must be analyzed

  18. Common factors affecting psychotherapy outcomes: some implications for teaching psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert; Heiman, Noa; Yager, Joel

    2015-05-01

    The number of psychotherapies classified as "empirically supported treatments" has increased significantly. As the number and scope of empirically supported treatments multiply, it has become impossible to train therapists in all of these specific modalities. Although the current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements for psychiatric residents follow an approach based on specific schools of psychotherapy (emphasizing competency in cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and supportive treatments), evidence suggests that we are failing even in these efforts. In developing a specialized Psychotherapy Scholars Track in the residency program at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, we opted to focus initially on teaching the common factors in psychotherapy that positively affect psychotherapy outcomes. This article reviews 6 such broad common factors.

  19. Influence of plasma volume expansion with saline on the plasma levels of an ouabain-like factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, A.L.; Morris, M.; Buckalew, V.M. Jr.

    1986-03-05

    Plasma volume expansion with saline activates the cardiopulmonary baroreflex and causes the release of natriuretic factors(s). One putative natriuretic factor has ouabain-like activity (OLA). To examine the relationship between this factor and plasma volume expansion, the OLA of plasma was examined in rats that were volume expanded with 0.9% saline at a rate of 150..mu..l/min/100 g of rat for 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes. Plasma OLA was quantitated with a radioreceptor assay utilizing /sup 3/H-ouabain and erythrocytes ghosts. The OLA and hematocrit of control rats were 18.2 +/- 2.93 pmoles of OLA/ml of plasma and 43.7 +/- 0.65. After plasma volume expansion for 15 and 30 minutes, plasma OLA was not significantly altered (27.1 +/- 6.64 and 15.3 +/- 2.80, respectively). However, the hematocrit was reduced 13.9% (37.6 +/- 1.34, p < 0.05) and 33.6% (29.0 +/- 1.92, p < 0.01) for 15 and 30 minutes of volume expansion, respectively. After 60 minutes of volume expansion the hematocrit began to recover (33.7 +/- 2.16) although it was still significantly depressed (p < 0.01). At this time point the OLA was increased 248% to 63.4 +/- 22.7 pmoles of OLA/ml of plasma (p < 0.01). At 120 minutes of volume expansion the hematocrit was 38.3 +/- 1.24 and the OLA returned to control values (13.4 +/- 5.17). This data indicates that volume expansion causes an increase in plasma OLA and this increase in activity may contribute to the recovery of hematocrit that is seen with continued volume expansion.

  20. Influence of plasma volume expansion with saline on the plasma levels of an ouabain-like factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, A.L.; Morris, M.; Buckalew, V.M. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma volume expansion with saline activates the cardiopulmonary baroreflex and causes the release of natriuretic factors(s). One putative natriuretic factor has ouabain-like activity (OLA). To examine the relationship between this factor and plasma volume expansion, the OLA of plasma was examined in rats that were volume expanded with 0.9% saline at a rate of 150μl/min/100 g of rat for 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes. Plasma OLA was quantitated with a radioreceptor assay utilizing 3 H-ouabain and erythrocytes ghosts. The OLA and hematocrit of control rats were 18.2 +/- 2.93 pmoles of OLA/ml of plasma and 43.7 +/- 0.65. After plasma volume expansion for 15 and 30 minutes, plasma OLA was not significantly altered (27.1 +/- 6.64 and 15.3 +/- 2.80, respectively). However, the hematocrit was reduced 13.9% (37.6 +/- 1.34, p < 0.05) and 33.6% (29.0 +/- 1.92, p < 0.01) for 15 and 30 minutes of volume expansion, respectively. After 60 minutes of volume expansion the hematocrit began to recover (33.7 +/- 2.16) although it was still significantly depressed (p < 0.01). At this time point the OLA was increased 248% to 63.4 +/- 22.7 pmoles of OLA/ml of plasma (p < 0.01). At 120 minutes of volume expansion the hematocrit was 38.3 +/- 1.24 and the OLA returned to control values (13.4 +/- 5.17). This data indicates that volume expansion causes an increase in plasma OLA and this increase in activity may contribute to the recovery of hematocrit that is seen with continued volume expansion

  1. Concentration of platelets and growth factors in platelet-rich plasma from Goettingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, Pascal; Grassmann, Jan-Peter; Thelen, Simon; Wild, Michael; Sager, Martin; Windolf, Joachim; Hakimi, Mohssen

    2014-01-01

    In minipigs little is known about the concentration of growth factors in plasma, despite their major role in several patho-physiological processes such as healing of fractures. This prompted us to study the concentration of platelets and selected growth factors in plasma and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparation of sixteen Goettingen minipigs. Platelet concentrations increased significantly in PRP in comparison to native blood plasma. Generally, significant increase in the concentration of all growth factors tested was observed in the PRP in comparison to the corresponding plasma or serum. Five of the plasma samples examined contained detectable levels of bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) whereas eleven of the plasma or serum samples contained minimal amounts of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-bb) respectively. On the other hand variable concentrations of bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP-7) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) were measured in all plasma samples. In contrast, all PRP samples contained significantly increased amounts of growth factors. The level of BMP-2, BMP-7, TGF-β1, VEGF and PDGF-bb increased by 17.6, 1.5, 7.1, 7.2 and 103.3 fold, in comparison to the corresponding non-enriched preparations. Moreover significant positive correlations were found between platelet count and the concentrations of BMP-2 (r=0.62, pplatelet-rich plasma of minipigs which might thus serve as a source of autologous growth factors.

  2. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities

  3. Factors Affecting Husband Participation in Antenatal Care Attendance and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumaseuw, R.; Berliana, S. M.; Nursalam, N.; Efendi, F.; Pradanie, R.; Rachmawati, P. D.; Aurizki, G. E.

    2018-02-01

    The government has implemented several programs to prevent and reduce a mother’s mortality rate by enhancing active role of the family. The most responsible family member on maintaining the pregnancy and delivery process is the husband. The husband must be active to take care of his wife. Active participation of the husband in accompanying his wife during pregnancy and the delivery process is one of the substantial factors, which helps the husband to take decisions related to the health of his wife. This study aimed to identify variables and its trends, which significantly affect a husband’s participation in accompanying his wife during pregnancy and the delivery process. The data used in this study was from an Indonesian Demographic Health Survey 2012. The study used binary logistic regression as the analysis method. The result showed as many as 8,237 husbands accompanied their wife in antenatal care and the delivery process. The significant variables affecting the husband participation are the age of the wife, the education of wife, the education of the husband, the occupational status of the wife and the husband, the number of children, pregnancy status, and residency region. The possibility for a husband to accompany his wife is larger in several factors, such as the wife being between the ages of 21 - 35 years old, a husband who minimally graduated from junior high school, a working husband, as well as a wife, and the number of children less than and equal to two and the expected pregnancy. The government should consider those factors to create policy related women’s health and integrate the factors into various sectors.

  4. The affecting factors of breast anthropometry in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sa Jin; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Min-Jeong

    2014-03-01

    Breast anthropometric morphology affects various factors with diverse physiognomy, making accurate measurements very difficult. The aim of this study was to measure the female breast using anthropometry and to use this method on normal subjects to examine breast asymmetry and consider the influence of age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), parity, delivery mode, and breastfeeding in premenopausal Korean women. In total, 17 parameters of breast were measured with participants in a standing position. Breast volume was also assessed. The mean values of the right and left breast volumes were calculated as 386.0±342.5 mL and 393.3±347.2 mL, respectively. With aging, the height of women decreased, but the weight, BMI, upper chest, middle chest, lower chest, waist, and hip widths, nipple-nipple length, and ptosis increased with statistical significance. No asymmetric differences were observed between each breast, except for nipple-inframammary fold length in 20-30-year-old women and upper arm length in 41-50-year-old women. In our study, the breast volume increased with age as a result of weight gain, but the delivery mode and breastfeeding did not affect anthropometric breast measurements. In conclusion, age, weight, and BMI are important factors in determining breast anthropometry in our study. The results of the present study will help in the comparison of the anthropometric breast values of Korean women with those of women in other countries and may also be useful in the understanding of breast physiologic change-related obstetrical factors and epidemiologic factors.

  5. Factors affecting the employability in people with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wo, Monica Chen Mun; Lim, Kheng Seang; Choo, Wan Yuen; Tan, Chong Tin

    2016-12-01

    People with epilepsy (PWE) are negatively prejudiced in their ability to work. This study aimed to examine demographic, clinical and psychological factors associated with employability in PWE. This study recruited epilepsy patients from a neurology clinic in Malaysia. Employability was measured using employment ratio, with a ratio ≥90% (ER90) classified as high employability. Basic demographic data such as age, gender, marital status, religion, education level and household income was collected. Clinical measures consisted of age of seizure onset, seizure frequency, type of epilepsy, aura, polytherapy, nocturnal seizures and seizure control. Psychological measures included Work Self-Determination Index (WSDI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Of 146 PWE, 64.4% had high employability. The participants were predominantly female (52%), Chinese (50.7%), single (50%), having tertiary education (55.5%) and focal epilepsy (72.6%). Clinically, only type of epilepsy was significantly correlated to employability of PWE. Employability of PWE was associated with ability to work (indicated by education level, work performance affected by seizures, ability to travel independently and ability to cope with stress at work) and family overprotection. The high employability group was found to have lower self-perceived stigma (ESS), higher self-determined motivation (WSDI), self-esteem (SES) and perceived social support (MSPSS), than the low employability group. Logistic regression analysis showed that tertiary education level (AOR 3.42, CI: 1.46-8.00), higher self-determination (WSDI, AOR 1.09, CI: 1.012-1.17), lower family overprotection (AOR 0.76, CI: 0.61-0.95), and generalised epilepsy (AOR 4.17, CI: 1.37-12.70) were significant predictors for higher employability in PWE. Ability to work (education level), clinical factor (type of epilepsy) and psychological factor (self-determined motivation and family

  6. Group decision-making: Factors that affect group effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Osmani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are operating in a dynamic and turbulent environment. In these conditions, they have to make decisions for new problems or situations. Most of decisions are therefore non-programmed and unstructured, accompanied by risk and uncertainty. Moreover, the problems and situations are complex. All organizations are oriented towards group decisionmaking processes, as useful tools to cope with uncertainty and complexity. Apart from the necessity, companies are turning towards participatory processes also to benefit from the important advantages that these processes offer. Organizations have realized the importance of group decision-making processes to contribute to the creation of sustainable competitive advantages. Main objective of this paper is to show that group decision-making processes do not offer guarantee for good decisions, because the effectiveness of group is affected by many factors. So, the first thing done in this paper is discussing about the benefits and limitations that accompany the use of groups with decision-making purpose. Afterwards, we stop on the different factors that influence the group’s ability to make good decisions. The aim is to emphasize that regardless of the many advantages of groups, some factors as group size, type of communication within the group, leadership style, the norms, the differentiation of roles and statuses, cohesion and compliance degree should be the main elements to keep into consideration because they affect the effectiveness of group. In this regard, is discussed how such factors influence the quality of decision and then we try to draw some conclusions that can improve and make better and easier group decision-making processes.

  7. Alternative pathways of thromboplastin-dependent activation of human factor X in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlar, R.A.; Griffin, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    To determine the interrelationships of the major coagulation pathways, the activation of 3H-labeled factor X in normal and various deficient human plasmas was evaluated when clotting was triggered by dilute rabbit or human thromboplastin. Various dilutions of thromboplastin and calcium were added to plasma samples containing 3H-factor X, and the time course of factor X activation was determined. At a 1/250 dilution of rabbit brain thromboplastin, the rate of factor X activation in plasmas deficient in factor VIII or factor IX was 10% of the activation rate of normal plasma or of factor XI deficient plasma. Reconstitution of the deficient plasmas with factors VIII or IX, respectively, reconstituted normal factor X activation. Similar results were obtained when various dilutions of human thromboplastin replaced the rabbit thromboplastin. From these plasma experiments, it is inferred that the dilute thromboplastin-dependent activation of factor X requires factors VII, IX, and VIII. An alternative extrinsic pathway that involves factors IX and VIII may be the physiologic extrinsic pathway and hence help to explain the consistent clinical observations of bleeding diatheses in patients deficient in factors IX or VIII

  8. Factors that affect coseismic folds in an overburden layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaogang; Cai, Yongen

    2018-03-01

    Coseismic folds induced by blind thrust faults have been observed in many earthquake zones, and they have received widespread attention from geologists and geophysicists. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding fold kinematics; however, few have studied fold dynamics quantitatively. In this paper, we establish a conceptual model with a thrust fault zone and tectonic stress load to study the factors that affect coseismic folds and their formation mechanisms using the finite element method. The numerical results show that the fault dip angle is a key factor that controls folding. The greater the dip angle is, the steeper the fold slope. The second most important factor is the overburden thickness. The thicker the overburden is, the more gradual the fold. In this case, folds are difficult to identify in field surveys. Therefore, if a fold can be easily identified with the naked eye, the overburden is likely shallow. The least important factors are the mechanical parameters of the overburden. The larger the Young's modulus of the overburden is, the smaller the displacement of the fold and the fold slope. Strong horizontal compression and vertical extension in the overburden near the fault zone are the main mechanisms that form coseismic folds.

  9. A review of factors affecting vaccine preventable disease in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Ching, Michael S L

    2014-12-01

    Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded "routine" (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay "voluntary" groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion.

  10. Prioritizing Factors Affecting Patients' Trust in Electronic Health Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Esmaeli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Nowadays, electronic transactions and electronic health play a vital role in improving the health of patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of trust of hospitalized patients and factors affecting their trust in electronic health services. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which was conducted through survey and questionnaire. A sample size of 60 people was randomly selected as a tool for collecting data in a Likert scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS software. The validity of the questionnaire was determined by content validity method and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient test. Results: The overall trust of patients in electronic health was evaluated with a mean of 74.78% at a good level. Website's visibility factor with a mean of 8.99 point had the highest effect and the perceived risk of electronic health with a mean of 2.31 had the least effect on e-health. Conclusion: The results showed that from the perspective of the participants, when deciding to apply electronic health, trust plays a key role and supporting factors, website and organizational factors are considered, respectively. So, for replacing e-health system, it is required to analyze discussed structures carefully.

  11. Factor affecting happiness among nursing students in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, W H; Jo, M J

    2016-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Despite the increased interest in nursing students' happiness in South Korea, few studies have attempted to identify factors influencing their happiness. Therefore, nursing educators should consistently investigate the factors influencing happiness and develop strategies to improve happiness among Korean nursing students. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study confirmed that there were positive correlations between grateful disposition, social support and happiness. In addition, grateful disposition and support from intimate people were identified as predictors of happiness in Korean nursing students. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Development of intervention programmes to help nursing students increase grateful disposition and support from intimate people may be helpful for improving happiness. These programmes can include activity, such as writing a gratitude journal, and extracurricular programmes, such as mentoring programmes between seniors and juniors and/or professor and student. Introduction Happiness is very important in the training and development of nursing students as future nurses. However, nursing students experience a high level of stress and low level of happiness in South Korea. Aim This study aimed to investigate factors that affect happiness among nursing students in South Korea. Method Data were collected from a total of 241 nursing enrolled in two 4-year baccalaureate nursing programmes in South Korea, using a self-administrated questionnaire. To identify predictors of happiness, stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Results The results indicated that grateful disposition and support from intimate people significantly predict happiness among Korean nursing students. These two factors accounted for 38.0% of the variance in happiness. Discussion This study indicated grateful disposition and support from intimate people as factors promoting happiness in nursing students. The findings

  12. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  13. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  14. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.

  15. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

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    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.

  16. Factors Affecting the Weaning from Nasal CPAP in Preterm Neonates

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    Shantanu Rastogi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Identification of the weight and postmenstrual age (PMA at successful weaning of NCPAP in preterm neonates and the factors influencing the successful wean. Study Design. Retrospective review of 454 neonates ≤32 weeks of gestational age (GA who were placed on NCPAP and successfully weaned to room air was performed. Results. Neonates had a mean birth weight (BW of 1357±392 grams with a mean GA of 29.3±2.2 weeks. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611±432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9±2.4 weeks. Univariate analysis showed that chorioamnionitis, intubation, surfactant use, PDA, sepsis/NEC, anemia, apnea, GER and IVH were significantly associated with the time to NCPAP wean. On multivariate analysis, among neonates that were intubated, BW was the only significant factor (<0.001 that was inversely related to time to successful NCPAP wean. Amongst non-intubated neonates, along with BW (<0.01, chorioamnionitis (<0.01, anemia (<0.0001, and GER (<0.02 played a significant role in weaning from NCPAP. Conclusion. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611±432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9±2.4 weeks. BW significantly affects weaning among intubated and non-intubated neonates, though in neonates who were never intubated chorioamnionitis, anemia and GER also significantly affected the duration on NCPAP.

  17. Identification and assessment of risk factors affecting construction projects

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    Mohamed Sayed Bassiony Ahmed Abd El-Karim

    2017-08-01

    Unexpected increase in cost and delays in construction projects are caused by owner, contractor, environments, etc. in which several types of risk factors may occur concurrently. The effect of cost overrun and schedule overrun do not only influence the construction industry but the overall economy as well. Even though construction project increasing in cost and schedule has received extensive attention of researchers, but because of continuous changes and development in the field, the study considered of added value to the construction industry in Egypt, in addition to risk strategy and plan analysis. In order to meet the deadline of a project and due to the complex nature of construction projects, cost and scheduling should be flexible enough to accommodate changes without negatively affecting the overall project cost and duration. As such, the objectives of the presented research in this paper are to identify, study, and assess the effect of the factors that affect cost and time contingency. Data are collected from sixteen construction companies in Egypt. The collected data, output charts and analyses spreadsheets will be used for the development of computerized model built by the authors with identification abbreviation RIAM.

  18. Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players

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    Michael D. Cusimano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs. A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM. The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36, as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37. Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players’ willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.

  19. Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusimano, Michael D; Faress, Ahmed; Luong, Wilson P; Amin, Khizer; Eid, Joanne; Abdelshaheed, Tamer; Russell, Kelly

    2013-05-10

    This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs). A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers) and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action) that may affect an athlete's decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36), as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37). Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players' willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.

  20. Factors affecting the reproductive potential of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folman, Y.; Rosenberg, M.; Kaim, M.

    1990-01-01

    Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P 4 ) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (≤2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (≥4.1 ng/mL) P 4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P 4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

  1. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, R.; Levanon, D.; Hadar, Y.; Chet, I.

    1995-01-01

    Amir, R., Levanon, D., Hadar, Y., and Chet, I. 1995. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta. Experimental Mycology 19, 61-70. Morchella esculenta was grown on square split plates, forming sclerotia on one side and mycelium on the other. After the fungus ceased to colonize and before sclerotial initials appeared, [ 14 C]3-O-methyl glucose was added to the edge of the plate on the mycelial side. The effect of various activities in the mycelium (source) and sclerotia (sink) on sclerotial formation and translocation were examined using inhibitors and water potential changes of the media. Sodium azide or cycloheximide applied separately to both sides inhibited both sclerotial formation and translocation, showing that processes in the source and sink depend on metabolic activities as well as protein synthesis. The use of nikkomycin inhibited sclerotial formation, without affecting translocation to the sclerotia. Since the hyphal tips swelled and burst, the translocated compounds were lost to the media. In a strain defective in sclerotial formation, used as a control, no translocation took place, showing that there is a connection between sclerotial formation and translocation. Reversal of the water potential gradient between the two media (lower on the mycelial side), reduced the formation of sclerotia and translocation to them. Translocation to Morchella sclerotia takes place via turgor driven mass flow, but is nevertheless affected by activities in both the source and the sink. (author)

  2. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Salewski

    Full Text Available Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and

  3. DEHP impairs zebrafish reproduction by affecting critical factors in oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliana Carnevali

    Full Text Available Public concerns on phthalates distributions in the environment have been increasing since they can cause liver cancer, structural abnormalities and reduce sperm counts in male reproductive system. However, few data are actually available on the effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP in female reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of DEHP on zebrafish oogenesis and embryo production. Female Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP and a significant decrease in ovulation and embryo production was observed. The effects of DEHP on several key regulators of oocyte maturation and ovulation including bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 (ptgs2 were determined by real time PCR. The expressions of BMP15 and mPR proteins were further determined by Western analyses to strengthen molecular findings. Moreover, plasma vitellogenin (vtg titers were assayed by an ELISA procedure to determine the estrogenic effects of DEHP and its effects on oocyte growth. A significant reduction of fecundity in fish exposed to DEHP was observed. The reduced reproductive capacity was associated with an increase in ovarian BMP15 levels. This rise, in turn, was concomitant with a significant reduction in LHR and mPRbeta levels. Finally, ptgs2 expression, the final trigger of ovulation, was also decreased by DEHP. By an in vitro maturation assay, the inhibitory effect of DEHP on germinal vesicle breakdown was further confirmed. In conclusion, DEHP affecting signals involved in oocyte growth (vtg, maturation (BMP15, LHR, mPRs, and ovulation (ptgs2, deeply impairs ovarian functions with serious consequences on embryo production. Since there is a significant genetic similarity between D.rerio and humans, the harmful effects observed at oocyte level may be relevant for further molecular studies on humans.

  4. [Factors affecting re-smoking in male workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Hoon; Ha, Hee-Sook; Kam, Sin; Lim, Ji-Seun; Kang, Yune-Sik; Lee, Duk-Hee; Chun, Byung-Yeol

    2005-05-01

    This study was performed to examine the factors affecting re-smoking in male workers. A self-administrated questionnaire survey was conducted during April 2003 to examine the smoking state of 1,154 employees of a company that launched a smoking cessation campaign in 1998. Five hundred and eighty seven persons, who had stopped smoking for at least one week, were selected as the final study subjects. This study collected data on smoking cessation success or failure for 6 months, and looked at the factors having an effect on resmoking within this period. This study employed the Health Belief Model as its theoretical basis. The re-smoking rate of the 587 study subjects who had stopped smoking for at least one week was 44.8% within the 6 month period. In a simple analysis, the resmoking rates were higher in workers with a low age, on day and night shifts, blue collar, of a low rank, where this was their second attempt at smoking cessation and for those with a shorter job duration (pHeath Belief Model, re-smoking was significantly related with the perceived susceptibility factor, economic advantages of smoking cessation among the perceived benefits factor, the degree of cessation trial's barrier of the perceived barriers factor, smoking symptom experience, recognition of the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke and the existence of chronic disease due to smoking (psmoking, the significant variables were age, perceived susceptibility for disease, economic advantages due to smoking cessation, the perceived barrier for smoking cessation, recognition on the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke, the existence of chronic disease due to smoking and the number of attempts at smoking cessation (psmoking ban policy within the work place, health education that improves the knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and the harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke will be required, as well as counter plans to reduce the barriers for smoking

  5. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case......-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3...... patients during a 6-12 months period and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Careful attention was given to standardization of all procedures and adjustment for potential confounders of BDNF and NT-3. In linear mixed models, adjusting for demographical and lifestyle factors...

  6. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  7. Risk factors affecting chronic rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Jae Jung

    2014-03-01

    Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We analyzed risk factors causing plantar fascia rupture in the presence of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed 286 patients with plantar fasciitis who were referred from private clinics between March 2004 and February 2008. Patients were divided into those with or without a plantar fascia rupture. There were 35 patients in the rupture group and 251 in the nonrupture group. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for plantar fascia rupture were compared between the 2 groups. We compared age, gender, the affected site, visual analog scale pain score, previous treatment regimen, body mass index, degree of ankle dorsiflexion, the use of steroid injections, the extent of activity, calcaneal pitch angle, the presence of a calcaneal spur, and heel alignment between the 2 groups. Of the assessed risk factors, only steroid injection was associated with the occurrence of a plantar fascia rupture. Among the 35 patients with a rupture, 33 had received steroid injections. The odds ratio of steroid injection was 33. Steroid injections for plantar fasciitis should be cautiously administered because of the higher risk for plantar fascia rupture. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  8. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.

  9. Factors affecting the distribution patterns of aquatic macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar Naseer Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macrophytes constitute important components of many freshwater ecosystems. The manifold role of aquatic macrophytes in freshwater habitats is closely linked to their distribution, which in turn depends on a myriad of factors. Foremost, among these are light, water temperature, water quality changes and nutrient enrichment, sediment composition and fluctuations in water levels. Light and temperature are of paramount importance in determining the distribution (with depth, season and latitude, thereby influencing productivity and species composition as well. Sediment compositions markedly affect the growth rates of macrophytes which in turn have a profound influence on the distribution of aquatic macrophytes. Water quality changes and nutrient enrichment can cause considerable variations in the species richness, composition, and density of aquatic vegetation. The reduction in water levels could bring drastic changes in the species composition and distribution of macrophytes. Factors associated with competition, herbivory, land use and land cover changes etc. also play an important role in shaping macrophyte distribution and community structure. In this review we examine both biotic and abiotic factors that influence the structural attributes like species composition, distribution, abundance and diversity of aquatic macrophytes.

  10. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  11. Factors that affect the onset of action of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Byum; Sung, Tae-Yun; Yang, Hong Seuk

    2017-10-01

    Neuromuscular blockade plays an important role in the safe management of patient airways, surgical field improvement, and respiratory care. Rapid-sequence induction of anesthesia is indispensable to emergency surgery and obstetric anesthesia, and its purpose is to obtain a stable airway, adequate depth of anesthesia, and appropriate respiration within a short period of time without causing irritation or damage to the patient. There has been a continued search for new neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) with a rapid onset of action. Factors that affect the onset time include the potency of the NMBDs, the rate of NMBDs reaching the effect site, the onset time by dose control, metabolism and elimination of NMBDs, buffered diffusion to the effect site, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit affinity, drugs that affect acetylcholine (ACh) production and release at the neuromuscular junction, drugs that inhibit plasma cholinesterase, presynaptic receptors responsible for ACh release at the neuromuscular junction, anesthetics or drugs that affect muscle contractility, site and methods for monitoring neuromuscular function, individual variability, and coexisting disease. NMBDs with rapid onset without major adverse events are expected in the next few years, and the development of lower potency NMBDs will continue. Anesthesiologists should be aware of the use of NMBDs in the management of anesthesia. The choice of NMBD and determination of the appropriate dosage to modulate neuromuscular blockade characteristics such as onset time and duration of neuromuscular blockade should be considered along with factors that affect the effects of the NMBDs. In this review, we discuss the factors that affect the onset time of NMBDs.

  12. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fouzan, Rawan; Al-Ajlan, Sarah; Marwan, Yousef; Al-Saleh, Mervat

    2012-01-01

    Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students' sociodemographic and academic factors. Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7%) decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2%) students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties - 18 (12.5%), 17 (11.8%), and 16 (11.1%) students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4%) of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8%) and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3%) were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498-6.065) more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002). A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

  13. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan Al-Fouzan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results: Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7% decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2% students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%, 17 (11.8%, and 16 (11.1% students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4% of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8% and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3% were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065 more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002. Conclusion : A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

  14. Factors affecting compliance with measles vaccination in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimmasane, Maniphet; Douangmala, Somthana; Koffi, Paulin; Reinharz, Daniel; Buisson, Yves

    2010-09-24

    In line with WHO objectives, the Lao Government is committed to eliminate measles by 2012. Yet from 1992 to 2007, the annual incidence of measles remained high while the vaccination coverage showed a wide diversity across provinces. A descriptive study was performed to determine factors affecting compliance with vaccination against measles, which included qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative study used a convenience sample of 13 persons in charge of the vaccination program, consisting of officials from different levels of the health care structure and members of vaccination teams. The quantitative study performed on the target population consisted of a matched, case-control survey conducted on a stratified random sample of parents of children aged 9-23 months. Overall, 584 individuals (292 cases and 292 controls) were interviewed in the three provinces selected because of low vaccination coverage. On the provision of services side (supply), the main problems identified were a lack of vaccine supply and diluent, a difficulty in maintaining the cold chain, a lack of availability and competence among health workers, a lack of coordination and a limited capacity to assess needs and make coherent decisions. In the side of the consumer (demand), major obstacles identified were poor knowledge about measles immunization and difficulties in accessing vaccination centers because of distance and cost. In multivariate analysis, a low education level of the father was a factor of non-immunization while the factors of good compliance were high incomes, spacing of pregnancies, a feeling that children must be vaccinated, knowledge about immunization age, presenting oneself to the hospital rather than expecting the mobile vaccination teams and last, immunization of other family members or friends' children. The main factors affecting the compliance with vaccination against measles in Laos involve both the supply side and the demand side. Obtaining an effective

  15. Cultutal Factors Affecting English Proficiency in Rurl Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Chop Ler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to the rural and the ‘cultural’ and to determine their problems effect on the learning of English. Twenty students from different ethnic backgrounds and English language proficiency in six rural schools in Terengganu, Malaysia were interviewed. In addition the teachers also from different rural schools and ethnic backgrounds responded to a questionnaire. The problems discussed by both the teacher and student respondents arose due to the rural cultural setting. The findings of this study show that 1 five major problem areas exist, namely peer pressure and motivation, attitudes towards English ,teaching methodology, school culture ,influence of Islamic teaching on the learning of English 2 the problems discussed by the teachers and students are similar and 3 most importantly all these identified problems are closely related to the rural setting. Therefore, one can conclude that rural cultural factors adversely affect English Proficiency of the rural students of this study.

  16. Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Chrenková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the system of care for endangered children has changed from the institutional as well as legislative point of view. In one of the partial areas of ongoing changes, research activities realised within the Students’ Grant Competition called The Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care are being focused. We deal with this topic because various forms of substitute family care are distinguished in the Czech Republic, where children are placed for various reasons, but we do not know the correct context of such placements. The main aim of the realised research was to find out the frequency of choosing a given form of placing children in substitute family care according to followed variables. The research sample of the quantitative research was consisted of children placed in one of the forms of substitute family care in the Moravian-Silesian region.

  17. Mechanical and muscular factors affecting the efficiency of human movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, P R; Kram, R

    1985-06-01

    This paper reviews specific examples of how energy expenditure during submaximal exercise is affected by mechanical and muscular factors. Structural biomechanical variables are discussed as a possible reason for economy differences between individuals. The practical question, "Can economy of performing a certain task be modified?" is posed. Examples of how the manipulation of a particular movement pattern results in an energetic minimum (optimal phenomena) are presented. The physiological mechanisms for these phenomena are summarized. The influence of positive vs negative work and storage of elastic energy in relation to the topic of economy and muscular efficiency is considered. The effects of athletic equipment such as footwear, track surfaces, and bicycle components on economy and muscular efficiency are presented. The prospects for improving athletic performance by improving economy are evaluated, and recommendations for future directions are made.

  18. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  19. Factors affecting aggression in South Korean middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, MiJeong; Choi, Jihea; Lim, Seung-Joo

    2014-12-01

    The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regressions. Aggression had significant correlations with academic stress (r = .21, p self esteem (r = -.25, p happiness (r = -.21, p self esteem, decision-making skills, and happiness in middle school students is important to reduce aggression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Homocyst(e)ine-lowering therapy does not affect plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine concentrations in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Sophie; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Plank, Christina; Minar, Erich; Wolzt, Michael; Schernthaner, Gerit-Holger

    2005-04-01

    Elevated plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) is suggested to contribute to hyperhomocyst(e)ine-related vascular dysfunction in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). The present trial investigated whether homocyst(e)ine (Hcy)-lowering therapy with vitamin-B (vit-B) and folic acid affects plasma concentrations of ADMA in patients with PAD and hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. Forty-nine subjects (15 women, 34 men) with PAD and fasting plasma total Hcy concentrations greater than 15 micromol/liter were randomized to receive either oral vit-B and folic acid therapy (n = 27) or placebo (n = 22) for 6 wk. Fasting venous blood samples were monitored for plasma total Hcy, vit-B12 and folate, ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine, L-arginine, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. After 6 wk, plasma Hcy concentrations were decreased, and concentrations of vit-B12 and folate were elevated in patients with vitamin supplementation (all P < 0.05 vs. baseline) and unchanged in the placebo group. Dimethylarginine plasma concentrations were not affected by treatment. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein correlated with ADMA plasma concentrations (r = 0.29; P < 0.01). The lack of vit-B and folic acid therapy on plasma concentrations of ADMA renders a role of extracellular methylarginines unlikely to be involved in the pathophysiology of hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and its complications.

  1. Risk factors that affect metabolic health status in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaogullari, Selin; Demirel, Fatma; Hatipoglu, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    While some obese children are metabolically healthy (MHO), some have additional health problems, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, which increase mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. These children are metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. In this study we assessed the factors that affect metabolic health in obesity and the clinical and laboratory findings that distinguish between MHO and MUO children. In total, 1085 patients aged 6-18 years, with age- and sex-matched BMI exceeding the 95th percentile were included in the study (mean 11.1±2.9 years, 57.6% female, 59.7% pubertal). Patients without dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, or hypertension were considered as MHO. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL, triglyceride over 150 mg/dL, LDL over 130 mg/dL, or HDL under 40 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model of assesment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Hepatosteatosis was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound. Duration of obesity, physical activity and nutritional habits, screen time, and parental obesity were questioned. Thyroid and liver function tests were performed. Six hundred and forty-two cases (59.2%) were MUO. Older age, male sex, increased BMI-SDS, and sedentary lifestyle were associated with MUO. Excessive junk food consumption was associated with MUO particularly among the prepubertal obese patients. Our results revealed that the most important factors that affect metabolic health in obesity are age and BMI. Positive effects of an active lifestyle and healthy eating habits are prominent in the prepubertal period and these habits should be formed earlier in life.

  2. Factors affecting daughter cells' arrangement during the early bacterial divisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Tzu Su

    Full Text Available On agar plates, daughter cells of Escherichia coli mutually slide and align side-by-side in parallel during the first round of binary fission. This phenomenon has been previously attributed to an elastic material that restricts apparently separated bacteria from being in string. We hypothesize that the interaction between bacteria and the underneath substratum may affect the arrangement of the daughter bacteria. To test this hypothesis, bacterial division on hyaluronic acid (HA gel, as an alternative substratum, was examined. Consistent with our proposition, the HA gel differs from agar by suppressing the typical side-by-side alignments to a rare population. Examination of bacterial surface molecules that may contribute to the daughter cells' arrangement yielded an observation that, with disrupted lpp, the E. coli daughter cells increasingly formed non-typical patterns, i.e. neither sliding side-by-side in parallel nor forming elongated strings. Therefore, our results suggest strongly that the early cell patterning is affected by multiple interaction factors. With oscillatory optical tweezers, we further demonstrated that the interaction force decreased in bacteria without Lpp, a result substantiating our notion that the side-by-side sliding phenomenon directly reflects the strength of in-situ interaction between bacteria and substratum.

  3. [Concentration of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor and related factors in patients with unstable angina pectoris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenfang; Wang, Zhe; Cai, Jun; Chi, Hongjie; Yang, Xinchun

    2015-12-01

    To observe plasma vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) levels and related factors in patients with unstable angina pectoris(UAP). A total of 108 consecutive patients with chest pain hospitalized in our department from October to December 2014 were included. They were divided into UAP (n=78) and non-CHD group (n=30) by the result of coronary angiography(CAG). Coronary artery lesion was assessed according to the Gensini score, serum lipids, homocysteine(Hcy) levels and other biochemical indicators were also determined. The peripheral arterial tonometry was evaluated by reactive hyperemia index(RHI) measured by Endo-PAT2000 Noninvasive Diagnostic System.The level of plasma VEGF was detected in patients with unstable angina pectoris. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the correlations between VEGF and various related factors. Percent of male gender, triglyceride (TG) and Hcy levels were significantly higher in UAP group than in no-CHD group(all Punstable angina pectoris, and VEGF level is significantly associated with the degree of coronary artery stenosis, Gensini score and RHI. V EGF level might serve as a new biochemical indicator for coronary artery lesion in patients with UAP.

  4. Production performance and plasma metabolites of dairy ewes in early lactation as affected by chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, A.; Arranz, J.; Mandaluniz, N.; Beltrán-de-Heredia, I.; Ruiz, R.; Goiri, I.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chitosan (CHI) supplementation on production performance and blood parameters in dairy ewes. Twenty-four multiparous Latxa dairy ewes at d 16 of lactation were divided into two groups of 12 ewes each. Ewes were fed one of two experimental concentrates (0.840 kg dry matter/d), control or supplemented with 1.2% CHI, on a dry matter basis. Ewes also had free access to tall fescue hay, water, and mineral salts. The experimental period lasted for 25 d, of which the first 14 d were for treatment adaptation and the last 11 d for measurements and samplings. Supplementation with CHI decreased total (p=0.043) and fescue (p=0.035) dry matter intake (DMI), but did not affect concentrate DMI. Supplementation with CHI, moreover, increased plasma glucose (p=0.013) and BUN concentrations (p=0.035), but did not affect those of non-esterified fatty acids. Dietary supplementation with CHI, however, did not affect milk yield, 6.5% FCM, milk composition, or BW, but it improved dietary apparent efficiency by increasing the milk yield-to-DMI (p=0.055) and 6.5% FCM-to-DMI (p=0.045) ratios. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of chitosan maintained ewe performance while reducing feed intake and improving dietary apparent efficiency. (Author)

  5. Validating YouTube Factors Affecting Learning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Yoga; Hartanto, Rudy; Suning Kusumawardani, Sri

    2018-03-01

    YouTube is often used as a companion medium or a learning supplement. One of the educational places that often uses is Jogja Audio School (JAS) which focuses on music production education. Music production is a difficult material to learn, especially at the audio mastering. With tutorial contents from YouTube, students find it easier to learn and understand audio mastering and improved their learning performance. This study aims to validate the role of YouTube as a medium of learning in improving student’s learning performance by looking at the factors that affect student learning performance. The sample involves 100 respondents from JAS at audio mastering level. The results showed that student learning performance increases seen from factors that have a significant influence of motivation, instructional content, and YouTube usefulness. Overall findings suggest that YouTube has a important role to student learning performance in music production education and as an innovative and efficient learning medium.

  6. Evaluation of hydraulic factors affecting flow accelerated corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Morita, Ryo

    2009-01-01

    Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) is known as a complex phenomena of hydraulics and electro-chemicals. Essential mechanism of the hydraulic factors affecting FAC is the mass transfer of ferrous ions dissolved from the pipe surface. To predict the FAC rate in susceptible pipe elements, evaluation of the mass transfer in those geometry with eccentric flow is required. For this purpose, new model of mass transfer coefficient was proposed by combining knowledges of previous studies and consideration of local turbulent velocity. In this process, Chilton-Colburn analogy of heat and mass transfer and Blasius' friction factor were referred to. To validate the model, FAC experiment and flow numerical calculation were conducted. In the experiment, carbon steel test specimens were set in the downstream of a flow contraction in small rectangular flow ducts, and FAC rate profiles on the specimens were observed in PWR condensate condition. In the calculation, flow field for the experiment was calculated with the in-house code 'MATIS-I' utilizing LES turbulence model, and mean and turbulent velocity profiles on the specimen's surface were evaluated. By comparing these results, the new mass transfer coefficient showed good correlation with the local FAC rate, and the effect of introducing the turbulent velocity to the model was confirmed. (author)

  7. Factors affecting mechanical nociceptive thresholds in healthy sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalon, Elena; Maes, Dominiek; Piepers, Sofie; Taylor, Polly; van Riet, Miriam M J; Janssens, Geert P J; Millet, Sam; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-05-01

    To describe anatomical and methodological factors influencing mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) and intra-site variability in healthy sows. Prospective, randomized validation. Eight pregnant, healthy, mixed-parity sows (176-269 kg). Repeated MNT measurements were taken: 1) with a hand-held probe and a limb-mounted actuator connected to a digital algometer; 2) at nine landmarks on the limbs and tail; and 3) at 1 and 3 minute intervals. Data were analysed using linear mixed regression models. The MNTs (±SEM) of the limbs were lower with the probe (14.7 ± 1.2 N) than with the actuator (21.3 ± 1.2 N; p testing compared with day 1 (p < 0.001). The mean CV (±SE) was 38.9% (±1.1%). MNTs and intra-site variability in healthy sows were affected by several factors, indicating that this methodology requires considerable attention to detail. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  8. Factors affecting the prevalence of obesity among primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kürtüncü

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the risk factors affecting obesity in students in the 6-15 years old age group. There were 868 students registered at Bahçelievler Elementary School in Zonguldak and were present for face-to-face meetings on the days the research data was collected. Data was collected using demographic questionary forms and weight-length measurements from March to April in 2010. Results: Difference is found to be statistically meaningful with respect to the relationship between obesity of children and their age, gender, number of siblings, fathers’ jobs, education level of their mothers, fast food consumption and family history of obesity (p<0.05. Conclusions: The study concludes that there are certain ciriteria related to the development of obesity during a specific period of childhood and that taking certain precautions are effective in preventing the development of obesity. Keywords: Body Mass Index; Children; Obesity; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Turkey.

  9. MICROECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING BANKS’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUŢU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are important cells in the economy as they have a significant role by maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. They refocus the resources from those who have surplus to those which have a deficit. Therefore, as any other enterprises, performance is highly desirable for banks and, then, it is crucial to discover what the main factors that influence this objective are. So, this paper analyzes the microeconomic factors affecting bank’s financial performance focusing on 11 entities for the period between 2003 and 2013. The performance is measured by return on assets. The independent variables used are bank’s size, financial leverage,loans to assets ratio, deposits to assets ratio, number of employees, liquidity, net result and monetary policy rate. The results show that bank’s size, loans to assets ratio and liquidity have not a significant impact on performance. Financial leverage has a negative impact, meanwhile the number of employees, deposits to assets ratio and net result have a positive effect.

  10. The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.-S.; Chen, Y.-T.; Chen, W.-D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship.

  11. Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Immigrant Korean Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ji-Young; Cha, Sunkyung; Moon, Hyunjung; Ruggiero, Jeanne S; Jang, Haeran

    2016-03-01

    An increasing number of foreign-born nurses are working in the United States. Nurses' job satisfaction is a critical issue for quality patient care. The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting the job satisfaction of immigrant Korean nurses. We used a cross-sectional mailed survey design. A convenience sample (n = 105) of members of the Greater New York Korean Nurses Association currently working or had previously worked in the United States completed the questionnaires. We used hierarchical regression to test the effects of acculturation and life satisfaction on job satisfaction. Most participants were female (n = 98, 93.3%) aged 27 to 70 years (mean = 52.27 years, SD = 10.67). In the regression model, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and perceived stress predicted job satisfaction (F = 5.127, p job satisfaction. U.S. nurses need to gain insight into factors influencing job satisfaction in Korean nurses to promote retention and quality care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Ho; Jeong, Won Mee; Yu, Seung Hum; Lee Sun Hee; Sohn, Tae Yong

    1997-01-01

    Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future

  13. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  14. Study of the factors affecting radon diffusion through building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following - decay of 226 Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. Radon can originate from the deeply buried deposit beneath homes and can migrate to the surface of earth. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. It is well known that for building construction materials the porosity, permeability and the diffusion coefficient are the parameters, which can quantify the materials capability to hinder the flow of radon soil gas. An increase in porosity will provide more air space within the material for radon to travel, thus reducing its resistance to radon transport. The permeability of material describes its ability to act as a barrier to gas movement when a pressure gradient exists across it and is closely related to the porosity of material. The radon diffusion coefficient of a material quantifies the ability of radon gas to move through it when a concentration gradient is the driving force. This parameter depends upon the porosity and permeability of the medium. As diffusion process is the major contributor to indoor levels, therefore, the factors affecting the diffusion process need to be kept in consideration. Keeping this in mind the experimental arrangements have been made for control study of radon diffusion through some building materials to observe the effects of different factors viz.; compaction, grain size, temperature, humidity and the mixing of these materials etc. For the present study alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the recording of alpha tracks caused by radon gas after its diffusion through the

  15. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  16. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n=154 Blue-faced Leicester x Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal characteristics and individual energy intake of the ewe during specified periods of gestation, i.e. early (1-30 days; term ~147 days gestation), mid (31-80 days) or late (110-147 days) pregnancy. For dataset two (Study 2; n=856 Mule ewes and 5821 cases of birth weight), we investigated using multilevel modelling the influence of ewe weight, parity, barrenness, lamb sex, litter size, lamb mortality and year of birth on lamb birth weight. For a subset of these ewes (n=283), the effect of the ewes' own birth weight was also examined. Interactions between combinations of variables were selectively investigated. Litter size, as expected, had the single greatest influence on birth weight with other significant effects being year of birth, maternal birth weight, maternal nutrition, sex of the lamb, ewe barrenness and maternal body composition at mating. The results of the present study have practical implications not only for sheep husbandry but also for the increased knowledge of factors that significantly influence variation in birth weight; as birth weight itself has become a significant predictor of later health outcomes.

  17. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Borre, Michael; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2006-01-01

    . EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In 79 patients with prostate cancer, 23 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 44 healthy individuals plasma TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 were determined with ELISAs and compared with clinical stage and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values. Plasma levels of TFF were compared...... and specificity of plasma TFF3 in differentiating between patients with localized and advanced disease was 74% (59-85%) and 81% (66-91%). Plasma levels of TFF3 were highest in patients with bone metastases (P = 0.008). Patients with serum PSA >10 microg/L had significantly higher plasma TFF3 values than patients...... with serum PSA or = 7 (P = 0.02). Expression of TFF1 and TFF3 determined by immunohistochemistry was increased in patients with prostate cancer but did not correlate with plasma trefoil factor values. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma...

  18. Factors affecting quality of social interaction park in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangunsong, N. I.

    2018-01-01

    The existence of social interactions park in Jakarta is an oasis in the middle of a concrete jungle. Parks is a response to the need for open space as a place of recreation and community interaction. Often the social interaction parks built by the government does not function as expected, but other functions such as a place to sell, trash, unsafe so be rarely visited by visitors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that affect the quality of social interaction parks in Jakarta by conducting descriptive analysis and correlation analysis of the variables assessment. The results of the analysis can give an idea of social interactions park based on community needs and propose the development of social interactioncity park. The object of study are 25 social interaction parks in 5 municipalities of Jakarta. The method used is descriptive analysis method, correlation analysis using SPSS 19 and using crosstab, chi-square tests. The variables are 5 aspects of Design, Plants composition: Selection type of plant (D); the beauty and harmony (Ind); Maintenance and fertility (P); Cleanliness and Environmental Health (BS); Specificity (Drainage, Multi Function garden, Means, Concern/Mutual cooperation, in dense settlements) (K). The results of analysis show that beauty is the most significant correlation with the value of the park followed by specificity, cleanliness and maintenance. Design was not the most significant variable affecting the quality of the park. The results of this study can be used by the Department of Parks and Cemeteries as input in managing park existing or to be developed and to improve the quality of social interaction park in Jakarta.

  19. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  20. Factors affecting the depth of burns occurring in medical institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Soon; Choi, Young Hwan; Yoon, Cheonjae; You, Je Sung

    2015-05-01

    Most cases of burns occurring in medical institutions are associated with activities involving heat. It is very difficult to detect these burns. To date, there are few reports on burns occurring in medical institutions. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the etiology of burns occurring in medical institutions and to elucidate the factors affecting burn depth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients who visited our center from April 2008 to February 2013. This study enrolled all patients with burns occurring in the medical institution during or related to treatment. We excluded burn patients whose burns were not related to treatment (for example, we excluded patients with scalding burns that occurred in the hospital cafeteria and pediatric patients with hot water burns from the water purifier). However, patients with burns that occurred in the recovery room after general anesthesia were included. A total of 115 patients were enrolled in this study. The average patient age was 41.5 years, with more women than men (M:F=31:84). There were 29 cases (25.3%) of superficial burns (first-degree and superficial second-degree) and 86 cases (74.7%) of deep burns (deep second-degree and third-degree). Hot packs were the most common cause of burns (27 cases, 23.5%), followed by laser therapy, heating pads, and grounding pads, accounting for 15 cases each. There were 89 cases (77.4%) of contact burns and 26 cases (22.6%) of non-contact burns. The most common site of burns was the lower extremities (41 cases, 35.7%). The burn site and contact burns were both factors affecting burn depth. The rate of deep burns was higher in patients with contact burns than in those with non-contact burns (odds ratio 4.26) and was associated with lower body burns (odds ratio 2.85). In burns occurring in medical institutions, there is a high probability of a deep burn if it is a contact burn or occurs in the lower body. Therefore, safety guidelines are needed

  1. [Analysis on establishment and affecting factors of qi stagnation and blood stasis rat model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Jia, Cheng; Chen, Yu; Li, Xin; Cheng, Jiayi

    2012-06-01

    To study on the method for establishing the Qi stagnation and blood stasis rat model and analyze the affecting factors. The orthogonal design was adopted to study the influences of joint stimulations including noise, light, electricity, ice water bath, tail-clamping on model rats. The 'flying spot' method was used to dynamically simulate blood flow velocity in microcirculation. the pressure sensing technology of MOTO was adopted to detect hemorheology-related indicators. And the coagulation method was used to detect blood coagulation-related indicators. Compared with the negative control group, all model groups showed significant reduction in the blood flow velocity in mesenteric microcirculation and increase in the whole blood viscosity at high, medium and low shear rate, the plasma viscosity and the fibrinogen content in four blood coagulation indicators. Noise, light, electricity, tail-clamping, bondage and icewater-bath make significant impact on model rats.

  2. Factors affecting rural volunteering in palliative care - an integrated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittall, Dawn; Lee, Susan; O'Connor, Margaret

    2016-12-01

    To review factors shaping volunteering in palliative care in Australian rural communities using Australian and International literature. Identify gaps in the palliative care literature and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Proquest, Scopus, Sage Premier, Wiley online, Ovid, Cochran, Google Scholar, CINAHL and Informit Health Collection. The literature was synthesised and presented in an integrated thematic narrative. Australian Rural communities. While Australia, Canada, the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) are leaders in palliative care volunteer research, limited research specifically focuses on volunteers in rural communities with the least occurring in Australia. Several interrelated factors influence rural palliative care provision, in particular an increasingly ageing population which includes an ageing volunteer and health professional workforce. Also current and models of palliative care practice fail to recognise the innumerable variables between and within rural communities such as distance, isolation, lack of privacy, limited health care services and infrastructure, and workforce shortages. These issues impact palliative care provision and are significant for health professionals, volunteers, patients and caregivers. The three key themes of this integrated review include: (i) Geography, ageing rural populations in palliative care practice, (ii) Psychosocial impact of end-end-of life care in rural communities and (iii) Palliative care models of practice and volunteering in rural communities. The invisibility of volunteers in rural palliative care research is a concern in understanding the issues affecting the sustainability of quality palliative care provision in rural communities. Recommendations for future Australian research includes examination of the suitability of current models of palliative care practice in addressing the needs of rural communities; the recruitment

  3. Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Mark F.; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Kieper, Douglas A.; Raylman, Raymond R.; Turkington, Timothy G.

    2001-01-01

    Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojection are investigated: (1) image uniformity (flood) corrections, (2) image sampling (pixel size) and (3) count allocation methods. An analytic expression for uniformity correction is developed that incorporates factors for spatial-dependent detector sensitivity and geometric effects from acceptance angle limits on coincidence events. There is good agreement between experimental floods from a PEM system with a pixellated detector and numerical simulations. The analytic uniformity corrections are successfully applied to image reconstruction of compressed breast phantoms and reduce the necessity for flood scans at different image planes. Experimental and simulated compressed breast phantom studies show that lesion contrast is improved when the image pixel size is half of, rather than equal to, the detector pixel size, though this occurs at the expense of some additional image noise. In PEM reconstruction counts usually are allocated to the pixel in the image plane intersected by the line of response (LOR) between the centers of the detection pixels. An alternate count allocation method is investigated that distributes counts to image pixels in proportion to the area of the tube of response (TOR) connecting the detection pixels that they overlay in the image plane. This TOR method eliminates some image artifacts that occur with the LOR method and increases tumor signal-to-noise ratios at the expense of a slight decrease in tumor contrast. Analysis of image uniformity, image sampling and count allocation methods in PEM image reconstruction points to ways of improving image formation. Further work is required to optimize image reconstruction parameters for particular detection or quantitation tasks

  4. Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Andrew G. Weisenberger; Douglas A. Kieper; Raymond R. Raylman; Timothy G. Turkington

    2001-11-01

    Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojection are investigated: (1) image uniformity (flood) corrections, (2) image sampling (pixel size) and (3) count allocation methods. An analytic expression for uniformity correction is developed that incorporates factors for spatial-dependent detector sensitivity and geometric effects from acceptance angle limits on coincidence events. There is good agreement between experimental floods from a PEM system with a pixellated detector and numerical simulations. The analytic uniformity corrections are successfully applied to image reconstruction of compressed breast phantoms and reduce the necessity for flood scans at different image planes. Experimental and simulated compressed breast phantom studies show that lesion contrast is improved when the image pixel size is half of, rather than equal to, the detector pixel size, though this occurs at the expense of some additional image noise. In PEM reconstruction counts usually are allocated to the pixel in the image plane intersected by the line of response (LOR) between the centers of the detection pixels. An alternate count allocation method is investigated that distributes counts to image pixels in proportion to the area of the tube of response (TOR) connecting the detection pixels that they overlay in the image plane. This TOR method eliminates some image artifacts that occur with the LOR method and increases tumor signal-to-noise ratios at the expense of a slight decrease in tumor contrast. Analysis of image uniformity, image sampling and count allocation methods in PEM image reconstruction points to ways of improving image formation. Further work is required to optimize image reconstruction parameters for particular detection or quantitation tasks.

  5. Psychiatric factors do not affect recurrence risk of hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magtira, Aromalyn; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; MacGibbon, Kimber; Tabsh, Khalil; Fejzo, Marlena S

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether psychiatric symptoms affect recurrence risk of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). The study sample included 108 women with HG treated with i.v. fluids in their first pregnancy. Women were divided into two groups based on recurrence of HG in their second pregnancy. Participants submitted medical records and completed a survey regarding pregnancy characteristics and psychiatric symptoms. The χ(2) -test and Student's t-test were performed to compare the two groups. Eighty-four women (71%) had a recurrence of HG requiring i.v. fluid for dehydration, and were compared with 34 women (29%) who did not have a recurrence. There were no significant differences in obstetric history, although there was a trend toward greater time between first and second pregnancy in the recurrence group (P = 0.08). There were no differences in pre-existing psychiatric diagnoses including anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, panic or eating disorders. Following the first HG pregnancy, participants in both groups were well matched for all post-traumatic stress symptoms. This study is the first to analyze the relationship of psychiatric factors to risk of recurrence of HG. No factors were identified that increase the risk of recurrence including stress symptoms following a HG pregnancy. Psychological sequelae associated with HG are probably a result of the physical symptoms of prolonged severe nausea and vomiting, medication and/or hospitalization, and likely play no role in disease etiology. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yoshihisa

    1991-01-01

    The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169 Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198 Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

  7. Factors affecting the diffusion of online end user literature searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, J S

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at those institutions were surveyed by mail with electronic mail follow-up. Multiple regression analysis was performed. The survey yielded a 41% response rate with electronic mail follow-up being particularly effective. Two dependent variables, internal diffusion (spread of diffusion) and infusion (depth of diffusion), were measured. There was little correlation between them, indicating they measured different things. Fifteen independent variables clustered into three attribute sets were measured. The innovation attributes set was significant for both internal diffusion and infusion. Significant individual variables were visibility for internal diffusion and image enhancement effects (negative relation) as well as visibility for infusion (depth of diffusion). Organizational attributes were also significant predictors for both dependent variables. No individual variables were significant for internal diffusion. Communication, management support (negative relation), rewards, and existence of champions were significant for infusion. Marketing attributes were not significant predictors. Successful diffusion of online end user literature searching is dependent on the visibility of the systems, communication among, rewards to, and peers of possible users who promote use (champions). Personal image enhancement effects have a negative relation to infusion, possibly because the use of intermediaries is still seen as the more luxurious way to have searches done. Management support also has a negative relation to

  8. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

  9. Mechanical factors affecting reliability of pressure components (fatigue, cracking)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebey, J.; Garnier, C.; Roche, R.; Barrachin, B.

    1978-01-01

    The reliability of a pressure component can be seriously affected by the formation and development of cracks. The experimental studies presented in this paper are devoted to three different aspects of crack propagation phenomena which have been relatively little described. In close connection with safety analyses of PWR, the authors study the influence of the environment by carrying out fatigue tests with samples bathed in hot pressurized water. Ferritic, austenitic and Incolloy 800 steels were used and the results are presented in the form of fatigue curves in the oligocyclic region. The second part of the paper relates to crack initiation cirteria in ductile steels weakened by notches. The CT samples used make it possible to study almost all types of fracture (ductile, intermediate and brittle). The use of two criteria based on the load limit and on the toughness of the material constitutes a practical way of evaluating crack propagation conditions. A series of tests carried out on notched spherical vessels of different size shows that large vessels are relatively brittle; fast unstable fracture is observed as size increases. Crack growth rate in PWR primary circuits (3/6 steel) is studied on piping elements (0.25 scale) subjected to cyclic stress variations (285 0 C and with pressure varying between 1 and 160 bar in each cycle). By calculating the stress intensity factor, correlation with results obtained in the laboratory on CT samples is possible. (author)

  10. [The prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in schoolchildren and affecting factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giray, Hatice; Keskinoğlu, Pembe

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine the factors affecting the presence of Enterobius vermicularis in schoolchildren. This investigation was a cross-sectional and analytic study. The dependent variable was the presence of parasites and the independent variables were the characteristics of the children, families, houses, toilets and drinking water. A stool specimen was taken in the morning using the cellophane tape method, and examined the same day by microscopy. Data were evaluated using the Chi square test and logistic regression analysis and p Enterobius vermicularis was found in 209 (43.8%) children. According to logistic regression analyses, the rate of Enterobius vermicularis was found to be 3.05 times higher in students from the Sait Guzelcan primary school, if there were more than 6 residents in the home 2.05 times even higher and 2.02 times still higher if there were no sanitary facilities at his/her home. When there was a history of parasites in the family, the risk was significantly decreased. The prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in schoolchildren was higher in slum areas, in crowded homes and in those that lacked modern sanitary facilities.

  11. Factors Affecting Hemodialysis Patients' Satisfaction with Their Dialysis Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al Eissa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the degree of satisfaction among hemodialysis patients and the factors influencing this satisfaction. Methods. Patients were recruited from 3 Saudi dialysis centers. Demographic data was collected. Using 1 to 10 Likert scale, the patients were asked to rate the overall satisfaction with, and the overall impact of, their dialysis therapy on their lives and to rate the effect of the dialysis therapy on 15 qualities of life domains. Results. 322 patients were recruited (72.6% of the total eligible patients. The mean age was 51.7 years (±15.4; 58% have been on dialysis for >3 years. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 3.2 (±2, and Kt/V was 1.3 (±0.44. The mean satisfaction score was (7.41 ± 2.75 and the mean score of the impact of the dialysis on the patients' lives was 5.32 ± 2.55. Male patients reported worse effect of dialysis on family life, social life, energy, and appetite. Longer period since the commencement of dialysis was associated with adverse effect on finances and energy. Lower level of education was associated with worse dialysis effect on stress, overall health, sexual life, hobbies, and exercise ability. Conclusion. The level of satisfaction is affected by gender, duration on dialysis, educational level, and standard of care given.

  12. Factors affecting the quality of external auditing services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaraji Fedaa Abd Almajid Sabbar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aim to adopt knowledge the specific concept to external audit quality and which are the factors that affecting on those qualities in the State of Iraq. As well as, to knowledge the range of depend this job in Iraq on international or local criterion to external audit quality or not. Also, to identify the satisfaction of interested parties about job of audit on service of external audit or not. According to viewpoint external audit the workers in this job and interested parties about external audit in Iraq where practice the profession of external audit under the supervision and control of the board of the profession consists of members appointed by the government ministries no are elected. The study reached to a set of many conclusions, most important of all that the realization external audit in Iraq for importance of external audit quality. Although no existence no concept of specific criterion for quality, whether international or local. Therefore, this study recommends a set of recommendations necessary to adopt uniform criterion for the quality of the external audit job in Iraq, whether international or local, to achieve high quality in audit services and achieving satisfaction of interested parties on those services.

  13. Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Regina S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    1994-01-01

    Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species. Experimental Mycology, 18, 230-246. Twelve isolates representing four species of Colletotrichum were transformed either by enhanced protoplast, restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI), or electroporation-mediated protocols. The enhanced protoplast transformation protocol resulted in 100- and 50-fold increases in the transformation efficiencies of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. magna , respectively. REMI transformation involved the use of Hin dIII and vector DNA linearized with HindIII to increase the number of integration events and potential gene disruptions in the fungal genome. Combining the enhanced protoplast and the REMI protocols resulted in a 22-fold increase in the number of hygromycin/nystatin-resistant mutants in C. lindemuthianum . Electroporation-mediated transformation was performed on mycelial fragments and spores of four Colletotrichum species, resulting in efficiencies of up to 1000 transformants/μg DNA. The pHA1.3 vector which confers hygromycin resistance contains telomeric sequences from Fusarium oxysporum , transforms by autonomous replication and genomic integration, and was essential for elevated transformation efficiencies of 100 to 10,000 transformants/μg DNA. Modifications of pHA1.3 occurred during bacterial amplification and post fungal transformation resulting in plasmids capable of significantly elevated transformation efficiencies in C. lindemuthianum.

  14. Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, K M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

  15. Non-auditory factors affecting urban soundscape evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; Hong, Joo Young; Cabrera, Densil

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  16. Synoptic Factors Affecting Structure Predictability of Hurricane Alex (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aleman, J. J.; Evans, J. L.; Kowaleski, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    On January 7, 2016, a disturbance formed over the western North Atlantic basin. After undergoing tropical transition, the system became the first hurricane of 2016 - and the first North Atlantic hurricane to form in January since 1938. Already an extremely rare hurricane event, Alex then underwent extratropical transition [ET] just north of the Azores Islands. We examine the factors affecting Alex's structural evolution through a new technique called path-clustering. In this way, 51 ensembles from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Ensemble Prediction System (ECMWF-EPS) are grouped based on similarities in the storm's path through the Cyclone Phase Space (CPS). The differing clusters group various possible scenarios of structural development represented in the ensemble forecasts. As a result, it is possible to shed light on the role of the synoptic scale in changing the structure of this hurricane in the midlatitudes through intercomparison of the most "realistic" forecast of the evolution of Alex and the other physically plausible modes of its development.

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING ANXIETY IN ELITE SPORTSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal GÜNDOĞDU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the anxiety the triathlon sportsmen of national teams experience before competitions and the factors that affect this kind of anxiety. This descriptive study was carried out with the voluntary participation of 104 sportsmen who participated in the Istanbul European Cup, Elazıg Balkan Grand Prix and Alanya World Cup in 2014. The data collection instrument was an interview questionnaire developed by the researchers, and the Cronbach alpha of the questions was 0.77. T he data were analyzed with a statistical program, and independent samples t - test and ANOVA were used. According to the data, the following findings were identified: the sportsmen of the Turkish national team felt pre - competition anxiety more than the sport smen of foreign national teams. The female sportsmen experienced the physical symptoms of anxiety more. The younger sportsmen felt more anxious about the fact that they were not going to perform well in the competition. The anxiety of making mistakes decre ased with age. Those whose sporting age was lower felt more anxious for not performing well and for making mistakes.

  18. Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab National Bank and State Bank of India and Canara Bank. The sample size of 450 has been taken from among the urban population of above 18 years of age. The result indicates that the educated respondents use the service of internet banking. Based on occupation we can say that the service class and the business class is the one who use internet banking service to nearly 2 times as other occupation. The high income respondents having more than 1 lack income prefer to use this service. The private sector bank account holders use this service as compared to public sector banks. The banking attributes i.e. convenience and security do have very attentive influence on the use of Internet banking.

  19. Nonfocal renal biopsies: adequacy and factors affecting a successful outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Mark A; Atri, Mostafa; O'Malley, Martin; Jacks, Lindsay; John, Rohan; Herzenberg, Andrew; Reich, Heather; Ghai, Sangeet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors affecting the success of ultrasound-guided core biopsy of kidneys and determine the optimum number of passes. This retrospective study evaluated 484 nonfocal renal biopsies performed with 18-gauge side-notch biopsy needles. Number of biopsy passes, serum creatinine, body mass index, needle type, transplant age, kidney size, diabetic status, and operator were evaluated as predictors of the number of biopsy passes. Four hundred seventy-four biopsies (338 transplant, 136 native) were included with mean number of passes 2.87 (3.1 native vs 2.78 transplant; P = 0.002). Mean number of glomeruli yielded per pass was 6.9 (7.2 transplant vs 6.1 native; P = 0.0002) with 3 passes adequate for histological diagnosis in 84% of biopsies. Native kidney, increasing serum creatinine level, trainee biopsy operator, and use of a Temno needle were found to be independent predictors of having more than 3 biopsy passes on multivariate analysis. Age, sex, body mass index, diabetic status, and kidney size were not associated with the number of biopsy passes. The success of a nonfocal renal biopsy has many influencing variables, and in the absence of an on-site electron microscopy technologist to immediately evaluate biopsy samples, 3 passes with an 18-gauge needle would be adequate in 84% of kidneys to achieve a histological diagnosis, with 2 passes needed for transplant kidneys to meet the Banff 97 criteria.

  20. Factors Affecting Rural Households’ Resilience to Food Insecurity in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboubakr Gambo Boukary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Niger faces many natural and human constraints explaining the erratic evolution of its agricultural production over time. Unfortunately, this is likely to cause a decline in the food supply. This study attempts to identify factors affecting rural households’ resilience to food insecurity in Niger. For this, we first create a resilience index by using principal component analysis and later apply structural equation modeling to identify its determinants. Data from the 2010 National Survey on Households’ Vulnerability to Food Insecurity done by the National Institute of Statistics is used. The study shows that asset and social safety net indicators are significant and have a positive impact on households’ resilience. Climate change approximated by long-term mean rainfall has a negative and significant effect on households’ resilience. Therefore, to strengthen households’ resilience to food insecurity, there is a need to increase assistance to households through social safety nets and to help them gather more resources in order to acquire more assets. Furthermore, early warning of climatic events could alert households, especially farmers, to be prepared and avoid important losses that they experience anytime an uneven climatic event occurs.

  1. Psychosocial Factors Affecting Smartphone Addiction in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aker, Servet; Şahin, Mustafa Kürşat; Sezgin, Serap; Oğuz, Gülay

    Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate psychosocial factors affecting smartphone addiction in university students. The study was performed among students at the Ondokuz Mayis University Samsun School of Health (Samsun, Turkey) on October-December 2015. Four hundred ninety-four students possessing smartphones and agreeing to participate were included. A sociodemographic data form produced by the authors and consisting of 10 questions was administered together with a questionnaire involving the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version (SAS-SV), the Flourishing Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. The questionnaires were applied in a class environment at face-to-face interviews. SAS-SV scores of 6.47% of students were "significantly higher" than the participating group mean SAS-SV score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that depression, anxiety and insomnia, and familial social support statistically, significantly predicted smartphone addiction. Further studies of smartphone addiction in different age groups and with different educational levels are now needed.

  2. Microflora of processed cheese and the factors affecting it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buňková, Leona; Buňka, František

    2017-07-24

    The basic raw materials for the production of processed cheese are natural cheese which is treated by heat with the addition of emulsifying salts. From a point of view of the melting temperatures used (and the pH-value of the product), the course of processed cheese production can be considered "pasteurisation of cheese." During the melting process, the majority of vegetative forms of microorganisms, including bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, are inactivated. The melting temperatures are not sufficient to kill the endospores, which survive the process but are often weakened. From a microbiological point of view, the biggest contamination problem of processed cheese is caused by gram-positive spore-forming rod-shaped bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Geobacillus, and Clostridium. Other factors affecting the shelf-life and quality of processed cheese are mainly the microbiological quality of the raw materials used, strict hygienic conditions during the manufacturing process as well as the type of packaging materials and storage conditions. The quality of processed cheese is not only dependent on the ingredients used but also on other parameters such as the value of water activity of the processed cheese, its pH-value, the presence of salts and emulsifying salts and the amount of fat in the product.

  3. [Factors affecting young mothers' social and family relations after pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Thatiana Araújo; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; Silva, José Mário Nunes da

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to analyze factors affecting social and family relations of young mothers in the two-year postpartum period. This was a cross-sectional study of 464 young mothers in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, who gave birth during the first four months of 2006 in six maternity hospitals. Data were collected from May to December 2008 after identifying the young women in the maternity hospital records. Multivariate analysis used multinomial logistic regression. Married young women (including those in common-law marriages) were 80% less likely to have negative relations with their partners. Participants 20 to 22 years of age related 2.4 times better with their mothers than those 17 to 19 years of age. Young women not attending school showed 97% higher odds of negative changes in relations with friends, and Catholics were 50% less likely to have worse relations with friends following childbirth. Measures are needed to orient individuals living with young mothers (especially their partners and mothers) concerning the importance of support in this phase of life, particularly encouraging them to stay in school.

  4. Evaluation of factors affecting psychological morbidity in emergency medicine practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Mehdi; Fahim, Farshid; Vahidi, Elnaz; Nejati, Amir; Saeedi, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Assessing and evaluating mental health status can provide educational planners valuable information to predict the quality of physicians' performance at work. These data can help physicians to practice in the most desired way. The study aimed to evaluate factors affecting psychological morbidity in Iranian emergency medicine practitioners at educational hospitals of Tehran. In this cross sectional study 204 participants (emergency medicine residents and specialists) from educational hospitals of Tehran were recruited and their psychological morbidity was assessed by using a 28-question Goldberg General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Somatization, anxiety and sleep disorders, social dysfunction and depression were evaluated among practitioners and compared to demographic and job related variables. Two hundreds and four participants consisting of 146 (71.6%) males and 58 (28.4%) females were evaluated. Of all participants, 55 (27%) were single and 149 (73%) were married. Most of our participants (40.2%) were between 30-35 years old. By using GHQ-28, 129 (63.2%) were recognized as normal and 75 (36.8%) suffered some mental health disorders. There was a significant gender difference between normal practitioners and practitioners with disorder (P=0.02) while marital status had no significant difference (P=0.2). Only 19 (9.3%) declared having some major mental health issue in the previous month. Females encountered more mental health disorders than male (P=0.02) and the most common disorder observed was somatization (P=0.006).

  5. [Factors that affect adult men's decisions to hire a prostitute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ui, Miyoko; Matsui, Yutaka; Fukutomi, Mamoru; Narita, Ken'ichi; Kamise, Yumiko; Yashiro, Kaoru

    2008-08-01

    The present study analyzed demographic and psychological factors that affect adult men's decisions to solicit a prostitute. We administered a questionnaire to 1400 randomly sampled men aged 20 to 59, who live in the Tokyo metropolitan area (obtaining 664 valid responses). The results revealed that 14.6 percent of respondents have had the experience of being a client in prostitution at some point over the past four to five years. Men in their 50s, who spent their adolescence before the enforcement of anti-prostitution laws, had high prostitution acceptability. Those in their 20s and 30s, who spent their adolescence in the 1990s when "Enjyo-Kousai" (Japanese amateur prostitution) gained topicality, also showed high rates. These findings are considered to be birth cohort effects. In addition, those men who reported greater sexual drive and desire for intimate contact with others, as well as those who reported fewer attitudes of gender egalitarianism, had higher rates of prostitution solicitation. Finally, those men who reported less emotional family bonds also showed higher rates.

  6. Haze variation in valley region its affecting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinge; Zhao, Aling; Wang, Yan; Wang, Shaoxiong; Dang, Caoni

    2018-02-01

    The haze has a great harm on the environment and human health. Based on the daily meteorological observation data including visibility, relative humidity, wind speed, temperature, air pollution index and weather record of Baoji region in China, and using least squares method, wavelet and correlation analysis method, the temporal and spatial characteristics of haze were analyzed. While the factors affecting the haze change were discussed. The results showed that the haze mainly occurs in plain areas, and in hilly areas and mountain the haze frequency is relatively small. Overall the annual average haze is decreasing, especially in winter and spring the reduction trend of haze is most obvious, however, in summer haze is increasing. The haze has a 5-year short period and 10-year and 15-year long-term cycles change. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between temperature and wind speed with haze, while the relative humidity was significantly positively correlated with haze. These studies provide the basis for atmospheric environmental monitor and management.

  7. Social cognition in schizophrenia: cognitive and affective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Ido; Leiser, David; Levine, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Social cognition refers to how people conceive, perceive, and draw inferences about mental and emotional states of others in the social world. Previous studies suggest that the concept of social cognition involves several abilities, including those related to affect and cognition. The present study analyses the deficits of individuals with schizophrenia in two areas of social cognition: Theory of Mind (ToM) and emotion recognition and processing. Examining the impairment of these abilities in patients with schizophrenia has the potential to elucidate the neurophysiological regions involved in social cognition and may also have the potential to aid rehabilitation. Two experiments were conducted. Both included the same five tasks: first- and second-level false-belief ToM tasks, emotion inferencing, understanding of irony, and matrix reasoning (a WAIS-R subtest). The matrix reasoning task was administered to evaluate and control for the association of the other tasks with analytic reasoning skills. Experiment 1 involved factor analysis of the task performance of 75 healthy participants. Experiment 2 compared 30 patients with schizophrenia to an equal number of matched controls. Results. (1) The five tasks were clearly divided into two factors corresponding to the two areas of social cognition, ToM and emotion recognition and processing. (2) Schizophrenics' performance was impaired on all tasks, particularly on those loading heavily on the analytic component (matrix reasoning and second-order ToM). (3) Matrix reasoning, second-level ToM (ToM2), and irony were found to distinguish patients from controls, even when all other tasks that revealed significant impairment in the patients' performance were taken into account. The two areas of social cognition examined are related to distinct factors. The mechanism for answering ToM questions (especially ToM2) depends on analytic reasoning capabilities, but the difficulties they present to individuals with schizophrenia are due

  8. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Skouby, Sven O.; Kluft, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use influences the hemostatic system significantly and is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has potential effects on hemostasis. The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene expresses a FSAP...... alloenzyme with reduced pro-fibrinolytic activity. Presently, we address whether OC use and OC formulation affect FSAP measures in human blood. Healthy women (n=588) were allocated to six cycles of OCs with estrogen contents of 20μg (n=158), 30μg (n=284), 35μg (n=79) or 50μg (n=67) combined with various...... progestins. FSAP genotypes, FSAP and factor VII (FVII) plasma measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 cycles of OC. The 1601GA genotype was present in 49 (8.3%) of the women and was associated with significantly reduced levels of FSAP (P≤0.001). OC use increased FSAP antigen by 25% and FSAP activity...

  9. Factors Responsible for Plasma β-Amyloid Accumulation in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, Janine; Klafki, Hans-Wolfgang; Baldelli, Enrico; Kaltwasser, Britta; Seidel, Ulla K; Todica, Olga; Volsek, Michaela; Haußmann, Ute; Wiltfang, Jens; Kribben, Andreas; Bruck, Heike; Hermann, Dirk M

    2016-07-01

    Disturbed brain-to-blood elimination of β-amyloid (Aβ) promotes cerebral Aβ accumulation in Alzheimer's disease. Considering that the kidneys are involved in Aβ elimination from the blood, we evaluated how chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects plasma Aβ. In 106 CKD patients stages 3-5 (including 19 patients on hemodialysis and 15 kidney recipients), 53 control subjects with comparable vascular risk profile and 10 kidney donors, plasma Aβ was determined using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and gel electrophoresis followed by Western blotting. Plasma Aβ increased with CKD stage (control = 182.98 ± 76.73 pg/ml; CKD3A = 248.34 ± 103.77 pg/ml; CKD3B = 259.25 ± 97.74 pg/ml; CKD4 = 489.16 ± 154.16 pg/ml; CKD5 = 721.19 ± 291.69 pg/ml) and was not influenced by hemodialysis (CKD5D = 697.97 ± 265.91 pg/ml). Renal transplantation reduced plasma Aβ (332.57 ± 162.82 pg/ml), whereas kidney donation increased it (251.51 ± 34.34 pg/ml). Gel electrophoresis confirmed stage-dependent elevation namely of Aβ1-40, the most abundant Aβ peptide. In a multivariable regression including age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), potassium, hemoglobin, urine urea, and urine total protein, the factors eGFR (β = -0.42, p < 0.001), hemoglobin (β = -0.17, p = 0.020), and urine protein (β = 0.26, p = 0.008) were associated with plasma Aβ. In a regression including age, sex, eGFR, potassium, hemoglobin and the vascular risk factors systolic blood pressure, smoking, LDL, HDL, HbA1c, body mass index, brain-derived natriuretic peptide and fibrinogen, the factors eGFR (β = -0.53, p < 0.001), body mass index (β = -0.17, p = 0.022), and fibrinogen (β = 0.18, p = 0.024) were associated with plasma Aβ. Our results demonstrate a stage-dependent plasma Aβ increase that is augmented by loss of glomerulotubular integrity, low body weight, and inflammation

  10. Lipoic acid and ascorbic acid affect plasma free amino acids selectively in the teleost fish pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terjesen, Bendik F; Park, Kwan; Tesser, Marcelo B; Portella, Maria C; Zhang, Yongfang; Dabrowski, Konrad

    2004-11-01

    Most studies on the antioxidants, lipoic acid (LA) and ascorbic acid (AA), focused on species that, unlike teleost fish, are not scurvy-prone, and are able to synthesize AA. The antioxidant properties of LA may make it useful in aquaculture nutrition, but several effects must first be investigated, and we address here plasma free amino acids (FAA). In mammals, LA and AA in high doses were claimed to alter plasma FAA profile; to our knowledge, however, no data are available in fish. We therefore studied the effects of dietary LA and AA on plasma FAA in the South American teleost fish pacu, which is being used increasingly in aquaculture. LA treatment decreased concentrations of 18 of 23 individual FAA; specifically, dispensable and total FAA were significantly affected. Ornithine was elevated (+26%) in LA-treated fish and significantly decreased ratios of plasma [Arg]/[Orn] and other individual [FAA]/[Orn] were observed. LA and AA both affected sulfur FAA concentrations. Plasma cystine levels were significantly increased in the LA-supplemented groups. AA had little effect on most amino acids, and no interaction with LA was detected. AA supplementation did, however, significantly lower taurine (-42%) and cystathionine (-31%) levels in plasma. No effect on the branched chain:aromatic amino acid ratios was observed. The data indicate that at the dietary level studied, LA and AA independently affect selected plasma FAA in pacu, and suggest that any use of LA in particular as a dietary supplement should take into account an altered plasma FAA profile.

  11. Human likeness: cognitive and affective factors affecting adoption of robot-assisted learning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon

    2016-07-01

    With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.

  12. Infusion of butyrate affects plasma glucose, butyrate, and ß-hydroxybutyrate but not plasma insulin in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects on plasma metabolites and rumen measures when butyrate was infused into the rumen or abomasum of lactating cows. Jugular catheters were inserted into 5 ruminally fistulated Holstein cows (94.2 ± 26.3 days in milk [DIM]; 717 ± 45 kg body w...

  13. Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2013-01-01

    In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating

  14. Pathogen inactivation in fresh frozen plasma using riboflavin and ultraviolet light: Effects on plasma proteins and coagulation factor VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojković Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 activated by ultraviolet (UV light, produces active oxygen which damages cell membrane and prevents replication of the carrier of diseases (viruses, bacteria, protozoa in all blood products. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the process of photo inactivation in pathogens using riboflavin and UV rays on the concentration of coagulation factor VIII:C (FVIII:C and proteins in plasma that were treated before freezing. Methods. The examination included 20 units of plasma, separated from whole blood donated by voluntary blood donors around 6 hours from the moment of collection. The units were pooled and separated in to two groups: one consisted of 10 control units and the other of 10 experimental units. Experimental units of the plasma were treated by riboflavin (35 mL and UV rays (6.24 J/mL, 265-370 nm on Mirasol aparature (Caridian BCT Biotechnologies, USA in approximate duration of 6 minutes. Furthermore, 35 mL of saline solution was added to the control plasma. One sample for examining was taken from the control plasma (KG and two residual were taken from experimental plasma after the addition of riboflavin either before (EG1 or post illumination (EG2. Results. Comparing the mean values of FVIII:C (% we noticed statistically significantly higher level in the EG1 group than in the EG2 group (65.00 ± 4.52 vs 63.20 ± 4.73; t = 4.323, p = 0.002, while between the KG and experimental groups (EG1 and EG2 there was no statistically significant difference in the concentration of FVIII:C. There was a statistically significant decrease of albumin concentration (g/L in the EG2 group comparing to the KG (33.35 ± 0.94 vs 31.94 ± 0.84; t = 3.534, p = 0.002, but there was no mentioned difference in albumin concentration between the KG and the EG1, so as between the EG1 and the EG2. Conclusion. Plasma inactivated by riboflavin and UV rays (Mirasol PRT sistem, Caridian BCT, USA keeps all the

  15. [Pathogen inactivation in fresh frozen plasma using riboflavin and ultraviolet light: effects on plasma proteins and coagulation factor VII].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojković, Zoran; Antić, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) activated by ultraviolet (UV) light, produces active oxygen which damages cell membrane and prevents replication of the carrier of diseases (viruses, bacteria, protozoa) in all blood products. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the process of photo inactivation in pathogens using riboflavin and UV rays on the concentration of coagulation factor VIII:C (FVIII:C) and proteins in plasma that were treated before freezing. The examination included 20 units of plasma, separated from whole blood donated by voluntary blood donors around 6 hours from the moment of collection. The units were pooled and separated in to two groups: one consisted of 10 control units and the other of 10 experimental units. Experimental units of the plasma were treated by riboflavin (35 mL) and UV rays (6.24 J/mL, 265-370 nm) on Mirasol aparature (Caridian BCT Biotechnologies, USA) in approximate duration of 6 minutes. Furthermore, 35 mL of saline solution was added to the control plasma. One sample for examining was taken from the control plasma (KG) and two residual were taken from experimental plasma after the addition of riboflavin either before (EG1) or post illumination (EG2). Results. Comparing the mean values of FVIII:C (%) we noticed statistically significantly higher level in the EG1 group than in the EG2 group (65.00 +/- 4.52 vs. 63.20 +/- 4.73; t = 4.323, p = 0.002), while between the KG and experimental groups (EG1 and EG2) there was no statistically significant difference in the concentration of FVIII:C. There was a statistically significant decrease of albumin concentration (g/L) in the EG2 group comparing to the KG (33.35 +/- 0.94 vs. 31.94 +/- 0.84; t = 3.534, p = 0.002), but there was no mentioned difference in albumin concentration between the KG and the EG1, so as between the EG1 and the EG2. Plasma inactivated by riboflavin and UV rays (Mirasol PRT system, Caridian BCT, U.S.A.) keeps all the characteristics of conventional plasma

  16. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD AROMATIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н.Ye. Dubova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The specific understanding of food philosophy according to the facts of development of cooking technologies and growth rate of food range is given. As it has been proven by historical stages of production of flavorings, aroma is one of the important organoleptic ingredients for food developers. A review of food production based on development of nanotechnologies, as well as promising and cautioning publications on nanotechnologies in the food sector is presented. On the basis of the literary analysis, the future impact of nanotechnologies on the evolution of the aromatization process of food products is predicted. It has been determined that the peculiarity of the development mentioned above lies in the use of plant enzymes and / or flavor precursors in the nanoscale range. The example of enzymatic breakdown of polyunsaturated fatty acids of plant cell membranes as one of the ways of creating fresh flavor of many fruits, namely C6-C9 aldehydes and alcohols, is considered. It is noted that green fresh aromatic ingredients are needed to improve the organoleptic profile of foods from heat-treated vegetables, melons and gourds. The following factors affecting the development of food aromatization are defined: the decreased differentiation of principles of healthy nutrition and fast food, repetition of natural processes of aroma formation, application of wild green leafy vegetables, and evolution of medical nutrition. The information on food aromatization by packing with autonomous mixing and their approximate assortment is given. The innovations in food aromatization are aimed at quality nutrition, time saving, recreation and entertainment, meeting specific needs (vegetarian dishes, restrictive diets.

  17. Environmental Factors Affecting Fleece Traits in Raeini Cashmere Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Salehi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate some environmental factors (sex, age and management system on fibrecharacteristics of Raeini Cashmere goats in Baft stations (BS and of Raeini Cashmere goats raised in nomadic conditions (NC as commercial flocks. Fiber samples including cashmere and hair were taken from 150 and 120 Raeini Cashmere goats (aged 1-8 years old from BS and NC, respectively. The Fleece traits measured included staple length (SL, percentage of cashmere in fleece (C, percentage of guard hair in fleece (H, cashmere's mean fiber diameter (CMFD and the coefficient of variation of cashmere's fiber diameter (CVFD. Mean SL, C, H, CMFD and CVFD in BS were 6.35 ±0.1 cm, 66.51± 0.72 %, 33.5 ± 0.72 %, 20.19 ±0.11 micron and 19.57± 0.21% and thosein NC were 5.62 ± 0.1 cm, 69.06 ± 0.74 %, 30.94 ±0.74 %, 19.53±0.15 micron and 17.88 ± 0.19 %, respectively. There were significant differences (P<0.05 between the two production management systems for all traits investigated. The value for C was significantly higher in males than females (P<0.05. The results showed that the fleece traits were affected by age. However, the effect of age on these traits was not the same. Significant phenotypic correlations were found between SL and CMFD (0.16 and between SL and CVFD (0.13. The results of this study indicated that the fixed effects of age, sex and management systems as well as the relationship between fleece traits should  be considered in the Raeini Cashmere goat breeding programs.

  18. Socioeconomic Factors Affect Outcomes in Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swegal, Warren C; Singer, Michael; Peterson, Edward; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Kono, Scott A; Snyder, Susan; Melvin, Thuy-Anh N; Calzada, Gabriel; Ghai, Nirupa R; Saman, Daniel M; Chang, Steven S

    2016-03-01

    The effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on the incidence of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) are well researched. However, the association between SES and outcomes is not delineated. Our objective was to determine if SES affected outcomes of WDTC. Retrospective database review. Tertiary care medical center. The Henry Ford Virtual Data Warehouse Tumor Registry was used to identify cases of WDTC. Socioeconomic data were obtained through the 2010 US Census: median household income, percentage below poverty line, median household size, percentage rent versus own property, and general demographics. Survival was the primary outcome. Disease-specific survival was also calculated. Cox proportional hazards were calculated and a multivariate analysis performed. There were 1317 patients with WDTC. In multivariable analysis, median household income (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.85, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.79-0.91), household size (HR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.09-2.14), younger age (HR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.74-2.23), and female sex (HR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.37-0.69) were significantly associated with survival. Controlling for stage revealed percentage below poverty line (stage I, HR: 0.51, 95% CI: 1.34-1.78; stage IV, HR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.57) and median household income (HR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71-0.99) to be significant factors in survival. Median household income was a statistically significant variable for disease-related death (HR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.69-0.96) CONCLUSIONS: Along with effects on incidence, lower SES correlates with worse survival in WDTC. This suggests that a patient's economic background, with younger age and female sex, influences one's outcomes with regard to both overall and disease-specific death. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  19. Factors Affecting Social Network Use by Students in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhi Kristianto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Indonesia is one of the world’s most populated countries with a high penetration of internet usage there has been little research on SNS usage in Indonesia, especially involving children. Instead, SNS research in Indonesia has focused on university students and political, marketing, and disaster mitigation issues. Aim/Purpose: In order to address this gap a theoretical model is formulated from a review of previous studies incorporating basic constructs found in the Technology Acceptance Model (Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and Attitude as well as other influences, motivations, and individual characteristics that affect a child’s attitude toward the use of SNS. Methodology\t: The model is evaluated and developed using data collected from 460 children in primary school grades 4, 5, and 6 in five cities in Indonesia. The statistical techniques implemented with SPSS and Amos computer software (t-tests, correlation coefficients, principal component factor analysis, Cronbach alpha coefficients, and structural equation modeling (SEM analysis. Findings: The results confirm many of the effects on a child’s attitude toward SNS reported in previous studies due to: the usefulness and ease of use of SNS; parental influence; feelings of flow experience and risk; and the child’s level of access, technical expertise, and experience with SNS. New findings include significant correlations and causal effects involving: the influences of peers and parents; the child’s level of technical expertise; and feelings of flow experience. Contribution: Despite limitations related to sampling and the administration of a questionnaire among young children, the findings contribute to theory as well as practice and provide guidance on effective ways to improve children’s attitudes towards the use of SNS.

  20. Factors affecting the next generation of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remick, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    For both financial, environmental and health reasons, and because of external and internal factors affecting this nation's energy supply, nuclear power will likely play a part in supplying this nation's energy in the coming decades. I believe this to be true for some other parts of the world as well. Even some severe critics of the nuclear power industry and the NRC might agree with me on this point. Increasing concern with the environmental consequences of the burning of fossil fuels has led some former opponents of the use of nuclear power to balance anew the risks and benefits of nuclear power and to modify to some degree their former opposition. A related concern with the adequacy of the energy supply is leading others to modify their positions. According to analyses done by the U.S. Department of Energy, after 1994 the United States will no longer be able to assure all its citizens a reliable supply of electricity. Already, many areas of the country are in need of additional electric capacity. In both Sweden and Switzerland, similar concerns have led to the adoption by many of more compromising positions. Some critics of nuclear power may in the end still reject it as an alternative, but, with the increased pressures on the environment and on our energy supply, nuclear power is an alternative which cannot be rejected without the most serious consideration. This should be, I believe, a point of consensus among us. In sum, there is a future for nuclear power in the sense that there is a use for it

  1. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers.

  2. A System Dynamics Analysis of the Factors Affecting Combat Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    capability of those weapon systems ( ASCAP ) and then modifying this value by an aircrew capability factor (ACCF) and weapon systems availability factor...NOTE USR - UNITED STATES READINESS NOTE ACCF - AIRCREW CAPABILITY FACTOR w NOTE ASCAP - AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS CAPABILITY NOTE LOWS - LEVEL OF WEAPON SYSTEMS

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Factors affecting pregnancy outcome in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for Assisted Reproductive Technology Registry.' As several factors may influence the likelihood of pregnancy from GIFT, it is difficult to assess the contribution of a single factor. Some of the factors that have been investigated include oocyte maturity,' number of oocytes transferred,' age,' sperm characteristics/7 fertilisation of ...

  4. Factors Affecting Students' Choice of Science and Engineering in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Maria Jose B. M.; Leite, Maria Salete S. C. P.; Woolnough, Brian E.

    This paper presents the results of a study undertaken in Portugal to determine the influence of different factors on students' (n=499) decisions to study or refuse to study in one of the physical sciences or engineering. Some influencing factors are related to what goes on in school and during science lessons, and other factors are related to the…

  5. Dietary fructooligosaccharides and transgalactooligosaccharides can affect fermentation characteristics in gut contents and portal plasma of growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, J.G.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Bosch, M.W.; Laere, van K.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    We studied whether dietary non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) affected pH and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in gastrointestinal contents and in portal plasma of young pigs. Five groups of five 57-day-old pigs received for 44 days either a corn-based control diet or this diet with 7.5 or 15 g/kg

  6. Factors Affecting Gastrointestinal Absorption of Levothyroxine: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelin, Marko; Lucijanić, Tomo; Amidžić Klarić, Daniela; Rešić, Arnes; Bakula, Miro; Liberati-Čizmek, Ana-Marija; Gharib, Hossein; Rahelić, Dario

    2017-02-01

    Levothyroxine (LT4) is a drug with a narrow therapeutic index, applied in small amounts (micrograms), which makes interactions in the absorption phase clinically significant. The main aim of this article was to review and present the latest information on factors that affect the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. Relevant data were collected by using the MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scopus databases with the key words levothyroxine and absorption. Searches were not limited to specific publication types, study designs, dates, or languages. The reports were highly variable in the amount of information provided regarding study design and methods. Because of the heterogeneity of studies, no statistical analysis was performed. Many gastrointestinal disorders, such as celiac disease, atrophic gastritis, lactose intolerance, and Helicobacter pylori infection, may impede the absorption of levothyroxine. During treatment of these disorders, it is necessary to monitor serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free T4 values to reduce the risk of developing iatrogenic hyperthyroidism. Soybeans and coffee have the greatest impact on the reduction of absorption, whereas vitamin C has the ability to increase it. Conversely, the effect of dietary fiber on the absorption of LT4 is not yet fully understood; further research is needed on this topic. A decrease in the absorption of LT4 is established and clinically significant when administered concomitantly with cholestyramine, colesevelam, lanthanum, calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, calcium acetate, iron sulfate, ciprofloxacin, aluminum hydroxide, sevelamer, or proton pump inhibitors. This effect should be taken into consideration when prescribing these drugs concomitantly with LT4. The effects of Giardia lamblia infection and the influence of orlistat, polystyrene sulfonate, raloxifene, and simethicone on absorption of LT4 have been poorly documented. For bariatric surgery, sucralfate and H 2

  7. Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of clod steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, K J; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Courington, S M; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2002-02-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of clod steaks (n = 1,264) as influenced by USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), city (Chicago and Philadelphia), consumer segment (Beef Loyals, who are heavy consumers of beef; Budget Rotators, who are cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and Variety Rotators, who have higher incomes and education and split their meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, and cooking method. Consumers evaluated each steak for Overall Like, Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavor Like, and Flavor Amount using 10-point scales. Grilling was the predominant cooking method used, and steaks were cooked to medium-well and greater degrees of doneness. Interactions existed involving the consumer-controlled factors of degree of doneness and(or) cooking method for all consumer-evaluated traits for the clod steak (P 0.05). One significant main effect, segment (P = 0.006), and one significant interaction, cooking method x city (P = 0.0407), existed for Overall Like ratings. Consumers in the Beef Loyals segment rated clod steaks higher in Overall Like than the other segments. Consumers in Chicago tended to give more uniform Overall Like ratings to clod steaks cooked by various methods; however, consumers in Philadelphia gave among the highest ratings to clod steaks that were fried and among the lowest to those that were grilled. Additionally, although clod steaks that were fried were given generally high ratings by consumers in Philadelphia, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks cooked in this manner significantly lower than those in Philadelphia. Conversely, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks that were grilled significantly higher than consumers in Philadelphia. Correlation and stepwise regression analyses indicated that Flavor Like was driving customer satisfaction of the clod steak. Flavor Like was the sensory trait most highly correlated to Overall

  8. Factors affecting quality of life in Hungarian adults with epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kováts, Daniella; Császár, Noémi; Haller, József

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the impact of 19 factors on life quality in Hungarian patients with epilepsy. Wellbeing was evaluated by several inventories to investigate the impact of factors in more detail. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 170 patients. Wellbeing was evaluated...... with the WHO-5 Well-being Index (WHOQOL-5), Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale (SwLS), and the Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31 Questionnaire (Qolie-31). We investigated their association with demographic characteristics, general health status, epilepsy, and its treatment. The impact of these factors on illness...... associations with epilepsy-related factors. All four categories of factors were associated with Qolie-31 and IPQ scores. Factors had an additive impact on IPQ, but not on Qolie-31. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings reveal interactions between the method of life quality assessment and the factors that are identified...

  9. Cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor profile of platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussano, F; Genova, T; Munaron, L; Petrillo, S; Erovigni, F; Carossa, S

    2016-07-01

    During wound healing, biologically active molecules are released from platelets. The rationale of using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) relies on the concentration of bioactive molecules and subsequent delivery to healing sites. These bioactive molecules have been seldom simultaneously quantified within the same PRP preparation. In the present study, the flexible Bio-Plex system was employed to assess the concentration of a large range of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in 16 healthy volunteers so as to determine whether significant baseline differences may be found. Besides IL-1b, IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, INF-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1, MIP-1a, RANTES, bFGF, PDGF, and VEGF that were already quantified elsewhere, the authors reported also on the presence of IL-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-9, IL-10, IL-15 G-CSF, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, CXCL10 chemokine (IP-10), and MIP 1b. Among the most interesting results, it is convenient to mention the high concentrations of the HIV-suppressive and inflammatory cytokine RANTES and a statistically significant difference between males and females in the content of PDGF-BB. These data are consistent with previous reports pointing out that gender, diet, and test system affect the results of platelet function in healthy subjects, but seem contradictory when compared to other quantification assays in serum and plasma. The inconsistencies affecting the experimental results found in literature, along with the variability found in the content of bioactive molecules, urge further research, hopefully in form of randomized controlled clinical trials, in order to find definitive evidence of the efficacy of PRP treatment in various pathologic and regenerative conditions.

  10. Reducing behavioural risk factors for cancer: An affect regulation perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Daniel; Suri, Gaurav; Gross, James J

    2018-01-01

    Nearly half of all cancer deaths are attributable to preventable causes, primarily unhealthy behaviours such as tobacco use, alcohol use and overeating. In this review, we argue that people engage in these behaviours, at least in part, as a means of regulating their affective states. To better understand why people engage in these behaviours and how researchers might design interventions to promote the selection of healthier methods for regulating affect, we propose a conceptual model of affect regulation. We synthesise research from both the stress and coping tradition as well as the emotion and emotion regulation tradition, two literatures that are not typically integrated. In so doing, we indicate where researchers have made headway in understanding these behaviours as affect regulation and note how our model could be used to structure future work in a way that would be particularly advantageous to cancer control efforts.

  11. Cheddar Cheese Ripening Affects Plasma Nonesterified Fatty Acid and Serum Insulin Concentrations in Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorning, Tanja K; Bendsen, Nathalie T; Jensen, Søren K; Ardö, Ylva; Tholstrup, Tine; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2015-07-01

    Meta-analyses of observational studies found cheese consumption to be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This may be attributed to the bioactive compounds produced during cheese ripening. The objective of this study was to investigate by means of a porcine model how cheeses with different ripening times affect blood glucose, insulin, and lipid concentrations and fecal-fat excretion. A parallel-arm randomized intervention study with 36 Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc crossbred 3-mo-old female pigs was conducted. The pigs were fed a 21-d butter-rich run-in diet (143 g of butter/kg diet), followed by a 14-d intervention with 1 of 3 isocaloric diets: 4-mo ripened cheddar (4-MRC) diet, 14-mo ripened cheddar (14-MRC) diet, or 24-mo ripened cheddar (24-MRC) diet (350 g of cheese/kg diet). Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and insulin; plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and glucose; fecal-fat excretion; and body weight were measured. Plasma NEFAs were lower in the 24-MRC (201 ± 26 μEq/L) and in the 14-MRC (171 ± 19 μEq/L) diet groups than in the 4-MRC diet group (260 ± 27 μEq/L; P = 0.044 and P = 0.001). Serum insulin was lower in the 24-MRC diet group (1.04 ± 0.09 mmol/L) than in the 4-MRC diet group (1.44 ± 0.14 mmol/L; P = 0.002), but intermediate and not different from either in the 14-MRC diet group (1.25 ± 0.11 mmol/L). Likewise, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was lower in the 24-MRC diet group (0.030 ± 0.003) than in the 4-MRC diet group (0.041 ± 0.005; P < 0.01), but intermediate and not different from either in the 14-MRC group (0.036 ± 0.004). Intake of long-term ripened cheddar improved indicators of insulin sensitivity in growing pigs compared with short-term ripened cheddar. This may also be important for human health. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Plasma placenta growth factor levels in midtrimester pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjoa, M. L.; van Vugt, J. M.; Mulders, M. A.; Schutgens, R. B.; Oudejans, C. B.; van Wijk, I. J.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have shown decreased levels of placenta growth factor in serum of pregnant women with preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of placenta growth factor are decreased before the clinical onset of preeclampsia, and whether placenta growth factor levels

  13. Regulation of plasma von Willebrand factor [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl C Desch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Von Willebrand factor (VWF is a multimeric plasma glycoprotein that plays a central role in the initiation of blood coagulation. Through interactions between its specific functional domains, the vascular wall, coagulation factor VIII, and platelet receptors, VWF maintains hemostasis by binding to platelets and delivering factor VIII to the sites of vascular injury. In the healthy human population, plasma VWF levels vary widely. The important role of VWF is illustrated by individuals at the extremes of the normal distribution of plasma VWF concentrations where individuals with low VWF levels are more likely to present with mucocutaneous bleeding. Conversely, people with high VWF levels are at higher risk for venous thromboembolic disease, stroke, and coronary artery disease. This report will summarize recent advances in our understanding of environmental influences and the genetic control of VWF plasma variation in healthy and symptomatic populations and will also highlight the unanswered questions that are currently driving this field of study.

  14. A Qualitative Study on Organizational Factors Affecting Occupational Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESKANDARI, Davood; JAFARI, Mohammad Javad; MEHRABI, Yadollah; KIAN, Mostafa Pouya; CHARKHAND, Hossein; MIRGHOTBI, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Technical, human, operational and organizational factors have been influencing the sequence of occupational accidents. Among them, organizational factors play a major role in causing occupational accidents. The aim of this research was to understand the Iranian safety experts’ experiences and perception of organizational factors. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 by using the content analysis technique. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 17 safety experts working in Iranian universities and industries and analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis method using the MAXQDA software. Results: Eleven organizational factors’ sub-themes were identified: management commitment, management participation, employee involvement, communication, blame culture, education and training, job satisfaction, interpersonal relationship, supervision, continuous improvement, and reward system. The participants considered these factors as effective on occupational accidents. Conclusion: The mentioned 11 organizational factors are probably involved in occupational accidents in Iran. Naturally, improving organizational factors can increase the safety performance and reduce occupational accidents. PMID:28435824

  15. Factors Affecting Productivity in the United States Naval Construction Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morton, Darren

    1997-01-01

    By using a craftsman questionnaire, this thesis identifies and ranks the most important factors impairing Petty Officer productivity and morale in the United States Naval Construction Force (Seabees...

  16. Platelet concentration in platelet-rich plasma affects tenocyte behavior in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Ilaria; D'Ascenzo, Sandra; Mancò, Annalisa; Di Stefano, Gabriella; Di Francesco, Marianna; Rughetti, Anna; Dal Mas, Antonella; Properzi, Gianfranco; Calvisi, Vittorio; Dolo, Vincenza

    2014-01-01

    Since tendon injuries and tendinopathy are a growing problem, sometimes requiring surgery, new strategies that improve conservative therapies are needed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) seems to be a good candidate by virtue of its high content of growth factors, most of which are involved in tendon healing. This study aimed to evaluate if different concentrations of platelets in PRP have different effects on the biological features of normal human tenocytes that are usually required during tendon healing. The different platelet concentrations tested (up to 5 × 10(6) plt/µL) stimulated differently tenocytes behavior; intermediate concentrations (0.5 × 10(6), 1 × 10(6) plt/µL) strongly induced all tested processes (proliferation, migration, collagen, and MMPs production) if compared to untreated cells; on the contrary, the highest concentration had inhibitory effects on proliferation and strongly reduced migration abilities and overall collagen production but, at the same time, induced increasing MMP production, which could be counterproductive because excessive proteolysis could impair tendon mechanical stability. Thus, these in vitro data strongly suggest the need for a compromise between extremely high and low platelet concentrations to obtain an optimal global effect when inducing in vivo tendon healing.

  17. The Synergistic Effect between Electrical and Chemical Factors in Plasma Gene/Molecule-Transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    This study has been done to know what kind of factors in plasma and processes on cells promote plasma gene/molecule transfection. We have discovered a new plasma source using a microcapillary electrode which enables high transfection efficiency and high cell survivability simultaneously. However, the mechanism of the transfection by plasma was not clear. To clarify the transfection mechanisms by micro plasma, we focused on the effects of electrical (current, charge, field, etc.) and chemical (radicals, RONS, etc.) factors generated by the micro plasma and evaluated the contribution weight of three groups of the effects and processes, i.e. electrical, chemical and biochemical ones. At first, the necessity of the electrical factors was estimated by the laser produced plasma (LPP). Mouse L-929 fibroblast cell was cultured on a 96-well plate or 12-well micro slide chamber. Plasmids pCX-EGFP in Tris-EDTA buffer was dropped on the cells and they were exposed to the capillary discharge plasma (CDP) or the LPP. In the case of the CDP, the plasma was generated between the tip of the capillary electrode and the cells so that both electrical and chemical factors were supplied to the cells. In this setup, about 20% of average transfection efficiency was obtained. In the case of the LPP, the plasma was generated apart from the cells so that electrical factors were not supplied to the cells. In this setup, no transfection was observed. These results show that the electrical factors are necessary for the plasma gene transfection. Next, the necessity of the chemical factors was estimated the effect of catalase to remove H2O2 in CDP. The transfection efficiency decreased to 0.4 by scavenging H2O2 with catalase. However, only the solution of H2O2 caused no gene transfection in cells. These results shows that H2O2 is important species to cause gene/molecule transfection but still needs a synergistic effect with electrical or other chemical factors. This work was partly supported by

  18. Factors affecting high resting pulse rate in military pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pilot terpajan pada keadaan yang memerlukan kewaspadaan yang meningkatkan kegiatan sistem saraf simpatis. Hal ini dapat berdampak pada sistem kardiovaskular manusia, yang antara lain tercermin pada peningkatan frekuensi denyut jantung. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh beberapa faktor yang meningkatkan frekuensi denyut jantung pada pilot. Metode:Penelitian nested case-control yang dilakukan pada pilot militer yang melakukan pemeriksaan fisik tahunan di Lembaga Kesehatan Penerbangan dan Ruang Angkasa (LAKESPRA Saryanto dari tahun 2003 sampai 2008. Data yang diperoleh dari rekam medik berupa umur, pangkat, jumlah jam terbang, rata-rata jam terbang per tahun, dan jenis pesawat. Hasil: Dari 539 pilot, terdapat 155 pilot dengan frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi. Dibandingkan dengan pilot berumur 23-29 tahun, pilot berumur 30-39 tahun mempunyai risiko 66% lebih banyak untuk frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi [rasio odds suaian (ORa = 1,66; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 1,17-2,35, P = 0,004], sedangkan yang berumur 40-49 tahun berisiko 2,4 kali (ORa = 2,40; P = 0,000]. Dibandingkan pilot pesawat transport, pilot pesawat tempur berisiko 59% lebih banyak dengan frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi (ORa = 1,59; P = 0,002. Kesimpulan:Umur pilot yang semakin tua dan jenis pesawat tempur meningkatkan risiko frekuensi nadi istirahat pada pilot. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:51-4Kata kunci:umur, jenis pesawat terbang, frekuensi nadi istirahat, pilotAbstractBackground:Pilots are almost constantly exposed to emergency situations which increase sympathetic activity. This will affect the cardiovascular system, which among others will be reflected by increased resting pulse rate. The aim of this study was to investigate factors that increase resting pulse rate in pilots. Methods:A nested case-control study was conducted on Indonesian Air Force military pilots doing annual medical check-ups at the Saryanto Institute for Medical and Health

  19. Some factors that will affect the next generation of forest growth models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leary, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses several types of factors that affect the form and referents of future growth models. These include philosophical, scientific, technological, educational, and organizational factors. Each factor is presented individually

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING CITY DESTINATION CHOICE AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Tomić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to explore factors which influence city destination choice among young people in Serbia. In order to achieve this we conducted a survey consisting of 20 different items influencing the choice of city destination. Afterwards the principal component exploratory factor analysis (EFA was carried out in order to extract factors. T-test and ANOVA test were also used to determine if there is a difference between different gender and age groups in terms of which factors influence their choice of a city destination. The results indicate four motivating factors extracted by factor analysis, from which Good hospitality and restaurant service seems to be the major motivating factor. The results also show that respondents belonging to the age group of under 25 give more importance to Information and promotion as well as to Good hospitality and restaurant service than those belonging to older age groups. The same two factors are also more important to females than males.

  1. Factors affecting fertility decisions of married men and women living ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In a setting with high HIV prevalence and high fertility rates, addressing fertility issues of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is crucial. However, understanding of the factors associated with fertility decisions of PLWHA in Ethiopia is remarkably low. Objective: The study was conducted to assess factors ...

  2. Examining Factors That Affect Students' Knowledge Sharing within Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinxia; Gunter, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors include: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group…

  3. Interphonology Variability: Sociolinguistic Factors Affecting L2 Simplification Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuh-Huey

    2003-01-01

    Investigates variability in interlanguage consonant cluster simplification strategies within the four factors--style, gender, proficiency, and interlocutor. Examined how these factors determine Chinese English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) speakers' production of English word-initial consonant clusters. (Author/VWL)

  4. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Rain Water Harvesting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption of technology.is an important factor in economic development especially.in developing countries succ,essful introduction of technologies in developing countries requires an understanding gf .the prioriti~s and concerns of smallholder fanners at the grassroots. This. paper analyses the soc,io-economic factors t~at ...

  5. A comparative gender study of the factors affecting motivation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study is to identify the key factors of motivation for professional and paraprofessional library staff based on their gender and to identify how they rate the various motivational factors. The descriptive survey method was employed and five university libraries were selected for the study. The respondents ...

  6. Perioperative factors affecting fast tracking in paediatrics cardiac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young age was found to be a factor associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and extubation. Further, the presence of pulmonary hypertension, lower cardiac grade and ventricular dysfunction were found to be factors significantly associated with prolonged weaning. While, cardiac disease occurring in combination, ...

  7. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  8. Assessment of factors affecting the performance of microfinance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the other hand, institutional factors such as shortage of human resource, lack of cost effective technologies, shortage of loan capital and some others are identified. Political factors which are related to MFIs performance are also recognized in this study. Based on the analysis and the finding of the study, the researchers ...

  9. Analysis of the Plasma Properties Affected by Magnetic Confinement with Special Emphasis on Helicon Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuguo; Cheng, Mousen; Wang, Moge; Yang, Xiong; Li, Xiaokang

    2014-12-01

    A one-dimensional radial non-uniform fluid model is employed to study plasma behaviors with special emphasis laid on helicon discharges. The plasma density ne, electron temperature Te, electron azimuthal and radial drift velocities are investigated in terms of the plasma radius rp, magnetic field intensity B0 and gas pressure p0, by assuming radial ambipolar diffusion and negligible ion cyclotron movement. The results show that the magnetic confinement plays an important role in the discharge equilibrium, especially at low pressure, which significantly reduces Te compared with the case of a negligible magnetic field effect, and higher B0 leads to a greater average plasma density. Te shows little variations in the plasma density range of 1011 cm-3-1013 cm-3 for p0 < 3.0 mTorr. Comparison of the simulation results with experiments suggests that the model can make reasonable predictions of Te in low pressure helicon discharges.

  10. Micafungin Plasma Levels Are Not Affected by Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: Experience in Critically Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidinger, M.; Lemmerer, R.; Unger, M.; Pferschy, S.; Lamm, W.; Maier-Salamon, A.; Jäger, W.; Thalhammer, F.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Critically ill patients often experience acute kidney injury and the need for renal replacement therapy in the course of their treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU). These patients are at an increased risk for candidiasis. Although there have been several reports of micafungin disposition during renal replacement therapy, to this date there are no data describing the elimination of micafungin during high-dose continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration with modified AN69 membranes. The aim of this prospective open-label pharmacokinetic study was to assess whether micafungin plasma levels are affected by continuous hemodiafiltration in critical ill patients using the commonly employed AN69 membrane. A total of 10 critically ill patients with micafungin treatment due to suspected or proven candidemia were included in this trial. Prefilter/postfilter micafungin clearance was measured to be 46.0 ml/min (±21.7 ml/min; n = 75 individual time points), while hemofilter clearance calculated by the sieving coefficient was 0.0038 ml/min (±0.002 ml/min; n = 75 individual time points). Total body clearance was measured to be 14.0 ml/min (±7.0 ml/min; n = 12). The population area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–24) was calculated as 158.5 mg · h/liter (±79.5 mg · h/liter; n = 13). In spite of high protein binding, no dose modification is necessary in patients receiving continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration with AN69 membranes. A dose elevation may, however, be justified in certain cases. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT02651038.) PMID:28584142

  11. Increased basal plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in sprint runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Paulo Roberto; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Pansani, Aline; Toscano-Silva, Michelle; de Almeida, Antonio Carlos; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2011-10-01

    Exercise is known to enhance circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in healthy humans. BDNF changes have been measured in endurance but not in strength exercise. The present study aimed to investigate whether anaerobic activity such as sprinting differentially alters basal plasma BDNF concentration. Brazilian sprinters (100 m) at either the international (Olympics and Outdoor World Championships) (n = 14) or the domestic level (n = 8), and sedentary subjects (n = 15), were recruited. Plasma BDNF concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The basal plasma BDNF concentrations were significantly higher in the international and the domestic sprinters than in the sedentary subjects. In addition, sprinters at the international level had higher plasma BDNF concentrations than those at the domestic level. Our findings suggest that increased basal plasma BDNF level is related to enhanced exercise performance.

  12. Colorectal liver metastases: factors affecting outcome after surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeren, N.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related death in Europe. The overall survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer is greatly affected by the presence of liver metastases, which occurs in about 50% of patients. Radical resection of colorectal liver metastases means a

  13. Factors and pharmaceuticals that affect the radiopharmaceuticals bio distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The pattern of biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals may be affected by various agents and therapeutical procedures, chemotherapy agents, thyroid hormones, metals, radiotherapy, surgery, anesthetic agents, dialysis other radiopharmaceutical interactions. Recommendations for the detection of altered biodistribution in patients by causes not directly related with the pathology itself was given. pathology itself was given

  14. External Factors Affecting Gifted Girls' Academic and Career Achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mary Ann; Smith, Stephen W.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the unique position that teachers have for observing the environmental influences affecting the career choices of gifted girls. It suggests ways for teachers to educate parents on the family's role in education and career achievement and to create an educational environment that promotes the development of talent. (Contains…

  15. Climatic and weather factors affecting fire occurrence and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall P. Benson; John O. Roads; David R. Weise

    2009-01-01

    Weather and climate have a profound influence on wildland fire ignition potential, fire behavior, and fire severity. Local weather and climate are affected by large-scale patterns of winds over the hemispheres that predispose wildland fuels to fire. The characteristics of wildland fuels, especially the moisture content, ultimately determine fire behavior and the impact...

  16. extension staffs' perceptions of factors affecting co-ordination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ian

    AFFECTING CO-ORDINATION AND PARTNERSHIPS IN. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN RAKAI. DISTRICT, UGANDA. E.E. Mwanje1, G.H. Düvel2 and M.N. Mangheni3. ABSTRACT. In Uganda's Rakai District,(with a population of about 400,000) there are over a dozen organizations involved in delivery of ...

  17. Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John; Mollerup, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study of the solubility of recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase has been conducted. A semi-purified preparation from a bulk crystallisation was chos en that contained six isoforms with pI-values of between 5.5 and 6.1. The solubility was strongly affected by pH and could...

  18. Cognitive and Affective Factors of TV Advertising's Influence on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the research on children's understanding of the intent of advertising, the persuasive impact of television commercials, and children's cognitive defenses and resistance to such persuasion. Concludes that any model which tries to account for advertising's influence on children must incorporate affective as well as cognitive components. (PD)

  19. Factors Affecting Teachers' Continuation of Technology Use in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the continuation of technology use in science and mathematics teaching of the teachers who attended a professional development program between 2010 and 2012. Continuation of technology use was hypothesized to be affected by the professional development program and by personal, institutional, and…

  20. Factors affecting teachers’ continuation of technology use in teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kafyulilo, A.; Fisser, P.; Voogt, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the continuation of technology use in science and mathematics teaching of the teachers who attended a professional development program between 2010 and 2012. Continuation of technology use was hypothesized to be affected by the professional development program

  1. Factors affecting the organization and management of emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mass Casualty Events also referred to as Disasters, are those occurrences causing damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life or destruction of health and health services on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area. Methods: The study was ...

  2. Factors affecting diet, habitat selection and breeding success of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to identify variables that affect habitat selection and nesting success of the African Crowned Eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus, the largest forest raptor, in north-eastern South Africa. A preference for nesting in the Northern Mistbelt Forest vegetation type was established and 82% of all nests were located in ...

  3. Factors Affecting Willingness to Communicate in a Spanish University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuerta, Ana Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relationships among the variables believed to affect Spanish undergraduates' willingness to communicate in English. The participants were 195 students majoring in several degrees at the University of Oviedo. A questionnaire and a standardized English Test were administered to the students in February-March 2013.…

  4. Factors Affecting Students' Self-Efficacy in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien

    2011-01-01

    Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…

  5. Factors affecting students' self-efficacy in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Mart van Dinther; Prof. dr. Mien Segers; Prof. dr. Filip Dochy

    2011-01-01

    Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning.

  6. Dietary factors affecting hindgut protein fermentation in broilers: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qaisrani, S.N.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    High growth rates in modern-day broilers require diets concentrated in digestible protein and energy. In addition to affecting feed conversion efficiency, it is important to prevent surplus dietary protein because of greater amounts of undigested protein entering the hindgut that may be fermented by

  7. Non-genetic factors affecting growth performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... This study was based on 20 079 and 12 169 growth and 5 406 and 2 533 carcass data collected on performance tested pigs between 1990 and 2008 from Large White and Landrace breeds ... Herd of origin, year of testing and their interaction significantly affected all traits.

  8. Synergistic effect of electrical and chemical factors on endocytosis in micro-discharge plasma gene transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Motomura, H.; Isozaki, Y.; Kido, Y.; Satoh, S.

    2017-06-01

    We have developed a new micro-discharge plasma (MDP)-based gene transfection method, which transfers genes into cells with high efficiency and low cytotoxicity; however, the mechanism underlying the method is still unknown. Studies revealed that the N-acetylcysteine-mediated inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity completely abolished gene transfer. In this study, we used laser-produced plasma to demonstrate that gene transfer does not occur in the absence of electrical factors. Our results show that both electrical and chemical factors are necessary for gene transfer inside cells by microplasma irradiation. This indicates that plasma-mediated gene transfection utilizes the synergy between electrical and chemical factors. The electric field threshold required for transfection was approximately 1 kV m-1 in our MDP system. This indicates that MDP irradiation supplies sufficient concentrations of ROS, and the stimulation intensity of the electric field determines the transfection efficiency in our system. Gene transfer by plasma irradiation depends mainly on endocytosis, which accounts for at least 80% of the transfer, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a dominant endocytosis. In plasma-mediated gene transfection, alterations in electrical and chemical factors can independently regulate plasmid DNA adhesion and triggering of endocytosis, respectively. This implies that plasma characteristics can be adjusted according to target cell requirements, and the transfection process can be optimized with minimum damage to cells and maximum efficiency. This may explain how MDP simultaneously achieves high transfection efficiency with minimal cell damage.

  9. Factors affecting working conditions in public hospitals: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zodwa M. Manyisa

    2017-01-01

    Findings: Workload, HIV/AIDS epidemic, shift work, long working hours, poor infrastructure, inadequate resources and shortage of staff were found to be the main factors attributed to poor working conditions.

  10. Factors affecting consumer acceptance and use of child restraint systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The causes of consumer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with child restraint systems were studied, and factors contributing to non-use and misuse were identified. Thirty-two families used several different child restraint models for extended periods, ...

  11. Environmental Factors Affecting Brook Trout Occurrence in Headwater Stream Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoichiro Kanno; Benjamin H. Letcher; Ana L. Rosner; Kyle P. O' Neil; Keith H. Nislow

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the associations of catchment-scale and riparian-scale environmental factors with occurrence of Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis in Connecticut headwater stream segments with catchment areas of 15 Brook...

  12. Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

  13. Organizational factors affecting safety implementation in food companies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinda, Thanwadee

    2014-01-01

    Thai food industry employs a massive number of skilled and unskilled workers. This may result in an industry with high incidences and accident rates. To improve safety and reduce the accident figures, this paper investigates factors influencing safety implementation in small, medium, and large food companies in Thailand. Five factors, i.e., management commitment, stakeholders' role, safety information and communication, supportive environment, and risk, are found important in helping to improve safety implementation. The statistical analyses also reveal that small, medium, and large food companies hold similar opinions on the risk factor, but bear different perceptions on the other 4 factors. It is also found that to improve safety implementation, the perceptions of safety goals, communication, feedback, safety resources, and supervision should be aligned in small, medium, and large companies.

  14. Gastric luminal epidermal growth factor is affected by diet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , L Mapele, K 0 Awotedu ... This study looked at the associations between intragastric epidermal growth factor level, diet and ... Department of Surgery, Gloucestershire Royal Hospital, UK. AM Sammon MD, FRCS. December 2004, Vol. 94, No.

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN BENGHAZI, LIBYA

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ghaweel, Ibrahim; Mursi, Saleh A.; Jack, Joel P.; Joel, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors responsible for road traffic accidents in Benghazi. Material and Methods: Retrospective and descriptive studies were done in the years 2006-2007. The data was collected from Traffic and License Department, Benghazi. The data were analyzed, based on fatalities, the severely handicapped, hit and run victims and were correlated with age, sex, time, environmental factors, type of roads, etc. Results: One-Thousand-Two-Hundred-Sixty...

  16. Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine; Jakubcionyte, Rita

    2006-01-01

    Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.......Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal....

  17. Infrastructural and Human Factors Affecting Safety Outcomes of Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Useche

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of registered road crashes involving cyclists during the last decade and the high proportion of road crashes resulting in severe injuries and fatalities among cyclists constitutes a global issue for community health, urban development and sustainability. Nowadays, the incidence of many risk factors for road crashes of cyclists remains largely unexplained. Given the importance of this issue, the present study has been conducted with the aim of determining relationships between infrastructural, human factors and safety outcomes of cyclists. Objectives: This study aimed, first, to examine the relationship between key infrastructural and human factors present in cycling, bicycle-user characteristics and their self-reported experience with road crashes. And second, to determine whether a set of key infrastructural and human factors may predict their self-reported road crashes. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, a total of 1064 cyclists (38.8% women, 61.2% men; M = 32.8 years of age from 20 different countries across Europe, South America and North America, participated in an online survey composed of four sections: demographic data and cycling-related factors, human factors, perceptions on infrastructural factors and road crashes suffered. Results: The results of this study showed significant associations between human factors, infrastructural conditions and self-reported road crashes. Also, a logistic regression model found that self-reported road crashes of cyclists could be predicted through variables such as age, riding intensity, risky behaviours and problematic user/infrastructure interactions. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that self-reported road crashes of cyclists are influenced by features related to the user and their interaction with infrastructural characteristics of the road.

  18. Affective Factors on the Empowerment of Human Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Laya Pouresmaeil; Maryam Baluchi

    2013-01-01

    In this research three main effective factors, "Official Training", "Delegation of Authority" and "Job Rotation" in Fars-No Cement Company and Shiraz Electric Power Distribution Company have been investigated and with comparing of the given data priority and matching of the factors will be shown. The statistical society of this research is 130 persons that all are the official employees of Fars-No Cement Company and 364 persons in Shiraz Electric Power Distribution Company and with using the ...

  19. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  20. Factors Affecting Aggression in South Korean Middle School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiJeong Park, PhD, RN

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Findings indicate that depression, academic stress, and grade (second grade influence aggression. To decrease aggressive behavior, it is necessary to provide systematic and political programs in schools and local communities that can ameliorate negative emotional factors like depression and academic stress. Additionally, development of positive factors such as self esteem, decision-making skills, and happiness in middle school students is important to reduce aggression.

  1. Factors Affecting the Behavioral Intention of Using Sedayuone Mobile Application

    OpenAIRE

    Yanfi, Yanfi; Kurniawan, Yohannes; Arifin, Yulyani

    2017-01-01

    This research evaluated the factors that influenced the behavioral intention to use a mobile application. The case study used was SedayuOne mobile application. The method used was the questionnaires using Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) model. The questionnaires were sent to the 342 members by using email. The result shows that the user habit is the highest factor that influences the user behavioral intention to consume the SEDAYUONE application.Therefore, to maint...

  2. Factors Affecting Placement of a Child with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents of disabled children often face the question whether or not to keep the child at home or to place them. The choice between the two alternatives resides with the parents and various factors influence their decision. Several researchers have identified these factors, which include child-related parameters, family and parental attitudes, the influence of the social environment, and the external assistance provided to the family. In a pilot study, we attempted to isolate the main factors involved in the parental decision either to keep the child at home or place the child by examining a sample comprised of 50 parents of children suffering severe intellectual disability studying in a special education school and 48 parents of adults with intellectual disability working in sheltered workshops. Each parent filled out a questionnaire used in a study in the United States and results of the research indicated parental-related factors as the dominant factors that delayed the placement of their child in residential care; guilt feelings were the main factor.

  3. Identification of coordination factors affecting building projects performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Salah Alaloul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects performance requires improvement to fulfil the complexity of the stakeholders’ needs and expectations. Coordination process is proposed as an efficient solution for weak performance of construction projects. Therefore, coordination factors are vital in ensuring a successful implementation of all project phases. This study aimed to identify and prioritise coordination factors that influence the performance of building projects in Malaysian context. A vast body of literature on coordination process was reviewed and resulted in 53 coordination factor. Three rounds of Delphi technique were conducted. The most effective coordination factors were ranked based on the Relative Importance Index (RII such as Scheduling (RII = 0.97, Quality assurance plan (RII = 0.93, and all parties’ participation in plans (RII = 0.89. These coordination factors have fulfilled the research gap and provided better management and higher performance for project parties. The results offer insightful perspectives to define the most effective coordination factors, for addressing the dependency between project tasks and the parties to enhance project performance.

  4. Effects of Socio demographic factors on plasma ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol anti oxidants during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvester, I.E.; Paul, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the plasma levels of vitamins C and E at the various stages of pregnancy and to correlate their plasma levels with the socio-demographic factors of pregnant Nigerians. Methodology: The pregnant cases (n=180) were randomly selected according to gestational ages. And the controls (n=20) were non-pregnant women of the same age. Plasma levels of both vitamins were assayed with well established laboratory methods. Results: The mean plasma vitamins C and E in the pregnant cases was lower (by 17-23%) than controls across the three trimesters, p<0.0001. The correlation of vitamin C versus maternal age was significant; r = - 0.59, p<0.05; the mean plasma level of vitamin C declined by 57% as the maternal age increases from 22-37 years. Conclusion: The mean plasma Ascorbic acid and Alpha-tocopherol are reduced during pregnancy and socio-demographic factors have mild effects on the plasma levels of these vitamins. (author)

  5. Selenium, zinc, and copper plasma levels in patients with schizophrenia: relationship with metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Bojana; Dorđević, Brižita; Milovanović, Srđan; Škrivanj, Sandra; Pavlović, Zoran; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the plasma selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) levels and to evaluate their possible association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) components in patients with schizophrenia. The study group consisted of 60 patients with schizophrenia and 60 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and biochemical analysis of fasting blood were performed in all subjects. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher plasma Cu concentrations compared with controls (0.97 ± 0.31 vs. 0.77 ± 0.32 mg/L, p = 0.001). The plasma Cu concentration showed a positive correlation with plasma glucose and diastolic blood pressure in the patient groups (r s = 0.263, p < 0.05 and r s = 0.272, p < 0.05, respectively). The plasma Se level correlated positive with MetS score (r s = 0.385, p < 0.01), waist circumference (r s = 0.344, p < 0.05), plasma glucose (r s = 0.319, p < 0.05), and triglyceride concentrations (r s = 0.462, p < 0.001) in patients with schizophrenia. Plasma Zn did not correlate with any of the MetS components. These results suggest that alterations in plasma Cu and Se levels in medicated patients with schizophrenia could be associated with metabolic risk factors.

  6. Does cold plasma affect breaking dormancy and seed germination? Study on seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena; Šerý, M.; Straňák, V.; Špatenka, P.; Tichý, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2009), s. 750-754 ISSN 1009-0630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : chenopodium album * low-pressure discharge * plasma treatment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.380, year: 2009

  7. Factores que afectan al rendimiento en carreras de fondo. [Factors affecting long-distance running performance].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ogueta-Alday

    2016-07-01

    and runners are interested on learning about the factors that affect long-distance running performance. Facing this new reality, scientific literature has been concerned about the aforementioned factors, and the amount of studies has considerably grown. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to analyse factors affecting long-distance running performance from different points of view. Literature review was performed through 3 different databases (Medline, SportDiscus and Google Scholar and the factors were classified into 5 main groups, subdivided into different sections: 1- environmental (air/wind, temperature, humidity, altitude and slope of the ground, 2- training-related (endurance, resistance, training in hot environments and in altitude, 3- physiological (VO2max, thersholds, running economy, age, gender, muscle fibre type, fatigue and race, 4- biomechanical (anthropometry, leg-stiffness, flexibility, foot strike pattern, footwear, foot orthoses and spatio-temporal parameters and 5- psychological (intervention strategies, direction of attention and music. Even though the influence of some of these factors on running performance in quite well-known, the influence of some psychological (direction of attention and music and biomechanical factors (foot strike pattern and spatio-temporal parameters is still unclear. There are few studies or the results cannot be generalized. Future studies and the progress of new technologies and measurement tools will provide a better understanding.

  8. Dietary protein as a factor affecting vitamin B6 requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, M; Shibuya, M; Akazawa, T; Muya, H; Murakami, Y

    1998-02-01

    Rats were fed 20 or 70% casein diets with varying amounts of vitamin B6 (B6), and the B6 content and B6-dependent enzymatic activity in their tissues were examined to determine the minimum requirement of B6 for animals subjected to different levels of dietary protein (i.e., 20%: 0, 1.45, 2.90, 5.80 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet; 70%: 0, 2.90, 5.80, 8.70 mg PN/kg diet). B6 requirements for the rats were almost met in the 1.45 mg PN/kg 20% casein diet and the 2.90 mg PN/kg 70% casein diet when judged from the hepatic B6 content. However, almost twice the PN was required in both 20 and 70% casein diets when judged from PLP-enzymatic activity. The content of B6 vitamers in plasma appeared to be most sensitive to B6 status, though the satisfactory level is not known. It was confirmed that, in any case tested, a high-protein diet increased the requirement of B6.

  9. FACTORS AFFECTING VARIABILITY OF UDDER MORPHOLOGY TRAITS OF SHEEP

    OpenAIRE

    Prpić, Zoran; Mioč, Boro; Vnučec, Ivan; Pavić, Vesna; Konjačić, Miljenko

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, selection of dairy sheep breeds was focused almost exclusively on increasing the amount of milk produced and so today they produce several times more milk than breeds selected for meat and wool. However, due to the permanent striving for increasing sheep milk production udder weight becomes too great, and suspensory system can not withstand this overweight so it ruptures more often. That significantly shortens the duration of animal’s production life and adversely affects udde...

  10. A Psychological Factor Affecting a Cardiac Condition in a Psychotherapist

    OpenAIRE

    R Waxman; K Khorasani; A Lenny; S Bhalerao

    2009-01-01

    It has been established that intense emotions can affect the development and course of cardiac arrhythmias. This study sought to convey that a lack of expression of emotion can also have an effect on arrhythmias. A psychotherapist with Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation and an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator measured his rate of Premature Ventricular Contractions using a Holter monitor during three separate six-week periods and in three domains: A) work days vs. off days, B) a 27 hour...

  11. Factors Affecting the Pharmacology of Antibody–Drug Conjugates

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew T. Lucas; Lauren S. L. Price; Allison N. Schorzman; Mallory Storrie; Joseph A. Piscitelli; Juan Razo; William C. Zamboni

    2018-01-01

    Major advances in therapeutic proteins, including antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs), have created revolutionary drug delivery systems in cancer over the past decade. While these immunoconjugate agents provide several advantages compared to their small-molecule counterparts, their clinical use is still in its infancy. The considerations in their development and clinical use are complex, and consist of multiple components and variables that can affect the pharmacologic characteristics. It is crit...

  12. Factors affecting food choices by birds in winter

    OpenAIRE

    Korencová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    I studied food choices of four small passerine species in winter on an artifical source of food, a bird feeder. I did experiments with two different types of food. I proposed that birds would prefer the type of food with higher contain of fat and calories. Food preferences were shown, but independently on calories contain. Greenfinches always selected sunflower seeds. I conclude, this species is affected by tradition, because it is usually fed by sunflower seeds in all bird feeders in vicinit...

  13. A lignan complex isolated from flaxseed does not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant capacity in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Bügel, S.

    2006-01-01

    antioxidant capacity, The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a lignan complex, providing 500 mg/d of SDG, on serum concentration and urinary excretion of ENL, plasma lipids, serum lipoprotein oxidation resistance, and markers of antioxidant capacity. Healthy postmenopausal women (n=22...... (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), serum lipoprotein oxidation lag time, plasma Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were measured at the beginning and end of each intervention period. ENL concentrations in serum (P ....001) and ENL urinary excretion (P lipoprotein oxidation lag time, TEAC and FRAP were not affected. Daily consumption for 6 wk of a low-fat muffin enriched...

  14. Finite size effects in the static structure factor of dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davletov, A. E., E-mail: askar@physics.kz; Yerimbetova, L. T.; Mukhametkarimov, Ye. S.; Ospanova, A. K. [Department of Physics and Technology, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Al-Farabi av. 71, 050040 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-15

    Based on the previously developed pseudopotential model of the dust particles interaction, which takes into account both the finite size and screening effects, the equilibrium distribution functions are investigated in a broad range of plasma parameters. The treatment stems entirely from the renormalization theory of plasma particles interactions which leads to the so-called generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. In particular, an analytical expression for the static structure factor of the dust particles is proposed and its non-monotonic behavior in the hyper-netted chain approximation is found in a specified domain of plasma parameters to indicate the formation of short- or even long-range order in the system.

  15. [Modification of plasma blood coagulation factor activity by physical stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutze, G; Buhl, H; Häcker, R; Socha, C; Socha, U; Urbahn, H

    1986-09-15

    The influence of physical stress (bicycle ergometer and track) on 13 parameters of the plasmatic coagulation system was investigated in trained and untrained test persons. Shortenings of the coagulation times as well as distinct increases of the activity or concentration were observed in the partial thromboplastin time (PTT), the factor VIII activity (VIII:C) and the factor VIII-associated antigen (VIIIR:Ag). The results are discussed with regard to their causes and their clinical importance.

  16. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at

  17. Host and Environmental Factors Affecting the Intestinal Microbiota in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kers, Jannigje G.; Velkers, Francisca C.; Fischer, Egil A. J.; Hermes, Gerben D. A.; Stegeman, J. A.; Smidt, Hauke

    2018-01-01

    The initial development of intestinal microbiota in poultry plays an important role in production performance, overall health and resistance against microbial infections. Multiplexed sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is often used in studies, such as feed intervention or antimicrobial drug trials, to determine corresponding effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, considerable variation of intestinal microbiota composition has been observed both within and across studies. Such variation may in part be attributed to technical factors, such as sampling procedures, sample storage, DNA extraction, the choice of PCR primers and corresponding region to be sequenced, and the sequencing platforms used. Furthermore, part of this variation in microbiota composition may also be explained by different host characteristics and environmental factors. To facilitate the improvement of design, reproducibility and interpretation of poultry microbiota studies, we have reviewed the literature on confounding factors influencing the observed intestinal microbiota in chickens. First, it has been identified that host-related factors, such as age, sex, and breed, have a large effect on intestinal microbiota. The diversity of chicken intestinal microbiota tends to increase most during the first weeks of life, and corresponding colonization patterns seem to differ between layer- and meat-type chickens. Second, it has been found that environmental factors, such as biosecurity level, housing, litter, feed access and climate also have an effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As microbiota studies have to deal with many of these unknown or hidden host and environmental variables, the choice of study designs can have a great impact on study outcomes and interpretation of the data. Providing details on a broad range of host and environmental factors in articles and sequence data repositories is highly recommended. This creates opportunities to

  18. Factors affecting the spontaneous mutational spectra in somatic mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.А. Ковальова

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  In our survey of references we are discussed the influence of factors biological origin on the spontaneous mutation specters in mammalian. Seasonal and age components influence on the frequence of cytogenetic anomalies. The immune and endocrinous systems are take part in control of the alteration of the spontaneous mutation specters. Genetical difference of sensibility in animal and human at the alteration of factors enviroment as and  genetical differences of repair systems activity are may influence on individual variation of spontaneous destabilization characters of chromosomal apparatus.

  19. Identifying and ranking the factors affecting the adoption of biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Azizi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine the important factors influencing on adoption of biofuels from consumer’s perspective. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 211 randomly selected people who use green products in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.812, which is well above the acceptable level. Using principle component with Varimax rotation, the study has determined five important factors including social commitment, product usefulness, infrastructure, management approach and customer oriented, which influence the most on adaptation of biofuels.

  20. Risk factors affecting somatosensory function after sagittal split osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Torben Henrik; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Helleberg, M

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate potential individual and intraoperative risk factors associated with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) and to correlate the findings with postoperative changes in somatosensory function. Patients and Methods A total of 18 men and 29 women (mean...... correlations were noted between preoperative values for somatosensory function and changes in these variables after BSSO. Patients with low sensory thresholds before BSSO experienced more impairment than those patients with higher preoperative sensory thresholds. Conclusion These findings imply...... that somatosensory function after BSSO is dependent on both intraoperative risk factors and preoperative sensation levels....