Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)
In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.
We report the results of a study on students' interest in physics at the end of their compulsory schooling in Israel carried out in the framework of the ROSE Project. Factors studied were their opinions about science classes, their out-of-school experiences in physics, and their attitudes toward science and technology. Students' overall interest…
We report the results of a study on students' interest in physics at the end of their compulsory schooling in Israel carried out in the framework of the ROSE Project. Factors studied were their opinions about science classes, their out-of-school experiences in physics, and their attitudes toward science and technology. Students' overall interest in physics was "neutral" (neither positive nor negative), with boys showing a higher interest than girls. We found a strong correlation between students' "neutral" interest in physics and their negative opinions about science classes. These findings raise serious questions about the implementation of changes made in the Israeli science curriculum in primary and junior high school, especially if the goal is to prepare the young generation for life in a scientific-technological era. A more in-depth analysis of the results led us to formulate curricular, behavioral, and organizational changes needed to reach this goal.
Ahmed, Amira Abd Elrhman Ebrahim
The aim of the study was to study the effects of physical factors in TLD reading. The dosimeters have been irradiated with x rays of (0.5 mGy to 5 mGy) using plastic holder with Aluminum filters with dimensions 1.5 x 0.8 mm and 0.5 mm in thickness to obtain the equivalent dose Hp (10) flux of nitrogen gas and annealing after data collection by TLD Reader Analyzer 04 (Version 0.9.400 micro lab (krakow 2012). The count and dose analysis shows that; The count/s given by TLD appears to be higher in case of using filtration which was 7189.9 eps in contrast with reading without filter which was 4055.8 eps. There was proportional linear relationship between the applied dose and the TLD count for both cases with and without filter. And the correlation could be fitted in the form of equations: y=423.9 x + 1023 and y = 432.5 x + 405.3 for filtered and y refers to count/s. Such increment in count is ascribed to increasing applied radiation dose as well it indicates and confirms the linearity of TLD in measuring the radiation dose since R 2 = 0.9. However the count with filter for the applied radiation dose in mGy was greater than that without filter. The that measured with pellets annealing (reading of zero doses). TLD pellets reading without zero dose measurement usually gives greater dose ( 441.8 and 563.6 μGy) relative to the case where the zero doses have been measured which were 289.6 and 429.2 μGy, respectively. While the effect of using filtration is so obvious and leads to increase of zero dose, respectively relative to dose s of un reading of zero dose, and reading of zero dose, but without filter.(Author)
.... The chemical thermodynamics of geochemical solutions below 0 deg C is then reviewed. Particular attention is placed on the physical-chemical properties of ice and liquid water at subzero temperatures...
Cheah, Y K; Azahadi, M; Phang, S N; Hazilah, N
The rapid rise in the prevalence of physical inactivity-related diseases has become a serious public health issue worldwide. The objective of the present study is to examine the factors affecting participation in physical activity among urban dwellers in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study measures physical activity using a rigorous regression model. Data are obtained from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011 (NHMS 2011). A lognormal hurdle model is used to analyse the participation decision and the amount decision of physical activity. The results show that income, gender, ethnicity, marital status and employment status are significantly associated with participation decision and amount decision. However, age, insurance and self-rated health only affect participation decision, whereas family size, education and smoking only affect amount decision. It can, thus, be concluded that sociodemographic, insurance, lifestyle and health factors play an important role in determining physical activity behaviour among urban dwellers. When formulating policies, special attention must be paid to these factors. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alwhaibi, Reem M; Aldugahishem, Hayfa M
Physical activity provides a wide range of benefits. Several studies conducted in various countries have examined factors influencing participation in physical activities in children with Down syndrome. This study aimed to explore factors affecting participation in physical activities in Saudi children with DS, from their mothers' perspectives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 36 mothers of children with Down syndrome to explore facilitators of and barriers to their children's participation in physical activities. All audio recordings were transcribed, validated, reviewed by the authors independently, and organized into themes. Transcript analysis resulted in four facilitators (mother's support and siblings' involvement, involvement of peers, type of physical activity experience, and child's physical ability, behavioral, and psychological status), and six barriers (conditions associated with Down syndrome, family responsibility, social barriers, environmental constraints, electronic devices, and mother's personal psychological barriers). The results regarding perceived barriers indicated a need to develop and implement programs involving family consultation. Environmental modifications should be made to accommodate the needs of children with Down syndrome. A well-organized partnership should be established and activated between private investors and the Ministries of Education, Social Affairs, and Health, to support the promotion of physical activity. Implications for rehabilitation The efficacy of home- and Internet-based programs for Saudi children with Down syndrome (DS) should be evaluated. Cultural and climactic conditions in Saudi Arabia suggest the need for environmental modifications to help children with DS engage in physical activity. Well-organized partnerships between private investors and the Ministries of Education, Social Affairs, and Health may be required to achieve higher participation of children with DS. Planning and designing of
Thiago Barros Galvão
Full Text Available The aim of the current work is to review a protocol used in practical classes to demonstrate some factors that affect biomembrane integrity. Sugar-beet fragments were utilized as the experimental model as membrane damage could be visualized by leakage of betacyanins, hydrophilic pigments accumulated in the cell vacuoles. The tests were carried out as discrete experiments utilizing physical agents and chemical products present in the student daily routine. To test the effect of temperature, sugar-beet fragments were submitted to heat, cold or both at different times of exposition. When chemical products were tested, sugar-beet fragments were exposed to organic solvents (common alcohol and acetone or polar and amphipathic substances (disinfectant, detergent, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite. The obtained results were discussed in terms of the capacity of the physical and chemical factors to cause membrane damage. The review of this protocol using reagents that are present in the student daily routine were able to demonstrate clearly the effect of the different tested factors, allowing the utilization of this practical class under limited conditions.
Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.
There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project (n=7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what factors might impact females’ physical science career interest: (i) having a single-sex physics class, (ii) having a female physics teacher, (iii) having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, (iv) discussing the work of female scientists in physics class, and (v) discussing the underrepresentation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences on physical science career interest is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including prior science interests, prior mathematics interests, grades in science, grades in mathematics, and years of enrollment in high school physics. No significant effects are found for single-sex classes, female teachers, female scientist guest speakers, and discussing the work of female scientists. However, discussions about women’s underrepresentation have a significant positive effect.
Van Royen, Kathleen; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Andrade, Susana; Ochoa-Avilés, Angélica; Donoso, Silvana; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick
Physical inactivity levels are increasingly prevalent among Ecuadorian adolescents. School-based interventions can be potentially effective in promoting physical activity but must be informed by cultural-specific factors. Twelve focus groups were carried out with adolescents (n = 80) in rural and urban Ecuador to identify factors influencing physical activity. In addition, 4 focus group discussions with parents (n = 32) and 4 with school staff (n = 32) were conducted. Individual and environmental factors were questioned using the 'Attitude, Social influences and Self-efficacy' model and the socioecological model as theoretical frameworks. Factors influencing physical activity varied between groups. In the rural area farming and norms for girls impeded leisure-time physical activity, whereas urban groups emphasized traffic and crime concerns. Groups from a low socioeconomic status more frequently mentioned a fear of injuries and financial constraints. Several factors were common for all groups including preferences for sedentary activities, poor knowledge, time constraints and laziness, as well as a lack of opportunities at home and school, unsupportive parental rules and lack of role models. A conceptual framework including the identified factors emerged to inform the design of a cultural-sensitive school-based intervention to improve physical activity among Ecuadorian adolescents. Future interventions should be tailored to each setting.
Muller, Veronica; Brooks, Jessica; Tu, Wei-Mo; Moser, Erin; Lo, Chu-Ling; Chan, Fong
Purpose: The main objective of this study was to determine the extent to which physical and cognitive-affective factors are associated with fibromyalgia (FM) fatigue. Method: A quantitative descriptive design using correlation techniques and multiple regression analysis. The participants consisted of 302 members of the National Fibromyalgia &…
Gavin, James; McBrearty, Madeleine; Malo, Kit; Abravanel, Michael; Moudrakovski, Tatiana
The purpose of this study was to explore adolescents' perceptions of psychosocial influences - personal characteristics, environmental factors and behavioural undertakings - influencing their prolonged involvement in sports and physical activity (PA). A qualitative approach was adopted wherein 16 adolescents (8 boys, 8 girls; mean age 15.9 years), who had been physically active for at least the last 8 years, and sixteen adults identified as their 'parents' or 'guardians' participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using the HyperRESEARCH software. Data were analysed using thematic analysis procedures. Four main themes pertaining to psychosocial influences were identified: 1) personal characteristics; 2) school and community resources; 3) parental support; and 4) social interaction. Except for social interaction, for which participants did not identify challenges, themes are discussed according to their motivational aspects and the challenges they represent for adolescents' PA involvement. The research has implications for health promotion endeavours directed toward parents of children and adolescents. Given the limitations of a qualitative study, readers are invited to apply the conclusions to their own context.
In the September issue, we saw that a lower proportion of Hispanics and blacks take physics in U.S. high schools than do whites and Asians. Last month, we examined physics offerings and students by socioeconomic profile of the high school as reported by the principal. We saw that there were more physics classes and more physics students at better-off high schools. These increased offerings allow the teachers who teach physics to focus more on physics. We combined race and ethnicity data from the National Center for Education Statistics with data from our principals to examine the percent of each race and ethnicity attending schools by our socioeconomic profile of the school. Less than one-third of white and Asian public high school students attend a school that our principals classify as "worse off." Less than one-fourth of black and Hispanic students attend a school that our principals classify as "better off." The difference is stark. When combined with the percent of physics classes and physics students at each type of school, we have some insight into explaining the variation in physics taking by race and ethnicity.
Conclusion: Since the majority of employees had a sedentary lifestyle, it is a necessity to conduct some planned interventions in order to promote their physical activity behavior. This, interventions based on transtheoretical model can be helpful.
Fujiwara, Keishi; Furuta, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Naoko; Katoh, Kanako; Fukuda, Satoshi
To investigate factors affecting the effect of physical rehabilitation therapy for synkinesis as a sequela to facial nerve palsy. A total of 37 patients with peripheral facial nerve palsy in Teine-Keijinkai Hospital were enrolled in this study. All patients showed synkinesis at 6 months after the onset of facial nerve palsy and were instructed in physical rehabilitation by expert staff from their first visit. The degree of synkinesis was evaluated at 6, 9 and 12 months after the onset of facial nerve palsy based on Sunnybrook facial grading system score and asymmetry in eye opening width. The patients were divided into two groups by age, gender, cause of palsy, electroneurography (ENoG) value, onset of synkinesis, initial treatment and timing of the start of physical rehabilitation. Female patients and younger patients did not show any deterioration in synkinesis. Patients in the lower ENoG group and the later onset of synkinesis group showed significant deterioration in synkinesis after the 6th month from onset of facial palsy. Physical rehabilitation was shown to prevent significant deterioration in synkinesis in female and younger patients with facial nerve palsy. Careful follow-up with regard to synkinesis is required in cases in which the facial nerve damage is thought to be severe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Air pollution is considered as one of the most important environmental problems facing the humanity. Cement industry, usually, is responsible for building high levels of pollutants. The present research focused on the study of air pollution control of cement industry using mathematical modeling. A mathematical dispersion model was developed based on Gaussian distribution where the dispersion parameters increase with increasing atmospheric turbulence. The Gaussian equation takes in consideration the effect of emission rates. stack height, buoyant plume rise, weather and meteorological parameters. The model was tested for different stack heights, wind speeds. And atmospheric stability classes. Maximum ground level concentration of cement pollutants were measured in different locations of Helwan, south Cairo around the cement factories. Analysis of results shows that the ground level of pollutants concentrations are inversely proportional to wind speed and atmospheric stability classes. Stack height also affects the behaviour of deposition of cement particulates. The model results show satisfactory agreement with the measured concentrations. 6 figs
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Sedentary women are at risk for problems such as obesity, diabetes, depression and cardiovascular disease. Meanwhile, due to long working hours and excessive travel time from home to work and vice versa the employees have minimal physical activity .The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective psychometric factors on physical activity of female employees, according to the Trans-theoretical Model and theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 95 female staff of Tehran University was selected through a call. In order to collect data, a questionnaire with acceptable, reliability and validity, including demographic data, and constructs of planned behavior theory as well as Trans-theoretical Model was used. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21 statisti-cal tests; correlation and stepwise regression were also performed. Results: In this study, 72% of the population was in the inactive stages (pre-contemplation, contemplation and preparation and only 28% of patients had regular physical activity. There was a significant positive correlation between the behavioral intention and attitude scores (P = 0.02, perceived behavioral control (P = 0.000, self-efficacy (P = 0.000 and stage of change (P = 0.000, but subjective norms score (P = 0.605 was irrelevant. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that self-efficacy and perceived behavioral con-trol can affect female employees’ intention and physical activity behaviors. So, the authori-ties should seriously consider these factors in educational planning for this stratum of society, remove barriers for the participation of more employees in sporting activities, and offer fa-cilitators at the community level. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21(4:350-359
Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.
Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne diseases are the most dreaded worldwide health problems. Although many campaigns against it have been conducted, Dengue Fever (DF and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF are still the major health problems of Thailand. The reported number of dengue incidences in 1998 for the Thailand was 129,954, of which Sukhothai province alone reported alarming number of 682. It was the second largest epidemic outbreak of dengue after 1987. Government arranges the remedial facilities as and when dengue is reported. But, the best way to control is to prevent it from happening. This will be possible only when knowledge about the relationship of DF/DHF with climatic and physio-environmental agents is discovered. This paper explores empirical relationship of climatic factors rainfall, temperature and humidity with the DF/DHF incidences using multivariate regression analysis. Also, a GIS based methodology is proposed in this paper to explore the influence of physio-environmental factors on dengue incidences. Remotely sensed data provided important data about physical environment and have been used for many vector borne diseases. Information Values (IV method was utilised to derive influence of various factors in the quantitative terms. Researchers have not applied this type of analysis for dengue earlier. Sukhothai province was selected for the case study as it had high number of dengue cases in 1998 and also due to its diverse physical setting with variety of land use/land cover types. Results Preliminary results demonstrated that physical factors derived from remotely sensed data could indicate variation in physical risk factors affecting DF/DHF. A composite analysis of these three factors with dengue incidences was carried out using multivariate regression analysis. Three empirical models ER-1, ER-2 and ER-3 were evaluated. It was found that these three factors have significant relation with DF/DHF incidences and can be related to
Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.
Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...
Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.
Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336
McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S
Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of af...
Hoekstra, Femke; Hettinga, Florentina J; den Breejen, Marjolein; Duijf, Marjo; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Dekker, Rienk; van der Schans, Cees P
To describe professionals' perceptions of factors that facilitate or hamper the implementation and continuation of a physical activity promotion programme in rehabilitation. This study used a qualitative design. Semi-structured interviews (n = 22) were conducted with rehabilitation professionals (n = 28) involved in the implementation of a physical activity promotion programme. Two additional interviews were conducted with the programme coordinators (n = 2). The study involved 18 rehabilitation organizations implementing the programme that targets people with disabilities or chronic diseases. Organizations were supported in the implementation process by the programme coordinators. Commonly perceived facilitating factors were: involvement of committed and enthusiastic professionals; agreement with their organizations' vision/wishes; the perceived additional value of the programme; and opportunities to share knowledge and experience with professionals from other organizations. Commonly perceived hampering factors were: uncertainty about continuing the programme; limited flexibility; and lack of support from physicians and therapists to implement the programme. Professionals perceived a heterogeneous set of factors that facilitate and/or hamper the implementation and continuation of a physical activity promotion programme in rehabilitation. Based on these findings, recommendations were formulated to enhance embedding of physical activity promotion during and after rehabilitation.
McBride Sebastian D
Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.
Bozkir, Çiğdem; Özer, Ali; Pehlivan, Erkan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity, and the risk factors associated with it, in physically disabled adults living in the city centre of Malatya, Turkey. This research was designed as a cross-sectional study conducted on physically disabled people aged 20-65 years living in the city centre of Malatya. The prevalence of obesity in disabled people was within 95% CIs, the power was calculated as 80%, and the sample size of our population was calculated as 258 individuals. The prevalence of obesity was found to be 13.2%. The relationship between disability type and obesity status was found to be significant. The prevalence of obesity was 21.3% in visually impaired people, 17.9% in speech-impaired people, 17.8% in hearing-impaired people and 6.5% in orthopaedically disabled people. Educational interventions on nutrition and lifestyle can be effective considering the high prevalence of obesity in visually impaired people, the prevalence of weakness in orthopaedically disabled people and the risk related to the area in which body fat is localised even when body mass index is within the normal range. Training disabled people in sports appropriate to their disability type and building appropriate facilities for those sports might have a positive effect. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.
The aim of this thesis was to obtain mechanistic information about how the toxicity of pesticides in the field is affected by physical factors, pesticide bioavailability and arthropod behaviour. The pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin and linyphiid spiders were selected as pesticide-effect
The subject is discussed under the following headings: investment decision-making, unit cost factors (declining ore grade, low-price contracts, ore grade/output relationship, above average cost increases). Economic, environmental, sociological and political aspects are considered. (U.K.)
Chini, Jacquelyn J.; Madsen, Adrian; Gire, Elizabeth; Rebello, N. Sanjay; Puntambekar, Sadhana
Recent research results have failed to support the conventionally held belief that students learn physics best from hands-on experiences with physical equipment. Rather, studies have found that students who perform similar experiments with computer simulations perform as well or better on measures of conceptual understanding than their peers who…
Kelani, Raphael R.; Gado, Issaou
Following the calls of international conferences related to the teaching of science and technology, technology education (TE) was integrated as a component of physical sciences programmes in Benin, West Africa. This study investigates physical science teachers' attitudes towards the integration of TE topics in secondary school science curricula in…
Chini, Jacquelyn J.; Madsen, Adrian; Gire, Elizabeth; Rebello, N. Sanjay; Puntambekar, Sadhana
Recent research results have failed to support the conventionally held belief that students learn physics best from hands-on experiences with physical equipment. Rather, studies have found that students who perform similar experiments with computer simulations perform as well or better on measures of conceptual understanding than their peers who used physical equipment. In this study, we explored how university-level nonscience majors’ understanding of the physics concepts related to pulleys was supported by experimentation with real pulleys and a computer simulation of pulleys. We report that when students use one type of manipulative (physical or virtual), the comparison is influenced both by the concept studied and the timing of the post-test. Students performed similarly on questions related to force and mechanical advantage regardless of the type of equipment used. On the other hand, students who used the computer simulation performed better on questions related to work immediately after completing the activities; however, the two groups performed similarly on the work questions on a test given one week later. Additionally, both sequences of experimentation (physical-virtual and virtual-physical) equally supported students’ understanding of all of the concepts. These results suggest that both the concept learned and the stability of learning gains should continue to be explored to improve educators’ ability to select the best learning experience for a given topic.
Jacquelyn J. Chini
Full Text Available Recent research results have failed to support the conventionally held belief that students learn physics best from hands-on experiences with physical equipment. Rather, studies have found that students who perform similar experiments with computer simulations perform as well or better on measures of conceptual understanding than their peers who used physical equipment. In this study, we explored how university-level nonscience majors’ understanding of the physics concepts related to pulleys was supported by experimentation with real pulleys and a computer simulation of pulleys. We report that when students use one type of manipulative (physical or virtual, the comparison is influenced both by the concept studied and the timing of the post-test. Students performed similarly on questions related to force and mechanical advantage regardless of the type of equipment used. On the other hand, students who used the computer simulation performed better on questions related to work immediately after completing the activities; however, the two groups performed similarly on the work questions on a test given one week later. Additionally, both sequences of experimentation (physical-virtual and virtual-physical equally supported students’ understanding of all of the concepts. These results suggest that both the concept learned and the stability of learning gains should continue to be explored to improve educators’ ability to select the best learning experience for a given topic.
Soewin, E.; Chinda, T.
The present work attempts to develop a multidimensional performance evaluation framework for a construction company by considering all relevant measures of performance. Based on the previous studies, this study hypothesizes nine key factors, with a total of 57 associated items. The hypothesized factors, with their associated items, are then used to develop questionnaire survey to gather data. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to the collected data which gave rise 10 factors with 57 items affecting construction performance. The findings further reveal that the items constituting ten key performance factors (KPIs) namely; 1) Time, 2) Cost, 3) Quality, 4) Safety & Health, 5) Internal Stakeholder, 6) External Stakeholder, 7) Client Satisfaction, 8) Financial Performance, 9) Environment, and 10) Information, Technology & Innovation. The analysis helps to develop multi-dimensional performance evaluation framework for an effective measurement of the construction performance. The 10 key performance factors can be broadly categorized into economic aspect, social aspect, environmental aspect, and technology aspects. It is important to understand a multi-dimension performance evaluation framework by including all key factors affecting the construction performance of a company, so that the management level can effectively plan to implement an effective performance development plan to match with the mission and vision of the company.
A physical description of high-temperature has-cooled reactors is given, followed by an overview of HTR characteristics. The emphasis is placed on the HTR fuel cycle alternatives and thermohydraulics of pebble bed core. Some prospects of HTRs in the Federal Republic of Germany are also presented
While many epidemiological studies have associated the consumption of polyphenols within fruits and vegetables with a decreased risk of developing several chronic diseases, intervention studies have generally not confirmed these beneficial effects. The reasons for this discrepancy are not fully understood but include potential differences in dosing, interaction with the food matrix, and differences in polyphenol bioavailability. In addition to endogenous factors such as microbiota and digestive enzymes, the food matrix can also considerably affect bioaccessibility, uptake, and further metabolism of polyphenols. While dietary fiber (such as hemicellulose), divalent minerals, and viscous and protein-rich meals are likely to cause detrimental effects on polyphenol bioaccessibility, digestible carbohydrates, dietary lipids (especially for hydrophobic polyphenols, e.g., curcumin), and additional antioxidants may enhance polyphenol availability. Following epithelial uptake, polyphenols such as flavonoids may reduce phase II metabolism and excretion, enhancing polyphenol bioavailability. Furthermore, polyphenols may act synergistically due to their influence on efflux transporters such as p-glycoprotein. In order to understand polyphenol bioactivity, increased knowledge of the factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability, including dietary factors, is paramount. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.
Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column
Merlin, U; Bordin, P; Rimondi, A P; Sichirollo, R
The authors investigated nine factors which can affect the depth of incisions performed during refractive keratotomy: (1) vertical vs oblique-cutting edge of the knife blade, (2) direction of cutting, (3) cutting velocity, (4) American vs Russian technique, (5) intraocular pressure (IOP), (6) initial vs final incisions, (7) sharpness of knife blade, (8) single vs double footplate, and (9) square vs double-edged blade. These variables were examined independently, performing at least 40 incisions for each experimental parameter studied. The depth of the resulting incisions was measured histologically using the micrometer eyepiece. The average and the standard deviation were calculated. The paired Student's t-test was used to establish significant differences between the two conditions investigated for each parameter. Factors that were demonstrated to increase significantly the depth of the incisions included: the vertical-cutting edge, the triple-edged diamond knife, the sharpness of the knife, and the single foot knife. High velocity in performing the incisions and, to a lesser extent, low IOP were the main factors that induced irregularity in depth.
Full Text Available AIM: This study was performed to determine the psychological factors affecting infertile women presenting at the infertility outpatients department. METHOD: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women who presented at the IVF center of a special branch hospital or a university hospital, March 2008 through September 2008, as determined by the non-random sampling method. All participating women gave their informed consent. The data were collected using the Data Form that consisted of questions on socio-demographic features and the Infertility Distress Scale (IDS. In the results, percentages were provided along with the Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U and Spearman correlation tests. RESULTS: The mean IDS was 39.01±9.6. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between the mean IDS score and age (r=0.106, p=0.048, marriage duration (r=0.232, p<0.001 and duration of desire to have a child (r=0.217, p<0.001. Women who were primary school graduates (X²=13.03, p=0.004, did not work (p=0.007, had no social security benefits (p=0.021 or from low socioeconomic status (X²=24.85, p<0.001 had significantly higher mean IDS scores. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show women become more adversely affected by infertility as their age, duration of marriage, and duration of desire to have a child increase. Women who are primary school graduates, do not work, have no social security benefits or have lower income are affected more negatively. We believe that taking these features into account when evaluating and planning supportive approaches for women presenting at the infertility treatment center and determining the psychological state of the women using the IDS will increase treatment success. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 481-486
In the study students' affective entry characteristics related to Physical Education lessons were examined based on three dimensions: interest towards the lesson, level of motivation in the lesson and educational gains. The study further aimed to investigate how these three dimensions were affected by the gender factor.
Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Baldacchino, Donia
Measuring dental clinic service quality is the first and most important factor in improving care. The quality provided plays an important role in patient satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting dental service quality from the patients' viewpoint. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in a dental clinic in Tehran between January and June 2014. A sample of 385 patients was selected from two work shifts using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The data were collected, a self-administered questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study, based on the Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model of service quality which consisted of two parts: the patients' demographic characteristics and a 30-item questionnaire to measure the five dimensions of the service quality. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 18.0 through some descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, as well as analytical methods, including confirmatory factor. Results showed that the correlation coefficients for all dimensions were higher than 0.5. In this model, assurance (regression weight=0.99) and tangibility (regression weight=0.86) had, respectively, the highest and lowest effects on dental service quality. The Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model is suitable to measure quality in dental services. The variables related to dental services quality have been made according to the model. This is a pioneering study that uses Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model and CFA in a dental setting. This study provides useful insights and guidance for dental service quality assurance.
Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.
Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting
Cordova, David; Parra-Cardona, Jose Ruben; Blow, Adrian; Johnson, Deborah J; Prado, Guillermo; Fitzgerald, Hiram E
Objectives. Latinos with disabilities disproportionately report substance use, including binge drinking and drug use. Ecodevelopmental factors, including socioeconomic patterning of poverty, social exclusion, and post-colonial racism, have been shown to impact alcohol and drug use. However, this line of research remains underdeveloped among Latinos with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to obtain rich descriptions of the role of ecodevelopmental factors, including family and community, on alcohol and drug use among Latinos with physical disabilities. Methods. We utilized a community-based participatory research design, in conjunction with an innovative methodology referred to as photovoice. Three rounds of photography and focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 17 focus groups. Reflections in each focus group interview were aloud and digitally audiotaped. A total of 28 participants 19-35 years of age (mean age = 27.65, SD = 5.48) participated in each round of photography and focus group interviews. Data analyses followed the tenets of descriptive phenomenology. Results. Findings highlight ecodevelopmental family and community risk and protective factors. At the family level, participants reflected on the ways in which family functioning, including family support, communication, and cohesion, can serve as risk and promotive factors for alcohol and drug use. Additionally, participants described in detail how experiences of poverty, stigma and discrimination, violence, accessibility to alcohol and drugs, accessibility for persons with disabilities, transportation, community support and cohesion, and access to health and mental health services constitute risk and promotive factors at the community level. Conclusion. Findings are suggestive of how ecodevelopmental family and community factors might increase the risk of alcohol and drug use among Latinos with physical disabilities. From this qualitative research, we derive a series of testable
Cordova, David; Parra-Cardona, J. Ruben; Blow, Adrian; Johnson, Deborah J.; Prado, Guillermo; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.
Objectives Latinos with disabilities disproportionately report substance use, including binge drinking and drug use. Ecodevelopmental factors, including socioeconomic patterning of poverty, social exclusion and post-colonial racism, have been shown to impact alcohol and drug use. However, this line of research remains under-developed among Latinos with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to obtain rich descriptions of the role of ecodevelopmental factors, including family and community, on alcohol and drug use among Latinos with physical disabilities. Methods We utilized a community-based participatory research design, in conjunction with an innovative methodology referred to as photovoice. Three rounds of photography and focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 17 focus groups. Reflections in each focus group interview were aloud and digitally audiotaped. A total of 28 participants 19–35 years of age (mean age= 27.65, SD= 5.48) participated in each round of photography and focus group interviews. Data analyses followed the tenets of descriptive phenomenology. Results Findings highlight ecodevelopmental family and community risk and protective factors. At the family level, participants reflected on the ways in which family functioning, including family support, communication and cohesion, can serve as risk and promotive factors for alcohol and drug use. Additionally, participants described in detail how experiences of poverty, stigma and discrimination, violence, accessibility to alcohol and drugs, accessibility for persons with disabilities, transportation, community support and cohesion, and access to health and mental health services constitute risk and promotive factors at the community level. Conclusion Findings are suggestive of how ecodevelopmental family and community factors might increase the risk for alcohol and drug use among Latinos with physical disabilities. From this qualitative research, we derive a series of testable
Multivariate techniques were used to identify environmental parameters affecting macrobenthic communities on the flood-tidal delta of the Nahoon Estuary and adjacent beach near East London on the south-east coast of South Africa. Water content of sediments, temperature and exposure were identified as important ...
Gulledge, Andrew K.; Gulledge, Michelle H.; Stahmann, Robert F.
Examines college students' preferences and attitudes regarding romantic physical affection (PA) types and relationship satisfaction. In general, PA was found to be highly correlated with relationship and partner satisfaction as is suggested by prior research. (Contains 12 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)
The attrition of females studying physics after high school has been a continuing concern for the physics education community. If females are well prepared, feel confident, and do well in introductory college physics, they may be inclined to study physics further. This quantitative study uses HLM to identify factors from high school physics preparation (content, pedagogy, and assessment) and the affective domain that predict female and male performance in introductory college physics. The study includes controls for student demographic and academic background characteristics, and the final dataset consists of 1973 surveys from 54 introductory college physics classes. The results highlight high school physics and affective experiences that differentially predict female and male performance. These experiences include: learning requirements, computer graphing/analysis, long written problems, everyday world examples, community projects cumulative tests/quizzes, father's encouragement, family's belief that science leads to a better career, and the length of time students believe that high school physics would help in university physics. There were also experiences that similarly predict female and male performance. The results paint a dynamic picture of the factors from high school physics and the affective domain that influence the future physics performance of females and males. The implication is that there are many aspects to the teaching of physics in high school that, although widely used and thought to be effective, need reform in their implementation in order to be fully beneficial to females and/or males in college.
Results: No studies investigated all factors affecting energy intake among adolescents. Some studies found mixed association among the determinants of EI in adolescent girls. However, a number of reviews confirm that many factors namely physical activity level, socio-economic status, diet, individual and social factors do ...
Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR); yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider univers...
Czepluch, Frauke S; Barres, Romain; Caidahl, Kenneth
Physical exercise is important for proper cardiovascular function and disease prevention, but it may influence the immune system. We evaluated the effect of strenuous exercise on monocyte chemotaxis. Monocytes were isolated from blood of 13 young, healthy, sedentary individuals participating...... in a three-week training program which consisted of repeated exercise bouts. Monocyte chemotaxis and serological biomarkers were investigated at baseline, after three weeks training and after four weeks recovery. Chemotaxis towards vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and transforming growth factor...
Voas, Jeffrey M.
Software faults that infrequently affect software's output are dangerous. When a software fault causes frequent software failures, testing is likely to reveal the fault before the software is releases; when the fault remains undetected during testing, it can cause disaster after the software is installed. A technique for predicting whether a particular piece of software is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is found in [Voas91b]. A piece of software that is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have high testability. A piece of software that is not likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have low testability. It is preferable to design software with higher testabilities from the outset, i.e., create software with as high of a degree of testability as possible to avoid the problems of having undetected faults that are associated with low testability. Information loss is a phenomenon that occurs during program execution that increases the likelihood that a fault will remain undetected. In this paper, I identify two brad classes of information loss, define them, and suggest ways of predicting the potential for information loss to occur. We do this in order to decrease the likelihood that faults will remain undetected during testing.
Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.
Graziela Murta Barbosa
Full Text Available It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P
Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.
Barbosa, Graziela Murta; Colombo, Andrea Vieira; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique; Simionato, Maria Regina Lorenzetti
It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P. gingivalis and P
between dance achievement and motivation, anxiety or self-concept. Similarly, no significant differences could be identified between the affective factors in the different grades. Keywords: Motivation; Stress; Anxiety; Self-concept; Affective variables; Dance achievement. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical ...
Ciotola, Mark P.
A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient
Pit latrines in slums areas of Uganda fill up faster than might be expected from some estimates owing to inappropriate use and failure to consider critical factors affecting sludge accumulation rates at the planning, design and construction stages. This study sought to investigate factors affecting filling rates of lined pit latrines ...
Full Text Available Although previous research has shown that affective variables are consistently associated with physical activity behavior, the working mechanisms are not understood to the extent of creating an intervention. The aim of this study is to identify situations and aspects of physical activity, which lead to positive affective reactions in people taking part in regular and long-term exercise. In this study 24 adults (12 female, 12 male distributed over three age groups (young, middle, and late adulthood that took part in sport programs (individual or team sport for at least five years. Semi-structured in depth interviews with questions about physical activity, long term participation and affective response in a sporting environment were conducted in order to ascertain those situations and aspects of the exercise program triggering positive affective states. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and followed Grounded Theory principles. Emerging concepts were grouped and merged into different categories representing the key aspects of exercise. Four factors were identified which are associated with emergence of positive emotions in sport and exercise. Firstly, perceived competence is one of the major factors influencing affective states during physical activity representing individual and collective success and progress, competition and challenge. Secondly, perceived social interaction is another factor comprising of all sorts of peer-related aspects such as communication with others, being part of a group and creating close relationships or friendships. Thirdly, novelty experience in contrast to other none-sporting activities such as work, family or other leisure activities was another factor. The last factor found was the perceived physical exertion comprising the degree of exhaustion, a possibly delayed turnaround in the affective response and the aspect of sport being a physical compensation for everyday sedentary life. The results of this study
Vladimir Sergeevich Morozov; Natalia Nikolaevna Taskaeva
This article contains the results of the authors' complete research on basic market factors affecting innovative activities. Innovations are perceived to ensure competitiveness of goods produced by enterprises and of sustainable success of companies or corporations in the market on the whole. All market factors affecting innovative activities are ranked by the authors to internal and external. The authors emphasized the importance of innovation factors for the development of small and medium-...
Usually, Pteridium aquilinum reproduces vigorously by the use of rhizomes. An occurence of fertile populations is rather rarely recorded. The aim of this bachelor thesis was to estimate the cause and factors affecting the fertility.
Potato is a very important food crop and is adversely affected by fungus. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation can play an important role in the improvement of potato. The present study was conducted to optimize the different factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chitinase gene. Nodes were used as ...
Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Başkent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.
This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…
Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…
Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis
The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…
Fernando B. Lopes
Full Text Available Brazil has high climate, soil and environmental diversity, as well as distinct socioeconomic and political realities, what results in differences among the political administrative regions of the country. The objective of this study was to determine spatial distribution of the physical, climatic and socioeconomic aspects that best characterize the production of dairy goats in Brazil. Production indices of milk per goat, goat production, milk production, as well as temperature range, mean temperature, precipitation, normalized difference vegetation index, relative humidity, altitude, agricultural farms; farms with native pasture, farms with good quality pasture, farms with water resources, farms that receive technical guidance, family farming properties, non-familiar farms and the human development index were evaluated. The multivariate analyses were carried out to spatialize climatic, physical and socioeconomic variables and so differenciate the Brazilian States and Regions. The highest yields of milk and goat production were observed in the Northeast. The Southeast Region had the second highest production of milk, followed by the South, Midwest and North. Multivariate analysis revealed distinctions between clusters of political-administrative regions of Brazil. The climatic variables were most important to discriminate between regions of Brazil. Therefore, it is necessary to implement animal breeding programs to meet the needs of each region.
Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating about the association between strong family ties and the emotional and physical welfare of older adults, and researchers have identified negative consequences of being unmarried, being childless, and/or living alone. These associations have been recognized in multiple contexts, including in Asia where living with a spouse and/or grown children has been shown in some studies to improve elderly well-being. Social support, especially family support, is expected to continue to be important where populations are aging and social safety nets are weak. Using longitudinal data from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the China Family Panel Studies, we focus on the effects of marital status at times 1 and 2, changes in marital status between the two surveys, and other family-related indicators of social connectedness on ratings of depression, levels of life satisfaction, and self-reported physical health among those aged 50 and over. Our sample includes 9831 respondents who have valid data on wellbeing indicators for Wave 1 and Wave 2, as well as complete information on the other covariates controlled in our analysis. In analyses of the full sample, those who were married at both points in time reported lower depression scores than those who were never-married, divorced, or widowed at both time points, and those whose unions dissolved in the interval. Those who were married at both times also generally reported greater levels of life satisfaction than those who were never married at both time points and those who became divorced during the interval. Important underlying gender differences are observed both for life satisfaction and depression. In addition, those who were married at both time points reported being in better physical health than those who became widowed during the interval (significant primarily for women, and those who had never been married (significant primarily for men. Our study contributes to the literature on social
Full Text Available Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR; yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider university guidelines, review other websites, and consult with experts and other divisions within the library; however, resources and training for the design process are lacking. While website designers assess their websites as highly successful, user evaluations are somewhat lower. Accordingly, use is low, and users rely heavily on commercial websites. Suggestions for enhancing the usage of ULWR are provided.
Full Text Available Sustainability is becoming increasingly important for society, and the creation of business ventures is one area where sustainability is critical. We examined the factors affecting actions that are designed to foster business sustainability. These factors are related to the environment, behavior, human relations, and business activity. Based on questionnaire responses from experts, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method was used to rank sustainable business criteria according to their importance for entrepreneurs starting sustainable businesses. The results indicate that the most important drivers of sustainable entrepreneurship are behavioral factors and business factors. Ethical principles and values, together with competitive intelligence, are crucial for undertaking actions that lead to sustainability.
Jerry P. Haenisch
Full Text Available While there have been a variety of studies concerning government worker motivation and productivity, few, if any, studies have focused specifically on state government workers’ perceptions about what factors affect their productivity. With more than 5 million workers employed by state governments in the United States, any improvement in state workplace productivity could have significant financial and service impact for society. In this study, state government workers identified those factors perceived as most affecting their workplace productivity. Data were collected through a survey offered to state government workers in the state of Wyoming. Factor analysis was used to derive key productivity factors from survey responses. The results indicate that state government workers appreciate having freedom and autonomy, like their jobs and the sense of achievement, and welcome teamwork, but feel limited by poor supervision and management, poor communications, and insufficient budgets and staffing. To improve productivity, the workers would eliminate bureaucracy, supervise better, and improve communication.
Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.
Maheshwari Mridul; Singh, Manjari
Child labour in India is a critical socio-economic problem that needs special attention of policy makers. In order to make effective policies to reduce child labour it is important to understand the specific factors that affect it in different situations. The paper empirically examines these factors across 35 Indian states and union territories at three levels of aggregation: total population, rural/urban, and male/female. The results showed that education, fertility, and workforce participat...
Alireza Heravi Mosavi
Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous
This paper reports the findings of a statistical assessment of some factors affecting computer application in information resource sharing. Secondary and primary data were employed in this study. Quota and random sampling were used to administer questionnaires using Interviewer -administered methodology of data ...
The objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting sperm morphology of bulls (n=908) collected at 320 days of age. Bulls were a composite breed (50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, and 25% Tarentaise) born from 2002 to 2008 to dams fed levels of feed during mid and late gestation that were expe...
This study investigated personal factors affecting organizational commitment among records management personnel in the state universities in Nigeria. Simple cluster sampling with equal allocation method was used to select 180 records management personnel from the study population. A five item organizational ...
This paper presents the findings of a survey on how workplace, biographical and motivational factors affect the organisational commitment of records officers in federal universities in Nigeria. Single stage random sampling, with equal allocation method, was used to administer questionnaire on 300 sampled participants from ...
SELLIER, F.; ZARKA, C.
THE GEOGRAPHICAL, OCCUPATIONAL, AND INTERFIRM MOBILITY, AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING THESE MOVEMENTS FOR WORKERS IN FRANCE, ITALY, GERMANY, AND SWEDEN IN THE PERIOD SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR ARE STUDIED. DATA OBTAINED FROM INDUSTRIAL SURVEYS AND GENERAL CENSUSES WERE USED TO COMPARE THE FOUR COUNTRIES WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH THE UNITED STATES.…
A study was conducted to screen parameters affecting the production of endoglucanase by Trichoderma reesei RUT C-30 on solid state fermentation of oil palm empty fruit bunch using the Plackett-Burman design. Factors involved in the screening process were peptone concentration, urea concentration, ammonium sulfate ...
DOI: 10.4103/TJOG.TJOG_55_17. How to cite this article: Loto OM, Akindojutimi JA, Akinwole KD,. Ademulegun TV, Akinmade O. Prognostic factors affecting outcome ... follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, and estradiol on day 2 or day 3 of the ... were also screened for HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis using the ...
Nazeri, Masoud; Shabani, Mohammad; Ghotbi Ravandi, Samaneh; Aghaei, Iraj; Nozari, Masoumeh; Mazhari, Shahrzad
Prenatal stress is proposed as a major risk factor in the development of cognitive impairments in the offspring. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal physical or psychological stress on the motor and cognitive functions of male and female offspring. Adult female rats were stressed during their conception using a novel method to induced whether physical or psychological stress. Animal offspring were then kept until adulthood. Elevated plus maze (EPM) was used to evaluate their anxiety-like behavior. Rotarod and wire grip were used to evaluate muscle strength and balance function. Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) learning and memory paradigm were used to evaluate the cognitive function of the offspring. Female offspring of both physical and psychological stress had an increased anxiety-like behavior in the EPM test in comparison to female control rats. Balance function was impaired in physical stressed female offspring in comparison to the control and male offspring. Muscle strength was reduced in physical male and female offspring. Both male and female offspring groups that underwent prenatal physical and psychological stress had an impaired spatial learning and memory. PA learning and memory were impaired in both male and female offspring except for the psychological stress female offspring in PA learning. Results of our study revealed that prenatal physical or psychological stress have different effects on motor and cognitive functions of the offspring. Male and female offspring were differentially affected by prenatal stress. We suggest more studies to evaluate the role of sex hormones on the effects of prenatal physical or psychological stress on cognitive and motor functions of the offspring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stevens, F C; Kaplan, C D; Ponds, R W; Diederiks, J P; Jolles, J
To explore the relationships between lifestyle and memory, and determine whether social factors influence memory. the relationship between memory and lifestyle was examined in 497 adults aged 25-80 years, using the Mectamemory in Adulthood questionnaire. We asked about sports activity and perceived activity, participation in voluntary organizations and social contacts. Activity and frequent contact with friends and family were related to higher memory capacity scores. Those with higher capacity scores were also younger, had better health and a stronger internal locus of control. In contrast, people with higher anxiety scores had more symptoms and less education, and were more externally oriented. people who consider themselves socially and physically active also consider their memory capacity to be good and are less anxious about their memory than less socially and physically active people. Perceived memory change appears to be predominantly influenced by ageing, whereas memory capacity and memory anxiety are more influenced by social factors.
The report, Factors Affecting Patient Dose in Diagnostic Radiology is divided into three main sections. Part one is introductory and covers the basic principles of x-ray production and image formation. It includes discussion of x-ray generators and x-ray tubes, radiation properties and units, specification and measurement of x-ray beams, methods of patient dose measurement, radiation effects, radiation protection philosophy and finally the essentials of imaging systems. Part two examines factors affecting the x-ray output of x-ray machines and the characteristics of x-ray beams. These include the influence of heat ratings, kVp, waveform, exposure timer, filtration, focus-film distance, beam intensity distribution, x-ray tube age and focal spot size. Part three examines x-ray machine, equipment and patient factors which affect the dose received by individual patients. The factors considered include justification of examinations, choice of examination method, film/screen combinations, kVp, mAs, focus-film distance, collimation and field size, exposure time, projection, scatter, generator calibration errors, waveform, filtration, film processing and patient size. The patient dose implications of fluoroscopy systems, CT scanners, special procedures and mammography are also discussed. The report concludes with a brief discussion of patient dose levels in New Zealand and dose optimisation. 104 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs
Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria
’s telecommunications market with the European market. The market reflects all the global trends, a gradually growing significance of mobile telecommunications services, broadband Internet access, construction of offers directed towards clients’ needs, and a strong trend towards market consolidation, which...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level...
Full Text Available In this study, the factors that affect students’ mathematics achievement in secondary school mathematics grades of 6th, 7th and 8th were explored. For this purpose, the factors that affect mathematics education and mathematics achievement such as type of school, family income, studying time and students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses have been investigated. The sample of the study consisted of 275 students from one private (n=58 and two state schools (n= 217 in Van. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and Chi-Square analysis. The result of study showed that type of school, family income, studying time, students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses had statistically significant effects on students’ mathematics achievement.
Full Text Available This study is the second in a series of experiments that describe the chemical, physical and thermal properties of archaeological limestone affected by salt and saline water in Egypt. This research aims to study the aggressive physical effects of different types of salts dominated in saline water and their different mechanisms on the acceleration of weathering processes that affect Egyptian limestone. It presents a multidisciplinary approach to characterize, at both micro/macro scales, the behavior of a limestone widely used as a construction material in most of Egyptian monuments when interacting with some types of salt solutions of various concentrations. A systematic optical, morphological, physical and mechanical analysis of the fresh and weathered stone samples were used to evaluate different characteristics through using scientific some techniques such as optical microscope (OP and scanning electron microscope (SEM. In addition to the using of some special computer programs that were used to define different physical and mechanical properties such as weight changes, bulk density, total porosity, water uptake, water content, thermal dilatation and abrasion resistant. The results proved that all investigated samples were gradually affected by the types of salinity paths and salt concentrations. These results will serve as a database for the future comparison of long term behavior of stones before and after the planned conservation of the entire area. So, it is pertinent to device some scientific methods and interventions to reduce all factors of salt effects and removing their harmful aspects from historic fabric of the archaeological buildings through some scientific recommendations
Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having th...
A.R. Darban Astane
Full Text Available The current study was carried out to evaluate the quantity and quality of rural domestic waste generation and to identify the factors affecting it in rural areas of Khodabandeh county in Zanjan Province, Iran. Waste samplings consisted of 318 rural households in 11 villages. In order to evaluate the quality and quantity of the rural domestic waste, waste production was classified into 12 groups and 2 main groups of organic waste and solid waste. Moreover, kriging interpolation technique in ARC-GIS software was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the generated domestic waste and ultimately multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors affecting the generation of domestic waste. The results of this study showed that the average waste generated by each person was 0.588 kilograms per day. with the share of organic waste generated by each person being 0.409 kilograms per day and the share of solid waste generated by each person being 0.179 kilograms per day. The results from spatial distribution of waste generation showed a certain pattern in three groups and a higher rate of waste generation in the northern and northwestern parts, especially in the subdistrict. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the households’ income, assets, age, and personal attitude are respectively the most important variables affecting waste generation. The housholds’ attitude and indigenous knowledge on efficient use of materials are also the key factors which can help reducing waste generation.
Gul Mert, Gulen; Herguner, Mihriban Ozlem; Incecik, Faruk; Altunbasak, Sakir; Sahan, Duygu; Unal, Ilker
To assess risk factors that affect epilepsy prognosis and neurodevelopmental outcome and response to treatment in patients diagnosed with infantile spasm. In this study, demographics, treatment modalities, etiologies, risk factors affecting neurodevelopmental outcome and epilepsy prognosis were assessed retrospectively at the end of a minimum 24-months follow-up of 104 patients diagnosed with infantile spasm from May 2012 to October 2015. Neonatal seizure during neonatal period, abnormal head circumference, young age at the time of presentation and early gestational age, symptomatic etiology, abnormal initial examination and abnormal development test at the time of diagnosis, consanguinity, the medical center where treatment was started in the second center or beyond and magnetic resonance imaging finding were found to be statistically significant for poor prognosis in terms of neurodevelopment (p Infantile spasm is an age-related epileptic encephalopathy, and it was observed that it is still catastrophic, and that the most important factor affecting prognosis of epilepsy is etiology, age at the time of presentation and the medical center where treatment was started in the second center or beyond.
Soheila Nazarpour; Masoumeh Simbar; Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani
This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical fa...
Nouraei Motlagh, Soraya; Sabermahani, Asma; Hadian, Mohammad; Lari, Mohsen Asadi; Mahdavi, Mohamad Reza Vaez; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan
Successful health system planning and management is dependent on well informed decisions, so having complete knowledge about medical services' utilization is essential for resource allocation and health plans. The main goal of this study is identification of factors effecting inpatient and outpatient services utilization in public and private sectors. This study encompasses all regions of Tehran in 2011 and uses Urban HEART questionnaires. This population-based survey included 34700 households with 118000 individuals in Tehran. For determining the most important factors affected on health services consumption, logit model was applied. Regarding to the finding, the most important factors affected on utilization were age, income level and deciles, job status, household dimension and insurance coverage. The main point was the negative relationship between health care utilization and education but it had a positive relationship with private health care utilization. Moreover suffering from chronic disease was the most important variable in health care utilization. According to the mentioned results and the fact that access has effect on health services utilization, policy makers should try to eliminate financial access barriers of households and individuals. This may be done with identification of households with more than 65 or smaller than 5 years old, people in low income deciles or with chronic illness. According to age effect on health services usage and aging population of Iran, results of this study show more importance of attention to aged population needs in future years.
Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Scott, Tammy; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara
Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis. Conversely, many dietary components such as curcumin, resveratrol, blueberry polyphenols, sulforaphane, salvionic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and diets enriched with polyphenols and PUFAs, as well as caloric restriction, physical exercise, and learning, have been shown to induce neurogenesis in adult brains. Although many of the underlying mechanisms by which nutrients and dietary factors affect adult neurogenesis have yet to be determined, nutritional approaches provide promising prospects to stimulate adult neurogenesis and combat neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the role of nutritional factors in modifying adult neurogenesis and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi
The expansion of outpatient services and the desire to provide more outpatient care than inpatient care create some problems such as the overcrowding in the outpatient clinics. Given the importance of overcrowding in the outpatient clinics, this qualitative study aimed to determine the factors influencing the overcrowding in the specialty and subspecialty clinic of a teaching hospital. This was a qualitative study conducted in the specialty and subspecialty clinic of a hospital using content analysis method in the period of January to March 2014. The study population was all managers and heads of the outpatient wards. The studied sample consisted of 22 managers of the clinic wards who were selected using the purposive sampling method. The required data was collected using semi-structured interviews. The collected data was analyzed using conventional content analysis and the MAXQDA 10.0 software. Three themes were identified as the main factors affecting the overcrowding including the internal positive factors, internal negative factors, and external factors. Despite the efforts made to eliminate overcrowding, and reduce waiting times and increase access to the services for patients, the problem of overcrowding still has remained unresolved. In addition, the use of some strategies such as clarifying the working processes of the clinic for staff and patients and the relationships between the clinic and other wards especially emergency department, as well as using a simple triage system on the patients' arrival at the clinic are recommended.
Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett
The incidence of allergic disease continues to rise in industrialized countries. The rapid increase in the incidence of allergic disease throughout the past half century suggests that recently altered environmental factors are driving allergy development. Accumulating evidence suggests that environmental experiences that occur during the first months of life can influence the risk of allergic sensitization. In this Review, we present the evidence relating to specific early life exposures that affect future allergy development, and discuss how these exposures may promote either tolerance or allergic sensitization.
Full Text Available This empirical research investigates state based factors affecting the inward FDI employment among fifty states of the United States, uses annual data for the period of time from 1997 to 2007 and identifies several state-specific determinants of FDI employment. The results indicate that the major factors exerting positive impact on inward US FDI employment are: real wages, infrastructure, unionization level, educational attainment, FDI stock and manufacturing density. In addition, the results show that gross state product growth rate, real per capita taxes and share of scientists and engineers have negative impact on FDI employment. Our findings indicate the importance of selected variables in evaluating the effects of FDI flow.Keywords: FDI, Growth, Employment, State, Economy
Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.
Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.
Martires, Kathryn J; Aquino, Lisa L; Wu, Jashin J
Although prior studies have examined methods by which to recruit and retain academic dermatologists, few have examined factors that are important for developing academic leaders in dermatology. This study sought to examine characteristics of dermatology residency programs that affect the odds of producing department or division chairs/chiefs and program directors (PDs). Data regarding program size, faculty, grants, alumni residency program attended, lectures, and publications for all accredited US dermatology residency programs were collected. Of the 103 programs examined, 46% had graduated at least 1 chair/chief, and 53% had graduated at least 1 PD. Results emphasize that faculty guidance and research may represent modifiable factors by which a dermatology residency program can increase its graduation of academic leaders.
Perkins, Z B; De'Ath, H D; Sharp, G; Tai, N R M
Traumatic leg amputation commonly affects young, active people and leads to poor long-term outcomes. The aim of this review was to describe common causes of disability and highlight therapeutic interventions that may optimize outcome after traumatic leg amputation. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, Embase and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases was performed, using the terms 'leg injury', 'amputation' and 'outcome'. Articles reporting outcomes following traumatic leg amputation were included. Studies demonstrated that pain, psychological illness, decreased physical and vocational function, and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were common causes of disability after traumatic leg amputation. The evidence highlights that appropriate preoperative management and operative techniques, in conjunction with suitable rehabilitation and postoperative follow-up, can lead to improved treatment outcome and patient satisfaction. Patients who undergo leg amputation after trauma are at risk of poor long-term physical and mental health. Clinicians involved in their care have many opportunities to improve their outcome using a variety of therapeutic variables. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Thomas, James C
At the turn of the century, several major efforts were initiated to combat HIV/AIDS and other major epidemics affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). They were accompanied by initiatives to enable recipient countries to collect and use data to guide their public health programmes. These health information systems (HIS) typify systems in that they have multiple interacting components, and they are embedded within larger systems. Components of a larger system act as the context for all lower-level systems. Their effects can be pervasive, and thus be taken for granted or regarded as unchangeable. We identify four contextual factors that affect efforts to strengthen HIS: hierarchical roles, aid funding, corruption, and competing priorities. We provide examples of each as experienced by those working to strengthen HIS in LMICs. Each of these contextual factors can seriously diminish the effectiveness of HIS strengthening efforts and their long-term sustainability. We propose research questions about each that would enable those engaged in HIS strengthening to work effectively and sustainably.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of various stimuli that confound interpretation of assessed indicators of horse welfare during rest and working period by the use of non-invasive methods of sampling. In total, 40 horses of different breeds and used for different purposes in Slovakia were used. The following indicators were tested: concentration of cortisol in saliva and 11,17-dioxoandrostanes in faeces measured by Elisa methods, heart rate and heart rate variability recording with the Polar Heart Rate Monitor and presence of stereotypical behaviour assessed with a horse questionnaire survey. The evaluated physiological responses were mostly affected by the type of work undertaken, especially horse movement intensity (P P P < 0.05 compared to horses without stereotypical behaviour. Horse breed, age, sex and stabling conditions affected only some of the heart rate indicators. The type of riding style had no fundamental influence on evaluated indicators. These observations highlight the difficulties in determining the welfare status in horses, since measurements can be affected by many factors that need to be investigated for achieving relevant outcomes. This is the first study in Slovakia focusing on the evaluation of horse welfare by non-invasive sampling.
Worthen, L T; Yeatts, D E
Public support for assisted suicide has been growing despite the ethical questions raised by members of the medical profession. Previous research suggests that age, gender, experience, and religiosity are factors affecting individuals' attitudes. This study examines the effect of demographic and ideological factors, as well as individuals' caregiving experiences, on attitudes toward assisted suicide. Random-digit-dialing procedures produced a sample of 156 residents of Denton, Texas, in March 1998. T-tests were conducted to measure significance, while gamma values were used to measure level of association and percent reduction in error. The data indicate that age, gender, and caregiving experience were not significant predictors of attitudes. Situational factors, including whether a physician or friend/family member should assist and whether a child or a terminally ill patient experiencing no pain should receive assistance, all were highly significant and positively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide. Respondents were most likely to support physician-assisted suicide for individuals experiencing no pain. The data also indicated that the depth of commitment to the beliefs that suffering has meaning, that life belongs to God, and that physician-assisted suicide is murder, were highly significant and negatively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide.
Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to measure the success rate achieved by the alumni of Open/Distance Learning (O/DL, the Bachelor Education In-service Teachers Program (BEITP, Staya Jacana Christian University(SWCU, Salatiga in their critical thinking habit that lead to their success, and to find factors which determined their critical thinking habit. The factors concerned were student factor (learning motivation, alumni’s readiness to enter ICT community, prerequisite or teacher factor (teacher’s ability in creating and using a new instructional context. This quantitative research belongs to the causality ex-post facto research. The data source was one class of O/ DL, the BEITP, SWCUstudents, who were chosen out of four classes, as many as 32 alumni in the academic year 2015/2016. Data were screened using a self-rating scale, which consisted of 40 items tested valid and reliable, and then reduced to 5 variablas. The BEITP, SWCU Salatiga had graduated most of its alumni who owned critical thinking habit at a high rate. The critical thinking habit was affected by the instructional contexts which enabled a new situation (Model 1, alumni’s readiness to enter the ICT community (Model 2, pre-requisite, i.e., mastery of previous lecture materials (Model 3, and student’s learning motivation (Model 4 to reach 81%. The alumni’s critical thinking habit of 51.20% was determined by the teacher’s role in developing instructional contexts which made a new situation possible. This finding was useful for educational quality management for the effectiveness and productivity of higher education, which should have been focused on the teacher in developing an instructional strategy based on context, alumni readiness to enter the ICT community, prerequisite, and student’s learning motivation.
Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette
In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...
Asano, Tomohiro; Kahn, B.
In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs
Ibrahim, Sanaa Abd El Azim
This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, on 207 student nurses from four different grades. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, consisted of 30 items, was used to measure the students' assertiveness level and a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer was used to measure students' psychological empowerment. The study results showed that 60.4% of the students were assertive, while about half of the students were empowered. A positive relation between student assertiveness and psychological empowerment was detected. Moreover, positive relations regarding family income and students' assertiveness and psychological empowerment were determined. The study recommended introduction of specific courses aiming at enhancing the acquisition of assertiveness skills, in addition, nurse educators must motivate their students to express their opinion and personal rights and also they must pay attention for students' empowerment and enhance students' autonomy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Enns, Carol L; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V
Caring is a universal phenomenon. However, as a result of higher patient acuity and staff shortages within the chaotic ED environment, caring behaviors may be in peril. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the meaning of caring from the perspective of emergency nurses. Exploring nurses' perspectives of caring is central to improving staffing and retention issues in this unique work environment. As part of a larger study, a subsample of emergency nurses who work in public hospitals in Manitoba, Canada (n = 17) were interviewed. A qualitative descriptive design was used to gain insight into the caring perspectives of nurses by asking them, "What does caring meaning to you?" and "What affects caring in your practice in the emergency department?" Emerging themes were extracted through analysis of audio tapes and transcripts. Advocacy and holistic care emerged as major themes in the meaning of caring for emergency nurses. Caring was affected by a number of factors, including workload, lack of time, staffing issues, shift work, and lack of self-care. However, lack of management support was the most consistent hindrance to caring identified by study participants. Caring continues to be a unifying concept in nursing; however, influencing factors continue to undermine caring for emergency nurses. Caring is not subsidiary to nursing; it is the central core of nursing. Therefore, fostering a caring working environment is essential for nurses to practice holistic nursing care. It is also imperative to job satisfaction and the retention of emergency nurses. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ree, M; Riediger, N; Moghadasian, M H
To establish health-related reasons behind Canadian food choices, and how variables such as education, income, gender, ethnicity and age may affect food selection. Approximately 98 733 Canadians responded to the 12 questions regarding food choices in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.1, conducted by the Canadian Government in 2003. These included 13 727 adolescents (12-19 years), 19 089 young adults (20-34 years), 31 039 middle-aged adults (35-54 years), 25 338 older adults (55-74 years) and 9580 elderly (75+ years). Approximately 70% of Canadian adolescents in the sample indicated that their food choices were independent of health concerns. Body weight management was a major concern for food selection by adolescents and adults, while the elderly stated heart disease as their main concern. Among all participants, females, and individuals with high levels of education and income reported the highest response to choosing or avoiding foods due to health concerns and food content. Our data indicate that several factors significantly affect food choices for health-related reasons in the Canadian population. Among them, age- and gender-related gaps, particularly between adolescents and adults, are profound. This observation may urge authorities to implement effective strategies to educate Canadians, especially adolescents, that selection of appropriate foods may prevent chronic diseases.
M. Abdi Talarposht
Full Text Available Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were selected hospitals. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from the health centers. The construct validity of the questionnaire was approved by confirmatory factor analysis test and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α=0.97. All data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Friedman tests. Findings: The development of staff skills, the use of information technology, the integration of processes, appropriate planning, and customer satisfaction and product quality had a significant impact on the agility of public hospitals of Iran (P<0.001. New product introductions had earned the highest ranking and the development of staff skills earned the lowest ranking. Conclusion: The new product introduction, market responsiveness and sensitivity, reduce costs, and the integration of organizational processes, ratings better to have acquired agility hospitals in Iran. Therefore, planners and officials of hospitals have to, through the promotion quality and variety of services customer-oriented, providing a basis for investing in the hospital and etc to apply for agility supply chain public hospitals of Iran.
Litwin, Tomasz; Członkowska, Anna
Wilson disease (WD) is a genetic disorder with copper metabolism disturbances leading to copper accumulation in many organs with their secondary damage. It is caused by mutation in the ATP7B gene on chromosome 13, which encodes ATP-ase 7B involved in copper transport. The age of neurologic symptom onset in WD is 20-30 years, but there is a wide spectrum of disease including: age at onset, clinical signs and treatment efficacy. More than 500 mutations of ATP7B have been described so far, but the WD genotype does not explain the disease variability. Several other factors are suspected to influence WD presentation, including polymorphisms in the genes encoding: apolipoprotein E, prion-related protein, methyltenetetrahydrofolate reductase, Murr1, antioxidant-1, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis as well as iron metabolism disturbances, gender impact, inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress. The explanation of their significance can change the therapy of WD. The aim of our study was to review and assess the clinical significance of the factors affecting WD presentation.
Full Text Available Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from OpenCaching.com and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.
Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.
Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.
Full Text Available BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama is the largest factory of Brandix Group of Companies catering to VS Pink. It has a labour force of 1250 employees including a direct labour force of 659. Production capabilities have been extended to in-house printing and embroidery sections in addition to cutting and shipping facilities. Like other apparel manufacturers in the industry, BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama also faces much competition and problems in its day to day business operations. One of the major issues so faced is On-Time-Delivery due to underperformance of the employees. Therefore, with the objectives of studying factors affecting the underperformance of the employees of the production department, analysing and identifying such factors, and providing recommendations, a few variables i.e. machines and methods, skill level, financial incentives, leadership practices and working conditions were identified as having a potential impact over the performance of the production employees. Stratified random sampling method was used to select 64 team members from the 32 production modules, and research work continued to collate primary data through administrating a structured questionnaire among selected associates. Null and alternative hypotheses were tested using correlations, and the data is presented as graphical pictures, tables, and in narrative form. However, there were a few limitations such as management influence, sample basis selection, service period, level of understating, time availability and commitment, time availability for the study etc. which may have had an impact over the research findings.
Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.
Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.
Geraldo da Silva e Souza
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess the physical performance of Pantaneiro horses with and without equine infectious anemia (EIA under functional conditions of cattle management. The horses were subjected to a performance test and split into two groups according to a completely randomized design: animals were chosen from populations testing positive and negative for EIA. Performance was measured as a function of a data envelopment analysis (DEA model considering four outputs and one unitary input. The output measures were the distance achieved in the performance test, hematocrit as a weighted average over the test duration, respiratory rate as weighted average over the test duration, and the level of lactic acid at the test termination. Weights for the hematocrit and the respiratory rate output variables were determined by means of factor analysis. The performance score was a weighted average of the output variables with the weights defined by the averages of the optimum individual multipliers in the DEA analysis. Contextual variables of interest were age, horse weight, room temperature, and corporal temperature. Only groups and room temperature were statistically significant effects, as indicated by a bootstrap analysis. The performance of group positive for EIA is significantly lower than that of the group negative for EIA and room temperature has a negative effect.
Adlakha, A L; Suchindran, C M
This paper examines the determinants of infant and child mortality variations in Jordan, Yemen, Egypt, and Tunisia using data from WFS surveys. The analysis considers biological correlates of mortality--mother's age, birth order, birth interval, and previous infant loss--and several social factors--mother's and father's education, mother's residence, father's occupation, and mother's work experience since marriage. The estimates for the 4 countries show large variations in the mortality rates and an expected pattern of declining infant and child mortality during the period of 20 years prior to the survey. Further, the proportionate decline in child mortality in each country was generally greater than the proportionate decline in infant mortality. A persistent pattern of higher child mortality for females than for males is found, suggesting preferential care and treatment of male offspring. The higher mortality risk is found for infants born to very young and very old mothers, with short previous birth intervals, of higher birth orders, and where the previous infant had died. Among the socioeconomic characteristics, the education of the mother and rural-urban residence are found to affect infant survival. In childhood, among the demographic factors, only birth interval shows a significant effect on mortality. The risk of child mortality decreases considerably with the increase in the birth interval. The analysis of the effect of breastfeeding on mortality, although based on limited information, clearly shows the beneficial effect of breastfeeding on the infant's survival, especially during the early months of life. For all countries, the mortality rate for the non-breastfeeders is substantially higher than for the breastfeeders even when the effect of the other covariates is controlled.
Full Text Available Franchise is one of successful business strategies in business expansion. Franchise format has been already adopted in all countries. The success is proven in the world and also in Indonesia. Franchise system can be implemented not only in franchisor country but also in other countries. The spirit of internalization is not only because of market saturated, but also to increase reputation of franchise companies and to follow competitors or customers. Important thing discussed in this research is the franchise life-cycle, franchise growth model, and franchise companies’ profile. It is found that the Indonesia franchise companies are in the introduction stage. The stage in life-cycle shows its reputation. This study used literature review as methodology, and the purpose of this study is to give a big picture for Indonesia franchise companies to make internationalization. There are some Indonesia franchise business profiles in the discussion part. The factors affecting franchise internationalization were analyzed by PESTEL analysis. Some strategies should be prepared in making decision to go international. At the end, there are some recommendations and future research relating to internationalize franchise business.
Cahoon, D.R.; Phillips, S.W.
Opening paragraph: Tidal and nontidal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed provide vital hydrologic, water-quality, and ecological functions. Situated at the interface of land and water, these valuable habitats are vulnerable to alteration and loss by human activities including direct conversion to non-wetland habitat by dredge-and-fill activities from land development, and to the effects of excessive nutrients, altered hydrology and runoff, contaminants, prescribed fire management, and invasive species. Processes such as sea-level rise and climate change also impact wetlands. Although local, State, and Federal regulations provide for protection of wetland resources, the conversion and loss of wetland habitats continue in the Bay watershed. Given the critical values of wetlands, the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement has a goal to achieve a net gain in wetlands by restoring 25,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands by 2010. The USGS has synthesized findings on three topics: (1) sea-level rise and wetland loss, (2) wetland restoration, and (3) factors affecting wetland diversity.
Vivien T. Supangco
Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality
Full Text Available This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental–emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse.
Bae, Eun-Jung; Kim, Yun-Hee
This study aimed to investigate factors affecting sarcopenia in different age groups among Korean adults aged 20 years or older. In this secondary analysis, data were collected from records for 17,968, participants who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008-2011. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the associated factors of sarcopenia by age groups. The prevalence of sarcopenia increased significantly with age. Physical activity, blood pressure, waist circumference, triglycerides, vitamin D level were found to be factors significantly associated with sarcopenia in all age groups. Total energy intake was found to be a factor that is significantly associated with sarcopenia among the adults aged 20-39 years. Fasting glucose, suicidal ideation, perceived health status, mobility problem, pain/discomfort, total energy intake were found to be factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults aged 40-64 years. Sex, residential area, smoking, drinking, fasting glucose, osteoarthritis, fall experience, usual activity problem, protein intake were factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults over 65 years of age. The findings show that sarcopenia in adults and the associated factors were different by age groups. Thus, these factors should be considered in the development of intervention programs for the care and prevention of sarcopenia, and such programs should be modified according to different age groups.
Full Text Available Hyekyung Jin,1 Yeonhee Kim,2 Sandy Jeong Rhie1,3 1College of Pharmacy, 2Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, 3Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160 aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15. The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=-0.215, P=0.022, sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=-0.335, P=0.000, education level (β=-0.153, P=0.045, health-related problems (β=-0.239, P=0.004, and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018. Conclusion: In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists
Mosby, Danielle; Mcgraw, Patty; Duffalo, Chad; Drees, Marci; Depalma, Fedele; Herdman, Christine; Myerson, Scott; Bacon, Alfred E
Abstract Background Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is an effective treatment for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). With more widespread use of this intervention, variable cure rates (70–95%) have been observed. We conducted this study to identify specific patient- and procedure-level factors affecting FMT effectiveness, hypothesizing that those patients with higher comorbidity, inadequate bowel preparation, and shorter retention of transplant would fail more frequently. Methods At our 2-hospital, >1100-bed community-based academic center, we prospectively followed patients pre/post-FMT between June 2014-April 2017. To undergo FMT, patients must have ≥2 CDI relapses and failed vancomycin taper. We entered all FMT patients into a registry and followed them regularly for up to 1 year, collecting age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, number of CDI relapses, Boston bowel prep score, and stool retention time. FMT donor stool was obtained from OpenBiome (Boston, MA). We defined failure as recurrent CDI requiring treatment ≤8 weeks after FMT. We used 1-sided t-tests to test our hypotheses. Results During the study period, 41 patients (mean age 65 years, SD 17.6) underwent FMT. Most (37, 90%) were performed via colonoscopy, 1 via upper endoscopy, and 3 via oral preparation (capsules). FMT failure occurred in 10 patients (24.4%). Nearly half (n = 20) reported adverse events, including constipation, gas, abdominal pain, blood in stool, and fatigue. Three patients expired from comorbid disease, and 3 were lost to follow-up. Patients with higher Charlson scores failed more frequently (P = 0.04), and history of tumor (P = 0.03) and pulmonary disease (P = 0.04) were both associated with failure. No other factors, including age, retention time, and Boston bowel prep score, were associated with failure. Conclusion This study found that patients with multiple comorbid conditions, as defined by the Charlson index, are at risk for FMT failure. However, quality of
... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer ... learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. This ...
For diverse reasons, a large number of patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are yet to imbibe regular physical exercise behaviour. In this study, we characterised the link between psychological factors and physical exercise behaviour of a sample of Nigerian T2D patients. Participants were 176 T2D patients with minimum of ...
Conclusion: The factor VIII recovery in CRYO improves significantly with higher baseline factor VIII: C levels, blood group A donor, and rapid freezing using blast freezer. Rapid freezing also increases the fibrinogen yield.
Merchant, Kimberly A S; Ward, Marcia M; Mueller, Keith J
Telemedicine (also known as telehealth) is a means to increase access to care, one of the foundations of the Triple Aim. However, the expansion of telemedicine services in the United States has been relatively slow. We previously examined the extent of uptake of hospital based telemedicine using the 2013 HIMSS (Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society) Analytics national database of 4,727 non-specialty hospitals. Our analysis indicated that the largest percentage of operational telemedicine implementations (15.7 percent) was in radiology departments, with a substantial number in emergency/trauma care (7.5 percent) and cardiology/stroke/heart attack programs (6.8 percent). However, existing databases are limited because they do not identify whether a respondent hospital is a "hub" (providing telemedicine services) or a "spoke" (receiving telemedicine services). Therefore, we used data from interviews with hospital representatives to deepen the research and understanding of telemedicine use and the factors affecting that use. Interviews were conducted with key informants at 18 hub hospitals and 18 spoke hospitals to explore their perceptions of barriers and motivators to telemedicine adoption and expansion. Key Findings. (1) Respondents from both hub and spoke hospitals reported that telemedicine helps them meet their mission, enhances access, keeps lower-acuity patients closer to home, and helps head off competition. (2) Respondents from both hub and spoke hospitals reported licensing and credentialing to be significant barriers to telemedicine expansion. Thus, half of hubs provide services only within their state. (3) A variety of one-time funding sources have been used to initiate and grow telemedicine services among hubs and spokes. However, reimbursement issues have impeded the development of workable business models for sustainability. Hub hospitals shoulder the responsibility for identifying sustainable business models. (4) Although respondents
Ariëns, G.A.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Bongers, P.M.; Wal, G. van der; Bouter, L.M.
To identify physical risk factors for neck pain, a systematic review of the literature was carried out. Based on methodological quality and study design, 4 levels of evidence were defined to establish the strength of evidence for the relationship between risk factors and neck pain. Altogether, 22
Wilson, Molly M.
While reading has been recognized as a potentially useful and enjoyable pastime for the elderly, physical and psychological decrements affect the ability of the elderly to read. As the eyes age, near-point tasks become more difficult. In addition to reduced sensory intake, perceptual changes occur. The central nervous system slows, and data travel…
McKenzie, Emily; Symonds, Matthew L.; Fink, Kevin; Tapps, Tyler
The purpose of this article is to share three challenge-based lesson plans that can be implemented by physical educators in their classroom. Each of the lesson examples addresses the three learning domains: psychomotor, cognitive and affective. Additionally, each lesson is aligned with SHAPE America's National Standards for K-12 Physical…
Motivation and strategies for affecting electronic music through physical gestures are presented and discussed. Two implementations are presented and experience with their use in performance is reported. A concept of sound shaping and sound colouring that connects an instrumental performer......’s playing and gesturest to sound synthesis is used. The results and future possibilities are discussed....
Work related musculoskeletal disorders have been associated with demographic factors, work stresses and psycho-social stress symptoms. The study aimed to evaluate factors associated with MSDs in different body regions among Indian tobacco processing workers. A group of 450 tobacco processing workers participated ...
Rogala, Piotr; Batko, Roman; Wawak, Slawomir
This study aims to identify the key factors which influence the functioning quality and success of training companies. Based on an analysis of the requirements included in the quality management system standards for providers of education and training services, a set of twenty factors has been developed. This was followed by a survey for…
Full Text Available Financial specialist conduct is a focal idea in the behavioral fund which breaks down the impact of different factors on singular value speculator basic leadership. The nature and centrality of these factors on financial specialist basic leadership can be unique and intriguing in different nations. This investigation, thusly, looks at the impact of financial, and behavioral, factors in molding the venture conduct of value speculators in India. The factor incorporates advocate suggestion, unbiased data, individual back requirements, bookkeeping data, established riches expansion and mental self-view/firm-picture incident. The examination found the solid impact of mental self-portrait/firm-picture occurrence, unbiased data, and supporter suggestion on value speculator basic leadership. While, no impacts of variables like great riches amplification, bookkeeping data, and individual budgetary needs are found on value financial specialist's basic leadership with regards to India.
Hof, van het K.H.
Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid
Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia
Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.
Booth-Kewley, Stephanie; Dell'Acqua, Renée G; Thomsen, Cynthia J
Organizational commitment is a psychological state that has a strong impact on the likelihood that employees will remain with an organization. Among military personnel, organizational commitment is predictive of a number of important outcomes, including reenlistment intentions, job performance, morale, and perceived readiness. Because of the unique challenges and experiences associated with military service, it may be that organizational commitment is even more critical in the military than in civilian populations. Despite the essential role that they play in protecting the health of other service members, little is known about the factors that influence Navy Corpsmen's organizational commitment. This study investigated demographic and psychosocial factors that may be associated with organizational commitment among Corpsmen. Surveys of organizational commitment and possible demographic and psychosocial correlates of organizational commitment were completed by 1,597 male, active duty Navy Corpsmen attending Field Medical Training Battalion-West, Camp Pendleton, California. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors of organizational commitment. Of the 12 demographic and psychosocial factors examined, 6 factors emerged as significant predictors of organizational commitment in the final model: preservice motivation to be a Corpsman, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, confidence regarding promotions, occupational self-efficacy, social support for a Corpsman career, and lower depression. Importantly, a number of the factors that emerged as significant correlates of organizational commitment in this study are potentially modifiable. These factors include confidence regarding promotions, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, and occupational self-efficacy. It is recommended that military leaders and policy-makers take concrete steps to address these factors, thereby strengthening
Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.
Apple (Malus domestica) accounts for 50% of the world's deciduous fruit tree production. Apple, commonly known as a temperate crop, has become a gainful cash crop for the people in south-western Uganda. The objective of the study was to determine the various costs involved and how different socio-economic factors.
Mustika, Adhista Cahya
This study tests the factors that influence the internal audit effectiveness, including internal auditor competencies, internal auditor independence, auditee support to internal audit activity, and the internal and external auditor relationship. Using the internal auditor inspectorate in Java Province, Indonesia, we found that the internal audit effectiveness can be attained through increase internal audit competence, independence and strong relationship between internal and external auditor....
Full Text Available Intrusions of magma induce thermal aureoles in the country rock. Analytical solutions predict that the thickness of an aureole is proportional to the thickness of the intrusion. However, in the field, thermal aureoles are often significantly thinner or wider than predicted by simple thermal models. Numerical models show that thermal aureoles are wider if the heat transfer in the magma is faster than in the country rock due to contrasts in thermal diffusivities or the effect of magma convection. Large thermal aureoles can also be caused by repeated injection close to the contact. Aureoles are thin when heat transfer in the country rock is faster than heat transfer within the magma or in case of incrementally, slowly emplaced magma. Absorption of latent heat due to metamorphic reactions or water volatilization also affects thermal aureoles but to a lesser extent. The way these parameters affect the thickness of a thermal aureole depends on the isotherm under consideration, hence on which metamorphic phase is used to draw the limit of the aureole. Thermal aureoles provide insight on the dynamics of intrusions emplacement. Although available examples are limited, asymmetric aureoles point to magma emplacement by over-accretion for mafic cases and by under-accretion for felsic cases, consistent with geochronological data.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of socio-demographic and individual psychological characteristics that influence the verdict of jury. The study involved 38 men and women aged 25 to 64 years. With the help of a questionnaire, developed on the basis of legal development model by J. Tapp and F. Levine, we revealed levels of jury members’ legal conscience, which, together with socio-demographic characteristics and personality characteristics of the subjects, identified by R. Cattell 16PF Questionnaire, were related to the responses on the Questionnaire while returning verdict on specially selected criminal cases with implicit guilt of the defendant. According to the study, it was determined that the socio-demographic characteristics of the jurors did not significantly affect their verdict, and among the psychological characteristics of the jurors the greatest impact on their verdict has the level of legal development. Thus, depending on the nature of the crime (violent, non-violent or committed through negligence, the same level of legal conscience differently affect the decision of jurors.
Augusto J. Piratelli
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The flight initiation distance has been used either to understand the cost-benefit trade-offs related to the risk of predation or as an important tool for wildlife managers. Although this variable is well-discussed for temperate regions, it is still poorly known in the Neotropics. Here we analyze the escape behavior of birds from southeastern Brazil, comparing an urban to a non-urban area. We tested for the influence of sites (urban vs. non-urban area, approaching (by one vs. two people, daytime (morning vs. afternoon, seasons (breeding vs. non-breeding and body mass on the determination of the initial (FID and final (FFD flight distances across different bird species. We predict that FID will be greater in rural areas and under a greater threat (higher number of predators approaching in the afternoon and in the non-breeding season. We also expect a direct relationship between body mass and FID and between FID and FFD. We sampled 11 species after measuring 331 escape behaviors, and we confirmed our predictions for sites (five species, daytime (one species and rejected our premise about seasons for one species. Mean FID was strongly affected by body mass, and directly affected FFD. Adjustments in FID are, most likely, an important adaptive trait in urban habitats and may partially explain the predominance of species with higher ecological plasticity in cities.
Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the factors influencing labour productivity in the manufacturing business sector in 20042008. Labour productivity was analyzed in the context of the assets productivity, technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, wages, value added and depreciation costs, and using linear stepwise regression. The study shows that despite significant progress, the level of labour productivity in domestic manufacturing significantly lower than the average in the European Union. Lower than in Poland, the level of labour productivity gain only companies in Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Estimated parameters of the regression function showed that the most important determinants of labour productivity in manufacturing are technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, assets productivity, level of added value in relation to revenues. These factors explain the variability of labour productivity in 20042008 in a high degree.
Carter, A M
A review is given of the factors determining placental oxygen transfer and the oxygen supply to the fetus. In the case of continuous variables, such as the rate of placental blood flow, it is not possible to trace evolutionary trends. Discontinuous variables, for which we can define character...... states, are more amenable to analysis. This is exemplified by factors contributing, respectively, to blood oxygen affinity and placental diffusing capacity. Comparative genomics has given fresh insight into the evolution of the beta-globin gene complex. In higher primates, duplication of an embryonic...... gene yielded HBG-T2, a gene that is expressed in the fetus and confers high oxygen affinity on its haemoglobin. A separate event in ruminants involved duplication of an adult gene, again resulting in a fetally expressed variant (HBB-T3) that conveys high oxygen affinity. In rodents and lagomorphs...
Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502
Small, Emma; Sadler, Jon P.; Telfer, Mark
The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues
Pospíšil, Jan; Pilař, Jan; Billingham, N. C.; Marek, Antonín; Horák, Zdeněk; Nešpůrek, Stanislav
Roč. 91, č. 3 (2006), s. 417-422 ISSN 0141-3910. [International Conference on Modification, Degradation , Stabilization Conference /3./. Lyon, 29.08.2004-02.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/1243; GA ČR GA202/01/0518; GA MŠk ME 543 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : photodegradation * photostabilization * testing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2006
Participants were 176 T2D patients with minimum of six months duration since diagnosis. Perceived Stress Scale-10 and Exercise Self-efficacy Scale were used to assess psychological factors while the Stage of Change for Exercise Behaviour scale assessed physical exercise behaviour. Information including age, gender, ...
Factors affecting methanol content of fermented plant beverage containing Morinda citrifolia. Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Supakan Jantavong, Chakkrapong Kruatama, Sartjin Peerajan, Sasithorn Sirilun, Lalida Shank ...
Diehnelt, D E; Kiyak, H A
Health policy makers have examined the impact of economic policies and a nation's social development on the health of its population. The purpose of this research was to investigate the association between health care expenditures, socioeconomic factors, and caries levels in 109 countries representing an array of social and economic conditions, and to determine how such factors are related to caries experience at different levels of economic development. Countries were divided into established market economies and three groups of developing nations, based on their GNP (high, medium, low income). Total health expenditures as percent GDP and as US dollars per capita, public expenditures and aid flow as percent of total health expenditures, dentists per 100,000 population, per capita sugar consumption, and urbanization of the population were compared among these countries. Correlations between these variables, and decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) of 12-year-olds in these countries were assessed. The highest correlations were found between DMFT and public expenditures, sugar consumption, and urbanization. Highly significant differences emerged across nation groups by stages of development on several variables. The findings suggest that it is important to consider the stage of development of a given country when planning caries prevention policies and programs. Such a contextual approach is more likely to be successful in reducing caries levels.
Liu, Xiufeng; MacIsaac, Dan
This study investigates factors affecting the degree of novice physics students application of the naive impetus theory. Six hundred and fourteen first-year university engineering physics students answered the Force Concept Inventory as a pre-test for their calculus-based course. We examined the degree to which students consistently applied the…
Dunton, Genevieve F; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M; Riggs, Nathaniel; Hedeker, Donald; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann
Most research on the interplay of affective and physical feelings states with physical activity in children has been conducted under laboratory conditions and fails to capture intraindividual covariation. The current study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to bidirectionally examine how affective and physical feeling states are related to objectively measured physical activity taking place in naturalistic settings during the course of children's everyday lives. Children (N = 119, ages 9-13 years, 52% male, 32% Hispanic) completed 8 days of EMA monitoring, which measured positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), feeling tired, and feeling energetic up to 7 times per day. EMA responses were time-matched to accelerometer assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the 30 min before and after each EMA survey. Higher ratings of feeling energetic and lower ratings of feeling tired were associated with more MVPA in the 30 min after the EMA prompt. More MVPA in the 30 min before the EMA prompt was associated with higher ratings of PA and feeling energetic and lower ratings of NA. Between-subjects analyses indicated that mean hourly leisure-time MVPA was associated with less intraindividual variability in PA and NA. Physical feeling states predict subsequent physical activity levels, which in turn, predict subsequent affective states in children. Active children demonstrated higher positive and negative emotional stability. Although the strength of these associations were of modest magnitude and their clinical relevance is unclear, understanding the antecedents to and consequences of physical activity may have theoretical and practical implications for the maintenance and promotion of physical activity and psychological well-being in children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Voigt, G.; Howard, B.J.; Vandecasteele, C.; Mayes, R.W.; Belli, M.; Sansone, U.; Stakelum, G.; Colgan, P.A.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Crout, N.M.J.; Jones, B.E.V., Hove, K.; ITE, Merlewood; CEN, Mol; MLURI, Aberdeen; ENEA-DISP, Rome; MPRC, Fermoy; RPII, Dublin; Ioannina Univ., Nuclear Physics; Nottingham Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala; Agricultural Univ., Aas
The studies performed in the 2 year CEG/DG XII Radiation Protection Programme described here have tried to identify and quantify some of the most important factors influencing the radiocaesium levels in animal food products. The programme involved 9 laboratories in 6 countries: Belgium, Ireland, Greece, Italy, Sweden and the UK. Scientists from Norway and Germany also participated on an informal basis and are formally involved in a subsequent project. Experimental studies have largely been conducted using sheep, although some comparative studies have been performed with dairy cattle. In parallel to the experimental studies, a number of research models have been developed by participants in Greece and the UK to be interactively used with a number of different aspects in the programme. This presentation gives a short overview and discussion of the main findings of this project. (orig./DG)
Larionov, G. A.; Bushueva, O. G.; Gorobets, A. V.; Dobrovolskaya, N. G.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Litvin, L. F.; Maksimova, I. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.
The effect of different factors and preparation conditions of monofraction samples from the arable horizon of leached chernozem on soil erodibility and its relationship with soil tensile strength (STS) has been studied. The exposure of samples at 38°C reduces their erodibility by two orders of magnitude. The drying of samples, on the contrary, increases their erodibility. It has been shown that erodibility decreases during the experiment. It has been found that the inoculation of soil with yeast cultures ( Naganishia albida, Lipomyces tetrasporus) reliably increases the STS value in 1.5-1.9 times. The sterile soil is eroded more intensively than the unsterile soil: at 4.9 and 0.3 g/(m2 s), respectively. The drying of soil followed by wetting to the initial water content (30%) has no significant effect on the STS value in almost all experimental treatments.
Ofri, Ron; Steinmetz, Andrea; Thielebein, Jens; Horowitz, Igal H; Oechtering, Gerhard; Kass, Philip H
The aim of this study was to conduct a detailed analysis of the relationship between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in lions. Tonometry was conducted in 33 lions aged 5 days to 80 months. Age was significantly associated with IOP (Plions 1 year old, respectively. IOP linearly rose with age during the first 20 months of life, plateaued until approximately 40 months, and then gradually declined (r=0.85). Age-related changes in IOP were highly correlated with ultrasonographic measurements of intraocular dimensions (r > or = 0.72), and may be a determinant factor in developmental ocular growth. The dramatic rise in IOP of young lions is similar to that observed in children, but has not been previously demonstrated in animals. Significant IOP differences between lion sub-species were also demonstrated.
Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.
Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F
This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers.
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Troelsen, Jens
Facilitators and barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. To date, research on recess physical activity has predominantly focused on quantitative measures typically focusing on a narrow set of predefined factors, often constructed by adults. To really understand the factors affecting recess physical activity it is crucial to…
Sima Ataollahi Eshkoor
Full Text Available Hypertension is a common chronic disease in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, nutritional parameters, and blood elements on the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. This research was conducted on a group of 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of hypertension in respondents. Approximately, 45.61% of subjects had hypertension. The findings indicated that the female gender (Odds ratio (OR = 1.54, an increase in body weight (OR = 1.61, and an increase in the blood levels of albumin (OR = 1.51, glucose (OR = 1.92, and triglycerides (OR = 1.27 significantly increased the risk of hypertension in subjects (p < 0.05. Conversely, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates (OR = 0.74, and blood cholesterol level (OR = 0.42 significantly reduced the risk of hypertension in samples (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that ethnicity was a non-relevant factor to increase the risk of hypertension in subjects. It was concluded that female gender, an increase in body weight, and an increase in the blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, and albumin enhanced the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. In addition, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates and blood cholesterol level decreased hypertension in subjects.
Qureshi, M. O.; Shafqat, F.; Ahmed, S.; Niazi, T. K.; Khokhar, N. K.
Objective: To assess the quality and patient satisfaction in Endoscopy Unit of Shifa International Hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Division of Gastroenterology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Quality and patient satisfaction after the endoscopic procedure was assessed using a modified GHAA-9 questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 1028 patients were included with a mean age of 45 A+- 14.21 years. Out of all the procedures, 670 (65.17%) were gastroscopies, 181 (17.60%) were flexible sigmoidoscopies and 177 (17.21%) were colonoscopies. The maximum unsatisfactory responses were on the waiting time before the procedure (13.13 %), followed by unsatisfactory explanation of the procedure and answers to questions (7.58%). Overall, unsatisfied impression was 4.86%. The problem rate was 6.22%. Conclusion: The quality of procedures and level of satisfaction of patients undergoing a gastroscopy or colonoscopy was generally good. The factors that influence the satisfaction of these patients are related to communication between doctor and patient, doctor's manner and waiting time for the procedure. Feedback information in an endoscopy unit may be useful in improving standards, including the performance of endoscopists. (author)
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Holy Quran is the greatest gift of God to mankind and is the most precious legacy of So, in order to govern a society guided by Quran and the teachings of Quran by life style based on it, it is necessary that academic community pays attention to Quran education on their pattern Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate Quran literacy of the academic community. This study is intended to provide information to the student community planning principles for designing and implementing Quran based activities. Material and Methods: This study was a descriptive survey. A researcher-made questionnaire with content validation was used to collect data. The population consisted of 840 students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Descriptive statistics by SPSSS 11 software was used for data analysis. Results: Analysis of the findings indicated that 37.2% of the participants were male and 62.8% were females. Thirty percent were non-native students and 69.6% of them were natives. More than 80% of the participants had Quran literacy. The results showed no significant relationship between academic major (p>%94, gender( p>%07 and familiarity with Quran and being native or non-native( p>%79 Individuals who had Tajvid voice and tone literacy with 35.5%, common meanings and interpretations with 23.1%, translation with 12.9%, sound and tone with 13.4% and Tajvid with 1.5%, respectively. Determinants affecting on Quran literacy includes father’s job, school education, high interest in Quran education and family members’ familiarity with Quran. The most frequent obstacle include: educational priorities, lack of time, apathy and no interest in Quran. Conclusion: Since Quran is for everyone and Quran activities are distributed among different academic majors, no significant relationship was found between gender (p>%07, academic major (p>%94 and being native or non-native (p>%79. As a result, paying attention to Quran verses
Janczak, Andrew M; Ranheim, Birgit; Fosse, Torunn K; Hild, Sophie; Nordgreen, Janicke; Moe, Randi O; Zanella, Adroaldo J
To evaluate the stability and repeatability of measures of mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets and to examine potentially confounding factors when using a hand held algometer. Descriptive, prospective cohort. Forty-four piglets from four litters, weighing 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) at 2 weeks of age. Mechanical thresholds were measured twice on each of 2 days during the first and second week of life. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design to test the effects of behavior prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, and repetition within day. The effect of body weight and the interaction between piglet weight and behaviour were also tested. Piglet was entered into the model as a random effect as an additional test of repeatability. The effect of repeated testing was used to test the stability of measures. Pearson correlations between repeated measures were used to test the repeatability of measures. Variance component analysis was used to describe the variability in the data. Variance component analysis indicated that piglet explained only 17% of the variance in the data. All variables in the model (behaviour prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, repetition within day, body weight, the interaction between body weight and behaviour, piglet identity) except sex had a significant effect (p testing and measures changed with repeated testing and increased with increasing piglet weight, indicating that time (age) and animal body weight should be taken into account when measuring mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. Mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds can be used both for testing the efficacy of anaesthetics and analgesics, and for assessing hyperalgesia in chronic pain states in research and clinical settings. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.
The study focused on perceived factors affecting performance of extension workers in Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected from 83 Extension agents from the Imo State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). Results of the study revealed that the organizational factors that affect performance are ...
Selected socio-demographic factors affecting involvement of farmers in part-time farming in Emohua, Rivers State. DO Onu. Abstract. The study investigates selected socio-demographic factors affecting involvement of farmers in part-time farming in Emohua, Rivers State. Structured questionnaire was administered to 87 ...
From the various identified job related factors that affect facilitators in Enugu NFDP III only insufficient authority (t= 1.17) was perceived differently by both men and women facilitators. The results also show that from the various identified employee/personnel factors that affect facilitators in Enugu NFDP III, involvement in ...
Motivation factors affecting employees job performance in selected agricultural oil palm industries in Edo State, Nigeria. ... Motivation can be intrinsic, such as satisfaction and feelings of achievement; or extrinsic, such as rewards, punishment, and goal obtainment. The study assessed the motivating factors affecting the job ...
Internal factors that affect the adoption and use of agricultural technologies include farmers' attitude ... Single probit and logit models are often employed to model discrete choices such as adoption of improved ..... suggests that there are unobservable factors affecting both choices and reveals an association after controlling ...
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between affective factors and the academic achievement of students at the University of Venda. To this end, self-concept, motivation and attitude are the affective factors selected for the study. The general aim of the study is to determine the role of self-concept, ...
Baygeldi, Serdar; Karakose, Oktay; Özcelik, Kazım Caglar; Pülat, Hüseyin; Damar, Sedat; Eken, Hüseyin; Zihni, İsmail; Çalta, Alpaslan Fedai; Baç, Bilsel
Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients' age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate), hematocrit (HCT) value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation), trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS), and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3%) and 28 females (25.7%), and the mean age was 37.6 ± 18.28 (15-78) years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3%) traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle), 27 (24.7%) falling from a height, 14 (12.9%) assaults, 5 (4.5%) sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5%) gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3%) of grade I, 32 (46.4%) of grade II, 22 (31.8%) of grade III, and 1 (1.5%) of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in 21
Full Text Available Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients’ age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate, hematocrit (HCT value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation, trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS, and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3% and 28 females (25.7%, and the mean age was 37.6±18.28 (15–78 years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3% traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle, 27 (24.7% falling from a height, 14 (12.9% assaults, 5 (4.5% sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5% gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3% of grade I, 32 (46.4% of grade II, 22 (31.8% of grade III, and 1 (1.5% of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in
de Almeida, Maria Jose B. M.; Leite, Maria Salete S. C. P.; Woolnough, Brian E.
This paper presents the results of a study undertaken in Portugal to determine the influence of different factors on students' (n=499) decisions to study or refuse to study in one of the physical sciences or engineering. Some influencing factors are related to what goes on in school and during science lessons, and other factors are related to the…
Elmaogullari, Selin; Demirel, Fatma; Hatipoglu, Nihal
While some obese children are metabolically healthy (MHO), some have additional health problems, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, which increase mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. These children are metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. In this study we assessed the factors that affect metabolic health in obesity and the clinical and laboratory findings that distinguish between MHO and MUO children. In total, 1085 patients aged 6-18 years, with age- and sex-matched BMI exceeding the 95th percentile were included in the study (mean 11.1±2.9 years, 57.6% female, 59.7% pubertal). Patients without dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, or hypertension were considered as MHO. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL, triglyceride over 150 mg/dL, LDL over 130 mg/dL, or HDL under 40 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model of assesment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Hepatosteatosis was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound. Duration of obesity, physical activity and nutritional habits, screen time, and parental obesity were questioned. Thyroid and liver function tests were performed. Six hundred and forty-two cases (59.2%) were MUO. Older age, male sex, increased BMI-SDS, and sedentary lifestyle were associated with MUO. Excessive junk food consumption was associated with MUO particularly among the prepubertal obese patients. Our results revealed that the most important factors that affect metabolic health in obesity are age and BMI. Positive effects of an active lifestyle and healthy eating habits are prominent in the prepubertal period and these habits should be formed earlier in life.
McGinn Aileen P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the documented benefits of physical activity, many adults do not obtain the recommended amounts. Barriers to physical activity occur at multiple levels, including at the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels. Only until more recently has there been a concerted focus on how the physical environment might affect physical activity behavior. With this new area of study, self-report measures should be psychometrically tested before use in research studies. Therefore the objective of this study was to document the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess physical environmental factors that might be associated with physical activity in a diverse adult population. Methods Test and retest surveys were conducted over the telephone with 106 African American and White women and men living in either Forsyth County, North Carolina or Jackson, Mississippi. Reliability of self-reported environmental factors across four domains (e.g., access to facilities and destinations, functionality and safety, aesthetics, natural environment was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC overall and separately by gender and race. Results Generally items displayed moderate and sometimes substantial reliability (ICC between 0.4 to 0.8, with a few differences by gender or race, across each of the domains. Conclusion This study provides some psychometric evidence for the use of many of these questions in studies examining the effect of self-reported physical environmental measures on physical activity behaviors, among African American and White women and men.
Preservation is a term that describes all the activities that m inimize chemical and physical deterioration and damage that prevent loss of information content. The primary goal of preservation is to prolong the existence of serials for use, either in their original physical form or other ways. This study investigated factors ...
Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee (Coffea robusta Rio Nunes) in Kogi State, Nigeria. M Idrisu, FD Babalola, IU Mokwunye, CF Anagbogu, IA Aderolu, O Ugioro, EU Asogwa, I Ndagi, FC Mokwunye ...
Branscome, Tersa A; Swoboda, Jennifer C; Fatkin, Linda T
This report presents the results of the first in a series of investigations designed to increase fundamental knowledge and understanding of the factors affecting multi-task performance in a military environment...
medical tourism”, has emerged as a new source of competitive advantage all over the world. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect destination choice of medical tourists. Methods: We systematically searched relevant databases ...
-adopters. ... give a good results and also a threat to food security. Keywords: ..... government instead of planting. Table 2: Institutional factors that affect adoption of improved rice varieties. Variables. Categories Numbers. Fast. Adopters. Slow.
Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to antihypertensive medications and blood pressure control among patients attending the family practice clinic in a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria.
Muhammad Atif NAWAZ; Noreen AFZAL; Kiran SHEHZADI
In this paper, we analyzed the answers to questionnaires distributed among 140 people in Israel and identified the main factors that have an affect over feeling of happiness?. We estimated an econometric equation with happiness as the dependent variable. Our findings show that feeling of happiness? among women is mainly affected by satisfaction from marital status; a variable that also has a large effect on males? sense of happiness. Among men, the most important factor is satisfaction during...
However, their contributions are hampered by certain impediments that affect them as individuals. More women work today than ever before. This paper examines factors that affect women's active participation in the labour force and discusses some measures for correcting this anomaly. Journal of Agriculture and Social ...
Factors affecting soil quality maintenance in the area according to the findings are natural and man-induced, including agricultural practices in general and deforestation, soil degradation and erosion, as well as biodiversity loss in particular. The results also indicated that values of the selected elements affecting soil quality ...
Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; Hong, Joo Young; Cabrera, Densil
The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Gonzalez-Aleman, J. J.; Evans, J. L.; Kowaleski, A. M.
On January 7, 2016, a disturbance formed over the western North Atlantic basin. After undergoing tropical transition, the system became the first hurricane of 2016 - and the first North Atlantic hurricane to form in January since 1938. Already an extremely rare hurricane event, Alex then underwent extratropical transition [ET] just north of the Azores Islands. We examine the factors affecting Alex's structural evolution through a new technique called path-clustering. In this way, 51 ensembles from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Ensemble Prediction System (ECMWF-EPS) are grouped based on similarities in the storm's path through the Cyclone Phase Space (CPS). The differing clusters group various possible scenarios of structural development represented in the ensemble forecasts. As a result, it is possible to shed light on the role of the synoptic scale in changing the structure of this hurricane in the midlatitudes through intercomparison of the most "realistic" forecast of the evolution of Alex and the other physically plausible modes of its development.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the anxiety the triathlon sportsmen of national teams experience before competitions and the factors that affect this kind of anxiety. This descriptive study was carried out with the voluntary participation of 104 sportsmen who participated in the Istanbul European Cup, Elazıg Balkan Grand Prix and Alanya World Cup in 2014. The data collection instrument was an interview questionnaire developed by the researchers, and the Cronbach alpha of the questions was 0.77. T he data were analyzed with a statistical program, and independent samples t - test and ANOVA were used. According to the data, the following findings were identified: the sportsmen of the Turkish national team felt pre - competition anxiety more than the sport smen of foreign national teams. The female sportsmen experienced the physical symptoms of anxiety more. The younger sportsmen felt more anxious about the fact that they were not going to perform well in the competition. The anxiety of making mistakes decre ased with age. Those whose sporting age was lower felt more anxious for not performing well and for making mistakes.
Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)
Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.
Sharifi, Simin; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas
MS is one of the most common chronic diseases of the nervous system. Apart from disease progression, other complications such as unemployment, separation and divorce could potentially threat patients' dignity. Most of the previous studies have been done of maintaining patients' dignity in interaction with healthcare team, but studies on affecting factors of dignity in chronic patients in the society and in interaction with usual people are scarce. We aimed to investigate factors affecting dignity of Iranian patients with MS in daily living and in interaction of them with the society. In this qualitative study, 13 patients with multiple sclerosis were chosen by purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews were conducted until data saturation. The study was done in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Factors affecting dignity were classified as 'personal factors' and 'social factors'. Personal factors consist of the following subcategories: patients' communication with self, patients' knowledge, patients' values and beliefs and patients' resources. Social factors include others' communication with patients, social knowledge, social values and beliefs and social resources. Multiple personal and social factors interfere in perceived patient dignity. In fact, interaction between personal and social factors can be influential in final perceived dignity. By focusing on whole aspects of the patients' lives, we can identify dignity-promoting or dignity-threatening factors and help patients maintain their dignity by taking appropriate measures for moderating threatening factors and improving dignity enhancing ones. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Magtira, Aromalyn; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; MacGibbon, Kimber; Tabsh, Khalil; Fejzo, Marlena S
The aim of this study is to determine whether psychiatric symptoms affect recurrence risk of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). The study sample included 108 women with HG treated with i.v. fluids in their first pregnancy. Women were divided into two groups based on recurrence of HG in their second pregnancy. Participants submitted medical records and completed a survey regarding pregnancy characteristics and psychiatric symptoms. The χ(2) -test and Student's t-test were performed to compare the two groups. Eighty-four women (71%) had a recurrence of HG requiring i.v. fluid for dehydration, and were compared with 34 women (29%) who did not have a recurrence. There were no significant differences in obstetric history, although there was a trend toward greater time between first and second pregnancy in the recurrence group (P = 0.08). There were no differences in pre-existing psychiatric diagnoses including anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, panic or eating disorders. Following the first HG pregnancy, participants in both groups were well matched for all post-traumatic stress symptoms. This study is the first to analyze the relationship of psychiatric factors to risk of recurrence of HG. No factors were identified that increase the risk of recurrence including stress symptoms following a HG pregnancy. Psychological sequelae associated with HG are probably a result of the physical symptoms of prolonged severe nausea and vomiting, medication and/or hospitalization, and likely play no role in disease etiology. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
This underscores the need to investigate factors responsible for low use of skilled attendants at birth. The main purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting utilization of skilled attendants at birth by pregnant women in Kasama district in order to help contribute to the reduction of maternal and child complications.
A retrospective analysis of data concerning 86 patients with multiple myeloma was carried out in order to evaluate factors affecting survival. The overall median survival was 621 days. In a univariate analysis the follOWing factors were significantly associated with poor survival: serum creatinine ≥ 150 mmol/l, haemoglobin ...
Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.
The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…
The factors which are detrimental to forage quality such as oxalates and nitrates are higher in the young and actively growing material than in older material, while the in vitro production of foam seems unrelated to forage quality and remained high despite changes in other factors which detrimentally affected forage quality.
Background: As the etiological factors of burn injuries vary considerably in different communities, careful analysis of the epidemiological features in every community is needed to formulate a sound prevention programme. The present study attempts to analyze the demographic factors affecting the presentation of post burn ...
van Vianen, A.E.M.; Feij, J.A.; Krausz, M.; Taris, R.
Past research has revealed that individuals' job mobility is affected by factors such as job satisfaction, specific career enhancing attributes and job availability. This study examined personality factors predicting voluntary internal and external job mobility. Three types of voluntary job mobility
However, the presence of health facilities alone is not enough to guarantee use as other socioeconomic factors could influence access and utilization. This study assessed the community perceptions and factors affecting the utilization of health services in a rural community in Southern Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional ...
Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin. Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...
Bista, Krishna K.
This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…
Magdalene H. Awases
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia. Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.
Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad
The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.
Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Yan, Ng Sze; Zakuan, Norhayati; Bahari, Ahamad Zaidi; Jusoh, Ahmad
The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.
Ibanez, Elizabeth S.; Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Pemberton, Joy R.; Terao, Sherri
Objective: This study examined cultural factors that may influence child physical abuse reporting. Relevant cultural factors such as the respondents' ethnic identity and corporal punishment acceptability were investigated as proximal variables of ethnicity that affect child physical abuse reporting tendencies. Method: Participants consisted of 378…
Lobo Lujan, D.
The total vegetated land area of the earth is about 11,500 hectare. Of this, about 12% is in South America. Of this, about 14% is degraded area. Water erosion, chemical degradation, wind erosion, and physical degradation have been reported as main types of degradation. In South America water erosion is a major process for soil degradation. Nevertheless, water erosion can be a consequence of degradation of the soil structure, especially the functional attributes of soil pores to transmit and retain water, and to facilitate root growth. Climate, soil and topographic characteristics determine runoff and erosion potential from agricultural lands. The main factors causing soil erosion can be divided into three groups: Energy factors: rainfall erosivity, runoff volume, wind strength, relief, slope angle, slope length; Protection factors: population density, plant cover, amenity value (pressure for use) and land management; and resistance factors: soil erodibility, infiltration capacity and soil management. The degree of soil erosion in a particular climatic zone, with particular soils, land use and socioeconomic conditions, will always result from a combination of the above mentioned factors. It is not easy to isolate a single factor. However, the soil physical properties that determine the soil erosion process, because the deterioration of soil physical properties is manifested through interrelated problems of surface sealing, crusting, soil compaction, poor drainage, impeded root growth, excessive runoff and accelerated erosion. When an unprotected soil surface is exposed to the direct impact of raindrops it can produce different responses: Production of smaller aggregates, dispersed particles, particles in suspension and translocation and deposition of particles. When this has occurred, the material is reorganized at the location into a surface seal. Aggregate breakdown under rainfall depends on soil strength and a certain threshold kinetic energy is needed to start
Full Text Available Green residential buildings (GRBs are one of the effective practices of energy saving and emission reduction in the construction industry. However, many real estate developers in China are less willing to develop GRBs, because of the factors affecting green residential building development (GRBD. In order to promote the sustainable development of GRBs in China, this paper, based on the perspective of real estate developers, identifies the influential and critical factors affecting GRBD, using the method of social network analysis (SNA. Firstly, 14 factors affecting GRBD are determined from 64 preliminary factors of three main elements, and the framework is established. Secondly, the relationships between the 14 factors are analyzed by SNA. Finally, four critical factors for GRBD, which are on the local economy development level, development strategy and innovation orientation, developer’s acknowledgement and positioning for GRBD, and experience and ability for GRBD, are identified by the social network centrality test. The findings illustrate the key issues that affect the development of GRBs, and provide references for policy making by the government and strategy formulation by real estate developers.
Physical inactivity and associated factors in chronic disease patients in Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam. ... Several factors were identified which may assist in programmes to promote physical activity in this population. Keywords: Physical inactivity, risk factors, chronic disease patients, Cambodia, Myanmar, Vietnam ...
Biological and Physical Inventory of the Streams within the Nez Perce Reservation; Juvenile Steelhead Survey and Factors that Affect Abundance in Selected Streams in the Lower Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 1983-1984 Final Report.
Kucera, Paul A.; Johnson, David B. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)
A biological and physical inventory of selected tributaries in the lower Clearwater River basin was conducted to collect information for the development of alternatives and recommendations for the enhancement of the anadromous fish resources in streams on the Nez Perce Reservation. Five streams within the Reservation were selected for study: Bedrock and Cottonwood Creeks were investigated over a two year period (1983 to 1984) and Big Canyon, Jacks and Mission Creeks were studied for one year (1983). Biological information was collected and analyzed on the density, biomass, production and outmigration of juvenile summer steelhead trout. Physical habitat information was collected on available instream cover, stream discharge, stream velocity, water temperature, bottom substrate, embeddedness and stream width and depth. The report focuses on the relationships between physical stream habitat and juvenile steelhead trout abundance.
Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza
BACKGROUND Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. METHODS From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr...
永久, 理恵; 井田, 政則
The factors affecting to the career development were examined in light of the problem with young workers of their job quitting and hopping at early stage. The investigation was carried out with questionnaire given to 277 business persons working in several Japanese companies. We examined how the four major factors consisting of career development, i.e.“organizational socialization”,“ psychological variables of career self-reliance”,“ behavioral variables of career self-reliance”and“ meaning o...
Farzandipur, Mehrdad; jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Azimi, Esmaeil
Background: Today, the use of information systems in health environments, like any other fields, is necessary and organizational managers are convinced to use these systems. However, managers? satisfaction is not the only factor in successfully implementing these systems and failed information technology projects (IT) are reported despite the consent of the directors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the factors affecting the successful implementation of a hospital information system. ...
Shao, Z. F.; Yang, Z. L.
On the basis of the improved materials, many factors affecting the concept difficulty were generalized as the following two fundamental factors: attribute saliency (AS) and attribute frequency (AF). The more salient the relevant attribute, or the more frequent it appears in the positive examples, the easier the concept, and vice versa. When the AS or AF of an irrelevant attribute is greater, it will disturb the correct concept formation. In addition, a somewhat strange result was noticed that...
Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E
Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n = 154 Blue-faced Leicester×Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal charact...
Mahmoud Dehghan Nayeri; Ali Faal Ghayoumi; Mohammad Ali Bidari
The present study examines the factors affecting the value relevance of accounting information for investors in the Tehran Stock Exchange over the period of six years. In this study, the effect of four factors; being profitable or loss generating, company size, earnings stability and company growth on the value relevance of accounting information have been studied. For this purpose Ohlson model and the cumulative regression analysis is used in order to examine the hypotheses and as the basis ...
Magnesium has some capacity to develop higher exchangeable sodium levels in clays and soil materials. The Mg +2 accumulation on the exchange complex of soils to a very high saturation levels affect their physical, chemical and biological properties. Colombia has a large area of these soils, located mainly in the main rivers valleys and in the Caribbean Region. In the Cauca River Valley there are about 117,000 hectares affected. There is a lack of information about the soil forming processes, the Mg +2 effects on soils, the type and source of compounds responsible for the magnesium enrichment, their relationship with the landscape and the way this accumulation occurs. To identify and quantify soil Mg +2 enriched areas over 2500 soil profiles from different landscape positions of the Cauca River Valley were studied. The information was processed to generate Mg-saturation maps, to identify the different soil profile types and to estimate the affected area. A topographic sequence from the alluvial inundation plain to the hills was used to explore the presence of diagnostic horizons and to determine the main soil characteristics and genetic, mineralogical or chemical evidences of soil forming processes. Two 180 kilometer transects parallel to the river were used to: a) study the type and source of Mg-compounds responsible for the Mg-enrichment and the way this accumulation occurs. b) the soil hydraulic properties like infiltration, saturated hydraulic conductivity and matrix potential at different depths were also measured. Samples of nine profiles were collected and the porosity and soil volume changes at different water content were examined. The program RETC was used for prediction of the hydraulic properties of non saturated soils. These properties involved the retention curve, the function of hydraulic conductivity and the diffusivity of the water in the soil. By grouping together the soil profiles, five main type of Mg-affected soils were identified as being
Ambo-Rappe, R.; Rani, C.
Seagrass ecosystems are important in supporting marine biodiversity. However, the worldwide decline in seagrass areas due to anthropogenic factors leads to a decrease in the marine biodiversity they can support. There is growing awareness of the need for concepts to conserve and/or rehabilitate seagrass ecosystems. One option is to create artificial seagrass to provide a physical structure for the marine organisms to colonize. The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of some artificial seagrasses and seagrass transplants on marine biodiversity, with a focus on the macrozoobenthic community. The experimental design compared two types of artificial seagrass (polypropylene ribbons and shrub-shaped plastic leaves), and seagrass transplants from nearby seagrass meadows. The experimental plots were 4 x 4 m2 with 3 replicates. Macrozoobenthic communities were sampled fortnightly for 3.5 months. At the end of the experiment, makrozoobenthos were also sampled from a natural seagrass bed nearby. Of 116 macrozoobenthic species in the artificial seagrass plots, 91 were gastropods. The density of the macrobenthic fauna increased from the beginning to the end of the study in all treatments, but the increase was only significant for the artificial seagrass treatment (i.e. shrub-like plastic leaves). There was a distinct separation between the macrozoobenthic community structure found in the restoration plots (artificial seagrass and transplanted seagrass) compared to natural seagrass beds.
The study aimed at assessing factors affecting implementation of practical activities in science education in some selected secondary and preparatory schools of Afar Region. Practical activity is at the heart of mastery of science discipline and it is believed that if there is no practice either individually or in a group, all what ...
Factors affecting performance of Facilitators in the Fadama 111 Development Project in Enugu State, Nigeria. ... Also employee-related issues associated with performance of facilitators were involvement in religious activities (M=3. 37), academic background (M= 3.34) health status (M= 3.26), extended family burdens (M= ...
This study examines factors affecting quality of audit using empirical evidence from Iran Quality of audit was seen as the degree to which an audit report is free from deficiencies and distortions which show up later on. The quality of an audit was measured in terms of an auditor's ability to report financial distortions willingly ...
... those factors affecting farmers' participation in irrigated agriculture at the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority (LNRBDA) in Kwara State, Nigeria. One hundred and sixty (160) respondents were selected from communities around LNRBDA site at Oke Oyi for this study through a two-stage sampling procedures.
The study investigated the factors affecting academic achievement ofstudents in Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) in ChristianReligious Knowledge. A total of three hundred students in SS III from five secondary schools were randomly selected and used as sample for the study. Five hypotheses were tested, ...
Factors affecting profit in dairying: conclusions from Natal study group results. P.G. Stewart. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...
The result shows that the major factors affecting adoption of improved cassava varieties were adaptability of the technology compatibility, age, educational status, sex and complexity of the technology. The result also reviewed that more of elderly people farmed cassava in the study area and the farmers were more of women ...
was to determine the rate of HIV disclosure by the parents/caretakers to their children and other factors affecting disclosure. Methods: A cross sectional study ... judgment of the counselor and parent/guardian.14 The. Correaponding author: ..... depression resulting from disclosure and thoughts of dying after disclosure.
Factors Affecting Students' Performance and Practice on Map Reading Skills: A Case Study of Selected Secondary Schools in Asela Town, Ethiopia. ... students to work hard persevere to succeed, identifying effective study techniques, the students' willingness to do school activities and coverage of textbooks' contents.
The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A).…
The most common mechanism of injury was road traffic collisions (72.3 %). The overall mortality was 13.9%. A direct logistic regression model has shown that factors that affected mortality were decreased GCS (p < 0.0001), mechanism of injury (p = 0.004) with burns having the highest mortality, increased age (p = 0.004), ...
ABSTRACT. In this paper, we report a range of factors which affect the retention of colloidal particles in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These results are observed among different sizes of polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in both aqueous and nonaqueous liquid carriers and very low density lipoproteins in ...
Factors Affecting Loan Utilization And Repayment Patterns By Small Holder Farmers Of The Nigeria Agricultural Cooperative And Rural Development Bank ... that 35.8% of the beneficiaries were between the age brackets of 51- 60 years, about 61.3% of the respondents had a minimum of secondary school education.
This paper describes two studies into teacher workplace learning. The first study aimed at developing a definition of teacher learning at the workplace and at exploring factors that may affect teacher learning at the workplace. Based on a conceptualization of teacher workplace learning as
Kaltoft, Rasmus; Boer, Harm; Corso, Mariano; Gertsen, Frank; Gieskes, J.F.B.; Middel, H.G.A.; Steendahl Nielsen, Jacob
The research presented in this paper was aimed at increasing the current understanding of the process of developing collaborative improvement in Extended Manufacturing Enterprises (EME). Theory suggests a number of factors to affect that process, including shared sense of direction (i.e. vision),
The study aimed at assessing the socio-economic factors affecting the efficiency of maize marketing in Benue State, with a view to determining the implications for food security in Nigeria. Two hundred maize marketers were selected from Vandeikya Local Area (LGA) of Benue State with the aid of stratified random sampling ...
Myers, Stephanie E.
Federal government policies are promoting diffusion of technologies into the healthcare system. If health professionals reject the new technologies planned for the healthcare system, it could result in costly failures, delays, and workforce problems. There is a lack of knowledge about factors that affect technology readiness (TR), defined as the…
The study is an assessment of time, cost and quality management in the Nigerian construction industry, and it aims to explore time cost and quality management in the construction industry. The objective of the study is to identify factors affecting time; cost and quality management in building construction projects. This study ...
In this paper, we report a range of factors which affect the retention of colloidal particles in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These results are observed among different sizes of polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in both aqueous and nonaqueous liquid carriers and very low density lipoproteins in a phosphate ...
Objective: The study aims to determine the differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between caesarean and vaginal deliveries and the factors affecting vaginal delivery in twin pregnancy. Materials and Methods: An observational study to audit twin pregnancies delivered at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital ...
Factors affecting soil quality maintenance in the area according to the findings are natural and man-induced, including agricultural practices in general and ..... Global warming. 5. 3.03. Total. 165. 100. As the presence of vegetation helps to shield the soil from the direct ray of the sun so it helps to act as wind-brake. The.
Background: Few eligible candidates are referred from primary care for bariatric surgery in spite of improvement in its safety and efficacy. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting primary care physicians' (PCPs) referral to bariatric surgery in morbid obesity. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional ...
Factors affecting medical waste management in lowlevel health facilities in Tanzania S. V.. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Medical waste transportation is a serious problem, as 71% of the facilities in Kinondoni carry the wastes on hands to the disposal sites while in Ilala, 40% of LLHFs use ...
The study was conducted to identify the various factors affecting the job satisfaction level of rangers in Yankari Game Reserve, Bauchi, Nigeria. Data were collected using structured questionnaire comprising four facets: personal characteristics of the rangers, job satisfaction, motivation, and work environment. Data were ...
Factors affecting the adoption of information technologies in academic libraries in Imo State. ... be made available to academic libraries in Imo state so that they can provide IT based library resources for optimal library services . Key Words: Information , Tech nology, Academic , libraries , Globalization, Automation, Nigerian.
Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller therapy in chest clinics in a sub-Saharan African setting: a cross-sectional study. ... Background: Adherence to controller therapy in asthma is a major concern during the management of the disease. Objective: To determine the adherence rate and identify the ...
Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David
The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…
The study evaluated factors affecting sustainability of land reform projects in Mpumalanga Province in Bushbuckridge Local Municipality (BLM) of Ehlanzeni District. The study was conducted between July and September 2014. A random sampling technique was used in selecting 31 key informants from the projects.
Griffin, P.J.; Vehar, D.W.; Kelly, J.G.; Holm, C.V.
Fission foils are commonly used as dosimetry sensors. They play a very important role in neutron spectrum determinations. This paper provides a combination of experimental measurements and calculations to quantify the importance and synergy of several factors that affect the fission response of a dosimeter. Only when these effects are properly treated can fission dosimeters be used with sufficient fidelity
This article analyses the economic factors affecting wage employment in Kenya, where open unemployment fell from 15 per cent in 1998/1999 to 13 per cent in 2005/2006. As of 2005/2006, wage employment constituted 13 per cent of the total working population, which implies that doubling wage employment will absorb ...
Background. Burns continue to be responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In this study we aimed to determine the factors affecting mortality and epidemiological data by examining the records of burned patients. Method. The hospital records of 980 patients who were hospitalised in the ...
The discovery of crude oil and the civil war adversely affected oil palm production in Nigeria. This has resulted in scarcity and high cost of palm products and palm oil. The study therefore investigated the factors influencing oil palm production in Ondo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty respondents were selected from ...
Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather
This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…
Factors affecting student enrolment and dropout were identified at OUT Lindi Region with strategies for increasing enrolment while reducing dropout. Quantitative and qualitative methods that involved documentary survey, questionnaires and interviews were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed by Statistix ...
BACKGROUND: Motivation is an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. This study assessed motivational status and factors affecting it among health professionals in public hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region. METHOD: Facility based cross-sectional survey ...
The study investigated factors affecting utilization of cooking banana among households in Oguta area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 84 randomly selected respondents from six communities in the study area who were administered with structured questionnaire. Data analysis was by use of descriptive ...
This study examined the factors affecting sustainable trypanosomiasis control in parts of Kaduna State within the sub-humid savannah ecological zone of Nigeria. Focus group discussions were ... More awareness and preference for pour-on and aerial spraying were higher than the use of traps, target or screens. Rearing of ...
A study was made of the most important factors affecting the range of airplanes. Numerical examples are given showing the effects of different variables on the range of a two-engine airplane. The takeoff problems of long-range airplanes are analyzed.
Siah, Poh Chua; Christina Ong, Sook Beng; Tan, Swee Mee; Sim, Chzia Poaw; Xian Thoo, Raphael Yi
Aiming to explore factors affecting Malaysian Chinese parents in sending their children to either national secondary schools or Chinese independent schools, 494 parents were surveyed using a questionnaire. Results showed that parents who sent their children to Chinese independent schools have different priorities compared to those who sent theirs…
Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas
Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…
The study assessed effects of client financial support for mitigating the effects of cost factors affecting the performance of Small Scale Contractors (SSC) in Nigeria. Exploratory and descriptive designs were adopted. A total of 550 questionnaires were administered to key construction industry stakeholders in northern Nigeria ...
The study assessed the motivating factors affecting the job performance of two oil palm companies' employees, in Edo State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of this study were to; ascertain the socio- economic characteristics of employees, the challenges faced by both employees and management of selected companies ...
Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem
The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…
Forty-five doctoral graduates in library and information science (LIS) of Nigerian universities from 2009 to 2013 were surveyed in order to determine factors affecting the timely completion of doctoral degree programme in LIS in Nigerian universities. Using social survey design, a questionnaire purposely designed for the ...
perception of salary as a factor affecting job satisfaction. Also, there ... job satisfaction. Based on the findings, recommendations were made. Introduction. Education is a lifelong affair aimed at bringing positive changes to the individual, his family and the .... The government and all employers of labour normally embark on ...
Objective: Outsourcing refers to the transfer of services or functions to an outsider supplier, which controls them through a contract or cooperative. The main problem of senior managers in health organizations is determining the services which should be outsourced. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect ...
Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel
Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…
This research work was carried out to ascertain the factors affecting investment of farmers in the three management systems of cocoa production in Abia State. Specific farmers investment areas are with respect to the management systems involving owner-managed, lease and share-crop production systems. Questionnaires ...
Factors affecting in sacco dietary degradation by Ankole cattle grazing natural range pastures in Uganda. ... Keywords: Ankole cattle, dietary selection, dry matter disappearance, free water intake, in sacco degradation, lignification, live weight change, predictive model, water solubility. African Journal of Range & Forage ...
BACKGROUND:This study aimed to determine the factors affecting compliance to treatment among children with epilepsy in Enugu,Nigeria. METHODS: Children with diagnosis of epilepsy were consecutively recruited.Their 6 months retrospective and 1 month prospective data were collected;and analyzed using SPSS ...
The primary aim of this study was to examine factors affecting sport participation among resident and non- resident female students at Tshwane University of Technology (TUT), Pretoria, South Africa. The study targeted all students participating in 12 registered sports but due to the fact that only a limited number of the total ...
Al Ghazali, Fawzi
This research study investigates the cognitive, psychological and personal factors affecting the accuracy and fluency of English language usage among Arab learners. Early research led by Chomsky (1965) and Krashen (1981) suggested that an individual's Language Acquisition Device once triggered at the appropriate time and supported with adequate…
This study on socio-economic factors affecting vocational skills acquisition was undertaken in two Obudu and Ogoja Local Areas in the Northern Senatorial District of Cross River Sate of Nigeria. One hundred and seventy three (173) respondents were examined, using gender, age, marital status, literacy status, ...
The general objective of this study was to identify the extrinsic factors affect employee job satisfaction at the Faith based organizations. For the research methodology, the study used the descriptive research design. The population for the study was the 161 employees of the Nairobi Chapel. Stratified random sampling ...
Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini
Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…
Andrew T. Lucas
Full Text Available Major advances in therapeutic proteins, including antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs, have created revolutionary drug delivery systems in cancer over the past decade. While these immunoconjugate agents provide several advantages compared to their small-molecule counterparts, their clinical use is still in its infancy. The considerations in their development and clinical use are complex, and consist of multiple components and variables that can affect the pharmacologic characteristics. It is critical to understand the mechanisms employed by ADCs in navigating biological barriers and how these factors affect their biodistribution, delivery to tumors, efficacy, and toxicity. Thus, future studies are warranted to better understand the complex pharmacology and interaction between ADC carriers and biological systems, such as the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS and tumor microenvironment. This review provides an overview of factors that affect the pharmacologic profiles of ADC therapies that are currently in clinical use and development.
Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W.
The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)
Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W. [Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Dept 7610, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58103-6050 (United States)
The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)
Ashfaq, M.; Hassan, S.; Naseer, M.Z.; Baig, I.A.; Asma, J.
The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)
Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.
and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites......, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were......Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg...
Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.
Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg...... and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites......, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were...
Irvin, Dwight W; Ingram, Paul; Huffman, Jonathan; Mason, Rose; Wills, Howard
Paraprofessionals serve a primary role in supporting students with disabilities in the classroom, which necessitates teachers' supervision as a means to improve their practice. Yet, little is known regarding what factors affect teacher supervision. We sought to identify how paraprofessional competence and classroom type affected the levels of teacher direction. We administered an adapted version of the Paraprofessional Needs, Knowledge & Tasks Survey and the Survey for Teachers Supervising Paraprofessionals to teachers supervising paraprofessionals in elementary schools. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the link between paraprofessional competence and classroom factors affecting the level of teacher supervision. Our results indicated that when teachers perceived paraprofessionals as being more skilled, they provided more supervision, and when more supervision was provided the less they thought paraprofessionals should be doing their assigned tasks. Additionally, paraprofessionals working in classrooms with more students with mild disabilities received less supervision than paraprofessionals working in classrooms with more students with moderate-to-severe disabilities. Those paraprofessionals in classrooms serving mostly children with mild disabilities were also perceived as having lower levels of skill competence than those serving in classrooms with students with more moderate-to-severe disabilities. By understanding the factors that affect teacher supervision, policy and professional development opportunities can be refined/developed to better support both supervising teachers and paraprofessionals and, in turn, improve the outcomes of children with disabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singh, Nishikant; Shukla, Sudheer Kumar
The objective of this study is to investigates the relationship between domestic violence and use of contraception among married women in rural India. Third round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-III). Cross tabulation as bivariate analysis and Binary Logistic Regression as multivariate analysis has been employed to fulfill the objective. The result shows that there are several hidden factors. between physical violence and contraception use. Alternate explanatory variables are significantly affected the use of contraception. With physical violence which reflects that there is a relationship between physical violence and socioeconomic status such as education, awareness, empowerment of women and subsequently the use of contraception. The paper throws light on the hidden factors which are obstacle in use of contraception with physical violence. Results of this study have potentially important implications for programs aimed at preventing violence and promoting family planning programs.
Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this study is to investigates the relationship between domestic violence and use of contraception among married women in rural India. Data: Third round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-III. Methodology: Cross tabulation as bivariate analysis and Binary Logistic Regression as multivariate analysis has been employed to fulfill the objective. Findings: The result shows that there are several hidden factors. between physical violence and contraception use. Alternate explanatory variables are significantly affected the use of contraception. With physical violence which reflects that there is a relationship between physical violence and socioeconomic status such as education, awareness, empowerment of women and subsequently the use of contraception. Originality/value: The paper throws light on the hidden factors which are obstacle in use of contraception with physical violence. Results of this study have potentially important implications for programs aimed at preventing violence and promoting family planning programs.
Jusoh Zairra Mat
Full Text Available Construction projects are more often than not plagued by poor performances such as delays, cost overrun, low productivity, construction wastes and compromised quality. Amongst the critical contributory factors of poor project performances, is the ineffectiveness of materials management occurring in the construction sites. Indeed, materials management is a very important component for construction projects. However, there are only limited numbers of research available regarding this topic. Thus, this research focuses its study on materials management, specifically in identifying the influential factors that affect materials management in the construction project activities. Literatures from books, journal articles and conference papers related to poor project performances and materials management have been reviewed. Consequently, this study sorted the salient influential factors and categorized them based on their specific group. Out of 47 factors identified, they are classified into 8 groups. They are (1 site condition; (2 planning and handling on site; (3 management; (4 materials; (5 supplier and manufacturer default; (6 transportation; (7 contractual; and (8 governmental interferences. In conclusion, this study contends that by identifying the influential factors affecting materials management, it will help construction players to avoid the occurrence of those factors and will minimize the negative impacts on the overall performance of construction projects. Hence, the handling-over of project will be according to schedule and not delayed by materials mismanagement.
Huber, Ann L.
Nutritional and physical factors which influence the germination of akinetes of Nodularia spumigena (Cyanobacteriaceae) were examined. Low concentrations of phosphorus (45 μM, inhibited germination. Salinities of >20‰ were inhibitory to germination. Optimum temperatures were 22°C or greater. Germination did not take place in the dark, but only very low light intensities (0.5 microeinstein m−2 s−1) were necessary to initiate germination. Red light (620 to 665 nm) was required. More than 24 h o...
Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Junker, Michael Daniel; Skov, Anne Ladegaard
Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are commonly used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP). DEAP films are used in making actuators, generators and sensors. In the large scale manufacture of DEAP films, release of films from the substrate (carrier web) induces some defects and pre......-strain in the films which affect the overall performance of the films. The current research is directed towards investigating factors affecting the peel force and release of thin, corrugated polydimethylsiloxane films used in DEAP films. It has been shown that doping the PDMS films with small quantities...
Daniel P. Molloy
The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.
Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.
Full Text Available Abstract Tissue repair is an essential process that reestablishes tissue integrity and regular function. Nevertheless, different therapeutic factors and clinical conditions may interfere in this process of periapical healing. This review aims to discuss the important therapeutic factors associated with the clinical protocol used during root canal treatment and to highlight the systemic conditions associated with the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth. The antibacterial strategies indicated in the conventional treatment of an inflamed and infected pulp and the modulation of the host's immune response may assist in tissue repair, if wound healing has been hindered by infection. Systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, can also inhibit wound healing. The success of root canal treatment is affected by the correct choice of clinical protocol. These factors are dependent on the sanitization process (instrumentation, irrigant solution, irrigating strategies, and intracanal dressing, the apical limit of the root canal preparation and obturation, and the quality of the sealer. The challenges affecting the healing process of endodontically treated teeth include control of the inflammation of pulp or infectious processes and simultaneous neutralization of unpredictable provocations to the periapical tissue. Along with these factors, one must understand the local and general clinical conditions (systemic health of the patient that affect the outcome of root canal treatment prediction.
Farzandipur, Mehrdad; Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Azimi, Esmaeil
Today, the use of information systems in health environments, like any other fields, is necessary and organizational managers are convinced to use these systems. However, managers' satisfaction is not the only factor in successfully implementing these systems and failed information technology projects (IT) are reported despite the consent of the directors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the factors affecting the successful implementation of a hospital information system. The study was carried out as a descriptive method in 20 clinical hospitals that the hospital information system (HIS) was conducted in them. The clinical and paraclinical users of mentioned hospitals are the study group. 400 people were chosen as samples in scientific method and the data was collected using a questionnaire consisted of three main human, managerial and organizational, and technological factors, by questionnaire and interview. Then the data was scored in Likert scale (score of 1 to 5) and were analyzed using the SPSS software. About 75 percent of the population were female, with average work experience of 10 years and the mean age was 30 years. The human factors affecting the success of hospital information system implementation achieved the mean score of 3.5, both organizational and managerial factors 2.9 and technological factors the mean of 3. Human factors including computer skills, perceiving usefulness and perceiving the ease of a hospital information system use are more effective on the acceptance and successful implementation of hospital information systems; then the technological factors play a greater role. It is recommended that for the successful implementation of hospital information systems, most of these factors to be considered.
Meredith N Zozus
Full Text Available Medical record abstraction (MRA is often cited as a significant source of error in research data, yet MRA methodology has rarely been the subject of investigation. Lack of a common framework has hindered application of the extant literature in practice, and, until now, there were no evidence-based guidelines for ensuring data quality in MRA. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the accuracy of data abstracted from medical records and to generate a framework for data quality assurance and control in MRA.Candidate factors were identified from published reports of MRA. Content validity of the top candidate factors was assessed via a four-round two-group Delphi process with expert abstractors with experience in clinical research, registries, and quality improvement. The resulting coded factors were categorized into a control theory-based framework of MRA. Coverage of the framework was evaluated using the recent published literature.Analysis of the identified articles yielded 292 unique factors that affect the accuracy of abstracted data. Delphi processes overall refuted three of the top factors identified from the literature based on importance and five based on reliability (six total factors refuted. Four new factors were identified by the Delphi. The generated framework demonstrated comprehensive coverage. Significant underreporting of MRA methodology in recent studies was discovered.The framework generated from this research provides a guide for planning data quality assurance and control for studies using MRA. The large number and variability of factors indicate that while prospective quality assurance likely increases the accuracy of abstracted data, monitoring the accuracy during the abstraction process is also required. Recent studies reporting research results based on MRA rarely reported data quality assurance or control measures, and even less frequently reported data quality metrics with research results. Given the demonstrated
Al-Quran, Firas A; Al-Ghalayini, Raed F; Al-Zu'bi, Bashar N
The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males) divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The highest percentage of males within groups (58%) was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.
Al-Quran Firas A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.
Witkiewitz, Katie; McCallion, Elizabeth; Vowles, Kevin E; Kirouac, Megan; Frohe, Tessa; Maisto, Stephen A; Hodgson, Ray; Heather, Nick
Physical pain and negative affect have been described as risk factors for alcohol use following alcohol treatment. The current study was a secondary analysis of 2 clinical trials for alcohol use disorder (AUD) to examine the associations between pain, negative affect and AUD treatment outcomes. Participants included 1,383 individuals from the COMBINE Study (COMBINE Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence; COMBINE Study Research Group, 2003; 31% female, 23% ethnic minorities, average age = 44.4 [SD = 10.2]), a multisite combination pharmacotherapy and behavioral intervention study for AUD in the United States, and 742 individuals from the United Kingdom Alcohol Treatment Trial (UKATT Research Team, 2001; 25.9% female, 4.4% ethnic minorities, average age = 41.6 [SD = 10.1]) a multisite behavioral intervention study for AUD in the United Kingdom. The Form-90 was used to collect alcohol use data, the Short Form Health Survey and Quality of Life measures were used to assess pain, and negative affect was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory (COMBINE) and the General Health Questionnaire (UKATT). Pain scores were significantly associated with drinking outcomes in both datasets. Greater pain scores were associated with greater negative affect and increases in pain were associated with increases in negative affect. Negative affect significantly mediated the association between pain and drinking outcomes and this effect was moderated by social behavior network therapy (SBNT) in the UKATT study, with SBNT attenuating the association between pain and drinking. Findings suggest pain and negative affect are associated among individuals in AUD treatment and that negative affect mediated pain may be a risk factor for alcohol relapse. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Webster, Collin A.; Mindrila, Diana; Weaver, Glenn
Affective learning is a major focus of the national K-12 physical education (PE) content standards (National Association for Sport and Physical Education [NASPE, 2004]). Understanding how students might fit into different affective learning subgroups would help extend affective learning theory in PE and suggest possible intervention strategies for…
Cardinal, Bradley J.; Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Marita K.
People's feelings toward physical activity are often influenced by memories of their childhood experiences in physical education and sport. Unfortunately, many adults remember negative experiences, which may affect their desire to maintain a physically active lifestyle. A survey that asked 293 students about recollections from their childhood…
Tahamtan, Iman; Pajouhanfar, Sara; Sedghi, Shahram; Azad, Mohsen; Roudbari, Masoud
This study aimed to acquire knowledge about the factors affecting smartphone adoption for accessing information in medical settings in Iranian Hospitals. A qualitative and quantitative approach was used to conduct this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 medical residents and interns in 2013 to identify determinant factors for smartphone adoption. Afterwards, nine relationships were hypothesised. We developed a questionnaire to test these hypotheses and to evaluate the importance of each factor. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the causal relations between model parameters and to accurately identify determinant factors. Eight factors were identified in the qualitative phase of the study, including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, training, internal environment, personal experience, social impacts, observability and job related characteristics. Among the studied factors, perceived usefulness, personal experience and job related characteristics were significantly associated with attitude to use a smartphone which accounted for 64% of the variance in attitude. Perceived usefulness had the strongest impact on attitude to use a smartphone. The factors that emerged from interviews were consistent with the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and some previous studies. TAM is a reliable model for understanding the factors of smartphone acceptance in medical settings. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.
Full Text Available Background Guidelines and Class 1 evidence are strong factors that help guide surgeons’ decision-making, but dilemmas exist in selecting the best surgical option, usually without the benefit of guidelines or Class 1 evidence. A few studies have discussed the variability of surgical treatment options that are currently available, but no study has examined surgeons’ views on the influential factors that encourage them to choose one surgical treatment over another. This study examines the influential factors and the thought process that encourage surgeons to make these decisions in such circumstances. Methods Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 32 senior consultant surgeons, surgical fellows, and senior surgical residents at the University of Toronto teaching hospitals. An e-mail was sent out for volunteers, and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis using open and axial coding. Results Broadly speaking there are five groups of factors affecting surgeons’ decision-making: medical condition, information, institutional, patient, and surgeon factors. When information factors such as guidelines and Class 1 evidence are lacking, the other four groups of factors—medical condition, institutional, patient, and surgeon factors (the last-mentioned likely being the most powerful—play a significant role in guiding surgical decision-making. Conclusions This study is the first qualitative study on surgeons’ perspectives on the influential factors that help them choose one surgical treatment option over another for their patients.
Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza
Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr, Southern Iran and Pars Clinic, Iran were enrolled by a simple random sampling method. They all completed a questionnaire to consider reasons for cosmetic procedures. The collected data were statistically analyzed. Demographical, sociological and psychological factors such as age, gender, educational level, marital status, media, perceived risks, output quality, depression and self-improvement were determined as factors affecting tendency of individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery in this region. Trend to undergo cosmetic surgery was more prevalent in educational below bachelor degree, married subjects, women population of 30-45 years age group. Education level, age, marital status and gender were respectively the influential factors in deciding to undergo cosmetic surgery. Among the socio-psychological factors, self-improvement, finding a better job opportunity, rivalry, media, health status as well as depression were the most persuasive factors to encourage people to undergo cosmetic surgery too. Cost risk was not important for our samples in decision making to undergo cosmetic surgery. We need to fully understand the way in which the combination of demographic, social and psychological factors influence decision-making to undergo cosmetic surgery.
Full Text Available Purpose: This study empirically investigated the factors that affect customer retention in the airline industry in North Cyprus. These factors were service quality attributes, perceived safety, customer satisfaction, loyalty reward program, relationship commitment and customer loyalty. The study also investigated four different groups for purposes of travel (business, education, vacation and family visit in the empirical model. Methodology: A descriptive approach was chosen to conduct this research. A quanhip between customer retention and the related study factors; however, not all of these relations are signifcant. The results also showed that the different purposes of travel had different inﬂuences on the variables regarding the positive and signifcant relations between them. Some independent variables had a negative effect on the dependent variables. Conclusions: This research was limited to one group and place: the students of Eastern Mediterranean University in North Cyprus. Originality: This study connected the retention, loyalty, satisfaction and service quality factors as attributes. In addition, this research was the frst to include other independent factors affecting satisfaction and loyalty in a comparison between four different groups regarding the purpose of travel in the airline industry.
Azzam, Tarek; Whyte, Cristina E
This study examines the factors that can affect the credibility, influence, and utility of evaluative feedback. These factors include the delivery strategy, accuracy, and type (positive/negative) of feedback provided. In this study over 500 participants were asked to complete a task, and were then randomly assigned to different conditions with varied feedback delivery methods, feedback accuracy, and types of feedback (positive/negative). Then they were asked questions about the feedback's credibility, influence, and utility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author
Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.
Duziński, K; Knecht, D; Lisiak, D; Janiszewski, P
Bellies derived from the commercial population of pig carcasses are diverse in terms of tissue composition. Knowledge of the factors influencing it and the expected results, permits quick and easy evaluation of raw material. The study was designed to determine the factors affecting the tissues composition of pork bellies and to estimate their lean meat content. The research population (n=140 pig carcasses) was divided into groups according to sex (gilts, barrows), half-carcass mass (meat content class: S (⩾60%), E (55% to 60%), U (50% to 55%), R (meat content affected the growth of the fat and skin mass in a linear way. No differences were observed between class S and E in terms of belly muscle mass. A 0.37% higher share of belly in the half-carcass was found for barrows (Pmeat content in bellies, suggesting they may be used directly in the production line.
Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Bertelsen, Maja; Pedersen, Lene Juul
This review assesses factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs. Fouling of the pen happens when pigs change their excretory behaviour from occurring in the designated dunging area to the lying area. This can result in a lower hygiene, bad air quality, extra work for the fa......This review assesses factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs. Fouling of the pen happens when pigs change their excretory behaviour from occurring in the designated dunging area to the lying area. This can result in a lower hygiene, bad air quality, extra work...... that also fits the weight of the pigs in different stages of the production. All in all, fouling of the pen in conventional slaughter pigs is a multifactorial problem, but it is important to focus on increasing the comfortability, and especially the climate, of the designated lying area....
Full Text Available External pollution load in the Baltic Sea originates from urban, agricultural and industrial sources. Emissions of heavy metals have decreased substantially in the catchment area but the temporal trends are not always significant and differ with sample, area and pollutant. The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Many factors affect the future development of pollutant concentrations including anthropogenic emissions, political decisions and changes in salinity, temperature and water currents, in eutrophication and oxygen status, in fisheries and in atmospheric deposition of pollutants. Large scale changes like eutrophication and climate change affect ecosystems in many ways, directly and indirectly, causing biological and abiotic effects. These factors are interrelated and difficult to predict. Measures aiming to enhance the ecological status of the Baltic Sea will certainly give positive results but this will take at least several decades.
Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.
There are several factors that can affect the degree of integrity of the tube-tubesheet joint: the tube sheet design as to the material selection and the quality and spacing of the machined holes; the selection of tubes as to material and quality; the quality of the fabrication tooling and the parameters for their use. All comments in this paper are with respect to mechanical roller expansion. (author)
Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt
About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...
Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.
An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)
The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)
Marques, Mónica Sofia Ramos
A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics The aim of this project is to analyse the importance of branded and fashionable clothing, and which of them is the most important for adolescents when choosing their clothes, according with gender and age. The research analysed how three factors (peers’ influence, materialistic behaviour and self-esteem) affected adolescents’ clothing choice...
Marwan, Yousef; Al-Fouzan, Rawan; Al-Ajlan, Sarah; Al-Saleh, Mervat
Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression wer...
block number) FIELD GROUP SUBGROUP National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY I, veterans, local unemployment 19. ABSTRACT (continue on reverse if...ings in these two years was the local unemployment rate. It was also discovered that the determinants of earnings in 1982 differed significantly...analyzes factors affecting the post-service -arnings and wage growth of veterans. The 1979-1987 National Longitudi-’nal Survey of Youth was tlbe
Houdek, G.; Trampedach, R.; Aarslev, M. J.
. In this Letter, we address the physical processes of turbulent convection that are predominantly responsible for the frequency differences between standard models and observations, also called 'surface effects'. We compare measured solar frequencies from the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on the SOlar...... physics in our model computation, we are able to reproduce the observed solar frequencies to less than or similar to 3 mu Hz without the need of any additional ad hoc functional corrections....
Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.
The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and
G. A. Shekari
Full Text Available For improving and efficient uses of various resources such as labor, capital, materials, energy and information, productivity is the purpose of all economic and industrial organizations and service enterprises. The human factor is the main strategic resource and the realization axis of productivity for each type of organization. Therefore the factors affecting the productivity, depends on suitable conditions for labor. This study is performed to identification and prioritization the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company. The objective of this research is an applied and the data collection methods and conclusions are descriptive - survey. Statistical sample size by using Cochran's formula is considered equal to 120. To perform this study with the Delphi method, we identify the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company and by using MADM techniques, prioritization of these factors has been done. Also Team Expert Choice2000 software have used for analysis. Research results show that factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company in order of importance are: Health aspects, leadership style, motivational factors, organizational commitment, work experience, general and applied education, demographic characteristics, physical environment within the organization, external environment and competitive spirit.
Bedwell, Carol; McGowan, Linda; Lavender, Tina
midwives are frequently the lead providers of care for women throughout labour and birth. In order to perform their role effectively and provide women with the choices they require midwives need to be confident in their practice. This study explores factors which may affect midwives' confidence in their practice. hermeneutic phenomenology formed the theoretical basis for the study. Prospective longitudinal data collection was completed using diaries and semi-structured interviews. Twelve midwives providing intrapartum care in a variety of settings were recruited to ensure a variety of experiences in different contexts were captured. the principal factor affecting workplace confidence, both positively and negatively, was the influence of colleagues. Perceived autonomy and a sense of familiarity could also enhance confidence. However, conflict in the workplace was a critical factor in reducing midwives' confidence. Confidence was an important, but fragile, phenomenon to midwives and they used a variety of coping strategies, emotional intelligence and presentation management to maintain it. this is the first study to highlight both the factors influencing midwives' workplace confidence and the strategies midwives employed to maintain their confidence. Confidence is important in maintaining well-being and workplace culture may play a role in explaining the current low morale within the midwifery workforce. This may have implications for women's choices and care. Support, effective leadership and education may help midwives develop and sustain a positive sense of confidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reilly, Timothy J.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Tessler, Steven; Fischer, Jeffrey M.
A hydrogeologic and water-quality investigation of the Hammonton Land Application Facility (Hammonton LAF) in Hammonton, New Jersey, was conducted to determine the factors that impede the infiltration of treated wastewater and to assess the potential for similar conditions to exist elsewhere in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey (particularly within the Pinelands National Reserve). Gamma logs, sediment cores, and hydraulic-profile testing indicate that extensive fine-grained strata and iron-cemented sands underlying the Hammonton LAF may impede infiltration and lead to the perching of diluted treated wastewater. Perched water was observed in augured holes adjacent to infiltration trenches, and analysis of wastewater loading and infiltration data indicates that infiltration trenches may receive lateral flow from multiple perched-water sources. Analysis of water-quality properties characteristic of treated wastewater show that although infiltrated wastewater is reaching the underlying aquifer, lengthy holding times and a long recharge pathway greatly reduce the concentrations of nitrate, boron, and many organic compounds typical of wastewater. Conditions at two currently operating facilities and one potential future facility in the New Jersey Coastal Plain were compared to those at the Hammonton Land Application Facility (LAF). Facilities operating as designed are not underlain by the restrictive strata that exist at the Hammonton LAF. Careful characterization of the geology and hydrology of the unsaturated zone underlying infiltration structures of future facilities in the New Jersey Coastal Plain and similar hydrogeologic settings will help to avoid constructing infiltration structures over or within low-hydraulic-conductivity strata that will decrease infiltration rates.
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the motivational factors affecting the willingness of employees to share knowledge and examine intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and influences on attitudes toward knowledge sharing and explicit and implicit knowledge sharing intention. Planned behavior pattern is used as a theoretical framework. This research was conducted in two phases. First, factors were identified according to the literature review and exploratory interviews. Then the impact of each factor was evaluated in terms of structural equation modeling. This is an empirical research and the research method is descriptive survey. Data was collected using a questionnaire and interview. The study was on the staff working in administrative units of Tehran Municipality and the number of staff at the time of study was 2230. Cluster sampling method and sample size based on population and using Cochran formula of 328 people determined that 35 persons were not held accountable. To determine the reliability of questionnaires, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated to 0.824 which was found at a high level. Data was analyzed by SPSS and LISREL software. Finally, the proposed pattern was confirmed. The results showed that the intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influence on the attitude of employees and the attitude influence on tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intention. Also, extrinsic motivational factors influence on tacit knowledge sharing intention and intrinsic motivational factors influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention. Extrinsic motivational factors influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention and intrinsic motivational factors influence on tacit knowledge sharing intention by the attitude and tacit knowledge sharing intention influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic and progressive disease of the central nervous system. The identification of effective factors and patient education on the prevention of exposure to these factors can be effective in reducing relapses. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the factors that affect recurrence in patients with multiple sclerosis. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 402 MS patients referred to the MS Association of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. The study participants were selected using purposive sampling method. Data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire and a 40-item researcher-made questionnaire concerning factors affecting the recurrence of MS. The 40-item questionnaire consisted of 4 domains personal factors, medical condition, pharmaceutical conditions, and environmental factors. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 21 and Mann Whitney, Pearson correlation, Kruskal Wallis, and chi-square statistical tests. Results: Among the patients, 21/4% were male and 78/6% female. Most patients were 20-29 years old. The highest prevalence of recurrence of MS was observed in the summer (70.8% and in August (50.3%. There was no significant relationship between patient’s gender and their views about the relationship between infections, fatigue, and heat and recurrence of MS. However, a higher rate of women believed stress (P < 0.029 and sexual development (P < 0.001 to be effective on the incidence of MS recurrence, in comparison to men. Conclusion: Most patients with MS are women, and they believe stress to be more effective on the incidence of MS attack recurrence. Therefore, nurses, as the primary care educators, can improve the patients’ capability, disease management, and quality of life through training of stress management techniques.
Full Text Available E-learning is becoming a widespread method of gaining knowledge in a global environment. Accessibility and variety of online content encourage more people to get involved in learning from digital resources. However, there has been limited research exploring the factors that could influence students attitudes regarding e-learning. In this study, field research was conducted to determine which factors affect students attitudes towards e-learning. The questionnaire was developed to collect data about factors that influence attitudes towards e-learning. A total of 286 students were the study cohort. Three factors were identified using principal component analysis: e-learning usefulness, ease of use, and content design. Regression analysis was conducted to determine the strength of the factors influencing attitudes towards e-learning. All factors had a significant influence on attitude towards e-learning. Usefulness of e-learning had the strongest impact on students e-learning intention. Our study will contribute to the existing work in this field by emphasizing the importance of perception of content design on attitudes towards e-learning.
Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.
Full Text Available It is known in the literature that the incidence and prevalence of suicide and attempted suicide in psychiatric patients is significantly higher than in the general population. The paper examined risk factors for suicidal behavior in the category of admitted patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of sleep disorders and affective (Unipolar resp. Bipolar depression. Study activated by 80 patients, 40 in both diagnostic groups received treatment at the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Gornja Toponica near Nis. The work methodology used are: psychiatric interview, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, and the C-SSRS (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale- assessment tool that assesses suicidal ideation and behavior. The study results show that there is a relationship between suicidal behavior (suicide attempts and suicidal ideation and the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, positive history of previous suicide attempts, so that these factors are stronger, to the degree of suicidality higher. On this sample, clearly suicidal behavior, with the same purpose, intensity of suicidal thoughts and medical impairment after suicide attempts were significantly more frequent in patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder in the depressive phase of the illness. Patients with a previous suicide attempt, and poor personal and social circumstances had a higher rate of attempted suicide.
Simon Munyua; Dr. Gladys Rotich; Dr. Michael Kimwele
Abstract Access to timely and quality maternal health care remains to be a major development challenge in many developing economies particularly in Kenya. The countrys system of providing maternal health care also continue to be anchored on conventional methods of physical presence of the patient and the doctor in a hospital setup. The countrys ICT and health policies also place very little emphasis on the use of these platforms. This study therefore sought to establish the factors affecting...
Corps Not waivable Prior psychological or physical dependence upon any drug or alcohol is waivable Use of stimulant, depressant, narcotic, and psychedelic ...such as the use of illegal drugs . These factors could adversely affect the ability of some Hispanic youth to meet service enlistment standards. Our...changes and to monitor the balance between benefits and burdens across the varied segments of society” (DoD, 2004, pg. ix). Introduction 3 -3
In this study, data on grades awarded for bachelor and master theses at a large Polish university were used to identify possible discrimination on gender or physical attractiveness. The focus is on the gap between the grades awarded by the advisor (who knows the student personally) and the referee (who typically does not, so that gender is less…
Bakhtari Aghdam, Fatemeh; Baghiani Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Dabagh Nikookheslat, Saed; Noorizadeh, Roghaieh
PA is a multi-factorial behavior that is affected by interpersonal, intra personal, environmental and social factors. In this study we applied explanatory model to determine the total, indirect and direct impact of physical environment, personal factors and social support on PA among employed women. This study was a correlational cross-sectional study which was conducted to model total, indirect and direct impact of environmental, psychological and social factors on PA. A total of 200 women were chosen from Tabriz University by using convenience sampling method. Data about demographic characteristics, psychological variables, social and physical environment were gathered by using self-reported questionnaire and also the PA was measured by using the International PA Questionnaire and pedometer. personal factors, physical and social environment, showed direct effects on PA. Social factors could be seen to have indirect effects on PA through their influence on personal factors such as pros, cons and self-efficacy; also physical environment had indirect effects on PA through social environment. The total effects of physical and social environment on PA type were respectively 0.17, 0.16 on walking, 0.05, 0.07 on moderate activity and 0.15, 0.18 on vigorous activity. Findings from this study indicated that social factors had indirect effects on walking, moderate and vigorous activity, especially through the effects on these factors of self-efficacy, physical environment, pros and cons, and the interactive role of individual, environmental and social impacts on PA. The current study identifies that psychological, physical and social factors could be shown to have direct and indirect influences on all forms of activity. The barriers of PA were the most predictor of this behavior, and based on results, it can be concluded that decreasing the barriers along with improving social and physical environment can lead to increasing PA and health promotion.
Wang, Guoqing; Kim, Woo Kyun; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R
The intense genetic selection for rapid growth in broilers has resulted in an increase in voluntary feed intake and growth rate, accompanied by increased fat deposition in adipose tissue depots throughout the body. Adipose tissue expansion is a result of the formation of adipocytes (several processes collectively referred to as adipogenesis) and cellular accumulation of triacylglycerols inside lipid droplets. In mammals, different anatomical depots are metabolically distinct. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development have been characterized in mammalian models, whereas information in avian species is scarce. The purpose of this review is to describe factors regulating adipogenesis in chickens, with an emphasis on dietary factors and the broiler. Results from many studies have demonstrated effects of dietary nutrient composition on adipose tissue development and lipid metabolism. Transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins α and β, and sterol regulatory element binding proteins orchestrate a series of cellular events that lead to an increase in activity of fatty acid transport proteins and enzymes that are responsible for triacylglycerol synthesis. Understanding the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development may provide a practical strategy to affect body composition of the commercial broiler while providing insights on diets that maximize conversion into muscle rather than fat and affect depot-dependent deposition of lipids. Because of the propensity to overeat and become obese, the broiler chicken also represents an attractive biomedical model for eating disorders and obesity in humans. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Hobara, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Tominaga, Shuichi; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamasaki, Nobuya; Ogata, Toru
Patterns and ease of stair ambulation influence amputees' level of satisfaction with their rehabilitation, confidence level, and motivation for continued rehabilitation, demonstrating the importance of stair-ascent data for rehabilitation. However, little is known about the determinants of stair-ascent patterns in unilateral transfemoral amputees. To investigate the factors affecting stair-ascent patterns in transfemoral amputees. Cross-sectional survey. Stair-ascent patterns were evaluated using the Stair Assessment Index. We collected Stair Assessment Index data as well as demographic and clinical data (sex, age, height, mass, amputation side, reason for amputation, time since amputation, and residual limb length) from 25 transfemoral amputees. Statistical analyses revealed that age was negatively correlated and time since amputation was positively correlated with Stair Assessment Index. In contrast, height, body mass, and residual limb lengths were not correlated with Stair Assessment Index. The results of this study suggest that in unilateral transfemoral amputee, (1) both age and time since amputation could affect stair-climbing patterns and (2) residual limb length should not be a limiting factor for stair climbing if the transfemoral amputee has a certain minimum residual limb length. Rehabilitation teams should carefully consider nonmodifiable predisposing factors such as age and time since amputation. However, they may be able to carry on stair-ascent rehabilitation for transfemoral amputees disregarding residual limb length (depending on the length).
Su, Ai-Tsen; Lin, Yann-Jou
This study investigated factors affecting yearly and monthly numbers of visits to Taipei Zoo. Both linear and nonlinear regression models were used to estimate yearly visits. The results of both models showed that the "opening effect" and "animal star effect" had a significantly positive effect on yearly visits, while a SARS outbreak had a negative effect. The number of years had a significant influence on yearly visits. Results showed that the nonlinear model had better explanatory power and fitted the variations of visits better. Results of monthly model showed that monthly visits were significantly influenced by time fluctuations, weather conditions, and the animal star effect. Chinese New Year, summer vacation, numbers of holidays, and animal star exhibitions increased the number of monthly visits, while the number of days with temperatures at or below 15 °C, the number of days with temperatures at or above 30 °C, and the number of rainy days had significantly negative effects. Furthermore, the model of monthly visits showed that the animal star effect could last for over two quarters. The results of this study clarify the factors affecting visits to an outdoor recreation site and confirm the importance of meteorological factors to recreation use.
Cancelliere, Carol; Donovan, James; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen
Purpose: To identify common prognostic factors for return to work (RTW) across different health and injury conditions and to describe their association with RTW outcomes. Methods: Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the grey literature were searched...... synthesized within domains of the International Classification of Functioning and Health (ICF) model of disability. Results: Of the 36,193 titles screened and the 94 eligible studies reviewed, 56 systematic reviews were accepted as low risk of bias. Over half of these focused on musculoskeletal disorders...... and stakeholders. Common factors associated with negative RTW outcomes were older age, being female, higher pain or disability, depression, higher physical work demands, previous sick leave and unemployment, and activity limitations. Conclusions: Expectations of recovery and RTW, pain and disability levels...
Kendzor, Darla E; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Mazas, Carlos A; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Costello, Tracy J; Businelle, Michael S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W
The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of cooccurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African-Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African-American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had at least one cancer risk factor in addition to smoking. Univariate ordinal logistic regression analyses revealed that female gender, unemployment, lower positive affect, and greater negative affect were associated with having a greater number of cancer risk factors. Multivariate analyses yielded similar findings. A structural equation modeling approach indicated that stress/negative affect may function as one pathway linking SES and modifiable cancer risk factors among African-American smokers and that gender has a direct effect on modifiable cancer risk factors. Thus, risk patterns identified within each gender group may guide the development of multiple risk factor interventions for African-American smokers. Stress and negative affect may be an important treatment target within behavioral interventions for African-American smokers of low SES.
Yong, L; Chengye, J; Jiong, Q
To explore the level of, and factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) in childhood epilepsy in China. At the Peking University First Hospital, we consecutively identified 418 parents whose children were with known epilepsy to complete a questionnaire, which included children's demographic characteristics, clinical message of epilepsy, QOL, familial message, parental symptoms of anxiety/depression. Significant (paffecting factors of children's quality of life included current educational degree, mental development, age at diagnosis, age at onset, seizure frequency, duration, AED number; parental significant (paffecting factors included anxiety, depression and health. On regression analysis, parental anxiety was the most important factor in explaining lower QOL in childhood epilepsy. AEDs, familial economic state, paternal career, seizure frequency were also significant factors. Parental anxiety outweighed the physical factors in determining QOL in childhood epilepsy. Recognition of this will be helpful for professionals to treat disease and improve the QOL of childhood epilepsy.
Walsh, A; Borkowski, S C
At first glance, a woman's prospects for a career in health administration seem encouraging. More than half of the recent graduates of health administration master's programs are female, and initially post-master's salaries are comparable with those of male graduates. Unfortunately, opportunities for promotion and financial benefits seem to decrease for women and expand for men as their respective careers progress. This study found that, with the same educational background, men earned an average of $51,491 annually, compared to $50,839 for women, in health care administration. We examined gender differences in organizational and individual factors that have been modeled as influences on career development. These factors include financial and nonfinancial benefits, access to training programs, success factors, demographics, and motivating factors underlying education, employment, and career choices. Some evidence of gender differences in the organizational and individual factors affecting career development is provided. Academic and professional strategies addressing these differences are suggested for consideration by both professional and university administrators.
A. M. Jarkas
Full Text Available Labour productivity is affected by several factors, but buildability is among the most important. Nevertheless, a thoroughexamination of the literature revealed a dearth of research into the influence of buildability factors on labour productivityof in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the formwork trade level. Although edge formwork is an importantlabour intensive activity, most often, its labour cost is either crudely estimated or lumped within the formwork cost of otheractivities. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate and quantify the effects and relative influence of the followingbuildability factors on its labour productivity: (a depth of slab being edge-formed; (b slab geometric factor; and (ctype of formwork material used. To achieve this objective, a sufficiently large volume of productivity data was collected andanalyzed using the multiple categorical-regression method. As a result, the effects and relative influence of the buildabilityfactors investigated are determined. The findings show significant effects of these factors on edge formwork labour productivity,which can be used to provide designers feedback on how well their designs consider the requirements of buildabilityprinciples, and the consequences of their decisions on labour efficiency. On the other hand, the depicted patterns of resultsmay provide guidance to construction managers for effective activity planning and efficient labour utilization.
Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Goodacre, Charles J
Clinicians are confronted with difficult choices regarding whether a tooth with pulpal and/or periapical disease should be saved through endodontic treatment or be extracted and replaced with an implant. The authors examined publications (research, literature reviews and systematic reviews) related to the factors affecting decision making for patients who have oral diseases or traumatic injuries. The factors to be considered included patient-related issues (systemic and oral health, as well as comfort and treatment perceptions), tooth- and periodontium-related factors (pulpal and periodontal conditions, color characteristics of the teeth, quantity and quality of bone, and soft-tissue anatomy) and treatment-related factors (the potential for procedural complications, required adjunctive procedures and treatment outcomes). On the basis of survival rates, it appears that more than 95 percent of dental implants and teeth that have undergone endodontic treatment remain functional over time. Clinicians need to consider carefully several factors before choosing whether to perform endodontic therapy or extract a tooth and place an implant. The result should be high levels of comfort, function, longevity and esthetics for patients.
Full Text Available Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured questionnaire; study reveals that service innovativeness, service reli- ability, service competitiveness and service consistency have significant influence on making customer satisfied and the operator’s network/signal coverage, pricing, offering, fulfillment of customer demand, value added service, brand value and op - erators contribution for society have insignificant influences on making customer satisfied at five percent level of significant at multiple regression analysis. On the basis of these findings; study concludes that in promoting customer satisfaction mobile service providers should be concerned for factors responsible for insignifi- cant influence on customer satisfaction and care of those factors have significant influence on promoting customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.
Mustafa Tolga Tolon
Full Text Available Current seafood consumption pattern, consumer profile and factors affecting seafood consumption amount and frequency of the consumers residing in coastal region (İzmir, mixed region (Adana and countryside region (Ankara of Turkey were researched in this study. It is aimed to provide source to researchers and relevant institutions who are willing to guide the future sectoral initiatives and conduct more extensive research on seafood consumer habits. In this context, the research population was determined according to their distance to the sea and their populations by purposive sampling method. 43 % of total 400 survey was conducted in Ankara, 36% in İzmir and 21% in Adana by face to face interviews. According to the survey results, 6% of respondents never consume seafood, 25% once a month, 28% once every two weeks, and 42% consume once and more than once in a week. The most seafood consumption frequency was identified in Izmir. Nearly 90% of consumers in the entire regions prefer to consume seafood in fresh type. According to the answers of all consumers 4 major factors affecting seafood consumption preferences and habits in a negative way were "high price, cannot be easily found in the market, not recognition of seafood varieties and disfavor of the flavor of seafood". The relationship between frequency of seafood consumption and education level of consumer’s variables is determined as linear and strong but the relationship between consumer age and seafood consumption frequency is determined as reverse. On the factors affecting choice of seafood consumption in a positive way, 71% of consumers stated the beneficial to health perception and taste of seafood as the most important reason for their preference. Therefore, the relationship between consumption trend and beneficial to health perception of seafood is determined as linear and strong.Keywords: Seafood, consumption pattern, consumer behaviour, seafood marketing
Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis
Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis
Roya Gholami; Augustine Ogun; Elizabeth Koh; John Lim
The payment system of a country plays a crucial role in its economy; however, despite the benefits of e-Payment and efforts by financial authorities, Nigeria still has a low e-Payment adoption rate. In this regard, there is an urgent need to investigate the factors that affect individualsâ€™ intention to adopt e-Payment. Drawing on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model, this paper develops a theoretical model for e-Payment adoption in Nigeria. Additionally, a su...
Lemontt, J F
Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.
Lemontt, J F
Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.
Fehime Korkmaz Bingöl
Full Text Available Increasing tourist expenditure is a means to increase tourism income, which is extremely important for local economies. The purpose of this study is to understand the expending pattern of tourists coming to Mugla Region and provide empirical background for the policies to increase per tourist expenditure. The survey conducted at Dalaman International Airport and the data has been analyzed using OLS method. Nationality, age, accommodation type, pension type, credit card usage, availability of shopping facilities, standard of night life and entertainment, quality of food and beverage, length of holiday and group size has been found as significant factors affecting tourist expenditure
武政, 誠一; 嶋田, 智明; 日高, 正巳; 石川, 司; 池田, 亨; 河波, 恭弘; 末永, 英文
The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors affecting the quali- ty of life (QOL) of the elderly home-bound patients. Data were collected from 56 chronically disabled elderly persons (mean age of 76.7 years) who need a long-term home-based care. They were assessed on health status, QOL, functional capacity, and family functioning as well as socio-economic condition. The QOL was evaluated by using Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGC Morale Scale). The Activities of daily l...
The business trends and life style of humans are changing rapidly due to globalization and it visibly affects the work environment and employee’s attitude towards the work as the needs and desires of human being are changing too. In such circumstance, it is essential to have motivated team to survive in the market is vital agenda for the firms, where Posti Oyj is not an exception. It has become a challenge for HR officials to study about job satisfaction and motivation including factors affec...
Alaraji Fedaa Abd Almajid Sabbar; Al-Dulaimi Zaid Yaseen Saud; Sabri Thamer Mahdi Muhamed; Ion Elena Iuliana
This study is aim to adopt knowledge the specific concept to external audit quality and which are the factors that affecting on those qualities in the State of Iraq. As well as, to knowledge the range of depend this job in Iraq on international or local criterion to external audit quality or not. Also, to identify the satisfaction of interested parties about job of audit on service of external audit or not. According to viewpoint external audit the workers in this job and interested parties a...
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors are increasing at an unprecedented rate in developing countries. However, fewer studies have evaluated the role of physical activity in preventing CVD in these countries. We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among young and ...
Factors contributing to physical gender based violence reported at Ndola Central Hospital, Ndola, Zambia: a case control study. ... Sensitization campaigns and educational programmesought to be intensified in order to address factors that make females more prone to GBV-physical assault than males. Living in a high ...
Schmitt, Emily E.; Vellers, Heather L.; Porter, Weston W.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy
INTRODUCTION Voluntary physical activity levels are regulated by sex hormones. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the endocrine disruptor benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) on the regulation of physical activity in mice. METHODS Mouse dams were treated with 500 mg·kg−1·day−1 of BBP or vehicle on gestation days 9–16. Pups were weaned and analyzed for voluntary physical activity levels, puberty development, sex hormone levels, and body composition over a 20 week period. RESULTS Seventy-three offspring from BBP treated dams were studied (n=43 males, n=30 females). Endocrine disruption was indicated by decreased anogenital distances in BBP-treated male offspring at 10 (p=0.001) and 20 weeks (p=0.038) and delayed vaginal openings in BBP-treated female offspring (p=0.001). Further, there was a significant decrease in serum testosterone concentration in male mice between control and BBP at 10 weeks (p=0.039) and at 20 weeks (p=0.022). In female mice there was a significant increase in serum testosterone concentration in BBP mice at 20 weeks (p=0.002), and a significant increase in estrogen (estradiol) concentrations at 20 weeks in the control female mice (p=0.015). Overall, BBP mice ran significantly less distance (males, p=0.008; females, p=0.042) than controls. Other than a significant increase in BBP-treated males in fat mass at 20 weeks (p=0.040), there was no significant decrease in weight, lean mass, or fat mass in either female or male mice, regardless of treatment. CONCLUSION Maternal endocrine disruption altered hormone response, but not body composition in either sex of offspring, with a corresponding decreased activity throughout early adulthood in all offspring. These results suggest that exposure to common environmental endocrine disruptors in utero, can reduce and alter physical activity levels in offspring. PMID:26895396
Pati, Debajyoti; Valipoor, Shabboo; Cloutier, Aimee; Yang, James; Freier, Patricia; Harvey, Thomas E; Lee, Jaehoon
The aim of this study was to identify physical design elements that contribute to potential falls in patient rooms. An exploratory, physical simulation-based approach was adopted for the study. Twenty-seven subjects, older than 70 years (11 male and 16 female subjects), conducted scripted tasks in a mockup of a patient bathroom and clinician zone. Activities were captured using motion-capture technology and video recording. After biomechanical data processing, video clips associated with potential fall moments were extracted and then examined and coded by a group of registered nurses and health care designers. Exploratory analyses of the coded data were conducted followed by a series of multivariate analyses using regression models. In multivariate models with all personal, environmental, and postural variables, only the postural variables demonstrated statistical significance-turning, grabbing, pushing, and pulling in the bathroom and pushing and pulling in the clinician zone. The physical elements/attributes associated with the offending postures include bathroom configuration, intravenous pole, door, toilet seat height, flush, grab bars, over-bed table, and patient chair. Postural changes, during interactions with the physical environment, constitute the source of most fall events. Physical design must include simultaneous examination of postural changes in day-to-day activities in patient rooms and bathrooms. Among discussed testable recommendations in the article, the followings design strategies should be considered: (a) designing bathrooms to reduce turning as much as possible and (b) designing to avoid motions that involve 2 or more of the offending postures, such as turning and grabbing or grabbing and pulling, and so on.
Full Text Available This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service system such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - ‘wireless internet’ and ‘mobile applications’ - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.
Assuming that ultrasonic flowmeters of suitable intrinsic accuracy are feasible, this report explores factors extrinsic to the flowmeter which affect the accuracy such as asymmetric flow profile, regions of high turbulence and thermal stratification. By integrating isovelocity flow profile maps, the predicted performance of various flowmeter configurations may be compared to experimental data. For the two pipe arrangements analyzed, the single diametral path flowmeter results were within 5 percent of true flow rate. Theoretical correction factors could reduce the error for the straight pipe but increased the error for asymmetrical flow. On the same pipe arrangements a four path ultrasonic flowmeter spaced for Gaussian integration gave less than 1 percent error. For more general conclusions a range of flow profiles produced by typical LMFBR piping arrangements must be analyzed
Feinstein, Robert; Heiman, Noa; Yager, Joel
The number of psychotherapies classified as "empirically supported treatments" has increased significantly. As the number and scope of empirically supported treatments multiply, it has become impossible to train therapists in all of these specific modalities. Although the current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements for psychiatric residents follow an approach based on specific schools of psychotherapy (emphasizing competency in cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and supportive treatments), evidence suggests that we are failing even in these efforts. In developing a specialized Psychotherapy Scholars Track in the residency program at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, we opted to focus initially on teaching the common factors in psychotherapy that positively affect psychotherapy outcomes. This article reviews 6 such broad common factors.
Feb 19, 2007 ... vided by the Bergey's manual of Systematic bacteriology (Garrity et al., 2001), the isolated strain was identified as Bacillus sp. Inoculum preparation. Media developed by Hamilton et al. (1999) with following composition (in g l-1): Starch 10, Peptone 10, Yeast extract 20,. KH2PO4 0.05, MnCl2.4H2O 0.015, ...
... the identified enzyme showed a maximum activity (32 U/ml) with sodium dodecyl sulphate compared to other additives. Wheat was found to be a suitable natural source for maximum production of amylase activity. These properties indicated possible use of this amylase in starch saccharification and detergent formulation.
Roux, Judi Ann
Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities
Rumaseuw, R.; Berliana, S. M.; Nursalam, N.; Efendi, F.; Pradanie, R.; Rachmawati, P. D.; Aurizki, G. E.
The government has implemented several programs to prevent and reduce a mother’s mortality rate by enhancing active role of the family. The most responsible family member on maintaining the pregnancy and delivery process is the husband. The husband must be active to take care of his wife. Active participation of the husband in accompanying his wife during pregnancy and the delivery process is one of the substantial factors, which helps the husband to take decisions related to the health of his wife. This study aimed to identify variables and its trends, which significantly affect a husband’s participation in accompanying his wife during pregnancy and the delivery process. The data used in this study was from an Indonesian Demographic Health Survey 2012. The study used binary logistic regression as the analysis method. The result showed as many as 8,237 husbands accompanied their wife in antenatal care and the delivery process. The significant variables affecting the husband participation are the age of the wife, the education of wife, the education of the husband, the occupational status of the wife and the husband, the number of children, pregnancy status, and residency region. The possibility for a husband to accompany his wife is larger in several factors, such as the wife being between the ages of 21 - 35 years old, a husband who minimally graduated from junior high school, a working husband, as well as a wife, and the number of children less than and equal to two and the expected pregnancy. The government should consider those factors to create policy related women’s health and integrate the factors into various sectors.
Kim, Sa Jin; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Min-Jeong
Breast anthropometric morphology affects various factors with diverse physiognomy, making accurate measurements very difficult. The aim of this study was to measure the female breast using anthropometry and to use this method on normal subjects to examine breast asymmetry and consider the influence of age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), parity, delivery mode, and breastfeeding in premenopausal Korean women. In total, 17 parameters of breast were measured with participants in a standing position. Breast volume was also assessed. The mean values of the right and left breast volumes were calculated as 386.0±342.5 mL and 393.3±347.2 mL, respectively. With aging, the height of women decreased, but the weight, BMI, upper chest, middle chest, lower chest, waist, and hip widths, nipple-nipple length, and ptosis increased with statistical significance. No asymmetric differences were observed between each breast, except for nipple-inframammary fold length in 20-30-year-old women and upper arm length in 41-50-year-old women. In our study, the breast volume increased with age as a result of weight gain, but the delivery mode and breastfeeding did not affect anthropometric breast measurements. In conclusion, age, weight, and BMI are important factors in determining breast anthropometry in our study. The results of the present study will help in the comparison of the anthropometric breast values of Korean women with those of women in other countries and may also be useful in the understanding of breast physiologic change-related obstetrical factors and epidemiologic factors.
Wo, Monica Chen Mun; Lim, Kheng Seang; Choo, Wan Yuen; Tan, Chong Tin
People with epilepsy (PWE) are negatively prejudiced in their ability to work. This study aimed to examine demographic, clinical and psychological factors associated with employability in PWE. This study recruited epilepsy patients from a neurology clinic in Malaysia. Employability was measured using employment ratio, with a ratio ≥90% (ER90) classified as high employability. Basic demographic data such as age, gender, marital status, religion, education level and household income was collected. Clinical measures consisted of age of seizure onset, seizure frequency, type of epilepsy, aura, polytherapy, nocturnal seizures and seizure control. Psychological measures included Work Self-Determination Index (WSDI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Of 146 PWE, 64.4% had high employability. The participants were predominantly female (52%), Chinese (50.7%), single (50%), having tertiary education (55.5%) and focal epilepsy (72.6%). Clinically, only type of epilepsy was significantly correlated to employability of PWE. Employability of PWE was associated with ability to work (indicated by education level, work performance affected by seizures, ability to travel independently and ability to cope with stress at work) and family overprotection. The high employability group was found to have lower self-perceived stigma (ESS), higher self-determined motivation (WSDI), self-esteem (SES) and perceived social support (MSPSS), than the low employability group. Logistic regression analysis showed that tertiary education level (AOR 3.42, CI: 1.46-8.00), higher self-determination (WSDI, AOR 1.09, CI: 1.012-1.17), lower family overprotection (AOR 0.76, CI: 0.61-0.95), and generalised epilepsy (AOR 4.17, CI: 1.37-12.70) were significant predictors for higher employability in PWE. Ability to work (education level), clinical factor (type of epilepsy) and psychological factor (self-determined motivation and family
Full Text Available Organizations are operating in a dynamic and turbulent environment. In these conditions, they have to make decisions for new problems or situations. Most of decisions are therefore non-programmed and unstructured, accompanied by risk and uncertainty. Moreover, the problems and situations are complex. All organizations are oriented towards group decisionmaking processes, as useful tools to cope with uncertainty and complexity. Apart from the necessity, companies are turning towards participatory processes also to benefit from the important advantages that these processes offer. Organizations have realized the importance of group decision-making processes to contribute to the creation of sustainable competitive advantages. Main objective of this paper is to show that group decision-making processes do not offer guarantee for good decisions, because the effectiveness of group is affected by many factors. So, the first thing done in this paper is discussing about the benefits and limitations that accompany the use of groups with decision-making purpose. Afterwards, we stop on the different factors that influence the group’s ability to make good decisions. The aim is to emphasize that regardless of the many advantages of groups, some factors as group size, type of communication within the group, leadership style, the norms, the differentiation of roles and statuses, cohesion and compliance degree should be the main elements to keep into consideration because they affect the effectiveness of group. In this regard, is discussed how such factors influence the quality of decision and then we try to draw some conclusions that can improve and make better and easier group decision-making processes.
Zeng, Shaogang; Cai, Yongen
Coseismic folds induced by blind thrust faults have been observed in many earthquake zones, and they have received widespread attention from geologists and geophysicists. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding fold kinematics; however, few have studied fold dynamics quantitatively. In this paper, we establish a conceptual model with a thrust fault zone and tectonic stress load to study the factors that affect coseismic folds and their formation mechanisms using the finite element method. The numerical results show that the fault dip angle is a key factor that controls folding. The greater the dip angle is, the steeper the fold slope. The second most important factor is the overburden thickness. The thicker the overburden is, the more gradual the fold. In this case, folds are difficult to identify in field surveys. Therefore, if a fold can be easily identified with the naked eye, the overburden is likely shallow. The least important factors are the mechanical parameters of the overburden. The larger the Young's modulus of the overburden is, the smaller the displacement of the fold and the fold slope. Strong horizontal compression and vertical extension in the overburden near the fault zone are the main mechanisms that form coseismic folds.
Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Ching, Michael S L
Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded "routine" (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay "voluntary" groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Nowadays, electronic transactions and electronic health play a vital role in improving the health of patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of trust of hospitalized patients and factors affecting their trust in electronic health services. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which was conducted through survey and questionnaire. A sample size of 60 people was randomly selected as a tool for collecting data in a Likert scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS software. The validity of the questionnaire was determined by content validity method and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient test. Results: The overall trust of patients in electronic health was evaluated with a mean of 74.78% at a good level. Website's visibility factor with a mean of 8.99 point had the highest effect and the perceived risk of electronic health with a mean of 2.31 had the least effect on e-health. Conclusion: The results showed that from the perspective of the participants, when deciding to apply electronic health, trust plays a key role and supporting factors, website and organizational factors are considered, respectively. So, for replacing e-health system, it is required to analyze discussed structures carefully.
Jun, W H; Jo, M J
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Despite the increased interest in nursing students' happiness in South Korea, few studies have attempted to identify factors influencing their happiness. Therefore, nursing educators should consistently investigate the factors influencing happiness and develop strategies to improve happiness among Korean nursing students. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study confirmed that there were positive correlations between grateful disposition, social support and happiness. In addition, grateful disposition and support from intimate people were identified as predictors of happiness in Korean nursing students. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Development of intervention programmes to help nursing students increase grateful disposition and support from intimate people may be helpful for improving happiness. These programmes can include activity, such as writing a gratitude journal, and extracurricular programmes, such as mentoring programmes between seniors and juniors and/or professor and student. Introduction Happiness is very important in the training and development of nursing students as future nurses. However, nursing students experience a high level of stress and low level of happiness in South Korea. Aim This study aimed to investigate factors that affect happiness among nursing students in South Korea. Method Data were collected from a total of 241 nursing enrolled in two 4-year baccalaureate nursing programmes in South Korea, using a self-administrated questionnaire. To identify predictors of happiness, stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Results The results indicated that grateful disposition and support from intimate people significantly predict happiness among Korean nursing students. These two factors accounted for 38.0% of the variance in happiness. Discussion This study indicated grateful disposition and support from intimate people as factors promoting happiness in nursing students. The findings
Pombo, Samuel; Luísa Figueira, M; Walter, Henriette; Lesch, Otto
Craving is thought to play an important role in alcohol use disorders. The recent inclusion of "craving" as a formal diagnostic symptom calls for further investigation of this subjective phenomenon with multiple dimensions. Considering that alcohol-dependent patients compensate negative physical/emotional states with alcohol, the aim of this study is to investigate alcohol craving and its correlation with drinking measures and affective personality dimensions. A sample of 135 alcohol-dependent patients (104 males and 31 females) was collected from a clinical setting. Subjects self-rated their cravings (Penn Alcohol Craving Scale) and the stage of change. Several personality scales were also administered. Craving was related to drinking status, abstinence time, age, and taking steps. After controlling for these conditions, psychological characteristics related to low self-concept, neuroticism, cyclothymic affective temperament, depression, and hostility were found to be predictors of craving in sober alcohol-dependent patients. Our results support craving as a component of the phenomenology of alcohol dependence and highlight the presence of unpleasant feelings as predictors of craving in sober alcohol-dependent patients without co-occurring psychiatric conditions. The predisposition to experience negative emotions may induce a stronger craving response and increase the likelihood of a first drink and a subsequent loss of control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leggett, Carly; Irwin, Melinda; Griffith, Jane; Xue, Lin; Fradette, Katherine
Identifying multi-level factors affecting physical activity (PA) levels among adolescents is essential to increasing activity to promote health within this population. This study examines the associations between PA and 11 independent factors among Manitoba high school students. The sample included 31,202 grade 9-12 students who completed the Manitoba Youth Health Survey. Associations between PA and independent factors were examined separately and through multivariate regression. Analyses were stratified by gender. Perception of athletic ability, school location, parental encouragement and number of active friends were strong predictors of activity for moderately active and active males and females. Grade was a significant predictor of PA for females at both levels of activity but only significant for males when comparing active to inactive students. Perception of schoolwork and means of transport were minimally associated with PA. Results highlight the importance of targeting multiple levels of influence to increase PA among youth. Programs should focus on older students, females and those who are inactive or moderately active. In addition, social modeling of PA and increasing self-efficacy around activity should be encouraged.
Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G
The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.
Abdullah Faruk Kılıç
Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.
Full Text Available Objective. Identification of the weight and postmenstrual age (PMA at successful weaning of NCPAP in preterm neonates and the factors influencing the successful wean. Study Design. Retrospective review of 454 neonates ≤32 weeks of gestational age (GA who were placed on NCPAP and successfully weaned to room air was performed. Results. Neonates had a mean birth weight (BW of 1357±392 grams with a mean GA of 29.3±2.2 weeks. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611±432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9±2.4 weeks. Univariate analysis showed that chorioamnionitis, intubation, surfactant use, PDA, sepsis/NEC, anemia, apnea, GER and IVH were significantly associated with the time to NCPAP wean. On multivariate analysis, among neonates that were intubated, BW was the only significant factor (<0.001 that was inversely related to time to successful NCPAP wean. Amongst non-intubated neonates, along with BW (<0.01, chorioamnionitis (<0.01, anemia (<0.0001, and GER (<0.02 played a significant role in weaning from NCPAP. Conclusion. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611±432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9±2.4 weeks. BW significantly affects weaning among intubated and non-intubated neonates, though in neonates who were never intubated chorioamnionitis, anemia and GER also significantly affected the duration on NCPAP.
Mohamed Sayed Bassiony Ahmed Abd El-Karim
Unexpected increase in cost and delays in construction projects are caused by owner, contractor, environments, etc. in which several types of risk factors may occur concurrently. The effect of cost overrun and schedule overrun do not only influence the construction industry but the overall economy as well. Even though construction project increasing in cost and schedule has received extensive attention of researchers, but because of continuous changes and development in the field, the study considered of added value to the construction industry in Egypt, in addition to risk strategy and plan analysis. In order to meet the deadline of a project and due to the complex nature of construction projects, cost and scheduling should be flexible enough to accommodate changes without negatively affecting the overall project cost and duration. As such, the objectives of the presented research in this paper are to identify, study, and assess the effect of the factors that affect cost and time contingency. Data are collected from sixteen construction companies in Egypt. The collected data, output charts and analyses spreadsheets will be used for the development of computerized model built by the authors with identification abbreviation RIAM.
Michael D. Cusimano
Full Text Available This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs. A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM. The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36, as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37. Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players’ willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.
Cusimano, Michael D; Faress, Ahmed; Luong, Wilson P; Amin, Khizer; Eid, Joanne; Abdelshaheed, Tamer; Russell, Kelly
This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs). A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers) and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action) that may affect an athlete's decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36), as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37). Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players' willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.
Folman, Y.; Rosenberg, M.; Kaim, M.
Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P 4 ) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (≤2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (≥4.1 ng/mL) P 4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P 4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs
Amir, R.; Levanon, D.; Hadar, Y.; Chet, I.
Amir, R., Levanon, D., Hadar, Y., and Chet, I. 1995. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta. Experimental Mycology 19, 61-70. Morchella esculenta was grown on square split plates, forming sclerotia on one side and mycelium on the other. After the fungus ceased to colonize and before sclerotial initials appeared, [ 14 C]3-O-methyl glucose was added to the edge of the plate on the mycelial side. The effect of various activities in the mycelium (source) and sclerotia (sink) on sclerotial formation and translocation were examined using inhibitors and water potential changes of the media. Sodium azide or cycloheximide applied separately to both sides inhibited both sclerotial formation and translocation, showing that processes in the source and sink depend on metabolic activities as well as protein synthesis. The use of nikkomycin inhibited sclerotial formation, without affecting translocation to the sclerotia. Since the hyphal tips swelled and burst, the translocated compounds were lost to the media. In a strain defective in sclerotial formation, used as a control, no translocation took place, showing that there is a connection between sclerotial formation and translocation. Reversal of the water potential gradient between the two media (lower on the mycelial side), reduced the formation of sclerotia and translocation to them. Translocation to Morchella sclerotia takes place via turgor driven mass flow, but is nevertheless affected by activities in both the source and the sink. (author)
Full Text Available Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and
Wesley, Kimberly M; Zelikovsky, Nataliya; Schwartz, Lisa A
Treatment for cancer among adolescents is often more intense and lasts longer than treatment for older or younger patients. It typically causes pain, fatigue, and nausea and affects social and emotional well-being. This study examined the relationships among demographics, physical symptoms, perceived social support from friends and family, and affect (positive and negative) in 102 adolescents (age 13-19) with cancer using correlational analyses. Additionally, perceived social support was explored as a mediator and moderator of the relationship between physical symptoms and affect using regression. Females reported significantly lower friend support and higher negative affect compared to males. Minority participants were more likely to endorse physical symptoms and less negative affect compared to White respondents. Higher report of physical symptoms was significantly related to greater negative affect, whereas higher perceived social support from friends was related to higher positive affect. Adolescents consistently reported high levels of social support from family and friends. Additionally, adolescents tended to report average levels of positive affect and low levels of negative affect compared to healthy populations. No significant mediation or moderation effects were found. This research highlights that females and minorities, and those with greater physical symptoms, may be more vulnerable to poor adjustment to cancer during adolescence. However, overall this study lends support to the notion that adolescents with cancer are an especially resilient population, as these patients endorsed generally high levels of social support and positive affect, with low levels of negative affect.
Yang, Jin-Hoon; Ha, Hee-Sook; Kam, Sin; Lim, Ji-Seun; Kang, Yune-Sik; Lee, Duk-Hee; Chun, Byung-Yeol
This study was performed to examine the factors affecting re-smoking in male workers. A self-administrated questionnaire survey was conducted during April 2003 to examine the smoking state of 1,154 employees of a company that launched a smoking cessation campaign in 1998. Five hundred and eighty seven persons, who had stopped smoking for at least one week, were selected as the final study subjects. This study collected data on smoking cessation success or failure for 6 months, and looked at the factors having an effect on resmoking within this period. This study employed the Health Belief Model as its theoretical basis. The re-smoking rate of the 587 study subjects who had stopped smoking for at least one week was 44.8% within the 6 month period. In a simple analysis, the resmoking rates were higher in workers with a low age, on day and night shifts, blue collar, of a low rank, where this was their second attempt at smoking cessation and for those with a shorter job duration (pHeath Belief Model, re-smoking was significantly related with the perceived susceptibility factor, economic advantages of smoking cessation among the perceived benefits factor, the degree of cessation trial's barrier of the perceived barriers factor, smoking symptom experience, recognition of the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke and the existence of chronic disease due to smoking (psmoking, the significant variables were age, perceived susceptibility for disease, economic advantages due to smoking cessation, the perceived barrier for smoking cessation, recognition on the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke, the existence of chronic disease due to smoking and the number of attempts at smoking cessation (psmoking ban policy within the work place, health education that improves the knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and the harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke will be required, as well as counter plans to reduce the barriers for smoking
Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong
Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…
Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.
Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Jae Jung
Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We analyzed risk factors causing plantar fascia rupture in the presence of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed 286 patients with plantar fasciitis who were referred from private clinics between March 2004 and February 2008. Patients were divided into those with or without a plantar fascia rupture. There were 35 patients in the rupture group and 251 in the nonrupture group. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for plantar fascia rupture were compared between the 2 groups. We compared age, gender, the affected site, visual analog scale pain score, previous treatment regimen, body mass index, degree of ankle dorsiflexion, the use of steroid injections, the extent of activity, calcaneal pitch angle, the presence of a calcaneal spur, and heel alignment between the 2 groups. Of the assessed risk factors, only steroid injection was associated with the occurrence of a plantar fascia rupture. Among the 35 patients with a rupture, 33 had received steroid injections. The odds ratio of steroid injection was 33. Steroid injections for plantar fasciitis should be cautiously administered because of the higher risk for plantar fascia rupture. Level III, retrospective comparative study.
Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.
Dar Naseer Ahmad
Full Text Available Aquatic macrophytes constitute important components of many freshwater ecosystems. The manifold role of aquatic macrophytes in freshwater habitats is closely linked to their distribution, which in turn depends on a myriad of factors. Foremost, among these are light, water temperature, water quality changes and nutrient enrichment, sediment composition and fluctuations in water levels. Light and temperature are of paramount importance in determining the distribution (with depth, season and latitude, thereby influencing productivity and species composition as well. Sediment compositions markedly affect the growth rates of macrophytes which in turn have a profound influence on the distribution of aquatic macrophytes. Water quality changes and nutrient enrichment can cause considerable variations in the species richness, composition, and density of aquatic vegetation. The reduction in water levels could bring drastic changes in the species composition and distribution of macrophytes. Factors associated with competition, herbivory, land use and land cover changes etc. also play an important role in shaping macrophyte distribution and community structure. In this review we examine both biotic and abiotic factors that influence the structural attributes like species composition, distribution, abundance and diversity of aquatic macrophytes.
Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn
A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.
Full Text Available Psychological factors imply their negative effects on neurologic patients in two ways. Directly, through pathogenic processes of central nervous system, and indirectly, through maladaptive reactions toward disability. Depression: is a common finding in many neurologic diseases and may interfere with rehabilitation process. Correcting patient's attitude toward disability, reducing environmental stresses and potentiating social support network along with antidepressant drugs often help these patients remain in rehabilitation program. Chronic fatigue: decreases the activity levels of patients and the possibility for them to achieve set goals of rehabilitation in proper times. Support, reassurance and sometimes antidepressant drugs may help. Conversion reactions: often accompany chronic illnesses and disabilities and make evaluation and diagnosis difficult. Application of behavioral Techniques may lead to better results. Altered self image: is a prominent feature in patients with spinal cord injury. Counseling and Free discussion on altered self image and sexual problems are essential and other forms of sexual expression must be taught to these patients. Chronic pain: is a disabling condition. Usually physical findings are minor and it seems psychological factors play a more important role in causing it. Antidepressant drugs are effective in most cases. Intensive physical and occupational therapy must be avoided. Excessive emotionality: is a consequence of executive dysfunction arising from frontal lobe injury and mostly seen in stroke, brain injured, and demented patients, Impulsivity and disinhibition may lead to aggressive behavior and socially inappropriate forms of sexual expression. Judicious administration of psychotherapy drugs, behavioral techniques and short-term hospitalization may be helpful. Altered cognition: is a common feature of many pathological conditions of brain. Attention deficit, slowed information processing, disturbed
Paul, Darren J; Gabbett, Tim J; Nassis, George P
Agility is an important characteristic of team sports athletes. There is a growing interest in the factors that influence agility performance as well as appropriate testing protocols and training strategies to assess and improve this quality. The objective of this systematic review was to (1) evaluate the reliability and validity of agility tests in team sports, (2) detail factors that may influence agility performance, and (3) identify the effects of different interventions on agility performance. The review was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We conducted a search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and SPORTDiscus databases. We assessed the methodological quality of intervention studies using a customized checklist of assessment criteria. Intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.80-0.91, 0.10-0.81, and 0.81-0.99 for test time using light, video, and human stimuli. A low-level reliability was reported for youth athletes using the video stimulus (0.10-0.30). Higher-level participants were shown to be, on average, 7.5% faster than their lower level counterparts. Reaction time and accuracy, foot placement, and in-line lunge movement have been shown to be related to agility performance. The contribution of strength remains unclear. Efficacy of interventions on agility performance ranged from 1% (vibration training) to 7.5% (small-sided games training). Agility tests generally offer good reliability, although this may be compromised in younger participants responding to various scenarios. A human and/or video stimulus seems the most appropriate method to discriminate between standard of playing ability. Decision-making and perceptual factors are often propositioned as discriminant factors; however, the underlying mechanisms are relatively unknown. Research has focused predominantly on the physical element of agility. Small-sided games and video training may offer effective
Hartman, Jorine E.; Boezen, H. Marike; de Greef, Mathieu H.; ten Hacken, Nick H.
Objectives: To assess physical activity and sitting time in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to investigate which physical and psychosocial factors are associated with physical activity and sitting time. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Patients were recruited at
Kai, Shiming; Paquette, Luc; Baker, Ryan S.; Bosch, Nigel; D'Mello, Sidney; Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; Shute, Valerie; Ventura, Matthew
Increased attention to the relationships between affect and learning has led to the development of machine-learned models that are able to identify students' affective states in computerized learning environments. Data for these affect detectors have been collected from multiple modalities including physical sensors, dialogue logs, and logs of…
Full Text Available Background: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF is the most commonly reported and most distressing symptom in cancer patients. Health-related quality of life (QOL is an important outcome in cancer management, the authors sought to better understand its determinants. Aim: This study aims to identify quality of life and fatigue levels and the affecting factors in gynaecologic cancer patients. Method: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted with 154 volunteer women with gynaecologic cancer. The data were collected through the interview form, functional assessment of cancer therapy-general (FACT-G Quality of Life Scale, and Piper Fatigue Scale. Results: The mean score of total quality of life in gynaecologic cancer patients was low, 53.4 ± 15.4. Physical and emotional states were found to be the mostly affected states in the quality of life. According to the Piper Fatigue Scale, the total fatigue score was mild, 3.5 ± 2.4. Total fatigue scores were found to be high in metastatic cancers. Multivariate analyses indicate that the most important factor affecting the quality of life is economic condition, and the most important variables affecting fatigue are the level of activity and use of medicine. Conclusion: This study found that quality of life dimensions in women with gynaecologic cancer was affected by factors such as cancer type, time of diagnosis, and stage and spread of the cancer.
Al-Fouzan, Rawan; Al-Ajlan, Sarah; Marwan, Yousef; Al-Saleh, Mervat
Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students' sociodemographic and academic factors. Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7%) decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2%) students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties - 18 (12.5%), 17 (11.8%), and 16 (11.1%) students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4%) of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8%) and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3%) were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498-6.065) more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002). A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.
Full Text Available Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results: Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7% decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2% students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%, 17 (11.8%, and 16 (11.1% students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4% of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8% and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3% were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065 more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002. Conclusion : A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.
Phimmasane, Maniphet; Douangmala, Somthana; Koffi, Paulin; Reinharz, Daniel; Buisson, Yves
In line with WHO objectives, the Lao Government is committed to eliminate measles by 2012. Yet from 1992 to 2007, the annual incidence of measles remained high while the vaccination coverage showed a wide diversity across provinces. A descriptive study was performed to determine factors affecting compliance with vaccination against measles, which included qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative study used a convenience sample of 13 persons in charge of the vaccination program, consisting of officials from different levels of the health care structure and members of vaccination teams. The quantitative study performed on the target population consisted of a matched, case-control survey conducted on a stratified random sample of parents of children aged 9-23 months. Overall, 584 individuals (292 cases and 292 controls) were interviewed in the three provinces selected because of low vaccination coverage. On the provision of services side (supply), the main problems identified were a lack of vaccine supply and diluent, a difficulty in maintaining the cold chain, a lack of availability and competence among health workers, a lack of coordination and a limited capacity to assess needs and make coherent decisions. In the side of the consumer (demand), major obstacles identified were poor knowledge about measles immunization and difficulties in accessing vaccination centers because of distance and cost. In multivariate analysis, a low education level of the father was a factor of non-immunization while the factors of good compliance were high incomes, spacing of pregnancies, a feeling that children must be vaccinated, knowledge about immunization age, presenting oneself to the hospital rather than expecting the mobile vaccination teams and last, immunization of other family members or friends' children. The main factors affecting the compliance with vaccination against measles in Laos involve both the supply side and the demand side. Obtaining an effective
Ee Chop Ler
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to the rural and the ‘cultural’ and to determine their problems effect on the learning of English. Twenty students from different ethnic backgrounds and English language proficiency in six rural schools in Terengganu, Malaysia were interviewed. In addition the teachers also from different rural schools and ethnic backgrounds responded to a questionnaire. The problems discussed by both the teacher and student respondents arose due to the rural cultural setting. The findings of this study show that 1 five major problem areas exist, namely peer pressure and motivation, attitudes towards English ,teaching methodology, school culture ,influence of Islamic teaching on the learning of English 2 the problems discussed by the teachers and students are similar and 3 most importantly all these identified problems are closely related to the rural setting. Therefore, one can conclude that rural cultural factors adversely affect English Proficiency of the rural students of this study.
Full Text Available Recently, the system of care for endangered children has changed from the institutional as well as legislative point of view. In one of the partial areas of ongoing changes, research activities realised within the Students’ Grant Competition called The Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care are being focused. We deal with this topic because various forms of substitute family care are distinguished in the Czech Republic, where children are placed for various reasons, but we do not know the correct context of such placements. The main aim of the realised research was to find out the frequency of choosing a given form of placing children in substitute family care according to followed variables. The research sample of the quantitative research was consisted of children placed in one of the forms of substitute family care in the Moravian-Silesian region.
Cavanagh, P R; Kram, R
This paper reviews specific examples of how energy expenditure during submaximal exercise is affected by mechanical and muscular factors. Structural biomechanical variables are discussed as a possible reason for economy differences between individuals. The practical question, "Can economy of performing a certain task be modified?" is posed. Examples of how the manipulation of a particular movement pattern results in an energetic minimum (optimal phenomena) are presented. The physiological mechanisms for these phenomena are summarized. The influence of positive vs negative work and storage of elastic energy in relation to the topic of economy and muscular efficiency is considered. The effects of athletic equipment such as footwear, track surfaces, and bicycle components on economy and muscular efficiency are presented. The prospects for improving athletic performance by improving economy are evaluated, and recommendations for future directions are made.
Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy
Park, MiJeong; Choi, Jihea; Lim, Seung-Joo
The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regressions. Aggression had significant correlations with academic stress (r = .21, p self esteem (r = -.25, p happiness (r = -.21, p self esteem, decision-making skills, and happiness in middle school students is important to reduce aggression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ceylan, Burcu; Özerdoğan, Nebahat
Menopause is a process in the climacteric period, characterized by a reduction in ovarian activity, a fall in the fertility rate, and a range of symptoms including irregular menstruation intervals. Most women enter menopause in their 40s, but this can vary from one individual to another. Although there are many factors affecting the age of menopause onset, there is no general agreement on them. Studies have shown many factors to affect the age of menopause, such as the mother's age at menopause, the age at menarche, gestational age, use of oral contraceptives, irregular menstrual cycle, number of pregnancies, body mass index, use of tobacco and alcohol, physical activity, unilateral oophorectomy, serum lead levels, consumption of polyunsaturated fat, socioeconomic status and educational level. During this period, hormonal and biochemical changes give rise to various symptoms in the woman's body. In menopause period, physical, psychological, social and sexual changes have a negative effect on quality of life in women. Recently, different measures have been used to assess women's quality of life in this period of change. The purpose of this review was to examine the factors affecting the onset age of menopause and the measures of quality of life related to menopause.
Van Hecke, Linde; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Veitch, Jenny; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle
Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS) focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents' visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews w...
Full Text Available On agar plates, daughter cells of Escherichia coli mutually slide and align side-by-side in parallel during the first round of binary fission. This phenomenon has been previously attributed to an elastic material that restricts apparently separated bacteria from being in string. We hypothesize that the interaction between bacteria and the underneath substratum may affect the arrangement of the daughter bacteria. To test this hypothesis, bacterial division on hyaluronic acid (HA gel, as an alternative substratum, was examined. Consistent with our proposition, the HA gel differs from agar by suppressing the typical side-by-side alignments to a rare population. Examination of bacterial surface molecules that may contribute to the daughter cells' arrangement yielded an observation that, with disrupted lpp, the E. coli daughter cells increasingly formed non-typical patterns, i.e. neither sliding side-by-side in parallel nor forming elongated strings. Therefore, our results suggest strongly that the early cell patterning is affected by multiple interaction factors. With oscillatory optical tweezers, we further demonstrated that the interaction force decreased in bacteria without Lpp, a result substantiating our notion that the side-by-side sliding phenomenon directly reflects the strength of in-situ interaction between bacteria and substratum.
Forster, Alice S; Buykx, Penny; Martin, Neil; Sadler, Susannah; Southgate, Ben; Rockliffe, Lauren; Walker, Ian
Mobile phone apps have been shown to increase physical activity (PA), but existing apps fail to target the emotional aspects of PA, which influence whether individuals are active. We developed an app that encourages individuals to focus on the emotional aspects of PA. We aimed to assess the acceptability of this app, and conduct a preliminary evaluation of efficacy. The app was developed in collaboration with users through focus groups. Seven users tested the app over 4 months and provided feedback on acceptability, aesthetics and functionality in a follow-up focus group. Results were summarized descriptively. Before testing the app, participants completed a questionnaire assessing their current PA and psychological antecedents of PA. A second questionnaire was completed at the follow-up focus group. Change scores are reported for each participant and overall.The social and reminder aspects facilitated motivation to be active and many found it easy to integrate into their lives. Most suggested modifications. Small improvements in number of minutes spent walking per week were observed (overall mean change +25 min) and some psychological antecedents of PA (overall mean change for social support for PA +0.14, self-efficacy for PA +0.17, outcome expectations about PA +0.20; all five-point scales), but reductions were seen in other domains. The app was acceptable to users, although developments are required. Testing with a small number of individuals, offering preliminary evidence of efficacy of this app, provides justification for further evaluation on a larger scale. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Serrano, Oscar; Ricart, Aurora M.; Lavery, Paul S.; Mateo, Miguel Angel; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Masque, Pere; Rozaimi, Mohammad; Steven, Andy; Duarte, Carlos M.
Biotic and abiotic factors influence the accumulation of organic carbon (Corg) in seagrass ecosystems. We surveyed Posidonia sinuosa meadows growing in different water depths to assess the variability in the sources, stocks and accumulation rates of Corg. We show that over the last 500 years, P. sinuosa meadows closer to the upper limit of distribution (at 2-4 m depth) accumulated 3- to 4-fold higher Corg stocks (averaging 6.3 kg Corg m-2) at 3- to 4-fold higher rates (12.8 g Corg m-2 yr-1) compared to meadows closer to the deep limits of distribution (at 6-8 m depth; 1.8 kg Corg m-2 and 3.6 g Corg m-2 yr-1). In shallower meadows, Corg stocks were mostly derived from seagrass detritus (88 % in average) compared to meadows closer to the deep limit of distribution (45 % on average). In addition, soil accumulation rates and fine-grained sediment content (stocks and accumulation rates accumulated over the last 500 years in bare sediments (0.6 kg Corg m-2 and 1.2 g Corg m-2 yr-1) were 3- to 11-fold lower than in P. sinuosa meadows, while fine-grained sediment content (1 %) and seagrass detritus contribution to the Corg pool (20 %) were 8- and 3-fold lower than in Posidonia meadows, respectively. The patterns found support the hypothesis that Corg storage in seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological (e.g., meadow productivity, cover and density), chemical (e.g., recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and physical (e.g., hydrodynamic energy and soil accumulation rates) factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates of seagrass carbon storage accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.
Neto Cláudio F.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a a self-selected physical activity group (PAS with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years, who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b a physical fitness training group (PFT with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years, who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.
Neto, Cláudio F; Neto, Gabriel R; Araújo, Adenilson T; Sousa, Maria S C; Sousa, Juliana B C; Batista, Gilmário R; Reis, Victor M M R
The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a) a self-selected physical activity group (PAS) with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years), who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b) a physical fitness training group (PFT) with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years), who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.
Andersen, Lars L.; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel
BACKGROUND: High physical exertion during work is a risk factor for back pain and long-term sickness absence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate which factors are associated with physical exertion during manual lifting. METHODS: From 14 workplaces across Denmark, 200 blue-collar workers reported perceived...... physical exertion (Borg-CR10) during manual lifting from floor to table height of 5, 10, 20 and 30 kg at the beginning and end of the working day. The workers also responded to a questionnaire and went through testing of isometric back muscle strength. Associations were modelled using logistic regression...... pain intensity (OR 2.80 [95% CI 1.43-5.48] for high) were associated with high perceived physical exertion. Age, smoking, Body Mass Index (BMI), and time of the day were not associated with physical exertion. CONCLUSIONS: Gender, load, back muscle strength and back pain influence physical exertion...
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the factors that affect the level of satisfaction of services provided by public hospitals. Patients' satisfaction levels were measured by interviewing 156 patients in a public hospital. Factor analysis of the data obtained from the research resulted in five factors called nurses 'behaviors, physical conditions, doctors' behavior, technical staff behaviors, food and beverage. MANOVA analysis was conducted to determine the differences in the perception of factors with respect to the demographic characteristics of the patients and differences were found in terms of profession. It has been seen that it is important that public hospitals have specialist doctors and modern equipment and that they have qualities such as the quality of the health personnel in preferring patients to public hospitals.
Chadwick, Darren; Chapman, Melanie; Davies, Gill
Accessing oral health care can be more difficult for adults with intellectual disabilities with reports of poorer levels of oral health. This investigation identifies factors influencing engagement in day-to-day oral and dental health care for adults with intellectual disabilities. A survey, containing questions about facilitators and barriers to maintaining oral health and hygiene, was completed with adults with intellectual disabilities and their caregivers (N = 372). Data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Two global themes were identified; "Personal and lifestyle influences," mentioned more often as barriers to oral care, included physical, sensory, cognitive, behavioural and affective factors and "social and environmental factors," mentioned more as facilitators, included caregiver support, equipment and adaptations used and oral hygiene routine. Numerous individual, social and environmental factors influence oral care. A coordinated organisational response is advocated involving collaboration between dental and intellectual disability services and training for caregivers and people with intellectual disabilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pratama, Yoga; Hartanto, Rudy; Suning Kusumawardani, Sri
YouTube is often used as a companion medium or a learning supplement. One of the educational places that often uses is Jogja Audio School (JAS) which focuses on music production education. Music production is a difficult material to learn, especially at the audio mastering. With tutorial contents from YouTube, students find it easier to learn and understand audio mastering and improved their learning performance. This study aims to validate the role of YouTube as a medium of learning in improving student’s learning performance by looking at the factors that affect student learning performance. The sample involves 100 respondents from JAS at audio mastering level. The results showed that student learning performance increases seen from factors that have a significant influence of motivation, instructional content, and YouTube usefulness. Overall findings suggest that YouTube has a important role to student learning performance in music production education and as an innovative and efficient learning medium.
Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Morita, Ryo
Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) is known as a complex phenomena of hydraulics and electro-chemicals. Essential mechanism of the hydraulic factors affecting FAC is the mass transfer of ferrous ions dissolved from the pipe surface. To predict the FAC rate in susceptible pipe elements, evaluation of the mass transfer in those geometry with eccentric flow is required. For this purpose, new model of mass transfer coefficient was proposed by combining knowledges of previous studies and consideration of local turbulent velocity. In this process, Chilton-Colburn analogy of heat and mass transfer and Blasius' friction factor were referred to. To validate the model, FAC experiment and flow numerical calculation were conducted. In the experiment, carbon steel test specimens were set in the downstream of a flow contraction in small rectangular flow ducts, and FAC rate profiles on the specimens were observed in PWR condensate condition. In the calculation, flow field for the experiment was calculated with the in-house code 'MATIS-I' utilizing LES turbulence model, and mean and turbulent velocity profiles on the specimen's surface were evaluated. By comparing these results, the new mass transfer coefficient showed good correlation with the local FAC rate, and the effect of introducing the turbulent velocity to the model was confirmed. (author)
Nalon, Elena; Maes, Dominiek; Piepers, Sofie; Taylor, Polly; van Riet, Miriam M J; Janssens, Geert P J; Millet, Sam; Tuyttens, Frank A M
To describe anatomical and methodological factors influencing mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) and intra-site variability in healthy sows. Prospective, randomized validation. Eight pregnant, healthy, mixed-parity sows (176-269 kg). Repeated MNT measurements were taken: 1) with a hand-held probe and a limb-mounted actuator connected to a digital algometer; 2) at nine landmarks on the limbs and tail; and 3) at 1 and 3 minute intervals. Data were analysed using linear mixed regression models. The MNTs (±SEM) of the limbs were lower with the probe (14.7 ± 1.2 N) than with the actuator (21.3 ± 1.2 N; p testing compared with day 1 (p < 0.001). The mean CV (±SE) was 38.9% (±1.1%). MNTs and intra-site variability in healthy sows were affected by several factors, indicating that this methodology requires considerable attention to detail. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the risk factors affecting obesity in students in the 6-15 years old age group. There were 868 students registered at Bahçelievler Elementary School in Zonguldak and were present for face-to-face meetings on the days the research data was collected. Data was collected using demographic questionary forms and weight-length measurements from March to April in 2010. Results: Difference is found to be statistically meaningful with respect to the relationship between obesity of children and their age, gender, number of siblings, fathers’ jobs, education level of their mothers, fast food consumption and family history of obesity (p<0.05. Conclusions: The study concludes that there are certain ciriteria related to the development of obesity during a specific period of childhood and that taking certain precautions are effective in preventing the development of obesity. Keywords: Body Mass Index; Children; Obesity; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Turkey.
Lavinia Mihaela GUŢU
Full Text Available Banks are important cells in the economy as they have a significant role by maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. They refocus the resources from those who have surplus to those which have a deficit. Therefore, as any other enterprises, performance is highly desirable for banks and, then, it is crucial to discover what the main factors that influence this objective are. So, this paper analyzes the microeconomic factors affecting bank’s financial performance focusing on 11 entities for the period between 2003 and 2013. The performance is measured by return on assets. The independent variables used are bank’s size, financial leverage,loans to assets ratio, deposits to assets ratio, number of employees, liquidity, net result and monetary policy rate. The results show that bank’s size, loans to assets ratio and liquidity have not a significant impact on performance. Financial leverage has a negative impact, meanwhile the number of employees, deposits to assets ratio and net result have a positive effect.
Chang, D.-S.; Chen, Y.-T.; Chen, W.-D.
This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship.
An, Ji-Young; Cha, Sunkyung; Moon, Hyunjung; Ruggiero, Jeanne S; Jang, Haeran
An increasing number of foreign-born nurses are working in the United States. Nurses' job satisfaction is a critical issue for quality patient care. The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting the job satisfaction of immigrant Korean nurses. We used a cross-sectional mailed survey design. A convenience sample (n = 105) of members of the Greater New York Korean Nurses Association currently working or had previously worked in the United States completed the questionnaires. We used hierarchical regression to test the effects of acculturation and life satisfaction on job satisfaction. Most participants were female (n = 98, 93.3%) aged 27 to 70 years (mean = 52.27 years, SD = 10.67). In the regression model, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and perceived stress predicted job satisfaction (F = 5.127, p job satisfaction. U.S. nurses need to gain insight into factors influencing job satisfaction in Korean nurses to promote retention and quality care. © The Author(s) 2014.
Kim, Chang Ho; Jeong, Won Mee; Yu, Seung Hum; Lee Sun Hee; Sohn, Tae Yong
Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future
Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos
The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period
Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following - decay of 226 Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. Radon can originate from the deeply buried deposit beneath homes and can migrate to the surface of earth. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. It is well known that for building construction materials the porosity, permeability and the diffusion coefficient are the parameters, which can quantify the materials capability to hinder the flow of radon soil gas. An increase in porosity will provide more air space within the material for radon to travel, thus reducing its resistance to radon transport. The permeability of material describes its ability to act as a barrier to gas movement when a pressure gradient exists across it and is closely related to the porosity of material. The radon diffusion coefficient of a material quantifies the ability of radon gas to move through it when a concentration gradient is the driving force. This parameter depends upon the porosity and permeability of the medium. As diffusion process is the major contributor to indoor levels, therefore, the factors affecting the diffusion process need to be kept in consideration. Keeping this in mind the experimental arrangements have been made for control study of radon diffusion through some building materials to observe the effects of different factors viz.; compaction, grain size, temperature, humidity and the mixing of these materials etc. For the present study alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the recording of alpha tracks caused by radon gas after its diffusion through the
Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku
Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E
Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n=154 Blue-faced Leicester x Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal characteristics and individual energy intake of the ewe during specified periods of gestation, i.e. early (1-30 days; term ~147 days gestation), mid (31-80 days) or late (110-147 days) pregnancy. For dataset two (Study 2; n=856 Mule ewes and 5821 cases of birth weight), we investigated using multilevel modelling the influence of ewe weight, parity, barrenness, lamb sex, litter size, lamb mortality and year of birth on lamb birth weight. For a subset of these ewes (n=283), the effect of the ewes' own birth weight was also examined. Interactions between combinations of variables were selectively investigated. Litter size, as expected, had the single greatest influence on birth weight with other significant effects being year of birth, maternal birth weight, maternal nutrition, sex of the lamb, ewe barrenness and maternal body composition at mating. The results of the present study have practical implications not only for sheep husbandry but also for the increased knowledge of factors that significantly influence variation in birth weight; as birth weight itself has become a significant predictor of later health outcomes.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adult's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's Data,...
Lin Kuei-Hua; Lin Jao-Perng; Chu Tieh-Chi; Liu Mu-Tai
This paper investigates the discrepancies between virtual wedge and physical wedge at the standard wedge angles of 15, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. The dose distributions for virtual wedge and physics wedge were measured by using a commercial multichamber detector array. The transmission factors of each virtual wedge and physical wedge were measured for Siemens PRIMUS 3008 linear accelerator by single ion chamber. These factors were used to set-up the clinical treatment data tables for clinical dosimetry for virtual wedge utilization. The Wellhoefer IC15, 0.13cc chamber was installed on the chamber frame of Wellhoefer water phantom (48x48x40 cm 3 ). The surface of water was at 100 cm SSD. The output factor in water were measured on the central axis of each field at 5 cm depth for 6MV or 10 cm depth for 15MV X-ray on virtual wedge and physical wedge. Comparing virtual wedge with physical wedge for transmission factor as field size range from 4x4 to 25x25 cm 2 . We have measured the dose distributions using the chamber array for 25x25 cm 2 virtual wedge fields and physical wedge fields at wedge angles of 15deg to 60deg. The dose profiles at various depths were also measured using the chamber array. The transmission factors of each physical wedge were slowly increased as field sizes increase, and had different value for each wedge angle. The transmission factors of each virtual wedge were almost constant value as 1.0 for each wedge angle. The results show that the dose profiles including the penumbra dose measured by the chamber array for virtual wedge agree with those measured for the physical wedge. For transmission factors of virtual wedge were constant value as 1.0 for each angles, namely output without wedge is almost equal to output with wedge on the central axis. Virtual wedge has practical and dosimetric advantages over physical wedge. (author)
Trilk, Jennifer L; Ward, Dianne S; Dowda, Marsha; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Porter, Dwayne E; Hibbert, James; Pate, Russell R
To investigate associations between the number of physical activity facilities within walking distance of school and physical activity behavior in 12th grade girls during after-school hours. Girls (N=1394) from 22 schools completed a self-report to determine physical activity after 3:00 p.m. The number of physical activity facilities within a 0.75-mile buffer of the school was counted with a Geographic Information System. Associations between the number of facilities and girls' physical activity were examined using linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Overall, girls who attended schools with ≥5 facilities within the buffer reported more physical activity per day than girls in schools with schools with ≥5 facilities reported ∼12% more physical activity per day than girls who attended rural schools with schools with ≥5 vs. school siting decisions are made, the number of physical activity facilities surrounding the school should be considered to encourage physical activity in 12th grade girls. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Trilk, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Dowda, Marsha; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Porter, Dwayne E.; Hibbert, James; Pate, Russell R.
Objective To investigate associations between the number of physical activity facilities within walking distance of school and physical activity behavior in 12th grade girls during after-school hours. Methods Girls (N=1394) from 22 schools completed a self-report to determine physical activity after 3:00 pm. The number of physical activity facilities within a 0.75-mile buffer of the school was counted with a Geographic Information System. Associations between the number of facilities and girls’ physical activity were examined using linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Results Overall, girls who attended schools with ≥ 5 facilities within the buffer reported more physical activity per day than girls in schools with schools with ≥ 5 facilities reported ~12% more physical activity per day than girls who attended rural schools with schools with ≥ 5 vs. school siting decisions are made, the number of physical activity facilities surrounding the school should be considered to encourage physical activity in 12th grade girls. PMID:21334248
Using survey research approach, the predictive power of certain characteristics of physics curriculum, social factors, as well as some students‟ characteristics (11 predictor variables) on choice of physics were assessed. The study involved 384 students randomly selected from 14 public senior secondary schools in Ibadan ...
Few studies exist investigating physical activity among university students in Africa. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of physical activity in a sample of university students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with undergraduate students that were recruited conveniently from ...
Food choices (healthy vs. unhealthy), PA levels, and health knowledge ... physical activity; South Africa. Food choices, physical activity levels and other factors associated with weight gain in primary school educators. 83 ...... educators that reflect fast-food intake (take-outs, pies, sausage rolls, samosas, fried foods and.
Gill, Tim; Bell, John F.
There has been much concern recently in the UK about the decline in the number of students studying physics beyond age 16. To investigate why this might be we used data from a national database of student qualifications and a multilevel modelling technique to investigate which factors had the greatest impact on the uptake of physics at Advanced…
Hamilton, E B; Jones, M; Hammen, C
Affective style (AS) and communication deviance (CD) have been suggested as markers of dysfunctional family environments that may be associated with psychiatric illness. Studies have focused mainly on parental responses during family interactions when an offspring is the identified patient. The present study is unique in examining AS and CD in mothers with unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, or chronic physical illness, and in normal controls. The sample consisted of 64 mothers with children ages 8 to 16. Unipolar mothers were more likely to show negative AS than were any other maternal group. There were no group differences for CD. Chronic stress, few positive life events, and single parenting were associated with AS. CD was associated solely with lower socioeconomic status. Results suggest that dysfunctional interactions are determined not only by maternal psychopathology, but also by an array of contextual factors that are related to the quality of the family environment.
Gill, Timothy; Bell, John F
Abstract There has been much concern recently in the UK about the decline in the number of students studying physics beyond age 16. To investigate why this might be we used data from a national database of student qualifications and a multilevel modelling technique to investigate which factors had the greatest impact on the uptake of physics at Advanced Level (A-level) in a particular year. Each factor of interest was entered into a separate model, whilst accounting for prior attai...
Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta
We investigated the potential stress-buffering effect of 3 health behaviors-physical activity, sleep quality, and snacking-on affect in the context of everyday life in young adults. In 2 intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, students (Study 1, N = 292; Study 2, N = 304) reported stress intensity, sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, and positive and negative affect. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Stress and positive affect were negatively associated; stress and negative affect were positively associated. The more physically active than usual a person was on a given day, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Study 1) and negative affect (Studies 1 and 2). The better than usual a person's sleep quality had been during the previous night, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and negative affect (Study 2). The association between daily stress and positive or negative affect did not differ as a function of daily snacking (Studies 1 and 2). On stressful days, increasing physical activity or ensuring high sleep quality may buffer adverse effects of stress on affect in young adults. These findings suggest potential targets for health-promotion and stress-prevention programs, which could help reduce the negative impact of stress in young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Gottfried, Ruth; Eisikovits, Zvi; First, Maya
Disclosure of child abuse may enable initiating interventions to end maltreatment and mediate its negative physical and psychological consequences. The present study reviews the field of disclosure and examines factors affecting disclosure among a service population of abused children who were placed in residential care due to various forms of abuse (e.g., physical, sexual, emotional, neglect and witnessing domestic violence). The sample consisted of 286 Israeli (Hebrew and Arabic speaking) children aged 12-17 (mean=14±1). Following approval of the Ethics committee of the University and parents' written consent, participants were administered a self-report questionnaire that included the following measures: a Socio-Demographic Questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ), and the Disclosure of Trauma Questionnaire (DTQ). Results indicated that the three key factors enhancing the likelihood of disclosure were: moral factors, external initiatives and intolerable physical pain. The three key factors inhibiting disclosure were feelings of shame, fear of losing social support and uncertainty as to how and to whom to disclose. Results also showed that children preferred to disclose to their nuclear family members (parents and siblings) in comparison with professionals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mangunsong, N. I.
The existence of social interactions park in Jakarta is an oasis in the middle of a concrete jungle. Parks is a response to the need for open space as a place of recreation and community interaction. Often the social interaction parks built by the government does not function as expected, but other functions such as a place to sell, trash, unsafe so be rarely visited by visitors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that affect the quality of social interaction parks in Jakarta by conducting descriptive analysis and correlation analysis of the variables assessment. The results of the analysis can give an idea of social interactions park based on community needs and propose the development of social interactioncity park. The object of study are 25 social interaction parks in 5 municipalities of Jakarta. The method used is descriptive analysis method, correlation analysis using SPSS 19 and using crosstab, chi-square tests. The variables are 5 aspects of Design, Plants composition: Selection type of plant (D); the beauty and harmony (Ind); Maintenance and fertility (P); Cleanliness and Environmental Health (BS); Specificity (Drainage, Multi Function garden, Means, Concern/Mutual cooperation, in dense settlements) (K). The results of analysis show that beauty is the most significant correlation with the value of the park followed by specificity, cleanliness and maintenance. Design was not the most significant variable affecting the quality of the park. The results of this study can be used by the Department of Parks and Cemeteries as input in managing park existing or to be developed and to improve the quality of social interaction park in Jakarta.
Pyo, Katrina A.
A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.
Cho, Young Soon; Choi, Young Hwan; Yoon, Cheonjae; You, Je Sung
Most cases of burns occurring in medical institutions are associated with activities involving heat. It is very difficult to detect these burns. To date, there are few reports on burns occurring in medical institutions. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the etiology of burns occurring in medical institutions and to elucidate the factors affecting burn depth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients who visited our center from April 2008 to February 2013. This study enrolled all patients with burns occurring in the medical institution during or related to treatment. We excluded burn patients whose burns were not related to treatment (for example, we excluded patients with scalding burns that occurred in the hospital cafeteria and pediatric patients with hot water burns from the water purifier). However, patients with burns that occurred in the recovery room after general anesthesia were included. A total of 115 patients were enrolled in this study. The average patient age was 41.5 years, with more women than men (M:F=31:84). There were 29 cases (25.3%) of superficial burns (first-degree and superficial second-degree) and 86 cases (74.7%) of deep burns (deep second-degree and third-degree). Hot packs were the most common cause of burns (27 cases, 23.5%), followed by laser therapy, heating pads, and grounding pads, accounting for 15 cases each. There were 89 cases (77.4%) of contact burns and 26 cases (22.6%) of non-contact burns. The most common site of burns was the lower extremities (41 cases, 35.7%). The burn site and contact burns were both factors affecting burn depth. The rate of deep burns was higher in patients with contact burns than in those with non-contact burns (odds ratio 4.26) and was associated with lower body burns (odds ratio 2.85). In burns occurring in medical institutions, there is a high probability of a deep burn if it is a contact burn or occurs in the lower body. Therefore, safety guidelines are needed
Full Text Available Introduction: Bronchiectasis is a common problem in children and early diagnosis can lead to early treatment and prevent of its complications. This study was aimed to evaluate factors effective on outcome of bronchiectasis in children. Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional study, 347 children with bronchiectasis Underwent the study. the patients were diagnosed based on chronic suppurative cough and CT scan findings. . Results: Disease etiology was asthma in 55.6%, Gastroesophagial reflux (GERD in 7.8%, Cystic fibrosis (CF in 4.8%, other causes in 11.2% and idiopathic in 20.6%. All cases complained of chronic cough. The most common sign was daily sputum production (79.1% and common symptoms were ral/crackle in 47.1% and wheezing in 25.4%. Mean treatment period was 32.82±11.56 months. At the end of follow-up, complete improvement occurred in 35.6%, partial improvement in 40.9% and no improvement in 23.5%. Conclusion: In children with chronic cough and crackle in physical examination, consideration of bronchiectasis could be helpful in early diagnosis and complementary evaluations and treatment initiation. Treating the underlying disease could prevent the occurrence and increase the response to treatment of bronchiectasis.
Chipo Mellania Maseko
Full Text Available Controlling project risks has become a daunting task in construction and this can be attributed to issues such as the nature of modern projects. The challenge is that risk appears unannounced at any project phase for various reasons and thereby affecting the performance and the success of unprepared projects. The current studies that explored risk matters include Pehlivan and Öztemir (2015, Katre, and Ghaitidak (2016 amongst others. However, there is absence of unanimity from these studies on risk factors in construction. Thus, this article was instigated in order to identify and classify risk factors that affect the chances of project success. The research methodology selected for this article comprised of peer-reviewed articles between the periods of 2007 to 2017. This approach involved a comprehensive scrutiny into scholarly articles to comprehend risks in construction projects. Following a conceptual analysis, eighty factors were identified and classified under the following; technical, construction, financial, socio-political, physical, organisational, and environmental and other risks. From these categories, political instability was, found to be the most influential risk factor in construction projects and this factor was classified within the socio-political category and this category has total of 11 factors. Finding suggests the need for further empirical study.
Biotic and abiotic factors influence the accumulation of organic carbon (C-org) in seagrass ecosystems. We surveyed Posidonia sinuosa meadows growing in different water depths to assess the variability in the sources, stocks and accumulation rates of Corg. We show that over the last 500 years, P. sinuosa meadows closer to the upper limit of distribution (at 2-4 m depth) accumulated 3- to 4-fold higher C-org stocks (averaging 6.3 kg C-org m(-2) at 3- to 4-fold higher rates (12.8 gC(org) m(-2) yr(-1) ) compared to meadows closer to the deep limits of distribution (at 6-8 m depth; 1.8 kg C-org m(-2) and 3.6 g C-org m(-2) yr(-1) . In shallower meadows, C-org stocks were mostly derived from seagrass detritus (88% in average) compared to meadows closer to the deep limit of distribution (45% on average). In addition, soil accumulation rates and fine-grained sediment content (< 0.125 mm) in shallower meadows (2.0 mm yr(-1) and 9 %, respectively) were approximately 2-fold higher than in deeper meadows (1.2 mm yr(-1) and 5 %, respectively). The C-org stocks and accumulation rates accumulated over the last 500 years in bare sediments (0.6 kg C-org m(-2) and 1.2 g C-org m(-2) yr(-1)were 3- to 11-fold lower than in P. sinuosa meadows, while fine-grained sediment content (1 %) and seagrass detritus contribution to the Corg pool (20 %) were 8- and 3-fold lower than in Posidonia meadows, respectively. The patterns found support the hypothesis that Corg storage in seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological (e.g., meadow productivity, cover and density), chemical (e.g., recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and physical (e.g., hydrodynamic energy and soil accumulation rates) factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates of seagrass carbon storage accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.
Whittall, Dawn; Lee, Susan; O'Connor, Margaret
To review factors shaping volunteering in palliative care in Australian rural communities using Australian and International literature. Identify gaps in the palliative care literature and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Proquest, Scopus, Sage Premier, Wiley online, Ovid, Cochran, Google Scholar, CINAHL and Informit Health Collection. The literature was synthesised and presented in an integrated thematic narrative. Australian Rural communities. While Australia, Canada, the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) are leaders in palliative care volunteer research, limited research specifically focuses on volunteers in rural communities with the least occurring in Australia. Several interrelated factors influence rural palliative care provision, in particular an increasingly ageing population which includes an ageing volunteer and health professional workforce. Also current and models of palliative care practice fail to recognise the innumerable variables between and within rural communities such as distance, isolation, lack of privacy, limited health care services and infrastructure, and workforce shortages. These issues impact palliative care provision and are significant for health professionals, volunteers, patients and caregivers. The three key themes of this integrated review include: (i) Geography, ageing rural populations in palliative care practice, (ii) Psychosocial impact of end-end-of life care in rural communities and (iii) Palliative care models of practice and volunteering in rural communities. The invisibility of volunteers in rural palliative care research is a concern in understanding the issues affecting the sustainability of quality palliative care provision in rural communities. Recommendations for future Australian research includes examination of the suitability of current models of palliative care practice in addressing the needs of rural communities; the recruitment
Smith, Mark F.; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Kieper, Douglas A.; Raylman, Raymond R.; Turkington, Timothy G.
Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojection are investigated: (1) image uniformity (flood) corrections, (2) image sampling (pixel size) and (3) count allocation methods. An analytic expression for uniformity correction is developed that incorporates factors for spatial-dependent detector sensitivity and geometric effects from acceptance angle limits on coincidence events. There is good agreement between experimental floods from a PEM system with a pixellated detector and numerical simulations. The analytic uniformity corrections are successfully applied to image reconstruction of compressed breast phantoms and reduce the necessity for flood scans at different image planes. Experimental and simulated compressed breast phantom studies show that lesion contrast is improved when the image pixel size is half of, rather than equal to, the detector pixel size, though this occurs at the expense of some additional image noise. In PEM reconstruction counts usually are allocated to the pixel in the image plane intersected by the line of response (LOR) between the centers of the detection pixels. An alternate count allocation method is investigated that distributes counts to image pixels in proportion to the area of the tube of response (TOR) connecting the detection pixels that they overlay in the image plane. This TOR method eliminates some image artifacts that occur with the LOR method and increases tumor signal-to-noise ratios at the expense of a slight decrease in tumor contrast. Analysis of image uniformity, image sampling and count allocation methods in PEM image reconstruction points to ways of improving image formation. Further work is required to optimize image reconstruction parameters for particular detection or quantitation tasks
Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Andrew G. Weisenberger; Douglas A. Kieper; Raymond R. Raylman; Timothy G. Turkington
Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojection are investigated: (1) image uniformity (flood) corrections, (2) image sampling (pixel size) and (3) count allocation methods. An analytic expression for uniformity correction is developed that incorporates factors for spatial-dependent detector sensitivity and geometric effects from acceptance angle limits on coincidence events. There is good agreement between experimental floods from a PEM system with a pixellated detector and numerical simulations. The analytic uniformity corrections are successfully applied to image reconstruction of compressed breast phantoms and reduce the necessity for flood scans at different image planes. Experimental and simulated compressed breast phantom studies show that lesion contrast is improved when the image pixel size is half of, rather than equal to, the detector pixel size, though this occurs at the expense of some additional image noise. In PEM reconstruction counts usually are allocated to the pixel in the image plane intersected by the line of response (LOR) between the centers of the detection pixels. An alternate count allocation method is investigated that distributes counts to image pixels in proportion to the area of the tube of response (TOR) connecting the detection pixels that they overlay in the image plane. This TOR method eliminates some image artifacts that occur with the LOR method and increases tumor signal-to-noise ratios at the expense of a slight decrease in tumor contrast. Analysis of image uniformity, image sampling and count allocation methods in PEM image reconstruction points to ways of improving image formation. Further work is required to optimize image reconstruction parameters for particular detection or quantitation tasks.
The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169 Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198 Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)
Ash, J S
The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at those institutions were surveyed by mail with electronic mail follow-up. Multiple regression analysis was performed. The survey yielded a 41% response rate with electronic mail follow-up being particularly effective. Two dependent variables, internal diffusion (spread of diffusion) and infusion (depth of diffusion), were measured. There was little correlation between them, indicating they measured different things. Fifteen independent variables clustered into three attribute sets were measured. The innovation attributes set was significant for both internal diffusion and infusion. Significant individual variables were visibility for internal diffusion and image enhancement effects (negative relation) as well as visibility for infusion (depth of diffusion). Organizational attributes were also significant predictors for both dependent variables. No individual variables were significant for internal diffusion. Communication, management support (negative relation), rewards, and existence of champions were significant for infusion. Marketing attributes were not significant predictors. Successful diffusion of online end user literature searching is dependent on the visibility of the systems, communication among, rewards to, and peers of possible users who promote use (champions). Personal image enhancement effects have a negative relation to infusion, possibly because the use of intermediaries is still seen as the more luxurious way to have searches done. Management support also has a negative relation to
Holmes, Sarah D; Galik, Elizabeth; Resnick, Barbara
The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence physical activity among residents in assisted living. This was a secondary data analysis using baseline data from a function-focused care intervention study including 171 residents from 4 assisted living facilities. Using structural equation modeling, we found that mood, satisfaction with staff and activities, and social support for exercise were directly associated with time spent in physical activity. Gender, cognition, depression, and comorbidities were indirectly associated with physical activity and accounted for 13% of the total variance in physical activity. Implications for future research and social work practice are presented.
Lebey, J.; Garnier, C.; Roche, R.; Barrachin, B.
The reliability of a pressure component can be seriously affected by the formation and development of cracks. The experimental studies presented in this paper are devoted to three different aspects of crack propagation phenomena which have been relatively little described. In close connection with safety analyses of PWR, the authors study the influence of the environment by carrying out fatigue tests with samples bathed in hot pressurized water. Ferritic, austenitic and Incolloy 800 steels were used and the results are presented in the form of fatigue curves in the oligocyclic region. The second part of the paper relates to crack initiation cirteria in ductile steels weakened by notches. The CT samples used make it possible to study almost all types of fracture (ductile, intermediate and brittle). The use of two criteria based on the load limit and on the toughness of the material constitutes a practical way of evaluating crack propagation conditions. A series of tests carried out on notched spherical vessels of different size shows that large vessels are relatively brittle; fast unstable fracture is observed as size increases. Crack growth rate in PWR primary circuits (3/6 steel) is studied on piping elements (0.25 scale) subjected to cyclic stress variations (285 0 C and with pressure varying between 1 and 160 bar in each cycle). By calculating the stress intensity factor, correlation with results obtained in the laboratory on CT samples is possible. (author)
Giray, Hatice; Keskinoğlu, Pembe
This study was carried out in order to determine the factors affecting the presence of Enterobius vermicularis in schoolchildren. This investigation was a cross-sectional and analytic study. The dependent variable was the presence of parasites and the independent variables were the characteristics of the children, families, houses, toilets and drinking water. A stool specimen was taken in the morning using the cellophane tape method, and examined the same day by microscopy. Data were evaluated using the Chi square test and logistic regression analysis and p Enterobius vermicularis was found in 209 (43.8%) children. According to logistic regression analyses, the rate of Enterobius vermicularis was found to be 3.05 times higher in students from the Sait Guzelcan primary school, if there were more than 6 residents in the home 2.05 times even higher and 2.02 times still higher if there were no sanitary facilities at his/her home. When there was a history of parasites in the family, the risk was significantly decreased. The prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in schoolchildren was higher in slum areas, in crowded homes and in those that lacked modern sanitary facilities.
M. Al Eissa
Full Text Available Aim. To assess the degree of satisfaction among hemodialysis patients and the factors influencing this satisfaction. Methods. Patients were recruited from 3 Saudi dialysis centers. Demographic data was collected. Using 1 to 10 Likert scale, the patients were asked to rate the overall satisfaction with, and the overall impact of, their dialysis therapy on their lives and to rate the effect of the dialysis therapy on 15 qualities of life domains. Results. 322 patients were recruited (72.6% of the total eligible patients. The mean age was 51.7 years (±15.4; 58% have been on dialysis for >3 years. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 3.2 (±2, and Kt/V was 1.3 (±0.44. The mean satisfaction score was (7.41 ± 2.75 and the mean score of the impact of the dialysis on the patients' lives was 5.32 ± 2.55. Male patients reported worse effect of dialysis on family life, social life, energy, and appetite. Longer period since the commencement of dialysis was associated with adverse effect on finances and energy. Lower level of education was associated with worse dialysis effect on stress, overall health, sexual life, hobbies, and exercise ability. Conclusion. The level of satisfaction is affected by gender, duration on dialysis, educational level, and standard of care given.
Alaraji Fedaa Abd Almajid Sabbar
Full Text Available This study is aim to adopt knowledge the specific concept to external audit quality and which are the factors that affecting on those qualities in the State of Iraq. As well as, to knowledge the range of depend this job in Iraq on international or local criterion to external audit quality or not. Also, to identify the satisfaction of interested parties about job of audit on service of external audit or not. According to viewpoint external audit the workers in this job and interested parties about external audit in Iraq where practice the profession of external audit under the supervision and control of the board of the profession consists of members appointed by the government ministries no are elected. The study reached to a set of many conclusions, most important of all that the realization external audit in Iraq for importance of external audit quality. Although no existence no concept of specific criterion for quality, whether international or local. Therefore, this study recommends a set of recommendations necessary to adopt uniform criterion for the quality of the external audit job in Iraq, whether international or local, to achieve high quality in audit services and achieving satisfaction of interested parties on those services.
Redman, Regina S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.
Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species. Experimental Mycology, 18, 230-246. Twelve isolates representing four species of Colletotrichum were transformed either by enhanced protoplast, restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI), or electroporation-mediated protocols. The enhanced protoplast transformation protocol resulted in 100- and 50-fold increases in the transformation efficiencies of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. magna , respectively. REMI transformation involved the use of Hin dIII and vector DNA linearized with HindIII to increase the number of integration events and potential gene disruptions in the fungal genome. Combining the enhanced protoplast and the REMI protocols resulted in a 22-fold increase in the number of hygromycin/nystatin-resistant mutants in C. lindemuthianum . Electroporation-mediated transformation was performed on mycelial fragments and spores of four Colletotrichum species, resulting in efficiencies of up to 1000 transformants/μg DNA. The pHA1.3 vector which confers hygromycin resistance contains telomeric sequences from Fusarium oxysporum , transforms by autonomous replication and genomic integration, and was essential for elevated transformation efficiencies of 100 to 10,000 transformants/μg DNA. Modifications of pHA1.3 occurred during bacterial amplification and post fungal transformation resulting in plasmids capable of significantly elevated transformation efficiencies in C. lindemuthianum.
Tan, K M
BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.
Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab National Bank and State Bank of India and Canara Bank. The sample size of 450 has been taken from among the urban population of above 18 years of age. The result indicates that the educated respondents use the service of internet banking. Based on occupation we can say that the service class and the business class is the one who use internet banking service to nearly 2 times as other occupation. The high income respondents having more than 1 lack income prefer to use this service. The private sector bank account holders use this service as compared to public sector banks. The banking attributes i.e. convenience and security do have very attentive influence on the use of Internet banking.
Goldstein, Mark A; Atri, Mostafa; O'Malley, Martin; Jacks, Lindsay; John, Rohan; Herzenberg, Andrew; Reich, Heather; Ghai, Sangeet
The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors affecting the success of ultrasound-guided core biopsy of kidneys and determine the optimum number of passes. This retrospective study evaluated 484 nonfocal renal biopsies performed with 18-gauge side-notch biopsy needles. Number of biopsy passes, serum creatinine, body mass index, needle type, transplant age, kidney size, diabetic status, and operator were evaluated as predictors of the number of biopsy passes. Four hundred seventy-four biopsies (338 transplant, 136 native) were included with mean number of passes 2.87 (3.1 native vs 2.78 transplant; P = 0.002). Mean number of glomeruli yielded per pass was 6.9 (7.2 transplant vs 6.1 native; P = 0.0002) with 3 passes adequate for histological diagnosis in 84% of biopsies. Native kidney, increasing serum creatinine level, trainee biopsy operator, and use of a Temno needle were found to be independent predictors of having more than 3 biopsy passes on multivariate analysis. Age, sex, body mass index, diabetic status, and kidney size were not associated with the number of biopsy passes. The success of a nonfocal renal biopsy has many influencing variables, and in the absence of an on-site electron microscopy technologist to immediately evaluate biopsy samples, 3 passes with an 18-gauge needle would be adequate in 84% of kidneys to achieve a histological diagnosis, with 2 passes needed for transplant kidneys to meet the Banff 97 criteria.
Aboubakr Gambo Boukary
Full Text Available Niger faces many natural and human constraints explaining the erratic evolution of its agricultural production over time. Unfortunately, this is likely to cause a decline in the food supply. This study attempts to identify factors affecting rural households’ resilience to food insecurity in Niger. For this, we first create a resilience index by using principal component analysis and later apply structural equation modeling to identify its determinants. Data from the 2010 National Survey on Households’ Vulnerability to Food Insecurity done by the National Institute of Statistics is used. The study shows that asset and social safety net indicators are significant and have a positive impact on households’ resilience. Climate change approximated by long-term mean rainfall has a negative and significant effect on households’ resilience. Therefore, to strengthen households’ resilience to food insecurity, there is a need to increase assistance to households through social safety nets and to help them gather more resources in order to acquire more assets. Furthermore, early warning of climatic events could alert households, especially farmers, to be prepared and avoid important losses that they experience anytime an uneven climatic event occurs.
Aker, Servet; Şahin, Mustafa Kürşat; Sezgin, Serap; Oğuz, Gülay
Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate psychosocial factors affecting smartphone addiction in university students. The study was performed among students at the Ondokuz Mayis University Samsun School of Health (Samsun, Turkey) on October-December 2015. Four hundred ninety-four students possessing smartphones and agreeing to participate were included. A sociodemographic data form produced by the authors and consisting of 10 questions was administered together with a questionnaire involving the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version (SAS-SV), the Flourishing Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. The questionnaires were applied in a class environment at face-to-face interviews. SAS-SV scores of 6.47% of students were "significantly higher" than the participating group mean SAS-SV score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that depression, anxiety and insomnia, and familial social support statistically, significantly predicted smartphone addiction. Further studies of smartphone addiction in different age groups and with different educational levels are now needed.
Buňková, Leona; Buňka, František
The basic raw materials for the production of processed cheese are natural cheese which is treated by heat with the addition of emulsifying salts. From a point of view of the melting temperatures used (and the pH-value of the product), the course of processed cheese production can be considered "pasteurisation of cheese." During the melting process, the majority of vegetative forms of microorganisms, including bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, are inactivated. The melting temperatures are not sufficient to kill the endospores, which survive the process but are often weakened. From a microbiological point of view, the biggest contamination problem of processed cheese is caused by gram-positive spore-forming rod-shaped bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Geobacillus, and Clostridium. Other factors affecting the shelf-life and quality of processed cheese are mainly the microbiological quality of the raw materials used, strict hygienic conditions during the manufacturing process as well as the type of packaging materials and storage conditions. The quality of processed cheese is not only dependent on the ingredients used but also on other parameters such as the value of water activity of the processed cheese, its pH-value, the presence of salts and emulsifying salts and the amount of fat in the product.
Maranhão, Thatiana Araújo; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; Silva, José Mário Nunes da
This study aimed to analyze factors affecting social and family relations of young mothers in the two-year postpartum period. This was a cross-sectional study of 464 young mothers in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, who gave birth during the first four months of 2006 in six maternity hospitals. Data were collected from May to December 2008 after identifying the young women in the maternity hospital records. Multivariate analysis used multinomial logistic regression. Married young women (including those in common-law marriages) were 80% less likely to have negative relations with their partners. Participants 20 to 22 years of age related 2.4 times better with their mothers than those 17 to 19 years of age. Young women not attending school showed 97% higher odds of negative changes in relations with friends, and Catholics were 50% less likely to have worse relations with friends following childbirth. Measures are needed to orient individuals living with young mothers (especially their partners and mothers) concerning the importance of support in this phase of life, particularly encouraging them to stay in school.
Momeni, Mehdi; Fahim, Farshid; Vahidi, Elnaz; Nejati, Amir; Saeedi, Morteza
Assessing and evaluating mental health status can provide educational planners valuable information to predict the quality of physicians' performance at work. These data can help physicians to practice in the most desired way. The study aimed to evaluate factors affecting psychological morbidity in Iranian emergency medicine practitioners at educational hospitals of Tehran. In this cross sectional study 204 participants (emergency medicine residents and specialists) from educational hospitals of Tehran were recruited and their psychological morbidity was assessed by using a 28-question Goldberg General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Somatization, anxiety and sleep disorders, social dysfunction and depression were evaluated among practitioners and compared to demographic and job related variables. Two hundreds and four participants consisting of 146 (71.6%) males and 58 (28.4%) females were evaluated. Of all participants, 55 (27%) were single and 149 (73%) were married. Most of our participants (40.2%) were between 30-35 years old. By using GHQ-28, 129 (63.2%) were recognized as normal and 75 (36.8%) suffered some mental health disorders. There was a significant gender difference between normal practitioners and practitioners with disorder (P=0.02) while marital status had no significant difference (P=0.2). Only 19 (9.3%) declared having some major mental health issue in the previous month. Females encountered more mental health disorders than male (P=0.02) and the most common disorder observed was somatization (P=0.006).
Ui, Miyoko; Matsui, Yutaka; Fukutomi, Mamoru; Narita, Ken'ichi; Kamise, Yumiko; Yashiro, Kaoru
The present study analyzed demographic and psychological factors that affect adult men's decisions to solicit a prostitute. We administered a questionnaire to 1400 randomly sampled men aged 20 to 59, who live in the Tokyo metropolitan area (obtaining 664 valid responses). The results revealed that 14.6 percent of respondents have had the experience of being a client in prostitution at some point over the past four to five years. Men in their 50s, who spent their adolescence before the enforcement of anti-prostitution laws, had high prostitution acceptability. Those in their 20s and 30s, who spent their adolescence in the 1990s when "Enjyo-Kousai" (Japanese amateur prostitution) gained topicality, also showed high rates. These findings are considered to be birth cohort effects. In addition, those men who reported greater sexual drive and desire for intimate contact with others, as well as those who reported fewer attitudes of gender egalitarianism, had higher rates of prostitution solicitation. Finally, those men who reported less emotional family bonds also showed higher rates.
Liu, Yinge; Zhao, Aling; Wang, Yan; Wang, Shaoxiong; Dang, Caoni
The haze has a great harm on the environment and human health. Based on the daily meteorological observation data including visibility, relative humidity, wind speed, temperature, air pollution index and weather record of Baoji region in China, and using least squares method, wavelet and correlation analysis method, the temporal and spatial characteristics of haze were analyzed. While the factors affecting the haze change were discussed. The results showed that the haze mainly occurs in plain areas, and in hilly areas and mountain the haze frequency is relatively small. Overall the annual average haze is decreasing, especially in winter and spring the reduction trend of haze is most obvious, however, in summer haze is increasing. The haze has a 5-year short period and 10-year and 15-year long-term cycles change. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between temperature and wind speed with haze, while the relative humidity was significantly positively correlated with haze. These studies provide the basis for atmospheric environmental monitor and management.
Ziv, Ido; Leiser, David; Levine, Joseph
Social cognition refers to how people conceive, perceive, and draw inferences about mental and emotional states of others in the social world. Previous studies suggest that the concept of social cognition involves several abilities, including those related to affect and cognition. The present study analyses the deficits of individuals with schizophrenia in two areas of social cognition: Theory of Mind (ToM) and emotion recognition and processing. Examining the impairment of these abilities in patients with schizophrenia has the potential to elucidate the neurophysiological regions involved in social cognition and may also have the potential to aid rehabilitation. Two experiments were conducted. Both included the same five tasks: first- and second-level false-belief ToM tasks, emotion inferencing, understanding of irony, and matrix reasoning (a WAIS-R subtest). The matrix reasoning task was administered to evaluate and control for the association of the other tasks with analytic reasoning skills. Experiment 1 involved factor analysis of the task performance of 75 healthy participants. Experiment 2 compared 30 patients with schizophrenia to an equal number of matched controls. Results. (1) The five tasks were clearly divided into two factors corresponding to the two areas of social cognition, ToM and emotion recognition and processing. (2) Schizophrenics' performance was impaired on all tasks, particularly on those loading heavily on the analytic component (matrix reasoning and second-order ToM). (3) Matrix reasoning, second-level ToM (ToM2), and irony were found to distinguish patients from controls, even when all other tasks that revealed significant impairment in the patients' performance were taken into account. The two areas of social cognition examined are related to distinct factors. The mechanism for answering ToM questions (especially ToM2) depends on analytic reasoning capabilities, but the difficulties they present to individuals with schizophrenia are due
Chun, Kwan Sik; Choi, Yoon Dong; Chun, Ki Jeong; Kim, Jin Kyu; Jung, Kyeong Chai; Lee, Yeong Keun; Park, Hyo Kook
The ecological data of the coastal area of Youngkwang nuclear power plant from 1987 to 1993 were comprehensively analyzed, and various physical and chemical properties of sea water and sediments were measured. Major factors affecting phytoplankton standing crops were suspended substances, nitrate, and silicate. The contents of iron, chromium, copper, and sulfur in sediments sampled from the discharge channel were slightly higher than those in the other areas. In order to qantify the chemical impacts on marine ecosystem, it is desirable that a systematic survey be made through the whole year cycle to assure the consistency and confidence of the related data. (Author)
Yuenyao, C.; Ruangdit, S.; Chittrakarn, T.
The aim of this work was to study the effect of preparational factors such as solvent type, evaporation time (ET) and non-solvent additive, on the morphological structure, physical and gas separation properties of the prepared membrane samples by tuning of these parameters. Flat sheet asymmetric polysulfone (PSF) membranes were prepared by the dry/wet phase inversion process combined with the double coagulation bath method. The alteration of the prepared membranes were analyzed through scientific techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA). Furthermore, gas separation performance of membrane samples was measured in term of gas permeation and ideal selectivity of CO2/CH4. Experimental results showed that the change of preparational factors affected to the gas permeation of asymmetric PSF membranes. For example, the selective layer thickness increased with increasing of ET. This lead to increase significantly of ideal selectivity of CO2/CH4. The CO2/CH4 ideal selectivity was also increased with increase of ethanol (non-solvent additive) concentration in casting solution. In summary, the tuning of preparational factors affected to morphological structure, physical and gas separation properties of PSF membranes.
Full Text Available The importance of bio-fertilizers has increased because of the negative consequences of using chemical fertilizers. This study that was conducted in the Zanjan County was aimed at examining the factors that affect farmers' perceived compatibility of bio- fertilizers. In this regard, among 313 active farmers in the Zanjan county, 135 farmers were contacted and surveyed through a convenient sampling to examine two categories of effective factors, i.e. personal (knowledge about and attitude toward bio-fertilizers and environmental (economic accessibility, physical accessibility to bio-fertilizers and policy and support structures factors. Binary logistic regression and discriminant analysis were applied to examine the consistency of the results. The results of two techniques showed that improving policy and support increased farmers' perceived computability and providing economic facilities decreased it. Furthermore, the results revealed that farmers' knowledge and attitude did not have a significant effect on the perceived compatibility.
Zaqout, Mahmoud; Vyncke, Krishna; Moreno, Luis A.
Objectives: This study was designed to explore the determinants of physical fitness in European children aged 6–11 years, cross-sectionally and longitudinally.Methods: There were sufficient data on 4903 children (50.6 % girls) on measured physical fitness (cardio-respiratory, muscular strength......’s fitness. Significant but small effects were found for low maternal BMI, high psychosocial well-being and fruit and vegetable intake as protective determinants. Sleep duration, breakfast intake, parental age and education and paternal BMI did not have a consistently significant effect on physical fitness....... The role of determinants depended on children’s sex and the specific PF component. Longitudinal analyses especially highlighted the importance of child’s BMI as physical fitness determinant, independent of physical activity.Conclusions: BMI together with physical activity, diet and psychosocial factors...
Full Text Available Objective: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the factors affecting cancer patients′ quality of life. Methods: We collected data from 352 chemotherapy patients of an Outpatient Chemotherapy Unit in a state hospital. We included volunteered chemotherapy patients with a signed informed consent and at least 50 Karnofsky Performance Scale points. We gathered data by Personal Information Form and Nightingale Symptom Assessment Scale (N-SAS and analyzed via basic descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis. Results: Patients were women (54.8%, married (83.5%, elementary school graduates (57.1%, housewives (44.6% and undergoing fluorouracil-based therapy (47.2%, and almost all patients had religious and cultural rituals for the disease. Women experienced worse physical and social well-being than men (P = 0.001, P = 0.0001. Singles had worse psychological and general well-being (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001. Housewives had the worst physical and social well-being (P 0.05. Breast cancer and sarcoma patients had the worst social well-being than other cancer patients. The N-SAS points of patients were not affected by blessings/prays, vow/sacrifice, consulting local herbalists and visiting "ocaks (folk physicians" (P > 0.05. Patients with bad quality of life practiced lead pouring and amulets (P < 0.05. Gender was the first factor affecting the quality of life. Conclusion: Advanced studies on individual quality of life factors affecting cancer would empower nurses for better personal care techniques and patients for easily overcoming the disease.
Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon
With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.
Grün, Rebecca; Friedrich, Thomas; Krämer, Michael; Scholz, Michael; Zink, Klemens; Durante, Marco; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita
Purpose: Proton radiotherapy is rapidly becoming a standard treatment option for cancer. However, even though experimental data show an increase of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with depth, particularly at the distal end of the treatment field, a generic RBE of 1.1 is currently used in proton radiotherapy. This discrepancy might affect the effective penetration depth of the proton beam and thus the dose to the surrounding tissue and organs at risk. The purpose of this study was thus to analyze the impact of a tissue and dose dependent RBE of protons on the effective range of the proton beam in comparison to the range based on a generic RBE of 1.1.Methods: Factors influencing the biologically effective proton range were systematically analyzed by means of treatment planning studies using the Local Effect Model (LEM IV) and the treatment planning software TRiP98. Special emphasis was put on the comparison of passive and active range modulation techniques.Results: Beam energy, tissue type, and dose level significantly affected the biological extension of the treatment field at the distal edge. Up to 4 mm increased penetration depth as compared to the depth based on a constant RBE of 1.1. The extension of the biologically effective range strongly depends on the initial proton energy used for the most distal layer of the field and correlates with the width of the distal penumbra. Thus, the range extension, in general, was more pronounced for passive as compared to active range modulation systems, whereas the maximum RBE was higher for active systems.Conclusions: The analysis showed that the physical characteristics of the proton beam in terms of the width of the distal penumbra have a great impact on the RBE gradient and thus also the biologically effective penetration depth of the beam
Tuch, Carolin; Teubel, Thomas; La Marca, Roberto; Roos, Lilian; Annen, Hubert; Wyss, Thomas
This study investigated whether physical fitness affects the perception of chronic stress in military trainees while controlling for established factors influencing stress perception. The sample consisted of 273 men (20.23 ± 1.12 years, 73.56 ± 10.52 kg, 1.78 ± 0.06 m). Physical fitness was measured by progressive endurance run (maximum oxygen uptake; VO 2 max), standing long jump, seated shot put, trunk muscle strength, and one leg standing test. Perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire in Weeks 1 and 11 of basic military training (BMT). VO 2 max and four influencing variables (perceived stress in Week 1, neuroticism, transformational leadership style, and education level) explained 44.44% of the variance of the increase in perceived stress during 10 weeks of BMT (R 2 = 0.444, F = 23.334, p stress. We conclude that it is advisable to provide conscripts with a specific endurance training program prior to BMT for stress prevention reasons. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim
In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating
Bloemers, F.W.; Collard, D.C.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.
Objectives: To describe the risk factors associated with injuries resulting from physical education (PE), leisure time physical activity (leisure time PA) and sports in 9-12-year-old children. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Primary schools. Participants: Nine hundred and ninety-fi ve
Full Text Available Abstract: Insomnia is a very common pediatric condition that causes a serious impact on psychophysical performance. The present paper, based on the scientific literature, aims to analyze some questions about how physical activity affects sleep in the adolescent population. Finally, some general and useful recommendations are established for professionals working in this population group.
Full Text Available The specific understanding of food philosophy according to the facts of development of cooking technologies and growth rate of food range is given. As it has been proven by historical stages of production of flavorings, aroma is one of the important organoleptic ingredients for food developers. A review of food production based on development of nanotechnologies, as well as promising and cautioning publications on nanotechnologies in the food sector is presented. On the basis of the literary analysis, the future impact of nanotechnologies on the evolution of the aromatization process of food products is predicted. It has been determined that the peculiarity of the development mentioned above lies in the use of plant enzymes and / or flavor precursors in the nanoscale range. The example of enzymatic breakdown of polyunsaturated fatty acids of plant cell membranes as one of the ways of creating fresh flavor of many fruits, namely C6-C9 aldehydes and alcohols, is considered. It is noted that green fresh aromatic ingredients are needed to improve the organoleptic profile of foods from heat-treated vegetables, melons and gourds. The following factors affecting the development of food aromatization are defined: the decreased differentiation of principles of healthy nutrition and fast food, repetition of natural processes of aroma formation, application of wild green leafy vegetables, and evolution of medical nutrition. The information on food aromatization by packing with autonomous mixing and their approximate assortment is given. The innovations in food aromatization are aimed at quality nutrition, time saving, recreation and entertainment, meeting specific needs (vegetarian dishes, restrictive diets.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate some environmental factors (sex, age and management system on fibrecharacteristics of Raeini Cashmere goats in Baft stations (BS and of Raeini Cashmere goats raised in nomadic conditions (NC as commercial flocks. Fiber samples including cashmere and hair were taken from 150 and 120 Raeini Cashmere goats (aged 1-8 years old from BS and NC, respectively. The Fleece traits measured included staple length (SL, percentage of cashmere in fleece (C, percentage of guard hair in fleece (H, cashmere's mean fiber diameter (CMFD and the coefficient of variation of cashmere's fiber diameter (CVFD. Mean SL, C, H, CMFD and CVFD in BS were 6.35 ±0.1 cm, 66.51± 0.72 %, 33.5 ± 0.72 %, 20.19 ±0.11 micron and 19.57± 0.21% and thosein NC were 5.62 ± 0.1 cm, 69.06 ± 0.74 %, 30.94 ±0.74 %, 19.53±0.15 micron and 17.88 ± 0.19 %, respectively. There were significant differences (P<0.05 between the two production management systems for all traits investigated. The value for C was significantly higher in males than females (P<0.05. The results showed that the fleece traits were affected by age. However, the effect of age on these traits was not the same. Significant phenotypic correlations were found between SL and CMFD (0.16 and between SL and CVFD (0.13. The results of this study indicated that the fixed effects of age, sex and management systems as well as the relationship between fleece traits should be considered in the Raeini Cashmere goat breeding programs.
Swegal, Warren C; Singer, Michael; Peterson, Edward; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Kono, Scott A; Snyder, Susan; Melvin, Thuy-Anh N; Calzada, Gabriel; Ghai, Nirupa R; Saman, Daniel M; Chang, Steven S
The effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on the incidence of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) are well researched. However, the association between SES and outcomes is not delineated. Our objective was to determine if SES affected outcomes of WDTC. Retrospective database review. Tertiary care medical center. The Henry Ford Virtual Data Warehouse Tumor Registry was used to identify cases of WDTC. Socioeconomic data were obtained through the 2010 US Census: median household income, percentage below poverty line, median household size, percentage rent versus own property, and general demographics. Survival was the primary outcome. Disease-specific survival was also calculated. Cox proportional hazards were calculated and a multivariate analysis performed. There were 1317 patients with WDTC. In multivariable analysis, median household income (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.85, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.79-0.91), household size (HR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.09-2.14), younger age (HR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.74-2.23), and female sex (HR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.37-0.69) were significantly associated with survival. Controlling for stage revealed percentage below poverty line (stage I, HR: 0.51, 95% CI: 1.34-1.78; stage IV, HR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.57) and median household income (HR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71-0.99) to be significant factors in survival. Median household income was a statistically significant variable for disease-related death (HR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.69-0.96) CONCLUSIONS: Along with effects on incidence, lower SES correlates with worse survival in WDTC. This suggests that a patient's economic background, with younger age and female sex, influences one's outcomes with regard to both overall and disease-specific death. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.
Full Text Available Background: Although Indonesia is one of the world’s most populated countries with a high penetration of internet usage there has been little research on SNS usage in Indonesia, especially involving children. Instead, SNS research in Indonesia has focused on university students and political, marketing, and disaster mitigation issues. Aim/Purpose: In order to address this gap a theoretical model is formulated from a review of previous studies incorporating basic constructs found in the Technology Acceptance Model (Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and Attitude as well as other influences, motivations, and individual characteristics that affect a child’s attitude toward the use of SNS. Methodology\t: The model is evaluated and developed using data collected from 460 children in primary school grades 4, 5, and 6 in five cities in Indonesia. The statistical techniques implemented with SPSS and Amos computer software (t-tests, correlation coefficients, principal component factor analysis, Cronbach alpha coefficients, and structural equation modeling (SEM analysis. Findings: The results confirm many of the effects on a child’s attitude toward SNS reported in previous studies due to: the usefulness and ease of use of SNS; parental influence; feelings of flow experience and risk; and the child’s level of access, technical expertise, and experience with SNS. New findings include significant correlations and causal effects involving: the influences of peers and parents; the child’s level of technical expertise; and feelings of flow experience. Contribution: Despite limitations related to sampling and the administration of a questionnaire among young children, the findings contribute to theory as well as practice and provide guidance on effective ways to improve children’s attitudes towards the use of SNS.
For both financial, environmental and health reasons, and because of external and internal factors affecting this nation's energy supply, nuclear power will likely play a part in supplying this nation's energy in the coming decades. I believe this to be true for some other parts of the world as well. Even some severe critics of the nuclear power industry and the NRC might agree with me on this point. Increasing concern with the environmental consequences of the burning of fossil fuels has led some former opponents of the use of nuclear power to balance anew the risks and benefits of nuclear power and to modify to some degree their former opposition. A related concern with the adequacy of the energy supply is leading others to modify their positions. According to analyses done by the U.S. Department of Energy, after 1994 the United States will no longer be able to assure all its citizens a reliable supply of electricity. Already, many areas of the country are in need of additional electric capacity. In both Sweden and Switzerland, similar concerns have led to the adoption by many of more compromising positions. Some critics of nuclear power may in the end still reject it as an alternative, but, with the increased pressures on the environment and on our energy supply, nuclear power is an alternative which cannot be rejected without the most serious consideration. This should be, I believe, a point of consensus among us. In sum, there is a future for nuclear power in the sense that there is a use for it
Classics in physical geography revisited. Hewlett, J.D. and Hibbert, A.R. 1967: Factors affecting the response of small watersheds to precipitation in humid areas. In Sopper, W.E. and Lull, H.W., editors, Forest hydrology, New York: Pergamon Press, 275-90.
Jeffrey J. McDonnell
Hewlett and Hibbertâs (1967) âFactors affecting the response of small watersheds to precipitation in humid areasâ (hereafter referred to as âFactorsâ) is one of the most important papers published in the field of catchment hydrology.
Ozge Yavuz Sari; Sarp Uner; Berkem Buyukakkus; Emine Ozlem Bostanci; Aytek Huseyin Celiksoz; Mehmet Budak
AIM: Sleep disorders are remarkable public health problems as they adversely affect physical, mental and social health and may cause accidents and decline in academic performance and labor productivity. Aim of the study is assessing sleep quality and determining some factors affecting sleep quality in the students living in the residence hall of a university. METHOD: It is a cross sectional study conducted with 277 students, 180 of whom are female. Data were collected via a questionnaire ...
Vansteelandt, Kristof; Rijmen, Frank; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vanderlinden, Johan
Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, the within patient associations between drive for thinness, emotional states, momentary urge to be physically active and physical activity were studied in 32 inpatients with an eating disorder. Participants received an electronic device and had to indicate at nine random times a day during 1 week their momentary drive for thinness, positive and negative emotional states and their urge to be physically active and physical activity. Multilevel analyses indicated that patients with higher mean levels for urge to be physically active were characterized by lower body mass index (BMI) and chronically negative affect whereas patients with higher mean levels for physical activity were characterized by lower BMI and higher dispositions for drive for thinness. In addition, within patient relations between drive for thinness and urge to be physically active were moderated by BMI and chronically negative affect whereas within patient relations between drive for thinness and physical activity were moderated by BMI. Finally, also positive emotional states were significantly associated with physical activity within patients. By using a daily process design, characteristics of physical activity were revealed that have not been identified with assessment methods that have a lower time resolution.
Yazdani, Shahram; Yee, Chu Tang; Chung, Paul J
Obesity is especially prevalent among children with special needs. Both lack of physical activity and unhealthful eating are major contributing factors. The objective of our study was to investigate barriers to physical activity among these children. We surveyed parents of the 171 children attending Vista Del Mar School in Los Angeles, a nonprofit school serving a socioeconomically diverse group of children with special needs from kindergarten through 12th grade. Parents were asked about their child's and their own physical activity habits, barriers to their child's exercise, and demographics. The response rate was 67%. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of children being physically active at least 3 hours per week. Parents reported that 45% of the children were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38% with autism, and 34% with learning disabilities; 47% of children and 56% of parents were physically active less than 3 hours per week. The top barriers to physical activity were reported as child's lack of interest (43%), lack of developmentally appropriate programs (33%), too many behavioral problems (32%), and parents' lack of time (29%). However, child's lack of interest was the only parent-reported barrier independently associated with children's physical activity. Meanwhile, children whose parents were physically active at least 3 hours per week were 4.2 times as likely to be physically active as children whose parents were less physically active (P = .01). In this group of students with special needs, children's physical activity was strongly associated with parental physical activity; parent-reported barriers may have had less direct effect. Further studies should examine the importance of parental physical activity among children with special needs.
Full Text Available There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P<.05 but not between RPE and identified regulation or intrinsic motivation. At low levels of introjection, the influence of RPE on the change in positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.
Sanjay; Ram C; Abhay; Vasant
BACKGROUND: Eighty-five percent of the global burden of Non Communicable Diseases (NCD) is borne by the low and middle income countries, like India development. Emergence of NCDs in India is identified by WHO, ICMR and Government of India. NCDs share common risk factors like physical inactivity are causing 3.2 million deaths annually in the world (WHO, 2014). AIMS: Aim was to study profile of physical inactivity for non-communicable diseases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: SET...
Jeyaseelan, L; Kumar, Shuba; Neelakantan, Nithya; Peedicayil, Abraham; Pillai, Rajamohanam; Duvvury, Nata
Domestic spousal violence against women in developing countries like India, is now beginning to be recognized as a widespread health problem impeding development. This study aimed to explore the risk and protective factors for lifetime spousal physical violence. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out in rural, urban and urban-slum areas across seven sites in India, among women aged 15-49 years, living with a child less than 18 years of age. The sample was selected using the probability proportionate to size method. Trained field workers administered a structured questionnaire to elicit information on spousal physical violence. The main hypothesized variables were social support, witnessed father beating mother and experience of harsh physical violence during childhood, alcohol abuse by spouse and socioeconomic variables. The outcome variables included three physical violence behaviours of hit, kick and beat. Odds ratios were calculated for risk and protective factors of violence using logistic regression. Of 9938 women surveyed, 26% reported experiencing spousal physical violence during the lifetime of their marriage. Adjusted odds ratios calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis suggest that women whose husbands regularly consumed alcohol (OR 5.6; 95% CI 4.7-6.6); who experienced dowry harassment (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.7-3.8); had reported experiencing harsh physical punishment during childhood (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8) and had witnessed their fathers beat their mothers (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.6-2.1), were at increased risk of spousal physical violence (beat, hit and kick). Higher socioeconomic status and good social support acted as protective buffers against spousal physical violence. The findings provide compelling evidence of the potential risk factors for spousal physical violence, which in turn could help in planning interventions.
Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. Scientific reports provide information concerning an insufficient level of physical activity of societies. The objective of the study is recognition of the level of physical activity among Ukrainian students, and factors which condition this activity: gender, place of residence, self-reported physical fitness, and the BMI. [b]Methods[/b]. The study was conducted in 2013 among 2,125 Ukrainian students using a long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, supplemented with data concerning the respondents’ physical development. [b]Results[/b]. The results of the study showed that the mean total physical activity of students was 3.560 MET, and its highest percentage pertained to the area of activity in sports – 1.124 MET. Significantly higher statistically physical activity was observed among males than females. In males, the highest activity was related to participation in sports classes, while in females – engagement in household chores. It was found that males, compared to females, were significantly more physically active in such areas as occupational activity (education and sports activity, whereas females showed higher activity performing household chores. According to the place of residence, inhabitants of medium-size towns and rural areas obtained the most favourable results in activity, while the inhabitants of large cities the poorest. Self-reported physical fitness was significantly correlated with the results in physical activity obtained by the students. No relationship was found between the BMI and the level of student’s physical activity. [b]Conclusion[/b]. Considering the very large population of respondents, the results obtained may be considered as an up-to-date pattern of physical activity among Ukrainian students.
Gill, Tim; Bell, John F.
There has been much concern recently in the UK about the decline in the number of students studying physics beyond age 16. To investigate why this might be we used data from a national database of student qualifications and a multilevel modelling technique to investigate which factors had the greatest impact on the uptake of physics at Advanced Level (A-level) in a particular year. Each factor of interest was entered into a separate model, while accounting for prior attainment and gender (both well-known predictors of A-level uptake). We found that factors associated with greater probability of uptake included better attainment in physics (or combined science) and maths qualifications at age 16 in comparison to other subjects, and (for girls only) attending an independent or grammar school. While it is difficult to address these factors directly, the results imply that more needs to be done to improve relative performance at General Certificate of Secondary Education, perhaps by increasing the supply of specialist physics teachers at this level and to overcome the perception (especially among girls) that physics is a particularly difficult subject.
capability of those weapon systems ( ASCAP ) and then modifying this value by an aircrew capability factor (ACCF) and weapon systems availability factor...NOTE USR - UNITED STATES READINESS NOTE ACCF - AIRCREW CAPABILITY FACTOR w NOTE ASCAP - AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS CAPABILITY NOTE LOWS - LEVEL OF WEAPON SYSTEMS
for Assisted Reproductive Technology Registry.' As several factors may influence the likelihood of pregnancy from GIFT, it is difficult to assess the contribution of a single factor. Some of the factors that have been investigated include oocyte maturity,' number of oocytes transferred,' age,' sperm characteristics/7 fertilisation of ...
Skelin, Marko; Lucijanić, Tomo; Amidžić Klarić, Daniela; Rešić, Arnes; Bakula, Miro; Liberati-Čizmek, Ana-Marija; Gharib, Hossein; Rahelić, Dario
Levothyroxine (LT4) is a drug with a narrow therapeutic index, applied in small amounts (micrograms), which makes interactions in the absorption phase clinically significant. The main aim of this article was to review and present the latest information on factors that affect the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. Relevant data were collected by using the MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scopus databases with the key words levothyroxine and absorption. Searches were not limited to specific publication types, study designs, dates, or languages. The reports were highly variable in the amount of information provided regarding study design and methods. Because of the heterogeneity of studies, no statistical analysis was performed. Many gastrointestinal disorders, such as celiac disease, atrophic gastritis, lactose intolerance, and Helicobacter pylori infection, may impede the absorption of levothyroxine. During treatment of these disorders, it is necessary to monitor serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free T4 values to reduce the risk of developing iatrogenic hyperthyroidism. Soybeans and coffee have the greatest impact on the reduction of absorption, whereas vitamin C has the ability to increase it. Conversely, the effect of dietary fiber on the absorption of LT4 is not yet fully understood; further research is needed on this topic. A decrease in the absorption of LT4 is established and clinically significant when administered concomitantly with cholestyramine, colesevelam, lanthanum, calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, calcium acetate, iron sulfate, ciprofloxacin, aluminum hydroxide, sevelamer, or proton pump inhibitors. This effect should be taken into consideration when prescribing these drugs concomitantly with LT4. The effects of Giardia lamblia infection and the influence of orlistat, polystyrene sulfonate, raloxifene, and simethicone on absorption of LT4 have been poorly documented. For bariatric surgery, sucralfate and H 2
Goodson, K J; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Courington, S M; Wise, J W; Savell, J W
An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of clod steaks (n = 1,264) as influenced by USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), city (Chicago and Philadelphia), consumer segment (Beef Loyals, who are heavy consumers of beef; Budget Rotators, who are cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and Variety Rotators, who have higher incomes and education and split their meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, and cooking method. Consumers evaluated each steak for Overall Like, Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavor Like, and Flavor Amount using 10-point scales. Grilling was the predominant cooking method used, and steaks were cooked to medium-well and greater degrees of doneness. Interactions existed involving the consumer-controlled factors of degree of doneness and(or) cooking method for all consumer-evaluated traits for the clod steak (P 0.05). One significant main effect, segment (P = 0.006), and one significant interaction, cooking method x city (P = 0.0407), existed for Overall Like ratings. Consumers in the Beef Loyals segment rated clod steaks higher in Overall Like than the other segments. Consumers in Chicago tended to give more uniform Overall Like ratings to clod steaks cooked by various methods; however, consumers in Philadelphia gave among the highest ratings to clod steaks that were fried and among the lowest to those that were grilled. Additionally, although clod steaks that were fried were given generally high ratings by consumers in Philadelphia, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks cooked in this manner significantly lower than those in Philadelphia. Conversely, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks that were grilled significantly higher than consumers in Philadelphia. Correlation and stepwise regression analyses indicated that Flavor Like was driving customer satisfaction of the clod steak. Flavor Like was the sensory trait most highly correlated to Overall
Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Nemati-Rezvani, Hora; Fischerauer, Stefan F; Ring, David; Chen, Neal; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria
The Gross process model of emotion regulation holds that emotion-eliciting situations (e.g. musculoskeletal illness) can be strategically regulated to determine the final emotional and behavioral response. Also, there is some evidence that innate emotional traits may predispose an individual to a particular regulating coping style. We enrolled 107 patients with upper extremity musculoskeletal illness in this cross-sectional study. They completed self-report measures of positive and negative affect, emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), upper extremity physical function, pain intensity, and demographics. We used Preacher and Hayes' bootstrapping approach to process analysis to infer the direct effect of positive and negative affect on physical function as well as their indirect effects through activation of emotion regulation strategies. Negative affect was associated with decreased physical function. The association was partly mediated by expressive suppression (b (SE)=-.10 (.05), 95% BCa CI [-.21, -.02]). Positive affect was associated with increased physical function. Cognitive reappraisal partially mediated this association (b (SE)=.11 (.05), 95% BCa CI [.03, .24]). After controlling for pain intensity, the ratio of the mediated effect to total effect grew even larger in controlled model comparing to uncontrolled model (33% vs. 26% for expressive suppression and 32% vs. 30% for cognitive reappraisal). The relationships between affect, emotion regulation strategies and physical function appear to be more dependent on the emotional response to an orthopedic condition rather than the intensity of the nociceptive stimulation of the pain. Findings support integration of emotion regulation training in skill-based psychotherapy in this population to mitigate the effect of negative affect and enhance the influence of positive affect on physical function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kováts, Daniella; Császár, Noémi; Haller, József
PURPOSE: We investigated the impact of 19 factors on life quality in Hungarian patients with epilepsy. Wellbeing was evaluated by several inventories to investigate the impact of factors in more detail. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 170 patients. Wellbeing was evaluated...... with the WHO-5 Well-being Index (WHOQOL-5), Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale (SwLS), and the Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31 Questionnaire (Qolie-31). We investigated their association with demographic characteristics, general health status, epilepsy, and its treatment. The impact of these factors on illness...... associations with epilepsy-related factors. All four categories of factors were associated with Qolie-31 and IPQ scores. Factors had an additive impact on IPQ, but not on Qolie-31. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings reveal interactions between the method of life quality assessment and the factors that are identified...
O'Leary, Daniel; Suri, Gaurav; Gross, James J
Nearly half of all cancer deaths are attributable to preventable causes, primarily unhealthy behaviours such as tobacco use, alcohol use and overeating. In this review, we argue that people engage in these behaviours, at least in part, as a means of regulating their affective states. To better understand why people engage in these behaviours and how researchers might design interventions to promote the selection of healthier methods for regulating affect, we propose a conceptual model of affect regulation. We synthesise research from both the stress and coping tradition as well as the emotion and emotion regulation tradition, two literatures that are not typically integrated. In so doing, we indicate where researchers have made headway in understanding these behaviours as affect regulation and note how our model could be used to structure future work in a way that would be particularly advantageous to cancer control efforts.
Ying, Chanying; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Huey, Teh Chien; Hock, Lim Kuang; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abd; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Cheong, Kee Chee
Using data from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) in 2006, this study examined the association between socio-demographic factors and physical inactivity in a sample of 33,949 adults aged 18 years and above by gender. Physical activity levels were measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ vers 1). Physical inactivity was defined as having a total physical activity level of less than 600 metabolic equivalents-minutes per week (METs-minutes/week) contributed by all three different life domains.Logistic regression analyses were conducted.The prevalence of overall physical inactivity was 43.7% (95% CI: 42.9-44.5). The mean total physical activity level was 894.2 METs-minutes/ week. The means METs-minutes/week for the domain of work, travelling, and leisure time were 518.4, 288.1, and 134.8, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that females were more likely to be physically inactive than males were (aOR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.53-1.72). Among women, being a housewife (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.56-2.03), widow/divorcee (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43), and those with no formal education (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.43) were found to be significantly associated with physical inactivity.Urban residents, older adults aged 65 years and above, private employees, nonworking group, and those with a monthly household income level of MYR5,000 and above appeared to be consistently associated with physical inactivity across men, women, and combined group (both). Specific health intervention strategies to promote physical activity should be targeted on population subgroups who are inactive.
Lutze, G; Buhl, H; Häcker, R; Socha, C; Socha, U; Urbahn, H
The influence of physical stress (bicycle ergometer and track) on 13 parameters of the plasmatic coagulation system was investigated in trained and untrained test persons. Shortenings of the coagulation times as well as distinct increases of the activity or concentration were observed in the partial thromboplastin time (PTT), the factor VIII activity (VIII:C) and the factor VIII-associated antigen (VIIIR:Ag). The results are discussed with regard to their causes and their clinical importance.
Güleç Öyekçin, Demet; Yetim, Dilek; Şahin, Erkan Melih
Intimate partner violence against women is a growing global public health problem that is related to various psychosocial, cultural, mental, and economic factors. In this study, psychosocial factors affecting various types of intimate partner violence against women were investigated based upon affected individuals' statements. Demographic data, exposure to various types of partner violence, individual habits, partner habits, family functioning, and social support were inquired about during face to face interviews with 306 women chosen by stratified sampling to represent adult women living in Edirne, Turkey. Among the participants, 54.5% were exposed to psychological violence, 30.4% were exposed to physical violence, 19.3% were exposed to economic violence, and 6.3% were exposed to sexual violence. Partner's age and the duration of marriage had a protective effect on intimate partner violence while worsening of marital relations, marriage by family decision, marriage against family consent, and the presence of a violent history against women in a partner's family had incremental effects on intimate partner violence. The duration of marriage, the worsening of marital relations and a history of violent exposure during childhood increased physical violence. Additionally, a decreasing family income, increasing economic violence, worsening of marital relations, and a decreasing social support network increased sexual violence against women. Recognizing and defining the effecting factors of intimate partner violence will aid in the understanding of the sources that generate and feed the violent behavior. Risk factors of different types of intimate partner violence vary. Our results indicate that any kind of violent behavior increases intimate partner violence against women.
Full Text Available Objective: The incindence of wife abuse and its impacts on psychological as well as physical health of the women and in its ultimate negative effects on the health of the family have been presented in many researches. The purpose of the present study was to investigate physical and psychological wife abuse among the married women living in Tehran. Materials & Methods: Study sample (N=1000 consisted of two group of married women (18-45 years: those who did not refere to domestic curts (n= 800, and those who had problem with their husbands and therefore refered to domestic curts (n=200. Moffir et al. (15 Questionnaire has been applied. Results: Data analysis revealed that: psychological and physical wife abuse among subjects in the first group were 87/9 and 47/9 respectively. Psychological and physical wife abuse among subjects in the second group were 99/5 and 91 respectively. Wife abuse was significantly related to the age of the couples and duration of their marriage the older the couples and the longer the marriage, the higher the wife abuse. There was a significant negative relationship between education of the couples and wife abuse. The higher the education, the lesser the wife abuse. Those husbands who consumed alcohol or drug, abused their wives significantly more than those husbands who did not consume alcohol or drug. Husbands with psychological problems abused their wives significantly more than husbands without psychological problems. Psychological and physical wife abuse among the subjects in the second group were higher than psychological and physical wife abuse among the subjects in the first group. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that there are relationships among the variables of age, education, alcohol or drug consumption, husbands psychological disorders and wife abuse. Legislation of a low wich forbids husbands to abuse their wives and increament of the general knowledge about wife abuse by means of mass media may have
ESKANDARI, Davood; JAFARI, Mohammad Javad; MEHRABI, Yadollah; KIAN, Mostafa Pouya; CHARKHAND, Hossein; MIRGHOTBI, Mostafa
Background: Technical, human, operational and organizational factors have been influencing the sequence of occupational accidents. Among them, organizational factors play a major role in causing occupational accidents. The aim of this research was to understand the Iranian safety experts’ experiences and perception of organizational factors. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 by using the content analysis technique. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 17 safety experts working in Iranian universities and industries and analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis method using the MAXQDA software. Results: Eleven organizational factors’ sub-themes were identified: management commitment, management participation, employee involvement, communication, blame culture, education and training, job satisfaction, interpersonal relationship, supervision, continuous improvement, and reward system. The participants considered these factors as effective on occupational accidents. Conclusion: The mentioned 11 organizational factors are probably involved in occupational accidents in Iran. Naturally, improving organizational factors can increase the safety performance and reduce occupational accidents. PMID:28435824
Hassan Shams-Esfandabad; Sousan Emami-Pour; Seyyed Jalal Sadrosadat
Objective: The incindence of wife abuse and its impacts on psychological as well as physical health of the women and in its ultimate negative effects on the health of the family have been presented in many researches. The purpose of the present study was to investigate physical and psychological wife abuse among the married women living in Tehran. Materials & Methods: Study sample (N=1000) consisted of two group of married women (18-45 years): those who did not refere to domestic curts (n...
Arriscado, Daniel; Muros, José Joaquín; Zabala, Mikel; Dalmau, Josep María
Current lifestyles have led to an increase in sedentary activities and a decrease in physical activity, which can lead to a worsening of the present and future health of children. This study sought to describe the lifestyle and physical activity habits of schoolchildren in a city in northern Spain and to analyse the relationships between these habits and body composition, physical fitness and certain socio-demographic factors. The study was conducted on a representative sample of 329 sixth grade elementary school students (aged 11-12) from 31 schools in Logroño (La Rioja). Socio- demographic data, anthropometric data, blood pressure, development level, physical fitness and lifestyle habits and physical activity were recorded. The male students who performed extracurricular sports activities and those at earlier stages of development reported higher levels of physical activity. Direct correlations between physical exercise and fitness were detected, especially with respect to aerobic capacity (r = 0.38), and inverse correlations with hours in front of a screen (r = -0.18), but not with body composition. Given the relationships between levels of physical activity and fitness, strategies to promote physical exercise should be encouraged in order to improve the health of young people. Interventions should focus on promoting access to extracurricular sports activities, reducing sedentary habits and increasing the level of physical exercise in girls. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Yu, Shan-fa; Zhou, Wen-hui; Gu, Gui-zhen
To explore the influence of affectivity trait on relationships between occupational stress and subjective physical health and job satisfaction. Self-reports for psychosocial work conditions and health and well-being in a sample of 878 workers from a thermal power plant in China were conducted using the job demand-control model, the effort-reward imbalance model, job satisfaction, depression symptom, and physical health complaints questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis was used by controlling for age, sex, and educational level. Negative and positive affectivity were correlated with occupational stressors or strains (Paffectivity or positive affectivity was controlled; Odds ratios decreased greater when negative affectivity and positive affectivity were controlled simultaneously. Furthermore in some equation no variable entered. Affectivity trait has effect on relationships between occupational stress and subjective physical health and job satisfaction. According to the outcome category of study, the possible confounding role of affectivity should be controlled in the study of the relationships between occupational stress and health self-reports.
By using a craftsman questionnaire, this thesis identifies and ranks the most important factors impairing Petty Officer productivity and morale in the United States Naval Construction Force (Seabees...
Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pilot terpajan pada keadaan yang memerlukan kewaspadaan yang meningkatkan kegiatan sistem saraf simpatis. Hal ini dapat berdampak pada sistem kardiovaskular manusia, yang antara lain tercermin pada peningkatan frekuensi denyut jantung. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh beberapa faktor yang meningkatkan frekuensi denyut jantung pada pilot. Metode:Penelitian nested case-control yang dilakukan pada pilot militer yang melakukan pemeriksaan fisik tahunan di Lembaga Kesehatan Penerbangan dan Ruang Angkasa (LAKESPRA Saryanto dari tahun 2003 sampai 2008. Data yang diperoleh dari rekam medik berupa umur, pangkat, jumlah jam terbang, rata-rata jam terbang per tahun, dan jenis pesawat. Hasil: Dari 539 pilot, terdapat 155 pilot dengan frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi. Dibandingkan dengan pilot berumur 23-29 tahun, pilot berumur 30-39 tahun mempunyai risiko 66% lebih banyak untuk frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi [rasio odds suaian (ORa = 1,66; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 1,17-2,35, P = 0,004], sedangkan yang berumur 40-49 tahun berisiko 2,4 kali (ORa = 2,40; P = 0,000]. Dibandingkan pilot pesawat transport, pilot pesawat tempur berisiko 59% lebih banyak dengan frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi (ORa = 1,59; P = 0,002. Kesimpulan:Umur pilot yang semakin tua dan jenis pesawat tempur meningkatkan risiko frekuensi nadi istirahat pada pilot. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:51-4Kata kunci:umur, jenis pesawat terbang, frekuensi nadi istirahat, pilotAbstractBackground:Pilots are almost constantly exposed to emergency situations which increase sympathetic activity. This will affect the cardiovascular system, which among others will be reflected by increased resting pulse rate. The aim of this study was to investigate factors that increase resting pulse rate in pilots. Methods:A nested case-control study was conducted on Indonesian Air Force military pilots doing annual medical check-ups at the Saryanto Institute for Medical and Health
This research study was conducted to gain an understanding of the pedagogic, administrative and attitudinal factors that influence the teaching of Physical Education and Sports in cluster H schools of Chivi district of Zimbabwe. The research employed the descriptive survey design. Data was collected by means of ...
Boreham, C.A.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Savage, M.J.; Cran, G.W.; Strain, J.J.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between physical activity (ACT), including sports participation (SP) and antecedent risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD), in a representative sample of adolescent from Northern Ireland, a region of high coronary mortality.
... in the Xiaomengyang Section of Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve (XNR) using multivariate analysis to understand the impacts of geo-physical factors and human disturbance on vegetation along the highway corridor. We found that native forests were the best habitat for protected/endangered species and native species.
Al-Ahmad, Hazem T.; Al-Omari, Iyad K.; Eldurini, Laila N.; Suleiman, Ahmad A.
The objective was to analyze factors that influence patient's satisfaction with orthognathic treatment and evaluate patient's perception of changes in physical and psychosocial aspects. In a retrospective clinical study conducted at Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan between December 2006 and December 2007, we examined 38 patients who had orthognathic surgery after an average follow-up of 20 months. Examination included evaluation of nerve function and temporomandibular function with Helkimo index. Patients filled out a questionnaire on treatment satisfaction and perception of physical and psychosocial changes after treatment. Patients were generally satisfied with the result, 82% agreed they would undergo treatment again. They were divided into very satisfied n=25 and less satisfied n=13 groups according to satisfaction score, with statistically significant differences found between them concerning diagnosis and follow-up period, with all vertical maxillary excess patients very satisfied and 75% of asymmetrical deformities patients less satisfied, and less satisfaction by patients more than one year postoperatively, p=0.006. Patients perceived improvement oral function, general health, appearance and interpersonal skills. Lower rates of joint and muscular pain and increased mobility of lower jaw correlated with better patient's perception of health and appearance. Although patient's report high satisfaction levels, several factors such as the temporomandibular joint function could affect patient's psychosocial adjustment after treatment. Sufficient information for patient on the treatment course is required to improve satisfaction. Controlling these factors could improve patient's quality of life. (author)
Full Text Available ObjectivesPhysical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework.MethodsThis cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework.ResultsThe final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001, perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001, social support (β=0.24, p<0.001, perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001, and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001.ConclusionsThe findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population.
This paper discusses several types of factors that affect the form and referents of future growth models. These include philosophical, scientific, technological, educational, and organizational factors. Each factor is presented individually