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Sample records for factors affecting hearing

  1. Factors affecting Thai workers' use of hearing protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantranont, Kunlayanee; Srisuphan, Wichit; Kaewthummanukul, Thanee; Suthakorn, Weeraporn; Jormsri, Pantip; Salazar, Mary K

    2009-11-01

    This study used an ecological model to examine Thai workers' beliefs and attitudes toward using occupational hearing protection. Data collection involved focus group sessions with 28 noise-exposed workers at four factories in Chiang Mai Province and an interview with a safety officer at each organization. Detailed content analysis resulted in the identification of three types of factors influencing the use of hearing protection: intrapersonal, including preventing impaired hearing, noise annoyance, personal discomfort, and interference with communication; interpersonal, including coworker modeling, supervisor support, and supervisor modeling; and organizational, including organizational rules and regulations, provision of hearing protection devices, dissemination of knowledge and information, noise monitoring, and hearing testing. Effective hearing protection programs depend on knowledge of all of these factors. Strategies to promote workers' use of hearing protection should include the complete range of factors having the potential to affect workers' hearing.

  2. Case Factors Affecting Hearing Aid Recommendations by Hearing Care Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gioia, Carmine; Ben-Akiva, Moshe; Jørgensen, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Professional recommendations to patients concerning hearing instrument (HI) technology levels are not currently evidence-based. Pre-fitting parameters have not been proven to be the primary indicators for optimal patient outcome with different HI technology levels. This results...... in subjective decision-making as regards the technology level recommendation made by professionals. Purpose: The objective of this study is to gain insight into the decision-making criteria utilized by professionals when recommending HI technology levels to hearing-impaired patients....

  3. Factors affecting the use and perceived benefit of ITE and BTE hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumfield, A; Dillon, H

    2001-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate factors that might affect hearing aid use, satisfaction and perceived benefit. A further aim was to look at which variables affect the choice of hearing aid, in particular, an in-the-ear (ITE) versus a behind-the-ear (BTE) device. Twenty-nine elderly hearing-impaired people with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss were fitted with both an ITE and a BTE hearing aid with similar electroacoustic performance. Both hearing aids were linear with output compression limiting and were fitted in a randomized order. After wearing each device for a six-week period, subj ets were asked to select the hearing aid they preferred. Variables significantly related to hearing aid choice, use and perceived benefit included ease of management, accuracy with which the NAL-R insertion gain target was achieved, earmould comfort and the type of hearing aid the client preferred initially.

  4. Satisfaction and compliance of adult patients using hearing aid and evaluation of factors affecting them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan; Bayır, Ömer; Er, Serap; Işık, Eray; Saylam, Güleser; Tatar, Emel Çadallı; Özdek, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study are to reveal patient compliance and satisfaction in hearing aid-prescribed adult population and to determine the relevant clinical factors. The study was designed retrospectively, and those patients who have been using hearing aid for at least 6 months were invited for evaluation. Demographical data, hearing aid type (digital vs analog), general satisfaction, and daily usage time were asked. Then, the Hearing Aid Satisfaction Questionnaire (HASQ) was applied to all patients which included visual analog scale (VAS)-based 10 questions about the effects of hearing aid on social communication, efficiency, cosmetics, life quality and cost. Totally 400 patients were included in the study. The HASQ was confirmed to be highly reliable by "Kaiser Meyer Olkin and Bartlett Sphericity" tests after exclusion of aid-cost question. There was a negative correlation between age and satisfaction, and a positive correlation between hearing aid usage time (years) and satisfaction (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between mean HASQ scores regarding gender, employment status, hearing aid type and the site of hearing aid wearing. HASQ scores were significantly worse in pure sensorineural loss type, lower educational status, shorter daily usage time, but better in higher pure tone threshold levels (p < 0.05). Age, time of hearing aid usage daily, type of hearing impairment, the threshold of hearing and education were the factors affecting satisfaction. Regular daily usage of hearing aid should be encouraged in patients, since by this way aid usage and satisfaction may be improved.

  5. Factors Affecting Early Services for Children Who Are Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Melody; Page, Thomas A.; Oleson, Jacob; Spratford, Meredith; Berry, Lauren Unflat; Peterson, Barbara; Welhaven, Anne; Arenas, Richard M.; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe factors affecting early intervention (EI) for children who are hard of hearing, we analyzed (a) service setting(s) and the relationship of setting to families' frequency of participation, and (b) provider preparation, caseload composition, and experience in relation to comfort with skills that support spoken language for…

  6. Item response theory applied to factors affecting the patient journey towards hearing rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelene Chenault

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To develop a tool for use in hearing screening and to evaluate the patient journey towards hearing rehabilitation, responses to the hearing aid rehabilitation questionnaire scales aid stigma, pressure, and aid unwanted addressing respectively hearing aid stigma, experienced pressure from others; perceived hearing aid benefit were evaluated with item response theory. The sample was comprised of 212 persons aged 55 years or more; 63 were hearing aid users, 64 with and 85 persons without hearing impairment according to guidelines for hearing aid reimbursement in the Netherlands. Bias was investigated relative to hearing aid use and hearing impairment within the differential test functioning framework. Items compromising model fit or demonstrating differential item functioning were dropped. The aid stigma scale was reduced from 6 to 4, the pressure scale from 7 to 4, and the aid unwanted scale from 5 to 4 items. This procedure resulted in bias-free scales ready for screening purposes and application to further understand the help-seeking process of the hearing impaired.

  7. Deaf adolescents in a hearing world: a review of factors affecting psychosocial adaptation

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    Brice PJ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Patrick J Brice, Gillie Strauss Department of Psychology, Gallaudet University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adolescence has long been viewed as a time of rapid change in many domains including physical, cognitive, and social. Adolescents must adapt based on developing skills and needs and acclimate to growing environmental pressures. Deaf adolescents are often faced with the additional challenge of managing these adaptations in a hearing world, where communication and access to information, especially about their social world, are incomplete at best and nonexistent at worst. This article discusses the research on several factors that influence a deaf adolescent's adaptation, including quality of life, self-concept, and identity development. Gaps in our knowledge are pointed out with suggestions for future research programs that can facilitate optimal development in adolescents who are deaf. Keywords: deaf, self-concept, identity, quality of life, adjustment

  8. Deaf adolescents in a hearing world: a review of factors affecting psychosocial adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Brice PJ; Strauss G

    2016-01-01

    Patrick J Brice, Gillie Strauss Department of Psychology, Gallaudet University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adolescence has long been viewed as a time of rapid change in many domains including physical, cognitive, and social. Adolescents must adapt based on developing skills and needs and acclimate to growing environmental pressures. Deaf adolescents are often faced with the additional challenge of managing these adaptations in a hearing world, where communication and access to in...

  9. Survey Situation and Factors Affect on Hearing Protection Large Industry Workers of Hamadan City in 2001-2002

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    F. Emami

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise induced hearing loss in adults is the most cause of sensory neural hearing loss after the presbycusis and industry workers severity affect by degenerative results of that. Three large works of Hamadan city which had more than 200 Workers were selected in this demonstrative quest . The mean of sound pressure level evaluated with sound level meter which amount to 82-95 dB. Total exposed workers with higher noise than 85 dB evaluated by pure tone audiometery and otoscopic evaluation and the means of hearing thresholds in four frequency :0.5,1,2,4 kHz balanced with previously . Method of concentration data was direct observation and questionnaire . 809 workers in local works exposed to invasive noise . 20.02% of them hadn’t any hearing protector and 79.98% had , which combinated of wax or dry cotton and fiber glass (76.20%, earplug (7.42%and earmuff(16.38%. The means of hearing thresholds workers with protector equal to 43.36 dB and without that was equal to 44.03 dB (t=0.29, Pv<0.05. Highest percentage quantity in two groups related to age –bracket 40-49 years old. Women with protection(9.43%were more than without protector(3.7% while the most percentage related to men without protector (96.3% in contrast to 90.57%.In totally highest percentage quantity of NIHL was in workers with past-working more than 15 years (67.54% with protector , 67.28%without protector. For awareness of degenerative results the noise in hearing large industry workers of Hamadan city 75% insignificant and 25% had efficient awareness . Not using of protectors by 20.2% of worker showing light awareness to degenerative results of noise on hearing system and poor educational healthing and noting difference in means of hearing loss at protected group on basis duration of using that, strikes the process of hearing conservation program is superficial.

  10. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss; Prognostic Factors

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    Arjun Dass

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL is a frightening and frustrating symptom for the patient as well as the physician. Prognosis is affected by multiple factors including duration of hearing loss, presence of associated vertigo and tinnitus, and co-morbidities such as hypertension and diabetes.   Materials and Methods: Forty subjects presenting to our department with features of sudden hearing loss were included in the study. Detailed otological history and examination, serial audiometric findings and course of disease were studied.   Results: Subjects presenting late (in older age, having associated vertigo, hypertension and diabetes had a significantly lower rate of recovery.   Conclusion:  Only 60–65% of patients experiencing SSNHL recover within a period of 1 month; this rate is further affected by presence of multiple prognostic indicators.

  11. Factors Affecting Psychosocial and Motor Development in 3-Year-Old Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Greg; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Cupples, Linda; Marnane, Vivienne; Seeto, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown an association between children's development of psychosocial and motor skills. This study evaluated the development of these skills in 301 three-year-old deaf and hard of hearing children (M: 37.8 months) and considered a range of possible predictors including gender, birth weight, age at first fitting with hearing…

  12. "PARAMETERS AFFECTING NOISE INDUCED HEARING LOSS IN INDUSTRY"

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    D. Parvizpour

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on a study conducted in three different industries on 84.4 on their employees to determine the effect of over all noise intensity, length of employment and rest periods among them. It was found that the mentioned factors have direct effect on the induced hearing loss among the exposed workers. High noise level and long period of employment adversely affect the hearing ability while the breaks taken during daily working hours have prevented the expected defect.

  13. Progestin negatively affects hearing in aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Patricia; Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Tadros, Sherif F; Frisina, D Robert; Frisina, Robert D

    2006-09-19

    Female hormone influences on auditory system aging are not completely understood. Because of widespread clinical use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), it is critical to understand HRT effects on sensory systems. The present study retrospectively analyzed and compared hearing abilities among 124 postmenopausal women taking HRT, treated with estrogen and progestin (E+P; n = 32), estrogen alone (E; n = 30), and a third [non-hormone replacement therapy (NHRT; n = 62)] control group. Subjects were 60-86 years old and were matched for age and health status. All had relatively healthy medical histories and no significant noise exposure, middle-ear problems, or major surgeries. Hearing tests included pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), transient otoacoustic emissions, and the hearing-in-noise test (HINT). The HINT tests for speech perception in background noise, the major complaint of hearing-impaired persons. Pure-tone thresholds in both ears were elevated (poorer) for the E+P relative to the E and control groups. For DPOAEs, the E+P group presented with lower (worse) levels than the E and control groups, with significant differences for both ears. For the HINT results, the E+P group had poorer speech perception than the E and control groups across all background noise speaker locations and in quiet. These findings suggest that the presence of P as a component of HRT results in poorer hearing abilities in aged women taking HRT, affecting both the peripheral (ear) and central (brain) auditory systems, and it interferes with the perception of speech in background noise.

  14. Demographic and audiological factors as predictors of hearing handicap

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    Leposavić Ljubica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Currently available evidence reveals comparatively few studies of psychological effects of hearing impairments, in spite of the fact that clinicians have for a long time been aware of a connection between the acquired hearing impairment and mental disorders. They are focused on the investigation of dysfunction in general. Thus, three domains of the auditory imbalance may be distinguished: disorder, disability and handicap. 'Handicap', according to the definition of the World Health Organization, is a hindrance in an individual that results from an impairment or disability and represents psychological response of the individual to the impairment. OBJECTIVE Validation of acquired hearing impairment as a risk factor of psychical disorders as well as an analysis of relation of some demographic factors (sex, age, education and audiological factors (degree and duration of the impairment with the frequency of hearing handicap. METHOD MMPI-201 has been applied in 60 subjects affected with otosclerosis, potential candidates for stapedectomy, before and after the surgery. RESULTS Individuals with acquired hearing impairment manifest more frequent disorders of psychical functioning in comparison with general population, while demographic and audiometric parameters did not correlate with acquired hearing handicap. CONCLUSION It may be assumed that the very recognition of demographic and audio-logical factors can not help much in the understanding of the psychological stress associated with hearing impairment.

  15. Risk factors for hearing loss in neonates

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    Ni Luh Putu Maharani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background An estimated 6 of 1,000 children with live birthssuffer from permanent hearing loss at birth or the neonatal period.At least 90% of cases occur in developing countries. Hearing lossshould be diagnosed as early as possible so that intervention canbe done before the age of 6 months.Objective To determine risk factors for hearing loss inneonates.Methods We performed a case-control study involving 100neonates with and without hearing loss who were born atSanglah Hospital, Denpasar from November 2012 to February2013. Subjects were consisted of 2 groups, those with hearingloss (case group of 50 subjects and without hearing loss (controlgroup of 50 subjects. The groups were matched for gender andbirth weight. We assessed the following risk factors for hearingloss: severe neonatal asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis,history of aminoglycoside therapy, and mechanical ventilationby Chi-square analysis. The results were presented as odds ratioand its corresponding 95% confidence intervals.Results Seventy percent of neonates with hearing loss had historyof aminoglycoside therapy. Multivariable analysis revealed thataminoglycoside therapy of 14 days or more was a significant riskfactor for hearing loss (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.1 to 6.8; P=0.040.There were no statistically significant associations betweenhearing loss and severe asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis,or mechanical ventilation.Conclusion as a risk factor for hearing loss in neonates. [

  16. Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: cardiovascular risk factors do not influence hearing threshold recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, A; Hatzopoulos, S; Bianchini, C; Iannini, V; Rosignoli, M; Skarzynski, H; Aimoni, C

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that risk factors for ischaemic vascular disease, such as cigarette smoking, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, can also be considered risk factors for the development of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). In this study, we have evaluated the hypothesis that these factors can influence hearing threshold recovery in patients affected by ISSNHL. A total of 141 subjects who suffered an episode of ISSNHL were included. All subjects were assessed with tonal audiometry, auditory brainstem responses and MRI to exclude retrocochlear pathology. Hearing tests were conducted at ISSNHL onset (t = 0) and after 30 days. Patients were divided into three classes according to the presence/absence of one or more cardiovascular risk factors including: history of smoking, total serum cholesterol/triglycerides, history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Values of hearing threshold recovery were estimated and comparisons were conducted across the three risk factor classes. 75% of patients affected by ISSNHL showed a threshold recovery. However, the threshold recovery was found to be class-independent (average recovery value of 18 dB HL per classes) and also independent of age and gender. Even if cardiovascular risk factors have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of ISSNHL, the present study suggests that these factors do not have any significant influence on the threshold recovery in ISSNHL.

  17. Risk factors for hearing loss in elderly

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    Kelly Vasconcelos Chaves Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify risk factors related to sensorineural hearing loss in elderly. Methods: The sample consisted of 60 selected elderly, divided into two groups: the Case Group, composed by 30 individuals, 21 females and 9 males, aged at least 60 years, presenting sensorineural hearing loss, and the Control Group, composed by 30 individuals matched on gender and age, with normal hearing. The patients were submitted to audiological anamnesis and tonal audiometry. The hearing impairment was defined according to average threshold greater than 35dBNA, in the frequencies of 1,000; 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, in the best ear. Results: Statistically significant odds ratios were: a to audiological history: noise exposure and family history of deafness; b to situations involving hearing difficulty: television, church, telephone, silent environment, spatial location of sound, difficulty with voices and noisy environment; c to otologic history: tinnitus, otorrhea and nausea; and d to medical history: visual problems, smoke, alcohol, thyroid problems and kidney disease. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlighted, for sensorineural hearing loss, risk factors related to audiologic, otologic and medical history, and to situations involving hearing difficulty.

  18. The Factors Affecting the Effects of Hearing Aids on Presbycusis Patients%影响老年性聋患者助听效果的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠霞; 陈贤明; 罗萍; 杨帆; 黄少华; 陈十燕; 李建忠

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查老年感音神经性聋患者配戴助听器后的助听效果,分析其影响因素。方法采用日常生活助听满意度量表对120例验配了助听器的老年性聋患者进行调查,统计每例患者的各项得分及总均分,并根据患者年龄、性别、教育程度、平均听阈、助听器类型、佩戴方式、佩戴时长、每日使用时长、自感听力下降时长等9个因素进行分组,采用单因素分析及逐步多元回归分析进行统计处理,筛选影响助听效果的主要因素。结果教育程度高、每日佩戴时间长、双耳佩戴者得分高于教育程度低、每日佩戴时间短、单耳佩戴者(P<0.01);年长者得分优于年少者(P<0.01);自感听力下降时长短者得分高于自感听力下降时长长者(P<0.01);总体满意度方面,教育程度高、每日佩戴时间长者得分高于教育程度低、每日佩戴时间短者(P<0.01),性别因素对助听效果无影响。结论影响老年性聋患者助听效果的因素较多,其中教育程度、每日佩戴时长是主要因素,双耳佩戴、自感听力下降时间短、年长者助听效果满意度高,而性别对助听效果无明显影响。%Objective To analyze the factors affecting the effects of hearing aids in presbycusis patients . Methods One hundred and twenty cases with presbycusis were investigated by using general data and the Satisfac-tion with Amplification in Daily Life questionnaire(SADL) .The individual scores and total scores of all the subjects were collected together with the personal information ,including age ,gender ,degree of education ,pure-tone aver-age ,hearing aid type ,monaural/binaural status ,total hearing aid experience ,daily use time ,the time of perceived hearing difficulty .A single factor analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis were used to filter out main fac-tors influencing the effect of hearing aids .Results The

  19. Does Acquired Hypothyroidism Affect the Hearing Functions?

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    Ayşe Arduç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It is well known that congenital hypothyroidism can cause hearing loss. However, conflicting results were found in studies investigating hearing functions in acquired hypothyroidism. Therefore, we evaluated the audiometric findings in patients with acquired hypothyroidism. Material and Method: The study included 58 patients with hypothyroidism and age- and gender-matched 34 healthy controls. Twenty eight (48.27% patients had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 30 (51.73% had obvious hypothyroidism. All subjects had a normal otoscopic examination and tympanometry. Pure tone audiometry at 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hertz (Hz was performed in both groups. Blood pressure measurements and the levels of plasma electrolytes, lipids and vitamin B12 were available in all subjects. Results: Hypothyroidism group and control group were similar with respect to systolic and diastolic blood pressures and plasma glucose, lipid, vitamin B12, calcium, sodium, potassium, and chloride levels. Significantly higher audiometric thresholds (dB at 250 (10 (0-45 vs. 5 (0-15, p<0.001 and 500 Hz (10 (0-40 vs. 10 (-5-15, p=0.003 were recorded in hypothyroid patients compared to that in healthy controls. Hearing thresholds at 250 and 500 Hz correlated positively with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, and negatively with free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine. Subclinical hypothyroid patients had a higher hearing threshold at 250 Hz than healthy controls (p=0.001. Discussion: Our study demonstrated that hearing ability decreases in hypothyroidism, even in subclinical hypothyroidism. The changes in TSH and thyroid hormone levels seem to be directly related to the hearing loss in this population of patients.

  20. Do You Hear What I Hear? The Impact of a Hearing Voices Simulation on Affective Domain Attributes in Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Terry D

    2015-01-01

    Affective domain teaching and learning can facilitate the reduction of stigmatization of clients with mental illness in nursing students. Experiential learning activities such as simulation are regarded as an effective method for facilitating student learning in the affective domain. The project reported here measured the impact of a simulation experience, "Hearing Voices Which Are Distressing," on attitudes, values, and beliefs of accelerated baccalaureate students caring for clients with mental illness who experienced hearing voices.

  1. Factors influencing the choice of prescribed hearing aid

    OpenAIRE

    Živić Ljubica; Živić Danijela

    2012-01-01

    In our paper we would like to emphasize the complexity of hearing aid prescription process. It is connected to a series of factors which impact the choice of hearing aid; type of hearing loss, degree of hearing loss according to the average hearing threshold expressed within the range from 500 Hz to 4000 Hz on a tonal audiogram, audiometric curve configuration, speech discrimination ability, patients’ age at which the hearing impairment occurred, time elapsed between the occurrence of h...

  2. Atherogenic Risk Factors and Hearing Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from...... children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models...

  3. Factors influencing the choice of prescribed hearing aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Ljubica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we would like to emphasize the complexity of hearing aid prescription process. It is connected to a series of factors which impact the choice of hearing aid; type of hearing loss, degree of hearing loss according to the average hearing threshold expressed within the range from 500 Hz to 4000 Hz on a tonal audiogram, audiometric curve configuration, speech discrimination ability, patients’ age at which the hearing impairment occurred, time elapsed between the occurrence of hearing impairment and prescription of a hearing aid, patients’ age, physical and mental health and their cognitive function, anatomical characteristics of the auricle and external auditory canal, patient and parent motivation, cosmetic factors, financial abilities, cooperation with hearing aids manufacturers. This paper is important for everyday practice and can be used as a kind of guideline to the hearing aid prescription process.

  4. Factors influencing the choice of prescribed hearing aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivić, Ljubica; Zivić, Danijela

    2012-01-01

    In our paper we would like to emphasize the complexity of hearing aid prescription process. It is connected to a series of factors which impact the choice of hearing aid; type of hearing loss, degree of hearing loss according to the average hearing threshold expressed within the range from 500 Hz to 4000 Hz on a tonal audiogram, audiometric curve configuration, speech discrimination ability, patients' age at which the hearing impairment occurred, time elapsed between the occurrence of hearing impairment and prescription of a hearing aid, patients' age, physical and mental health and their cognitive function, anatomical characteristics of the auricle and external auditory canal, patient and parent motivation, cosmetic factors, financial abilities, cooperation with hearing aids manufacturers. This paper is important for everyday practice and can be used as a kind of guideline to the hearing aid prescription process.

  5. 单侧低中频下降型突发性聋预后相关因素分析%Factors Affecting Prognosis in Unilateral Low-Middle Frequency Sudden Hearing Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春花; 王小锐; 康艳霞; 罗宏伟; 李阳阳; 王东海; 邢英姿; 王桂芝; 侯庆军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate factors affecting unilateral low-middle frequency sudden hearing loss . Methods This is a retrospective analysis of 109 cases (109ears) of unilateral low-middle frequency sudden hearing loss from 2005 to 2013. Treatments included vasodilators and glucocorticoids. Cases were grouped based on gender, onset age, daration of dis⁃ease, degree of hearing loss, presence of high frequency hearing damage, comorbid diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and oth⁃er factor. Correlations between these factors and treatment efficacy were studied using variable analysis followed by logistic linear regression analysis. Results In this study, the total effectiveness rate was 73.4%(80/109). The rates of full recovery and no efficiency were 71.6%(78/109) and 26.6%(29/109), respectively. Patients' gender, disease duration, degree of hear⁃ing loss, high frequency hearing impairment, hyperlipidemia, and blood viscosity had no obvious effects on treatment out⁃comes, whereas onset age and co-existing diabetes did. Conclusion Age over 50 years and glucose levels higher than 7.0 mol/l can negatively affect treatment outcomes in unilateral low-middel frequency sudden hearing loss.%目的:评估单侧低中频下降型突发性聋的相关因素对预后的影响。方法由2005~2013年入院的单侧低中频下降型突发性聋109例,均给以改善微循环加激素静点及其他对症治疗。患者按照性别、发病年龄、病程、听力损失程度、高频听力是否损伤、伴有糖尿病,高脂血症等因素分组,分析各因素与疗效(有效,无效)的相关性。先行单因素分析,可能影响疗效的因素再行logistic线性回归分析。结果在此次研究中,单侧低中频下降型突发性聋总有效率为73.4%(80/109),治愈率71.6%(78/109)。无效率为26.6%(29/109),患者性别、病程、听力损失程度、高频听力是否损伤、高脂血症,血粘稠度对疗效无明显影响;发病年龄

  6. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L A

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  7. Affective Factors: Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnimi, Mahshad

    2009-01-01

    Affective factors seem to play a crucial role in success or failure in second language acquisition. Negative attitudes can reduce learners' motivation and harm language learning, while positive attitudes can do the reverse. Discovering students' attitudes about language will help both teacher and student in teaching learning process. Anxiety is…

  8. A Rhizomatics of Hearing: Becoming Deaf in the Workplace and Other Affective Spaces of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    This paper stages a corporeal and affective trail through plateaus of "Becoming deaf" in the workplace of academia. The paper aims to display the unfamiliarity of deafness in a profession whose ability to speak and hear the written word is all too commonsense. In this piece, Deleuze and Guattari's "rhizome" acts as sensibility and motif as a body…

  9. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  10. Sensorineural Hearing Affection In Sickle Cell Disease Patients With Chronic Renal Failure Under Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abdelwhab Saeed MD*, Magdy M El Sharkawy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the problem of hearing loss in patients of chronic renal failure on regular haemodialysis and The factors which affect it. And to study the effect of sickle cell disease on hearing loss. we studied hearing loss in dialysis patients, sickle cell disease patients and patients of sickle cell disease with chronic renal failure under dialysis compared to normal control subjects. Design: !"",include sickle cell disease patients with chronic renal fa"# $%& ' ", i ,nclude ( # #"# $%&'", , ,( #&'", i 9nclude the normal *+&*+' All groups are subjected to full history, thorough clinical examination including neurological and ENT examination, investigations includes Hb, s. creatinine, s.albumen, s.calcium and calculation of kt/v for dialysis patients. Full audiological assessment, using #,-GSI audiometer was done for all groups with special concentration at frequency of - .Results: hearing loss was found in patients with chronic renal failure more than normal control. Patient with sickle cell disease have hearing disorders significantly higher than $/%- .% 0( # #cell disease have significantly. Marked degree of SNHL than those with SCD only. Hearing loss in patients with 12( # * 3 &4 !4! '#"#"patients with chronic renal failure with or without SCD correlate with duration of dialysis , presence of peripheral neuropathy, s. calcium level, efficiency of dialysis marked by kt/v. Conclusion and recommendation: hearing disorder is common in patients with chronic renal failure under regular haemodialysis and it increase with duration of dialysis it should be suspected if there is Peripheral neuropathy. It can be reduced with efficient dialysis, correction of anemia, adjustment of calcium level. Patients with SCD suffer also some degree of hearing loss especially at higher frequency and this degree of hearing loss

  11. [Prognostic factors of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengjiao; Xue, Xijun; Wang, Li; Yang, Fengbo; Wang, Hongyang; Guan, Jing; Du, Wan; Xiong, Wenping; Wu, Kaiwen; Wu, Mukun; Yin, Zifang; Lan, Lan; Wang, Dayong; Wang, Qiuju

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the recovery rate of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in children, and explore the prognostic factors in order to guide the clinical diagnosis and treatment. A retrospective review was conducted for the prognosis of children with sudden sensorineural hearing loss during the past 5 years (from November 2010 to May 2015) in Chinese PLA General Hospital. This paper have a complete clinical data of 101 patients (113 ears)with sudden hearing loss, ranging from 0 to 18 years old Patients were divided into four groups according to hearing recovery and eight putative prognostic factors were analyzed. Among 101 patients (113 ears), the ratio of male and female was 60:53. Treatment was initiated from 1 to 183 days after disease onset, with an average of (18.5 ± 22.1) d. Bilateral and unilateral hearing loss were 24 ears and 89 ears, respectively. The proportion of mild hearing loss, moderate hearing loss, severe hearing loss and profound hearing loss were 7.1%, 6.2%, 23.9% and 62.8%, respectively. Vertigo and tinnitus occurred in 54.9% and 77.9% of the patients, respectively. After the treatment, the complete recovery rate was 9.7% and the overall recovery rate was 36.3%. The degree of hearing loss, earlier treatment onset, sex and bilateral involvement were significantly associated with hearing recovery (P Sudden sensorineural hearing loss in children was generally identified as severe and profound hearing loss, but after positive and timely treatment, it can be improved or even cured. The mild hearing loss, earlier treatment onset, unilateral hearing loss and female were positive prognostic factors. The concurrence of tinnitus or vertigo, the results of ABR and DPOAE had no significant influence on prognosis.

  12. Affective Properties of Mothers' Speech to Infants with Hearing Impairment and Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondaurova, Maria V.; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Xu, Huiping; Kitamura, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The affective properties of infant-directed speech influence the attention of infants with normal hearing to speech sounds. This study explored the affective quality of maternal speech to infants with hearing impairment (HI) during the 1st year after cochlear implantation as compared to speech to infants with normal hearing. Method:…

  13. Prognostic factors of profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Peir-Rong; Wu, Hung-Pin

    2014-06-01

    Profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss is thought to have a poor prognosis, but few studies have focused on this condition. We aimed to assess the impact of patient factors, audiologic parameters, and salvage intratympanic steroid injection therapy on the prognosis of profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The demographic, clinical, and audiologic data, degree of hearing recovery, and efficacy of intratympanic steroid injection therapy in 576 patients with profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (mean age 56.2 ± 14.9 years) who had been admitted at four tertiary referral centers between 2000 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean hearing level at the initial presentation was 108.1 ± 9.5 dB. Many patients experienced vertigo (52.1%) and tinnitus (77.4%). At the 2-month follow-up, 172 (29.8%) patients showed some degree of hearing recovery, but only 21 (3.6%) patients recovered normal hearing. Further, the 116 patients who had received salvage intratympanic steroid injections showed a better audiologic outcome (improvement, 26.1 ± 24.3 vs. 15.7 ± 22.1 dB; P = 0.000) than those who had not (n = 429). In conclusion, a higher degree of hearing loss at the initial presentation indicates a poorer prognosis. Salvage intratympanic steroid injection therapy may improve the hearing of patients with profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss after the failure of systemic steroid therapy.

  14. Subjective hearing impairment after subarachnoid haemorrhage : Prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Erik M.; Greebe, Paut; Visser-Meily, J. M Anne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/180428047; Rinkel, Gabriel J E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/085712000; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2017-01-01

    Background Sensorineural hearing impairment is a key symptom in patients with superficial siderosis of the central nervous system, a disease caused by chronic or intermittent haemorrhage into the subarachnoid space. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of subjective hearing impairment

  15. Risk factors for hearing loss in infants under universal hearing screening program in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonual W

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Watcharapol Poonual,1 Niramon Navacharoen,2 Jaran Kangsanarak,2 Sirianong Namwongprom3 1Clinical Epidemiology Program, 2Department of Otolaryngology, 3Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Objective: To define the risk factors for hearing loss in infants (aged 3 months under universal hearing screening program. Materials and methods: A total of 3,120 infants (aged 3 months who underwent hearing screening using a universal hearing screening program using automated otoacoustic emission test between November 1, 2010 and May 31, 2012 in Uttaradit Hospital, Buddhachinaraj Hospital, and Sawanpracharuk Hospital (tertiary hospitals located in Northern Thailand were included in this prospective cohort study. Results: Of the 3,120 infants, 135 (4.3% were confirmed to have hearing loss with the conventional otoacoustic emission test. Five of these 135 infants (3.7% with hearing loss showed test results consistent with auditory brainstem responses. From the univariable analysis, there were eleven potential risk factors associated with hearing deterioration. On multivariable analysis, the risk factors independently associated with hearing loss at 3 months were birth weight 1,500–2,500 g (risk ratio [RR] 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–2.6, APGAR score <6 at 5 minutes (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.4, craniofacial anomalies (RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6–4.2, sepsis (RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0–3.2, and ototoxic exposure (RR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9–8.6. Conclusion: This study concluded that low birth weight, APGAR score <6 at 5 minutes, craniofacial anomalies, sepsis, and ototoxic exposure are the risk factors for bilateral hearing loss in infants (aged 3 months and proper tests should be performed to identify these risk factors. As an outcome, under the present circumstances, it is suggested that infirmary/physicians/general practitioners/health action centers/polyclinics should carry out universal hearing screening in all

  16. Factors affecting soil cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erodibility is a measure of a soil’s resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...

  17. Factors affecting emotional divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Said Shabanlou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional Divorce is the most important factor in the rupture of the most fundamental structures of society, the family.Due to the sensitivity and position of the familyAnd its functions specifically to investigate the factors underlying emotional divorce has of particular importance.Emotional Divorce phenomenon is not a single factor, but rather a set of related factors together led to Emotional Divorce.In this paper the role of psychological factors such as early maladaptive schemas, negative body image, perfectionism is discussed on an emotional divorce.Also quality of life and family relationships of couples with emotional divorce,Such as quality of health, sexual dissatisfaction, ignoring the needs, expectations and opinions of women by men or vice versa,And also social and economic factors such as subcultures families, couples, the quality of social relationships, social networks couple,Economic situation of the families of the couple, financial crisis, unemployment and economic revenues couples studied and some suggestions are presented based on the findings.

  18. Factors influencing the outcome of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körpinar, Sefika; Alkan, Zeynep; Yiğit, Ozgür; Gör, Ayşe Pelin; Toklu, Akin Savaş; Cakir, Burak; Soyuyüce, Ozlem Gedik; Ozkul, Haluk

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) is an otologic emergency with an incidence of about 5-20 per 100,000 of the population per year. There is no universally accepted standard protocol for the treatment of patients with ISSNHL. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), was first reported to improve the outcome following acute inner ear disorders during the late 1960s by both French and German authors. The increase in perilymph oxygenation produced by HBOT provides logical basis for the use of this treatment modality in ISSNHL. We reviewed the records of 97 cases that received HBOT for SSNHL to identify the factors that may affect the treatment outcomes. The effects of age, gender, affected ear, status of the contralateral ear, symptoms associated with hearing loss, presence of a cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, history of diabetes mellitus, seasonal factor, smoking, degree of hearing loss, audiogram type, medical treatments provided prior to HBOT, onset time, and number of HBOT sessions were evaluated. The mean hearing gain in all cases after the HBOT was 29.5 dB. The gains were statistically significant in the following cases: early onset of HBOT (p = 0.016), higher number of HBOT sessions (p hearing loss (p = 0.011). The success rate was significantly lower in cases with high frequency-descending audiogram configuration (p hearing loss.

  19. [Analyses prognostic factors relevant to sudden sensorineural hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Xiao, Shuifang; Zeng, Zhengang; Zhen, Zhen; Zhang, Xuexi; Lin, Feng; Dong, Mingmin; Lu, Wei; Qin, Zhaobing; Zuo, Bin; Bai, Xianfeng

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the prognostic factors relevant to sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The internationally accepted standardized clinical research methods, unified design, and unified program were adopted to conduct the prospective clinical multi-center study. The sudden deafness patients between 18 to 65 years old, with the course of this disorder less than two weeks, and without any medical treatments were collected, and then, divided into four types according to the hearing curve: type A, acute sensorineural hearing loss in low tone frequencies; type B, acute sensorineural hearing loss in high tone frequencies; type C, acute sensorineural hearing loss in all frequencies; and type D, total deafness. The factors, in terms of age, gender, type of initial audiogram, time delay before the first visit, and severity of hearing loss, were included in the analyses. A total of 1 024 cases with single side sudden deafness were collected in the study from 33 hospitals in China from August 2007 to October 2011, inclusive of for 492 males (48.05%) and 532 females (51.95%). The average age was (41.2 ± 12.8) years old. There were 553 cases (54.00%) in left ear, and 471 cases (46.00%) in right ear. The curative effects of different types were shown as follows: the type in low tone frequencies had the highest rate of 90.73%, the type in all frequencies was 82.59%; the type of total deafness was 70.29%; and the type in high tone frequencies had the lowest rate of 65.96%. It had significant difference of the effective rate between different types (χ(2) = 231.58, P = 0.000). Age, time delay before first visit, and severity of initial hearing loss were significantly correlated with hearing improvement. Initial audiogram of SSNHL might predict hearing recovery. The young in age and a short time delay before starting treatment are positive prognostic factors for hearing recovery in SSNHL. The initial severity of hearing loss is negative prognostic factor of hearing recovery.

  20. Stress factors in affective diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidzińska, E J

    1984-02-01

    An investigation carried out on 97 patients with affective disorders and on 100 healthy control subjects, revealed that acute and chronic stress factors occurred more in the group of patients with affective disorders than among healthy control over a similar time period. The frequency of stressful life situations was the same before the first affective episode in patients with unipolar and bipolar illness. The possible participation of such factors in triggering the first phase of illness is discussed. Similar factors appeared in both types of affective disorders. Significantly more frequent among patients than in the control group were: marital and family conflicts, health problems, emotional and ambitional failures, lack of success and work overload.

  1. On Factors Affecting Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗琴

    2014-01-01

    In English teaching and learning, listening ability is an important part of communicative competence, is a very practical integrated skill. It has been a difficult skill in second language acquisition for many students. Many Chinese students are skilled in reading, but often they tend to neglect the listening. However, owing to the higher requirements of many English tests and the great importance in communication, students begin to pay attention to develop their English listening skills. But there are many factors affecting listening, the paper mainly focuses on linguistic factors and non-linguistic factors that affect listening, to provide a theoretical basis to help exploring ways of improving listening and comprehension skills.

  2. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians.Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran.Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Qu...

  3. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhib...

  4. Does Attempt at Hearing Preservation Microsurgery of Vestibular Schwannoma Affect Postoperative Tinnitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Chovanec

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of vestibular schwannoma microsurgery via the retrosigmoid-transmeatal approach with special reference to the postoperative tinnitus outcome. Material and Methods. A prospective study was performed in 89 consecutive patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma indicated for microsurgery. Patient and tumor related parameters, pre- and postoperative hearing level, intraoperative findings, and hearing and tinnitus handicap inventory scores were analyzed. Results. Cochlear nerve integrity was achieved in 44% corresponding to preservation of preoperatively serviceable hearing in 47% and useful hearing in 21%. Main prognostic factors of hearing preservation were grade/size of tumor, preoperative hearing level, intraoperative neuromonitoring, tumor consistency, and adhesion to neurovascular structures. Microsurgery led to elimination of tinnitus in 66% but also new-onset of the symptom in 14% of cases. Preservation of useful hearing and neurectomy of the eighth cranial nerve were main prognostic factors of tinnitus elimination. Preservation of cochlear nerve but loss of preoperative hearing emerged as the main factor for tinnitus persistence and new onset tinnitus. Decrease of THI scores was observed postoperatively. Conclusions. Our results underscore the importance of proper pre- and intraoperative decision making about attempt at hearing preservation versus potential for tinnitus elimination/risk of new onset of tinnitus.

  5. Neural tracking of attended versus ignored speech is differentially affected by hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Eline Borch; Wöstmann, Malte; Obleser, Jonas; Lunner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Hearing loss manifests as a reduced ability to understand speech, particularly in multitalker situations. In these situations, younger normal-hearing listeners' brains are known to track attended speech through phase-locking of neural activity to the slow-varying envelope of the speech. This study investigates how hearing loss, compensated by hearing aids, affects the neural tracking of the speech-onset envelope in elderly participants with varying degree of hearing loss (n = 27, 62-86 yr; hearing thresholds 11-73 dB hearing level). In an active listening task, a to-be-attended audiobook (signal) was presented either in quiet or against a competing to-be-ignored audiobook (noise) presented at three individualized signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The neural tracking of the to-be-attended and to-be-ignored speech was quantified through the cross-correlation of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the temporal envelope of speech. We primarily investigated the effects of hearing loss and SNR on the neural envelope tracking. First, we found that elderly hearing-impaired listeners' neural responses reliably track the envelope of to-be-attended speech more than to-be-ignored speech. Second, hearing loss relates to the neural tracking of to-be-ignored speech, resulting in a weaker differential neural tracking of to-be-attended vs. to-be-ignored speech in listeners with worse hearing. Third, neural tracking of to-be-attended speech increased with decreasing background noise. Critically, the beneficial effect of reduced noise on neural speech tracking decreased with stronger hearing loss. In sum, our results show that a common sensorineural processing deficit, i.e., hearing loss, interacts with central attention mechanisms and reduces the differential tracking of attended and ignored speech.

  6. Factors Prognostic of Season-Associated Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Retrospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, In Yong; Park, Sang Hyun; Park, Eun Bin; Kim, Ho Joong; Kim, Sang Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives This study examined whether the prognosis of sudden deafness was dependent on the time of onset and evaluated the factors affecting prognosis during each period. Subjects and Methods Patients who developed sudden hearing loss from January 2005 to December 2015 were evaluated retrospectively. Meteorological data were obtained from the official website of the Korea Meteorological Administration. Factors prognostic of hearing recovery rate were analyzed. Results The hearing recovery rate of the 318 patients who developed sudden deafness did not differ significantly by month. Mean temperature and daily temperature range at onset of sudden deafness were not associated with recovery rate. Conclusions The recovery rate in patients with sudden deafness did not differ markedly by season. PMID:28417108

  7. Prevalence and Social Risk Factors for Hearing Impairment in Chinese Children—A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfeng Yun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing impairment may affect children’s communication skills, social development, and educational achievement. Little is known about the prevalence of hearing impairment among Chinese children. Data were taken from the 2006 second China National Survey on Disability (CNSD. Hearing impairment was defined as moderate (41–60 dB HL, severe (61–80 dB HL, profound (81–90 dB HL, or complete (>91 dB HL. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. A weighted number of 567,915 hearing impairment children were identified, yielding a prevalence of 17.49 per 10,000 people (95% CI: 16.90–18.08, with prevention or treatment options possible for 64.6% of hearing impairment children. The main causes of hearing impairment were hereditary, tympanitis, and drug intoxication. Illiteracy in one or both parents (mother: OR = 1.388, 95% CI: 1.125–1.714, p < 0.0001; father: OR = 1.537, 95% CI: 1.152–2.049, p < 0.0001 relative to no school or primary school, annual family income lower than national average (OR = 1.323, 95% CI: 1.044–1.675, p = 0.0203, relative to higher than national average, household size larger than three people (OR = 1.432, 95% CI: 1.164–1.762, p = 0.0007, relative to smaller than three people and single-mother family (OR = 2.056, 95% CI: 1.390–3.042, p = 0.0176, relative to intact family were the independence risk factors for hearing impairment among Chinese children. Lower annual family income, male children, larger household size, single-mother family, and lower levels of maternal and paternal education were independent risk factors for hearing impairment for Chinese children. Further studies on hearing impairment prevention and the relationship between parental social factors and the risk of hearing impairment are needed.

  8. Factors influencing hearing outcomes in pediatric patients undergoing ossicular chain reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govil, Nandini; Kaffenberger, Thomas M; Shaffer, Amber D; Chi, David H

    2017-08-01

    Ossicular chain disruption in children leads to conductive hearing loss. Few studies have focused on factors influencing successful results in pediatric ossicular chain reconstruction (OCR). We aim to determine whether demographic or surgical factors affect hearing outcomes in pediatric OCR. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 120 patients undergoing OCR at our institution, a tertiary care hospital, between 2003 and 2014, with median length of follow-up of 2.2 years (range 0.1-9.3 years). Pediatric patients (hearing (PTA ≤25 dB) post-operatively. Post-operative SRT and ABG were significantly better in patients with partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP) compared with those with total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP) (p = 0.016, 0.027). Titanium prostheses resulted in better post-operative PTA and larger changes in PTA compared with all other materials (p = 0.034, p = 0.038). In our experience, children with titanium prostheses had better hearing outcomes than those with other materials, and children with PORP had better hearing outcomes than those with TORP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards Cognizant Hearing Aids: Modeling of Content, Affect and Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karadogan, Seliz

    Hearing aids improved significantly after the integration of advanced digital signal processing applications. This improvement will continue and evolve through obtaining intelligent, individualized hearing aids integrating top-down (knowledge-based) and bottom-up (signal-based) approaches by making....... Initially, a novel method for automatic speech recognition using binary features from binary masks, is discussed. The performance of binary features in terms of robustness to noise is compared with the ASR state of the art features, mel frequency cepstral coefficients. Secondly, human top-down auditory...... attention is studied. A computational top-down attention model is presented and behavioral experiments are carried out to investigate the role of top-down task driven attention in the cocktail party problem. Finally, automatic emotion recognition from speech is studied using a dimensional approach...

  10. How does spatial hearing affect cocktail party conversations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2003-04-01

    Although spatial cues are not a dominant factor in auditory scene analysis by humans, spatial separation of a target talker and an interfering sound source often increases the intelligibility of the target. A large portion of this improvement arises from a simple acoustic effect: separating the target and interferer generally increases the target-to-interferer energy ratio at one ear. When the target is near threshold, binaural processing provides an additional small, but important improvement. Finally, in conditions where both target and interferer are audible but are difficult to segregate, spatial separation can improve the ability to stream the sources and interpret the target message. The echoes and reverberation present in everyday environments influence all of these factors, altering the target-to-interferer energy ratio, the effectiveness of binaural processing, and the ability to stream the sources. A number of studies will be reviewed to demonstrate how these different factors influence speech intelligibility and affect cocktail party conversations in everyday environments. [Work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

  11. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  12. Prognostic factors for profound sudden idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss: a multicenter retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Dong-Kee; Park, Yong-Ho; Cha, Wang Woon; Kim, Geun Jeon; Lee, Seung Hun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of various treatment modalities for profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) and confirm the prognostic factors. In total, 191 patients were enrolled after a thorough medical chart review of patients diagnosed with unilateral, profound ISSNHL (≥90 dB). Epidemiological profiles, therapeutic regimens, and the results of pure tone audiometry tests were recorded for all patients. Final recovery was assessed according to Siegel's criteria and by comparing the final hearing level of the affected ear with that of the unaffected ear. The mean follow-up duration and the final hearing level were 75 ± 54 days and 77 ± 24 dB, respectively. None of the evaluated prognostic factors were significantly associated with complete recovery (hearing in both ears, the absence of dizziness, the use of lipo-prostaglandin E1 (lipo-PGE1), and the use of plasma volume expanders were independently associated with a final hearing level of up to 45 dB (p hearing, and non-use of lipo-PGE1 increased the possibility of no recovery. Although the efficacy of oral steroid treatment for profound ISSNHL has been questioned, steroid dose reduction was significantly associated with no recovery. Therefore, adequate oral corticosteroid doses should be considered in the absence of contraindications. In addition, the use of lipo-PGE1 and/or a plasma volume expander seems preferable for better recovery, and their use for the management of profound ISSNHL should be considered.

  13. Factors Affecting Radiologist's PACS Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Daniel; Rosipko, Beverly; Sunshine, Jeffrey L

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if any of the factors radiologist, examination category, time of week, and week effect PACS usage, with PACS usage defined as the sequential order of computer commands issued by a radiologist in a PACS during interpretation and dictation. We initially hypothesized that only radiologist and examination category would have significant effects on PACS usage. Command logs covering 8 weeks of PACS usage were analyzed. For each command trace (describing performed activities of an attending radiologist interpreting a single examination), the PACS usage variables number of commands, number of command classes, bigram repetitiveness, and time to read were extracted. Generalized linear models were used to determine the significance of the factors on the PACS usage variables. The statistical results confirmed the initial hypothesis that radiologist and examination category affect PACS usage and that the factors week and time of week to a large extent have no significant effect. As such, this work provides direction for continued efforts to analyze system data to better understand PACS utilization, which in turn can provide input to enable optimal utilization and configuration of corresponding systems. These continued efforts were, in this work, exemplified by a more detailed analysis using PACS usage profiles, which revealed insights directly applicable to improve PACS utilization through modified system configuration.

  14. Factors associated with third-party disability in spouses of older people with hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Nerina; Worrall, Linda; Hickson, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This study had two aims: (1) to describe the extent of third-party disability in a sample of spouses of older people with hearing impairment, and (2) to investigate factors associated with third-party hearing disability. Third-party disability is defined as the disability and functioning of family members as a result of the health condition of their significant other. One hundred older spouses who had partners with hearing impairment participated. All assessments were self-reported, and included a set of measures (the 36-item Significant Other Scale for Hearing Disability, SOS-HEAR; the Relationship Assessment Scale; and the Significant Other Assessment of Communication) administered to the target population of normally hearing older spouses, and those administered to the hearing impaired partners of the spouses in the study (the Self Assessment of Communication). To address the first aim, descriptive statistics were used to describe the extent of third-party hearing disability in the spouses. To address the second aim, binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors associated with third-party hearing disability. Factors investigated were focused on the spouse (e.g., spouse perception of relationship satisfaction) and on the partners with hearing impairment (e.g., partners' level of hearing impairment). Most spouses (98%) reported some degree of third-party hearing disability on at least one item of the SOS-HEAR, with the majority reporting a mild disability. Three risk factors were found to be significantly associated with severe or complete third-party disability: lower relationship satisfaction as reported by the spouse (Relationship Assessment Scale), spousal age difference, and spouse perception of their partner's hearing disability (Significant Other Assessment of Communication). Partners' level of hearing impairment, self-reported hearing disability (Self Assessment of Communication), use of hearing aids, and spouse satisfaction that their

  15. Correlations between risk factors for hearing impairment and TEOAE screening test outcome in neonates at risk for hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratyńska, J; Grzanka, A; Mueller-Malesińska, M; Skarzyński, H; Hatzopoulos, S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find the correlation between specific risk factors for hearing impairment as well as between risk factors and TEOAE screening results in neonates at risk for hearing impairment. Seventy-one newborns at risk for hearing impairment have been included in the study. Strong correlations between specific risk factors were found. Investigation of the relationship between specific risk factors and TEOAE signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) showed that in children with genetic risk factors, TORCH (toxoplasmosis, rubella, CMV, herpes virus, others) infections and in those treated with ototoxic drugs, the values of SNRs were significantly lower than in children at risk who did not present those factors. In case of hyperbilirubinaemic children the values of SNR were significantly higher than in the controls. In our opinion these relationships may be partially explained by the positive predictive values of these risk factors, but other intrinsic factors may also be involved.

  16. What are the audiometric frequencies affected are the responsible for the hearing complaint in the hearing loss for ototoxicity after the oncological treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberman, Patricia Helena Pecora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The neurosensory bilateral simetric hearing loss resulting of the oncological treatment is underestimated, because the patients has the hearing detection preserved, reporting complaints in determined situation, or the not comprehension of part of the message. Objective: Investigate which are the audiometric frequencies affected are the responsible by the presence of hearing complaints. Method: Prospective study evaluating 200 patients with cancer in the childhood out of the oncological treatment in at least 8 years, with average age to the diagnosis of 6,21 years (4,71. Was applied anamnesis to investigate the presence of hearing complaints and performed a tonal threshold audiometry. To check the association between the complaint and the hearing loss, was applied the Exact test of Fisher, with one error a=5%, the patients were split into: normal hearing, hearing loss in 8kHz, loss in 6-8 kHz, loss in 4-8 kHz, loss in 2-8 kHz and loss in < 1-8 kHz. Results: We found 125 patients with hearing loss, 10 presented hearing complaints. Between the patients with hearing loss, 16 presented loss only at 8kHz, and 1 with complaint; 22 with loss in 6-8 kHz, being 3 with complaint; 16 with loss in 4-8 kHz, from them 10 with complaint; 15 with loss 2-8 kHz, being 14 with complaint and 6 with loss in < 1-8 kHz all with complaints. There were a significant relationship between the loss and hearing complaint (p<0,001, when the frequency of 4 kHz was involved. Conclusion: The bigger the number of affected frequencies the bigger the occurrence of hearing complaint, most of all when the speech frequencies are involved, and the involvement of 4 kHz already determines the appearing of the complaints.

  17. Psychological Factors Affecting Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sati Unal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was performed to determine the psychological factors affecting infertile women presenting at the infertility outpatients department. METHOD: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women who presented at the IVF center of a special branch hospital or a university hospital, March 2008 through September 2008, as determined by the non-random sampling method. All participating women gave their informed consent. The data were collected using the Data Form that consisted of questions on socio-demographic features and the Infertility Distress Scale (IDS. In the results, percentages were provided along with the Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U and Spearman correlation tests. RESULTS: The mean IDS was 39.01±9.6. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between the mean IDS score and age (r=0.106, p=0.048, marriage duration (r=0.232, p<0.001 and duration of desire to have a child (r=0.217, p<0.001. Women who were primary school graduates (X²=13.03, p=0.004, did not work (p=0.007, had no social security benefits (p=0.021 or from low socioeconomic status (X²=24.85, p<0.001 had significantly higher mean IDS scores. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show women become more adversely affected by infertility as their age, duration of marriage, and duration of desire to have a child increase. Women who are primary school graduates, do not work, have no social security benefits or have lower income are affected more negatively. We believe that taking these features into account when evaluating and planning supportive approaches for women presenting at the infertility treatment center and determining the psychological state of the women using the IDS will increase treatment success. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 481-486

  18. Factors affecting tactile spatial acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J C; Kisner, J M

    1998-01-01

    Tactile spatial acuity on the fingerpad was measured using a grating orientation task. In this task, subjects are required to identify the orientation of square-wave gratings placed on the skin. Previous studies have shown that performance varies as a function of the width of the grooves in the gratings. In the present study, both groove width and the overall size and configuration of the contactors were varied. Sensitivity improved with wider grooves and with larger contactors. Additional measurements showed that the improved sensitivity is not the result of the increase in total area contacted, but rather is due to two other factors associated with larger contactors. One is the greater linear extent of the larger contactors. The other appears to be due to the reduction in the interference produced by the outer edge of the contactor. Specifically, as the contactor increases in size, the distance between the outer edge and the center portion of the grooves also increases. It was also shown that subjects are more sensitive to a single, continuous groove as compared with two grooves of the same total length but spatially discontinuous. Similarly, subjects are more sensitive to a contactor with a continuous groove than to a contactor in which just the end points of the groove are presented. The results are generally consistent with the results of peripheral, neurophysiological recordings. The results are discussed in terms of the way in which both spatial and intensive factors may affect sensitivity to grating orientation.

  19. Factors affecting dental service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Baldacchino, Donia

    2015-01-01

    Measuring dental clinic service quality is the first and most important factor in improving care. The quality provided plays an important role in patient satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting dental service quality from the patients' viewpoint. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in a dental clinic in Tehran between January and June 2014. A sample of 385 patients was selected from two work shifts using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The data were collected, a self-administered questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study, based on the Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model of service quality which consisted of two parts: the patients' demographic characteristics and a 30-item questionnaire to measure the five dimensions of the service quality. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 18.0 through some descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, as well as analytical methods, including confirmatory factor. Results showed that the correlation coefficients for all dimensions were higher than 0.5. In this model, assurance (regression weight=0.99) and tangibility (regression weight=0.86) had, respectively, the highest and lowest effects on dental service quality. The Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model is suitable to measure quality in dental services. The variables related to dental services quality have been made according to the model. This is a pioneering study that uses Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model and CFA in a dental setting. This study provides useful insights and guidance for dental service quality assurance.

  20. [Hearing screening in a public hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: hearing impairment and risk factors in neonates and infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiensoli, Luciana Oliveira; Goulart, Lúcia Maria Horta de Figueiredo; Resende, Luciana Macedo de; Colosimo, Enrico Antônio

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hearing impairment in children in a public hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to investigate the association with risk factors described in the literature. This study was cross-sectional and retrospective and analyzed 798 newborns and infants evaluated in the Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening Program from June 2002 to December 2003. The risk factors established by the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing in 1994 and Azevedo in 1996 were studied, besides prematurity. Prevalence of hearing impairment was 1.8% (15 cases). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to verify associations between risk factors and hearing impairment, showing a significant statistical association (p ototoxic drugs, and low birth weight. A significant prevalence of hearing impairment in neonates and infants was confirmed. Attention should thus be focused on risk factors for hearing impairment, using hearing programs that ensure prevention, early detection, and intervention.

  1. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxu; Lin, Jintai; Ni, Ruijing

    2016-04-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant a large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RF of aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissions per unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size. South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions, its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency. The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is lowered by a small per capita GDP. Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The

  2. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  3. Is Hearing Impairment Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emamifar, Amir; Bjoerndal, Kristine; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    2016-01-01

    and ComDisDome to cover all relative reports. The following keywords were used: hearing loss, hearing difficulties, hearing disorders, hearing impairment, sensorineural hearing loss, conductive hearing loss, mixed hearing loss, autoimmune hearing loss, drug ototoxicity, drug-induced hearing loss, hearing......BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, inflammatory disease that affects 1% of the population. The auditory system may be involved during the course of disease; however the association of RA and hearing impairment has not been clearly defined. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review...... is to evaluate published clinical reports related to hearing impairment in patients with RA. Furthermore, we discuss possible pathologies and associated factors as well as new treatment modalities. METHOD: A thorough literature search was performed using available databases including Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane...

  4. Factors Affecting Children Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠

    2002-01-01

    By reviewing the literature, the author points out some theoretical defects of the CPH on which the policy was based. CPH is the conceptualization formulation of the maturational constraints for SLA. The paper, based on the reality of China, put forward some suggestion, which includes the time factor, the teacher's factor and the content factor.

  5. Assessment of Hematological Factors Involved in Development and Prognosis of Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, Kasim; Terzi, Hatice; Karataş, Tuba Doğan; Doğan, Mansur; Uysal, Ismail Önder; Şencan, Mehmet; Altuntaş, Emine Elif

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of routine hematological parameters on the development and prognosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss in patients applying to our clinic. A retrospective clinical study. One academic health center from 2008 to 2014. One hundred forty patients with sudden hearing loss and 132 healthy controls were included in the present study. Patients having idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss were divided into 2 subgroups based on whether they recovered (complete, partial, and slight recovery) (Group 1; n = 83, 59.3%) or not (Group 2; n = 57, 40.7%) during the follow-up term. Group 1, Group 2, and the controls differed statistically significantly in terms of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.001), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.001), lymphocytes % (P = 0.001), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (P = 0.019), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.015), platelet (P  = 0.001), mean platelet volume (P = 0.001), platelet distribution width (P = 0.009), and glucose (P = 0.001). The study groups and the controls did not have any significant difference in terms of other laboratory parameters affecting the prognosis of Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The results the authors obtained showed that laboratory parameters such as lymphocyte, lymphocyte%, platelet, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration may be indicative for prognosis and treatment success in groups of patients suffering idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss in whose etiology many factors play a role.

  6. Hearing Loss Prevalence and Risk Factors Among Older Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Roland; Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Background. Hearing loss has been associated with cognitive and functional decline in older adults and may be amenable to rehabilitative interventions, but national estimates of hearing loss prevalence and hearing aid use in older adults are unavailable. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2005–2006 cycle of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, which is the first cycle to ever incorporate hearing assessment in adults aged 70 years and older. Audiometry was performed in 717 older adults, and data on hearing aid use, noise exposure, medical history, and demographics were obtained from interviews. Analyses incorporated sampling weights to account for the complex sampling design and yield results that are generalizable to the U.S. population. Results. The prevalence of hearing loss defined as a speech frequency pure tone average of more than 25 dB in the better ear was 63.1% (95% confidence interval: 57.4–68.8). Age, sex, and race were the factors most strongly associated with hearing loss after multivariate adjustment, with black race being substantially protective against hearing loss (odds ratio 0.32 compared with white participants [95% confidence interval: 0.19–0.53]). Hearing aids were used in 40.0% (95% confidence interval: 35.1–44.8) of adults with moderate hearing loss, but in only 3.4% (95% confidence interval: 0.8–6.0) of those with a mild hearing loss. Conclusion. Hearing loss is prevalent in nearly two thirds of adults aged 70 years and older in the U.S. population. Additional research is needed to determine the epidemiological and physiological basis for the protective effect of black race against hearing loss and to determine the role of hearing aids in those with a mild hearing loss. PMID:21357188

  7. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yongi-Mi; University of Oklahoma

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR); yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider univers...

  8. Macroenvironmental factors affecting ethical behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Önsel Ekici, Şule; Ekici, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to take a macroethical perspective and study the relationships between various structural factors and ethical behavior of firms. Using the data obtained from the Global Competitiveness Network of the World Economic Forum-WEF, and through the Bayesian Causal Map (BCM) methodology, we study how ethical behaviors of firms in a given country group are shaped by how managers perceive the political, legislative, and protective environment of business in these countries....

  9. Maritime Factors Affecting Iberian Security,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    AFECTAN LA SECURIDAD IBERICA FACTORES MARITIMOS QUE AFECTANJ LA SEGURIDAD IBE RICA Introduccion En lo que ataine a la seguridad ibe~rica, la realidad ...fuerzas naval.. sera~n de significado periferico. Aquella part. do la marina do guerra sovietica quo esta ya desplegada en el oce’ano sera/ aumentada ...nota de la realidad consabida de que tanto la hora de introduccion como la escala de emplec de las armas nlu- cleares en una guerra general anibas

  10. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  11. Teratogenic factors affect transcription factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takuya; Asano, Shinya; Takahashi, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Chemical compounds are produced every day, many with adverse effects on human health, and hence it is vital to predict the risks to humans simply, rapidly, and accurately. Teratogens have a serious impact on fetal development. This has been studied mainly by phenotypic analysis of experimental animals. However, since phenotypes can vary within different species, we established a new evaluation system based on our recent finding that teratogens influence Hox gene expression in mice. Similarly to the Hox gene expression changes, the expression patterns of several transcription factors involved in development, including the Dlx, Irx, Sall, and T-box families, were altered after 6 h of exposure to retinoic acid (RA) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The expression changes in Dlx4, Dlx6, Irx5, Sall2, Sall3, Sall4, Tbx10, and Tbx22 were linked to teratogen-induced phenotypes, and our results indicate that expression changes in developmental transcription factors can help to predict teratogenic risk.

  12. Factors Affecting Traditional Markets Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotnier Sipahutar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, traditional market is increasingly squeezed by the emergence of modern market that develops rapidly. The dominance shift in national retail is apparent when globalization can no longer be contained, let alone be banned. Middle class and small class (traditional market business retail seem to be in increasingly difficult condition to compete with upscale retail business (modern market. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors influencing the competitiveness of traditional market and to develop policies to improve the competitiveness of traditional market. This study utilizes research strategy of case study in Bandung City, Serang City, and Surabaya City with qualitative descriptive approach. The study shows that the factors inhibiting the competitiveness of traditional market with modern stores are (1 Traditional market’s bad image, and (2 Traditional market’s sellers and managers are unprofessional. To improve the competitiveness of traditional market, this study recommends: (1 routine and regular maintenance of buildings and infrastructure of traditional market, (2 professionalism improvement of traditional market’s sellers and managers, and (3 the partiality of local government in traditional markets.

  13. Factors affecting forage stand establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulc R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should be expanded in the industry to enable matching seed lot performance to specific environmental conditions where performance can be maximized. Seed treatment and seed coating are used in the forage seed industry, and studies have shown they are of benefit in some environments. There is an increase in no-tillage seeding of forage crops, but improvements in the no-tillage planting equipment are needed to make them better suited to small seeds. Other recent developments in seeding techniques include broadcasting seed with dry granular and fluid fertilizers, which improves the efficiency of the seeding operation.

  14. Factors associated with the occurrence of hearing loss after pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Brandt, C.T.;

    2010-01-01

    -tone hearing threshold levels were compared with normative data. Results. Of 240 patients examined by use of audiometry, 129 (54%) had a hearing deficit, and 50 (39%) of these 129 patients were not suspected of hearing loss at discharge from hospital. Of the 240 patients, 16 (7%) had profound unilateral...... is common after pneumococcal meningitis, and audiometry should be performed on all those who survive pneumococcal meningitis. Important risk factors for hearing loss are advanced age, female sex, severity of meningitis, and bacterial serotype...

  15. Relationships Among Factors Relevant to Abdominal Fat and Age-Related Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young; Park, Mina

    2017-05-11

    Metabolic syndrome is related with abdominal fat and with age-related hearing loss (ARHL). In this study, we evaluated the association between a variety of factors relevant to abdominal fat (FRAs) and hearing thresholds. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of 2,602 subjects aged over 40 years with symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss who underwent abdominal fat computed tomography (CT) scans. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to demonstrate the association between each FRA and hearing thresholds at low and high frequencies. Four of 5 FRAs were associated with hearing thresholds at high frequencies in males. All FRAs examined showed a relationship with hearing thresholds at low frequencies in females. Diabetes mellitus (DM) among clinical factors and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) among the 5 FRAs were the most reflective of hearing thresholds in both males and females. We found that FRAs were associated with hearing loss with frequency specific characteristics according to sex and reinforced that DM and VAT is particularly an important role for hearing.

  16. Factors affecting calculation of L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotola, Mark P.

    2001-08-01

    A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient

  17. Long-term asymmetric hearing affects cochlear implantation outcomes differently in adults with pre- and postlingual hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Isabelle; McMahon, Catherine M; Dowell, Richard C; Lyxell, Björn

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, a single cochlear implant is offered as a treatment for a bilateral hearing loss. In cases where there is asymmetry in the amount of sound deprivation between the ears, there is a dilemma in choosing which ear should be implanted. In many clinics, the choice of ear has been guided by an assumption that the reorganisation of the auditory pathways caused by longer duration of deafness in one ear is associated with poorer implantation outcomes for that ear. This assumption, however, is mainly derived from studies of early childhood deafness. This study compared outcomes following implantation of the better or poorer ear in cases of long-term hearing asymmetries. Audiological records of 146 adults with bilateral hearing loss using a single hearing aid were reviewed. The unaided ear had 15 to 72 years of unaided severe to profound hearing loss before unilateral cochlear implantation. 98 received the implant in their long-term sound-deprived ear. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to assess the relative contribution of potential predictors to speech recognition performance after implantation. Duration of bilateral significant hearing loss and the presence of a prelingual hearing loss explained the majority of variance in speech recognition performance following cochlear implantation. For participants with postlingual hearing loss, similar outcomes were obtained by implanting either ear. With prelingual hearing loss, poorer outcomes were obtained when implanting the long-term sound-deprived ear, but the duration of the sound deprivation in the implanted ear did not reliably predict outcomes. Contrary to an apparent clinical consensus, duration of sound deprivation in one ear has limited value in predicting speech recognition outcomes of cochlear implantation in that ear. Outcomes of cochlear implantation are more closely related to the period of time for which the brain is deprived of auditory stimulation from both ears.

  18. Working Memory Capacity as a Factor Influencing the Relationship between Language Outcome and Rehabilitation in Mandarin-Speaking Preschoolers with Congenital Hearing Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ming; Chen, Pei-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Memory processes could account for a significant part of the variance in language performances of hearing-impaired children. However, the circumstance in which the performance of hearing-impaired children can be nearly the same as the performance of hearing children remains relatively little studied. Thus, a group of pre-school children with congenital, bilateral hearing loss and a group of pre-school children with normal hearing were invited to participate in this study. In addition, the hearing-impaired participants were divided into two groups according to their working memory span. A language disorder assessment test for Mandarin-speaking preschoolers was used to measure the outcomes of receptive and expressive language of the two groups of children. The results showed that the high-span group performed as good as the hearing group, while the low-span group showed lower accuracy than the hearing group. A linear mixed-effects analysis showed that not only length of rehabilitation but also the memory span affected the measure of language outcome. Furthermore, the rehabilitation length positively correlated with the measure of expressive language only among the participants of the high-span group. The pattern of the results indicates that working memory capacity is one of the factors that could support the children to acquire age-equivalent language skills.

  19. Working Memory Capacity as a Factor Influencing the Relationship between Language Outcome and Rehabilitation in Mandarin-Speaking Preschoolers with Congenital Hearing Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ming; Chen, Pei-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Memory processes could account for a significant part of the variance in language performances of hearing-impaired children. However, the circumstance in which the performance of hearing-impaired children can be nearly the same as the performance of hearing children remains relatively little studied. Thus, a group of pre-school children with congenital, bilateral hearing loss and a group of pre-school children with normal hearing were invited to participate in this study. In addition, the hearing-impaired participants were divided into two groups according to their working memory span. A language disorder assessment test for Mandarin-speaking preschoolers was used to measure the outcomes of receptive and expressive language of the two groups of children. The results showed that the high-span group performed as good as the hearing group, while the low-span group showed lower accuracy than the hearing group. A linear mixed-effects analysis showed that not only length of rehabilitation but also the memory span affected the measure of language outcome. Furthermore, the rehabilitation length positively correlated with the measure of expressive language only among the participants of the high-span group. The pattern of the results indicates that working memory capacity is one of the factors that could support the children to acquire age-equivalent language skills. PMID:28337168

  20. Environmental factors affecting autoimmune thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safran, M.; Paul, T.L.; Roti, E.; Braverman, L.E.

    1987-06-01

    A number of environmental factors affect the incidence and progression of autoimmune thyroid disease. Exposure to excess iodine, certain drugs, infectious agents and pollutants, and stress have all been implicated.

  1. Factors affecting effective performance of rural producers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Factors affecting effective performance of rural producers' organizations in the ... Linkages are vital for effective achievement of purposes and most RPOs (80%), had established them ..... Success: Learning from Instructive Experiences in Ru-.

  2. Factors Affecting the Difficulty of Verbal Analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccas, Sonia; Moshinsky, Avital

    2003-01-01

    Examined factors affecting the difficulty of verbal analogies in a psychometric examination by characterizing 104 analogies using 5 defined attributes. Both knowledge and process attributes were found to contribute to the difficulty of verbal analogies assessed by 10 judges. (SLD)

  3. Factors Affecting Students’ Achievement in Mathematics ∗

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the factors that affect students’ mathematics achievement in secondary school mathematics grades of 6th, 7th and 8th were explored. For this purpose, the factors that affect mathematics education and mathematics achievement such as type of school, family income, studying time and students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses have been investigated. The sample of the study consisted of 275 students from one private (n=58) and two state schools (n= 217)...

  4. EFL Teachers' Factors and Students' Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei

    2007-01-01

    Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in the classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence…

  5. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  6. [Noise as a stress factor for the onset of hearing disorders in workers using drilling equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedić, O; Rodić-Strugar, J; Solak, Z; Filipović, D

    2001-01-01

    Noise is one of the commonest environmental pollutants and it is defined as a sound which bothers, irritates, which is unpleasant and can damage hearing. The degree of negative effects of noise depends on its intensity, spectrum of frequency, nature, duration of exposition and individual sensibility. This work is supposed to establish the degree of correlation between hearing damage and professional exposition to one of physical stressors of work environment--noise. Investigation regarding work conditions included intensity and frequency analysis of noise at workplaces. The examination sample included 101 workers of "NIS--Naftagas" section "Hidrosonda" employed as drilling workers. The control group consisted of 50 workers not exposed to noise or any other professional influences, like workers from the examination sample. The results on the observed workplaces show that noise is of high intensity and bad frequency spectrum. Exposition of workers to noise is a highly important factor for hearing damages (p = 0.002). The relative risk for hearing damage is four times greater in relation to the control group (odds ratio 4.1). Attributable fraction (preventive potential) of noise factor is 61%. Smoking associated with exposition to noise multiplies the risk of hearing damage (odds ratio 5.8) while with non-smokers the risk decreases (odds ratio 3.0). Professional hearing disorders occur slowly and increase with time spent at noisy workplaces. At the beginning it presents with buzzing in ears and dizziness followed by latent phase after which hearing disorders occur. Tone audiometry is used to register first signs of hearing loss, whereas manifestations in social contacts come later. Once diagnosed hearing disorders cannot be cured so a lot more care should be paid to this problem. It is necessary to provide adequate work conditions by applying appropriate technologies, tools, work organisation, personal protection equipment, as well as previous and periodical

  7. Chinese children with nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate: Factors associated with hearing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoran; Li, Yue Wing; Ma, Lian; McPherson, Bradley

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the auditory status of Chinese children with nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate (NSCL/P), investigated factors associated with peripheral hearing loss and compared results with earlier studies in western countries. Case history profiles and audiological data from 148 Chinese children with NSCL/P, aged between 6 and 15 years, who attended the Cleft Lip and Palate Clinic Center in a major Chinese urban hospital from July 2012 to September 2013 were acquired. The audiological status of the participants was reviewed, based on the results of their pure tone audiometry, tympanometry and acoustic reflex thresholds assessments. Factors including age, gender, cleft type, residential locality and school achievement were examined in relation to auditory status. Findings revealed that 17% of the Chinese children with NSCL/P had hearing impairment at the time of assessment. Unilateral hearing loss was noted in 12% of children and in 5% of cases bilateral hearing loss was noted. In the majority of cases the hearing loss was slight and conductive in nature. Age, gender, residential locality and school achievement were found to have no relationship with severity of hearing loss. Children with cleft lip showed a lower degree of hearing impairment than children with cleft palate or cleft lip and palate. Similar to studies for western children, Chinese children with CL/P associated with no known syndrome are at risk of peripheral hearing loss, generally of conductive type. However, the prevalence of peripheral hearing loss appears to be less than in western children with NSCL/P. Ethnic/racial factors may be a major contributing factor accounting for the discrepancies between the current results and western studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Diabetes and Hearing Loss Among Underserved Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Donna; Watley, Sanreka R

    2015-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) disproportionately affects the underserved population, and has been identified as the major risk factor for many microvascular diseases. T2DM also affects the vasculature and neural system of the inner ear, often leading to hearing loss, a major risk factor for falls, depression, and other health problems. This article aims to: increase awareness of the association between T2DM and hearing loss; promote screening for hearing loss; discuss available resources and assistive devices for those with hearing loss; and encourage nurses to take an active role in advocating for assessment and treatment of hearing loss in T2DM patients.

  9. HEARING AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENTSAS RISK FACTORS FOR LATE- LIFE DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza N. KRSTESKA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Late-life depression is one of the most frequent disorders among the seniors and often remains unrecognized. One of the reasons why late-life depression often passes unrecognized is the comorbidity. Hearing and visual impairments are very common condition among the elderly. Thus, depression among the elderly is commonly accompanied by hearing and visual impairment. The epidemiology together with the visual and hearing-related problems still remains poorly investigated.Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between hearing and visual function and the late-life depression.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 120 participants, 60 patients with late-life depression and 60 community-dwelling older adults aged over 60 and without the symptoms of depression. All participants were examined using a questionnaire designed for the aim of the study to measure the severity of the symptoms (scale with scores from 1 to 3 - from mild to profound degree of self-reported hearing and visual impairment. In addition, existing medical records and the Geriatric Depression Scale were used as well.Results: The patients with late-life depression in larger number suffered from hearing and visual impairment compared to the non - depressed elderly people: hearing impairments (χ2=6.97, df=1, p=0.0083 and visual impairments (χ2=4.37, df=2, p=0.012.Conclusion: These data suggest that the risk of late-life depression is higher among elderly patients with hearing and visual impairment. A comprehensive annual eye exam is the most important step that can be undertaken to help monitor and protect normal visual function in the elderly. It is necessary to conduct routine screening and early treatment of depression in elderly patients with hearing and visual impairment within the primary care practice. Ophthalmologists and otologists should be aware of the need for routine screening for geriatric syndromes in the

  10. An Evaluation of Sensory Neural Hearing Loss in Thalassaemic Patients Treated with Desferrioxamine and Its Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sonbolestan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: In major thalassaemia patients who need blood transfusion, iron overload is a major therapeutic disadvantage that leads to heart failure which is the major cause of death in such patients. Desferrioxamine (DFO is the most efficient factor for iron chelation, but it carries adverse effects such sensory-neural hearing loss. Methods: The study began in March 2002 and continued untill March 2003, on 160 cases of thalassaemia to determine the incidence of sensory – neural hearing loss and its risk factors in patients who received Desferrioxamine (DFO. All cases underwent audiometric tests. Retrospectively, other needed information were either obtained through interview or extracted from the medical files. Results were analyzed with ANOVA, t-test and Chi-square tests. Results: Seventy-six patients of the total 156 patients showed impairment in PTA (48.7% with 24 of them suffering significant involvement (15.4%. These abnormalities generally affected high frequencies including, 4000 and 8000 Hz. Male gender, increased serum billirubin level and fasting blood sugar were statistically correlated with hearing loss (p.v = 0.038, p.v = 0.38, p.v = 0.002 respectively. There was no significant correlation between hearing loss and other factors. Mean DFO administration in patients, was 29.69 mg/kg/day and mean therapeutic index of DFO was 0.01 mg/kg/day/mg/lit. Both of them were below the critical level (<40mg/kg/day and <0.025mg/kg/day/mg/lit respectively, however hearing loss had developed. Conclusion: Controlling DFO dosage per se does not seem to be enough for decreasing ototoxicity rate. Periodic audiometric tests are highly recommended to detect hearing loss as soon as possible. There are some other factors such as male gender, increased billirubin and FBS, which contribute to DFO ototoxicity. Looking for these risk factors and controlling them, would help identifying susceptible patients and preventing this complication. Key words

  11. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongi-Mi Kim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR; yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider university guidelines, review other websites, and consult with experts and other divisions within the library; however, resources and training for the design process are lacking. While website designers assess their websites as highly successful, user evaluations are somewhat lower. Accordingly, use is low, and users rely heavily on commercial websites. Suggestions for enhancing the usage of ULWR are provided.

  12. Factors Affecting the Income of Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the introduction of factors affecting the income level of farmers in China,a total of 31 provinces,autonomous regions and municipality cities are taken as samples to select 13 factors affecting the income level of farmers,which are arable land area(X1),disaster area(X2),effective irrigation area(X3),fertilizer application(X4),mobile phone(X5),personal computer(X6),people joining in the new rural cooperative medical care(X7),rural investment(X8),household-use machine(X9),agricultural product price(X10),proportion of labor force with above junior high school education(X11),rural delivery route(X12),and rural electricity consumption(X13).At the same time,factor analysis method is used to analyze the factors affecting the income level of farmers.Result shows that common factors affecting the income of farmers are the agricultural production factor F1,the expanded reproduction factor F2,the information use factor F3,and the output reduction factor F4.At present,education degree of farmers and ability of farmers in grasping information have relatively great impact on the income of farmers,and can effectively promote the income growth of farmers.Scores of F1 in Henan,Shandong and Hebei are generally higher;Jiangsu,Guangdong,Zhejiang and Shandong Provinces have relatively high scores of F2;Shanghai,Beijing and Guangdong have relatively high scores of F3;and Hunan,Hubei and Xinjiang have relatively high scores of F4.Finally,countermeasures are put forward to improve the income of farmers based on empirical study.

  13. Newborn Hearing Screening in a Public Maternity Ward in Curitiba, Brazil: Determining Factors for Not Retesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Idalina; Ribas, Angela; Kozlowski, Lorena; Willig, Mariluci; Berberian, Ana Paula

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Law 12.303/10 requires hearing screening in newborns before hospital discharge to detect possible hearing problems within the first three months after birth. If the newborn fails the test or presents signs of risk for hearing loss, it must undergo a retest and monitoring during the first year of life. In practice, this often does not happen. Objective To identify, in a group of mothers of children with risk factors for hearing loss, the determining reasons for non-compliance with the auditory retest. Method This is a cross-sectional quantitative study. For data collection, we handed a semi-structured questionnaire to 60 mothers of babies at risk for hearing loss who did not attend the hearing retest after hospital discharge. The questionnaire investigated their age, education, marital status, level of knowledge about the hearing screening, and reasons for non-compliance with the retest. We compared and analyzed data using the Chi-square test at a significance level of 0.05%. Results Our study found that 63% of the respondents were unaware of the hearing screening and most did not receive guidance on testing during prenatal care; 30% of participants stated forgetting as the reason for not attending the retest. There was no significant relationship between age, education, and marital status regarding knowledge about the test and the non-compliance with the retest. Conclusion Identified as the most significant determining factors for non-compliance with the newborn hearing screening retest were the surveyed mothers' forgetting the date, and their ignorance as to the importance of retesting.

  14. Newborn Hearing Screening in a Public Maternity Ward in Curitiba, Brazil: Determining Factors for Not Retesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz, Idalina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Law 12.303/10 requires hearing screening in newborns before hospital discharge to detect possible hearing problems within the first three months after birth. If the newborn fails the test or presents signs of risk for hearing loss, it must undergo a retest and monitoring during the first year of life. In practice, this often does not happen. Objective To identify, in a group of mothers of children with risk factors for hearing loss, the determining reasons for non-compliance with the auditory retest. Method This is a cross-sectional quantitative study. For data collection, we handed a semi-structured questionnaire to 60 mothers of babies at risk for hearing loss who did not attend the hearing retest after hospital discharge. The questionnaire investigated their age, education, marital status, level of knowledge about the hearing screening, and reasons for non-compliance with the retest. We compared and analyzed data using the Chi-square test at a significance level of 0.05%. Results Our study found that 63% of the respondents were unaware of the hearing screening and most did not receive guidance on testing during prenatal care; 30% of participants stated forgetting as the reason for not attending the retest. There was no significant relationship between age, education, and marital status regarding knowledge about the test and the non-compliance with the retest. Conclusion Identified as the most significant determining factors for non-compliance with the newborn hearing screening retest were the surveyed mothers' forgetting the date, and their ignorance as to the importance of retesting.

  15. Factors Affecting the Productivity of Government Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. Haenisch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While there have been a variety of studies concerning government worker motivation and productivity, few, if any, studies have focused specifically on state government workers’ perceptions about what factors affect their productivity. With more than 5 million workers employed by state governments in the United States, any improvement in state workplace productivity could have significant financial and service impact for society. In this study, state government workers identified those factors perceived as most affecting their workplace productivity. Data were collected through a survey offered to state government workers in the state of Wyoming. Factor analysis was used to derive key productivity factors from survey responses. The results indicate that state government workers appreciate having freedom and autonomy, like their jobs and the sense of achievement, and welcome teamwork, but feel limited by poor supervision and management, poor communications, and insufficient budgets and staffing. To improve productivity, the workers would eliminate bureaucracy, supervise better, and improve communication.

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  17. Factors Influencing Hearing Preservation in Acoustic Tumor Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, Pawan; Cacace, Anthony T.; Lovely, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    In patients who underwent neurosurgery for excision of acoustic tumors, we used correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis to study relationships among nine variables thought to have value in predicting hearing preservation. These variables included auditory perceptual, auditory neurophysiologic, and imaging-related characteristics of acoustic tumor dimensions. The univariate correlations showed two general trends. The first trend demonstrated relationships among imaging-relate...

  18. Risk factors of sensorineural hearing loss in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borradori, C; Fawer, C L; Buclin, T; Calame, A

    1997-01-01

    Among 547 preterm infants of Ototoxicity appeared closely related to a prolonged administration and higher total dose of ototoxic drugs, particularly aminoglycosides and furosemide. Finally, we strongly recommend to prospectively and regularly perform audiologic assessment in sick preterm children as hearing loss is of delayed onset and in most cases bilateral and severe.

  19. Analysis of Economic Factors Affecting Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Linyin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation concentrates on analysis of economic factors affecting Chinese stock market through examining relationship between stock market index and economic factors. Six economic variables are examined: industrial production, money supply 1, money supply 2, exchange rate, long-term government bond yield and real estate total value. Stock market comprises fixed interest stocks and equities shares. In this dissertation, stock market is restricted to equity market. The stock price in thi...

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING PERSISTENCE IN STUDENTS' LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShenPanyang

    2004-01-01

    It is one thing that currently in China English learning persists through a student's whole study life, but it is another how long his persistence, an important factor in any language learning, can last. The factors affecting a student's persistence in this regard practically merits our attention. This paper traces and observes twenty students chosen by random. The research conducted here included their study motivation, academic excellence, psychological aspects relating to language learning and established corresponding models showing how these factors affect a student's persistence in his English learning. Although a small sample number was taken,of different students in China.the twenty students were typical of different students in China. The students' backgrounds were varied including both educational and environmental. Some suggestions are given indicating three separate but inter-related ways in how to further develop a student's persistence.

  1. Micro and macro factors affecting childbearing aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y

    1992-01-01

    The conclusion of the discussion of factors affecting childbearing aspirations is that both a micro and a macro perspective must be included in an empirical analysis which would be useful for policy decisions. Micro factors tend to the economic function of the family, the economic value of children, cost of labor training, women's occupation, social security, household consumption, and education level. Attention to micro factors is important in the link between individual interests and state family planning (FP) policy. Macro factors tend to be ignored, but also impact on childbearing decisions. Macro factors are economic conditions, social and political factors, culture, and environmental factors such as ecology, natural resources, employment, economic development, and education. Macro factors affect the population as a whole and indirectly impact on individuals and the family. China's achievements in FP policy have been identified as a reduction of 200 million people, a shift in the population reproduction cycle downwards, increased standard of living, reduction in the burden of working people, and stabilization of macro factors. Successful policy should not rely on forced implementation. The past and present policies were successful not because of forced implementation, but because of awareness of macro and micro factors and voluntary use of FP. The voluntary nature of acceptance of FP suggests support for the FP policies. The current focus is on rural areas, and farmers in particular who are only aware of their needs and may feel state policy may interfere with their own interests. Implementation of FP among the rural population would be enhanced with an emphasis on their concerns such as social security in old age, the practical issues of having only daughters, and educational status. Educational campaigns promoting awareness of population pressure are needed and will benefit all the people. Social democratic doctrines can be introduced only from the outside

  2. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Ho; Cho, Seok Hyun; Jeong, Jin Hyeok; Park, Chul Won; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate clinical characteristics and possible associated factors of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) in children using univariate and multivariate analyses. A retrospective case series with comparisons. From January 2007 to December 2013, medical records of 37 pediatric ISSNHL patients were reviewed to assess hearing recovery rate and examine factors associated with prognosis (gender; side of hearing loss; opposite side hearing loss; treatment onset; presence of vertigo, tinnitus, and ear fullness; initial hearing threshold), using univariate and multivariate analysis, and compare them with 276 adult ISSNHL patients. Pediatric patients comprised only 6.6% of pediatric/adult cases of ISSNHL, and those below 10 years old were only 0.7%. The overall recovery rates (complete and partial) of the pediatric and adult patients were 57.4% and 47.2%, respectively. The complete recovery rate of the pediatric group (46.6%) was higher than that of the adult group (30.8%, P = .040). According to multivariate analysis, absence of tinnitus, later onset of treatment, and higher hearing threshold at initial presentation were associated with a poor prognosis in pediatric ISSNHL. The recovery rate of ISSNHL in pediatric patients is higher than in adults, and the presence of tinnitus and earlier treatment onset is associated with favorable outcomes. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Uni- and multivariate models for investigating potential prognostic factors in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionello, Marco; Staffieri, Claudia; Breda, Stefano; Turato, Chiara; Giacomelli, Luciano; Magnavita, Paola; de Filippis, Cosimo; Staffieri, Alberto; Marioni, Gino

    2015-08-01

    With a worldwide incidence estimated at 8-15 per 100,000 population a year, idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) is a common clinical finding for otologists. There is a shortage of information on the clinical factors capable of predicting hearing recovery and response to therapy. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the prognostic value of clinical variables in relation to hearing recovery, in a cohort of 117 consecutive patients with ISSHL. Clinical parameters (signs, symptoms, comorbidities and treatments) and audiometric data were analyzed with univariate and multivariate statistical approaches for prognostic purposes to identify any correlation with hearing recovery, also expressed according to the Wilson criteria. Univariate analysis showed that age and hypertension were significantly related to hearing outcome (p = 0.004 and p = 0.015, respectively). Elderly patients and those with hypertension were at higher risk of experiencing no hearing recovery (OR = 3.25 and OR = 2.89, respectively). Age was an independent prognostic factor on multivariate analysis (p = 0.007). Tinnitus as a presenting symptom showed a trend towards an association with hearing recovery (p = 0.07). The treatment regimen, the time elapsing between the onset of symptoms and the start of therapy (p = 0.34), and the duration of the treatment (p = 0.83) were unrelated to recovery on univariate analysis. Among the parameters considered, only age was significantly and independently related to hearing outcome. There is a need for well-designed, randomized clinical trials to enable an evidence-based protocol to be developed for the treatment of ISSHL.

  4. Factors associated with the occurrence of hearing loss after pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Brandt, C.T.;

    2010-01-01

    Background. On the basis of a nationwide registration during a 5-year period (1999-2003), the frequency and severity of hearing loss was investigated retrospectively in 343 consecutive Danish patients who survived pneumococcal meningitis, to identify important risk factors (including the pneumoco......Background. On the basis of a nationwide registration during a 5-year period (1999-2003), the frequency and severity of hearing loss was investigated retrospectively in 343 consecutive Danish patients who survived pneumococcal meningitis, to identify important risk factors (including...... the pneumococcal serotype) for development of hearing loss. Methods. Results of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biochemistry, bacterial serotyping, follow-up audiological examinations, and medical records were collected, and disease-related risk factors for hearing loss were identified. The mean pure-tone...... is common after pneumococcal meningitis, and audiometry should be performed on all those who survive pneumococcal meningitis. Important risk factors for hearing loss are advanced age, female sex, severity of meningitis, and bacterial serotype...

  5. ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kiseleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The external factors influencing the process of formation of tariffs of commercial services are considered in the article. External environment is known to be very diverse and changeable. Currently, pricing has become one of the key processes of strategic development of a company. Pricing in the service sector, in turn, is highly susceptible to changes in the external environment. Its components directly or indirectly affect the market of services, changing it adopted economic processes. As a rule, firms providing services can’t influence the changes in external factors. However, the service market is very flexible, which enables businesses to reshape pricing strategy, to adapt it to the new environment.

  6. The factors affecting the recarburization process indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janerka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the factors affecting the carburizing rates obtained (rate and efficiency during the process of melting cast iron. The analysis includes the recarburizer type (anthracite, natural and synthetic graphite, petroleum coke and particle size. Further factors considered in work are the methods of recarburization (recarburizer introduction to a solid charge and on the surface of the metal bath and the parameters of the melt (temperature and chemical composition. The analysis was based on experiments performed, the calculation results of computer simulations and literature data.

  7. Factors Affecting Students’ Achievement in Mathematics ∗

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem SAVAŞ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the factors that affect students’ mathematics achievement in secondary school mathematics grades of 6th, 7th and 8th were explored. For this purpose, the factors that affect mathematics education and mathematics achievement such as type of school, family income, studying time and students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses have been investigated. The sample of the study consisted of 275 students from one private (n=58 and two state schools (n= 217 in Van. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and Chi-Square analysis. The result of study showed that type of school, family income, studying time, students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses had statistically significant effects on students’ mathematics achievement.

  8. Factors affecting home delivery in rural Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Schellenberg, Joanna A; Mushi, Adiel K.; Obrist, Brigit; Mshinda, Hassan; Tanner, Marcel; Schellenberg, David

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies of factors affecting place of delivery have rarely considered the influence of gender roles and relations within the household. This study combines an understanding of gender issues relating to health and help-seeking behaviour with epidemiological knowledge concerning place of delivery. METHODS In-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation were used to explore determinants of home delivery in southern Tanzania. Quantitative data were ...

  9. Analysis of factors affecting fattening of chickens

    OpenAIRE

    OBERMAJEROVÁ, Barbora

    2013-01-01

    Poultry meat belongs to the basic assortment of human nutrition. The meat of an intensively fattened poultry is a source of easily digestible proteins, lipids, mineral substances and vitamins. The aim of this bachelor´s thesis was to write out a literature review, which is focused on the intensity of growth, carcass yield, quality and composition of broiler chickens meat. The following describes the internal and external factors that affect them, i.e. genetic foundation, hybrid combination, s...

  10. Factors Affecting Open-Set Word Recognition in Adults with Cochlear Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Laura K.; Finley, Charles C.; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Timothy A.; Brenner, Christine; Potts, Lisa G.; Gotter, Brenda D.; Vanderhoof, Sallie S.; Mispagel, Karen; Heydebrand, Gitry; Skinner, Margaret W.

    2013-01-01

    A monosyllabic word test was administered to 114 postlingually-deaf adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients at numerous intervals from two weeks to two years post-initial CI activation. Biographic/audiologic information, electrode position, and cognitive ability were examined to determine factors affecting CI outcomes. Results revealed that Duration of Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss, Age at Implantation, CI Sound-field Threshold Levels, Percentage of Electrodes in Scala Vestibuli, Medio-later...

  11. Factors affecting the rural domestic waste generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Darban Astane

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to evaluate the quantity and quality of rural domestic waste generation and to identify the factors affecting it in rural areas of Khodabandeh county in Zanjan Province, Iran. Waste samplings consisted of 318 rural households in 11 villages. In order to evaluate the quality and quantity of the rural domestic waste, waste production was classified into 12 groups and 2 main groups of organic waste and solid waste. Moreover, kriging interpolation technique in ARC-GIS software was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the generated domestic waste and ultimately multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors affecting the generation of domestic waste. The results of this study showed that the average waste generated by each person was 0.588 kilograms per day. with the share of organic waste generated by each person being 0.409 kilograms per day and the share of solid waste generated by each person being 0.179 kilograms per day. The results from spatial distribution of waste generation showed a certain pattern in three groups and a higher rate of waste generation in the northern and northwestern parts, especially in the subdistrict. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the households’ income, assets, age, and personal attitude are respectively the most important variables affecting waste generation. The housholds’ attitude and indigenous knowledge on efficient use of materials are also the key factors which can help reducing waste generation.

  12. Technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries: policy and market factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelman, Katherine D; Werner, Roye

    2014-09-01

    The competitive market advantages of industry and the balancing force of international governmental organizations (IGOs) are examined to identify market and policy in support of sustainable technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries. A second purpose is to examine the usefulness of findings for other assistive technologies (AT). Searches of electronic databases, IGO documents, industry reports and journals were supplemented by informal discussions with industry and IGO staff and audiologists. The value chain is used to examine the competitive advantage of industry and the balancing tools of certain IGOs. Both industry and IGOs engage in intellectual property (IP) and competition activities and are active in each segment of the hearing aid value chain. Their market and policy objectives and strategies are different. IGOs serve as balancing forces for the competitive advantages of industry. The hearing aid market configuration and hearing aid fitting process are not representative of other AT products but IP, trade and competition policy tools used by IGOs and governments are relevant to other AT. The value chain is a useful tool to identify the location of price mark-ups and the influence of actors. Market factors and reimbursement and subsidization policies drive hearing aid innovation. UN-related international government organization activities are responsive to the needs of disability populations who cannot afford assistive technology. Policy tools used by international governmental organizations are applicable across assistive technology. A partnership model is important to distribution of hearing aids to low and middle income countries.

  13. Data mining of audiology patient records: factors influencing the choice of hearing aid type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Muhammad N; Oakes, Michael P

    2012-04-30

    This paper describes the analysis of a database of over 180,000 patient records, collected from over 23,000 patients, by the hearing aid clinic at James Cook University Hospital in Middlesbrough, UK. These records consist of audiograms (graphs of the faintest sounds audible to the patient at six different pitches), categorical data (such as age, gender, diagnosis and hearing aid type) and brief free text notes made by the technicians. This data is mined to determine which factors contribute to the decision to fit a BTE (worn behind the ear) hearing aid as opposed to an ITE (worn in the ear) hearing aid. From PCA (principal component analysis) four main audiogram types are determined, and are related to the type of hearing aid chosen. The effects of age, gender, diagnosis, masker, mould and individual audiogram frequencies are combined into a single model by means of logistic regression. Some significant keywords are also discovered in the free text fields by using the chi-squared (χ(2)) test, which can also be used in the model. The final model can act a decision support tool to help decide whether an individual patient should be offered a BTE or an ITE hearing aid. The final model was tested using 5-fold cross validation, and was able to replicate the decisions of audiologists whether to fit an ITE or a BTE hearing aid with precision in the range 0.79 to 0.87. A decision support system was produced to predict the type of hearing aid which should be prescribed, with an explanation facility explaining how that decision was arrived at. This system should prove useful in providing a "second opinion" for audiologists.

  14. Data mining of audiology patient records: factors influencing the choice of hearing aid type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Muhammad N

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the analysis of a database of over 180,000 patient records, collected from over 23,000 patients, by the hearing aid clinic at James Cook University Hospital in Middlesbrough, UK. These records consist of audiograms (graphs of the faintest sounds audible to the patient at six different pitches, categorical data (such as age, gender, diagnosis and hearing aid type and brief free text notes made by the technicians. This data is mined to determine which factors contribute to the decision to fit a BTE (worn behind the ear hearing aid as opposed to an ITE (worn in the ear hearing aid. Methods From PCA (principal component analysis four main audiogram types are determined, and are related to the type of hearing aid chosen. The effects of age, gender, diagnosis, masker, mould and individual audiogram frequencies are combined into a single model by means of logistic regression. Some significant keywords are also discovered in the free text fields by using the chi-squared (χ2 test, which can also be used in the model. The final model can act a decision support tool to help decide whether an individual patient should be offered a BTE or an ITE hearing aid. Results The final model was tested using 5-fold cross validation, and was able to replicate the decisions of audiologists whether to fit an ITE or a BTE hearing aid with precision in the range 0.79 to 0.87. Conclusions A decision support system was produced to predict the type of hearing aid which should be prescribed, with an explanation facility explaining how that decision was arrived at. This system should prove useful in providing a "second opinion" for audiologists.

  15. Feasibility of three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging as a prognostic factor in patients with sudden hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Yun; Jung, Su Young; Park, Moon Suh; Yeo, Seung Geun; Lee, So Yoon; Lee, Sun Kyu

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm the feasibility of high signal on three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (3D FLAIR MRI) as one of the prognostic factors in recovery of sudden idiopathic hearing loss. A retrospective study was conducted using patients who were diagnosed with unilateral sudden idiopathic hearing loss from January 2008 to December 2010. A total of 120 patients were enrolled in for this study. High-intensity signal in the inner ear on precontrast 3D FLAIR MRI was observed in 31 patients (25.8%; FHS) and labyrinthine enhancement was not observed in another 89 patients (FNS; 74.2%). There was no significant difference in patients' characteristics between two groups except final hearing. Final puretone average of the FHS group was 49.4 dB, significantly worse than FNS group's 36.7 dB (p = 0.037 hearing was related to initial hearing, accompanying dizziness, and abnormal auditory brainstem response result by multiple regression analysis. However, presence of high-intensity signal on precontrast 3D FLAIR MRI did not affect final hearing significantly. Significant difference due to the presence of dizziness in final hearing was observed in whole patients and in the FHS group, whereas no significant difference in final hearing was observed in FNS group. (p = 0.063 > 0.05). From these findings, the presence of high-intensity signal on 3D FLAIR MRI is a subfactor related to dizziness rather than a single poor prognostic factor and the absence of high-intensity signal on 3D FLAIR MRI can possibly imply relative good prognosis.

  16. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Kamali

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural developmentin Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have abetter insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as alearning forum for bringing about changes for all participants,they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciativeinquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting thefacilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors andpreventing factors. The former are: two-way communication,election of rural eligible facilitators, participation, sense ofresponsibility, and the latter are: cultural and tribal fanaticism,lack of permanent female extension workers and frequentmanagement changes. Appreciative inquiry as a positive modeof action research could facilitate the process of education andcommunication for all stakeholders. We suggested that thereshould be a shift from the extension as a knowledge transfer tofacilitation as people’s own knowledge creation. This studyshowed that appreciative inquiry could facilitate the process ofchange and gender-awareness. This research method couldalso facilitate mutual communication between the rural facilitatorsand extension workers.

  17. Hearing Loss: Diagnosis and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazove, Philip; Atcherson, Samuel R; Moreland, Christopher; McKee, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    Hearing loss is a common disability in the United States, most frequent among men, elderly individuals, and veterans but is increasingly affecting other younger adults. Types of hearing loss include sensorineural, conductive, and mixed. Hearing loss in children often is related to infections, time spent in a neonatal intensive care unit, and genetic etiologies. Presbycusis (ie, age-related hearing loss) is the most common etiology in adults. Adverse effects of untreated hearing loss include isolation, depression, lower income, and higher unemployment. Hearing aid use reduces levels of disability, cognitive impairment, and psychosocial distress while improving quality of life. At least 75% of individuals with hearing loss are not receiving treatment for it. All infants should be screened for hearing loss, as should children and adults with risk factors. The Joint Commission on Infant Hearing Screening has a 1-3-6 goal for screening: identification by age 1 month, confirmation by age 3 months, and intervention by age 6 months. The presence of an ongoing physician-patient relationship increases the likelihood that a patient will admit to having a hearing loss. Adults can be screened using single-question or standardized instrument screens. All patients with suspected hearing loss should undergo audiometry by an audiology subspecialist.

  18. Hearing Impairment Affects Dementia Incidence. An Analysis Based on Longitudinal Health Claims Data in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, Thomas; Teipel, Stefan; Óvári, Attila; Kilimann, Ingo; Witt, Gabriele; Doblhammer, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has revealed an association between hearing impairment and dementia. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of hearing impairment on dementia incidence in a longitudinal study, and whether ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist care, care level, institutionalization, or depression mediates or moderates this pathway. The present study used a longitudinal sample of 154,783 persons aged 65 and older from claims data of the largest German health insurer; containing 14,602 incident dementia diagnoses between 2006 and 2010. Dementia and hearing impairment diagnoses were defined according to International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes. We used a Kaplan Meier estimator and performed Cox proportional hazard models to explore the effect of hearing impairment on dementia incidence, controlling for ENT specialist care, care level, institutionalization, and depression. Gender, age, and comorbidities were controlled for as potential confounders. Patients with bilateral (HR = 1.43, pdementia incidence than patients without hearing impairment. We found no significant effect for unilateral hearing impairment and other diseases of the ear. The effect of hearing impairment was only partly mediated through ENT specialist utilization. Significant interaction between hearing impairment and specialist care, care level, and institutionalization, respectively, indicated moderating effects. We discuss possible explanations for these effects. This study underlines the importance of the association between hearing impairment and dementia. Preserving hearing ability may maintain social participation and may reduce the burden associated with dementia. The particular impact of hearing aid use should be the subject of further investigations, as it offers potential intervention on the pathway to dementia.

  19. Systematic review of factors affecting pharmaceutical expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousnad, Mohamed Awad; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham

    2014-06-01

    To systematically identify the main factors contributing to the increase in pharmaceutical expenditures. A systematic search of published studies was conducted utilising major widely used electronic databases using the search terms 'factors,' 'financing,' 'pharmaceutical,' and 'expenditures.' To be included, the studies needed to: (1) measure at least one of the following outcomes: total growth in pharmaceutical expenditures, price growth or quantity growth; (2) mention a clear method for analysing the impact of factors affecting the increases in drug expenditures; (3) be written in English. Nonprimary articles that were published only as an abstract, a review, a commentary or a letter were excluded. From a total of 2039 studies, only 25 were included in the full review. The main determinant categories that were identified in the review were factors related to price, utilisation, therapeutic choice, demand and health care system. The major cost drivers were found to be changes in drug quantities and therapies as well as new drugs. It is important for policymakers to understand pharmaceutical spending trends and the factors that influence them in order to formulate effective cost containment strategies and design optimum drug policy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transforming growth factor β1 inhibition protects from noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eMurillo-Cuesta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive exposure to noise damages the principal cochlear structures leading to hearing impairment. Inflammatory and immune responses are central mechanisms in cochlear defensive response to noise but, if unregulated, they contribute to inner ear damage and hearing loss. Transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß is a key regulator of both responses and high levels of this factor have been associated with cochlear injury in hearing loss animal models. To evaluate the potential of targeting TGF-ß as a therapeutic strategy for preventing or ameliorating noise-induced hearing loss, we studied the auditory function, cochlear morphology, gene expression and oxidative stress markers in mice exposed to noise and treated with TGF-ß1 peptidic inhibitors P17 and P144, just before or immediately after noise insult. Our results indicate that systemic administration of both peptides significantly improved both the evolution of hearing thresholds and the degenerative changes induced by noise-exposure in lateral wall structures. Moreover, treatments ameliorated the inflammatory state and redox balance. These therapeutic effects were dose-dependent and more effective if the TGF-ß1 inhibitors were administered prior to inducing the injury. In conclusion, inhibition of TGF-ß1 actions with antagonistic peptides represents a new, promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention and repair of noise-induced cochlear damage.

  1. Students with Hearing Loss and Their Teachers' View on Factors Associated with the Students' Listening Perception of Classroom Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekkedal, Ann Mette

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates factors associated with the listening perception of classroom communication by students with hearing loss, based on the students' and their teachers' views. It also examines how students with different degrees of hearing loss may perceive their classmates. To explore the relationships between the factors Structural Equation…

  2. The occurrence of high-risk factors for hearing loss in verylow- birth-weight neonates: A retrospective exploratory study of targeted hearing screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amisha Kanji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed at determining the type and frequency of high-risk factors for hearing loss in a group of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW neonates in a tertiary hospital in South Africa with the objective of collating evidence that could be used in arguing for or against revisiting targeted hearing screening in developing countries. Furthermore, the study aimed at investigating the relationship between the identified high-risk factors and hearing screening results. In a retrospective data review design, data were collated from files from the VLBW project; this included hearing screening records, as well as records from participant medical and audiology files. Records of 86 neonates with birth weights ranging between 680 g and 1 500 g were reviewed. Findings indicated that neonatal jaundice, exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, mechanical or assisted ventilation, and neonatal intensive care unit stay greater than 48 hours were the most frequently occurring high-risk factors for hearing loss in the current sample. These factors are consistent with those listed in the high-risk register of the Health Professions Council of South Africa for the South African context. Findings confirm the complexity of risk factors, and the influence that a variety of factors such as poor follow-up or return rate might have on the implementation of early hearing detection and intervention. The importance of establishing context-specific risk factors for effective implementation of targeted screening protocols where universal newborn hearing screening is not yet a reality was highlighted by the current study.

  3. Genes and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... One of the most common birth defects is hearing loss or deafness (congenital), which can affect as many ...

  4. How Hearing Impairment Affects Sentence Comprehension: Using Eye Fixations to Investigate the Duration of Speech Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this...

  5. Important Factors in the Cognitive Development of Children with Hearing Impairment: Case Studies of Candidates for Cochlear Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasralla, Heloisa Romeiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The factors that affect the development of children with and without hearing disabilities are similar, provided their innate communication abilities are taken into account. Parents need to mourn the loss of the expected normally hearing child, and it is important that parents create bonds of affection with their child. Objective To conduct a postevaluation of the development and cognition of 20 candidates for cochlear implants between 1 and 13 years of age and to observe important factors in their development. Methods The following instruments were used in accordance with their individual merits: interviews with parents; the Vineland Social Maturity Scale; the Columbia Maturity Scale; free drawings; Bender and Pre-Bender testing; and pedagogical tests. Results The results are described. Conclusion Parental acceptance of a child's deafness proved to be the starting point for the child's verbal or gestural communication development, as well as for cognitive, motor, and emotional development. If the association between deafness and fine motor skills (with or without multiple disabilities undermines the development of a child's speech, it does not greatly affect communication when the child interacts with his or her peers and receives maternal stimulation. Overprotection and poor sociability make children less independent, impairs their development, and causes low self-esteem. Further observational studies are warranted to determine how cochlear implants contribute to patient recovery.

  6. Important factors in the cognitive development of children with hearing impairment: case studies of candidates for cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasralla, Heloisa Romeiro; Goffi Gomez, Maria Valéria Schimidt; Magalhaes, Ana Tereza; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Introduction The factors that affect the development of children with and without hearing disabilities are similar, provided their innate communication abilities are taken into account. Parents need to mourn the loss of the expected normally hearing child, and it is important that parents create bonds of affection with their child. Objective To conduct a postevaluation of the development and cognition of 20 candidates for cochlear implants between 1 and 13 years of age and to observe important factors in their development. Methods The following instruments were used in accordance with their individual merits: interviews with parents; the Vineland Social Maturity Scale; the Columbia Maturity Scale; free drawings; Bender and Pre-Bender testing; and pedagogical tests. Results The results are described. Conclusion Parental acceptance of a child's deafness proved to be the starting point for the child's verbal or gestural communication development, as well as for cognitive, motor, and emotional development. If the association between deafness and fine motor skills (with or without multiple disabilities) undermines the development of a child's speech, it does not greatly affect communication when the child interacts with his or her peers and receives maternal stimulation. Overprotection and poor sociability make children less independent, impairs their development, and causes low self-esteem. Further observational studies are warranted to determine how cochlear implants contribute to patient recovery.

  7. Occupational noise, smoking, and a high body mass index are risk factors for age-related hearing impairment and moderate alcohol consumption is protective: A European population-based multicenter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransen, E.; Topsakal, V.; Hendrickx, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    exposure was associated with a significant loss of hearing at high sound frequencies (> 1 kHz). Smoking significantly increased high-frequency hearing loss, and the effect was dose-dependent. The effect of smoking remained significant when accounting for cardiovascular disease events. Taller people had......-tone average [PTA]) were collected and the participants filled out a questionnaire on environmental risk factors and medical history. People with a history of disease that could affect hearing were excluded. PTAs were adjusted for age and sex and tested for association with exposure to risk factors. Noise...

  8. Factors affecting the placental transfer of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikov, M.R.; Kelman, B.J. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to consider factors that affect the availability and transport of actinides from maternal blood, through the placenta, to the conceptus. These factors, of particular importance in scaling results from animals to man, include the route and temporal pattern of administration, the mass and physicochemical state of material administered, metabolism of the pregnant animal and fetal organs or tissue, and species-specific changes in placental structure relative to stage of gestation at exposure. Preliminary concepts for descriptive and kinetic models are proposed to integrate these results, to identify additional information required for developing more comprehensive models, and to provide a basis for scaling to human pregnancies for purposes of radiation dosimetry.

  9. State based factors affecting inward FDI employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Kornecki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical research investigates state based factors affecting the inward FDI employment among fifty states of the United States, uses annual data for the period of time from 1997 to 2007 and identifies several state-specific determinants of FDI employment. The results indicate that the major factors exerting positive impact on inward US FDI employment are: real wages, infrastructure, unionization level, educational attainment, FDI stock and manufacturing density.  In addition, the results show that gross state product growth rate, real per capita taxes and share of scientists and engineers have negative impact on FDI employment. Our findings indicate the importance of selected variables in evaluating the effects of FDI flow.Keywords: FDI, Growth, Employment, State, Economy

  10. Factors Affecting Current and Future CSA Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vassalos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Community Supported Agriculture (CSA is one of the widely used direct marketing strategies for small- and midsized farmers. CSA programs are an important option for sustainable production and consumption. It helps growers generate income (improve financial security and consumers obtain fresh local foods. Sustaining and growing CSA participation is critical in order to continue enjoying these benefits. We used a national online survey in conjunction with discrete choice models to investigate the impact of demographic characteristics, lifestyle preferences, and different information outlets on the probability that a consumer is or will become a CSA member. The results indicate that the factors affecting current and future CSA participation differ substantially. While none of the demographic characteristics has a significant impact on current CSA participation, some of them significantly affect the probability that a consumer will become a CSA member in the future. Lifestyle preferences have a significant impact on current and future CSA participation. Although none of the information outlets examined affect current CSA participation, word-of-mouth and online sources significantly influence the probability that a consumer will join a CSA program in the future. These findings may have important implications for policy makers’ and CSA farm managers’ efforts to sustain future CSA development.

  11. Factors Associated with Social Interactions between Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Georgina; Oakes, Peter M.; Alexander, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that deaf children can have marked social difficulties compared with their hearing peers. Factors that influence these social interactions need to be reviewed to inform interventions. A systematic search of 5 key databases and 3 specialized journals identified 14 papers that met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of…

  12. Socioeconomic status as a factor in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children with hearing loss: analysis of national survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrea; Enticott, Joanne C; Douglas, Jacinta

    2016-09-23

    In this paper, the association between socioeconomic status and speech, language and communication outcomes for primary-school-going children with hearing loss using population survey data was analysed. The dataset used for analysis consisted of 289973 children in total, of which 3174 children had hearing loss. For all children, higher socioeconomic status was positively correlated with better speech, language and communication outcomes. A hearing loss was indicated for 1% of non-Indigenous children and 4.3% of Indigenous children. Non-Indigenous children with hearing loss were found to be fairly evenly distributed by socioeconomic status, whereas Indigenous children with hearing loss were found to be statistically significantly more likely to be living in the most disadvantaged socioeconomic areas. Socioeconomic status was found to affect developmental outcomes for all children, regardless of Indigenous and hearing loss status.

  13. Factors Affecting Corneal Hysteresis in Taiwanese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Kang Wang; Tzu-Lun Huang; Pei-Yuan Su; Pei-Yao Chang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation of various corneal hysteresis (CH) factors in Chinese adults. Methods: From January 2009 to November 2011, the healthy right eyes of a total of 292 adults were recruited into the study. Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPG) and CH were measured using an ocular response analyzer (ORA). Central corneal thickness was measured using the ORA’s in-tegrated handheld ultrasonic pachymeter. The IOLMaster was used to obtain the ocular biometric measurements including axial length, anterior chamber depth, and keratometric values. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to test correla-tions between CH and quantitative factors. The chi-square test was used to detect differences in categorical values. Results: Longer axial length (P=0.0001), lower IOPG (P=0.03), older age(P=0.003),and thinner central corneal thick-ness (P=0.0001) were significantly associated with lower CH. The anterior chamber depth (P=0.34), gender (P=0.23), and corneal curvature (P=0.18) had no relationship to CH. Conclusion:Various factors including axial length, intraocular pressure, age, and central corneal thickness can affect measure-ment of corneal biomechanical properties in Chinese adults. But the anterior chamber depth, gender, and corneal curvature were irrelevant to CH.

  14. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease.

  15. Factors Affecting Profitability of Layer Hens Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebraheem Altahat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Layer hen enterprises suffer from low profitability or losses in many of developing countries all over the world. Jordan is not an acceptance. Approach: This study aimed at investigating the influence of ten main factors affecting the profitability of layer hen producers. The investigated factors include price of purchased pullet, feed price, cost of labor, cost of veterinary service and medicine, building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, length of production cycle, feed conversion ratio, mortality rate, egg sale price and laying percentage. Results: The study used a multiple regression profit model to estimate the effect of the above mentioned factors on profit per kg egg produced. The direction and quantity of relationship between profit per kg egg and variables affecting profit were investigated. Data from 40 operating and randomly selected egg production enterprises in the country was collected. Data was obtained directly from the producers during April to mid August 2010. Semi structured interviews were conducted with a pre-tested questionnaire. The data obtained via interview surveys were processed to calculate profit per kg egg and other relevant information for inclusion in a profit function model. Fifteen eggs are registered to be 1 kg in the study. Cost and income items used to calculate profit in the study. The results of the study revealed that the feed price was found to be the factor which has the highest negative impact on the profitability showing the coefficient-3.01. The egg sale price was with high positive impact on profitability showing the coefficient 2.633. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results of the study it could be concluded that higher prices of purchased or breeding pullet, higher feed price, higher cost of labor, higher cost of veterinary service and medicine, higher other costs including building and machinery depreciation, repairs and

  16. Factors affecting success of agricultural producers groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Chlebicka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor organisation of agricultural markets in Poland remains one of the biggest problems for agricultural sector. There are about 510 agricultural producer groups, but only 2% of Polish farmers selling for market are members. Knowledge on cooperation determinants and different aspects of producer groups performance is crucial to build references for policy makers and producer groups’ managers. The aim of the article was to discuss factors affecting success of producers groups understood as a level of members’ satisfaction. Data for 2006 and 2011 from 30 producers groups in fruit and vegetable sector were analysed using logit model. Three determinants occurred to be statistically important: scope of a group functions, informal cooperation with farmers before starting a formal cooperation and homogeneity of farms.

  17. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

  18. Factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sanaa Abd El Azim

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, on 207 student nurses from four different grades. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, consisted of 30 items, was used to measure the students' assertiveness level and a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer was used to measure students' psychological empowerment. The study results showed that 60.4% of the students were assertive, while about half of the students were empowered. A positive relation between student assertiveness and psychological empowerment was detected. Moreover, positive relations regarding family income and students' assertiveness and psychological empowerment were determined. The study recommended introduction of specific courses aiming at enhancing the acquisition of assertiveness skills, in addition, nurse educators must motivate their students to express their opinion and personal rights and also they must pay attention for students' empowerment and enhance students' autonomy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors Affecting Fertility Desires in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa C. David

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting fertility desires in the Philippines were examined using data from a national survey and from individual and group qualitative interviews involving 143 respondents. Fertility goals usually range from two to three children, but evidence suggests that they are dynamic and may change over a person’s lifetime. Qualitative interviews reveal that when negotiating about family size, it is the partner who wants more children that will be followed. A strong demand for gender balance among offspring creates a willingness to have more children than originally desired. Fertility goals increase over time among women. While those who start childbirth at a very young age successfully space their children, they tend to want larger families than those who start late. Initial fertility goals among women are generally low but may increase because of higher fertility desires among men, a demand for gender balance in children, and the desire for babies once their children have grown.

  20. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  1. Statistically derived factors of varied importance to audiologists when making a hearing aid brand preference decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Earl E; Mueller, H Gustav; Ricketts, Todd A

    2009-01-01

    To determine the amount of importance audiologists place on various items related to their selection of a preferred hearing aid brand manufacturer. Three hundred forty-three hearing aid-dispensing audiologists rated a total of 32 randomized items by survey methodology. Principle component analysis identified seven orthogonal statistical factors of importance. In rank order, these factors were Aptitude of the Brand, Image, Cost, Sales and Speed of Delivery, Exposure, Colleague Recommendations, and Contracts and Incentives. While it was hypothesized that differences among audiologists in the importance ratings of these factors would dictate their preference for a given brand, that was not our finding. Specifically, mean ratings for the six most important factors did not differ among audiologists preferring different brands. A statistically significant difference among audiologists preferring different brands was present, however, for one factor: Contracts and Incentives. Its assigned importance, though, was always lower than that for the other six factors. Although most audiologists have a preferred hearing aid brand, differences in the perceived importance of common factors attributed to brands do not largely determine preference for a particular brand.

  2. Factors affecting food selection in Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, M; Riediger, N; Moghadasian, M H

    2008-11-01

    To establish health-related reasons behind Canadian food choices, and how variables such as education, income, gender, ethnicity and age may affect food selection. Approximately 98 733 Canadians responded to the 12 questions regarding food choices in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.1, conducted by the Canadian Government in 2003. These included 13 727 adolescents (12-19 years), 19 089 young adults (20-34 years), 31 039 middle-aged adults (35-54 years), 25 338 older adults (55-74 years) and 9580 elderly (75+ years). Approximately 70% of Canadian adolescents in the sample indicated that their food choices were independent of health concerns. Body weight management was a major concern for food selection by adolescents and adults, while the elderly stated heart disease as their main concern. Among all participants, females, and individuals with high levels of education and income reported the highest response to choosing or avoiding foods due to health concerns and food content. Our data indicate that several factors significantly affect food choices for health-related reasons in the Canadian population. Among them, age- and gender-related gaps, particularly between adolescents and adults, are profound. This observation may urge authorities to implement effective strategies to educate Canadians, especially adolescents, that selection of appropriate foods may prevent chronic diseases.

  3. Environmental Factors Affecting Where People Geocache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Golbeck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from OpenCaching.com and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING PHARMACOKINETIC DISPOSITION OF DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Hiren R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is a complex process the variability of which is influenced by many physicochemical and physiologic factors. The two most important physicochemical factors that affect both the extent and the rate of absorption are lipophilicity and solubility. The rate and extent of absorption are governed by the solubility, permeability and stability of the drug, with solubility being a pH-dependent parameter for weak acids and bases. The gastrointestinal tract can be viewed as discrete sections with a variety of differential local pH environments ranging from the acidic stomach to the more basic small intestine. The multiple peaking, double peaking or secondary peaking phenomena can occur in the disposition of a variety of xenobiotics during drug development (the pre-clinical phase and in subsequent clinical studies and use. The physicochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence of this phenomenon are often multi factorial and include but are not limited to solubility-limited absorption, modified-release formulations, complexation, enterohepatic recirculation, gastric emptying and the intestinal transit time, site-specific absorption, gastric secretion-enteral reabsorption. Double peak absorption has been described with several orally administered drugs such as cimetidine furosemide, piroxicam, ranitidine, talinolol, alprazolam and phenazopyridine.

  5. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

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    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  6. Ranking agility factors affecting hospitals in Iran

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    M. Abdi Talarposht

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were selected hospitals. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from the health centers. The construct validity of the questionnaire was approved by confirmatory factor analysis test and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α=0.97. All data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Friedman tests. Findings: The development of staff skills, the use of information technology, the integration of processes, appropriate planning, and customer satisfaction and product quality had a significant impact on the agility of public hospitals of Iran (P<0.001. New product introductions had earned the highest ranking and the development of staff skills earned the lowest ranking. Conclusion: The new product introduction, market responsiveness and sensitivity, reduce costs, and the integration of organizational processes, ratings better to have acquired agility hospitals in Iran. Therefore, planners and officials of hospitals have to, through the promotion quality and variety of services customer-oriented, providing a basis for investing in the hospital and etc to apply for agility supply chain public hospitals of Iran.

  7. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

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    Marius Liutvinavičius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient  attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  8. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

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    Virgilijus Sakalauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  9. Factors Affecting the Underperformance of Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeeka Amarasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama is the largest factory of Brandix Group of Companies catering to VS Pink. It has a labour force of 1250 employees including a direct labour force of 659. Production capabilities have been extended to in-house printing and embroidery sections in addition to cutting and shipping facilities. Like other apparel manufacturers in the industry, BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama also faces much competition and problems in its day to day business operations. One of the major issues so faced is On-Time-Delivery due to underperformance of the employees. Therefore, with the objectives of studying factors affecting the underperformance of the employees of the production department, analysing and identifying such factors, and providing recommendations, a few variables i.e. machines and methods, skill level, financial incentives, leadership practices and working conditions were identified as having a potential impact over the performance of the production employees. Stratified random sampling method was used to select 64 team members from the 32 production modules, and research work continued to collate primary data through administrating a structured questionnaire among selected associates. Null and alternative hypotheses were tested using correlations, and the data is presented as graphical pictures, tables, and in narrative form. However, there were a few limitations such as management influence, sample basis selection, service period, level of understating, time availability and commitment, time availability for the study etc. which may have had an impact over the research findings.

  10. Lipid profiles and obesity as potential risk factors of sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

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    Joong Seob Lee

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to establish whether increased lipid profiles and obesity affect the prevalence and prognosis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL.This was a case-controlled study with a longitudinal design. According to our criteria, 324 patients with SSNHL were included in this study. To manage potential covariates, 972 subjects with normal hearing from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were matched as control group according to their propensity scores. Age, level of total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and body mass index (BMI were obtained from the clinical data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between SSNHL and lipid profiles or obesity in the 1296 subjects. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to determine whether lipid profiles and obesity are prognostic factors in patients with SSNHL.Mean body weight, BMI, TC, and TG were significantly higher in patients with SSNHL compared with control subjects (p<0.05. However, LDL-C values did not differ significantly between the two groups. Subjects with elevated TC and TG levels had a 2.20- (95% CI 1.50-3.24 and 1.50-fold (95% CI 1.08-2.08 increased odds, respectively, of SSNHL compared with subjects with normal TC and TG levels. Subjects with grade III BMI had a 1.59-fold (95% CI 1.17-2.16 increased odds of SSNHL. Multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed that BMI was an independent risk factor of treatment outcome, as patients with BMI ≥27.5 were less likely to achieve complete recovery than those with BMI <27.5 (p<0.05.The results of this study revealed that elevated TC and TG levels and increased BMI are significantly associated with the prevalence of SSNHL and its prognosis, indicating that vascular compromise may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SSNHL.

  11. Longitudinal Study of Human Hearing: Its Relationship to Noise and Other Factors 2. Results from the First Three Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    rural Illinois school system. Am. J. Dis. Child., 80: 254-259. Eagles, E. 1., S. M. Wishik, L. G. Doerfler , W. Melnick, and H. S. Levine 1963 Hearing...sensitivity and related factors in children. Laryngoscope, Monograph Suppl., 1-143. Eagles, E. L., S. M. Wishik, and L. G. Doerfler 1967 Hearing

  12. Psychopathology and its risk and protective factors in hearing-impaired children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Rieffe, Carolien; Netten, Anouk P; Briaire, Jeroen J; Soede, Wim; Schoones, Jan W; Frijns, Johan H M

    2014-02-01

    Pediatric hearing impairment is a chronic handicap that can potentially lead to the development of psychopathology. Yet, for hearing-impaired children and adolescents, the exact occurrence of various forms of psychopathology and its causes are unclear, while this knowledge is essential to enable targeted screenings and interventions. To investigate the level of psychopathological symptoms in hearing-impaired children and adolescents as compared with normally hearing peers. Second, the influence of type of hearing device and possible risk and protective factors on psychopathology were examined. A systematic literature search was performed covering relevant databases, including PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Two independent researchers identified the relevant articles. The final search was performed on May 2, 2013, and resulted in a total of 35 articles. Literature consistently demonstrated that hearing-impaired children and adolescents were more prone to developing depression, aggression, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and psychopathy than their normally hearing peers. Levels of anxiety, somatization, and delinquency were elevated in some, but not all, hearing-impaired participants, for reasons related to sex, age, and type of school. Divergent results were obtained for the level of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the influence of type of hearing device on psychopathology. Possible risk and protective factors were identified, including age at detection and intervention of hearing loss, additional disabilities, communication skills, intelligence, type of school, and number of siblings. Literature on psychopathology in hearing-impaired children and adolescents is scarce and sometimes inconsistent. To define a more precise occurrence of psychopathology, more studies are needed. These studies should have a longitudinal design to draw firmer conclusions on causality. Hopefully, this will lead to more knowledge in the future to help and

  13. Factors associated with hearing loss in a normal-hearing guinea pig model of Hybrid cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Chiemi; Nguyen-Huynh, Anh; Loera, Katherine; Stark, Gemaine; Reiss, Lina

    2014-10-01

    The Hybrid cochlear implant (CI), also known as Electro-Acoustic Stimulation (EAS), is a new type of CI that preserves residual acoustic hearing and enables combined cochlear implant and hearing aid use in the same ear. However, 30-55% of patients experience acoustic hearing loss within days to months after activation, suggesting that both surgical trauma and electrical stimulation may cause hearing loss. The goals of this study were to: 1) determine the contributions of both implantation surgery and EAS to hearing loss in a normal-hearing guinea pig model; 2) determine which cochlear structural changes are associated with hearing loss after surgery and EAS. Two groups of animals were implanted (n = 6 per group), with one group receiving chronic acoustic and electric stimulation for 10 weeks, and the other group receiving no direct acoustic or electric stimulation during this time frame. A third group (n = 6) was not implanted, but received chronic acoustic stimulation. Auditory brainstem response thresholds were followed over time at 1, 2, 6, and 16 kHz. At the end of the study, the following cochlear measures were quantified: hair cells, spiral ganglion neuron density, fibrous tissue density, and stria vascularis blood vessel density; the presence or absence of ossification around the electrode entry was also noted. After surgery, implanted animals experienced a range of 0-55 dB of threshold shifts in the vicinity of the electrode at 6 and 16 kHz. The degree of hearing loss was significantly correlated with reduced stria vascularis vessel density and with the presence of ossification, but not with hair cell counts, spiral ganglion neuron density, or fibrosis area. After 10 weeks of stimulation, 67% of implanted, stimulated animals had more than 10 dB of additional threshold shift at 1 kHz, compared to 17% of implanted, non-stimulated animals and 0% of non-implanted animals. This 1-kHz hearing loss was not associated with changes in any of the cochlear measures

  14. A Case-control Study on High-risk Factors for Newborn Hearing Loss in Seven Cities of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Wenying; WU Hanrong; QI Yisheng; LIN Qian; XIANG Lili; LI Hui; LI Yinghui

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the high-risk factors for newborn heating loss and to provide information for preventing the development of hearing loss and delaying its progression, from May 2003 to June 2006, neonates who failed to pass the universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) were referred to Jinan Newborn Hearing Screening and Rehabilitation Center from 7 newborn heating screening centers in seven cities of Shandong province. One-to-one pair-matched case-control method was employed for statistical analysis of the basic features of definitely identified cases. High-risk factors relating to the bilateral hearing loss were evaluated by univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis. Our results revealed that 721 transferred newborns who didn't pass the heating screening received audiological and medical evaluation and 367 were confirmed to have heating loss. Of them,177 neonates with heating loss who met the matching requirements were included in the study as subjects. Univariate analysis showed that high-risk factors related to hearing loss incuded age of father, education backgrounds of parents, parity, birth weight, gestational weeks, craniofacial deformity,history of receiving treatment in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), neonatal disease, family history of otopathy and family history of congenital hearing loss. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis revealed that 4 independent risk factors were related to bilateral hearing loss, including parity (OR=16.285, 95% CI 3.379-78.481), neonatal disease (OR=34.968, 95% CI 2.720-449.534),family history of congenital hearing loss (OR=69.488, 95% CI 4.417-1093.300) and birth weight (OR=0.241, 95% CI 0.090-0.648). It is concluded that parity, neonatal disease and family history of hearing loss are the promoting factors of bilateral hearing loss in neonates and appropriate intervention measures should be taken to deal with the risk factors.

  15. Hearing feelings: affective categorization of music and speech in alexithymia, an ERP study.

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    Katharina Sophia Goerlich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alexithymia, a condition characterized by deficits in interpreting and regulating feelings, is a risk factor for a variety of psychiatric conditions. Little is known about how alexithymia influences the processing of emotions in music and speech. Appreciation of such emotional qualities in auditory material is fundamental to human experience and has profound consequences for functioning in daily life. We investigated the neural signature of such emotional processing in alexithymia by means of event-related potentials. METHODOLOGY: Affective music and speech prosody were presented as targets following affectively congruent or incongruent visual word primes in two conditions. In two further conditions, affective music and speech prosody served as primes and visually presented words with affective connotations were presented as targets. Thirty-two participants (16 male judged the affective valence of the targets. We tested the influence of alexithymia on cross-modal affective priming and on N400 amplitudes, indicative of individual sensitivity to an affective mismatch between words, prosody, and music. Our results indicate that the affective priming effect for prosody targets tended to be reduced with increasing scores on alexithymia, while no behavioral differences were observed for music and word targets. At the electrophysiological level, alexithymia was associated with significantly smaller N400 amplitudes in response to affectively incongruent music and speech targets, but not to incongruent word targets. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a reduced sensitivity for the emotional qualities of speech and music in alexithymia during affective categorization. This deficit becomes evident primarily in situations in which a verbalization of emotional information is required.

  16. Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort

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    Gül Pınar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Başkent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

  17. [Analysis of the relevant factors for recurrent sudden sensorineural hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, H; Zhong, S X

    2016-09-07

    Objective: To investigate the possible factors related to recurrence and prognosis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss(SSNHL). Methods: Four hundred and ninety-five patients with unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss between January 2013 to April 2014 were analyzed retrospectively(34 patients lost to follow-up with a dropout rate of 6.87%). Twenty of the 495 patients were diagnosed as recurrent SSNHL and treated again in the same hospital. The data of the patients were summarized to analyze the related factors which might influence the recurrence and prognosis of SSNHL. Results: In the 20 patients with recurrent SSNHL, 19 had the second attack in same ear as the first attack, and the other one had in both ears. There were seven male patients, and thirteen female patients. Patients ranged in age from 24 to 77years, with a median age of 39.5 years. Types of hearing loss: low frequency in eight patients, high frequency in two patients, flat frequency in eight patients, total deafness in two patients, the types of the second attack in 17 patients were same as the first attack, only one patient was changed from total deafness to flat frequency, one case was changed from flat frequency to high frequency, one case changed from flat frequency to total deafness. The intervals between of the first attack time and the second attack time were 1-36 months with the median time of 3.5 months. After systemic oral and (or) transtympanic steroid treatment, recovered in three cases, effective in three cases and 14 cases invalid, the cure rate was 15%, and the total effective rate was 30%. There were statistically significant differences in the recovery rate(χ(2)=8.640, Phearing loss except low frequency type, the treatment effect was invalid. The patients with hearing loss at low frequency had the best outcomes. The total effective rates were significant different between patients younger and old than 34 years old(P0.05). The recurrence rates of patients with various types

  18. Factors contributing to hearing impairment in patients with cleft lip/palate in Malaysia: A prospective study of 346 ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jack Pein; Soo, Siew Shuin; Manuel, Anura Michelle

    2016-09-01

    To determine the factors contributing towards hearing impairment in patients with cleft lip/palate. A prospective analysis was conducted on 173 patients (346 ears) with cleft lip and palate (CL/P) who presented to the combined cleft clinic at University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) over 12 months. The patients' hearing status was determined using otoacoustic emission (OAE), pure tone audiometry (PTA) and auditory brainstem response (ABR). These results were analysed against several parameters, which included age, gender, race, types of cleft pathology, impact and timing of repair surgery. The patients' age ranged from 1-26 years old. They comprised 30% with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), 28% with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), 28% with isolated cleft palate (ICP) and 14% with isolated cleft lip (ICL). Majority of the patients (68.2%) had normal otoscopic findings. Out of the 346 ears, 241 ears (70%) ears had passed the hearing tests. There was no significant relationship between patients' gender and ethnicity with their hearing status. The types of cleft pathology significantly influenced the outcome of PTA and ABR screening results (p cleft groups and the outcome of hearing tests. However, hearing improvement occurred when palatal repair was performed at the age of cleft patients had normal hearing (70%). Hearing threshold varied significantly between the different types of cleft pathology. Surgery conferred no significant impact on the hearing outcome unless surgery was performed at the age of <1 year old. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors affecting coastal wetland loss and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, D.R.; Phillips, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    Opening paragraph: Tidal and nontidal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed provide vital hydrologic, water-quality, and ecological functions. Situated at the interface of land and water, these valuable habitats are vulnerable to alteration and loss by human activities including direct conversion to non-wetland habitat by dredge-and-fill activities from land development, and to the effects of excessive nutrients, altered hydrology and runoff, contaminants, prescribed fire management, and invasive species. Processes such as sea-level rise and climate change also impact wetlands. Although local, State, and Federal regulations provide for protection of wetland resources, the conversion and loss of wetland habitats continue in the Bay watershed. Given the critical values of wetlands, the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement has a goal to achieve a net gain in wetlands by restoring 25,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands by 2010. The USGS has synthesized findings on three topics: (1) sea-level rise and wetland loss, (2) wetland restoration, and (3) factors affecting wetland diversity.

  20. Factors Affecting Internationalization of Indonesia Franchise Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Halim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Franchise is one of successful business strategies in business expansion. Franchise format has been already adopted in all countries. The success is proven in the world and also in Indonesia. Franchise system can be implemented not only in franchisor country but also in other countries. The spirit of internalization is not only because of market saturated, but also to increase reputation of franchise companies and to follow competitors or customers. Important thing discussed in this research is the franchise life-cycle, franchise growth model, and franchise companies’ profile.  It is found that the Indonesia franchise companies are in the introduction stage. The stage in life-cycle shows its reputation. This study used literature review as methodology, and the purpose of this study is to give a big picture for Indonesia franchise companies to make internationalization. There are some Indonesia franchise business profiles in the discussion part. The factors affecting franchise internationalization were analyzed by PESTEL analysis. Some strategies should be prepared in making decision to go international.  At the end, there are some recommendations and future research relating to internationalize franchise business.

  1. Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk

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    Rubporn Kittivachra

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044. The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

  2. Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Te-chato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. were investigated. Types of explants, strains and densities of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and co-culture methods were examined to optimize gene transformation. The results showed that among strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tested, LBA 4404 containing pBI 121 gave the calli with the highest resistance to kanamycin. Kanamycin at the concentration of 50-100 mg/l was the best range for selection of transformants. Higher density of agrobacteria tended to promote higher frequency of transformation. The best co-culture method was dipping the explant in a solution of agrobacteria for 10 minutes, followed by culturing onto co-culture medium without antibiotic for 48 hours. Among the explants used to co- culture with bacteria, half leaf treatment gave the best result for transformation; however, callus proliferation and plantlet regeneration were inferior to whole leaf treatment. Activity of β-Glucuronidase (GUS could not be detected, thus resistance to kanamycin was used for detecting transformability. Shoot primordia could be induced from kanamycin-resistant calli grown in regeneration medium. After maintenance by subculturing to the same medium 2 to 3 times in 2-3 months, the developed shoots turned brown and finally died. Hence, the transformed plant of mangosteen was not obtained from this experiment.

  3. Factors affecting protoplast formation by Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tung-Hsen; Lin, Mei-Ju; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

    2010-02-28

    Novozym 234 was the most frequently used enzyme for production of Rhizoctonia solani protoplasts. Since manufacture of this enzyme was discontinued in the late 1990s, a new procedure was developed by testing lytic enzymes from Sigma and by examining factors affecting protoplast formation. The combination of 20 mg/mL Driselase and 10mg/mL lysing enzyme was effective in releasing protoplasts from R. solani. The optimal condition for enzyme treatment of mycelium was incubation at 37 degrees C for 15 min followed by 34 degrees C for 105 min. The amount of protoplasts produced was positively correlated with growth rate and negatively correlated with mycelial density. Under favorable conditions, R. solani mycelia released 1.68 x 10(6) protoplasts/mL that is comparable with that produced with Novozym 234. Among various media tested, the best solid medium for protoplast regeneration was 1% V-8 juice agar, while the best liquid medium was 10% potato dextrose broth. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students

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    Vivien T. Supangco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality

  5. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  6. [Related factor analysis of the degree of tinnitus in sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Zhou, Jinhui

    2013-01-01

    To provide the theory basis for clinical diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of sudden deafness patients, we detected the relative factors of degree of tinnitus of the patients with sudden deafness. Prospective analysis was used to compare degree of tinnitus with sex, ears, age, degree of hearing lose, hearing curve type and curative effect of tinnitus and sudden deafness. Tinnitus was detected in 87.2% in the 70 patients who with sudden deafness, and the most and least degree of tinnitus patients was the degree 3 (32.9%) and the degree 5 and 6 (0). The total effective rate of sudden deafness and tinnitus was 66.2% and 74.3%, respectively. The statistical analysis shown the degree of tinnitus was not related to sex, ears, age, degree of hearing lose, auditory curve type and curative effect of tinnitus and sudden deafness (P > 0.05). There was a high rate of tinnitus occurrence in sudden deafness patients, and the moderate degree predominated. The curative effect of tinnitus was better than sudden deafness. There was no relationship between the degree of tinnitus and sex, ears, age, degree of hearing lose, auditory curve type and curative effect of tinnitus and sudden deafness.

  7. Risk factors for distortion product otoacoustic emissions in young men with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Peter; Dreisbach, Laura E; Kopke, Richard; Jackson, Ron; Balough, Ben

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of risk factors on distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in young adult men with normal hearing. Four hundred thirty-six United States Marine recruit men (mean age = 19.2 years +/- 1.8 years; age range = 17-29 years) participated in this study. Questionnaires were given to each recruit to obtain demographic data and history of noise exposure, solvent exposure, smoking history, and hearing-related histories. Otoscopy, tympanometry, pure-tone air-conduction audiometry (2.0-8.0 kHz) and DPOAEs (2.3-8.0 kHz) were measured. DPOAE levels were lower in Not Hispanic or Latino recruits, in heavy smokers, in recruits who reported loud live music exposure and ringing in their ears after noise exposure. These differences were not statistically significant at all frequencies. Recruits with multiple risk factors had the lowest DPOAEs as compared to recruits with fewer, or no, risk factors; these differences were not statistically significant. Obtaining risk factor data as part of an audiometric evaluation is important even though the individual may have normal hearing.

  8. Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy Home ... Your Pregnancy FAQ027, September 2013 PDF Format The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy Pregnancy ...

  9. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin HK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyekyung Jin,1 Yeonhee Kim,2 Sandy Jeong Rhie1,3 1College of Pharmacy, 2Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, 3Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160 aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15. The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=-0.215, P=0.022, sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=-0.335, P=0.000, education level (β=-0.153, P=0.045, health-related problems (β=-0.239, P=0.004, and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018. Conclusion: In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists

  10. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-01-01

    .... Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan...

  11. Factors affecting pelvic rotation in idiopathic scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunfei; Qi, Lin; Yang, Jun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yang, Changwei; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pelvic rotation (PR) is commonly seen in patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS), but factors contributing to this phenomenon and its relationship with the surgical outcome are not well established. This retrospective study included 85 IS patients in 2 groups: thoracic curve dominance group (group A) and lumbar curve dominance group (group B). Pre- and postoperative PR was measured on standing posteroanterior radiographs by the left/right ratio (L/R ratio) of horizontal distance between the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the inferior ilium (SI) at the sacroiliac joint on the same side in both groups. Other radiographic data, age, sex, and Risser sign of each patient were recorded to analyze their correlations with PR before and after operation. The patients ranged in age from 10 to 35 years with a mean of 17.0 ± 5.2 years. The mean L/R ratio of PR before operation was 0.99 (0.73–1.40) versus 0.98 (0.87–1.26) after operation. The L/R ration was beyond the range of 1 ± 0.1 (indicating the presence of PR) in 17 (20%) patients before operation and in 14 (16.5%) patients after operation. There was no significant difference in PR between the 2 groups of patients either before (P = 0.468) or after (P = 0.944) surgery. The preoperative PR showed a very low correlation with Risser sign (r = 0.220, P = 0.043), apex vertebral rotation (AVR) in the proximal thoracic curve (r = 0.242, P = 0.026), and AVR in the lumbar curve (r = 0.213, P = 0.049), while the postoperative PR showed a very low correlation with Risser sign (r = −0.341, P = 0.001) and postoperative trunk shift (TS) (r = −0.282, P = 0.009). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that preoperative PR was affected by proximal thoracic curve AVR and lumbar curve AVR. There was no significant difference between PR before operation and 2 years after operation. Preoperative PR was mainly correlated with Risser sign and the rotation

  12. Identification of Factors Affecting Educational Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified the variables that tend to affect educational performance among ... The population for the study consisted of students of Lagos State University, ... These were: Circumstances, Parental Authority, Socio- Economic Label, Self ...

  13. [The treatment effects analysis of 164 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Wen; Xu, Hong; Liu, Yuehui

    2015-05-01

    To explore the effective treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss and factors affecting its prognosis. The clinical data and follow-up results of 164 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss were analyzed retrospectively. All the 164 patients were given intravenous vasodilator, neurotrophic drugs treatment, oral prednisone treatment, and intratympanic dexamethasone injection. All patients were divided into low frequency hearing loss type,intermediate frequency hearing loss, high frequency hearing loss, all frequency hearing loss and total deafness group. Pure tone hearing threshold test were performed before and 3 months after treatment. All patients and different groups were compared before and after treatment damage frequency of average air conduction and various frequency air conduction hearing. Analysis of gender, age, process and hearing curve type, frequency hearing of impaired before treatment, the symptoms with or without vertigo. All the patients' hearing improved after treatment. The treatment efficiency was 46.3%, and low frequency hearing improvements were better than the high frequency hearing. Including age, process, frequency hearing of impaired before treatment, with or without vertigo isindependent factors influencing its prognosis. Based on the regular treatment,oral and intratympanic injection glucocorticoid therapy are safe and effective for sudden hearing loss,The prognosis and age, course, impaired hearing before curve type, treatment frequency hearing level is closely related, with or without vertigo.

  14. Ecological factors affecting the distribution of zooplankton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Key words: Massa Lagoon, zooplankton, environmental factors. ... and Lucena, 2001) have also mentioned the influence of .... positive correlation with water temperature (r = 0.41) and .... carnivore species copepod, Acanthocyclops robustus.

  15. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid

  16. Factors affecting the retrieval of famous names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel Pavão; Loureiro, Clara; Rodrigues, Susana; Dias, Beatriz; Slade, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Tests of famous faces are used to study language and memory. Yet, the effect of stimulus properties on performance has not been fully investigated. To identify factors influencing proper name retrieval and to probe stimulus-specific parameters within proper name lexicon, we analysed the results obtained by 300 healthy participants on a test of famous faces that includes 74 personalities. A factor analysis yielded five main factors that were characterized by language (national or foreign names), epoch of peak popularity (current, recent or past) and occupation (politicians, entertainment and sports) of the personalities. Multiple regression analysis showed that participants' education, age and gender accounted for 10-32% of the variance in factor scores. These results indicate that there are variables of the stimulus and participants' that must be taken into account in proper name testing and in designing tests aimed to differentiate age-associated difficulties from cognitive decline.

  17. FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTION OF WILD UNGULATES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Wildlife Science - Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas. ... The major factors considered are vegetation, water, fire, cattle grazing, ... reproduction of ungulates on three ranches and then to relate these data to ...

  18. Factors affecting robust retail energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelman, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This paper briefly defines an active retail market, details the factors that influence market activity and their relative importance, compares activity in various retail energy markets to date, and predicts future retail energy market activity. Three primary factors translate into high market activity: supplier margins, translated into potential savings for actively shopping customers; market size; and market barriers. The author surveys activity nationwide and predicts hot spots for the coming year.

  19. Identifying factors affecting optimal management of agricultural water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2015-01-01

    In addition to quantitative methodology such as descriptive statistics and factor analysis a qualitative methodology was employed for dynamic simulation among variables through Vensim software. In this study, the factor analysis technique was used through the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett tests. From the results, four key elements were identified as factors affecting the optimal management of agricultural water in Hamedan area. These factors were institutional and legal factors, technical and knowledge factors, economic factors and social factors.

  20. Assessment of the risk factors for hearing loss in adult Nigerian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Ayodele Sogebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A reduction in hearing sensitivity is common in adults and was previously considered to be normal as age increases. However, other health variables may play a role in the sensory changes. This prospective, comparative, hospital-based study assessed the risk factors (RFs associated with sensorineural hearing losses (SNHL in adult patients in a specialized tertiary hospital clinic in South-western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Patients with clinical diagnosis of hearing impairment (bilateral SNHL were the test subjects and age and sex-matched comparable group without SNHL were the Controls. Using a structured questionnaire, variables assessed included current and past medical history, family and social history, use of medications including ototoxic drugs, and prolonged medications. Results: One hundred and twenty-seven patients participated in the study comprising of 76 test subjects with SNHL (including 14 with suspected ARHL and 51 controls. 59.8% of the participants were males. Univariate analysis revealed statistically-significant differences in family history, alcohol consumption, smoking, exposure to noise, previous ear discharge, previous head injury, hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthritis, ototoxic drugs usage, prolonged medication and obesity between the two categories of subjects. Logistic regression analysis revealed family history, smoking, noise exposure, head injury, hypertension had significantly increased odds of developing SNHL. Conclusion: It was concluded that the RFs for SNHL in adult Nigerians were multifactorial while some of the RFs may be amenable to primary prevention. Legislation and public health education could facilitate reduction of SNHL in our community.

  1. Semantic and pragmatic factors influencing deaf and hearing students' comprehension of english sentences containing numeral quantifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ronald R; Berent, Gerald P

    2011-01-01

    This research contrasted deaf and hearing students' interpretive knowledge of English sentences containing numeral quantifier phrases and indefinite noun phrases. A multiple-interpretation picture task methodology was used to assess 305 participants' judgments of the compatibility of sentence meanings with depicted discourse contexts. Participants' performance was assessed on the basis of hearing level (deaf, hearing) and grade level (middle school, high school, college). The deaf students were predicted to have differential access to specific sentence interpretations in accordance with the relative derivational complexity of the targeted sentence types. Hypotheses based on the pressures of derivational economy on acquisition were largely supported. The results also revealed that the deaf participants tended to overactivate pragmatic processes that yielded principled, though non-target, sentence interpretations. Collectively, the results not only contribute to the understanding of English acquisition under conditions of restricted access to spoken language input, they also suggest that pragmatic factors may play a broad role in influencing, and compromising, deaf students' reading comprehension and written expression.

  2. [Analysis of prevalence of self-reported hearing loss and associated factors: primary versus proxy informant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, André Luis Alves de; Leotti, Vanessa Bielefeldt; Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de

    2017-07-03

    The objective was to evaluate differences between prevalence rates for self-reported hearing loss and associated factors, obtained from responses by primary and proxy informants in a Population-Based Study on Human Communication Disorders (DCH-POP in Portuguese). This was a study on epidemiological methods using data from a cross-sectional household survey with a sample of 1,253 individuals from Southern Brazil. To verify differences between prevalence rates comparing primary informants and proxy informants, we used the chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney for continuous variables. The log-binomial model was adjusted for hearing loss as the dependent variable, considering three datasets: the entire sample, only primary informants, and only proxy informants, estimating association by prevalence ratios. In the final models, only the independent variables age and dizziness were associated with hearing loss, independently of the dataset that was used. Proxy informants generally underestimated the prevalence rates for the target outcomes, when compared to primary informants.

  3. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates.

  4. Factors affecting levodopa effects in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogawa N

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Levodopa is the gold standard for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD because of its outstanding clinical efficacy. However, the majority of patients experience various adverse reactions, including the wearing-off phenomenon, the on-off phenomenon, dyskinesia and psychiatric symptoms. The response to levodopa depends not only on the intrinsic responsiveness of the patients, but also on various other important factors including the type of levodopa preparation, its absorption/metabolism, the blood-brain barrier, age at onset of disease and concomitant use of anti-parkinsonian drugs. This review summarizes factors which influence the effects of levodopa in PD. To minimize levodopa-induced adverse reactions and to relieve long-term parkinsonian symptoms, levodopa therapy should be conducted by taking these factors into consideration.

  5. Factors Affecting Postsurgery Hip Fracture Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney Wallace

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After hip fracture surgery, patients seldom return to their prefracture functional state and there is a 43% rate of mortality and institutionalisation of postsurgery hip fracture patients. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify preoperative, perioperative, postoperative, and psychosocial factors that may hinder postsurgery hip fracture patients from returning to previous functionality. Factors that were identified as being associated with postsurgical outcomes were age, muscle strength, prefracture living arrangements, number of daily medications taken, oxygen levels, fracture type and location, haemoglobin (Hb level, wait time prior to surgery, length of hospital stay (LOS, and dementia or depression.

  6. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  7. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    states, are more amenable to analysis. This is exemplified by factors contributing, respectively, to blood oxygen affinity and placental diffusing capacity. Comparative genomics has given fresh insight into the evolution of the beta-globin gene complex. In higher primates, duplication of an embryonic...

  8. Factors affecting the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周昌德

    2001-01-01

    @@Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) occurs more frequently in young males than in females. The prevalence of AS in Taiwan, according to our previous study, is about 0.3%.1 AS mainly affects the spine, however, it can also result in peripheral arthritis that occurs in the toes, ankles, knees, hip joints and the tendon and ligaments around those joints.2 In addition, the spine of some AS patients may develop kyphoscoliosis due to late diagnosis or failure to cooperate in following the routine medication and exercises prescribed by their doctors.

  9. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette;

    2008-01-01

    . A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  10. Political and institutional factors affecting systems engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, John F.

    1993-01-01

    External groups have a significant impact on NASA's programs. Ten groups affecting NASA are identified, and examples are given for some of the them. Methods of dealing with these external inputs are discussed, the most important being good and open two way communications and an objective attitude on the part of the NASA participants. The importance of planning ahead, of developing rapport with these groups, and of effective use of NASA contractors is covered. The need for an overall strategic plan for the U.S. space program is stressed.

  11. Internal factors affecting the jury members verdict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of socio-demographic and individual psychological characteristics that influence the verdict of jury. The study involved 38 men and women aged 25 to 64 years. With the help of a questionnaire, developed on the basis of legal development model by J. Tapp and F. Levine, we revealed levels of jury members’ legal conscience, which, together with socio-demographic characteristics and personality characteristics of the subjects, identified by R. Cattell 16PF Questionnaire, were related to the responses on the Questionnaire while returning verdict on specially selected criminal cases with implicit guilt of the defendant. According to the study, it was determined that the socio-demographic characteristics of the jurors did not significantly affect their verdict, and among the psychological characteristics of the jurors the greatest impact on their verdict has the level of legal development. Thus, depending on the nature of the crime (violent, non-violent or committed through negligence, the same level of legal conscience differently affect the decision of jurors.

  12. Factors affecting patient education from cultural perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD REZA HEIDARI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient education is influenced by cultural factors. This study aims to find out the role of culture in patient education. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted on 23 Iranian nurses. Inclusion criteria were minimum 5 years of working experience in clinical nursing. Semistructured face to face interviews were used to collect the data. Interviews were taped, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis method. Results: The main theme of ‘cultural sensitivity’ was extracted from the interviews. Sub-themes were cultural divergence, cultural connection literacybased instruction. Conclusion: A dynamic process of patient education is influenced by various cultural factors. Nurses must be aware of the cultural norms in patient education to meet their expectations in a respectful manner.

  13. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Yurdun Kuyucu; Ozgul Tap

    2009-01-01

    Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf) follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted til...

  14. Factors that Affect the Lung Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhala, Shweta; Singh, H. S.; Singh, S. K.; Lalwani, Gautam

    The lung is an external organ forming the site of unwanted material or particles. In order to protect it, the airways have to be highly effective filters and if the particle deposit they need to be cleared. Inhaled particles can cause a variety of diseases. There are various factors on which the prediction of depositing particles depends, such as age, particle size, flow rate gender, the physics of the particles, the anatomy of the respiratory tract etc.

  15. Environmental Factors Affecting Avian Reproduction and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Darcy Fay Kato

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate timing of reproduction is crucial to animals’ reproductive success and fitness. Animals living in unpredictable environments do not constrain their breeding to one season, but rather breed any time of the year in which good conditions occur. These animals, termed “opportunistic” breeders, cannot predict when good conditions will occur based on the seasons, and must instead respond quickly to proximate environmental factors to successfully breed and raise young. Animals may resp...

  16. CERN hearing day

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    1 in 10 people suffer from hearing loss - do you? The Medical Service invites everyone working on the CERN site to participate in the NATIONAL HEARING DAY on: Thursday 10th March 2005 From 9am to 4pm The Infirmary, Blg. 57, Ground Floor We will be offering hearing tests (audiograms), as well as information and advice on hearing loss, tinnitus, etc. Deafness does not just affect the elderly: in Europe, 50% of the hearing-impaired are under the age of 55. Exposure to excessive noise is one of the main reasons for hearing problems but PREVENTION IS POSSIBLE. For example, hearing protection devices can prevent 80% of tinnitus cases.

  17. CERN hearing day

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    1 in 10 people suffer from hearing loss - do you? The Medical Service invites everyone working on CERN premises to participate in the National Hearing Day on: Thursday 10th March From 9am to 4pm The Infirmary, Blg. 57, Gr.Fl. We will be offering hearing tests (audiogram); information, advice on hearing loss, tinnitus and more. Deafness does not just affect the elderly: in Europe, 50% the hearing-impaired are under the age of 55. Exposure to excessive noise is one of the main reasons for hearing loss. But PREVENTION IS POSSIBLE AND EFFECTIVE: for example, Hearing protection devices could reduce tinnitus cases by 80%.

  18. CERN hearing day

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    1 in 10 people suffer from hearing loss ? do you? The Medical Service invites everyone working on the CERN site to participate in the NATIONAL HEARING DAY on: Thursday 10th March 2005 From 9am to 4pm The Infirmary, Blg. 57, Ground Floor We will be offering hearing tests (audiograms), as well as information and advice on hearing loss, tinnitus, etc. Deafness does not just affect the elderly: in Europe, 50% of the hearing-impaired are under the age of 55. Exposure to excessive noise is one of the main reasons for hearing problems but prevention is possible. For example, hearing protection devices can prevent 80% of tinnitus cases.

  19. CERN hearing day

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    1 in 10 people suffer from hearing loss - do you? The Medical Service invites everyone working on CERN premises to participate in the National Hearing Day on: Thursday 10th March From 9am to 4pm The Infirmary, Blg. 57, Gr.Fl. We will be offering hearing tests (audiogram); information, advice on hearing loss, tinnitus and more. Deafness does not just affect the elderly: in Europe, 50% the hearing-impaired are under the age of 55. Exposure to excessive noise is one of the main reasons for hearing loss. But prevention is possible and effective: for example, Hearing protection devices could reduce tinnitus cases by 80%.

  20. Consensus on Hearing Aid Candidature and Fitting for Mild Hearing Loss, With and Without Tinnitus: Delphi Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Derek J.; Nicholson, Richard; Smith, Sandra; Hall, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In many countries including the United Kingdom, hearing aids are a first line of audiologic intervention for many people with tinnitus and aidable hearing loss. Nevertheless, there is a lack of high quality evidence to support that they are of benefit for tinnitus, and wide variability in their use in clinical practice especially for people with mild hearing loss. The aim of this study was to identify a consensus among a sample of UK clinicians on the criteria for hearing aid candidature and clinical practice in fitting hearing aids specifically for mild hearing loss with and without tinnitus. This will allow professionals to establish clinical benchmarks and to gauge their practice with that used elsewhere. Design: The Delphi technique, a systematic methodology that seeks consensus amongst experts through consultation using a series of iterative questionnaires, was used. A three-round Delphi survey explored clinical consensus among a panel of 29 UK hearing professionals. The authors measured panel agreement on 115 statements covering: (i) general factors affecting the decision to fit hearing aids, (ii) protocol-driven factors affecting the decision to fit hearing aids, (iii) general practice, and (iv) clinical observations. Consensus was defined as a priori ≥70% agreement across the panel. Results: Consensus was reached for 58 of the 115 statements. The broad areas of consensus were around factors important to consider when fitting hearing aids; hearing aid technology/features offered; and important clinical assessment to verify hearing aid fit (agreement of 70% or more). For patients with mild hearing loss, the greatest priority was given by clinicians to patient-centered criteria for fitting hearing aids: hearing difficulties, motivation to wear hearing aids, and impact of hearing loss on quality of life (chosen as top five by at least 64% of panelists). Objective measures were given a lower priority: degree of hearing loss and shape of the

  1. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan FERENCZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  2. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan FERENCZ; František JÚN; Dušan KEVICKÝ

    2008-01-01

    The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  3. Factors affecting anxiety-fear of surgical procedures in dentistry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting anxiety-fear of surgical procedures in dentistry. ... the questions concerning previous dental experience, education level, and previous ... structure and gender are the significantly effective factors on dental anxiety and fear.

  4. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  5. Diabetes Mellitus como causa de perda auditiva Diabetes mellitus as etiological factor of hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clícia Adriana S. Maia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os pacientes com diabetes mellitus freqüentemente apresentam sintomas como tontura, zumbidos e hipoacusia. Via de regra, a perda auditiva é do tipo sensorioneural, confundindo-se, por vezes, com presbiacusia, principalmente por ocorrer em pacientes acima dos 40 anos de idade. A angiopatia e a neuropatia causadas pelo diabetes mellitus têm sido considerados importantes fatores responsáveis pelas manifestações vestibulococleares nesses pacientes. Porém, existe controvérsia no que se refere à etiopatogênese da perda auditiva, sendo que parte dos autores advoga que ela ocorre devido à neuropatia, outra parte à angiopatia, e outra, ainda, à associação das duas. Porém há também os que entendem que o diabetes mellitus e a perda auditiva poderiam ser partes integrantes de uma síndrome genética e não dependentes entre si. Realizamos uma extensa revisão bibliográfica procurando analisar se há relação "causa e efeito" entre o diabetes mellitus e a perda auditiva. Pudemos observar que, apesar do grande número de estudos realizados, a controvérsia ainda é grande, sendo que novas perspectivas, como no campo da genética, estão sendo estudadas, mostrando que novos rumos podem ser tomados para se chegar à conclusão do tema.Patients with diabetes mellitus often show symptoms such as dizziness, tinnitus, and hearing impairment. In general, hearing loss is sensorineural, which is sometimes confused with presbycusis, mainly because it develops in patients older than 40 years of age. Angiopathy and neuropathy caused by diabetes mellitus have been considered important factors for the vestibular-cochlear disorders found in these patients. However, there is controversy regarding the etiopathogenesis of hearing loss, as some researchers support that it develops due to neuropathy, others say it is due to angiopathy, or even a combination of both. Yet, some researchers believe diabetes mellitus and hearing loss are part of a genetic

  6. Factors affecting membership in specialty nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary Joe; Olson, Rhonda S

    2004-01-01

    A discouraging trend in many specialty nursing organizations is the stagnant or declining membership. The research committee of the Southeast Texas Chapter of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN) collected data and studied this trend to determine what changes would be necessary to increase membership. Using Herzberg's motivational theory as a framework, a review of the literature was initiated. There were few current studies on this issue, but relevant information was found about nursing's emerging workforce, as well as implications of the growth of magnet hospitals, which affect whether nurses join specialty nursing organizations. A multifaceted data-collection approach using convenience samples was designed. First, relevant literature was reviewed. Second, a survey was sent by e-mail to other ARN chapters. Third, a telephone survey on other specialty organizations in the geographic region was completed. Finally, members of the local ARN chapter and four other specialty organizations, as well staff nurses in the geographic area, were given questionnaires to complete. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to determine why nurses do and do not join specialty organizations (N = 81). The most frequent reasons for joining an organization were to increase knowledge, benefit professionally, network, and earn continuing education units. Reasons for choosing not to participate were family responsibilities, lack of information about these organizations, and lack of time. Ways to reverse the decline in membership are discussed.

  7. Factors affecting home range of mallard pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechmann, J.H.

    1976-06-01

    Certain habitat and social factors were investigated for their effect on home range size of mallard (Anas platyhynchos) pairs breeding in a forested region of north-central Minnesota during the spring of 1971--72. Data from 31 radio-marked hens and drakes were used, but primary emphasis was placed on 8 pairs (5 with both members of the pair marked). Pairs were radio-tracked on river marsh areas, river channels, and large sand lakes to provide comparative data for evaluating home range size differences. Home ranges varied from an average of 53 ha for pairs using primarily river habitat to 871 ha for pairs using only large sand lakes. River and lake shorelines varied considerably in species and density of vegetation. Interaction between pairs as well as density of flocked males appeared to be influenced by these habitat differences with resultant effects on home range sizes.

  8. Factors Affecting Methane Emission from Rice Paddies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于心科; 王卫东; 等

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study of rice paddies and the uncovered water field in Taoyuan(Hunan) showed that methane emission from rice-vegetated paddy fields in 1993 was different from that in 1992(I,e,lower in rates and irregular in pattern).Climate has obvious influence on methane emission .And ebullition made a considerable contribution to the total flux of methane emission from rice paddies (45%).This implies that the intensification of paddy cultivation of rice might not be,as was proposed,the main con-tributor to the observed gradual increasing of atmospheric methane.24-hour automatic measurements of atmospheric temperature,air temperature and methane concentration in the static sampling boxes revealed that temperature,in addition to fertilization and irrigation style,is one of the most important factors that control the emission of methane from rice paddies.

  9. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdun Kuyucu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

  10. Factors affecting frontline workers' satisfaction with supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noelker, Linda S; Ejaz, Farida K; Menne, Heather L; Bagaka's, Joshua G

    2009-02-01

    Objective. This research was guided by a stress and support model to examine the effects of frontline workers' background characteristics, personal stressors, job-related stressors, and workplace support on satisfaction with supervision. Method. Survey data were collected from 644 workers in 49 long-term-care settings that employed them. Regression analysis were used to determine the effects of worker level and then Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and organizational factors on the outcome. Results. Although all four variable categories made significant contributions to explaining satisfaction with supervision, the most powerful were personal stressors and job-related stressors. Results from HLM analysis showed frontline workers in nursing homes and those employed in for-profit organizations had lower levels of satisfaction with supervision. Discussion. Findings suggest organizational interventions to address workers' financial and health issues and management practices such as better training programs and peer mentoring could enhance workers' satisfaction with supervision.

  11. Physical factors affecting chloroquine binding to melanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, R L; Pendleton, P; Gerber, J P

    2015-10-01

    Chloroquine is an antimalarial drug but is also prescribed for conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Long-term users risk toxic side effects, including retinopathy, thought to be caused by chloroquine accumulation on ocular melanin. Although the binding potential of chloroquine to melanin has been investigated previously, our study is the first to demonstrate clear links between chloroquine adsorption by melanin and system factors including temperature, pH, melanin type, and particle size. In the current work, two Sepia melanins were compared with bovine eye as a representative mammalian melanin. Increasing the surface anionic character due to a pH change from 4.7 to 7.4 increased each melanin's affinity for chloroquine. Although the chloroquine isotherms exhibited an apparently strong interaction with each melanin, isosteric heat analysis indicated a competitive interaction. Buffer solution cations competed effectively at low surface coverage; chloroquine adsorption occurs via buffer cation displacement and is promoted by temperature-influenced secondary structure swelling.

  12. Factors affecting calcium balance in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jing; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ailing; Du, Weijing; Wang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaoqi; Ma, Guansheng

    2010-01-01

    Chinese dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for calcium were developed mainly from studies conducted amongst Caucasians, yet a recent review showed that reference calcium intakes for Asians are likely to be different from those of Caucasians (Lee and Jiang, 2008). In order to develop calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents, it is necessary to explore the characteristics and potential influencing factors of calcium metabolic balance in Chinese adolescents. A total of 80 students (15.1+/-0.8 years) were recruited stratified by gender from a 1-year calcium supplementation study. Subjects were randomly designed to four groups and supplemented with calcium carbonate tablets providing elemental calcium at 63, 354, 660, and 966 mg/day, respectively. Subjects consumed food from a 3-day cycle menu prepared by staff for 10 days. Elemental calcium in samples of foods, feces, and urine was determined in duplicates by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The total calcium intake ranged from 352 to 1323 mg/day. The calcium apparent absorption efficiency and retention in boys were significantly higher than that in girls (68.7% vs. 46.4%, 480 mg/day vs. 204 mg/day, PCalcium retention increased with calcium intakes, but did not reach a plateau. Calcium absorption efficiency in boys increased with calcium intake up to 665 mg/day, and decreased after that. In girls, calcium absorption efficiency decreased with calcium intake. Calcium absorption efficiency increased within 1 year after first spermatorrhea in boys, but decreased with pubertal development in girls. Sex, calcium intake, age, and pubertal development were the most important determinants of calcium absorption (R(2)=0.508, Pcalcium intake, age, and pubertal development are important factors for calcium retention and absorption during growth, which should be considered for the development of calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents.

  13. Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Bowman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, market dynamics, and product mixes. Within this vision, diversified farming systems (DFS have emerged as a model that incorporates functional biodiversity at multiple temporal and spatial scales to maintain ecosystem services critical to agricultural production. Our aim is to provide an economists' perspective on the factors which make diversified farming systems (DFS economically attractive, or not-so-attractive, to farmers, and to discuss the potential for and roadblocks to widespread adoption. We focus on how a range of existing and emerging factors drive profitability and adoption of DFS. We believe that, in order for DFS to thrive, a number of structural changes are needed. These include: 1 public and private investment in the development of low-cost, practical technologies that reduce the costs of production in DFS, 2 support for and coordination of evolving markets for ecosystem services and products from DFS and 3 the elimination of subsidies and crop insurance programs that perpetuate the unsustainable production of staple crops. We suggest that subsidies and funding be directed, instead, toward points 1 and 2, as well as toward incentives for consumption of nutritious food.

  14. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsa M.E

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol is one of the major risk factors for individuals’ and society’s health. Alcohol consumption is present since ancient years in Europe, constituting tradition, with Europeans preferring different kinds of alcohol depending on the geographic location of their country. The economic crisis that European citizens are undergoing nowadays, has an impact on their health and more specifically there has been a significant increase in alcohol consumption. Material and Methods: The purpose of this study is to explore the factors which effect the alcohol consumption and consequences of this consumption in Europe. Literature review of relevant articles, published from 2005 to 2013, to these databases: WHO, Google scholar, PubMed. Finally, 42 studies were used to our review. Results: The alcohol consumption is connected with the economic situation of the country, the availability of alcohol, the restrictions and taxes of each country. Alcohol consumption is also related with the gender and age of each individual. In Central-eastern Europe, in contrast to the south Europe, the greatest percentage of mortality caused by the alcohol consumption is found. 35,95% is the mortality rate which is found in Europe. Regarding Greece in recent years, alcohol consumption has declined, while the rates of intoxication have shown as light increase. Conclusions: The lack of legislation, the non-existence of a minimum sale price and the increased availability, can lead to increased incidence of mortality caused by the alcohol consumption. Further research regarding the correlation of economic crisis and alcohol consumption is necessary.

  15. [Genetic factors in susceptibility to age- and noise-related hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwińiska-Kowalska, Mariola; Pawelczyk, Małgorzata; Kowalski, Tomasz Jarema

    2006-10-01

    Individual susceptibility to age-related hearing loss (AHL) and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) varies greatly, and this inter-individual variation is due to an interaction of environmental factors, individual factors, and susceptibility genes. Majority of studies on susceptibility genes for AHL and NIHL have been performed in mice model. These findings suggest the role of the same genes in the development of AHL and NIHL, the more so as the pathogenesis of both diseases is similar with a crucial role of oxidative stress. The alleles responsible for AHL have been localized to the chromosome 10 (Ahl gene). Ahl-/- mice develop hearing impairment at early age and are also oversensitive to noise. Ahl gene is a recessive gene and it is probably responsible for the synthesis of cell junction proteins. In mice ahl codes for cadherin (CDH) proteins. The cadherin of interest is named otocadherin or CDH23, and it is localized to the links between stereocilia of hair cells. A hypomorphic 753G>A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Cdh 23 is associated with AHL, and the 753A variant is also correlated with susceptibility to NIHL. An increased susceptibility to AHL and NIHL may rely on the SNPs of several other genes, including the groups of oxidative stress genes, K+ ions recycling genes, monogenic deafness genes (including Connexin 26 gene, which mutation is responsible for the most frequent hereditary deafness in Caucasians), as well as mitochondrial genes. Several oxidative stress enzyme (sod1-/-, gpx -/-) knock-out mice have been shown to be more susceptible to NIHL than wild strains. Current large-scale cohort studies on AHL and NIHL performed under the European projects in between-lab collaboration along with a dynamic progress in the field of genetics of deafness open up new opportunities to find human AHL and NIHL susceptibility genes and develop methods for AHUNIHL treatment.

  16. Factors Affecting Hypertension among the Malaysian Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ataollahi Eshkoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common chronic disease in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, nutritional parameters, and blood elements on the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. This research was conducted on a group of 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of hypertension in respondents. Approximately, 45.61% of subjects had hypertension. The findings indicated that the female gender (Odds ratio (OR = 1.54, an increase in body weight (OR = 1.61, and an increase in the blood levels of albumin (OR = 1.51, glucose (OR = 1.92, and triglycerides (OR = 1.27 significantly increased the risk of hypertension in subjects (p < 0.05. Conversely, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates (OR = 0.74, and blood cholesterol level (OR = 0.42 significantly reduced the risk of hypertension in samples (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that ethnicity was a non-relevant factor to increase the risk of hypertension in subjects. It was concluded that female gender, an increase in body weight, and an increase in the blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, and albumin enhanced the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. In addition, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates and blood cholesterol level decreased hypertension in subjects.

  17. Factors affecting mortality in patients with burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erbiş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increase in life quality and expectancy causes an increase in the elderly population. Improvements in burn treatment resulted in decreased mortality in children and young adults but in elderly patients burns are still an important trauma that should be handed differently than other age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors effecting mortality in patients with burns over 45 years old. Methods: Fifty-eight patients over 45 years of age, who were treated in our burns unit in the last 3 years were included in our study. Their age, burn percentage and depth, coexisting diseases and mortality rates were examined retrospectively. Results: The average age of surviving patients was 57.4 years while it was 70 years for nonsurviving patients (p=0.002. The width of burn area was 21.1 % in surviving and 50 % in nonsurviving patients (p<0.01. The effect of additional coexistent diseases on mortality was significant (p=0.001. The most common reasons of mortality were sepsis and congestive heart failure. Conclusion: We found out that the age, percentage of burns and coexistent diseases had a negative effect on success of treatment and mortality. Mortality rates will decrease in these cases with careful follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 240-243

  18. Factors affecting penetrating captive bolt gun performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session.

  19. Quran Literacy Barriers and Factors Affecting Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Feizi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Holy Quran is the greatest gift of God to mankind and is the most precious legacy of So, in order to govern a society guided by Quran and the teachings of Quran by life style based on it, it is necessary that academic community pays attention to Quran education on their pattern Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate Quran literacy of the academic community. This study is intended to provide information to the student community planning principles for designing and implementing Quran based activities. Material and Methods: This study was a descriptive survey. A researcher-made questionnaire with content validation was used to collect data. The population consisted of 840 students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Descriptive statistics by SPSSS 11 software was used for data analysis. Results: Analysis of the findings indicated that 37.2% of the participants were male and 62.8% were females. Thirty percent were non-native students and 69.6% of them were natives. More than 80% of the participants had Quran literacy. The results  showed no significant relationship between academic major (p>%94, gender( p>%07 and familiarity with Quran and being native or non-native( p>%79  Individuals who had Tajvid voice and tone literacy with 35.5%, common meanings and interpretations with 23.1%, translation with 12.9%, sound and tone with 13.4% and Tajvid with 1.5%, respectively. Determinants affecting on Quran literacy includes father’s job, school education, high interest in Quran education and family members’ familiarity with Quran. The most frequent obstacle include:  educational priorities, lack of time, apathy and no interest in Quran. Conclusion: Since Quran is for everyone and Quran activities are distributed among different academic majors, no significant relationship was found between gender (p>%07, academic major (p>%94 and being native or non-native (p>%79. As a result, paying attention to Quran verses

  20. Analysis on the Factors Affecting English Listening Ability of High School Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高小玉

    2012-01-01

    Listening is one of the most difficult skills to acquire. In language learning, listening is an important means to get information. Listening ability directly affects students' absorption of language, mastery of basic language skills and the ability to communicate with English. Only by hearing correctly, can they read smoothly and fluently. Therefore, high school students should improve their listening ability. Stu- dents' listening ability closely relates to the methods and profieiency in listening. Because of lacking of English environment and basic language skills, most high school students are not proficient in English listening. Therefore, this paper focuses on high school students' listening ability. It analyzes the factors that affect high school students' English listening from different aspects and it also comes up with coun- termeasures to improve students' listening ability.

  1. Knowledge and Cultural Beliefs of Mothers Regarding the Risk Factors of Infant Hearing Loss and Awareness of Audiology Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Samantha M.; Khan, Nasim Banu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to describe the knowledge of mothers in Durban, South Africa, regarding risk factors of hearing loss in infants and their awareness of audiology services, and to describe their cultural beliefs about the risk factors for hearing loss in infants. A descriptive survey design with quantitative methods of analysis were used. Conveniently sampled mothers (n=102) receiving postnatal care for their infants from eight provincial clinics within Durban consented to participate, yielding a response rate of 48%. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and the Cronbach α was calculated yielding a score of 0.835, indicating good internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire. Sixty percent of the mothers were aware of risk factors, such as middle ear infections, ototoxic medication and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Seventy percent were unaware that NICU/mechanical ventilation for more than 5 days, prematurity, rubella and jaundice are considered risk factors for hearing loss, implying a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding such risk factors. Sixty percent (n=62) believed that bewitchment and ancestral curses can cause hearing loss. Cultural beliefs were associated with hearing loss, therefore, health professionals need to demonstrate cultural competence when providing audiology services, especially in a culturally and linguistically diverse countries such as South Africa. Although the mothers had an average knowledge about risk factors, two thirds did not know which professional to seek help from. There is a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding the risk factors of infant hearing loss as well as audiology services in order to facilitate early detection and intervention. There is a need for health professionals to demonstrate cultural competence when working with their patients. PMID:28890772

  2. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Baygeldi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients’ age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate, hematocrit (HCT value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation, trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS, and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3% and 28 females (25.7%, and the mean age was 37.6±18.28 (15–78 years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3% traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle, 27 (24.7% falling from a height, 14 (12.9% assaults, 5 (4.5% sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5% gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3% of grade I, 32 (46.4% of grade II, 22 (31.8% of grade III, and 1 (1.5% of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in

  3. Prognostic factors for hearing preservation following observation-only versus stereotactic irradiation (STI) in patients with acoustic neuroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Tooru [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-10-01

    Prognostic factors for hearing preservation following observation-only versus STI were compared in patients with acoustic neuroma. There were 48 patients with acoustic neuroma treated by fractionated STI. Between 1991 and 1997, patients were given 36 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks (36 Gy/20 Fr/5 wks) to 44 Gy/22 Fr/6 wks followed by a 4 Gy boost. A linear accelerator was used for irradiation. Twenty-three patients with acoustic neuroma who were followed without any treatment (observation-only group) were selected as matched controls. The largest hearing loss was observed at the frequency of 2 kHz in the observation-only group and at 1-2 kHz in the STI group. Hearing loss at lkHz was more frequent in the STI group (p<0.01). There were no significant prognostic factors which predicted hearing preservation in the observation-only group. Stereotactic irradiation has been suggested to damage to cochlear nerve function in patients whose cochlear nerve had been impaired already. Tumor control rate of STI appeared to be as good as single fraction radiosurgery rates in the literature and better than in the observation-only group. Hearing preservation rate in the STI group was as good as in the observation-only group and appeared to be better than single fraction radiosurgery. In conclusion, because there were no factors predictive of hearing preservation in the observation-only group, it is difficult to select patients for observation only. Fractionated STI is potentially the treatment of choice, resulting in the same hearing preservation rate as achieved with observation only, although longer follow-up periods are needed. (author)

  4. Newborn hearing screening by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions: analysis of response as a function of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Capua, B; De Felice, C; Costantini, D; Bagnoli, F; Passali, D

    2003-02-01

    Hearing loss can be considered as the most common birth defect. Early detection of hearing loss by screening at, or shortly after, birth and appropriate intervention are critical to speech, language and cognitive development. In the present study, the characteristics of Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions have been evaluated as a function of known pre- and perinatal risk factors for hearing loss. All newborns were screened for hearing loss using a physiologic test of hearing function, the Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions. A total of 532 consecutive newborn infants received binaural Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission testing (262 males, 270 females; mean gestational age 39.2 +/- 2.1 weeks, range 26-43; birth weight: 3,240 +/- 550 g, range 910-4,780). The population examined comprised 448 control infants and 84 high-risk for hearing loss infants (Joint Committee on Infant Hearing 1994 criteria). All Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission recordings were performed at comparable postconceptional ages. Audiological screening by Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission recording showed an overall 100% sensitivity, 99.02% specificity, with negative and positive predictive values of 100% and 62.5%, respectively. As compared to controls, high-risk infants showed: 1. increased rates of Fail-1 (Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions absent at first examination, 21.4% vs 9.8%, p = 0.004), Fail-2 (Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions absent on retesting: 8.64% vs 1.37%, p = 0.0014), false positives (Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions absent/V wave present: 3.7% vs 0.46%, p = 0.029) and true positives (Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions absent, V wave absent: 2.47% or 24.5 per 1,000 live births vs 0.22% or 2.2 per 1,000 live births, p = 0.013); 2. significantly reduced Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission intensity in the 0.7-1 kHz (right side) and 1-2 kHz (left side) frequency ranges. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive

  5. A factor analysis of the SSQ (Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeroyd, Michael A; Guy, Fiona H; Harrison, Dawn L; Suller, Sharon L

    2014-02-01

    The speech, spatial, and qualities of hearing questionnaire (SSQ) is a self-report test of auditory disability. The 49 items ask how well a listener would do in many complex listening situations illustrative of real life. The scores on the items are often combined into the three main sections or into 10 pragmatic subscales. We report here a factor analysis of the SSQ that we conducted to further investigate its statistical properties and to determine its structure. Statistical factor analysis of questionnaire data, using parallel analysis to determine the number of factors to retain, oblique rotation of factors, and a bootstrap method to estimate the confidence intervals. 1220 people who have attended MRC IHR over the last decade. We found three clear factors, essentially corresponding to the three main sections of the SSQ. They are termed "speech understanding", "spatial perception", and "clarity, separation, and identification". Thirty-five of the SSQ questions were included in the three factors. There was partial evidence for a fourth factor, "effort and concentration", representing two more questions. These results aid in the interpretation and application of the SSQ and indicate potential methods for generating average scores.

  6. Affective, Cognitive and Social Factors in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper examines the role of selected affective, cognitive and social factors in second language acquisition, in an attempt to define a group of factors associated with success in second language learning within the formal educational system. Also examined is the effect of different teaching programs on an optimal group of factors. (CLK)

  7. Motivational Factors Affecting Advanced Literacy Learning of Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Rebecca J.; Dagostino, Lorraine

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors that community college students may bring with them into the classroom. It examines how these motivational factors affect students' learning inside and outside the community college classroom walls. The motivational factors such as mastery, self-determination,…

  8. Factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Jr. Nevel; Robert L. Jr. Nevel

    1973-01-01

    The continued use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation is being threatened. A study of the influences that determine the choice of flooring indicates that economic, physical, or technological factors dominate. Most factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring are related to cost, availability, and compatibility. Of these factors, time and cost of installation...

  9. Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Faculty-Doctoral Student Coauthorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Michelle A.; Timmerman, Briana Crotwell; Feldon, David F.; Strickland, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Using faculty narratives, this study identifies factors affecting the occurrence of faculty-doctoral student coauthorship. Norms of the discipline, resources, faculty goals for students, faculty goals for themselves, and institutional expectations emerged as dominant factors. Each factor is explored separately and as part of an interlocking…

  10. The Application of Affective Factors to English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐倩茹

    2015-01-01

    Education should aim at promoting students’all-round development and unifying cognitive and emotional aspects. However, the reality is that teachers pay too much attention on language cognitive factors and neglect the influence of emotional factors in language learning. This article tries to discuss how to use the affective factors in English teaching so as to enhance students’ comprehensive development.

  11. Affective, Cognitive and Social Factors in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper examines the role of selected affective, cognitive and social factors in second language acquisition, in an attempt to define a group of factors associated with success in second language learning within the formal educational system. Also examined is the effect of different teaching programs on an optimal group of factors. (CLK)

  12. Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Leisure Noise-Induced Hearing Damage in Flemish Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Degeest

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Young people regularly expose themselves to leisure noise and are at risk for acquiring hearing damage. Aims: The objective of this study was to compare young adults’ hearing status in relation to sociodemographic variables, leisure noise exposure and attitudes and beliefs towards noise. Settings and Design: A self-administered questionnaire regarding hearing, the amount of leisure noise exposure and attitudes towards noise and hearing protection as well as an audiological test battery were completed. Five hundred and seventeen subjects between 18 and 30 years were included. Subject and Methods: Hearing was evaluated using conventional audiometry, transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. On the basis of their hearing status, participants were categorised into normal hearing, sub-clinical or clinical hearing loss. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent samples t-tests, chi-square tests and multiple regression models were used to evaluate the relation between groups based on hearing status, sociodemographics, leisure noise and attitudes towards noise. Results: Age was significantly related to hearing status. Although, the subjects in this study frequently participated in leisure activities, no significant associations between leisure noise exposure and hearing status could be detected. No relation with subjects’ attitudes or the use of hearing protection devices was found. Conclusions: This study could not demonstrate clinically significant leisure noise-induced hearing damage, which may lead to more non-protective behaviour. However, the effects of leisure noise may become noticeable over a long-term use since age was found to be related with sub-clinical hearing loss. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of noise exposure.

  13. Partial Visual Loss Affects Self-reports of Hearing Abilities Measured Using a Modified Version of the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarik, Andrew J; Raman, Rajiv; Moore, Brian C J; Cirstea, Silvia; Gopalakrishnan, Sarika; Pardhan, Shahina

    2017-01-01

    We assessed how visually impaired (VI) people perceived their own auditory abilities using an established hearing questionnaire, the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ), that was adapted to make it relevant and applicable to VI individuals by removing references to visual aspects while retaining the meaning of the original questions. The resulting questionnaire, the SSQvi, assessed perceived hearing ability in diverse situations including the ability to follow conversations with multiple speakers, assessing how far away a vehicle is, and the ability to perceptually segregate simultaneous sounds. The SSQvi was administered to 33 VI and 33 normally sighted participants. All participants had normal hearing or mild hearing loss, and all VI participants had some residual visual ability. VI participants gave significantly higher (better) scores than sighted participants for: (i) one speech question, indicating less difficulty in following a conversation that switches from one person to another, (ii) one spatial question, indicating less difficulty in localizing several talkers, (iii) three qualities questions, indicating less difficulty with segregating speech from music, hearing music more clearly, and better speech intelligibility in a car. These findings are consistent with the perceptual enhancement hypothesis, that certain auditory abilities are improved to help compensate for loss of vision, and show that full visual loss is not necessary for perceived changes in auditory ability to occur for a range of auditory situations. For all other questions, scores were not significantly different between the two groups. Questions related to effort, concentration, and ignoring distracting sounds were rated as most difficult for VI participants, as were situations involving divided-attention contexts with multiple streams of speech, following conversations in noise and in echoic environments, judging elevation or distance, and externalizing sounds. The

  14. Spatial factors affecting wayfinding and orientation in a shopping mall

    OpenAIRE

    Doğu, Güler Ufuk

    1997-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, Bilkent University, 1997. Includes bibliographical refences. The aim of this thesis is to study the main factors which affect the wayfinding and orientation of individuals in a shopping mall and explain how their behaviors are influenced by these factors. The spatial and individual factors and their properties are defined. Among the spatiaf factors, shape and dimensions, light and color, bu...

  15. On the Affective Factors in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程墨芳

    2010-01-01

    The paper talks about the effective factors functioning in the field of education,psychology and foreign language teaching.And it also specifically elaborates the principles of helping language learners overcome negative affections and develop positive ones.

  16. Factors affecting career preferences of medical students at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting career preferences of medical students at the College of ... students, respondents from rural areas and small towns, and whose parents were ... between doctors' career expectations and the country's healthcare needs.

  17. Factors affecting oil palm production in Ondo state of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sola

    Regression analysis showed that only two of the variables; level of education ... were predicted to have significant relationship with the yield of oil palm. ..... Table 5: Multiple Regression analysis of factors affecting oil palm production in.

  18. Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in the Eastern ... and for cash sales (23%), and only 15% kept goats for home meat consumption. ... is likely to increase to the detriment of other ruminant species in the future.

  19. Factors affecting the consumer trust for shopping through electronic media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James Ariel Sánchez Alzate; Luz Alexandra Montoya Restrepo

    2016-01-01

      In this article the main factors affecting consumer trust in online purchases are proposed, it demonstrates how consumers feel less fear and more willingness to purchase through electronic media...

  20. Socio-economic factors affecting the participation of women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the socio-economic factors affecting women's ... About 41% attended up to secondary school level of education while 4% attended tertiary ... would go a long way in removing some of the barriers to effective participation.

  1. Factors Affecting Loan Utilization And Repayment Patterns By Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Loan Utilization And Repayment Patterns By Small Holder Farmers ... 61.3% of the respondents had a minimum of secondary school education. ... Also, it can be inferred that effective utilization of loan is directly influenced by ...

  2. Factors Affecting Students' Performance and Practice on Map ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Students' Performance and Practice on Map Reading Skills: A ... In Ethiopia, the teaching and learning process of map reading skills is based on ... identifying effective study techniques, the students' willingness to do school ...

  3. Assessment Of Factors Affecting Farmers' Adoption And Utilisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment Of Factors Affecting Farmers' Adoption And Utilisation Of Major ... Level of respondents' education, participation in on-farm trials, contact with extension ... The study therefore recommended intensification of adequate and effective ...

  4. Factors Affecting Behaviours that address HIV Risk among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Behaviours that address HIV Risk among Nigerian University Students. ... Design: Cross-sectional survey. ... Main outcome measures: Sexual behavior and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of ...

  5. Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective service to pre ... the objective of achieving sustainable livelihoods for the poor and commonages. ... marketing and management to adequately service the land reform programs.

  6. Humanistic Approach and Affective Factors in Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗馨

    2010-01-01

    For a long time,Chinese EFL teaching has been following the teacher-centered model,which emphasizes the cognitive aspect but ignores the affective factors. So "emotional illiteracy" is a common phemenon and harmful to language learning and students' all-round development. This essay lays special stress on humanistic approach and analyzes the influence of some important affective factors on language learning,for the purpose of inviting teachers' attention to students' emotions in fulfilling their teaching task.

  7. Analysis of Affective Factors and Corresponding Solution in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲松

    2009-01-01

    Affect is the related issues that influence the students' learning progress and result, including one's interest, emotion, self-confidence and so on. Affective factors are the motivation for the students' learning. In the past few decades, people have always been pursuing the effective methods of teaching, from the Grammar Translation Method, to Communicative Language Teaching. Now people start to focus on affective teaching and have got some good result.

  8. VOL 6. NO. 1 2015 EXTRINSIC FACTORS THAT AFFECT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frederick Iraki

    The general objective of this study was to identify the extrinsic factors affect employee ... individual mechanisms that directly affect job performance in an organization(Colquitt, ... Benjamin (2010) posits that fringe benefits are significant and positive ... Mouly (2009) asserts that questionnaires add value to research because.

  9. Hearing Aids Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globally, hearing loss is the second most frequent disability. About 80% of the persons affected by hearing loss do not use hearing aids. The goal of this edited volume is to present a theoretically founded, interdisciplinary approach geared at understanding and improving social interaction impac...

  10. Recovery of Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edizer, Deniz Tuna; Çelebi, Özlem; Hamit, Bahtiyar; Baki, Ahmet; Yiğit, Özgür

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to identify and evaluate factors that may influence the recovery rate in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). A retrospective analysis was performed for patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss between 2009 and 2013. Those with an identified etiology were excluded. The patients were divided into four treatment groups: (i) systemic corticosteroids (SC) only, (ii) SC+low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), (iii) SC+hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), and (iv) SC+LMWH+HBO. Recovery was evaluated according to Siegel's criteria. Age, initial hearing level, onset, treatment and audiogram types, comorbidities, and associated tinnitus and vestibular symptoms were investigated for their impact on prognosis. Two hundred five patients with ISSNHL were included. Recovery was seen in 59% of the patients. The complete recovery rate was significantly lower in patients older than 60 years and in patients presenting with profound hearing loss. Different audiogram curves had no significant effect on recovery. Sudden hearing loss was accompanied by tinnitus in 107 (52.1%) patients and vestibular symptoms in 55 (26.8%); however, neither was noted to affect prognosis. Different treatment combinations did not significantly affect prognosis. However, hypertension and a delay in treatment by more than 10 days from the onset of hearing loss were associated with a worse prognosis. Profound hearing loss, older than 60 years, a delay in treatment by more than 10 days, and hypertension were negative prognostic factors in this study, whereas, the type of audiogram curve and addition of HBO to SC did not affect prognosis.

  11. Corrigendum to: Socioeconomic status as a factor in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children with hearing loss: analysis of national survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrea; Enticott, Joanne C; Douglas, Jacinta

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the association between socioeconomic status and speech, language and communication outcomes for primary-school-going children with hearing loss using population survey data was analysed. The dataset used for analysis consisted of 289973 children in total, of which 3174 children had hearing loss. For all children, higher socioeconomic status was positively correlated with better speech, language and communication outcomes. A hearing loss was indicated for 1% of non-Indigenous children and 4.3% of Indigenous children. Non-Indigenous children with hearing loss were found to be fairly evenly distributed by socioeconomic status, whereas Indigenous children with hearing loss were found to be statistically significantly more likely to be living in the most disadvantaged socioeconomic areas. Socioeconomic status was found to affect developmental outcomes for all children, regardless of Indigenous and hearing loss status.

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING CHINESE POST-GRADUATE EFL LEARNERS’ ORAL PROFICIENCY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The article investigates factors affecting Chinese postgraduate EFL learners’ oral proficiency. Little practice, fear of errors and unscientific classroom management are found to be the major factors. Also an overemphasis on written English instruction seems to be another root cause. After the discussion of the results of this investigation a series of methods are suggested for reference.

  13. Genetic and environmental factors affecting the coumarin anticoagulant level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Visser (Loes)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis introductory chapter has illustrated that various factors, such as genetic factors, drugs, diet and intercurrent diseases may affect anticoagulation levels. Most of the clinical and pharmacological data related to coumarin anticoagulants have so far been obtained from studying warfa

  14. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  15. Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

  16. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too ... conversations when two or more people are talking Difficulty ...

  17. Satisfaction of Elderly Hearing Aid Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lorena; Ribas, Angela; Almeida, Gleide; Luz, Idalina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The impact of auditory sensory deprivation in the life of an individual is enormous because it not only affects one's ability to properly understand auditory information, but also the way people relate to their environment and their culture. The monitoring of adult and elderly subjects with hearing loss is intended to minimize the difficulties and handicaps that occur as a consequence of this pathology. Objective To evaluate the level of user satisfaction with hearing aids. Methods A clinical and experimental study involving 91 elderly hearing aid users. We used the questionnaire Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life to determine the degree of the satisfaction provided by hearing aids. We evaluated mean global score, subscales, as well as the variables time to use, age, and degree of hearing loss. Results Mean global score was 4.73, the score for Positive Effects 5.45, Negative Factors 3.2, demonstrating that they were satisfied; Services and Costs 5.98: very satisfied ; 3.65 Personal Image: dissatisfied. We observed statistically significant difference for the time of hearing aid use, age, and degree of hearing loss. Conclusion The SADL is a tool, simple and easy to apply and in this study we can demonstrate the high degree of satisfaction with the hearing aids by the majority of the sample collected, increasing with time of use and a greater degree of hearing loss.

  18. Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

  19. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  20. Design and Factors Affecting State Supervision of the Financial Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Jeżowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to identify the factors that affect the development of the models of financial market state supervision and to identify the factors that have influenced the evolution of the supervision model in Poland. Methodology: critical analysis of literature, legal provisions and documents. Findings: The completely integrated and the fully dispersed model of supervision are located at the opposite ends of the spectrum. A variety of the hybrid models can be identified between them. Factors that affect supervision organization are both economic and non-economic. Factors that have influenced the Polish model of supervision include political aspects, administration costs and, in due course, also the development of the financial market. Research implications: The variety of state supervision structures, combined with the ambiguity and multiplicity of factors that affect their evolution create a new research challenge. Significant problems in accessing documents have been identified. Originality: The author presents an overview of models of state supervision of financial markets and factors affecting the evolution and structure of supervision. Conclusions drawn from the analysis were used to identify factors that influence the evolution and supervision of the Polish financial market.

  1. Factors affecting acceptance of smartphone application for management of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eunjoo; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2015-04-01

    The factors affecting the acceptance of mobile obesity-management applications (apps) by the public were analyzed using a mobile healthcare system (MHS) technology acceptance model (TAM). The subjects who participated in this study were Android smartphone users who had an intent to manage their weight. They used the obesity-management app for two weeks, and then completed an 18-item survey designed to determine the factors influencing the acceptance of the app. Three questions were asked pertaining to each of the following six factors: compatibility, self-efficacy, technical support and training, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavior regarding intention to use. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the reliability of the scales. Pathway analysis was also performed to evaluate the MHS acceptance model. A total of 94 subjects participated in this study. The results indicate that compatibility, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected the behavioral intention to use the mobile obesity-management app. Technical support and training also significantly affected the perceived ease of use; however, the hypotheses that self-efficacy affects perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use were not supported in this study. This is the first attempt to analyze the factors influencing mobile obesity-management app acceptance using a TAM. Further studies should cover not only obesity but also other chronic diseases and should analyze the factors affecting the acceptance of apps among healthcare consumers in general.

  2. Interaction Between Syndromic and Non-Syndromic Factors Affecting Speech and Language Development in Treacher-Collins Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Poorjavad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treacher-Collins syndrome is a congenital craniofacial disorder with multiple anomalies. This syndrome affects the maxilla, mandible, eyes, middle and outer ears, and soft palate. Conductive hearing loss due to the deformities of the middle and external ears is prevalent. The characteristics of this syndrome include multiple and serious threats to normal communication development in children. In this study, speech and language features of a Persian speaking child with this syndrome are presented.Case: The case was an 8-year old girl with Treacher-Collins syndrome and bilateral moderate conductive hearing loss due to atretic canal. In language and speech assessments, moderate hypernasality, numerous compensatory errors and morphosyntactic deficits were observed. There were 13 phonemes that were incorrectly produced at least in one position. Besides, she used 22 types of phonological processes that were abnormal and disappear before the age of three in normal Persian speaking children.Conclusion: Moderate hearing loss, velopharyngeal incompetency, malocclusion and dental anomalies, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and environmental factors resulted in severe speech and language disorders in this case. These disorders affected her academic performance as well. Moderate hypernasality, numerous compensatory errors, and excessive and abnormal use of phonological processes were not presented as prevalent characteristics of Treacher-Collins syndrome in other resources.

  3. Hearing feelings : Affective categorization of music and speech in alexithymia, an ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerlich, Katharina Sophia; Witteman, Jurriaan; Aleman, André; Martens, Sander

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alexithymia, a condition characterized by deficits in interpreting and regulating feelings, is a risk factor for a variety of psychiatric conditions. Little is known about how alexithymia influences the processing of emotions in music and speech. Appreciation of such emotional qualities

  4. Hearing feelings : Affective categorization of music and speech in alexithymia, an ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerlich, Katharina Sophia; Witteman, Jurriaan; Aleman, André; Martens, Sander

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alexithymia, a condition characterized by deficits in interpreting and regulating feelings, is a risk factor for a variety of psychiatric conditions. Little is known about how alexithymia influences the processing of emotions in music and speech. Appreciation of such emotional qualities

  5. [Sensorineural hearing loss due to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarós, P; Turcanu, D; Caballero, M; Costa, C; Clavería, M A; Clarós, A; Clarós, A

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the sensorineural hearing loss is presented as a possible sequelae of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. In our program of early hipoacusia detection, 241 babies were examined from January 1996 until November 1999; 7 cases had a history of hyperbilirubinemia in the neonatal period and 2 of them were diagnosed of sensorineural hearing loss. We discuss how the bilirubin or any other associated factor might have been the cause and this could explain the selective affectation of some children.

  6. Patients affected with Fabry disease have an increased incidence of progressive hearing loss and sudden deafness: an investigation of twenty-two hemizygous male patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chassaing Augustin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fabry disease (FD, OMIM 301500 is an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to the deficient activity of alpha-galactosidase A, a lysosomal enzyme. While the progressive systemic deposition of uncleaved glycosphingolipids throughout the body is known to have protean clinical manifestations, few data are available regarding the cochlear involvement. Methods We non-invasively investigated cochlear functions in 22 consecutive hemizygous males (age 19–64 years, mean 39 affected with classic FD. Conventional audiometry, tympanometry, ABR audiometry, otoacoustic emissions were performed in all patients, together with medical history record and physical examination as part of an exhaustive baseline evaluation prior to enzyme replacement therapy. Results A total of 12 patients (54.5% with classic FD were found to have abnormal audition. Five patients had progressive hearing loss and seven patients (32% experienced sudden deafness. In addition, a hearing loss on high-tone frequencies was found in 7 out of the 10 remaining patients without clinical impairment, despite their young age at time of examination. The incidence of hearing loss appeared significantly increased in FD patients with kidney failure (P tinnitus aurium was also found in six patients (27%. Conclusion This is the first evidence of a high incidence of both progressive hearing loss and sudden deafness in a cohort of male patients affected with classic Fabry disease. The exact pathophysiologic mechanism(s of the cochlear involvement deserves further studies.

  7. Factors Affecting Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf

    OpenAIRE

    Luc, J. E.; Crow, W. T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for eit...

  8. Hearing and dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Chris J. D.; Marshall, Charles R.; Golden, Hannah L.; Clark, Camilla N.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Griffiths, Timothy D.; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Warren, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Hearing deficits associated with cognitive impairment have attracted much recent interest, motivated by emerging evidence that impaired hearing is a risk factor for cognitive decline. However, dementia and hearing impairment present immense challenges in their own right, and their intersection in the auditory brain remains poorly understood and difficult to assess. Here, we outline a clinically oriented, symptom-based approach to the assessment of hearing in dementias, informed by recent prog...

  9. Prognostic factors for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy and intravenous steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, S; Sugiyama, K; Takahashi, G; Takebayashi, S; Mineta, H

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the prognosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss when treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy and intravenous steroids. The clinical data for 334 patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy and intravenous steroids at our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. These data included the initial averaged five-frequency hearing level, patient age, interval between onset of symptoms and treatment, vertigo as a complication, and co-existence of diabetes mellitus. The overall improvement rate was 69.2 per cent, including better improvement (25.5 per cent), good improvement (21.0 per cent) and fair improvement (22.7 per cent). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy appears to confer a significant additional therapeutic benefit when used in combination with steroid therapy for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. If performed early, hyperbaric oxygen therapy may bring about hearing improvement in many patients who are unresponsive to initial therapy.

  10. Noise-induced hearing loss and symphony orchestra musicians: risk factors, effects, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teie, P U

    1998-01-01

    Although industrial and recreational noise have been recognized as potential causes of noise-induced hearing loss for quite some time, it is only recently that the sound levels within a symphony orchestra have been implicated as possible sources of harmful noise levels. Many studies have concluded that not only are dangerous levels of noise present within the symphony orchestra, but there is evidence of noise-induced hearing loss among symphony orchestra musicians. Although hearing protection designed for industrial use may not be appropriate for the special listening needs of professional musicians, recent advances in hearing protection design have made hearing protection practical for this population. Suggestions are made for monitoring and protecting the professional ear.

  11. Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzke Susan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions, physical activity (eight dimensions, and stress management (eight dimensions. Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American

  12. 突发性耳聋预后的相关因素探讨%Analysis of relevant factors on prognosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵璟; 桂晓钟

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨影响突发性耳聋预后的相关因素。方法286例突发性耳聋患者治疗前和治疗后进行纯音听阈测试对比,探讨影响预后的相关因素。结果突发性耳聋预后与患者的发病时间、年龄大小、听力损失情况、有无眩晕、高血压、糖尿病及焦虑情绪有关,而与性别无关。结论突发性耳聋患者发病时间越长、年龄越大、听力损失越重,治疗预后越差。听力图中,高频型和水平型比中频型和低频型预后差,全聋型最差。不伴眩晕、无高血压高血脂糖尿病、无焦虑情绪的突发性耳聋患者疗效明显好于伴眩晕、有高血压高血脂糖尿病、有焦虑情绪患者。%Objective To evaluate the factors that may affect the prognosis of hearing recovery in cases of idiopathic sudden sensori-neural hearing loss( ISSHL) . Methods Through retrospective analysis of the 286 cases of ISSHL that were diagnosed and treated in our de-partment, and comparison between changes in pure tone threshold audiometry before and after treatment, the correlation factors of prognosis of ISSHL were explored. Results The prognosis was correlated with patients' morbidity time, age, degree of hearing loss, hearing loss curve type, disease of high blood pressure, dizziness and diabetes, and anxiety, and no correlation with gender was found. Conclusion The youn-ger the patients with ISSHL were, and the shorter the time of onset was, the better the prognosis would be. The efficacy of ISSHL without ver-tigo, underlying diseases and anxiety was significantly better than that with vertigo, underlying diseases and anxiety. Among various types of hearing loss curve, the prognoses of intermediate-frequency type and low-frequency type were better than those of high-frequency type and horizontal type, and the deaf type came the worst.

  13. Factors affecting influenza vaccination among pregnant women : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Choi-ching; 方賽貞

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pregnancy has been recognized as a risk factor for severe pandemic influenza illness and this “vulnerable” group is suggested to be heightened alertness to the disease by WHO. This systemic review aims to identify the factors affecting the uptake of influenza vaccination among pregnant women as the immunization uptake among this particular group of population is low or suboptimal worldwide. Methods: Systematic literature reviews were conducted by using MEDLINE and PubMed with th...

  14. Factors Affecting the Value Relevance of Accounting Information

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Dehghan Nayeri; Ali Faal Ghayoumi; Mohammad Ali Bidari

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the factors affecting the value relevance of accounting information for investors in the Tehran Stock Exchange over the period of six years. In this study, the effect of four factors; being profitable or loss generating, company size, earnings stability and company growth on the value relevance of accounting information have been studied. For this purpose Ohlson model and the cumulative regression analysis is used in order to examine the hypotheses and as the basis ...

  15. Factors Affecting Noise Levels of High-Speed Handpieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    office communication and increase patient anxiety. Purpose: To determine if three noise-reducing techniques utilized in larger scale , non- dental...hearing loss may cause confusion, fear, and loneliness , and that sometimes hearing loss is accompanied by dizziness, which would be a handicap in the...employee noise exposures equal or exceed an 8- hour time-weighted average sound level (TWA) of 85 decibels measured on the A scale (slow response) or

  16. [Factors affecting the educational environment in undergraduate medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olave P, Guisela; Pérez V, Cristhian; Fasce H, Eduardo; Ortiz M, Liliana; Bastías V, Nancy; Márquez U, Carolina; Parra P, Paula; Ibáñez G, Pilar

    2016-10-01

    Educational environment has an important effect on the quality of learning and student satisfaction in medicine. Most of previous studies have been conducted using questionnaires that assess the phenomenon considering overall dimensions, without paying attention to the specific manifestations of this topic, especially those aspects that are related to the protagonists of the learning process: teachers and students. To describe factors that affect the educational environment in the preclinical Medical formation, according to Medical teachers in Concepción, Chile. Qualitative study, using the Grounded theory method. Semi-structured interviews were performed to 10 medical teachers in Concepcion, Chile. They were selected by theoretical sampling. Data were analyzed using open coding. Four emerging categories about the factors that affect the learning environment were identified: Personal factors of students, academic factors of students, personal factors of teachers and academic factors of teachers. According to interviewed teachers, both personal factors in teachers and students that promote a positive learning environment are related with an attitude oriented towards others and communication skills. Academic factors are related with the responsible exercise of student and teacher roles and with the promotion of participation in the educational process.

  17. Motivation factors affecting employees job performance in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2011) > ... companies; and determine motivating factors affecting employees' job performance in selected oil ... promotion ( x = 4.86), random sack of workers ( x = 4.40) and absence of staff training ( x = 4.07).

  18. Factors Affecting Online Groupwork Interest: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the personal and contextual factors that may affect students' online groupwork interest. Using the data obtained from graduate students in an online course, both student- and group-level predictors for online groupwork interest were analyzed within the framework of hierarchical linear modeling…

  19. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  20. Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

  1. Factors affecting GPs workload in the period 1987-2001.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolthof, E.D.; Berg, M.J. van den; Bakker, D.H. de

    2003-01-01

    Background: Like in other countries, Dutch general practitioners (GPs) perceive an increase in workload. Too much work pressure will affect the quality of care and threats the accessibility of health care provided by GPs. Factors on organisational-level, patient-level as well as on GP-level may

  2. Scrutinizing the Factors Affecting Fluency of English among Arab Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghazali, Fawzi

    2017-01-01

    This research study investigates the cognitive, psychological and personal factors affecting the accuracy and fluency of English language usage among Arab learners. Early research led by Chomsky (1965) and Krashen (1981) suggested that an individual's Language Acquisition Device once triggered at the appropriate time and supported with adequate…

  3. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  4. Factors affecting teachers' participation in professional learning activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, C.H.E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes two studies into teacher workplace learning. The first study aimed at developing a definition of teacher learning at the workplace and at exploring factors that may affect teacher learning at the workplace. Based on a conceptualization of teacher workplace learning as

  5. Factors Affecting Entrapment in Escalating Conflicts: The Importance of Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockner, Joel; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Conducted two studies to test the notion that various factors, i.e., situation-personal, may differentially affect degrees of entrapment (amount invested) depending upon the point in time at which they are introduced. The results of both studies suggest amount invested depends upon timing in the entrapment process. (RC)

  6. Perceptions and factors affecting utilization of health services in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions and factors affecting utilization of health services in a rural ... to gender (p=0.889, OR=1.04; 0.55-2.00), educational level (p=0.707, OR=1.16; 0.50-2.79) and ... Identified barriers to access and effective use of qualitative health care ...

  7. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  8. Factors Affecting Academic Achievement of Students in Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The study investigated the factors affecting academic achievement ... The study established the following: Students who have positive attitude, interest and ... OTHER RESOURCES. ... Browse By Country · List All Titles · Open Access Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  9. An Analysis of the Social Distance Factor Affecting Language Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫宇

    2015-01-01

    The social distance is the main social factor that influences language use.This paper explores how the social distance affects language use in different ways based on solidarity,status and formality,in order to achieve a better understanding of language use.

  10. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  11. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…

  12. Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

  13. Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nergis, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

  14. Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  15. An Exploratory Study of Factors Affecting Stress Levels Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current research shows that stress levels among the teaching personnel has ... to determine: (1) factors that affect stress levels of teachers in primary school as a ... and gender of teachers; (2) coping strategies that are used by these teachers ...

  16. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  17. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  18. Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Microforms as a Reading Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Herbert; Reynolds, Linda

    Based on visits to representative microform users and an extensive survey of relevant literature, a study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of factors affecting the acceptability of microforms as reading mediums. The following variables were considered: (1) microform characteristics; (2) equipment design; (3) work station design;…

  19. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

  20. Relevant Affect Factors of Smartphone Mobile Data Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Husnjak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are used to access a wide range of different information and communication services and perform functions based on data transfer. A number of subscription contracts for smartphones is rapidly increasing, and the development of mobile communications network provides higher speed of data transfer. The continuous increase in the average amount of data traffic per one subscriber contract leads to an increase in the total Mobile Data Traffic (MDT, globally. This research represents a summary of factors that affect the amount of smartphone MDT. Previous literature shows only a few of the factors individually that affect the realization of smartphone MDT. The results of the research clarify the ways which influence the amount of MDT generated by a smartphone. This paper increases the awareness of the users of the methods of generating smartphone MDT. The research also allows users to specify parameters that affect the prediction of generated MDT of a smartphone.

  1. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W. [Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Dept 7610, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58103-6050 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  2. Systematic review of barriers and facilitators to hearing aid uptake in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jenstad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A key element to success in the implementation of any screening for a health condition is that an effective treatment is available, accessible, and complied with. As the main treatment for adult-onset hearing loss is hearing aids, but only about 25% of those who could benefit from hearing aids actually use them (e.g., Kochkin, 2000; Meister, et al., 2008, it is necessary to identify the factors that affect compliance with this treatment recommendation. Several investigators have explored the barriers that may prevent those with hearing loss from choosing to purchase and use hearing aids to assist with their communication needs (e.g., Meister, et al., 2008. Among some of the barriers to hearing aid use are stigmatization, underestimation of hearing loss by the individual, coping strategies, personality factors, low trust in hearing aid benefit, cognitive and functional restrictions, cost, false expectations (Meister, et al., 2008, and communication styles (Helvik, et al., 2008. The goal of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify the main barriers and facilitators to hearing aid (HA uptake in healthy elderly (age 65+ non-users of hearing aids who have hearing loss (i.e., have been diagnosed as having hearing loss and had hearing aids recommended, but did not purchase aids.

  3. Attenuation of progressive hearing loss in DBA/2J mice by reagents that affect epigenetic modifications is associated with up-regulation of the zinc importer Zip4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Mutai

    Full Text Available Various factors that are important for proper hearing have been identified, including serum levels of zinc. Here we investigated whether epigenetic regulatory pathways, which can be modified by environmental factors, could modulate hearing. RT-PCR detected expression of genes encoding DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase (Hdac in the postnatal as well as adult mouse auditory epithelium. DBA/2J mice, which are a model for progressive hearing loss, were injected subcutaneously with one or a combination of the following reagents: L-methionine as a methyl donor, valproic acid as a pan-Hdac inhibitor, and folic acid and vitamin B12 as putative factors involved in age-related hearing loss. The mice were treated from ages 4 to 12 weeks (N ≥ 5, and auditory brainstem response (ABR thresholds were measured at 8, 16, and 32 kHz. Treatment of the mice with a combination of L-methionine and valproic acid (M+V significantly reduced the increase in the ABR threshold at 32 kHz. Treatment with any of these reagents individually produced no such effect. Microarray analyses detected 299 gene probes that were significantly up- or down-regulated in the cochleae of mice treated with M+V compared with the control vehicle-treated mice. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant up-regulation of a zinc importer gene, Zip4, in the cochleae of mice treated with M+V. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated an intense Zip4 signal in cochlear tissues such as the lateral wall, organ of Corti, and spiral ganglion. Finally, mice treated with the Zip4 inducer (--epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate showed a significant reduction in the increase of the ABR threshold at 32 kHz and up-regulation of Zip4 expression in the cochlea. This study suggests that epigenetic regulatory pathways can modify auditory function and that zinc intake in the cochlea via Zip4 mediates maintenance of mammalian hearing.

  4. Attenuation of progressive hearing loss in DBA/2J mice by reagents that affect epigenetic modifications is associated with up-regulation of the zinc importer Zip4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutai, Hideki; Miya, Fuyuki; Fujii, Masato; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Matsunaga, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Various factors that are important for proper hearing have been identified, including serum levels of zinc. Here we investigated whether epigenetic regulatory pathways, which can be modified by environmental factors, could modulate hearing. RT-PCR detected expression of genes encoding DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase (Hdac) in the postnatal as well as adult mouse auditory epithelium. DBA/2J mice, which are a model for progressive hearing loss, were injected subcutaneously with one or a combination of the following reagents: L-methionine as a methyl donor, valproic acid as a pan-Hdac inhibitor, and folic acid and vitamin B12 as putative factors involved in age-related hearing loss. The mice were treated from ages 4 to 12 weeks (N ≥ 5), and auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were measured at 8, 16, and 32 kHz. Treatment of the mice with a combination of L-methionine and valproic acid (M+V) significantly reduced the increase in the ABR threshold at 32 kHz. Treatment with any of these reagents individually produced no such effect. Microarray analyses detected 299 gene probes that were significantly up- or down-regulated in the cochleae of mice treated with M+V compared with the control vehicle-treated mice. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant up-regulation of a zinc importer gene, Zip4, in the cochleae of mice treated with M+V. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated an intense Zip4 signal in cochlear tissues such as the lateral wall, organ of Corti, and spiral ganglion. Finally, mice treated with the Zip4 inducer (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate showed a significant reduction in the increase of the ABR threshold at 32 kHz and up-regulation of Zip4 expression in the cochlea. This study suggests that epigenetic regulatory pathways can modify auditory function and that zinc intake in the cochlea via Zip4 mediates maintenance of mammalian hearing.

  5. A Clinical Analysis of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Soo; Lee, You Jae; Kang, Bo Sung; Lee, Ji Sung

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives High-dose systemic steroid therapy is the mainstay treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Recovery rates from SSNHL range are about 47-63% and are influenced by various prognostic factors. To evaluate the prognostic value of specific clinical parameters, we reviewed 289 cases by clinical and statistical analysis. Subjects and Methods This study included 289 patients with SSNHL who visited the Department of Otolaryngology at Soonchunhyang University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2012. The cases were reviewed retrospectively based on clinical charts. Hearing improvement was evaluated in relation to pure-tone audiogram results, duration between SSNHL onset and time of initial treatment, seasonal incidence, dizziness, patient age, degree of hearing loss, patterns of initial pure-tone audiogram and presence of underlying disease. Results Hearing improvement was observed in 196 of 289 (67.8%) patients; such improvement began within 7 days in most patients, followed by rapid hearing recovery. Cases that failed to show improvement within 14 days were unlikely to achieve hearing recovery. The more severe the hearing loss during the early stage, the lower the hearing recovery rates. Patients aged less than 60 years appear to have better prognosis of hearing improvement compared to those who are over 60 years. Conclusions Important prognostic factors for recovery in patients with SSNHL include the time of initiating treatment after symptom onset, the degree of early-stage hearing loss, and the age of the affected patient. PMID:25279228

  6. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  7. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.;

    2002-01-01

    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg...... and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites......, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were...

  8. Difficulties in Parenting Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Gita Movallali

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Despite the abundance of literature about deaf children, few works specifically address the concept and practice of difficulties in parenting hearing-impaired children. The first interactions of the child are with his parents, and parents have the most important role in child improvements during early intervention programs. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate different aspects of parenting hearing-impaired children.Methods: In this article, we reviewed all aspects of parenting hearing-impaired children in papers from 1984-2009 in Medline, Scopus and Proquest and relative textbooks. The semi-professional role of parents of hearing-impaired children make them feel under excessive stress and this usually affects their other roles as fathers and mothers. Many factors including child age, type of hearing loss and parents’ individual characteristics may influence the impact of child’s hearing loss on parents.Conclusion: Parenting a hearing-impaired child is both similar and different to parenting any other child. Where there are differences, there are usually challenges too. Taking support and advice from professionals and other parents are necessary and invaluable for parents of hearing-impaired children.

  9. Demographic factors influencing educational placement of the hearing-impaired child with a cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehudai, Noam; Tzach, Naama; Shpak, Talma; Most, Tova; Luntz, Michal

    2011-08-01

    To analyze educational placement settings of Israeli children with cochlear implants (CIs) and evaluate the prognostic influence of the following demographic variables on mainstreaming: age at implantation, experience with CI, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and parents' educational level. Retrospective review. Tertiary referral center. The study population comprised 245 children with severe-to-profound hearing impairment and at least 1 year of experience with a unilateral CI. Mean age at implantation was 4.5 ± 3.9 years, and mean duration of CI use was 5.4 ± 2.8 years. Follow-up review and statistical analysis of available data on educational placement after cochlear implantation. Placement in mainstream education. Regular schools were attended by 89 children (36.3%) and special education schools by 156 (63.7%). Variables found to be significantly associated with mainstream educational placement were younger age at implantation, higher level of parental education, higher socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model revealed that the factor with the highest positive correlation with mainstreaming was parental education level. Our results show that parental education, a variable that the health system cannot control, significantly influences postimplantation results in term of educational placement and can thus limit the chances of implanted children to achieve mainstream placement even when identified and implanted at an early age.

  10. Factors Affecting Adoption of Recommended Cauliflower Production Technology in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Raj Dhital

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Binary logit regression model of econometrics was used to identify the factors affecting adoption of recommended agricultural technology by the commercial farmers of Nepal. A survey was carried out in 2012 in 120 households from Kavre district, Nepal. The objective was to appraise factors affecting adoption of recommended technology of cauliflower, finding out the level of adoption, identifying the constraints of cauliflower cultivation, assessing the perceived level of satisfaction and studying the relationship of certain selected variables on the adoption. Education, Occupation, contact with Personal Localite sources of information, Group membership and Experience were the most influencing factors for adoption of recommended technology. Though, other factors were not strong enough to contribute significantly but indirectly influence the adoption decision of farmers as combined effects. Occupation was found as negatively associated. Landholding size was strongly and positively influencing among the non significant factors. The level of satisfaction and the constraints of cauliflower production were also identified. Transfer of technology will be effective if and only if the client adopts the technology. For an effective transfer of technology, it is better to go for activities for the welfare of the socioeconomic factors of the farmers.

  11. A Review of Affecting Factors on Sexual Satisfaction in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Gardeshi, Zeinab Hamzeh; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Salehi, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sex is a complex, important and sensitive issue in human being and interwoven with the whole of human existence. Given the serious changes in attitude, function and behavior in sex, the need to address sexual function, especially sexual satisfaction, is felt completely. Sexual satisfaction has a very important role in creating marital satisfaction and any defect in sexual satisfaction is significantly associated with risky sexual behaviors, serious mental illness, social crimes and ultimately divorce. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women based on an overview in scientific database. Methods: In this narrative review the researchers searched MEDLINE database, Google Scholar and Science Direct as well as Persian database like Scientific Information Database with search terms of sexual satisfaction and sexual function, restricted to English/ Persian language, during the 20 years ago. Then those articles written by renowned experts were selected. In this regard, 57 articles have been reviewed, which 30 articles related to this research have been extracted. Results: The findings were divided in to four categories including: Demographic factors, Pathophysiological factors, Psychological factors and Sociocultural factors. Conclusions: Sexuality, especially sexual intimacy is sophisticated and yet elegant affair that the other persons has different definitions and different functions. Discrepancies in the results of the studies show that analysis of factors affecting sexual satisfaction regardless of the women’s’ sociocultural context, religious beliefs, and personal attitudes is undoubtedly inefficient, unscientific and irrational. PMID:25685081

  12. Are Affective Factors a Good Predictor of Science Achievement? Examining the Role of Affective Factors Based on PISA 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Murat; Caglak, Serdar; Erdogan, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how affective factors like attitude and motivation contribute to science achievement in PISA 2006 using linear structural modeling. The data set of PISA 2006 collected from 4942 fifteen-year-old Turkish students (2290 females, 2652 males) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 42 selected items on a four point…

  13. Factors Affecting Accuracy of Data Abstracted from Medical Records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith N Zozus

    Full Text Available Medical record abstraction (MRA is often cited as a significant source of error in research data, yet MRA methodology has rarely been the subject of investigation. Lack of a common framework has hindered application of the extant literature in practice, and, until now, there were no evidence-based guidelines for ensuring data quality in MRA. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the accuracy of data abstracted from medical records and to generate a framework for data quality assurance and control in MRA.Candidate factors were identified from published reports of MRA. Content validity of the top candidate factors was assessed via a four-round two-group Delphi process with expert abstractors with experience in clinical research, registries, and quality improvement. The resulting coded factors were categorized into a control theory-based framework of MRA. Coverage of the framework was evaluated using the recent published literature.Analysis of the identified articles yielded 292 unique factors that affect the accuracy of abstracted data. Delphi processes overall refuted three of the top factors identified from the literature based on importance and five based on reliability (six total factors refuted. Four new factors were identified by the Delphi. The generated framework demonstrated comprehensive coverage. Significant underreporting of MRA methodology in recent studies was discovered.The framework generated from this research provides a guide for planning data quality assurance and control for studies using MRA. The large number and variability of factors indicate that while prospective quality assurance likely increases the accuracy of abstracted data, monitoring the accuracy during the abstraction process is also required. Recent studies reporting research results based on MRA rarely reported data quality assurance or control measures, and even less frequently reported data quality metrics with research results. Given the demonstrated

  14. Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahieh Moradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

  15. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  16. Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Quran Firas A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

  17. Multiple Factors Affecting Human Repregnancy after Microsurgical Vasovasostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明孔; 吴晓庆; 付成善; 邹平; 高晓平; 黄强

    1997-01-01

    To determine the factors which might affect the recover), of fertility after an accurate microsurgical vasovasostomy, we conducted a 3 year-follow-up study in 56 men after microsurgical vasovasostomy. Twenty-two variables as putative factors associated with recovery of fertility were measured. The results of Logistic regression and ather statistical analyses suggest that 8 factors including age of husband, age of wife, history of past pregnancies of current wife, number of vasovasostomies, serum FSH, LH and T before vasovasostomy, and sperm granuloma of vas nodule are of no significance in recovery of fertility, whereas 14 factors including years after vasectomy, sperm concentration, progressive motility, sperm motility, viability, normal morphology, sperm egg penetration rate, TAT and SIT before and after vasovasostomy, MAR, IBT adherent IgG and IgA after vasovasostomy are significantly, associated with repregnancy.

  18. Factors affecting functional prognosis of patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M T

    2011-01-01

    . A variety of factors such as age, prefracture function and health status, fracture type, pain, anaemia, muscle strength, and the early mobility level have been shown to influence patient outcome. Thus, the outcome of patients with hip fracture is considered multi-factorial, and can therefore not be related......Having a hip fracture is considered one of the most fatal fractures for elderly people, resulting in impaired function, and increased morbidity and mortality. This challenges clinicians in identifying patients at risk of worse outcome, in order to optimise and intensify treatment in these patients...... to just one or two single factors. The current article reviews important factors affecting the functional prognosis, and clinicians are encouraged to include all factors potentially influencing the outcome of patients with hip fracture in their individualised treatment and rehabilitation plan. Especially...

  19. Factors Affecting Customer Retention in the Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghda Climis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study empirically investigated the factors that affect customer retention in the airline industry in North Cyprus. These factors were service quality attributes, perceived safety, customer satisfaction, loyalty reward program, relationship commitment and customer loyalty. The study also investigated four different groups for purposes of travel (business, education, vacation and family visit in the empirical model. Methodology: A descriptive approach was chosen to conduct this research. A quanhip between customer retention and the related study factors; however, not all of these relations are signifcant. The results also showed that the different purposes of travel had different influences on the variables regarding the positive and signifcant relations between them. Some independent variables had a negative effect on the dependent variables. Conclusions: This research was limited to one group and place: the students of Eastern Mediterranean University in North Cyprus. Originality: This study connected the retention, loyalty, satisfaction and service quality factors as attributes. In addition, this research was the frst to include other independent factors affecting satisfaction and loyalty in a comparison between four different groups regarding the purpose of travel in the airline industry.

  20. Investigating the factors affecting knowledge management application in new ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Shahidifar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is extensively used in large, medium and small firms. However, the larger the scale, the more knowledge management practices might be used in organizations. Unfortunately, application of knowledge management in new ventures is not sufficiently discussed in the extant literature. Thus this paper attempts to concentrate on this issue. Therefore, environmental, organizational and individual factors are enumerated and their effect on application of knowledge management in new ventures is examined. Findings revealed that all these factors significantly affect knowledge management application is new ventures.

  1. The effect of hearing impairment in older people on the spouse: development and psychometric testing of the significant other scale for hearing disability (SOS-HEAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Nerina; Worrall, Linda; Hickson, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hearing impairment on the person with the impairment and on their significant others are pervasive and affect the quality of life for all involved. The effect of hearing impairment on significant others is known as a third-party disability. This study aimed to develop and psychometrically test a scale to measure the third-party disability experienced by spouses of older people with hearing impairment. The Significant Other Scale for Hearing Disability (SOS-HEAR) was based on results of a previous qualitative study investigating the effect of hearing impairment on a spouse's everyday life. Psychometric testing with 100 spouses was conducted using item analysis, Cronbach's alpha, factor analysis, and test-retest reliability. Principal components analysis identified six key underlying factors. A combined set of 27 items was found to be reliable (alpha = 0.94), with weighted kappa for items ranging from fair to very good. The SOS-HEAR is a brief, easy to administer instrument that has evidence of reliability and validity. The SOS-HEAR could serve as a means of identifying spouses of older people with hearing impairment in need of intervention, directed towards either the couple or the spouse alone.

  2. Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

  3. Factors Affecting Microbial Contamination of Market Eggs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodová J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.

  4. Operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Chuan-udom

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses,which comprised rotor speed (RS, louver inclination (LI, grain moisture content (MC, feed rate (FR, and grain to materialother than grain ratio (GM. Seventeen Thai corn-shelling threshers were random-sampled during the late rainy season cropof 2008 and ten threshers were sampled in the early rainy season crop of 2009 in Loei province, Northeast of Thailand.The results of this study indicated that LI and MC affected shelling losses whereas RS, FR and GM did not affect losses.Increased LI or decreased MC tended to reduce shelling losses. In operating the Thai threshers for corn shelling, if shellinglosses have to be kept lower that 0.5%, the moisture content should not exceed 20%wb and the louver inclination should notbe less than 85 degrees.

  5. Success factors affecting E-business:case Taobao

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    E-business has aroused great concern and become a hot topic in both information technology and business field. With many companies’ success in doing e-business, there are also abundant of failure cases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the success factors that can affect e-business so as to provide beneficial guidance to companies. Virtually, many researchers have also studied e-business relating to its success from different perspectives and in various areas. However, ...

  6. Motivation-One of the Affective Factors and its Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Fang-hua

    2014-01-01

    Affective factors play a positive role in English study and motivation is the most important. Higher motivation predicts better second language acquisition. The types of motivation are mainly divided into two:extrinsic motivation and intrinsic moti-vation. Teachers should study their students as well as the teaching materials and then select scientific methods and make good use of them to reinforce their students' motivation.

  7. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  8. Classification tree analysis of factors affecting parking choices in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Shaaban, K.; Pande, A

    2015-01-01

    Qatar has experienced a significant population growth in the past decade. The growth has been accompanied by an increase in automobile ownership rates leading to parking problems especially in the capital city of Doha. The objective of this study was to find the factors affecting people's choice of parking in this rich developing country when different parking options are available. Two commercial centers located in the city of Doha, Qatar were selected for this study; the City Center mall an...

  9. Hearing Aids Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globally, hearing loss is the second most frequent disability. About 80% of the persons affected by hearing loss do not use hearing aids. The goal of this edited volume is to present a theoretically founded, interdisciplinary approach geared at understanding and improving social interaction...... impacted by hearing loss and (non-) use of hearing technologies. The researchers report on pilot studies from Australia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Switzerland and the USA. Using Conversation Analysis, the studies identify problems and serve as points of departure for possible solutions. Researchers...... and practitioners from the different disciplines (medicine, audiology, hearing rehabilitation, User Centered Design, Conversation Analysis, change business) as well as users of hearing technologies comment on this approach....

  10. Factors affecting Culicoides species composition and abundance in avian nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de la Puente, J; Merino, S; Tomás, G; Moreno, J; Morales, J; Lobato, E; Talavera, S; Sarto I Monteys, V

    2009-08-01

    Mechanisms affecting patterns of vector distribution among host individuals may influence the population and evolutionary dynamics of vectors, hosts and the parasites transmitted. We studied the role of different factors affecting the species composition and abundance of Culicoides found in nests of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We identified 1531 females and 2 males of 7 different Culicoides species in nests, with C. simulator being the most abundant species, followed by C. kibunensis, C. festivipennis, C. segnis, C. truncorum, C. pictipennis and C. circumscriptus. We conducted a medicationxfumigation experiment randomly assigning bird's nests to different treatments, thereby generating groups of medicated and control pairs breeding in fumigated and control nests. Medicated pairs were injected with the anti-malarial drug Primaquine diluted in saline solution while control pairs were injected with saline solution. The fumigation treatment was carried out using insecticide solution or water for fumigated and control nests respectively. Brood size was the main factor associated with the abundance of biting midges probably because more nestlings may produce higher quantities of vector attractants. In addition, birds medicated against haemoparasites breeding in non-fumigated nests supported a higher abundance of C. festivipennis than the rest of the groups. Also, we found that the fumigation treatment reduced the abundance of engorged Culicoides in both medicated and control nests, thus indicating a reduction of feeding success produced by the insecticide. These results represent the first evidence for the role of different factors in affecting the Culicoides infracommunity in wild avian nests.

  11. Hearing Impairment Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshanks, Karen J; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Dinces, Elizabeth; Fifer, Robert C.; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Heiss, Gerardo; Hoffman, Howard J.; Lee, David J.; Newhoff, Marilyn; Tocci, Laura; Torre, Peter; Tweed, Ted S.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Hearing impairment (HI) is a common problem in adults but there have been few studies of hearing in the U.S. Hispanic/Latino population. Little is known about factors associated with HI among Hispanics/Latinos. Objective To determine the prevalence of HI among U.S. Hispanic/Latino adults of diverse backgrounds and determine associations with sociodemographic factors, noise exposure, diabetes, smoking, cardiovascular disease, and other potential risk factors. Design and Setting The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) is a population-based sample of Hispanics/Latinos in four U.S. communities (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA). Examinations were conducted in 2008–2011. Participants The HCHS/SOL examined 16,415 self-identified Hispanic/Latino persons aged 18 to 74 years recruited from randomly selected households using a stratified 2-stage area probability sample design based on census block groups and households within block groups. Intervention(s) None Main Outcome(s) and Measures Hearing thresholds were measured by pure-tone audiometry. HI was defined as a pure-tone average (PTA) of thresholds at 0.5,1,2,4 kHz >25 dB HL. Bilateral hearing impairment (BHI) required a PTA>25 dB HL in both ears. Multivariable analyses included adjustments for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, body mass index, and medical conditions. Results The prevalence of HI was 15.1% overall and 8.2% had BHI. The prevalence of HI was higher among people aged 45 and older, ranging by Hispanic/Latino background from 29–41% among men and 18–31% among women. The multivariable-adjusted odds of HI was greater for participants of Puerto Rican background compared to Mexican background (OR =1.57, 95%CI=1.10, 2.25). The odds of HI were lower with more education and higher income. People with noise exposure were about 30% more likely to have HI. Diabetes (OR=1.57, 95%CI= 1.27, 1.94) and pre-diabetes (OR=1.37, 95%CI= 1.12, 1.67) were

  12. Oral health conditions and behaviors among hearing impaired and normal hearing college students at Ratchasuda College, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Kositpumivate, Waritorn

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to explore oral health and oral health related behaviors among hearing impaired and normal hearing students at Rachasuda College. The association between socioeconomic factors, hearing status, oral health behaviors, oral hygiene levels and dental caries status were also examined. The students filled out a self-administered questionnaire with assistance of a sign language video to obtain personal and behavior information. A total of 180 students, 83 normal hearing and 97 hearing impaired students completed the questionnaire and underwent an oral examination. The prevalences of caries were 53.6% and 50.6% among students with hearing impairment and normal hearing, respectively (p=0.354). After age stratification, the hearing impaired students aged 18-21 years had significantly less filled teeth (p=0.012), and those older than 21 years had less missing teeth due to caries than normal-hearing students (p=0.023). Poor oral hygiene was found in 51.8% and 42.2% of normal and hearing-impaired students, respectively (p=0.365). Caries status was significantly associated with maternal education level (OR 3.56; 95% CI: 1.52-8.32) and oral hygiene (OR 3.26; 95% CI: 1.64-6.45). The high prevalence of dental caries and poor oral hygiene among college students is alarming. Hearing impairment did not appear to affect the prevalences of these conditions compared to those with normal hearing. Oral health education tools need to be developed and utilized for both normal hearing and hearing impaired college students in Thailand.

  13. Study on high risk factors of neonatal hearing loss failing in hearing screening%听力筛查未通过的新生儿听力损失的高危因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙磊; 郭玲

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析听力筛查未通过的新生儿听力损失的高危因素.方法:对43 568例新生儿出生后3~5天用耳声发射仪进行初筛,初筛未通过者在出生后42天内进行复筛,复筛未通过者在出生后3月内用脑干听觉诱发电位仪、声导抗、诊断型耳声发射进行听力障碍的诊断.结果:43 568例新生儿复筛未通过者802例,进行初次诊断者660例,占全部听力筛查儿的1.51%,其中256人出现不同程度的听力损失(含分泌性中耳炎导致的传导性听力损失),重度聋在听力筛查儿中的发生率为1.45‰.分泌性中耳炎发生率在听力损失组与听力正常组差异有统计学意义(x2检验,P<0.01).1∶1配对的病例对照多因素分析显示听力损失家族史是听力损失的独立危险因素.结论:听力筛查未通过的新生儿中,约一半听力损失伴有分泌性中耳炎,听力损失家族史是新生儿听力损失高危因素,应加强妇幼保健宣传教育,针对迟发性听力损失,应重视随访.%Objective: To analyze the high risk factors of neonatal hearing loss failing in hearing screening. Methods: Primary screening was conducted in 43 568 neonates at 3 - 5 days after birth with distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), the neonates failing in primary screening received the second screening at 42 days after birth, then the neonates failing in the second screening received diagnosis of hearing loss within three months after birth with brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) , acoustic immitance, and DPOAE. Results: Among 43 568 neonates, 802 neonates failed in the second screening, 660 neonates received primary diagnosis, accounting for 1. 51% of all the neonates, 256 neonates were found with different degrees of hearing loss (including the neonates with conductive hearing loss induced by secretory otitis media) , the incidence rate of severe deafness in neonatal hearing screening was 1.45%0. There was statistically significant

  14. American Sign Language and Academic English: Factors Influencing the Reading of Bilingual Secondary School Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica A; Hoffmeister, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    For many years, researchers have sought to understand the reading development of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students. Guided by prior research on DHH and hearing students, in this study we investigate the hypothesis that for secondary school DHH students enrolled in American Sign Language (ASL)/English bilingual schools for the deaf, academic English proficiency would be a significant predictor of reading comprehension alongside ASL proficiency. Using linear regression, we found statistically significant interaction effects between academic English knowledge and word reading fluency in predicting the reading comprehension scores of the participants. However, ASL remained the strongest and most consistent predictor of reading comprehension within the sample. Findings support a model in which socio-demographic factors, ASL proficiency, and word reading fluency are primary predictors of reading comprehension for secondary DHH students.

  15. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tatarinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  16. EXPLORING THE FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES’ ADOPTION AND USE OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majharul Talukder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the factors affecting innovation adoption by individual employees within an organization in Australia. Following a qualitative research approach, this paper uses a series of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions involving academic and administrative employees at a tertiary educational institution in Australia. The qualitative approach is adopted to have a deeper insight into the complexities and dynamism associated with the factors influencing innovation adoption process in organizational settings. The findings of this research highlight the need for broadening an understanding of the key factors affecting employee’s decisions to uptake the adoption of innovation. The results provide important clues for comprehending the factors influencing and determining the employee’s adoption and continued use of innovation in the work environment. In the face of the current trend towards end-user applications of technological innovation, the results suggest some guidelines for management toward effective and efficient adoption and use of innovation in organizational settings. This paper has highlighted the above findings and their implications for management practices related to innovation management in an Australian organizational setting. This paper also identifies possible limitations and future research potential in the relevant field.

  17. Factors Affecting the Benefits of High-Frequency Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Amy R.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Dubno, Judy R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to determine the extent to which high-frequency amplification helped or hindered speech recognition as a function of hearing loss, gain-frequency response, and background noise. Method: Speech recognition was measured monaurally under headphones for nonsense syllables low-pass filtered in one-third-octave steps…

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss among liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cylinder infusion workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Ju; Chang, Chin-Kuo

    2009-12-01

    We assessed the exposure levels of noise, estimated prevalence, and identify risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among male workers with a cross-sectional study in a liquefied petroleum gas cylinder infusion factory in Taipei City. Male in-field workers exposed to noise and administrative controls were enrolled in 2006 and 2007. Face-to-face interviews were applied for demographics, employment history, and drinking/smoking habit. We then performed the measurements on noise levels in field and administration area, and hearing thresholds on study subjects with standard apparatus and protocols. Existence of hearing loss > 25 dBHL for the average of 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz was accordingly determined for NIHL. The effects from noise exposure, predisposing characteristics, employment-related factors, and personal habits to NIHL were estimated by univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. A total of 75 subjects were involved in research and 56.8% of in-field workers had NIHL. Between the in-field and administration groups, hearing thresholds on the worse ear showed significant differences at frequencies of 4 k, 6 k, and 8 kHz with aging considered. Adjusted odds ratio for field noise exposure (OR=99.57, 95% CI: 3.53, 2,808.74) and frequent tea or coffee consumption (OR=0.03, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.51) were found significant. Current study addressed NIHL in a specific industry in Taiwan. Further efforts in minimizing its impact are still in need.

  19. Factors affecting enamel and ceramic wear: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won-Suck; Delong, Ralph; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2002-04-01

    Enamel wear by ceramics may adversely affect maintenance of the vertical dimension of occlusion and can increase the potential for thermal sensitivity. In this article, factors related to the abrasion of enamel by dental ceramics are critically reviewed. Concepts of physical, microstructural, chemical, and surface characteristics of dental ceramics on wear are presented based on research published since 1950. A PubMed search for key words (wear of enamel and ceramic) was supplemented with a hand search to identify relevant peer-reviewed articles published in English. Based on the literature, it can be concluded that material factors, their proper handling, and control of the patient's intrinsic risk factors related to wear are critically important to the reduction of enamel wear by dental ceramics.

  20. Factors affecting the long-term renal allograft survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; LI Xiao-bei; YIN Hang; YANG Xiao-yong; LIU Hang; REN Liang; HU Xiao-peng; WANG Yong; ZHANG Xiao-dong

    2011-01-01

    Background In the past decades, the one-year graft survival of cadaveric renal allografts has been markedly improved,but their long-term survival has not kept pace. The attrition rate of renal allografts surviving after one year remains almost unchanged. The causes for late graft loss are multiple. The aim of this study was to analyze the predictive factors that impact long-term survival of grafts after kidney transplantation.Methods We retrospectively analyzed 524 kidney transplantation patients who were treated in our hospital between January 1991 and January 2000, including 254 patients who had lived more than 10 years with normal graft function (long survival group), and 270 cases whose renal graft had survived less than 10 years (control group). Specifically, we analyzed 10 factors that may potentially affect graft survival by both univariate and Logistic model multivariate analyses to pinpoint the independent risk factors.Results Univariate analyses showed that no significant differences existed in the age or gender of recipients, dialysis time, lymphotoxin levels, or cold ischemia time between the two groups. However, the ratio of delayed graft function and acute rejection, and the uric acid levels of patients in the long survival group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P <0.01). Furthermore, we found that the concentration of cyclosporin A at one year after transplantation and the histocompatibility antigen match of donor-recipients for patients within the long survival group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P <0.01 ). Furthermore, multivariate analyses showed that these four factors were independent risk factors that impact patient survival.Conclusions The ratios of delayed graft function and acute rejection, the concentration of cyclosporin A at one year after transplantation, and serum uric acid levels are very important factors that affect the long-term survival of renal grafts.

  1. Survey on Factors Affecting the Recurrence of Multiple sclerosis Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanzadeh F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic and progressive disease of the central nervous system. The identification of effective factors and patient education on the prevention of exposure to these factors can be effective in reducing relapses. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the factors that affect recurrence in patients with multiple sclerosis. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 402 MS patients referred to the MS Association of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. The study participants were selected using purposive sampling method. Data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire and a 40-item researcher-made questionnaire concerning factors affecting the recurrence of MS. The 40-item questionnaire consisted of 4 domains personal factors, medical condition, pharmaceutical conditions, and environmental factors. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 21 and Mann Whitney, Pearson correlation, Kruskal Wallis, and chi-square statistical tests. Results: Among the patients, 21/4% were male and 78/6% female. Most patients were 20-29 years old. The highest prevalence of recurrence of MS was observed in the summer (70.8% and in August (50.3%. There was no significant relationship between patient’s gender and their views about the relationship between infections, fatigue, and heat and recurrence of MS. However, a higher rate of women believed stress (P < 0.029 and sexual development (P < 0.001 to be effective on the incidence of MS recurrence, in comparison to men. Conclusion: Most patients with MS are women, and they believe stress to be more effective on the incidence of MS attack recurrence. Therefore, nurses, as the primary care educators, can improve the patients’ capability, disease management, and quality of life through training of stress management techniques.

  2. The lexical development of children with hearing impairment and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Leticia Macedo; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar; Alves, Cláudia Regina Lindgren

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the association between the lexical development of children with hearing impairment and their psychosocial and socioeconomic characteristics and medical history. An analytic transversal study was conducted in an Auditive Health Attention Service. One hundred and ten children from 6 to 10 years old using hearing aids and presenting hearing loss that ranged from light to deep levels were evaluated. All children were subjected to oral, written language and auditory perception tests. Parents answered a structured questionnaire to collect data from their medical history and socioeconomic status, and questionnaires about the features of the family environment and psychosocial characteristics. Multivariate analysis was performed by logistic regression, being the initial model composed by variables with plearning difficulties often observed in these children.

  3. Resilience factors associated with adaptation in families with deaf and hard of hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlert, Ingrid A; Greeff, Abraham P

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to identify and explore resilience qualities that help protect and support families facing the adversity associated with having a child with hearing loss. The Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation (M. A. McCubbin & H. I. McCubbin, 1993, 1996) provided the study's theoretical framework. The 54 participating families resided in Western Cape Province, South Africa, and were identified according to the nature of the crisis (having a child with hearing loss) and the family's developmental phase. Quantitative and qualitative measures were used for data collection. The results showed that family time and routines, social support, affirming communication, family hardiness, problem-solving skills, religion, a search for meaning, and acceptance of the child's hearing status were associated with family resilience. Strengthening these elements helps families to grow, meet challenges, and reestablish balance and harmony within the family system.

  4. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success.

  5. Risk factors that influence suicidal behavior in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Albina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known in the literature that the incidence and prevalence of suicide and attempted suicide in psychiatric patients is significantly higher than in the general population. The paper examined risk factors for suicidal behavior in the category of admitted patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of sleep disorders and affective (Unipolar resp. Bipolar depression. Study activated by 80 patients, 40 in both diagnostic groups received treatment at the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Gornja Toponica near Nis. The work methodology used are: psychiatric interview, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, and the C-SSRS (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale- assessment tool that assesses suicidal ideation and behavior. The study results show that there is a relationship between suicidal behavior (suicide attempts and suicidal ideation and the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, positive history of previous suicide attempts, so that these factors are stronger, to the degree of suicidality higher. On this sample, clearly suicidal behavior, with the same purpose, intensity of suicidal thoughts and medical impairment after suicide attempts were significantly more frequent in patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder in the depressive phase of the illness. Patients with a previous suicide attempt, and poor personal and social circumstances had a higher rate of attempted suicide.

  6. An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuremoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

  7. Factors potentially affecting the function of kidney grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jun; ZHENG Xin; XIE Ze-lin; SUN Wen; ZHANG Lei; TIAN Ye; GUO Yu-wen

    2013-01-01

    Background Donor and recipient risk factors on graft function have been well characterized.The contribution of demographic factors,such as age,gender,and other potential factors of donor and recipient at the time of transplantation on the function of a graft is much less well understood.In this study,we analyzed the effects of factors such as age,gender,etc.,on the short-term and long-term graft function in kidney transplant recipients from living donor.Methods A total of 335 living donors and their recipients,who had kidney transplantation in our center from May 2004 to December 2009,were included.Serum creatinine level was used as the assessment criterion (serum creatinine level lower than 115 mmol/L is normal).Factors related to graft function such as age,gender,blood relation by consanguinity,human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch,ABO type,etc.,were analyzed separately.Results Donor age is the key factor affecting both the short-term and long-term function of a grafted kidney from a living donor.The group with donors younger than 48 years showed the best kidney function post transplantation.Match of gender and age is another important factor that influences the function of grafted kidney from a living donor.The older donor to younger recipient group had the worst outcome after kidney transplantation.After 36 months post transplantation,female donor to male recipient group had worse kidney function compared to other groups.We also found that calcinerin inhibitor used in the maintenance period may influence the function of a grafted kidney.No significant statistical differences were found in consanguinity,blood type,and mismatch of HLA.Conclusions Donor age is an important factor affecting the function of a grafted kidney from a living donor.We also recommend taking nephron,immunology factor,infection,and demographic information all into consideration when assessing the outcome of kidney transplantation.

  8. Age-related hearing loss and ear morphology affect vertical but not horizontal sound-localization performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, R.J.; Agterberg, M.J.H.; Wanrooij, M.M. van; Snik, A.F.M.; Opstal, A.J. van

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have attributed deterioration of sound localization in the horizontal (azimuth) and vertical (elevation) planes to an age-related decline in binaural processing and high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL). The latter might underlie decreased elevation performance of older adults. However,

  9. Age-related hearing loss and ear morphology affect vertical but not horizontal sound-localization performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, R.J.; Agterberg, M.J.H.; Wanrooij, M.M. van; Snik, A.F.M.; Opstal, A.J. van

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have attributed deterioration of sound localization in the horizontal (azimuth) and vertical (elevation) planes to an age-related decline in binaural processing and high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL). The latter might underlie decreased elevation performance of older adults. However,

  10. Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Avis J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on FENO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. Results The effect of sex on FENO was both statistically and clinically significant, with FENO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced FENO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the FENO measurement. Atopy increased FENO by 60%. The sex-related differences in FENO remained significant (p ENO. Conclusion Even after adjustment, FENO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.

  11. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Nazarpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental–emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse.

  12. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured questionnaire; study reveals that service innovativeness, service reli- ability, service competitiveness and service consistency have significant influence on making customer satisfied and the operator’s network/signal coverage, pricing, offering, fulfillment of customer demand, value added service, brand value and op - erators contribution for society have insignificant influences on making customer satisfied at five percent level of significant at multiple regression analysis. On the basis of these findings; study concludes that in promoting customer satisfaction mobile service providers should be concerned for factors responsible for insignifi- cant influence on customer satisfaction and care of those factors have significant influence on promoting customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.

  13. Main Factors for Affecting Photonic Bandgap of Photonic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; XUE Wei; JIANG Yu-rong; YU Zhi-nong; WANG Hua-qing

    2007-01-01

    The factors affecting one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PhCs) are systemically analyzed in this paper by numerical simulation.Transfer matrix method (TMM) is employed for 1D PCs, both finite difference time domain method (FDTD) and plane wave expansion method (PWE) are employed for 2D PCs.The result shows that the photonic bandgaps (PBG) are directly affected by crystal type, crystal lattice constant, modulation of refractive index and periodicity, and it is should be useful for design of different type photonic crystals with the required PBG and functional devices.Finally, as an example, a near-IR 1D PCs narrow filter was designed.

  14. Determination of factors affecting seafood consumption pattern and consumption frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tolga Tolon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Current seafood consumption pattern, consumer profile and factors affecting seafood consumption amount and frequency of the consumers residing in coastal region (İzmir, mixed region (Adana and countryside region (Ankara of Turkey were researched in this study. It is aimed to provide source to researchers and relevant institutions who are willing to guide the future sectoral initiatives and conduct more extensive research on seafood consumer habits. In this context, the research population was determined according to their distance to the sea and their populations by purposive sampling method. 43 % of total 400 survey was conducted in Ankara, 36% in İzmir and 21% in Adana by face to face interviews. According to the survey results, 6% of respondents never consume seafood, 25% once a month, 28% once every two weeks, and 42% consume once and more than once in a week. The most seafood consumption frequency was identified in Izmir. Nearly 90% of consumers in the entire regions prefer to consume seafood in fresh type. According to the answers of all consumers 4 major factors affecting seafood consumption preferences and habits in a negative way were "high price, cannot be easily found in the market, not recognition of seafood varieties and disfavor of the flavor of seafood". The relationship between frequency of seafood consumption and education level of consumer’s variables is determined as linear and strong but the relationship between consumer age and seafood consumption frequency is determined as reverse. On the factors affecting choice of seafood consumption in a positive way, 71% of consumers stated the beneficial to health perception and taste of seafood as the most important reason for their preference. Therefore, the relationship between consumption trend and beneficial to health perception of seafood is determined as linear and strong.

  15. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  16. Factors Affecting Fertility – New Evidence from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Atif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research paper investigates long and short term determinants of fertility rates in Malaysia based on basic macroeconomic variables for the period 1980-2014 using Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL method. The study reveals that over a long term period, all the selected variables (GDP, infant mortality rate, females’ education and employment have had significant and negative impact on total fertility rates. Whilst during the short term period, only the infant mortality rate has had a positive impact. Since population growth is partly determined by fertility rates, efforts to increase population in Malaysia should consider factors that affect those rates.

  17. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  18. Chinese multinationals: how do institutional factors affect their location patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Quer Ramón

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of various host country institutional factors on the location patterns of 29 large Chinese multinationals. From a sample of 127 outward foreign direct investment (FDI decisions made in 52 countries, our findings suggest that a greater difficulty in doing business and a high political risk in the host country do not discourage Chinese multinationals. However, the presence of overseas Chinese in the host country, a larger absolute host market size and a higher volume of Chinese exports to that country affect positively.

  19. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academ...

  20. A Factor Analysis Study of Intellectual Development in Deaf and Hearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweibel, Abraham; Mertens, Donna M.

    The Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test (SON) was administered to 251 deaf children (6-15 years old) and 101 hearing children (10-12 years old) in Israel. The SON was judged appropriate for measuring cognitive functioning in the deaf because it requires no verbal instructions or responses and includes a measure of abstract thinking ability.…

  1. Econometric Analysis of Factors Affecting Special Purpose Forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lanhui; Cai Fei

    2003-01-01

    The forest estate is one of our most important natural resources. It is also the material foundation for sustainable forestry development in China. It is a timely topic of concern within the forestry community and touches the entire society. From a social economic point of view, the sustainable development has been promoted by the efficient use of the forest resources in a continuing improvement of the environment. The objective of the present analysis is to measure the effect of various factors, such as population, economic development and related policies on the use of the forest resources. The 29 provinces of Mainland China are classified in three regions, based largely on their level of economic development. For each region, the factors which affect the area of special purpose forests (SPF) are analyzed. Some recommendations are made for further improvement.

  2. A review of factors affecting antler composition and mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete-Castillejos, Tomas; Estevez, Jose A; Ceacero, Francisco; Garcia, Andres J; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-06-01

    Antlers constitute the only mammal model for limb regeneration. A number of factors affect antler regeneration. In this review, we examine such factors and the potential consequences for organ regeneration. As body mineral stores are depleted to grow antlers, physiological exhaustion is shown in the mineral composition, mechanical performance and, according to preliminary studies, porosity of the antler bone material. Nutrition plays an important role in antler characteristics. Thus, antler composition can be used as a diagnostic tool to assess mineral deficiencies in deer. Studies on ecological effects of exceptional weather in plants suggest that minor minerals, particularly Mn, may play disproportionately roles in mechanical performance of bone material. This suggests that Mn (and perhaps other minerals) is essential to incorporate Ca and P from resorbed skeleton material in antlers. Apart from implications for game management, some effects may have applications for medicine.

  3. Extrinsic factors affecting accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters for LMFBRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Managan, W.W.

    1976-08-01

    Assuming that ultrasonic flowmeters of suitable intrinsic accuracy are feasible, this report explores factors extrinsic to the flowmeter which affect the accuracy such as asymmetric flow profile, regions of high turbulence and thermal stratification. By integrating isovelocity flow profile maps, the predicted performance of various flowmeter configurations may be compared to experimental data. For the two pipe arrangements analyzed, the single diametral path flowmeter results were within 5 percent of true flow rate. Theoretical correction factors could reduce the error for the straight pipe but increased the error for asymmetrical flow. On the same pipe arrangements a four path ultrasonic flowmeter spaced for Gaussian integration gave less than 1 percent error. For more general conclusions a range of flow profiles produced by typical LMFBR piping arrangements must be analyzed.

  4. Factors of affecting the spring back of compressed Paulownia wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In order to increase its hardness and gravity as well as dimension stability, the technology of hotcompressing on Paulownia wood was studied. The main factors of affecting the spring back of the compressed Paulownia samples were discussed. It was discovered that every factor in the experiment had obvious effects on wood hardness and dimension stability of compressed wood. When the MC (Moisture Content) of experimental specimens was 13.89%, it was useful to spray water on the surface of samples before hot pressing. The best resuit was the recovery of compression set could decrease from 90.69% of untreated wood to 45.51% of soaking specimens into PF (Phenol Formaldehyde) water solution. The hot pressing time was 8 min at 190 ℃.

  5. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities

  6. Factors affecting adult feeding in a Drug rehabilitation Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Troncoso Pantoja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To interpret the perception of the determining factors that influence the diet of a group of intern patients in a drug rehabilitation center in Concepción, Chile, during the year 2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Through a qualitative design with a phenomenological approach, intern patients of a drug rehabilitation facility, who fulfilled the study assigned criteria, were interviewed. The collection of data was conducted through semi structured interviews; which were validated by experts and subject to a pilot test. Nonprobability convenience sampling was performed. The sample size was determined through theoretical saturation, which was completed at the eighth interview. The results were subject to triangulation of informants, and were analyzed using the technique of discourse analysis. RESULTS: The participants identify positive and negative factors that condition their diet. They claim that having a fixed schedule is positive since this helps them to have a more organized diet. However, some stressful situations within the facilities are described as limiting factors in their mood, thus affecting their appetite and reducing their food intake. Additionally, not being with their families, especially at the beginning of the treatment, is considered a negative aspect. The lack of variety in terms of food preparation is also negative since this does not correspond to their food preferences. During the drug withdrawal stage, the intake of food containing carbohydrates of rapid absorption was increased. CONCLUSIONS: It is interpreted that the interviewees at the drug rehabilitation facility identify conditioning factors that influence their diet, which promote or inhibit food intake, and affect the attitude they present towards their diet in the drug withdrawal stage.

  7. Group decision-making: Factors that affect group effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Osmani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are operating in a dynamic and turbulent environment. In these conditions, they have to make decisions for new problems or situations. Most of decisions are therefore non-programmed and unstructured, accompanied by risk and uncertainty. Moreover, the problems and situations are complex. All organizations are oriented towards group decisionmaking processes, as useful tools to cope with uncertainty and complexity. Apart from the necessity, companies are turning towards participatory processes also to benefit from the important advantages that these processes offer. Organizations have realized the importance of group decision-making processes to contribute to the creation of sustainable competitive advantages. Main objective of this paper is to show that group decision-making processes do not offer guarantee for good decisions, because the effectiveness of group is affected by many factors. So, the first thing done in this paper is discussing about the benefits and limitations that accompany the use of groups with decision-making purpose. Afterwards, we stop on the different factors that influence the group’s ability to make good decisions. The aim is to emphasize that regardless of the many advantages of groups, some factors as group size, type of communication within the group, leadership style, the norms, the differentiation of roles and statuses, cohesion and compliance degree should be the main elements to keep into consideration because they affect the effectiveness of group. In this regard, is discussed how such factors influence the quality of decision and then we try to draw some conclusions that can improve and make better and easier group decision-making processes.

  8. Factor Affecting the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable management of agricultural water in Hamedan. The study population included all wheat farmers possessing irrigated farms in Hamedan city (N=1800. Of these farmers a sample of 317 people has been selected by using randomized multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire's tool with help of the interview technique. Accuracy of the questions in the questionnaire was face validated by a panel of specialists. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, the questionnaires were first given to 30 farmers and Cronbach's Alpha was calculated (Alpha=0.92 then the questionnaire was finalized. Data analyzing methods such as Multiple Regression and the coefficient of variation (CV= standard deviation /mean were used in this study. To determine the level of sustainability of the farms Bossel method proposed for classification and grading the fields was used. The results showed that variables agronomic factors, policy factors and institutional factors were able to explain 34 percent of the dependent variable's changes (sustainable management of agricultural water. According to the results, 95.3 percent of the farmers were categorized into unsustainable group, 4.1 percent into semi-sustainable and only 0.6 percent in sustainable group.

  9. Factors affecting clinical reasoning of occupational therapists: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaroodi, Narges; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; O’Toole, Giyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical reasoning is generally defined as the numerous modes of thinking that guide clinical practice but little is known about the factors affecting how occupational therapists manage the decision-making process. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the factors influencing the clinical reasoning of occupational therapists. Methods: Twelve occupational therapy practitioners working in mental and physical dysfunction fields participated in this study. The sampling method was purposeful and interviews were continued until data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method. Results: There were three main themes. The first theme: socio-cultural conditions included three subthemes: 1- client beliefs; 2- therapist values and beliefs; 3- social attitude to disability. The second theme: individual attributions included two subthemes 1- client attributions; 2- therapist attributions. The final theme was the workplace environment with the three subthemes: 1- knowledge of the managers of rehabilitation services, 2- working in an inter-professional team; 3- limited clinical facilities and resources. Conclusion: In this study, the influence of the attitudes and beliefs of client, therapist and society about illness, abilities and disabilities upon reasoning was different to previous studies. Understanding these factors, especially the socio-cultural beliefs basis can play a significant role in the quality of occupational therapy services. Accurate understanding of these influential factors requires more extensive qualitative and quantitative studies. PMID:25250253

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING DEMAND FOR INTERNET ACCESS IN SAUDI ARABIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Jameel Bardesi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As internet use in Saudi Arabia are dramatically increasing, a powerful demand is being laid down on internet service purpose where this paper aims at identifying major factors that influence these demand pertaining to internet services. Within a selected theoretical model, such multiple factors are being conceptualized and interrelated. Using time series data, the Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique is employed to analyze the relationships. The results of the model indicated clearly that using the internet in Saudi Arabia is influenced most strongly by the number of educated people, the number of mobile subscribers, income, the number of fixed lines, and employment level. The results also suggest that demographic factors have a significant impact on the demand for internet, specifically, the number of educated people and levels of employment. This paper concludes with a recommendation on increasing the level of understanding of those the factors affecting practitioners who plan and promote new forms of internet services in the current competitive market.

  11. Factor affecting happiness among nursing students in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, W H; Jo, M J

    2016-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Despite the increased interest in nursing students' happiness in South Korea, few studies have attempted to identify factors influencing their happiness. Therefore, nursing educators should consistently investigate the factors influencing happiness and develop strategies to improve happiness among Korean nursing students. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study confirmed that there were positive correlations between grateful disposition, social support and happiness. In addition, grateful disposition and support from intimate people were identified as predictors of happiness in Korean nursing students. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Development of intervention programmes to help nursing students increase grateful disposition and support from intimate people may be helpful for improving happiness. These programmes can include activity, such as writing a gratitude journal, and extracurricular programmes, such as mentoring programmes between seniors and juniors and/or professor and student. Introduction Happiness is very important in the training and development of nursing students as future nurses. However, nursing students experience a high level of stress and low level of happiness in South Korea. Aim This study aimed to investigate factors that affect happiness among nursing students in South Korea. Method Data were collected from a total of 241 nursing enrolled in two 4-year baccalaureate nursing programmes in South Korea, using a self-administrated questionnaire. To identify predictors of happiness, stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Results The results indicated that grateful disposition and support from intimate people significantly predict happiness among Korean nursing students. These two factors accounted for 38.0% of the variance in happiness. Discussion This study indicated grateful disposition and support from intimate people as factors promoting happiness in nursing students. The findings

  12. Factors Affecting Longevity of Tunneled Central Venous Cathe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Won; Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate factors which affect the longevity of tunneled central venous catheters (T-CVCs). A retrospective study was conducted on 363 T-CVCs. We evaluated the relevant factors affecting the longevity of the T-CVCs, such as age, gender, indication for catheterization, site of entry vessel, diameter and type of T-CVC, catheter tip position, and underlying diseases. Of the 363 T-CVCs which had been inserted, 331 (91%) were placed through the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The catheter tip position was the strongest predictor for the longevity of the T-CVC. The short limb of the catheter tip placed either at the cavoatrial junction (CA junction) or below the lower margin of the right main bronchus had a good prognosis. The vessel through which the T-CVC was placed significantly influenced the longevity of the T-CVC; the RIJV was associated with better results than the left internal jugular vein. Also, a split-type catheter was significantly associated with a better result. A two distinct and separate type T-CVC placed through the RIJV in which the short limb catheter tip position was at the level of the CA junction, significantly increased the longevity of T-CVCs.

  13. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

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    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  14. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

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    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.

  15. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.

  16. Identification and assessment of risk factors affecting construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sayed Bassiony Ahmed Abd El-Karim

    2017-08-01

    Unexpected increase in cost and delays in construction projects are caused by owner, contractor, environments, etc. in which several types of risk factors may occur concurrently. The effect of cost overrun and schedule overrun do not only influence the construction industry but the overall economy as well. Even though construction project increasing in cost and schedule has received extensive attention of researchers, but because of continuous changes and development in the field, the study considered of added value to the construction industry in Egypt, in addition to risk strategy and plan analysis. In order to meet the deadline of a project and due to the complex nature of construction projects, cost and scheduling should be flexible enough to accommodate changes without negatively affecting the overall project cost and duration. As such, the objectives of the presented research in this paper are to identify, study, and assess the effect of the factors that affect cost and time contingency. Data are collected from sixteen construction companies in Egypt. The collected data, output charts and analyses spreadsheets will be used for the development of computerized model built by the authors with identification abbreviation RIAM.

  17. 11-Year Experience with Gastroschisis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Morbidity

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    Derya Erdoğan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality.Methods: Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively.Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery,operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN related complications.The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined.Findings: Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but notmortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section.Conclusion: In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

  18. Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players

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    Michael D. Cusimano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs. A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM. The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36, as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37. Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players’ willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.

  19. Factors affecting QOL of the home-bound elderly disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemasa, S

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) of the elderly home-bound patients. Data were collected from 56 chronically disabled elderly persons (mean age of 76.7 years) who needed a long-term home-based care. They were assessed on QOL, range of activity, functional capacity, and capacity of family care functioning as well as socio-economic condition. The QOL was evaluated by using Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGC Morale Scale). The activities of daily living (ADL) and handicaps were evaluated by the Barthel index and the ESCROW profile, respectively. The capacity of family care functioning was also recorded according to the "Family Care Scale" developed by Hamamura. As a result, there was a significant difference between PGC Morale Scale score and Barthel index score (P QOL of the home-bound elderly disabled were determined by the motivation, functional capacity, and capacity of family care functioning (P QOL, ADL must be improved, therefore, rehabilitation should be continued to maintain their function after discharging from hospitals and that we should take these factors into consideration, such as living environments and social conditions of the family care. The results also indicate how the patient's independence in the daily life influences social and economic status, and consequently it affects the quality of life.

  20. Genetic studies of two inherited human phenotypes : Hearing loss and monoamine oxidase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Balciuniene, Jorune

    2001-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the identification of genetic factors underlying two inherited human phenotypes: hearing loss and monoamine oxidase activity. Non-syndromic hearing loss segregating in a Swedish family was tested for linkage to 13 previously reported candidate loci for hearing disabilities. Linkage was found to two loci: DFNA12 (llq22-q24) and DFNA2 (lp32). A detailed analysis of the phenotypes and haplotypes shared by the affected individuals supported the hypothesis of digenic inheri...

  1. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

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    Volker Salewski

    Full Text Available Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and

  2. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  3. Hearing Loss in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hearing loss can affect a child’s ability to develop communication, language, and social skills. The earlier children with hearing loss start getting services, the more likely they are ...

  4. The Hearing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capewell, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    Glue ear, a condition resulting in intermittent hearing loss in young children, affects about 80% of young children under seven years old. About 60% of children will spend a third of their time unable to hear within normal thresholds. Teachers are unlikely to consider the sound quality in classrooms. In my research young people provided…

  5. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  6. Factors Affecting Exercise Test Performance in Patients After Liver Transplantation

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    Kotarska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. In addition, low physical activity is a risk factor for cardiac and cerebrovascular complications. Objectives This study examined potential relationships between physical activity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an exercise test in liver-graft recipients. Patients and Methods A total of 107 participants (62 men/45 women who had received a liver transplantation (LT at least 6 months previously were evaluated. Physical activity was assessed using three different questionnaires, while HRQoL was assessed using the medical outcomes study short form (SF-36 questionnaire, and health behaviors were evaluated using the health behavior inventory (HBI. The exercise test was performed in a standard manner. Results Seven participants (6.5% had a positive exercise test, and these individuals were older than those who had a negative exercise test (P = 0.04. A significant association between a negative exercise test and a higher level of physical activity was shown by the Seven-day physical activity recall questionnaire. In addition, HRQoL was improved in various domains of the SF-36 in participants who had a negative exercise test. No correlations between physical activity, the exercise test and healthy behaviors, as assessed via the HBI were observed. Conclusions Exercise test performance was affected by lower quality of life and lower physical activity after LT. With the exception of hypertension, well known factors that affect the risk of coronary artery disease had no effect on the exercise test results.

  7. Noise-induced hearing loss and hearing aids requirement

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano, C; Garzaro, M; Nadalin, J; Pecorari, G; Boggero, R; Argentero, P.; Albera, R.

    2008-01-01

    Subjective disturbances, due to hearing loss, are auditory disability and handicap which can be evaluated with a questionnaire. The present study refers to a population of industrial workers affected by noise-induced hearing loss. Aim of the study is to identify the minimal level of hearing loss over which the patient felt changes in his quality of life, and the average auditory threshold at which the patient considered the application of a hearing aid useful or necessary. The sample comprise...

  8. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  9. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.

  10. Technological Factors Affecting Biogenic Amine Content in Foods: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Fausto; Özogul, Yesim; Suzzi, Giovanna; Tabanelli, Giulia; Özogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are molecules, which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in foods is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BAs accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting BA content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity, and other BAs), environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, and pH). In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolizing BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances) are addressed. PMID:27570519

  11. Dietary Factors Affecting Thyroid Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Ae; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors are proposed to affect thyroid carcinogenesis, but previous studies have reported inconsistent findings. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis, including 18 eligible studies, to clarify the role of dietary factors in the risk of thyroid cancer. The relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated to assess the association and heterogeneity tests and subgroup and sensitivity analyses, and bias assessments were performed. When the results from all studies were combined, dietary iodine, fish, and cruciferous vegetable intake were not associated with thyroid cancer. However, when the data were divided by geographic location based on iodine availability, a slight increase in the risk of thyroid cancer was observed among those consuming a high total amount of fish in iodine nondeficient areas (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.03-1.35; P for heterogeneity = 0.282). When excluding the studies examining a single food item and hospital-based controls, a high intake of cruciferous vegetables was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer in iodine-deficient areas (RR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.18-1.74; P for heterogeneity = 0.426). This meta-analysis implies that the role of dietary factors, such as fish and cruciferous vegetables, in thyroid cancer risk can differ based on iodine availability.

  12. Factors affecting couples' adjustment to recurrent breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northouse, L L; Dorris, G; Charron-Moore, C

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the adjustment of women and their husbands to recurrent breast cancer and to examine the mutual effect that partners have on one another. An exploratory study was designed to determine the relationship between four predictor variables (support, uncertainty, symptom distress, hopelessness) and women's and husbands' adjustments. The sample consisted of 155 subjects; 81 women, who had a first recurrence of breast cancer, and 74 husbands. Multiple standardized instruments with established reliability and validity were used to measure the study variables. The independent variables were measured with the Social Support Questionnaire, the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale, McCorkle Symptom Distress Scale and the Beck Hopelessness Scale. The dependent variable, psychosocial adjustment, was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale. The results indicated that the independent variables accounted for 43% of the variance in women's distress and 32% of the variance in husbands' distress; they also explained 66% of the variance in women's role adjustment problems and 57% of the variance in husbands' role problems. Symptom distress and hopelessness accounted for the most variance in women's and husbands' levels of adjustment. A significant and positive relationship was found between women's and husbands' adjustment scores, indicating that partners have a mutual influence on one another. The findings suggest that there are multiple factors that influence couples' adjustment to recurrent breast cancer, and that these factors need to be taken into consideration when planning care for women and their partners.

  13. ANALYSIS FACTORS THAT AFFECTING THE WORK COMMITMENT OF TEACHERS

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    Marsofiyati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze the factors that affecting the work commitment of teachers.The research use descriptive quantitative method. The problem are the teachers who work without commitment, just to teach according to what was ordered by the principal. By having a high work commitment that is evident in the behavior of painstaking work, passionate, integrity of the work, responsibility, and maintain morale as educators. The results are: commitment to working both seen from the achievement an average score of 71.61, completion of the task is the highest factor in teachers' work commitment with an average score of 79.67, and development of self-efficacy is the lowest factor in teachers' work commitment with an average score of 73.00.Suggestions are: schools should give rewards to the teachers who complete the task on time and to sanction teachers who did not complete the task on time, provide education and training to the teachers continuously and sustainably as efforts to develop self-efficacy ofteachers, the teacher involvement in school activities further improved, so that the visible concern for the fate of school teachers and Teacher work program should be set up and executed in accordance with a predetermined plan.

  14. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

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    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  15. Factors Affecting Mortality After Major Nontraumatic Lower Extremity Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Tolga; Polat Duzgun, Arife; Kayilioglu, Selami Ilgaz; Erdogan, Ahmet; Yavuz, Zeynep; Coskun, Faruk

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the factors affecting the mortality of patients who underwent nontraumatic major lower limb amputation due to ischemic and/or diabetic causes. A total of 100 patients were included in the study. Among these patients, 70 (70%) underwent below-knee amputation, whereas 30 (30%) underwent above-knee amputation. Eleven (15.7%) of the 70 patients who underwent below-knee amputation and 12 (40%) of the 30 patients who underwent above-knee amputation (P = .008) were deceased. After multivariable Poisson regression analysis, female gender (risk ratio [RR] = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.07-3.74) and a neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) less than 6.8 (RR = 5.12, 95% CI = 1.86-14.08) were found to be independent risk factors for mortality. The value of 6.8 was used as a cutoff point for the NLR (area under the curve = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.62-0.85), with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 83%, 66%, 57%, and 92%, respectively. The NLR and female gender were found to be independent factors that are related to increased mortality in patients who underwent lower limb amputation due to diabetic and/or ischemic causes. The coexistence of congestive heart failure and the amputation level (above knee) were found to be predictors of mortality in univariable analysis, but significance could not be demonstrated in multivariable analysis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Risk factors affecting chronic rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Jae Jung

    2014-03-01

    Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We analyzed risk factors causing plantar fascia rupture in the presence of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed 286 patients with plantar fasciitis who were referred from private clinics between March 2004 and February 2008. Patients were divided into those with or without a plantar fascia rupture. There were 35 patients in the rupture group and 251 in the nonrupture group. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for plantar fascia rupture were compared between the 2 groups. We compared age, gender, the affected site, visual analog scale pain score, previous treatment regimen, body mass index, degree of ankle dorsiflexion, the use of steroid injections, the extent of activity, calcaneal pitch angle, the presence of a calcaneal spur, and heel alignment between the 2 groups. Of the assessed risk factors, only steroid injection was associated with the occurrence of a plantar fascia rupture. Among the 35 patients with a rupture, 33 had received steroid injections. The odds ratio of steroid injection was 33. Steroid injections for plantar fasciitis should be cautiously administered because of the higher risk for plantar fascia rupture. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  17. Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects on your hearing — ringing in the ear (tinnitus) or hearing loss — can occur if you take ... adults with hearing loss, commonly reported problems include: Depression Anxiety An often false sense that others are ...

  18. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  19. Acceptable noise level as a deciding factor for prescribing hearing aids for older adults with cochlear hearing loss e A scoping review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hemanth Narayan Shetty; Swathi Subbanna

    2015-01-01

    Older adults often find it difficult to perceive speech, especially in noisy conditions. Though hearing aid is one of the rehabilitative devices available to older adults to alleviate hearing loss, some of them may experience annoyance through hearing aid and hence reject it, may be due to circuitry noise and/or background noise. Acceptable noise level is a direct behavioural measure to estimate the extent of how much a person is able to put up with noise while simultaneously listening to speech. Acceptable noise level is a central auditory measure and it is not influenced by age, gender, presentation level or speaker. Using this measure, we can quantify the annoyance level experienced by an individual. This in-formation is of utmost importance and caution should be paid before setting the parameters in hearing aid, especially for those who are unable to accept noise. In this review article, an attempt has been made to document how to optimize the hearing aid program by setting parameters such as noise reduction circuit, microphone sensitivity and gain. These adjustments of parameters might help to reduce rejection rate of hearing aids, especially in those individuals who are annoyed by background noise. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production & hosting by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd On behalf of PLA General Hospital Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  20. Concern for Others: A Study on Empathy in Toddlers with Moderate Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Evelien; Ketelaar, Lizet; van der Zee, Rosanne; Netten, Anouk P.; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Rieffe, Carolien

    2017-01-01

    Empathy, the ability to feel the emotions of others and respond affectively to these emotions, is an important factor in the development of social competence. The purpose of this study was to examine empathy levels in toddlers with moderate hearing loss (MHL) compared to toddlers with no hearing loss (nHL), and to explore the relation between…

  1. High-Frequency Amplification and Sound Quality in Listeners with Normal through Moderate Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Todd A.; Dittberner, Andrew B.; Johnson, Earl E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: One factor that has been shown to greatly affect sound quality is audible bandwidth. Provision of gain for frequencies above 4-6 kHz has not generally been supported for groups of hearing aid wearers. The purpose of this study was to determine if preference for bandwidth extension in hearing aid processed sounds was related to the…

  2. FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR

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    Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction

  3. Bullying victimization: A risk factor of health problems among adolescents with hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Bushra; Munawar, Asima

    2016-01-01

    To find bullying victimisation as a predictor of physical and psychological health problems among school-going children with hearing impairment. The co-relational cross-sectional study was conducted in Gujrat district of Pakistan's Punjab province from August 2014 to January 2015, and comprised adolescents with hearing impairment. The subjects were selected through multi-stage stratified proportionate sampling from the local schools. Two standardised instruments were administered to assess the relationship between bullying and health problems. Multidimensional Peer Victimisation Scale was used for measuring bullying behaviour, while the Health Questionnaire was used to assess physical and psychological health problems. Both scales were translated into Urdu using lexicon equivalence method of translation. Of the 286 subjects, 183(64%) were boys. A significant positive relationship was found between the four components of bullying and health problems (p0.05). Children with hearing impairment experienced bullying just like those without such an impairment. Bullying needs to be considered a significant public health issue and should be dealt with effectively.

  4. Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care

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    Monika Chrenková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the system of care for endangered children has changed from the institutional as well as legislative point of view. In one of the partial areas of ongoing changes, research activities realised within the Students’ Grant Competition called The Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care are being focused. We deal with this topic because various forms of substitute family care are distinguished in the Czech Republic, where children are placed for various reasons, but we do not know the correct context of such placements. The main aim of the realised research was to find out the frequency of choosing a given form of placing children in substitute family care according to followed variables. The research sample of the quantitative research was consisted of children placed in one of the forms of substitute family care in the Moravian-Silesian region.

  5. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2017-06-01

    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  6. Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Dailey, Robert A; Inskeep, E Keith

    2004-08-01

    Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5-9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N = 211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles > or = 5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall pregnancy loss was 11.4%. Cows with two CL did not have greater concentrations of progesterone than cows with one CL and they retained fewer pregnancies (P Embryos that were lost apparently died before CL regression. Retention of pregnancy declined in cows with high body condition and as age of the cow increased. Pregnancy retention was lower in cows bred to one of four frequently-used service sires (P body condition and service sire.

  7. Factors affecting the perceptions of Iranian agricultural researchers towards nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mahmood; Rezaei, Rohollah

    2011-07-01

    This descriptive survey research was undertaken to design appropriate programs for the creation of a positive perception of nanotechnology among their intended beneficiaries. In order to do that, the factors affecting positive perceptions were defined. A stratified random sample of 278 science board members was selected out of 984 researchers who were working in 22 National Agricultural Research Institutions (NARIs). Data were collected by using a mailed questionnaire. The descriptive results revealed that more than half of the respondents had "low" or "very low" familiarity with nanotechnology. Regression analysis indicated that the perceptions of Iranian NARI Science Board Members towards nanotechnology were explained by three variables: the level of their familiarity with emerging applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, the level of their familiarity with nanotechnology and their work experiences. The findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the present situation of the development of nanotechnology and the planning of appropriate programs for creating a positive perception of nanotechnology.

  8. Cultutal Factors Affecting English Proficiency in Rurl Areas

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    Ee Chop Ler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to the rural and the ‘cultural’ and to determine their problems effect on the learning of English. Twenty students from different ethnic backgrounds and English language proficiency in six rural schools in Terengganu, Malaysia were interviewed. In addition the teachers also from different rural schools and ethnic backgrounds responded to a questionnaire. The problems discussed by both the teacher and student respondents arose due to the rural cultural setting. The findings of this study show that 1 five major problem areas exist, namely peer pressure and motivation, attitudes towards English ,teaching methodology, school culture ,influence of Islamic teaching on the learning of English 2 the problems discussed by the teachers and students are similar and 3 most importantly all these identified problems are closely related to the rural setting. Therefore, one can conclude that rural cultural factors adversely affect English Proficiency of the rural students of this study.

  9. An Analysis on the Contextual Factors Affecting Motivation in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>For us Chinese,a foreign language is something to be acquired as a kind of communicative tool,so we can infer that an effective way in SLA(Second Language Acquisition) must be learning the target language in a communicative context.A communicative context certainly concerns not only the interactional classroom activities designed in accordance with some stated curriculum tasks to lead the L2 students to learning swimming by swimming,but also other relevant elements which have a lot to do with all the situational,interactional and cultural contexts.In order to lessen some potential sources of conflict between L2 teacher and L2 learner,this article is an attempt to urge a careful study on the contextual factors affecting motivation in SLA.

  10. Factors affecting cellulose hydrolysis based on inactivation of adsorbed enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhuoliang; Berson, R Eric

    2014-09-01

    The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose reaction is known to decrease significantly as the reaction proceeds. Factors such as reaction temperature, time, and surface area of substrate that affect cellulose conversion were analyzed relative to their role in a mechanistic model based on first order inactivation of adsorbed cellulases. The activation energies for the hydrolytic step and inactivation step were very close in magnitude: 16.3 kcal mol(-1) for hydrolysis and 18.0 kcal mol(-1) for inactivation, respectively. Therefore, increasing reaction temperature would cause a significant increase in the inactivation rate in addition to the catalytic reaction rate. Vmax,app was only 20% or less of the value at 72 h compared to at 2h as a result of inactivation of adsorbed cellulases, suggesting prolonged hydrolysis is not an efficient way to improve cellulose hydrolysis. Hydrolysis rate increased with corresponding increases in available substrate surface binding area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress.

  12. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  13. Factors Affecting Linear Type Traits of Valdostana Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Mazza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Four composite and 22 individual linear type traits, measured between 1997 and 2012 on 33,206 Aosta Red Pied (ARP and 19,551 Aosta Black Pied and Aosta Chestnut (ABP-CN strains of Valdostana cattle, were used to investigate the non-genetic factors affecting morphological evaluation. Average values for type traits ranged from 2.81 (teat placement rear view and foot angle to 3.34 (thinness for ARP, and from 2.48 (teat placement side view to 3.67 (udder depth for ABP-CN. Results from the ANOVA showed significant effect of herd-year-classifier on type traits of both ARPand ABP-CN, and of days in milk and age at calving for almost all traits, with few exceptions. The model used in this study is a useful starting point to calculate genetic parameters for Valdostana cattle.

  14. Factors Affecting Information Security Focused on SME and Agricultural Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the field of information and communication technology is a source of advantage that improves quality of business services; increases productivity levels and brings competitive advantage to enterprises and organisations related to agricultural production. However, the use of information and communication technology (ICT is connected with information security risks that threaten business continuity and information assets. The ICT in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME and agricultural enterprises is the source of several advantages as well as the risks resulting from information security violation and security incidents. This paper aims at the current situation of information security in SME and agricultural enterprises. Furthermore, the paper provides results of a survey focusing on identification and evaluation of the effects of internal and external factors affecting existence of risks in information security in Slovak SME and agricultural enterprises. Until now, there had not been a similar survey carried out.

  15. Statistical Analysis of Factors Affecting Child Mortality in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zoya; Kamal, Asifa; Kamal, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Child mortality is a composite indicator reflecting economic, social, environmental, healthcare services, and their delivery situation in a country. Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of fetal, maternal, and child mortality. Factors affecting child mortality in Pakistan are investigated by using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis. Region, education of mother, birth order, preceding birth interval (the period between the previous child birth and the index child birth), size of child at birth, and breastfeeding and family size were found to be significantly important with child mortality in Pakistan. Child mortality decreased as level of mother's education, preceding birth interval, size of child at birth, and family size increased. Child mortality was found to be significantly higher in Balochistan as compared to other regions. Child mortality was low for low birth orders. Child survival was significantly higher for children who were breastfed as compared to those who were not.

  16. Analysis of Factors Affecting Inflation in Indonesia: an Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Ratna Wulan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors affecting inflation. The research is descriptive quantitative in nature. The data used are reported exchange rates, interest rates, money supply and inflation during 2008-2012. The research data was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed in the year 2008-2012 the condition of each variable are (1 the rate of inflation has a negative trend, (2 the interest rate has a negative trend, (3 the money supply has a positive trend, (4 the value of exchange rate has a positive trend. The test results by using multiple linear regression analysis result that variable interest rates, the money supply and the exchange rate of the rupiah significant effect on the rate of inflation.

  17. Factors affecting the predictive validity of the Braden Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, M L; McDonald, D D

    1996-01-01

    This descriptive correlational study explored the predictive validity of the Braden Scale and factors affecting it A Braden score was determined within 4 hours of admission for 50 adult medical/surgical inpatients. Independent skin assessments were made three times a week and at discharge. Fourteen patients (28%) developed pressure ulcers. A Braden score cutoff of 18 or less resulted in a 71% sensitivity, 83% specificity, 63% predictive value of a positive test, and 88% predictive value of a negative test. Three of the four patients incorrectly predicted to be not at risk scored "inadequate" on the nutrition subscale. Two of the four also were underweight. Of the six patients incorrectly predicted at risk for a pressure ulcer, three had been placed on air mattresses and were receiving levothyroxine (Synthroid). This study provides further evidence of the Braden Scale's predictive validity. The results suggest that patients who are underweight or getting inadequate nutrition be considered at increased risk for pressure ulcers.

  18. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    CERN Document Server

    Sohail, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...

  19. Percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation of osteoid osteomas: factors affecting therapeutic outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cribb, G.L.; Goude, W.H.; Cool, P.; Tins, B.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.; Mangham, D.C. [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    To examine factors which affect local recurrence of osteoid osteomas treated with percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation. A prospective study was carried out on 45 patients with osteoid osteoma who underwent percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation with a minimum follow-up of 12 months There were seven local recurrences (16%); all occurred within the first year. Local recurrence was significantly related to a non-diaphyseal location (P<0.01). There was no significant relationship (P=0.05) between local recurrence and age of the patient, duration of symptoms, previous treatment, size of the lesion, positive biopsy, radiofrequency generator used or the number of needle positions. There were no complications. Osteoid osteomas in a non-diaphyseal location are statistically more likely to recur than those in a diaphyseal location when treated with CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation. This relationship between local recurrence and location has not been previously reported. (orig.)

  20. Factors affecting characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1997-11-01

    Three major factors affect the characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors in terms of their levitation properties during interaction with permanent magnets. First, the appropriate parameter for the permanent magnet is internal magnetization, not the value of the magnetic field measured at the magnet`s surface. Second, although levitation force grows with superconductor thickness and surface area, for a given permanent magnet size, comparison of levitation force between samples is meaningful when minimum values are assigned to the superconductor size parameters. Finally, the effect of force creep must be considered when time-averaging the force measurements. In addition to levitational force, the coefficient of friction of a levitated rotating permanent magnet may be used to characterize the superconductor.

  1. Factors affecting the deterioration of concrete pavement slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Morozov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of constructions under actual operating conditions is affected by exposure to the environment. It is important that concrete roads and airport pavings are resistant not only to mechanical damage, but also to the effects of alternate freezing and thawing. The causes of early failure in concrete have been shown using prefabricated road slabs as an example. The causes of loss of performance properties of the roadway have been established, which are primarily dependent on the quality of raw materials in the concrete. It was found that, aside from durability, uniformity and porosity are important factors in determining the frost resistance of concrete roadways. It was shown that high aluminate content in the cement leads to concrete destruction in the first year of structure use. The results may also indirectly indicate a violation of forming technology during slab production.

  2. Discerning environmental factors affecting current tree growth in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, Emil; Russ, Radek; Šantrůčková, Hana; Altman, Jan; Kopáček, Jiří; Hůnová, Iva; Štěpánek, Petr; Oulehle, Filip; Tumajer, Jan; Ståhl, Göran

    2016-12-15

    We examined the effect of individual environmental factors on the current spruce tree growth assessed from a repeated country-level statistical landscape (incl. forest) survey in the Czech Republic. An extensive set of variables related to tree size, competition, site characteristics including soil texture, chemistry, N deposition and climate was tested within a random-effect model to explain growth in the conditions of dominantly managed forest ecosystems. The current spruce basal area increment was assessed from two consecutive landscape surveys conducted in 2008/2009 and six years later in 2014/2015. Tree size, age and competition within forest stands were found to be the dominant explanatory variables, whereas the expression of site characteristics, environmental and climatic drives was weaker. The significant site variables affecting growth included soil C/N ratio and soil exchangeable acidity (pH KCl; positive response) reflecting soil chemistry, long-term N-deposition (averaged since 1975) in combination with soil texture (clay content) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), a drought index expressing moisture conditions. Sensitivity of growth to N-deposition was positive, although weak. SPI was positively related to and significant in explaining tree growth when expressed for the growth season. Except SPI, no significant relation of growth was determined to altitude-related variables (temperature, growth season length). We identified the current spruce growth optimum at elevations about 800ma.s.l. or higher in the conditions of the country. This suggests that at lower elevations, limitation by a more pronounced water deficit dominates, whereas direct temperature limitation may concern the less frequent higher elevations. The mixed linear model of spruce tree growth explained 55 and 65% of the variability with fixed and random effects included, respectively, and provided new insights on the current spruce tree growth and factors affecting it within the

  3. Risk factors that affect metabolic health status in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaogullari, Selin; Demirel, Fatma; Hatipoglu, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    While some obese children are metabolically healthy (MHO), some have additional health problems, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, which increase mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. These children are metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. In this study we assessed the factors that affect metabolic health in obesity and the clinical and laboratory findings that distinguish between MHO and MUO children. In total, 1085 patients aged 6-18 years, with age- and sex-matched BMI exceeding the 95th percentile were included in the study (mean 11.1±2.9 years, 57.6% female, 59.7% pubertal). Patients without dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, or hypertension were considered as MHO. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL, triglyceride over 150 mg/dL, LDL over 130 mg/dL, or HDL under 40 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model of assesment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Hepatosteatosis was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound. Duration of obesity, physical activity and nutritional habits, screen time, and parental obesity were questioned. Thyroid and liver function tests were performed. Six hundred and forty-two cases (59.2%) were MUO. Older age, male sex, increased BMI-SDS, and sedentary lifestyle were associated with MUO. Excessive junk food consumption was associated with MUO particularly among the prepubertal obese patients. Our results revealed that the most important factors that affect metabolic health in obesity are age and BMI. Positive effects of an active lifestyle and healthy eating habits are prominent in the prepubertal period and these habits should be formed earlier in life.

  4. Factors Affecting on Military Medical Job Satisfaction Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Job satisfaction (JS in the workplace affects absenteeism, turnover and performance. Objectives Considering the importance of JS, this study conducted with aim studying the factors affecting JS in a military hospital. Patients and Methods This descriptive analytical cross sectional study was carried out on 301 workers who worked in a military hospital in year 2009 using of stratified random sampling. In this study JSS questioner was used for measuring JS, ANOVA and Dunnett post hoc and SPSS and Excel software were used for statistical analysis and data analysis respectively. Results In this study, age, work experience, type of job and work position shown relationship with JS but gender, marriage status and education were not shown any statistical significant relationship with JS. In this study technician operating room and anesthesia (TORA had less, physicians and specialist and par clinical jobs had more and handy jobs and administrative jobs had same JS compare with nurses. Conclusions According to results of this study, we propose actions like modified and increased salaries and benefits of employees, making effective communication, improved working conditions, reform official promotion and more attention to TORA and nurses can be useful way for improving JS.

  5. The Study of Internal Factors Affecting Ethnic and National

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    Abdolali Lahsaeizadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe present paper aims at studying the internal factors affecting ethnic and national identityamong Arab people of Ahwaz using quantitative method and survey technique. The sample of thisstudy was 384 male and female Arabs aging 18 to 65 years old. In order to have a more precisestudy, a pretest questionnaire was given to 52 Arab people of Ahwaz. The final questionnaire wasgiven to the sample during autumn and winter of 2006. The theoretical framework of this study isbased on modernization, relative deprivation and internal exploitation theories. In this study, theeffect of age, sex, marital status, employment, family income, the rate of family ownership, relativedeprivation feeling in economic dimension, urban residence, neighborhood (Arab dominant ormixed,the rate of ethnic trust, abiding by ethnic norms, education, using media, satisfaction withpolitical system, participation in political issues and relative deprivation feeling in politicaldimension were measured by ethnic identity variable. Finally, the relationship between ethnicidentity variable and national identity variable was tested among samples. The result of bivariateanalysis (T test, variance analysis and simple regression revealed that above mentioned variable -except 3 variables including sex, marital status and urban residence record - were significant. Ethnicidentity and national identity are significant negative relationship. The results of multivariateregression analysis revealed that 11 out of 16 independent variables affected ethnic identity whichfinaly explained 67 percent of ethnic identity variance.

  6. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Informal Payments in the Health Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad MESKARPOUR-AMIRI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Informal payments are a signifi cant source for fi nancing health systems in many developing and transition countries. The aim of our study was the assessment of the infl uence of patients’ socioeconomic status on their informal payment for health care. This article presents a cross-sectional and applied research that was conducted in a general public hospital in Iran during April 2014. The population of the study was all the 1,035 patients discharged during April 2014. Data gathering was done using a questionnaire. An ordered logistic regression model based on a truncated method was estimated to investigate factors affecting informal health payments. About 48% of respondents reported at least one experience of informal payment for health care during the previous year. The results showed that the patients’ socioeconomic status can signifi cantly affect the likelihood and frequency of informal payments for health care. Older people, members of small and wealthier families, employed persons, and those who are under coverage of only basic medical insurance are more at risk of making such payments. Policymakers should pay more attention to such socioeconomic groups in order to improve the effectiveness of policies.

  7. Factors affecting daughter cells' arrangement during the early bacterial divisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Tzu Su

    Full Text Available On agar plates, daughter cells of Escherichia coli mutually slide and align side-by-side in parallel during the first round of binary fission. This phenomenon has been previously attributed to an elastic material that restricts apparently separated bacteria from being in string. We hypothesize that the interaction between bacteria and the underneath substratum may affect the arrangement of the daughter bacteria. To test this hypothesis, bacterial division on hyaluronic acid (HA gel, as an alternative substratum, was examined. Consistent with our proposition, the HA gel differs from agar by suppressing the typical side-by-side alignments to a rare population. Examination of bacterial surface molecules that may contribute to the daughter cells' arrangement yielded an observation that, with disrupted lpp, the E. coli daughter cells increasingly formed non-typical patterns, i.e. neither sliding side-by-side in parallel nor forming elongated strings. Therefore, our results suggest strongly that the early cell patterning is affected by multiple interaction factors. With oscillatory optical tweezers, we further demonstrated that the interaction force decreased in bacteria without Lpp, a result substantiating our notion that the side-by-side sliding phenomenon directly reflects the strength of in-situ interaction between bacteria and substratum.

  8. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies.

  9. 突发性聋预后因素分析%Analysis of prognostic factors for sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫旭东; 何健

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨突发性聋预后的相关因素,指导其预后判断.方法:回顾性分析256例(280耳)突发性聋患者应用有序Logistic回归分析,筛选与突发性聋预后相关的因素,同一影响因素采用χ2检验,进一步量化指标,以指导预后分析.结果:年龄、病程、伴发症状、治疗前耳聋程度、听力曲线类型均与疗效有相关性;性别、耳聋侧别与疗效无相关性;病程≤3 d与>3~9 d疗效比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),>15 d、>3~9 d与>9~15 d疗效比较均差异有统计学意义(均P<0.05);不伴耳鸣或(和)眩晕的患者治疗有效率要明显高于伴耳鸣或(和)眩晕的患者(P<0.05);初诊听力曲线上升型与平坦型、其余各型总的有效率比较均差异有统计学意义(均P<0.05);初诊听阈中度与极重度疗效差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:影响突发性聋预后的因素有年龄、病程、伴发症状、治疗前耳聋程度、听力曲线类型;随年龄增加,其预后呈不良趋势,以40岁为界,预后明显变差;发病9 d以内疗效较好,其后有效率明显下降;伴耳鸣或(和)眩晕的患者预后明显差于不伴耳鸣或(和)眩晕的患者;下降型听力曲线发病率最高,但上升型曲线疗效明显好于其他组;治疗前的听阈水平与疗效并非简单的线性关系,中度水平的听阈疗效最好,极重度疗效最差,随听阈提高,总体疗效呈下降趋势.%Objective: To analysis the prognostic factors of the sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SHL),to predict the prognosis of patient with SHL precisely. Method: Two hundred and fifty-six cases (280 ears) with SHL were reviewed retrospectively during January 2005 to Jun 2009. Possible influence factor was analysis with logistic stepwise regression to investigate the correlation with prognosis. All verified influence factors was analysis with single-factor analysis of variance. Result: The prognosis of SHL related to age, the trouble time before

  10. MICROECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING BANKS’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUŢU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are important cells in the economy as they have a significant role by maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. They refocus the resources from those who have surplus to those which have a deficit. Therefore, as any other enterprises, performance is highly desirable for banks and, then, it is crucial to discover what the main factors that influence this objective are. So, this paper analyzes the microeconomic factors affecting bank’s financial performance focusing on 11 entities for the period between 2003 and 2013. The performance is measured by return on assets. The independent variables used are bank’s size, financial leverage,loans to assets ratio, deposits to assets ratio, number of employees, liquidity, net result and monetary policy rate. The results show that bank’s size, loans to assets ratio and liquidity have not a significant impact on performance. Financial leverage has a negative impact, meanwhile the number of employees, deposits to assets ratio and net result have a positive effect.

  11. Study identifies socio-cultural factors affecting demographic behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is undertaking a project that will produce a state-of-the-art paper on sociocultural factors affecting demographic behavior. Particular emphasis will be placed on reproductive behavior in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Arab states region. The extent to which this information is incorporated in current population policies and programs will also be examined, and recommendations will be made. The factors to be studied include family and kinship structure; gender status and role; patterns of sexual relations and procreation in general and adolescent sexual behavior and fertility; religion, beliefs, customs, and traditions concerned with sexual relations and procreation; child rearing, socialization, and education; status and role of women; and sociocultural change, change agents, and influentials. The literature search will provide an inventory of methodologies. Guidelines on the use of the methodologies will be drafted for use by project personnel. These will later be tested in pilot studies in rural and urban communities in selected developing countries. The goal is to design programs that will accelerate contraceptive acceptance and sustain contraceptive practice by being sensitive to the sociocultural influences on the reproductive behavior of different subpopulations.

  12. Factors affecting the prevalence of obesity among primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kürtüncü

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the risk factors affecting obesity in students in the 6-15 years old age group. There were 868 students registered at Bahçelievler Elementary School in Zonguldak and were present for face-to-face meetings on the days the research data was collected. Data was collected using demographic questionary forms and weight-length measurements from March to April in 2010. Results: Difference is found to be statistically meaningful with respect to the relationship between obesity of children and their age, gender, number of siblings, fathers’ jobs, education level of their mothers, fast food consumption and family history of obesity (p<0.05. Conclusions: The study concludes that there are certain ciriteria related to the development of obesity during a specific period of childhood and that taking certain precautions are effective in preventing the development of obesity. Keywords: Body Mass Index; Children; Obesity; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Turkey.

  13. Factors affecting the duration of orthodontic treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavreas, Dimitrios; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the literature for articles referring exclusively to the duration of orthodontic therapy and to explore the various factors that could affect this. A Medline search from 1990 to the first week of March 2005 was conducted, the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews was utilized, five orthodontic journals were hand searched, the abstracts of related articles were reviewed to search for any relevant studies that might have been missed, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles were hand assessed. Eligibility was determined by reading the reports identified by the search. The end result of this search provided 41 articles. Although there is a need for more conclusive research, the present review revealed several conclusions concerning the duration of orthodontic treatment: (1) there are indications that extraction treatment lasts longer than the non-extraction therapy; (2) age does not seem to play a role provided the patients are in the permanent dentition; (3) when Class II division 1 malocclusions are considered, there is evidence that the earlier the orthodontic treatment begins the longer its duration; (4) there is conflicting information regarding treatment duration within public health systems; (5) combined orthodontic-surgical treatment duration is variable and appears to be operator sensitive; (6) various factors, such as the technique employed, the skill and number of operators involved, the compliance of the patients, and the severity of the initial malocclusion, all seem to play a role; and (7) impacted maxillary canines appear to prolong treatment.

  14. Factors affecting production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, R.C., E-mail: reedy@psi.edu

    2015-10-15

    Good production rates are needed for cosmic-ray-produced nuclides to interpret their measurements. Rates depend on many factors, especially the pre-atmospheric object’s size, the location of the sample in that object (such as near surface or deep inside), and the object’s bulk composition. The bulk composition affects rates, especially in objects with very low and very high iron contents. Extraterrestrial materials with high iron contents usually have higher rates for making nuclides made by reactions with energetic particles and lower rates for the capture of thermal neutrons. In small objects and near the surface of objects, the cascade of secondary neutrons is being developed as primary particles are being removed. Deep in large objects, that secondary cascade is fully developed and the fluxes of primary particles are low. Recent work shows that even the shape of an object in space has a small but measureable effect. Work has been done and continues to be done on better understanding those and other factors. More good sets of measurements in meteorites with known exposure geometries in space are needed. With the use of modern Monte Carlo codes for the production and transport of particles, the nature of these effects have been and is being studied. Work needs to be done to improve the results of these calculations, especially the cross sections for making spallogenic nuclides.

  15. MICROECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING BANKS’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUŢU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are important cells in the economy as they have a significant role by maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. They refocus the resources from those who have surplus to those which have a deficit. Therefore, as any other enterprises, performance is highly desirable for banks and, then, it is crucial to discover what the main factors that influence this objective are. So, this paper analyzes the microeconomic factors affecting bank’s financial performance focusing on 11 entities for the period between 2003 and 2013. The performance is measured by return on assets. The independent variables used are bank’s size, financial leverage,loans to assets ratio, deposits to assets ratio, number of employees, liquidity, net result and monetary policy rate. The results show that bank’s size, loans to assets ratio and liquidity have not a significant impact on performance. Financial leverage has a negative impact, meanwhile the number of employees, deposits to assets ratio and net result have a positive effect.

  16. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  17. Factors affecting the placement of preschool-aged deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, C R; Wilson, A K; Lindsay, P H

    1989-03-01

    The placement in and movement among preschool programs of 131 children with severe and profound hearing losses was monitored over four years. Longitudinal data were obtained on the children's linguistic and social development. In the first year of the study, most of the children were enrolled in auditory/oral (A/O) programs. By the final year, most were enrolled instead in total communication (TC) programs; similar movement occurred from individual to classroom programs. Children in A/O individual programs had the most hearing, highest intelligence and most favorable family profile, followed by children in A/O classes, TC individual programs, and TC classes. Scores on measures of spoken language followed the same pattern. On measures of receptive language and mother-child communication, children in A/O individual programs and those in TC classes had similar scores. Children in TC individual programs came next, and last were children in A/O classes. These findings have implications for the choice of programs for preschool deaf children.

  18. Factors Affecting in-Hospital Mortality of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salarifar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. Considering immense socioeconomic damages of growing AMI in developing countries we estimated prognostic value of major risk factors of AMI to predict probable In-hospital AMI mortality."nMethods: In a cohort survey from June 2004 to March 2006, 1798 patients hospitalized with proven AMI entered into two groups: Survived (patients discharged alive and Expired (patients expired during hospitalization due to AMI. We evaluated relationship of 17 risk factors including age, sex, smoking, opium usage, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM, dyslipidemia, Killip class, existence of Q wave, St segment elevation, bundle branch blocks (BBB, involved surface of heart, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, mitral valve regurgitation (MR, and serum level of Troponin I and CKMB, with patients' survival and expiry by using chi square test, T test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant."nResults: There were 1629 (90.6% survived and 169 (9.4% expired patients. Factors significantly affected in-hospital mortality of AMI include: age (P< 0.001, femaleness (P< 0.001, smoking (P< 0.001, Killip class>II (P< 0.001, hy­per­tension (P= 0.036, DM (P< 0.001, bundle branch block (P< 0.001, Moderate to severe mitral regurgitation (P< 0.001, lower Mean LVEF (P< 0.001, and lower mean serum concentration of CKMB and Troponin I (P< 0.001. Mortality was significantly higher in anterolateral infarction."nConclusion: Mean age> 69.01 yr, femaleness, Killip class III & V, hypertension, DM, moderate to severe MR, anterolateral AMI, bundle branch block and higher serum concentration of CKMB & Troponin I are associated with higher In-hospital post-AMI mortality.

  19. Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

  20. Factors affecting mortality among victims of electrical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiryaki, Çağrı; Haksal, Mustafa Celalettin; Yazıcıoğlu, Murat Burç; Çiftçi, Ali; Esen, Osman; Turgut, Hamdi Taner; Yıldırım, Abdullah; Güven, Murat

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting mortality rate among patients with an electrical burn. A total of 115 patients admitted to the emergency department and hospitalized in the Burn Treatment Center or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) due to the electrical burn, were included in the study. A total of 115 patients (4 female and 111 male) with a mean age of 32.88±12.87 years were included in the study. The mean hospitalization period was 25.03±20.50 days, and the mean total body surface area burned (% TBSA) was 22.83±15.54%. Among those patients, 9 (8.5%) expired, and the remaining 106 were discharged after treatment. In a logistic regression analysis, TBSA >20% (p=0.02, OR: 11.7, CI: 1.38-99.16); ICU requirement (p=0.005, OR: 1.28, CI: 1.08-1.58); erythrocyte transfusion requirement (p=0.02, OR: 12.48, CI: 1.44-107.83); fresh frozen plasma (FFP) requirement (p=0.03, OR: 10.23, CI: 1.18-88.17); albumin requirement (p=0.02, OR: 12.60, CI: 1.44-109.85); admission serum albumin level patients with electrical burns. In clinical practice, defining a mortality risk analyzer using these factors may be helpful in the management of patients with electrical burns. Additional, more comprehensive studies are required to define the risk factors for mortality and long-term morbidities in patients with electrical burns.

  1. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  2. Peripheral auditory processing and speech reception in impaired hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strelcyk, Olaf

    One of the most common complaints of people with impaired hearing concerns their difficulty with understanding speech. Particularly in the presence of background noise, hearing-impaired people often encounter great difficulties with speech communication. In most cases, the problem persists even i....... Overall, this work provides insights into factors affecting auditory processing in listeners with impaired hearing and may have implications for future models of impaired auditory signal processing as well as advanced compensation strategies....... if reduced audibility has been compensated for by hearing aids. It has been hypothesized that part of the difficulty arises from changes in the perception of sounds that are well above hearing threshold, such as reduced frequency selectivity and deficits in the processing of temporal fine structure (TFS...

  3. Fibrinogen is not a prognostic factor for response to HELP-apheresis in sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T; Kaiser, T; Scholz, M; Bachmann, A; Ceglarek, U; Hesse, G; Hagemeyer, B; Stumvoll, M; Thiery, J; Dietz, A

    2015-12-01

    Higher levels of fibrinogen or cholesterol were associated with improved hearing recovery in SSHL patients after treatment with HELP-apheresis (Heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation apheresis). The present trial was performed to demonstrate HELP-related effects on relevant metabolic and inflammatory parameters in the context of SSHL treatment. In the framework of a single arm non-controlled trial, we investigated the variation of metabolic and inflammatory parameters using HELP-apheresis for a defined group of 100 patients with SSHL. Based on cut off inclusion criteria (Serum LDL-cholesterol >1.6 g/l and/or fibrinogen >2.0 g/l, SSHL in minimum three frequencies more than 30 dB, time after event not longer than 6 days), the protocol followed a strict time line with one single shot HELP-apheresis and follow-up monitoring including laboratory parameters at six defined time points. If HELP-apheresis could not effect improvement of hearing on day 5, additional corticosteroid treatment was applied. Concentration of anti-inflammatory IL-10 increased while other proinflammatory parameters declined. Serum levels of all measured sterols and apolipoproteins decreased significantly. None of the investigated parameters were suitable to predict hearing improvement of the patients. Levels of fibrinogen and LDL-cholesterol were not prognostic for outcome after HELP-apheresis. A significant (p apheresis was notable, while most of the proinflammatory parameters declined. Despite the limited validity of a single arm non-controlled trial, these alterations on immune modulating factors indicate possible secondary pleiotropic effects caused by HELP-apheresis.

  4. Study on risk factors of neonates hearing loss%新生儿听力损失的高危因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙磊; 郭玲; 杨静静; 柳莹; 林婵婵; 刘丽

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分析听力筛查未通过的新生儿听力损失的高危因素,为今后的防治工作提供依据. [方法]对复筛未通过的新生儿在出生后3月内用脑干听觉诱发电位仪、声导抗、诊断型耳声发射进行听力障碍的诊断. [结果]43 568例新生儿复筛未通过者802例,进行初次诊断者660例,其中256人出现不同程度的听力损失(含分泌性中耳炎导致的传导性听力损失),重度聋在听力筛查儿中的发生率为1.45‰.分泌性中耳炎发生率在听力损失组与听力正常组间差异统计学意义(x2=57.18,P<0.001).1:1配对的病例对照多因素分析显示听力损失家族史是听力损失的独立危险因素. [结论]听力筛查未通过的新生儿中,约一半听力损失伴有分泌性中耳炎,听力损失家族史是新生儿听力损失高危因素,应加强妇幼保健宣教.%[Objective] To analyse risk factors of neonates hearing loss. [Methods] Hearing diagnosis were performed among those neonates who failed second screening, acoustic impedance, distort product otoacoustic emission and auditory brainstem response were used to complete diagnosis. The diagnosis time was beneath 3 months age. [Results] Different degrees of hearing loss (including conductive hearing loss initiated by secretory otitis media) were detected in 256 neonates, serious hearing loss rate was 1. 45‰. The occurrence rate of secretory otitis media was higher in hearing loss group than that in normal hearing group(x2 =57. 18,P<0. 001). Multivariate condition Logistic regression showed that family history was independent risk factor of hearing loss during case control study. [Conclusions] Half of hearing loss neonates were found secretory otitis media among the first diagnosis, family history is risk factor of neonates hearing loss. Maternal and Child Health Missions should be emphasized.

  5. Comparison of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential and Caloric Tests Findings in Noise Induced Hearing Loss-Affected and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinoosh Fakharnia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Balance disturbance is one of the non-auditory effects of noisy industrial environments that is usually neglected. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of occupational noise on vestibular system among workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL, based on both vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP and caloric tests.Methods: Thirty male workers with noise-induced hearing loss and thirty male matched controls were examined by VEMP and caloric tests. Study parameters included unilateral weakness, p13 and n23 latencies, and p13-n23 amplitude. Caloric test was performed only for 20 patients.Results: No significant difference was observed in unilateral weakness between the two groups. On the other hand, the difference in mean latencies of p13 in the right ear (p=0.003 and left ear (p=0.01 was significant between the two groups. However, the difference in n23 latency was significant only in the right ear (p=0.03. There was no significant difference between groups in p13-n23 amplitude.Conclusion: It seems that pars inferior of vestibule is the susceptible part in individuals with NIHL. In general, abnormal findings in both VEMP and caloric tests were more common compared to functional symptoms such as vertigo, which may be due to central compensation and the symmetry of the disorder.

  6. Main error factors, affecting inversion of EM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, M. A.; Magomedov, M.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Inversions of EM data are complicated by a number of factors that need to be taken into account. These factors might contribute by tens of percents in data values, concealing responses from target objects, which usually contribute at the level of few percents only. We developed the exact analytical solutions of the EM wave equations that properly incorporate the contributions of the following effects: 1) A finite source size effect, where conventional dipole (zero-size) approximation brings 10-40% error compare to a real size source, needed to provide adequate signal-to-noise ratio. 2) Complex topography. A three-parametrical approach allows to keep the data misfits in 0.5% corridor while topography effect might be up to 40%. 3) Grounding shadow effect, caused by return ground currents, when Tx-line vicinity is horizontally non-uniform. By keeping survey setup within some reasonable geometrical ratios, the shadow effect comes to just one frequency-independent coefficient, which can be excluded from processing by using logarithmical derivatives. 4) Layer's wide spectral range effect. This brings to multi-layer spectral overlapping, so each frequency is affected by many layers; that requires wide spectral range processing, making the typical 'few-frequency data acquisition' non-reliable. 5) Horizontal sensitivity effect. The typical view at the target signal, reflected from a Tx-Rx mid-point is valid only for a ray approximation, reliable in a far-field zone. Unlike this, the real EM surveys usually work in near-field zone. Thus Tx-Rx mid-point does not represent the layer, so a sensitivity distribution function must be computed for each layer for the following 3D-unification process. 6) Wide range Rx-directions from mid-line Tx. Survey terrain often prevents placing Rx perpendicular to Tx-line, and even small deviations without proper corrections cause a significant inaccuracy. A radical simplification of the effect's description becomes possible after applying a

  7. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  8. The Factors Affecting Performance of Nurse at Paniai General Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Tatogo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available General hospital of Paniai regency health service institution under Local Government Paniai Regency with amount of nurse resource counted 69 one who have duty to remain to can improve more certifiable service and reached by society, so to be form degree of health which at the farthest, so that nurse performance of vital importance in giving of health service. The goal of research: To knowing of factors affecting performance of nurse at Paniai general hospital. Method: Type research is causal associative by using quantitative approach. Sample is all of nurse as much 69 nurse with date implemented in October 2016. Data obtained used questioner and analyzed by chi square test. Result of research is obtained that factor’s affecting of nurse performance in Paniai General Hospital is motivation (p-value = 0,001; RP = 3,000; CI95%= 1,607 - 5,601, [job/activity] discipline (p-value = 0,043; RP = 2,068; CI95%= 1,150 - 3,719, reward (p- value = 0,001; RP = 5,008; CI95%= 1,656 - 15,142, punishment (p- value = 0,000 ; RP= 16,839; CI95%= ( 4,310 - 65,784 and style leadership [of] director (p- value = 0,000; RP = 3,333; CI95%= 1,742 - 6,380. The factor’s not related of nurse performance at Paniai general hospital is age (p- value = 1,000 ; RP = 0,908; CI95%= 0,456 - 1,806, long working (p- value = 1,000; RP = 0,908; CI95%= 0,456 - 1,806 and job rotation (p- value = 0,843; RP = 1,190; CI95%= 0,603 – 2,348.

  9. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Ayatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients

  10. Factors affecting the depth of burns occurring in medical institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Soon; Choi, Young Hwan; Yoon, Cheonjae; You, Je Sung

    2015-05-01

    Most cases of burns occurring in medical institutions are associated with activities involving heat. It is very difficult to detect these burns. To date, there are few reports on burns occurring in medical institutions. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the etiology of burns occurring in medical institutions and to elucidate the factors affecting burn depth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients who visited our center from April 2008 to February 2013. This study enrolled all patients with burns occurring in the medical institution during or related to treatment. We excluded burn patients whose burns were not related to treatment (for example, we excluded patients with scalding burns that occurred in the hospital cafeteria and pediatric patients with hot water burns from the water purifier). However, patients with burns that occurred in the recovery room after general anesthesia were included. A total of 115 patients were enrolled in this study. The average patient age was 41.5 years, with more women than men (M:F=31:84). There were 29 cases (25.3%) of superficial burns (first-degree and superficial second-degree) and 86 cases (74.7%) of deep burns (deep second-degree and third-degree). Hot packs were the most common cause of burns (27 cases, 23.5%), followed by laser therapy, heating pads, and grounding pads, accounting for 15 cases each. There were 89 cases (77.4%) of contact burns and 26 cases (22.6%) of non-contact burns. The most common site of burns was the lower extremities (41 cases, 35.7%). The burn site and contact burns were both factors affecting burn depth. The rate of deep burns was higher in patients with contact burns than in those with non-contact burns (odds ratio 4.26) and was associated with lower body burns (odds ratio 2.85). In burns occurring in medical institutions, there is a high probability of a deep burn if it is a contact burn or occurs in the lower body. Therefore, safety guidelines are needed

  11. Factors affecting recurrence after surgery for Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayuki Yamamoto

    2005-01-01

    Although in Crohn's disease post-operative recurrence is common, the determinants of disease recurrence remain speculative. The aim of this study was to examine factors affecting post-operative recurrence of Crohn's disease. A Medline-based literature review was carried out. The following factors were investigated: age at onset of disease, sex, family history of Crohn's disease,smoking, duration of Crohn's disease before surgery,prophylactic medical treatment (corticosteroids, 5-amino salicylic acid [5-ASA] and immunosuppressants),anatomical site of involvement, indication for surgery (perforating or non-perforating disease), length of resected bowel, anast-omotic technique, presence of granuloma in the specimen, involvement of disease at the resection margin, blood transfusions and postoperative complications. Smoking significantly increases the risk of recurrence (risk is approximately twice as high), especially in women and heavy smokers. Quitting smoking reduces the post-operative recurrence rate. A number of studies have shown a higher risk when the duration of the disease before surgery was short. There were, however, different definitions of 'short' among the studies. Prophylactic cortic-osteroids therapy is not effective in reducing the post-operative recurrence. A number of randomized controlled trials offered evidence of the efficacy of 5-ASA (mesalazine) in reducing post-operative recurrence. Recently, the thera-peutic efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs (azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine) in the prevention of post-operative recurrence has been investigated and several studies have reported that these drugs might help prevent the recurrence. Further clinical trials would be necessary to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of immunosuppressants.Several studies showed a higher recurrence rate in patients with perforating disease than in those with non-perforating disease. However, evidence for differing recurrence rates in perforating and non

  12. Are organisational factors affecting the emotional withdrawal of community nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Leila; Leggat, Sandra G; Cheng, Cindy; Donohue, Lisa; Bartram, Timothy; Oakman, Jodi

    2016-12-05

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of work organisation on the emotional labour withdrawal behaviour of Australian community nurses.Methods Using a paper-based survey, a sample of 312 Australian community nurses reported on their emotional dissonance, withdrawal behaviours (i.e. job neglect, job dissatisfaction, stress-related presenteeism) and work organisation. A model to determine the partial mediation effect of work organisation was developed based on a literature review. The fit of the proposed model was assessed via structural equation modelling using Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS; IMB).Results Community nurses with higher levels of emotional dissonance were less likely to be satisfied with their job and work organisation and had a higher tendency to exhibit withdrawal behaviours. Work organisational factors mediated this relationship.Conclusion Emotional dissonance can be a potential stressor for community nurses that can trigger withdrawal behaviours. Improving work organisational factors may help reduce emotional conflict and its effect on withdrawal behaviours.What is known about the topic? Although emotional labour has been broadly investigated in the literature, very few studies have addressed the effect of the quality of work organisation on nurses' withdrawal behaviours in a nursing setting.What does this paper add? This paper provides evidence that work organisation affects levels of emotional dissonance and has an effect on job neglect through stress-related presenteeism.What are the implications for practitioners? In order to minimise stress-related presenteeism and job neglect, healthcare organisations need to establish a positive working environment, designed to improve the quality of relationships with management, provide appropriate rewards, recognition and effective workload management and support high-quality relationships with colleagues.

  13. Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band and water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge for photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from spave. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of psi, the water column light utiliztion index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, 'balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation' was calculated using the Redfield ratio, It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships,a nd the carbon chlorophyll ration. These predictions were compared with the sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface

  14. Factors affecting rural volunteering in palliative care - an integrated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittall, Dawn; Lee, Susan; O'Connor, Margaret

    2016-12-01

    To review factors shaping volunteering in palliative care in Australian rural communities using Australian and International literature. Identify gaps in the palliative care literature and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Proquest, Scopus, Sage Premier, Wiley online, Ovid, Cochran, Google Scholar, CINAHL and Informit Health Collection. The literature was synthesised and presented in an integrated thematic narrative. Australian Rural communities. While Australia, Canada, the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) are leaders in palliative care volunteer research, limited research specifically focuses on volunteers in rural communities with the least occurring in Australia. Several interrelated factors influence rural palliative care provision, in particular an increasingly ageing population which includes an ageing volunteer and health professional workforce. Also current and models of palliative care practice fail to recognise the innumerable variables between and within rural communities such as distance, isolation, lack of privacy, limited health care services and infrastructure, and workforce shortages. These issues impact palliative care provision and are significant for health professionals, volunteers, patients and caregivers. The three key themes of this integrated review include: (i) Geography, ageing rural populations in palliative care practice, (ii) Psychosocial impact of end-end-of life care in rural communities and (iii) Palliative care models of practice and volunteering in rural communities. The invisibility of volunteers in rural palliative care research is a concern in understanding the issues affecting the sustainability of quality palliative care provision in rural communities. Recommendations for future Australian research includes examination of the suitability of current models of palliative care practice in addressing the needs of rural communities; the recruitment

  15. Factors affecting proprioceptive recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Mou-wang; GU Li; CHEN Ya-ping; YU Chang-long; AO Ying-fang; HUANG Hong-shi; YANG Yan-yan

    2008-01-01

    Background Proprioception plays an important role in knee movements.Since there are controversies surrounding the overall recovery time of proprioception following surgery,it is necessary to define the factors affecting proprioceptive recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to investigate the relationship between proprioception and muscle strength.Methods A total of 36 patients who had their ACL reconstructed with a semitendinosus/gracilis graft (reconstructed group:6 months post-surgery) and 13 healthy adults without any knee injury (control group) were included in the study.Knee proprioception was evaluated with a passive reproduction test.Isokinetic strength was measured using the Biodex System.Statistical analysis was used to compare proprioception of the reconstructed group versus the control group,and to define causal factors,including sex,hamstring/quadriceps ratio,and the course of injury before reconstruction.We also investigated the correlation between the passive reproduction error and quadriceps index.Results There was a significant difference in proprioception between the reconstructed and control groups (P <0.05).When the course of injury before reconstruction was less than 4 months,there was a linear correlation with proprioception 6 months after the operation (r=0.713,P <0.05).There was a positive correlation between post-surgery proprioception and the quadriceps index at 6 months post-surgery.Conclusions Impaired knee proprioception is observed 6 months after ACL reconstruction.Within 4 months of injury,early undertaking of reconstruction is associated with better proprioception outcome.Patients with enhanced proprioception have a better quadriceps index.

  16. Comparisons of client and clinician views of the importance of factors in client-clinician interaction in hearing aid purchase decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poost-Foroosh, Laya; Jennings, Mary Beth; Cheesman, Margaret F

    2015-03-01

    Despite clinical recognition of the adverse effects of acquired hearing loss, only a small proportion of adults who could benefit use hearing aids. Hearing aid adoption has been studied in relationship to client-related and hearing aid technology-related factors. The influence of the client-clinician interaction in the decision to purchase hearing aids has not been explored in any depth. Importance ratings of a sample of adults having a recent hearing aid recommendation (clients) and hearing healthcare professionals (clinicians) from across Canada were compared on factors in client-clinician interactions that influence hearing aid purchase decisions. A cross-sectional approach was used to obtain online and paper-based concept ratings. Participants were 43 adults (age range, 45-85 yr) who had received a first hearing aid recommendation in the 3 mo before participation. A total of 54 audiologists and 20 hearing instrument practitioners from a variety of clinical settings who prescribed or dispensed hearing aids completed the concept-rating task. The task consisted of 122 items that had been generated via concept mapping in a previous study and which resulted in the identification of eight concepts that may influence hearing aid purchase decisions. Participants rated "the importance of each of the statements in a person's decision to purchase a hearing aid" on a 5-point Likert scale, from 1 = minimally important to 5 = extremely important. For the initial data analysis, the ratings for each of the items included in each concept were averaged for each participant to provide an estimate of the overall importance rating of each concept. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare the mean importance ratings of the clients to the clinicians. Ratings of individual statements were also compared in order to investigate the directionality of the importance ratings within concepts. There was a significant difference in the mean ratings for clients and clinicians for

  17. Hipertensão como fator associado à perda auditiva Hypertension as a factor associated with hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Lozza de Moraes Marchiori

    2006-08-01

    through tonal threshold audiometrics and audiologic anamneses. Non-conditional logistic regression was used in order to control likely confusion or modification of effect of other variables on interest associations. RESULTS: There is a significant association between blood hypertension and hearing loss. Hearing loss in the population under study suggests that hypertension is an accelerating factor of degeneration of the hearing apparatus due to aging. CONCLUSIONS: The results in this research, through evidence of association between blood hypertension and hearing loss, can allow for an integrated work of cardiologists, nephrologists, otorhinolaryngologists, audiologists and other health professionals concerned with alterations caused by blood hypertension.

  18. Study on some factors affecting survivability of airborne fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Hameed, A A; Khoder, M I; Ibrahim, Y H; Saeed, Y; Osman, M E; Ghanem, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of some air pollutants and meteorological parameters on the survivability of airborne fungi. Fungi were collected by using a slit impactor sampler calibrated to draw 20 L/min, for 3 min. Nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), particulate matter (PM), relative humidity (RH %), temperature (T °C) and wind speed (WS) were also measured. Air samples were taken during the period from March 2006 to February 2007. Fungal concentrations ranged between 45 and 451 CFU/m(3) with an annual mean concentration of 216 CFU/m(3). The lowest fungal concentration was found in the summer, however the highest one was found in the autumn. NO(2,) SO(2) and PM averaged 83.66 μg/m(3), 67.01 μg/m(3), and 237.69 μg/m(3), respectively. T °C was positively and negatively correlated with Aspergillus (P = 0.000) and Penicillium (P = 0.007), respectively. RH% was positively correlated with total fungi (P = 0.001), Aspergillus (P = 0.002) and Cladosporium (P = 0.047). Multiple regression analysis showed that T °C and RH% were the most predicted variants. Non-significant correlations were found between fungal concentrations and air pollutants. Meteorological parameters were the critical factors affecting fungal survivability.

  19. Factors Affecting Rural Households’ Resilience to Food Insecurity in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboubakr Gambo Boukary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Niger faces many natural and human constraints explaining the erratic evolution of its agricultural production over time. Unfortunately, this is likely to cause a decline in the food supply. This study attempts to identify factors affecting rural households’ resilience to food insecurity in Niger. For this, we first create a resilience index by using principal component analysis and later apply structural equation modeling to identify its determinants. Data from the 2010 National Survey on Households’ Vulnerability to Food Insecurity done by the National Institute of Statistics is used. The study shows that asset and social safety net indicators are significant and have a positive impact on households’ resilience. Climate change approximated by long-term mean rainfall has a negative and significant effect on households’ resilience. Therefore, to strengthen households’ resilience to food insecurity, there is a need to increase assistance to households through social safety nets and to help them gather more resources in order to acquire more assets. Furthermore, early warning of climatic events could alert households, especially farmers, to be prepared and avoid important losses that they experience anytime an uneven climatic event occurs.

  20. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  1. Factors affecting consultation length in a Japanese diabetes practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeya, Yusuke; Uchida, Junko; Toyoda, Masao; Katsuki, Takeshi; Oikawa, Yoichi; Kato, Kiyoe; Kawai, Toshihide; Shimada, Akira; Atsumi, Yoshihito; Higaki, Megumu

    2017-04-01

    Sufficient consultation time is important for establishing good doctor-patient relationship. We examined the factors that affect consultation length in Japanese diabetes practice. This was a cross-sectional study performed at a diabetes clinic in central Tokyo, Japan. Regular diabetes consultations of 1197 patients with 22 physicians were analyzed. Consultation time and clinical characteristics were obtained from the electronic records. A negative binomial model, which included patient and physician characteristics, was constructed to examine the association of the variables with consultation length. Of the 1197 patients (mean age, 66; women, 25%; type 1 diabetes, 10%), the mean consultation time was 10.1min. In the multivariate model, longer consultation time was recorded in patients with type 1 diabetes, higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), use of insulin injections, and use of hypnotics/anxiolytics. The consultation time was longer in patients with HbA1c of ⩾7.0 to consultation. Older and female physicians provided longer consultation. Clinical consultation length in diabetes practice was associated with certain patient and physician characteristics. The findings can be used for making diabetes consultation more efficacious, which could eventually lead to the provision of the most appropriate consultation time for individual patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors affecting graded and ungraded memory loss following hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris; Sekeres, Melanie J

    2013-11-01

    This review evaluates three current theories--Standard Consolidation (Squire & Wixted, 2011), Overshadowing (Sutherland, Sparks, & Lehmann, 2010), and Multiple Trace-Transformation (Winocur, Moscovitch, & Bontempi, 2010)--in terms of their ability to account for the role of the hippocampus in recent and remote memory in animals. Evidence, based on consistent findings from tests of spatial memory and memory for acquired food preferences, favours the transformation account, but this conclusion is undermined by inconsistent results from studies that measured contextual fear memory, probably the most commonly used test of hippocampal involvement in anterograde and retrograde memory. Resolution of this issue may depend on exercising greater control over critical factors (e.g., contextual environment, amount of pre-exposure to the conditioning chamber, the number and distribution of foot-shocks) that can affect the representation of the memory shortly after learning and over the long-term. Research strategies aimed at characterizing the neural basis of long-term consolidation/transformation, as well as other outstanding issues are discussed.

  3. Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, K M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

  4. Some cultural factors affecting costs of fertility regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, M

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a framework of the costs or constraints in the use of fertility regulation, reviews the existing knowledge on the subject in a cross-cultural context, and indicates the need for further studies. It is suggested that the apparent contradiction noted in fertility surveys between a couple's desire to have no more children or to postpone the next birth and actual behavior can be explained by the costs involved in the use of fertility regulation methods. The costs of fertility regulation can be broadly classified into 4 categories: 1) physical/health (disruption of menstrual cycle, side effects and health hazards of contraceptive methods, perceived health hazards based on ethno-physical concepts, and sacrifice of sexual pleasure); 2) psychic (violation of sexual modesty and human dignity, conflict with religious beliefs; 3) social opinion (challenges to spouse and sex role expectations, challenges to social influence group); and 4) economic (money, time). The economic costs of fertility regulation to individuals vary greatly according to the presence or absence of public sector family planning programs. A substantial part of these costs could be eliminated by national and international programs. So far, no study has focused on the costs of fertility regulation and factors affecting them. A methodology that combines elements of both a questionnaire survey and anthropological investigation and collects data on both the individual and community levels may be most amenable to assessing the impact of costs on the use or nonuse of fertility regulation.

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION OF COBAMIDE COENZYMES IN CLOSTRIDIUM TETANOMORPHUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, J. I.; Barker, H. A.

    1964-01-01

    Toohey, J. I. (University of California, Berkeley), and H. A. Barker. Factors affecting the formation of cobamide coenzymes in Clostridium tetanomorphum. J. Bacteriol. 87:504–509. 1964.—Tests were carried out to determine the optimal culture conditions for the production of cobamide coenzymes in Clostridium tetanomorphum strain H1. A method is described for carrying out coenzyme determinations on the cells from 10-ml cultures of the bacterium. In a basal medium containing magnesium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, manganese sulfate, sodium molybdate, calcium chloride, and potassium phosphate, the optimal concentration of monosodium glutamate was 0.1 m and of yeast extract was 3 g per liter. Addition of glucose at a concentration of 0.05 m was found to double the yield of cells and to increase tenfold the specific coenzyme yield. Addition of cobaltous chloride (2 × 10−5m) also increased coenzyme production. Addition of benzimidazole caused an apparent increase in coenzyme production by causing the synthesis of the highly active benzimidazole analogue. Addition of methionine (5 × 10−6m) appeared to inhibit coenzyme production. PMID:14127565

  6. Factors affecting length of stay following colonic resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Thomas M; Mostafa, Gamal; Lincourt, Amy E; Camp, Steven M; Kercher, Kent W; Kuwada, Timothy S; Heniford, B Todd

    2008-05-15

    In-hospital length of stay (LOS) has become a valuable measure of outcomes following any operation, which also directly impacts cost. The aim of this study was to identify the factors that affect LOS after colonic resection. A retrospective analysis was performed of adult patients who underwent colonic resection over an 8-y period at a tertiary institution. Data collected included demographics, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, preoperative comorbidities and medications, operative management, postoperative morbidity and mortality, and LOS. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression to identify variables predictive of prolonged LOS. A total of 899 consecutive patients were identified. One hundred eighty-seven resections were performed urgently, and 712 were elective. Two-hundred forty-five cases were performed laparoscopically. Complications occurred in 205 cases (23%), and there were 32 deaths (4%). The median LOS was 7 d. Logistic analysis showed 15 variables to be predictive of prolonged LOS. These included advanced age, warfarin sodium use, ASA score >or=3, alcoholism, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, end-stage renal disease, illicit drug use, total colectomy (versus segmental), open resections (versus laparoscopic), and postoperative complications. In addition, the presence of at least one postoperative complication was predictive of prolonged LOS (P = 0.0002, OR 2.4 95% CI 1.5-3.8). ASA score and the incidence of postoperative complications are the only significant categories of variables that predict prolonged LOS after colectomy. Laparoscopic approach and the extent of the resection are predictive as well.

  7. Microflora of Processed Cheese and the Factors Affecting It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buňková, Leona; Buňka, František

    2015-09-11

    The basic raw materials for the production of processed cheese are natural cheese which is treated by heat with the addition of emulsifying salts. From a point of view of the melting temperatures used (and the pH-value of the product), the course of processed cheese production can be considered "pasteurisation of cheese". During the melting process, the majority of vegetative forms of microorganisms, including bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, are inactivated. The melting temperatures are not sufficient to kill the endospores, which survive the process but they are often weakened. From a microbiological point of view, the biggest contamination problem of processed cheese is caused by gram-positive spore-forming rod-shaped bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Geobacillus and Clostridium. Other factors affecting the shelf-life and quality of processed cheese are mainly the microbiological quality of the raw materials used, strict hygienic conditions during the manufacturing process as well as the type of packaging materials and storage conditions. The quality of processed cheese is not only dependent on the ingredients used but also on other parameters such as the value of water activity of the processed cheese, its pH-value, the presence of salts and emulsifying salts and the amount of fat in the product.

  8. Factors affecting the motivation of smokers to quit smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis K.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available smoking. Success of smoking cessation depends mainly on the balance between motivation and the degree of nicotine dependence. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting the motivation of smokers to stop smoking. Method: Data were collected from 139 smokers, aged 18-69 divided in two groups. Questionnaires were completed about the demographic data, smoking history, anthropometric characteristics, degree of nicotine dependence, motivation degree and alcohol consumption. Results: Body Mass Index was positively correlated with the dependence degree and heavy smoking, while those who were overweight in adolescence showed a lower degree of motivation for smoking cessation. Individuals with moderate or heavy alcohol consumption, those who smoked in their working environment and were heavier smokers needed greater motivation. The low degree of dependence was associated with a lower degree of motivation, while those who showed medium dependence were moderately motivated. Conclusions: Health care professionals should take into account all the above components with the aim of motivating smokers to stop smoking.

  9. Factors affecting hospital mortality in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mohammed

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective analysis studied the records of 564 consecutive patients admitted to Gastrointestinal Bleeding Unit of Riyadh Medical Complex with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding over a 2-year period (May 1996-April 1998. The purpose of the study was to analyze the mortality with an aim to identify the risk factors affecting mortality in these patients. Majority of patients were men (82% and Saudis (54%. Their mean age was 52.46 + 17.8 years. Esophageal varices (45% were the main causes of bleeding followed by duodenal ulcers (24%. Overall mortality in this series was 15.8% (89 patients. Comorbid diseases were responsible for death in 68 (76% patients, whereas, bleeding was considered to be directly responsible for death in 21 (24% patients. On analysis of data from this study, old age (>60 years, systolic pressure < 90 mm Hg on admission, comorbid disease, variceal bleeding and Child′s grade C in patients with chronic liver disease were associated with adverse outcome.

  10. Complementary feeding: clinically relevant factors affecting timing and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Nancy F; Hambidge, K Michael

    2007-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 mo of life followed by optimal complementary feeding are critical public health measures for reducing and preventing morbidity and mortality in young children. Clinical factors, such as birth weight, prematurity, and illness, that affect the iron and zinc requirements of younger infants are discussed. Maternal diet and nutritional status do not have a strong effect on the mineral content of human milk, but physiologic changes in milk and the infants' status determine the dependence of the infant on complementary foods in addition to human milk to meet iron and zinc requirements after 6 mo. The nature of zinc absorption, which is suitably characterized by saturation response modeling, dictates that plant-based diets, which are low in zinc, are associated with low absolute daily absorbed zinc, which is inadequate to meet requirements. Foods with a higher zinc content, such as meats, are much more likely to be sufficient to meet dietary requirements. Current plant-based complementary feeding patterns for older fully breastfed infants in both developed and developing countries pose a risk of zinc deficiency. The strong rationale for the potential benefits of providing meat as an early complementary food, and the examples of successful intervention programs, provide potent incentives to pursue broader implementation programs, with concurrent rigorous evaluation of both efficacy and effectiveness.

  11. Factors Affecting the Resinification of Liquefied Phenolated Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiu-hui; Zhao Guang-jie1; Hu Shi-yu

    2005-01-01

    Wood of Chinese fir and poplar were liquefied in phenol at 150℃ and atmospheric pressure. The liquefied wood were reacted with formaldehyde to synthesize the liquefied wood-based resin. The factors affecting the resinification and the properties of new resin were investigated. The results show that the formaldehyde/liquefied wood molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and sodium hydroxide/liquefied wood molar ratio have important influence on the resin characteristics. With the increase of formaldehyde/liquefied wood molar ratio, the yield of resin increases, and the free phenol content of resins decreases, showing that the resinification of liquefied wood is more complete at higher formaldehyde/liquefied wood molar ratios. The reaction temperature on the viscosity of the liquefied resin has considerable effect; the viscosity of resin increased with increasing reaction temperature,and the amount of liquefied poplar resin increased more quickly than that of liquefied Chinese fir resin. The resinification time also has obvious influence on the viscosity of resin; the viscosity of liquefied poplar resin is more sensitive to resinification time compared with that of liquefied Chinese fir. The amount of sodium hydroxide can improve the water miscibility of liquefied wood resin.The optimum sodium hydroxide/liquefied wood molar ratio for preparation of liquefied wood-based resins exceeds 0.4.

  12. Factors Affecting Food Safety of Animal Origin in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjamsul Bahri

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Indonesian Regulation Number 7 year 1996, food is defined as everything derived from biological sources and water, either processed and non-processed materials to be used as food and drinks, including food additives, food raw materials and other materials for preparation process, processing and production of food or drinks . Furthermore, food safety is a condition and an approach required to prevent the food from contamination of pathogenic microbes, toxic compounds and other xenobiotics that may affect and hazardous to human health . Food safety is basically a complexity and close related to policy . toxicity, microbiology, chemicals, nutrition status, health and public welfare . On the other hand, food safety problem is a dynamic process following the changing of public society including socioculture, health, development of science and technology as well as everything related to human life . In general, there are three main stages of process as the critical point in food safety of animal origin, namely : (1 preharvest ; (2 production ; and (3 postharvest . The main factors of these stages are discussed in this paper .

  13. Factors affecting the dairy industry's products export in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aazam Yazdaninasab

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Export dairy products as an important part of non-oil exports can play an important role in improving the economic situation of Iran. Therefore, in this study factors affecting the exports of dairy products in the period 2002-2014 will be discussed. The results indicate a trend of increasing exports of dairy products during the 13 year study. This reflects the fact that the dairy industry of great potential capacity to provide part of the non-oil revenues in the agricultural subsector. In this study, the dependent variable was the amount of exports of dairy products. Independent variables included: investment in large dairy factories, the price of goods and services consumed by this sector, GDP, exchange rate, export prices for dairy products. The results showed that the effect of all independent variables on the dependent variable is positive and rising: such as investment and exchange rate. So that with an increase of 10 percent each of the indicators the country's exports of dairy products will be increase. The original proposal of the present study is: the use of policies and financial instruments and non-financial, such as paying attention to the comparative advantages of export, focusing on the right target export markets in order to support the country's dairy industry to increase production and exports.

  14. Factors Affecting Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Efficiency in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN En-hui; ZHANG Ping; ZUO Shi-min; LI Ai-hong; ZHANG Ya-fang; CHEN Zong-xiang; PAN Xue-biao

    2004-01-01

    Several important factors affecting the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated rice transformation were studied with several predominant commercial indica and japonica rice cultivars. As far as indica rice callus was concerned, CC medium was the best and the quality of callus was improved with the addition of 1.0 to 2.0 mg/L ABA. It decreased the percentage of browning calli and improved the callus growing state by addition of a certain amount of sorbitol to the subculture medium. NB medium was the best for callus initiation of japonica rice, but the improvement in the quality of callus of japonica subspecies was not obvious by adding ABA. During the period of subculture, to a certain degree, increasing the sucrose concentration could improve the proportion of hygromycin resistant calli. Furthermore, the transformation efficiency would be higher by applying selection pressure in the selection stage, removing selection pressure during the plantlet differentiation period and applying selection pressure again during seedling hardening period. Besides, suitable combination of plant hormones was beneficial for callus differentiation. An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated rice transformation system had been established for several rice cultivars and a lot of transgenic rice plants had been obtained.

  15. Factors Affecting Hemodialysis Patients' Satisfaction with Their Dialysis Therapy

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    M. Al Eissa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the degree of satisfaction among hemodialysis patients and the factors influencing this satisfaction. Methods. Patients were recruited from 3 Saudi dialysis centers. Demographic data was collected. Using 1 to 10 Likert scale, the patients were asked to rate the overall satisfaction with, and the overall impact of, their dialysis therapy on their lives and to rate the effect of the dialysis therapy on 15 qualities of life domains. Results. 322 patients were recruited (72.6% of the total eligible patients. The mean age was 51.7 years (±15.4; 58% have been on dialysis for >3 years. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 3.2 (±2, and Kt/V was 1.3 (±0.44. The mean satisfaction score was (7.41 ± 2.75 and the mean score of the impact of the dialysis on the patients' lives was 5.32 ± 2.55. Male patients reported worse effect of dialysis on family life, social life, energy, and appetite. Longer period since the commencement of dialysis was associated with adverse effect on finances and energy. Lower level of education was associated with worse dialysis effect on stress, overall health, sexual life, hobbies, and exercise ability. Conclusion. The level of satisfaction is affected by gender, duration on dialysis, educational level, and standard of care given.

  16. Factors affecting the ion beam implantation in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    El-Shanshoury, A I

    2003-01-01

    The factors affecting the ion beam implantation in silicon have been studied using boron, phosphorus, oxygen, and argon ions having energy range 0.5 ke V-200 ke V. It was found that the range of the ions in silicon increases with the increase of their energy and decreases with the increase of their masses. The ionization process is found to be the main process for causing damage in the silicon matrix whether it is produced by the accelerated ions or by the recoiled silicon atoms. The magnitude of ionization in silicon is found to be inversely proportional to the mass of ions. Ionization produced by ions or recoils shows different contributions to the damage depending on the mass of ions where the ions energy loss to ionization decreases from 70% to 23% as the mass is increased from 11 for boron (B) to 40 for argon (Ar). Its magnitude, as produced by ions, is found to decrease with the increase of their masses. Its value is observed to increase in a complementary way with the mass increase. Ions energy loss to...

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING ANXIETY IN ELITE SPORTSMEN

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    Cemal GÜNDOĞDU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the anxiety the triathlon sportsmen of national teams experience before competitions and the factors that affect this kind of anxiety. This descriptive study was carried out with the voluntary participation of 104 sportsmen who participated in the Istanbul European Cup, Elazıg Balkan Grand Prix and Alanya World Cup in 2014. The data collection instrument was an interview questionnaire developed by the researchers, and the Cronbach alpha of the questions was 0.77. T he data were analyzed with a statistical program, and independent samples t - test and ANOVA were used. According to the data, the following findings were identified: the sportsmen of the Turkish national team felt pre - competition anxiety more than the sport smen of foreign national teams. The female sportsmen experienced the physical symptoms of anxiety more. The younger sportsmen felt more anxious about the fact that they were not going to perform well in the competition. The anxiety of making mistakes decre ased with age. Those whose sporting age was lower felt more anxious for not performing well and for making mistakes.

  18. Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Regina S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    1994-01-01

    Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species. Experimental Mycology, 18, 230-246. Twelve isolates representing four species of Colletotrichum were transformed either by enhanced protoplast, restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI), or electroporation-mediated protocols. The enhanced protoplast transformation protocol resulted in 100- and 50-fold increases in the transformation efficiencies of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. magna , respectively. REMI transformation involved the use of Hin dIII and vector DNA linearized with HindIII to increase the number of integration events and potential gene disruptions in the fungal genome. Combining the enhanced protoplast and the REMI protocols resulted in a 22-fold increase in the number of hygromycin/nystatin-resistant mutants in C. lindemuthianum . Electroporation-mediated transformation was performed on mycelial fragments and spores of four Colletotrichum species, resulting in efficiencies of up to 1000 transformants/μg DNA. The pHA1.3 vector which confers hygromycin resistance contains telomeric sequences from Fusarium oxysporum , transforms by autonomous replication and genomic integration, and was essential for elevated transformation efficiencies of 100 to 10,000 transformants/μg DNA. Modifications of pHA1.3 occurred during bacterial amplification and post fungal transformation resulting in plasmids capable of significantly elevated transformation efficiencies in C. lindemuthianum.

  19. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Quality of an E-commerce Website Using Factor Analysis

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    Saurabh Mishra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factors which affect the quality and effectiveness of an e commerce website which also majorly affect customer satisfaction and ultimately customer retention and loyalty. This research paper examines a set of 23 variables and integrates them into 4 factors which affect the quality of a website. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to generate statistics regarding the preferences of the e-commerce website users.The 23 variables taken from customer survey are generalized into 4 major factors using exploratory factor analysis which are content, navigation, services and interface design. The research majorly consists of the responses of students between the age group of 18-25 years and considers different B2C commercial websites. Identified variables are important with respect to the current competition in the market as service of an e-commerce website also play a major role in ensuring customer satisfaction. Further research in this domain can be done for websites’ version for mobile devices.

  20. Chronotype and personality factors of predisposition to seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginska, Halszka; Oginska-Bruchal, Katarzyna

    2014-05-01

    The study aimed to recognize the personality factors of a predisposition to seasonal mood fluctuations in a non-clinical sample. A group of 101 subjects (57 women, 44 men; mean age 26.4 ± 6.5 years) completed a battery of tests comprising a Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), Chronotype Questionnaire (ChQ), a NEO-Five Factor Inventory and a Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). A smaller sample (n = 44) completed a Winter Blues Scale (WBS). Women scored significantly higher than men in seasonality (p = 0.014), neuroticism (p = 0.049), agreeableness (p = 0.010), and avoidance-oriented coping style (p = 0.041). Subjects with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (n = 41) or sub-SAD (n = 33), as diagnosed with SPAQ, exhibited higher levels of neuroticism (p = 0.017) and openness (p = 0.016) in comparison to non-SAD individuals. The latter declared a less frequent avoidance coping style. Both measures of seasonality, i.e. the SPAQ Global Seasonality Score and WBS, correlated significantly (r = 0.28 and 0.44, respectively) with the subjective amplitude of the circadian rhythm, as described with the "distinctness" scale of ChQ. Female gender, neuroticism and openness were confirmed as factors linked to seasonal mood variability. Additionally, the study revealed an association between susceptibility to mild winter depression and an avoidance-oriented coping style. The avoidance coping style was correlated positively with all the aspects of seasonality described by SPAQ (correlation coefficients from 0.21 to 0.34). Both sub-types of avoidance-oriented style, i.e. distraction and social diversion, were associated with marked subjective seasonal changes in sleep length, mood and the energy level. While the subjective amplitude of circadian rhythm proved to be connected with seasonality, the subjective acrophase of the rhythm (morningness-eveningness preference) did not. It may be hypothesized that sensitivity

  1. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Maggie; Heman-Ackah, Selena E.; Shaikh, Jamil A.

    2011-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is commonly encountered in audiologic and otolaryngologic practice. SSNHL is most commonly defined as sensorineural hearing loss of 30dB or greater over at least three contiguous audiometric frequencies occurring within a 72-hr period. Although the differential for SSNHL is vast, for the majority of patients an etiologic factor is not identified. Treatment for SSNHL of known etiology is directed toward that agent, with poor hearing outcomes characteristic for discoverable etiologies that cause inner ear hair cell loss. Steroid therapy is the current mainstay of treatment of idiopathic SSNHL in the United States. The prognosis for hearing recovery for idiopathic SSNHL is dependent on a number of factors including the severity of hearing loss, age, presence of vertigo, and shape of the audiogram. PMID:21606048

  2. [Examination of relationship between level of hearing and written language skills in 10-14-year-old hearing impaired children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turğut, Nedim; Karlıdağ, Turgut; Başar, Figen; Yalçın, Şinasi; Kaygusuz, İrfan; Keleş, Erol; Birkent, Ömer Faruk

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to review the relationship between written language skills and factors which are thought to affect this skill such as mean hearing loss, duration of auditory deprivation, speech discrimination score, and pre-school education attendance and socioeconomic status of hearing impaired children who attend 4th-7th grades in primary school in inclusive environment. The study included 25 hearing impaired children (14 males, 11 females; mean age 11.4±1.4 years; range 10 to 14 years) (study group) and 20 children (9 males, 11 females; mean age 11.5±1.3 years; range 10 to 14 years) (control group) with normal hearing in the same age group and studying in the same class. Study group was separated into two subgroups as group 1a and group 1b since some of the children with hearing disability used hearing aid while some used cochlear implant. Intragroup comparisons and relational screening were performed for those who use hearing aids and cochlear implants. Intergroup comparisons were performed to evaluate the effect of the parameters on written language skills. Written expression skill level of children with hearing disability was significantly lower than their normal hearing peers (p=0.001). A significant relationship was detected between written language skills and mean hearing loss (p=0.048), duration of auditory deprivation (p=0.021), speech discrimination score (p=0.014), and preschool attendance (p=0.005), when it comes to socioeconomic status we were not able to find any significant relationship (p=0.636). It can be said that hearing loss affects written language skills negatively and hearing impaired individuals develop low-level written language skills compared to their normal hearing peers.

  3. Human likeness: cognitive and affective factors affecting adoption of robot-assisted learning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon

    2016-07-01

    With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.

  4. Maternal and neonatal factors associated with mode of delivery under a universal newborn hearing screening programme in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Solanke Olumuyiwa A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging evidence from a recent pilot universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS programme suggests that the burden of obstetric complications associated with mode of delivery is not limited to maternal and perinatal mortality but may also include outcomes that undermine optimal early childhood development of the surviving newborns. However, the potential pathways for this association have not been reported particularly in the context of a resource-poor setting. This study therefore set out to establish the pattern of delivery and the associated neonatal outcomes under a UNHS programme. Methods A cross-sectional study in which all consenting mothers who delivered in an inner-city tertiary maternity hospital in Lagos, Nigeria from May 2005 to December 2007 were enrolled during the UNHS programme. Socio-demographic, obstetric and neonatal factors independently associated with vaginal, elective and emergency caesarean deliveries were determined using multinomial logistic regression analyses. Results Of the 4615 mothers enrolled, 2584 (56.0% deliveries were vaginal, 1590 (34.4% emergency caesarean and 441 (9.6% elective caesarean section. Maternal age, parity, social class and all obstetric factors including lack of antenatal care, maternal HIV and multiple gestations were associated with increased risk of emergency caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery. Only parity, lack of antenatal care and prolonged/obstructed labour were associated with increased risk of emergency compared with elective caesarean delivery. Infants delivered by vaginal method or by emergency caesarean section were more likely to be associated with the risk of sensorineural hearing loss but less likely to be associated with hyperbilirubinaemia compared with infants delivered by elective caesarean section. Emergency caesarean delivery was also associated with male gender, low five-minute Apgar scores and admission into special care baby unit compared

  5. Maternal and neonatal factors associated with mode of delivery under a universal newborn hearing screening programme in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Solanke, Olumuyiwa A

    2009-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence from a recent pilot universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) programme suggests that the burden of obstetric complications associated with mode of delivery is not limited to maternal and perinatal mortality but may also include outcomes that undermine optimal early childhood development of the surviving newborns. However, the potential pathways for this association have not been reported particularly in the context of a resource-poor setting. This study therefore set out to establish the pattern of delivery and the associated neonatal outcomes under a UNHS programme. Methods A cross-sectional study in which all consenting mothers who delivered in an inner-city tertiary maternity hospital in Lagos, Nigeria from May 2005 to December 2007 were enrolled during the UNHS programme. Socio-demographic, obstetric and neonatal factors independently associated with vaginal, elective and emergency caesarean deliveries were determined using multinomial logistic regression analyses. Results Of the 4615 mothers enrolled, 2584 (56.0%) deliveries were vaginal, 1590 (34.4%) emergency caesarean and 441 (9.6%) elective caesarean section. Maternal age, parity, social class and all obstetric factors including lack of antenatal care, maternal HIV and multiple gestations were associated with increased risk of emergency caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery. Only parity, lack of antenatal care and prolonged/obstructed labour were associated with increased risk of emergency compared with elective caesarean delivery. Infants delivered by vaginal method or by emergency caesarean section were more likely to be associated with the risk of sensorineural hearing loss but less likely to be associated with hyperbilirubinaemia compared with infants delivered by elective caesarean section. Emergency caesarean delivery was also associated with male gender, low five-minute Apgar scores and admission into special care baby unit compared with vaginal or elective

  6. Affect and Health Behavior Co-Occurrence: The Emerging Roles of Transdiagnostic Factors and Sociocultural Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of scientific work addressing relations among affective states and health correlates has focused primarily on their co-occurrence and a limited range of health conditions. We have developed a Special Issue to highlight recent advances in this emerging field of work that addresses the nature and interplay between affective states and disorders, in terms of their impact and consequences from health status and behavior. This Special Issue is organized into three parts classified as (a) co-occurrence and interplay between (b) transdiagnostic factors and (c) sociocultural factors. It is hoped that this issue will (a) alert readers to the significance of this work at different levels of analysis, (b) illustrate the many domains currently being explored via innovative approaches, and (c) identify fecund areas for future systematic study.

  7. SELF-ESTEEM OF DEAF AND HARD OF HEARING COMPARED WITH HEARING ADOLESCENTS IN SLOVENIA – THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL AND COMMUNICATION FACTORS

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    Damjana KOGOVSEK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study focuses on the self-esteem of deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH and hearing adolescents (HA in Slovenia. The aim of this study is a comparison of self-esteem between D/HH and HA regarding the hearing status, age, gender, and the comparison among D/HH adolescents regarding communication and education settings. It is hypothesized that deaf and hard of hearing adolescents have lower self-esteem than their hearing peers. Methods: The final sample included 130 adolescents who were split into two groups with the method of equal pairs: 65 D/HH adolescents and 65 HA, which were established on the basis of gender, age, nationality, and educational programme of schooling. The phenomenon of self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, which was translated and adapted into the Slovenian Sign Language (SSL. Results: The results show significant differrences in self-esteem between D/HH and HA adolescents. D/HH adolescents have, on average, lower self-esteem than HA. There are differences in self-esteem regarding gender and also regarding ages of 16 and of 20. D/HH adolescents who use speech or sign language in their communication have higher self-esteem than those who use mostly sign language. D/HH adolescents in mainstream schools have higher self-esteem than those included into a segregated form of schooling. Discussion: There are differences among adolescents in how they view themselves. Self-esteem can be a significant predictor of life satisfaction. Conclusion: D/HH adolescents experience lower self-esteem when compared with HA peers.

  8. Factors affecting student performance in an undergraduate genetics course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, J Minick; Moser, D W; Bates, K E

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine some of the factors that affect student success in a genetics course. Genetics for the Kansas State University College of Agriculture is taught in the Department of Animal Sciences and Industry and covers Mendelian inheritance, molecular genetics, and quantitative/population genetics. Data collected from 1,516 students over 7 yr included year and semester of the course; age; gender; state of residence; population of hometown; Kansas City metro resident or not; instructor of course; American College Testing Program (ACT) scores; number of transfer credits; major; college; preveterinary student or not; freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior grade point average (GPA); semester credits when taking genetics; class standing when enrolled in genetics; cumulative GPA before and after taking genetics; semester GPA in semester taking genetics, number of semesters between the biology prerequisite and genetics; grade in biology; location of biology course; and final percentage in genetics. Final percentage in genetics did not differ due to instructor, gender, state of residence, major, or college (P > 0.16). Transfer students tended to perform better than nontransfer students (P = 0.09), and students from the Kansas City metro outscored students from other areas (P = 0.03). Preveterinary option students scored higher in genetics than non-preveterinary students (P genetics (P = 0.06). Students who took biology at Kansas State University performed better in genetics than students who transferred the credit (P genetics (P genetics, students should take biology from Kansas State, perform well in biology, and wait until at least sophomore standing to enroll in genetics.

  9. Factors affecting the cryosurvival of mouse two-cell embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critser, J K; Arneson, B W; Aaker, D V; Huse-Benda, A R; Ball, G D

    1988-01-01

    A series of 4 experiments was conducted to examine factors affecting the survival of frozen-thawed 2-cell mouse embryos. Rapid addition of 1.5 M-DMSO (20 min equilibration at 25 degrees C) and immediate, rapid removal using 0.5 M-sucrose did not alter the frequency (mean +/- s.e.m.) of blastocyst development in vitro when compared to untreated controls (90.5 +/- 2.7% vs 95.3 +/- 2.8%). There was an interaction between the temperature at which slow cooling was terminated and thawing rate. Termination of slow cooling (-0.3 degrees C/min) at -40 degrees C with subsequent rapid thawing (approximately 1500 degrees C/min) resulted in a lower frequency of blastocyst development than did termination of slow cooling at -80 degrees C with subsequent slow thawing (+8 degrees C/min) (36.8 +/- 5.6% vs 63.9 +/- 5.7%). When slow cooling was terminated between -40 and -60 degrees C, higher survival rates were achieved with rapid thawing. When slow cooling was terminated below -60 degrees C, higher survival rates were obtained with slow thawing rates. In these comparisons absolute survival rates were highest among embryos cooled below -60 degrees C and thawed slowly. However, when slow cooling was terminated at -32 degrees C, with subsequent rapid warming, survival rates were not different from those obtained when embryos were cooled to -80 degrees C and thawed slowly (52.4 +/- 9.5%, 59.5 +/- 8.6%). These results suggest that optimal cryosurvival rates may be obtained from 2-cell mouse embryos by a rapid or slow thawing procedure, as has been found for mouse preimplantation embryos at later stages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Factors affecting morbidity and mortality in pancreatic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdag, Z; Kapan, M; Ulger, B V; Turkoglu, A; Uslukaya, O; Oğuz, A; Aldemir, M

    2016-04-01

    Difficulties in the detection of pancreatic damage result in morbidity and mortality in cases of pancreatic trauma. This study was performed to determine factors affecting morbidity and mortality in pancreatic trauma. The records of 33 patients who underwent surgery for pancreatic trauma between January 2004 and December 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. The types of injury were penetrating injury and blunt abdominal trauma in 75.8 and 24.2 % of all cases, respectively. Injuries were classified as stage 1 in 6 cases (18.2 %), stage 2 in 18 cases (54.5 %), stage 3 in 5 cases (15.2 %), and stage 4 in 4 cases (12.1 %). The average injury severity scale (ISS) value was 25.70 ± 9:33. Six patients (18.2 %) had isolated pancreatic injury, 27 (81.2 %) had additional intraabdominal organ injuries and 10 patients (30.3 %) had extraabdominal organ injuries. The mean length of hospital stay was 13.24 ± 9 days. Various complications were observed in eight patients (24.2 %) and mortality occurred in three (9.1 %). Complications were more frequent in patients with high pancreatic damage scores (p = 0.024), additional organ injuries (p = 0.05), and blunt trauma (p = 0.026). Pancreatic injury score was associated with morbidity, while the presence of major vascular injury was associated with mortality. Complications were significantly more common in injuries with higher pancreatic damage scores, additional organ injuries, and blunt abdominal trauma. Pancreatic injury score was associated with morbidity, while the presence of major vascular injury was associated with mortality.

  11. Intestinal microbial ecology and environmental factors affecting necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Murgas Torrazza

    Full Text Available Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC is the most devastating intestinal disease affecting preterm infants. In addition to being associated with short term mortality and morbidity, survivors are left with significant long term sequelae. The cost of caring for these infants is high. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that use of antibiotics and type of feeding may cause an intestinal dysbiosis important in the pathogenesis of NEC, but the contribution of specific infectious agents is poorly understood. Fecal samples from preterm infants ≤ 32 weeks gestation were analyzed using 16S rRNA based methods at 2, 1, and 0 weeks, prior to diagnosis of NEC in 18 NEC cases and 35 controls. Environmental factors such as antibiotic usage, feeding type (human milk versus formula and location of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU were also evaluated. Microbiota composition differed between the three neonatal units where we observed differences in antibiotic usage. In NEC cases we observed a higher proportion of Proteobacteria (61% two weeks and of Actinobacteria (3% 1 week before diagnosis of NEC compared to controls (19% and 0.4%, respectively and lower numbers of Bifidobacteria counts and Bacteroidetes proportions in the weeks before NEC diagnosis. In the first fecal samples obtained during week one of life we detected a novel signature sequence, distinct from but matching closest to Klebsiella pneumoniae, that was strongly associated with NEC development later in life. Infants who develop NEC exhibit a different pattern of microbial colonization compared to controls. Antibiotic usage correlated with these differences and combined with type of feeding likely plays a critical role in the development of NEC.

  12. Analysis of factors that affect DQE in digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Miho; Higaki, Akiko; Kodera, Yoshie

    2005-04-01

    The international standard IEC 62220-1 about DQE measurement of digital X-ray equipment was published in 2003, but mammography systems aren"t applied to this IEC standard because the factor affect measurement is complicated. Especially, the influence to the pre-sampling MTF by edge method when X-ray beam is oblique to detector. The influence of nonuniformity of x-ray intensity by the heel effect on digital Wiener spectrum (WS) doesn"t become clear. A 0.1mm-thick tungsten edge was imaged in the position where X-ray beam was perpendicular to detector plane and in 6cm from chest wall, respectively. And the pre-sampling MTFs were obtained from these edge images. The calculation area of the digital WS within irradiation area was moved in parallel direction to X-ray tube axis, and the digital WS were calculated. The pre-sampling MTFs and the digital WS are calculated by the method based on the IEC proposal. We used MAMMOMAT3000(SIEMENS), MGU-100B(TOSHIBA), M-IV(LORAD) and Senographe DMR+(GE) as X-ray generator. Images were obtained by FCR PROFECT CS (Fujifilm medical). In all equipments and both arrangement directions of the edge test device, pre-sampling MTFs are almost the same, even if the arrangement places of the edge test device varied. In all equipments, when the calculation area was moved about 10cm, the digital WS of the anode side was higher 7.2-17.9% than those of the cathode side. It was found that the dose of anode side was lower about 20% than cathode side from the profile of an exposure image. We think that digital WS modified the nonuniformity of the dose by the heel effect is obtained by multiplying the digital WS by the compensation coefficient obtained by the dose profile, in low spatial frequency.

  13. Pelleting of feed for broiler chickens: Factors affecting pellet quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel José Antoniol Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the pellet can be translated by the quality of the pellet which is defined as the proportion of intact pellets that come to feeders for chickens, i.e., its resistance to breakage between the feed mill and farms. The use of diets with a higher percentage of intact pellets results in better performance of birds when compared with the feed rations. The main factors that affect pellet quality are: characteristics of pelleting, the feed composition, particle size, pelleting temperature, moisture and steam injection. From a nutritional standpoint, one can consider that the smaller the particle size of food increased their contact with the digestive juices, which aids digestion and absorption of nutrients. However, finely ground lead to less stimulation and growth of intestinal ephitellium. But from the standpoint of production of feed, the larger the particle size of ingredients largest economy with energy and greater efficiency (tons / hour milling. Because of this, it is suggested that the particle sizes used vary between 500 and 700 ìm to not to cause loss of performance of the birds, nor the income from the factory. Increased energy, through the addition of oils and fats, have much influence on performance parameters of broilers and the quality of the pellet produced. The presence of oils and / or fat, depending on the amount, on its hydrophoby characteristic, causing damage to the particles aggregation acting as a lubricant between food particles and the matrix of pelleting, decreasing the pelleting pressure and its gelatinization, resulting into poor quality pellets.

  14. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers.

  15. 听障儿童听觉言语能力影响因素的研究%Influential Factors on Deaf Children's Hearing and Speech Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 杜巧新

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influential factors on the deaf children's hearing and speech rehabilitation. Methods 43 deaf children were involved in our study. They performed the hearing thresholds, hearing ability, speech ability and learning aptitude tests. Results Gender and hearing aid mode didn't correlate with the children's hearing and speech performance (P>0. 05). Hearing thresholds had significant influence on the hearing ability (P<0.05), and the speech ability had a strong correlation with the children's learning aptitude (P<0. 05). The multiple regression analysis showed that the hearing ability was a significant predictor of speech ability (P<0. 001). Conclusion Giving hearing compensation timely and effectively and grasping the critical period of language development to do rehabilitation training as soon as possible are very important to deaf children's rehabilitation of hearing and speech ability.%目的探讨影响听障儿童听觉言语能力的相关因素.方法对43名听障儿童的助听听阈、听觉能力、言语能力以及学习能力等方面进行测查.结果性别、助听方式对听障儿童的听觉言语能力无显著性影响(P>0.05);助听听阈对听障儿童的听觉能力有显著性影响(P<0.05);语言能力与学习能力呈显著正相关(P<0.05);听觉能力对言语能力有非常显著性正向预测作用(P<0.001).结论及时、有效地给予听觉补偿,抓住语言发展的关键期,尽早进行康复训练,有助于听障儿童听觉言语能力的康复.

  16. Hearing loss and tinnitus in rock musicians: A Norwegian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Christian Lein Størmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our focus in this study was to assess hearing thresholds and the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in a large group of rock musicians based in Norway. A further objective was to assess related factors such as exposure, instrument category, and the preventive effect of hearing protection. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random from a defined cohort of musicians. A random control group was included for comparison. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 nonmusicians from the student population at the University of TromsØ. The subjects were investigated using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and a questionnaire. We observed a hearing loss in 37.8% of the rock musicians. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds were seen at most pure-tone frequencies in musicians than controls, with the most pronounced threshold shift at 6 kHz. The use of hearing protection, in particular custom-fitted earplugs, has a preventive effect but a minority of rock musicians apply them consistently. The degree of musical performance exposure was inversely related to the degree of hearing loss in our sample. Bass and guitar players had higher hearing thresholds than vocalists. We observed a 20% prevalence of chronic tinnitus but none of the affected musicians had severe tinnitus symptomatology. There was no statistical association between permanent tinnitus and hearing loss in our sample. We observed an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in our sample of Norwegian rock musicians but the causal relationship between musical exposure and hearing loss or tinnitus is ambiguous. We recommend the use of hearing protection in rock musicians.

  17. Hearing loss and tinnitus in rock musicians: A Norwegian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størmer, Carl Christian Lein; Laukli, Einar; Høydal, Erik Harry; Stenklev, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    Our focus in this study was to assess hearing thresholds and the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in a large group of rock musicians based in Norway. A further objective was to assess related factors such as exposure, instrument category, and the preventive effect of hearing protection. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random from a defined cohort of musicians. A random control group was included for comparison. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 nonmusicians from the student population at the University of TromsØ. The subjects were investigated using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and a questionnaire. We observed a hearing loss in 37.8% of the rock musicians. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds were seen at most pure-tone frequencies in musicians than controls, with the most pronounced threshold shift at 6 kHz. The use of hearing protection, in particular custom-fitted earplugs, has a preventive effect but a minority of rock musicians apply them consistently. The degree of musical performance exposure was inversely related to the degree of hearing loss in our sample. Bass and guitar players had higher hearing thresholds than vocalists. We observed a 20% prevalence of chronic tinnitus but none of the affected musicians had severe tinnitus symptomatology. There was no statistical association between permanent tinnitus and hearing loss in our sample. We observed an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in our sample of Norwegian rock musicians but the causal relationship between musical exposure and hearing loss or tinnitus is ambiguous. We recommend the use of hearing protection in rock musicians.

  18. Affection for Patients as a Factor in Therapists' Outcome Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Explores the possibility of separating psychotherapists' judgments of treatment outcome from their affective reactions to their patients. If therapists' judgments of symptom remission cannot be utilized independently of their affection for their patients, this would present reason to doubt the utility of such judgments despite their current…

  19. Factors affecting on longevity in Northern Khorasan Kordish sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    razieh saghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The longevity is normally defined as the length of its productive life in the flock, which is the amount of time an animal spends producing (1. Longevity reflects the ability of ewe to avoid being culled for low production, low fertility, illness and influences the number and cost of replacements required to maintain the flock size. The benefit of increasing longevity are increased average age of the flock, having more ewes available for sale at the end of their four parity, having more ewe lambs to sell, and higher productivity from a slightly older flock age profile (2. Sheep population of Khorasan province (10. In sheep production, longevity has an important influence on the economic returns. Reliable estimates of non genetic effects of longevity are needed to aid establishing an efficient strategy for improving ewe productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was the factors affecting on longevity in Northern Khorasan Kordish sheep. We want to determine effect of environmental and non-genetic factors on longevity. Material and Methods In order to investigate on factors affecting longevity trait in Northen Khorasan Kordish sheep, records of 7469 sheep (187 sire and 2258 dam between 1990 to 2012 that were collected by breeding station of Hossein Abad in Shirvan (This city is located in the north of Mashhad were used. Flock has been kept under village system. Breeding ewes were identified in the data set as those that lambed at 2 year of age and culled at 6 to 7 year of age duo to oldness. Ram kept until a male offspring was available for replacement. In this study longevity was defined as the age of a ewe (in day when it leaves the flock. Ewes were generally removed from the flock due to poor production, low fertility, death and illness. Ewes were identified as being removed from the flock if a lambing record was present at n year of age but not at n+1 years of age. All females were culled before reaching 7 years of age

  20. A Systematic Review of Cross-Linguistic and Multilingual Speech and Language Outcomes for Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the factors affecting the language, speech intelligibility, speech production, and lexical tone development of children with hearing loss who use spoken languages other than English. Relevant studies of children with hearing loss published between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed with reference to…