WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors affecting food

  1. Factors affecting practical application of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    FAO and IAEA convened an Advisory Group Meeting on Commercial Use of Food Irradiation in order to discuss problems of the industry's acceptance of food irradiation and their remedies. Senior executives from major food industries, trade and consumer organizations were invited to discuss these problems and to prepare a report which would serve as the basis for future plan of action by sponsoring Organizations in the field of food irradiation. This publication contains the report of the meeting, papers presented by the participants and their recommendations to the sponsoring Organizations. Refs and tabs

  2. Factors Affecting the Formation of Food Preferences in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alles-White, Monica L.; Welch, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    Identifies and discusses factors that affect the development of food preferences in preschool children, including familiarity, age, parents, peers, teachers, and programs designed to influence food habits. Makes recommendations to preschool and day care programs for creating an atmosphere conducive to trying new foods. (Author/DST)

  3. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.

  4. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD AROMATIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н.Ye. Dubova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The specific understanding of food philosophy according to the facts of development of cooking technologies and growth rate of food range is given. As it has been proven by historical stages of production of flavorings, aroma is one of the important organoleptic ingredients for food developers. A review of food production based on development of nanotechnologies, as well as promising and cautioning publications on nanotechnologies in the food sector is presented. On the basis of the literary analysis, the future impact of nanotechnologies on the evolution of the aromatization process of food products is predicted. It has been determined that the peculiarity of the development mentioned above lies in the use of plant enzymes and / or flavor precursors in the nanoscale range. The example of enzymatic breakdown of polyunsaturated fatty acids of plant cell membranes as one of the ways of creating fresh flavor of many fruits, namely C6-C9 aldehydes and alcohols, is considered. It is noted that green fresh aromatic ingredients are needed to improve the organoleptic profile of foods from heat-treated vegetables, melons and gourds. The following factors affecting the development of food aromatization are defined: the decreased differentiation of principles of healthy nutrition and fast food, repetition of natural processes of aroma formation, application of wild green leafy vegetables, and evolution of medical nutrition. The information on food aromatization by packing with autonomous mixing and their approximate assortment is given. The innovations in food aromatization are aimed at quality nutrition, time saving, recreation and entertainment, meeting specific needs (vegetarian dishes, restrictive diets.

  5. Factors Affecting Rural Households’ Resilience to Food Insecurity in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboubakr Gambo Boukary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Niger faces many natural and human constraints explaining the erratic evolution of its agricultural production over time. Unfortunately, this is likely to cause a decline in the food supply. This study attempts to identify factors affecting rural households’ resilience to food insecurity in Niger. For this, we first create a resilience index by using principal component analysis and later apply structural equation modeling to identify its determinants. Data from the 2010 National Survey on Households’ Vulnerability to Food Insecurity done by the National Institute of Statistics is used. The study shows that asset and social safety net indicators are significant and have a positive impact on households’ resilience. Climate change approximated by long-term mean rainfall has a negative and significant effect on households’ resilience. Therefore, to strengthen households’ resilience to food insecurity, there is a need to increase assistance to households through social safety nets and to help them gather more resources in order to acquire more assets. Furthermore, early warning of climatic events could alert households, especially farmers, to be prepared and avoid important losses that they experience anytime an uneven climatic event occurs.

  6. Organizational factors affecting safety implementation in food companies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinda, Thanwadee

    2014-01-01

    Thai food industry employs a massive number of skilled and unskilled workers. This may result in an industry with high incidences and accident rates. To improve safety and reduce the accident figures, this paper investigates factors influencing safety implementation in small, medium, and large food companies in Thailand. Five factors, i.e., management commitment, stakeholders' role, safety information and communication, supportive environment, and risk, are found important in helping to improve safety implementation. The statistical analyses also reveal that small, medium, and large food companies hold similar opinions on the risk factor, but bear different perceptions on the other 4 factors. It is also found that to improve safety implementation, the perceptions of safety goals, communication, feedback, safety resources, and supervision should be aligned in small, medium, and large companies.

  7. Dietary Factors Affect Food Reward and Motivation to Eat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandit, Rahul; Mercer, Julian G.; Overduin, Joost; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2012-01-01

    The propensity to indulge in unhealthy eating and overconsumption of palatable food is a crucial determinant in the rising prevalence of obesity in today's society. The tendency to consume palatable foods in quantities that exceed energy requirements has been linked to an addiction-like process.

  8. Socio-cultural and economic factors affecting food consumption patterns in the Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, A O

    1993-04-01

    Several factors have been found to determine the dietary habits of the people in the Arab world. Food consumption pattern has dramatically changed in some Arab countries as a result of sudden increase in income from oil revenue. It is believed that food subsidy policy has adversely affected the food habits in the Gulf states by encouraging the intake of fat, sugar, rice, wheat flour and meat. Socio-cultural factors such as religion, beliefs, food preferences, gender discrimination, education and women's employment all have a noticeable influence on food consumption patterns in this region. Mass media, especially televised food advertisements, play an important role in modifying the dietary habits. The migration movement, particularly that which was carried out during the 70s has a great impact on the food practices in many Arab countries. Comprehensive studies on social, cultural and economic factors associated with food consumption patterns in the Arab region are highly recommended.

  9. Factors affecting food security and contribution of modern technologies in food sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premanandh, Jagadeesan

    2011-12-01

    The concept of food insecurity is complex and goes beyond the simplistic idea of a country's inability to feed its population. The global food situation is redefined by many driving forces such as population growth, availability of arable lands, water resources, climate change and food availability, accessibility and loss. The combined effect of these factors has undeniably impacted global food production and security. This article reviews the key factors influencing global food insecurity and emphasises the need to adapt science-based technological innovations to address the issue. Although anticipated benefits of modern technologies suggest a level of food production that will sustain the global population, both political will and sufficient investments in modern agriculture are needed to alleviate the food crisis in developing countries. In this globalised era of the 21st century, many determinants of food security are trans-boundary and require multilateral agreements and actions for an effective solution. Food security and hunger alleviation on a global scale are within reach provided that technological innovations are accepted and implemented at all levels. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Eating habits and factors affecting food choice of adolescents living in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiota, Alexandra; Pelekanou, Maria; Tsitouras, Andreas; Koukoulis, Georgios N

    2013-01-01

    To establish factors that affect food choices among adolescents living in rural areas and to identify their food choices. A random sample of adolescents living in a Greek rural area (n=382) aged 12-18 years were individually interviewed. Food consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the KIDMED questionnaire. Information was collected regarding self-perceived body size, dieting, dietary knowledge, parental control, meal and snack frequency, eating out of home, eating takeaways and precooked meals, eating from the school canteen. Body image concerns, dieting, education about food, parental control, maternal education level and eating with family and peers are factors that were found to affect food choices in this group of Greek adolescents. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was low (KIDMED index was 4.5±2.7). Regular family meals at home were frequent in this group and 99% of the adolescents ate lunch daily at home. Eating out with peers and eating from the school canteen was related with higher consumption of 'junk type of food'. Girls and younger adolescents and those whose mothers had a higher education level seem to make healthier choices. Factors such as personal issues, family and peer pressure significantly affect food choices among adolescents living in a Greek rural area and highlight the importance of implementing multilevel strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescents.

  11. Factors affecting food handling Practices among food handlers of Dangila town food and drink establishments, North West Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Food borne diseases are major health problems in developed and developing countries including Ethiopia. The problem is more noticeable in developing countries due to prevailing poor food handling and sanitation practices, inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory systems, lack of financial resources to invest on safer equipments, and lack of education for food handlers. Methods The objective of this study was to assess food handling practice and associated factors among food handlers working in food and drinking establishments of Dangila town, North West Ethiopia. Cross-sectional quantitative study design was conducted among 406 food handlers working in 105 food and drink establishments from July to August 2013 in Dangila town. Data were collected using face to face interview with pretested structured questionnaire and physical observation. Result The mean age of the respondents was 22.7 ± 4.2 years of which 62.8% of the food handlers were females. Two hundred thirteen (52.5%) of food handlers had good food handling practices. Marital status (AOR = 7.52, 95% CI, 1.45-38.97), monthly income (AOR = 0.395, 95% CI, 0.25-0.62), knowledge about food handling (AOR = 1.69, 95% CI, 1.05-2.73), existence of shower facility (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI, 1.12-3.21) and separate dressing room (AOR = 1.97, 95% CI, 1.11-3.49) were found to be significantly associated with good food handling Practices. Conclusion Above half of food handlers had good food handling practices. Marital status, monthly income, knowledge status, existence of shower facility, existence of separate dressing room and presence of insect and rodent were factors associated with food handling Practices. PMID:24908104

  12. Mapping the Factors Affecting Household Food Security of Tuberculosis Patients in Coastal Region of Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilaningrum, D.; Ulama, B. S. S.; Lathifah, R.

    2018-04-01

    Food security is a condition of a person who has access to adequate, safe, and nutritious food to meet the needs of a healthy life. Affordability of food is determined by the aggregate purchasing power. It is also can be measured by the amount of poverty in Indonesia which reached 28,07 million in 2014. According to data from the health department, the largest TB cases in Indonesia were in East Java Province and Surabaya accounted for the largest number, there are 48379 cases in 2015. This study mapping the factors that affect household food security of TB patients in the coastal areas of Surabaya. This study used secondary data sources from 11 clinics i.e. TB patient's addres and primary data source to survey patients about food security. Variables used in this study are variables related to socioeconomic factors and sanitary factors. Those variables will be analyzed descriptively and mapping using biplot analysis. Biplot generated based on socio-economic factors, sanitary factors, and status of households in 11 districts Surabaya that near the beach geographically. The result shows that 64% of TB patient households are food insecure than the left are food secure. More than 50% of TB patient households have a good house physically. From the result of mapping between sub-districts and factors, formed five groups consisting of: 1) Benowo and Mulyorejo; 2) Asemrowo, Gunung Anyar, Sukolilo and Pabean Cantikan; 3) Semampir, Krembangan and Bulak; 4) Kenjeran; and 5) Rungkut.

  13. Development of Food Retailing and Factors Affecting the Competition in Food Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Kilic; Gokhan Senol

    2010-01-01

    Retailing is a dynamic and complex sector that offers wide range of products and services to consumers. This sector which includes different types of enterprises, has an important position within the supply chain. Food retailing has also a big potential within retailing sector. On the other hand, an intensive competition exists in food retailing. Taking place in the competitive market, food retailers attempt to gain a competitive advantage against their rivals with their geographic location,...

  14. Attitudinal Factors Affecting Viral Advertising Pass-On Behaviour of Online Consumers in Food Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Salleh, Nurhidayah; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Zakuan, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad

    2016-05-01

    The increase number of active users of social media, especially Facebook, stimulates viral advertising behaviour among them, thus attracting e-marketers to focus on viral advertising in promoting their products. In global market, use of Facebook platform indicated that food services/restaurant of food industry is ranked number 11 with 18.8% users’ response rate within the platform. This development calls for e-marketers in Malaysia to use Facebook as their viral advertising channel. Attitudinal factors affecting the viral advertising pass-on behaviour (VAPB) especially among members of social media is of interest to many researchers. The typical attitudinal factors used were attitude toward social media (ATSM), attitude toward advertising in social media (AASM) and attitude toward advertising in general (AAIG). Attitude toward advertised brand (ATAB) is important in fast food industry because users of social media tend to share their experience about tastes and features of the food. However, ATAB is less emphasized in the conceptual model between attitudinal factors and VAPB. These four factors of consumer attitude served as independent variables in the conceptual model of this study and their effect on viral advertising pass-on behaviour among members of Domino's Pizza Malaysia Facebook page was examined. Online survey using a set of questionnaire which was sent to the members of this group via private message was employed. A total of 254 sets of usable questionnaires were collected from the respondents. All the attitudinal factors, except for AASM, were found to have positive and significant effect on VAPB. AAIG exerted the strongest effect on VAPB. Therefore, e-marketers should emphasize on developing a favourable attitude toward advertising in general among members of a social media to get them involve in viral advertising. In addition, instilling a favourable attitude towards advertised brand is also vital as it influences the members to viral the brand

  15. Factors Affecting Project Governance Of Arusha Archdiocesan Food Security And Livelihood Project In Monduli District Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisame Deogratious

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research project dealt with the factors affecting governance of Food security and livelihood projects a case study of the Food security and livelihood project that was implemented by AAIDRO in Monduli district and included 60 respondents all together. The specific objectives of this study intended to access the Leadership styles that are being used in project governance. The findings of the study indicated that 91.7 of the respondents were in favor of their leaders project governance styles it was portrayed that participative leadership style was being used by the leaders for project governance. Based on a sample of 60 project members this study had confirmed that a project leaders leadership roles like mentor facilitator innovator and coordinator are important in influencing project governance effectiveness which includes team mission goal achievement and empowerment open and honest communication

  16. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Genetically Modified Animals in the Food and Pharmaceutical Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of genetically modified (GM animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scoping study was conducted to assess research relevant to understanding the main drivers influencing the adoption of GM applications and their potential risks and benefits. Public and producers’ acceptance, public policies, human health, animal welfare, environmental impact and sustainability are considered as the main factors affecting the application of GM animal techniques in livestock and pharmaceutical chains.

  17. Factors affecting biotic mercury concentrations and biomagnification through lake food webs in the Canadian high Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescord, Gretchen L., E-mail: glescord@gmail.com [University of New Brunswick/Canadian Rivers Institute, 100 Tucker Park Rd, Saint John, NB E2L 4A6 (Canada); Kidd, Karen A. [University of New Brunswick/Canadian Rivers Institute, 100 Tucker Park Rd, Saint John, NB E2L 4A6 (Canada); Kirk, Jane L. [Environment Canada, Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON L7S 1A1 (Canada); O' Driscoll, Nelson J. [Acadia University, 15 University Ave, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Wang, Xiaowa; Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON L7S 1A1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    In temperate regions of Canada, mercury (Hg) concentrations in biota and the magnitude of Hg biomagnification through food webs vary between neighboring lakes and are related to water chemistry variables and physical lake features. However, few studies have examined factors affecting the variable Hg concentrations in landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) or the biomagnification of Hg through their food webs. We estimated the food web structure of six high Arctic lakes near Resolute Bay, Nunavut, Canada, using stable carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopes and measured Hg (total Hg (THg) in char, the only fish species, and methylmercury (MeHg) in chironomids and zooplankton) concentrations in biota collected in 2010 and 2011. Across lakes, δ{sup 13}C showed that benthic carbon (chironomids) was the dominant food source for char. Regression models of log Hg versus δ{sup 15}N (of char and benthic invertebrates) showed positive and significant slopes, indicting Hg biomagnification in all lakes, and higher slopes in some lakes than others. However, no principal components (PC) generated using all water chemistry data and physical characteristics of the lakes predicted the different slopes. The PC dominated by aqueous ions was a negative predictor of MeHg concentrations in chironomids, suggesting that water chemistry affects Hg bioavailability and MeHg concentrations in these lower-trophic-level organisms. Furthermore, regression intercepts were predicted by the PCs dominated by catchment area, aqueous ions, and MeHg. Weaker relationships were also found between THg in small char or MeHg in pelagic invertebrates and the PCs dominated by catchment area, and aqueous nitrate and MeHg. Results from these high Arctic lakes suggest that Hg biomagnification differs between systems and that their physical and chemical characteristics affect Hg concentrations in lower-trophic-level biota. - Highlights: • Mercury (Hg) in Arctic char and invertebrates

  18. FACTORS AFFECTING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-09

    Dec 9, 2009 ... making weanimix more widely available to lower-income families. Local food .... and models used are described in Nagai [23]. ... local companies were priced much lower than weaning foods manufactured by large- .... government (as part of its public-health efforts) and/or professional organizations.

  19. Factors Affecting the Consumer Purchasing Decisions of Perishable Foods: Exploring the Attitudes and the Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rehan MASOOM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is designed to make a comprehensive understanding of the attitude of the urban consumers and explore the factors involved in dealing with the perishable food of certain kinds. The rise of the middle class stipulates the enhancement of the shopping environment; hence witnessing a substantial increase of the number of the supermarkets in developing countries like Bangladesh will not be surprising. A number of urban supermarkets in recent times start selling perishable foods that were once available in Bangladesh only in flea markets (Kaccha Bazaar. However, due to the lack of proper infrastructure, agro-based perishable food reaches the urban market via a long process of chain mediations and raises concerns about quality and price for both retailers and consumers. Very often the attitudes of consumers regarding perishable foods are unknown and their preferences remain unidentified. This high level of uncertainty regarding the attitude of consumers and the unpopularity regarding overall food quality need to be resolved to ensure the continuity of the business and guarantee the quality of the products. This has made the study of the consumers’ attitude towards perishable food, especially relevant for emerging economies like Bangladesh. The data is collected from one hundred (100 consumers, who buy food regularly from both super-shops and flea markets in Dhaka city. The collected data are analyzed in terms of factors like importance, expectation and perceived actual level of value to show the gap in terms of perishable foods involved.

  20. Factors that affect the food choices made by girls and young women, from minority ethnic groups, living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J M; Devlin, E; Macaskill, S; Kelly, M; Chinouya, M; Raats, M M; Barton, K L; Wrieden, W L; Shepherd, R

    2007-08-01

    Lower birth weight, often found in infants from minority ethnic groups, may be partly because of the disproportionate representation of ethnic minority groups in low-income areas. To develop an intervention, to improve the nutritional intake of young women from populations at risk of low-birth-weight babies, which would be culturally sensitive and well received by the intended recipients, a community development approach was used to investigate factors that might influence food choice and the nutritional intake of girls and young women from ethnic minority groups. Focus group discussions were conducted across the UK, to explore factors that might affect the food choices of girls and young women of African and South Asian decent. The data was analysed using deductive content analysis (Qual. Soc. Res., 1, 2000, 1). Discussions were around the broad themes of buying and preparing food, eating food and dietary changes, and ideas for an intervention to improve diet. The focus group discussions indicated that all the communities took time, price, health and availability into consideration when making food purchases. The groups were also quite similar in their use of 'Western' foods which tended to be of the fast food variety. These foods were used when there was not enough time to prepare a 'traditional' meal. Many issues that affect the food choice of people who move to the UK are common within different ethnic groups. The idea of a practical intervention based on improving cooking skills was popular with all the groups.

  1. Factors Affecting College Students' Knowledge and Opinions of Genetically Modified Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Chad M.; Mosher, Gretchen A.; Freeman, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of biotechnology in food and agricultural applications has increased greatly during the past decade and is considered by many to be a controversial topic. Drawing upon a previous national study, a new survey was conducted of U.S. and international college students at a large, land-grant, Research University to determine factors that may…

  2. Analysis of factors affecting the development of food crop varieties bred by mutation method in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhidong; Hu Ruifa

    2002-01-01

    The research developed a production function on crop varieties developed by mutation method in order to explore factors affecting the development of new varieties. It is found that the research investment, human capital and radiation facilities were the most important factors that affected the development and cultivation area of new varieties through the mutation method. It is concluded that not all institutions involved in the breeding activities using mutation method must have radiation facilities and the national government only needed to invest in those key research institutes, which had strong research capacities. The saved research budgets can be used in the entrusting the institutes that have stronger research capacities with irradiating more breeding materials developed by the institutes that have weak research capacities, by which more opportunities to breed better varieties can be created

  3. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected...... separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign...... and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated.Food waste generation equated to 23. ±. 5. kg/employee/year, of which 20. ±. 5. kg...

  4. Factors Affecting the Consumption of Fast Foods Among Women Based on the Social Cognitive Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nooshin Beiranvandpour; Akram Karimi-Shahanjarini; Forouzan Rezapur-Shahkolai; Abbas Moghimbeigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fast-food consumption among Iranian families appears to be increasing probably due to urbanization, popularization of western-style diets and increased women's labor force participation. Few theory-based investigations have assessed the determinants of fast food consumption. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the predictors of fast food consumption, based on the social cognitive theory (SCT) among women referred to health centers in Hamadan, West of Iran. Mate...

  5. Acrylamide in Japanese processed foods and factors affecting acrylamide level in potato chips and tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mitsuru; Ono, Hiroshi; Chuda, Yoshihiro; Yada, Hiroshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Kobayashi, Hidetaka; Ohara-Takada, Akiko; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Mori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    2005-01-01

    Acrylamide concentrations in processed foods sold in Japanese markets were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS methods. Most potato chips and whole potato-based fried snacks showed acrylamide concentration higher than 1000 microg/kg. The concentrations in non-whole potato based Japanese snacks, including rice crackers and candied sweet potatoes, were less tha. 350 microg/kg. Those in instant precooked noodles were less than 100 microg/kg with only one exception. The effect of storage condition of potato tubers on acrylamide concentration in potato chips after frying was also investigated. Sugar content in the tubers increased during cold storage, and the acrylamide concentration increased accordingly. The concentrations of asparagine and other amino acids, however, did not change during the cold storage. High correlations were observed between the acrylamide content in the chips and glucose and fructose contents in the tubers. This fact indicated that the limiting factor for acrylamide formation in potato chips is reducing sugar, not asparagine content in the tubers. Effects of roasting time and temperature on acrylamide concentration in roasted green tea are also described.

  6. Factors Affecting the Consumption of Fast Foods Among Women Based on the Social Cognitive Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Beiranvandpour

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fast-food consumption among Iranian families appears to be increasing probably due to urbanization, popularization of western-style diets and increased women's labor force participation. Few theory-based investigations have assessed the determinants of fast food consumption. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the predictors of fast food consumption, based on the social cognitive theory (SCT among women referred to health centers in Hamadan, West of Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using structured self-administered questionnaires on 384 women referred to 10 health centers in Hamadan city, Western of Iran. Health center was considered as a sampling unit and systematic random sampling method was applied to select health centers. Participants filled a questionnaire containing SCT constructs, an eight-item food frequency questionnaire, and demographic characteristics. Data was analyzed by independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression using SPSS-16. Results: The model could explain 21% of the variance in frequency of fast food consumption. Outcome expectations (p=0.04 and availability (p< 0.001 were the significant predictors. The career status of women was the only related demographic characteristic (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Interventions aimed to change outcome expectations and introducing nutritious alternatives to fast food could be promising to decrease the rate of fast-food consumption.

  7. Food Safety Concerns and other Factors Affecting Iran’s Pistachio Exports to EU, Australia, and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ashktorab, Niloofar; Saghaian, Sayed Hossein; Shahnoushi, Naser

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of food safety concerns on Iran’s pistachio export demand was investigated. Panel data and panel cointegration analyses were used to estimate the export demand function of Iran’s pistachio nuts to the European Union (EU), Japan, and Australia for the period of 1997 to 2006 so that the relationship between factors affecting Iran’s pistachio exports can be examined. The results show the existence of long-run relationships among the variables that have a significant imp...

  8. Factors affecting the adoption of genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mora, C.; Menozzi, D.; Kleter, G.A.; Aramyan, L.H.; Valeeva, N.I.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Pakky Reddy, G.

    2012-01-01

    The production of genetically modified (GM) animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this

  9. Factors Affecting Bacterial Inactivation during High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing of Foods: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Qamar-Abbas; Buffa, Martin; Guamis, Buenaventura; Saldo, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Although, the High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) technology has been gaining gradual popularity in food industry since last two decades, intensive research is needed to explore the missing information. Bacterial inactivation in food by using HHP applications can be enhanced by getting deeper insights of the process. Some of these aspects have been already studied in detail (like pressure, time, and temperature, etc.), while some others still need to be investigated in more details (like pH, rates of compression, and decompression, etc.). Selection of process parameters is mainly dependent on type of matrix and target bacteria. This intensive review provides comprehensive information about the variety of aspects that can determine the bacterial inactivation potential of HHP process indicating the fields of future research on this subject including pH shifts of the pressure treated samples and critical limits of compression and decompression rates to accelerate the process efficacy.

  10. Foods That Can Affect Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That Can Affect Fertility Print Email Foods That Can Affect Fertility By Caroline Kaufman, MS, RDN Published ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. While couples can't control all of the causes of infertility, ...

  11. Food industry workers' attitudes on the importance of factors affecting foodstuff quality managament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is faced with several challenges at the same time: to supply safe and affordable foodstuff in sufficient quantity; to provide products in conditions where demand surpasses the human population growth; to operate in circumstances of ever-increasing competition; to protect the environment and respond to the population's public health concerns. An organization's success depends on the knowledge, skills, creativity and motivation of the company's workers and partners. Focus on its employees enables a company's development and improvement, whereas business ethics ensures public health and safety protection, environmental protection and life quality improvement. The company management's responsibility lies foremost in education, worker training and development, thus enabling a direct and indirect influence on the foodstuff quality and satisfying consumer requests in terms of foodstuff quality characteristics.

  12. Affect asymmetry and comfort food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Laurette; LeBel, Jordan L; Lu, Ji

    2005-11-15

    It is proposed that the emotional triggers of comfort food consumption can reliably be predicted by factors tied to affect asymmetry whereby negative affects dominate one's experience, decision making and behaviors in some instances while positive emotions prevail in others. Specifically, we relate three of these factors (age, gender, and culture) to differences in the emotional triggers of comfort food consumption and we further explore the possibility that the type of food eaten during comfort-seeking episodes can also be tied to affect asymmetry. Two hundred and seventy-seven participants completed a web-based survey conducted to assess the emotional antecedents and consequences of comfort food consumption. Consistent with expectations, results indicate that men's comfort food consumption was motivated by positive emotions whereas women's consumption was triggered by negative affects. Consumption of comfort foods alleviated women's negative emotions but also produced guilt. Positive affect was a particularly powerful trigger of comfort food consumption for older participants and for participants with French cultural background. Younger participants and participants with English background reported more intense negative emotions prior to consuming comfort foods. Foods high in sugar and fat content were more efficient in alleviating negative affects whereas low-calorie foods were more efficient in increasing positive emotions.

  13. Factors and Caregiver’s Behavior Affecting Inadequate Complementary Food of Infants Aged 6-12 Months in Naresuan University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitima Ngoenmak, M.D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Food plays an important role in infant nutrition. Hence, the various factors and behavior that affect the right choice of nutrition for infants aged 6-12 months by caregivers need to be investigated. The objectives were to study the associated factors and caregiver’s behavior affecting inadequate feeding of food to infants aged 6-12 months. Methods: This present work was a cross-sectional study in which 54 caregivers for infants were included. In this study, a survey was performed by using questionnaires for collecting data. The data were analyzed statistically in terms of percentage and mean and by using Chi-Square test (Fisher’s Exact Test and z-test. Results: It was found that most of the infants (79.6 % had normal weight. The age at the start of proper feeding was 5 months and 27 days old. The education level, age, occupation, and income of the caregivers were factors affecting the food choices for the infants at p< 0.05. Inappropriate feeding practices were as follows: feeding pre- masticated foods, liquid food feeding, drinking sweetened juice and soft drinks, eating sweets, and adding salt, sugar, monosodium glutamate and fish sauce to the infants’ food. The caregivers chose food by judging for age and FDA logo on product labels. Advertising did not affect their decision to purchase food. Moreover, occupation, education, and income of the caregivers were not associated with purchasing the right food for the baby. Conclusion: Occupation, income, age, and education level of the infant caregivers were associated with the food selection. The inappropriate feeding behaviors were still persisting.

  14. Factors affecting nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.

    1995-01-01

    Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos

  15. Factors affecting evidence-use in food policy-making processes in health and agriculture in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqa, Gade; Bell, Colin; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj

    2017-01-09

    There is limited research on the use of evidence to inform policy-making in the Pacific. This study aims to identify and describe factors that facilitate or limit the use of evidence in food-related policy-making in the Health and Agriculture Ministries in Fiji. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with selected policy-makers in two government ministries that were instrumental in the development of food-related policies in Fiji designed to prevent Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Snowball sampling was used to recruit, as key informants, senior policy-makers in management positions such as national advisors and directors who were based at either the national headquarters or equivalent. Interviewees were asked about their experiences in developing food-related or other policies, barriers or facilitators encountered in the policy development and implementation process and the use of evidence. Each interview lasted approximately 45-60 minutes, and was conducted in English. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed, thematically coded and analyzed using N-Vivo 8.0 software. Thirty-one policy-makers from the Ministry of Health and Medical Services (MoHMS n = 18) and the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA n = 13) in Fiji participated in the study. Whilst evidence is sometimes used in food-related policy-making in both the Health and Agriculture Ministries (including formal evidence such as published research and informal evidence such as personal experiences and opinions), it is not yet embedded as an essential part of the process. Participants indicated that a lack of resources, poor technical support in terms of training, the absence of clear strategies for improving competent use of evidence, procedures regarding engagement with other stakeholders across sectors, varying support from senior managers and limited consultation across sectors were barriers to evidence use. The willingness of organizations to create a culture of using evidence was

  16. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  17. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  18. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  19. Factors Affecting Relative Changes in U.S. Snack Foods Exports Among Countries: A Constant Market Share Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Myles, Albert E.; Allen, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    This study used Constant Market Share (CMS) analysis to examine the competitiveness of U.S. snack food exports in terms of their revealed market shares and market potentials. The CMS analysis suggested that almost 99 percent of the gains in snack food exports were due to growth in world demand and 1.52 percent to the composition of snack food products between 2004 and 2008. Unfortunately, competitiveness of the world snack food market reduced U.S. exports by 1.52 percent during this same period.

  20. Mediating Effects of Intention On The Factors Affecting Organic Food Products Consumption Among Chinese Generation Y In Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Poh Leong; Laily Paim

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to measure the effect of intention as a mediator in the relationship between internal factors and external factors on consumption. The factors were a) internal factors: knowledge, awareness, health consciousness, product attributes, environmental concern, and b) external factors: subjective norms, perceived behaviour control, and media and advertisement. From the review of literature, there were limited studies done on the mediating effect of intention on the relationship bet...

  1. Factors affecting food choices of older adults from high and low socioeconomic groups: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2015-04-01

    Healthiness, price, and convenience are typically indicated as important motives for food choices; however, it is largely unknown to what extent older adults from high and low socioeconomic groups differ in these underlying motives. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is an innovative way to elicit implicit motives for food choices. The aim was to investigate differences in food motives between socioeconomic groups by means of a DCE. A DCE was carried out during a face-to-face interview among older adults as part of the Health and Living Conditions in Eindhoven and surrounding cities (GLOBE) cohort study, The Netherlands. Participants (n = 399; mean age: 63.3 y) were offered a series of choice sets about a usual dinner at home and were asked to choose in each choice set between 2 meals and an opt-out choice, with different combinations of attribute levels. We included 5 meal attributes (taste, healthiness, preparation time, travel time to shops, and price) and 3 or 4 levels for each attribute. Data were analyzed by multinomial logit models. Healthiness, taste, price, and travel time to the grocery store proved to significantly influence older adults' meal decisions; preparation time was not significant. Healthiness was the most important attribute for all of the participants. More highly educated participants rated a healthy and less expensive meal to be more important than did less educated participants. Those with a high income rated a meal that was healthy and very tasteful to be more important than did those with a lower income. Healthiness, taste, price, and travel time to grocery shops influenced older adults' meal decisions. Higher socioeconomic groups valued health more than did lower socioeconomic groups. DCEs represent a promising method to gain insight into the relative importance of motives for food choices. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN60293770. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Factor affecting Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato is a very important food crop and is adversely affected by fungus. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation can play an important role in the improvement of potato. The present study was conducted to optimize the different factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chitinase gene. Nodes were used as ...

  3. Factors Affecting Tocopherol Concentrations in Soybean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe

    2016-12-21

    Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.

  4. Copepod recruitment and food composition : Do diatoms affect hatching success?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    was fed several different diets while egg production and hatching success were monitored. The diet was analysed for fatty acid content as an indicator of food quality. Both egg production and hatching were found to be affected by the nutritional quality of the food. Hatching was also highly dependent......Laboratory experiments were conducted to differentiate between factors controlling the hatching success of copepod eggs. Factors that could affect viability of eggs; viz food quality, female condition and external factors were investigated. In a series of experiments the copepod Acartia tonsa Dana...

  5. Elements affecting food waste in the food service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Lotta; Reinikainen, Anu; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Hartikainen, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    Avoidable food waste is produced in the food service sector, with significant ecological and economical impacts. In order to understand and explain better the complex issue of food waste a qualitative study was conducted on the reasons for its generation in restaurants and catering businesses. Research data were collected during three participatory workshops for personnel from three different catering sector companies in Finland. Based on synthesized qualitative content analysis, eight elements influencing production and reduction of food waste were identified. Results revealed the diversity of managing food waste in the food service sector and how a holistic approach is required to prevent and reduce it. It is crucial to understand that food waste is manageable and should be an integral component of the management system. The model of eight factors provides a framework for recognition and management of food waste in the food service sector. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors affecting mining costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: investment decision-making, unit cost factors (declining ore grade, low-price contracts, ore grade/output relationship, above average cost increases). Economic, environmental, sociological and political aspects are considered. (U.K.)

  7. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality.

  8. The gamma contamination food factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukoc, A.H.; Anicin, I.V.; Adzic, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    We suggest that radioactive food contamination, as determined solely by a quantitative gamma-ray spectroscopic measurement, may, apart from the total activity per unit mass, be for quick reference conveniently characterized by another single figure which we call the ''Gamma Contamination Food Factor'' (GCFF). This factor may be defined as the ratio of the total specific activity of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides in the food sample (except that of 40 K) to the specific activity of 40 K either in the sample itself or in an ''average man''. We discuss briefly the meaning and advantages of these definitions. (author)

  9. Factors affecting construction performance: exploratory factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soewin, E.; Chinda, T.

    2018-04-01

    The present work attempts to develop a multidimensional performance evaluation framework for a construction company by considering all relevant measures of performance. Based on the previous studies, this study hypothesizes nine key factors, with a total of 57 associated items. The hypothesized factors, with their associated items, are then used to develop questionnaire survey to gather data. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to the collected data which gave rise 10 factors with 57 items affecting construction performance. The findings further reveal that the items constituting ten key performance factors (KPIs) namely; 1) Time, 2) Cost, 3) Quality, 4) Safety & Health, 5) Internal Stakeholder, 6) External Stakeholder, 7) Client Satisfaction, 8) Financial Performance, 9) Environment, and 10) Information, Technology & Innovation. The analysis helps to develop multi-dimensional performance evaluation framework for an effective measurement of the construction performance. The 10 key performance factors can be broadly categorized into economic aspect, social aspect, environmental aspect, and technology aspects. It is important to understand a multi-dimension performance evaluation framework by including all key factors affecting the construction performance of a company, so that the management level can effectively plan to implement an effective performance development plan to match with the mission and vision of the company.

  10. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of af...

  11. AGROECOLOGICAL FACTORS OF FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Moldavan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An experience of development of forms of economy in developed countries is analysed. Ways of development of domestic agriculture are proposed. The paper proved that Ukraine needs a new model of agriculture that was based not on the dynamic growth market of export production, and the balanced development of multipurpose field, which meets the needs of the country in food and foreign exchange earnings, warned to the depletion of natural resources. The extent of devastating effects of industrial model of agriculture development, which is oriented on economic growth without social and environmental price of its growth is revealed. Retrospective analysis of entry in international practice like formal institutional status of an alternative model in which an economic function of a branch (production and income is balanced with ecological (conservation potential land and social (food security is realized. Basic principles of ecologically oriented agriculture as a factor in long-term food security are formulated.

  12. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  13. Food prices and poverty negatively affect micronutrient intakes in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L; Robles, Miguel; Pachón, Helena; Chiarella, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Limited empirical evidence exists for how economic conditions affect micronutrient nutrition. We hypothesized that increasing poverty and rising food prices would reduce consumption of high-quality "luxury" foods, leading to an increased probability of inadequacy for several nutrients. The 2006 Guatemala National Living Conditions Survey was analyzed. First, energy and nutrient intakes and adequacy levels were calculated. Second, the income-nutrient relationships were investigated by assessing disparities in intakes, determining income-nutrient elasticities, and modeling nutrient intakes by reductions in income. Third, the food price-nutrient relationships were explored through determination of price-nutrient elasticities and modeling 2 price scenarios: an increase in food prices similar in magnitude to the food price crisis of 2007-2008 and a standardized 10% increase across all food groups. Disparities in nutrient intakes were greatest for vitamin B-12 (0.38 concentration index) and vitamin A (0.30 concentration index); these nutrients were highly and positively correlated with income (r = 0.22-0.54; P < 0.05). Although the baseline probability of inadequacy was highest for vitamin B-12 (83%), zinc showed the greatest increase in probability of inadequacy as income was reduced, followed by folate and vitamin A. With rising food prices, zinc intake was most acutely affected under both scenarios (P < 0.05) and folate intake in the poorest quintile (+7 percentage points) under the 10% scenario. Price-nutrient elasticities were highest for vitamin B-12 and the meat, poultry, and fish group (-0.503) and for folate and the legumes group (-0.343). The economic factors of food prices and income differentially influenced micronutrient intakes in Guatemala, notably zinc and folate intakes.

  14. Factors Influencing Urban Consumers' Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jae-Hwan Han; R. Wes Harrison

    2007-01-01

    Linkages between consumer beliefs and attitudes regarding the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods and consumer purchase intentions for these foods are examined. Factors that hinder consumer purchases of genetically modified foods are also tested. Results show that purchase intentions for consumers willing to buy genetically modified crops and meats are primarily affected by their belief that these foods are safe. On the other hand, intentions of consumers who decide not to buy ge...

  15. Factors affecting dental service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Baldacchino, Donia

    2015-01-01

    Measuring dental clinic service quality is the first and most important factor in improving care. The quality provided plays an important role in patient satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting dental service quality from the patients' viewpoint. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in a dental clinic in Tehran between January and June 2014. A sample of 385 patients was selected from two work shifts using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The data were collected, a self-administered questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study, based on the Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model of service quality which consisted of two parts: the patients' demographic characteristics and a 30-item questionnaire to measure the five dimensions of the service quality. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 18.0 through some descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, as well as analytical methods, including confirmatory factor. Results showed that the correlation coefficients for all dimensions were higher than 0.5. In this model, assurance (regression weight=0.99) and tangibility (regression weight=0.86) had, respectively, the highest and lowest effects on dental service quality. The Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model is suitable to measure quality in dental services. The variables related to dental services quality have been made according to the model. This is a pioneering study that uses Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model and CFA in a dental setting. This study provides useful insights and guidance for dental service quality assurance.

  16. Foods and food constituents that affect the brain and human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Until recently, it was generally believed that brain function was usually independent of day-to-day metabolic changes associated with consumption of food. Although it was acknowledged that peripheral metabolic changes associated with hunger or satiety might affect brain function, other effects of foods on the brain were considered unlikely. However, in 1971, Fernstrom and Wurtman discovered that under certain conditions, the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio of a meal could affect the concentration of a particular brain neurotransmitter. That neurotransmitter, serotonin, participates in the regulation of a variety of central nervous system (CNS) functions including sleep, pain sensitivity, aggression, and patterns of nutrient selection. The activity of other neurotransmitter systems has also been shown to be, under certain conditions, affected by dietary constituents which are given either as ordinary foods or in purified form. For example, the CNS turnover of two catecholamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, can be altered by ingestion of their amino acid precursor, tyrosine, when neurons that release these monoamines are firing frequently. Similarly, lecithin, a dietary source of choline, and choline itself have been shown to increase the synthesis of acetylcholine when cholinergic neurons are very active. It is possible that other neurotransmitters could also be affected by precursor availability or other, as yet undiscovered peripheral factors governed by food consumption. The effects of food on neurotransmitters and behavior are discussed.

  17. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  18. FACTORS INFLUENCING FOOD NEOPHOBIA. A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOICA Maricica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the number of new food products has increased considerably. Nevertheless, not all new food products are accepted and understood by consumers, the innovations in the food sector are often not well received by the market, partly due to a phenomenon known as food neophobia. Food neophobia, a general aversion to try new or unfamiliar foods, has a major impact on preferences, selection and food product acceptability. The neophobic consumers tend to display negative attitudes and less pleasure in relation to new food products. Food neophobia is based on three main reasons for rejection of a food, such as: dislike of its sensory characteristics, fear of negative consequences of eating it, and disgust arising from the idea of the food’s nature or origin. Phobia towards the introduction of unfamiliar foods in the diet can occur for several different factors, such as: socio-demographic characteristics, education level and lifestyle, degree of urbanization, income level, arousal, personal experiences, advertising, fashion, advices of other persons, and habits. This review paper was designed to provide up-to-date relevant information on factors influencing food neophobia, like social factors, type of new food, education, and arousal. The scientific information presented here could help food scientists in new food development, and food companies to develop the best marketing strategies that lead to a general decrease in neophobic consumers’ behaviour. The application of appropriate marketing strategies may allow the product to reach a competitive advantage and be successful.

  19. Factors affecting the concentration in seven-spotted ladybirds (Coccinella septempunctata L.) of Cd and Zn transferred through the food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, I.D., E-mail: igreen@bournemouth.ac.u [Centre for Conservation Ecology and Environmental Change, School of Conservation Sciences, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Poole, Dorset BH12 5BB (United Kingdom); Diaz, A., E-mail: adiaz@bournemouth.ac.u [Centre for Conservation Ecology and Environmental Change, School of Conservation Sciences, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Poole, Dorset BH12 5BB (United Kingdom); Tibbett, M., E-mail: mark.tibbett@uwa.edu.a [Centre for Land Rehabilitation, School of Earth and Environment, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    The transfer of Cd and Zn from soils amended with sewage sludge was followed through a food chain consisting of wheat, aphids and the predator Coccinella septempunctata. Multiple regression models were generated to predict the concentrations of Cd and Zn in C. septempunctata. No significant model could be generated for Cd, indicting that the concentration of this metal was maintained within relatively narrow limits. A model predicting 64% of the variability in the Zn concentration of C. septempunctata was generated from of the concentration of Zn in the diet, time and rate of Zn consumption. The results suggest that decreasing the rate of food consumption is an effective mechanism to prevent the accumulation of Zn and that the availability of Zn in the aphid prey increased with the concentration in the aphids. The results emphasise the importance of using ecologically relevant food chains and exposure pathways during ecotoxicological studies. - Arthropod predators can regulate trace metal body burden through physiological and behavioural mechanisms.

  20. Factors affecting the concentration in seven-spotted ladybirds (Coccinella septempunctata L.) of Cd and Zn transferred through the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, I.D.; Diaz, A.; Tibbett, M.

    2010-01-01

    The transfer of Cd and Zn from soils amended with sewage sludge was followed through a food chain consisting of wheat, aphids and the predator Coccinella septempunctata. Multiple regression models were generated to predict the concentrations of Cd and Zn in C. septempunctata. No significant model could be generated for Cd, indicting that the concentration of this metal was maintained within relatively narrow limits. A model predicting 64% of the variability in the Zn concentration of C. septempunctata was generated from of the concentration of Zn in the diet, time and rate of Zn consumption. The results suggest that decreasing the rate of food consumption is an effective mechanism to prevent the accumulation of Zn and that the availability of Zn in the aphid prey increased with the concentration in the aphids. The results emphasise the importance of using ecologically relevant food chains and exposure pathways during ecotoxicological studies. - Arthropod predators can regulate trace metal body burden through physiological and behavioural mechanisms.

  1. Factors Affecting Healthful Eating Among Touring Popular Musicians and Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Erin; Kelly, Patrick; Kress, Kathleen; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining good health is essential for touring musicians and singers. The stressful demands of touring may impact food choices, leading to detrimental effects on health and performance. This exploratory pilot study aimed to assess factors affecting healthful eating of touring musicians and singers. A 46-item survey was used to assess food- and nutrition-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviors, and environmental factors, as well as lifestyle, musical background, and demographic data. Participants (n=35) were recruited from a musicians' assistance foundation as well as touring musical theater productions and a music festival. Results indicate that touring musicians and singers had positive attitudes regarding healthful foods. Of 35 respondents, 80.0% indicated eating healthful food was important to them. Respondents reported feeling confident selecting (76.5%) and preparing (82.4%) healthful foods; however, they showed uncertainty when determining if carbohydrate-containing foods should be consumed or avoided. Respondents indicated environmental factors including availability and cost of healthy food options and tour schedules limited access to healthful foods. Venues (73.5%), fast food restaurants (67.6%), and airports (64.7%) were the most frequently identified locations in need of offering more healthful food choices. Respondents (52.9%) indicated more support from others while touring would help them make healthier food choices. More research is needed to develop mobile wellness programs as well as performance-based nutrition guidelines for musicians and singers that address the unique demands associated with touring.

  2. Affective Pictures and the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF): Tools to Investigate Emotions toward Food in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Laura; Delgado, Rafael; Guerra, Pedro; Versace, Francesco; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several sets of standardized food pictures have been created, supplying both food images and their subjective evaluations. However, to date only the OLAF (Open Library of Affective Foods), a set of food images and ratings we developed in adolescents, has the specific purpose of studying emotions toward food. Moreover, some researchers have argued that food evaluations are not valid across individuals and groups, unless feelings toward food cues are compared with feelings toward intense experiences unrelated to food, that serve as benchmarks. Therefore the OLAF presented here, comprising a set of original food images and a group of standardized highly emotional pictures, is intended to provide valid between-group judgments in adults. Emotional images (erotica, mutilations, and neutrals from the International Affective Picture System/IAPS) additionally ensure that the affective ratings are consistent with emotion research. The OLAF depicts high-calorie sweet and savory foods and low-calorie fruits and vegetables, portraying foods within natural scenes matching the IAPS features. An adult sample evaluated both food and affective pictures in terms of pleasure, arousal, dominance, and food craving, following standardized affective rating procedures. The affective ratings for the emotional pictures corroborated previous findings, thus confirming the reliability of evaluations for the food images. Among the OLAF images, high-calorie sweet and savory foods elicited the greatest pleasure, although they elicited, as expected, less arousal than erotica. The observed patterns were consistent with research on emotions and confirmed the reliability of OLAF evaluations. The OLAF and affective pictures constitute a sound methodology to investigate emotions toward food within a wider motivational framework. The OLAF is freely accessible at digibug.ugr.es.

  3. Economic Factors Impacting Food Allergen Management: Perspectives from the Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L; Kao, Lauren M; Schuster, Erik; Smith, Bridget M

    2017-10-01

    Food allergies affect up to 8% of children in the United States and may occasionally lead to severe life-threatening reactions. Because there is currently no cure for food allergies, strict avoidance of the allergen-containing foods is the only means of preventing an allergic reaction. Consumers rely on food manufacturers to reliably track and declare the presence of food allergens in products. Over the past 10 to 20 years, the food industry has increasingly adopted allergen control approaches in its processing facilities. However, the major industry costs related to food allergen management have not been fully described. The objective of this study was to characterize the factors that contribute to the economic impact of food allergen control practices on the food industry. A focus group (n = 100) was conducted with food industry professionals to identify key areas of cost for food allergen management. A survey based on the domains identified was then developed and disseminated to a convenience sample (n = 50) of quality control food industry specialists with knowledge of their company's food allergen management practices. Nearly all companies (92%) produced food products containing one or more of the top eight allergenic foods recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or sesame seeds. Cleaning procedures, employee training, and the potential for a recall due to allergen cross-contact were most frequently rated as the important factors in food allergen management. Recalls due to food allergen cross-contact, cleaning procedures, equipment and premises design, and employee training were ranked as the greatest allergen management expenses. Although 96% of companies had a food allergen control plan in place, nearly half (42%) had at least one food allergen-related recall within the past 5 years. The industry appears to endorse a willingness to unify precautionary allergen labeling to communicate a clear message more effectively to consumers.

  4. Personal Factors and Fast Food Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Saraniya Devendra

    2016-01-01

    Asian peoples including Sri Lankans are generally fond of cooking food items in their homes. It is understandable that on the other hand, growing knowledge and adoption of western culture bring a modification in food consumption pattern among Sri Lankan families who lives in a particular city area. As such, it is useful to identify the Personal Factors (PF) that influence on Fast Food Consumption (FFC), since the Sri Lankans change their behavior to have fast foods of developed countries from...

  5. Contingent factors affecting network learning

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Linda D.; Pressey, Andrew D.; Johnston, Wesley J.

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding of the impact of individuals on organizational learning processes, this paper explores the impact of individual cognition and action on the absorptive capacity process of the wider network. In particular this study shows how contingent factors such as social integration mechanisms and power relationships influence how network members engage in, and benefit from, learning. The use of cognitive consistency and sensemaking theory enables examination of how these conting...

  6. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  7. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yongi-Mi; University of Oklahoma

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR); yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider univers...

  8. Are You Sure? Confidence about the Satiating Capacity of a Food Affects Subsequent Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiöth, Helgi B; Ferriday, Danielle; Davies, Sarah R; Benedict, Christian; Elmståhl, Helena; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S

    2015-06-24

    Expectations about a food's satiating capacity predict self-selected portion size, food intake and food choice. However, two individuals might have a similar expectation, but one might be extremely confident while the other might be guessing. It is unclear whether confidence about an expectation affects adjustments in energy intake at a subsequent meal. In a randomized cross-over design, 24 subjects participated in three separate breakfast sessions, and were served a low-energy-dense preload (53 kcal/100 g), a high-energy-dense preload (94 kcal/100 g), or no preload. Subjects received ambiguous information about the preload's satiating capacity and rated how confident they were about their expected satiation before consuming the preload in its entirety. They were served an ad libitum test meal 30 min later. Confidence ratings were negatively associated with energy compensation after consuming the high-energy-dense preload (r = -0.61; p = 0.001). The same relationship was evident after consuming the low-energy-dense preload, but only after controlling for dietary restraint, hunger prior to, and liking of the test meal (p = 0.03). Our results suggest that confidence modifies short-term controls of food intake by affecting energy compensation. These results merit consideration because imprecise caloric compensation has been identified as a potential risk factor for a positive energy balance and weight gain.

  9. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.

  10. Factors That Affect Software Testability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, Jeffrey M.

    1991-01-01

    Software faults that infrequently affect software's output are dangerous. When a software fault causes frequent software failures, testing is likely to reveal the fault before the software is releases; when the fault remains undetected during testing, it can cause disaster after the software is installed. A technique for predicting whether a particular piece of software is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is found in [Voas91b]. A piece of software that is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have high testability. A piece of software that is not likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have low testability. It is preferable to design software with higher testabilities from the outset, i.e., create software with as high of a degree of testability as possible to avoid the problems of having undetected faults that are associated with low testability. Information loss is a phenomenon that occurs during program execution that increases the likelihood that a fault will remain undetected. In this paper, I identify two brad classes of information loss, define them, and suggest ways of predicting the potential for information loss to occur. We do this in order to decrease the likelihood that faults will remain undetected during testing.

  11. The influence pattern of key factors affecting the purpose of organizational excellence consulting on the efficiency of businesses consulting services (A case study of small and medium-size food enterprises in Tehran province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ezati Jivan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Consulting helps managers or other people find appropriate solutions for challenges they face in their businesses. Most of the losses incurred by the people and the society could be prevented using appropriate consultation. Consultation, also, refers to people's participation in decision making. Despite dramatic development in management consulting industry in the world during the last three decades, consulting industry in Iran has faced numerous challenges. This study aims to examine the factors affecting the efficiency of management consulting services in small and medium-sized businesses and it focuses on food industries in Tehran as a real-world case study. The necessary suggestions regarding the hiring of a consultant and increasing the efficiency of management consulting services in business have been offered in this study. Some recommendations deal with the way that management consultants should respond to the managers' needs, act as a reliable and efficient adviser in public or private businesses and find their position in the Iranian market. The conceptual model of this study shows the influence of key factors affecting the purpose of consulting on the efficiency of management consulting services. To do the research, 90 people are selected as the sample size in a descriptive study with random sampling of the managers of aforementioned companies using a questionnaire. Cronbach’s alpha method was used to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. For assessing the validity of the questionnaire, we use standard questionnaire, which has already been used.

  12. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Improved Rice Varieties in Borno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The study investigated the factors that affect adoption of improved rice varieties in the ... give a good results and also a threat to food security. Keywords: ..... decision of the farmers, however, inappropriate chain of supply/distributing the input or ...

  13. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit latrines in slums areas of Uganda fill up faster than might be expected from some estimates owing to inappropriate use and failure to consider critical factors affecting sludge accumulation rates at the planning, design and construction stages. This study sought to investigate factors affecting filling rates of lined pit latrines ...

  14. Factors affecting endoglucanase production by Trichoderma reesei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... from the ANOVA analysis have a significant value of Pmodel>F= 0.0008 and R2 .... there are various environmental and nutritional factors ... reported to affect cellulase production from wheat straw ... many factors affecting simultaneously the fermentation ..... and control its stability (Kalra and Sandhu, 1986).

  15. Atypical Food Packaging Affects The Persuasive Impact of Product Claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, M.L.; Fransen, P.W.J.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smit, E.G.

    2016-01-01

    Atypical food packaging draws attention in the retail environment, and therefore increases product salience. However, until now, no research has focused on how atypical packaging affects the persuasive impact of other food information. In the present study, we propose that atypical packaging

  16. Atypical food packaging affects the persuasive impact of product claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, I.; Fransen, M.L.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smit, E.G.

    Atypical food packaging draws attention in the retail environment, and therefore increases product sal- ience. However, until now, no research has focused on how atypical packaging affects the persuasive impact of other food information. In the present study, we propose that atypical packaging

  17. Are You Sure? Confidence about the Satiating Capacity of a Food Affects Subsequent Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgi B. Schiöth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Expectations about a food’s satiating capacity predict self-selected portion size, food intake and food choice. However, two individuals might have a similar expectation, but one might be extremely confident while the other might be guessing. It is unclear whether confidence about an expectation affects adjustments in energy intake at a subsequent meal. In a randomized cross-over design, 24 subjects participated in three separate breakfast sessions, and were served a low-energy-dense preload (53 kcal/100 g, a high-energy-dense preload (94 kcal/100 g, or no preload. Subjects received ambiguous information about the preload’s satiating capacity and rated how confident they were about their expected satiation before consuming the preload in its entirety. They were served an ad libitum test meal 30 min later. Confidence ratings were negatively associated with energy compensation after consuming the high-energy-dense preload (r = −0.61; p = 0.001. The same relationship was evident after consuming the low-energy-dense preload, but only after controlling for dietary restraint, hunger prior to, and liking of the test meal (p = 0.03. Our results suggest that confidence modifies short-term controls of food intake by affecting energy compensation. These results merit consideration because imprecise caloric compensation has been identified as a potential risk factor for a positive energy balance and weight gain.

  18. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Ahmet INAN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.

  19. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  20. Seattle's minimum wage ordinance did not affect supermarket food prices by food processing category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoden, Amanda L; Buszkiewicz, James H; Drewnowski, Adam; Long, Mark C; Otten, Jennifer J

    2018-06-01

    To examine the impacts of Seattle's minimum wage ordinance on food prices by food processing category. Supermarket food prices were collected for 106 items using a University of Washington Center for Public Health Nutrition market basket at affected and unaffected supermarket chain stores at three times: March 2015 (1-month pre-policy enactment), May 2015 (1-month post-policy enactment) and May 2016 (1-year post-policy enactment). Food items were categorized into four food processing groups, from minimally to ultra-processed. Data were analysed across time using a multilevel, linear difference-in-differences model at the store and price level stratified by level of food processing. Six large supermarket chain stores located in Seattle ('intervention') affected by the policy and six same-chain but unaffected stores in King County ('control'), Washington, USA. One hundred and six food and beverage items. The largest change in average price by food item was +$US 0·53 for 'processed foods' in King County between 1-month post-policy and 1-year post-policy enactment (P food processing level strata in Seattle v. King County stores at 1-month or 1-year post-policy enactment. Supermarket food prices do not appear to be differentially impacted by Seattle's minimum wage ordinance by level of the food's processing. These results suggest that the early implementation of a city-level minimum wage policy does not alter supermarket food prices by level of food processing.

  1. Do social norms affect intended food choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, H; Whitaker, K L; Cooke, L; Wardle, J

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of social norms on intended fruit and vegetable intake. A two-stage design to i) compare the perceived importance of normative influences vs cost and health on dietary choices, and ii) test the prediction that providing information on social norms will increase intended fruit and vegetable consumption in an experimental study. Home-based interviews (N=1083; 46% men, 54% women) were carried out as part of the Office for National Statistics Omnibus Survey in November 2008. The public's perception of the importance of social norms was lower (M=2.1) than the perceived importance of cost (M=2.7) or health (M=3.4) (all p'scost information; none of the interventions affected women's intentions. People have little awareness of the influence of social norms but normative information can have a demonstrable impact on dietary intentions. Health promotion might profit from emphasising how many people are attempting to adopt healthy lifestyles rather than how many have poor diets.

  2. 7339 BASELINE SURVEY ON FACTORS AFFECTING SORGHUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muuicathy

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... factors affecting sorghum production and the sorghum farming ... The informal seed system includes methods such as retaining seed on-farm from ..... Jaetzold R and H Schmidt Farm Management Handbook of Kenya, Ministry.

  3. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING APPLE PRODUCTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Research Organisation scientists working directly with apple farmers ... be productive up to 40 years, it was more realistic to consider .... to determine the factors that affect apple production. ..... profit maximising model using flexible production ...

  4. Affective evaluation of food images according to stimulus and subject characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, C; Carlucci, L; Marzoli, D; Manippa, V; Tommasi, L; Saggino, A; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Brancucci, A

    2018-04-17

    The food-rich environment in which we live makes the regulation of food choices a very complex phenomenon determined by many factors, as well as their interactions. Much evidence suggests that the sensory perception of food can be considered as a central factor affecting individual food choices. Despite this, the approaches used to study the various food aspects usually do not distinguish between different types of food. In the present study, a large and heterogeneous sample of 1149 participants aged 7-90 years was asked to judge food images that were labelled differently (i.e. Raw versus Cooked, Natural versus Transformed and Simple versus Complex) with respect to arousal, valence, typicality and familiarity. We observed that, across food dimensions (i.e., Raw versus Cooked, Natural versus Transformed and Simple versus Complex), arousal, valence and typicality judgments were principally affected by a subjective hunger level and gender (and their interaction) and, to a lesser extent, by age. As a whole, our findings suggest that the level of transformation (which includes cooking) and the complexity of a foodstuff could at least partially affect food processing, entailing that future research should also address these features. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, Brison

    This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…

  6. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  7. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  8. Food Ingestion Factors of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yeon Jang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior.

  9. Food ingestion factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, Sun-Ja; Myung, Hyung-Nam; Kim, Cho-Il

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior.

  10. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongi-Mi Kim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR; yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider university guidelines, review other websites, and consult with experts and other divisions within the library; however, resources and training for the design process are lacking. While website designers assess their websites as highly successful, user evaluations are somewhat lower. Accordingly, use is low, and users rely heavily on commercial websites. Suggestions for enhancing the usage of ULWR are provided.

  11. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship and Business Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tur-Porcar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is becoming increasingly important for society, and the creation of business ventures is one area where sustainability is critical. We examined the factors affecting actions that are designed to foster business sustainability. These factors are related to the environment, behavior, human relations, and business activity. Based on questionnaire responses from experts, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method was used to rank sustainable business criteria according to their importance for entrepreneurs starting sustainable businesses. The results indicate that the most important drivers of sustainable entrepreneurship are behavioral factors and business factors. Ethical principles and values, together with competitive intelligence, are crucial for undertaking actions that lead to sustainability.

  12. Analysis of the Main Factors Influencing Food Production in China Based on Time Series Trend Chart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangjin; WANG; Jianying; LI

    2014-01-01

    Based on the annual sample data on food production in China since the reform and opening up,we select 8 main factors influencing the total food production( growing area,application rate of chemical fertilizer,effective irrigation area,the affected area,total machinery power,food production cost index,food production price index,financial funds for supporting agriculture,farmers and countryside),and put them into categories of material input,resources and environment,and policy factors. Using the factor analysis,we carry out the multi-angle analysis of these typical influencing factors one by one through the time series trend chart. It is found that application rate of chemical fertilizer,the growing area of food crops and drought-affected area become the key factors affecting food production. On this basis,we set forth the corresponding recommendations for improving the comprehensive food production capacity.

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  14. Factors Affecting the Productivity of Government Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. Haenisch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While there have been a variety of studies concerning government worker motivation and productivity, few, if any, studies have focused specifically on state government workers’ perceptions about what factors affect their productivity. With more than 5 million workers employed by state governments in the United States, any improvement in state workplace productivity could have significant financial and service impact for society. In this study, state government workers identified those factors perceived as most affecting their workplace productivity. Data were collected through a survey offered to state government workers in the state of Wyoming. Factor analysis was used to derive key productivity factors from survey responses. The results indicate that state government workers appreciate having freedom and autonomy, like their jobs and the sense of achievement, and welcome teamwork, but feel limited by poor supervision and management, poor communications, and insufficient budgets and staffing. To improve productivity, the workers would eliminate bureaucracy, supervise better, and improve communication.

  15. Analysis of Economic Factors Affecting Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Linyin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation concentrates on analysis of economic factors affecting Chinese stock market through examining relationship between stock market index and economic factors. Six economic variables are examined: industrial production, money supply 1, money supply 2, exchange rate, long-term government bond yield and real estate total value. Stock market comprises fixed interest stocks and equities shares. In this dissertation, stock market is restricted to equity market. The stock price in thi...

  16. Factors affecting the effects of diuresis renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Deshan

    2006-01-01

    Diuresis renography is one of the classic methods for diagnosing upper urinary tract obstruction in both children and adults. However, in clinical practice, the results of diuresis renography were often influenced by many factors including diuretics, timing of diuretics injection, the status of renal function and hydration, the volume and compliance of collecting system, bladder fullness and so on. It is important to consider all the factors affecting diuresis renography during performing and interpreting diuresis renography. (authors)

  17. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Factors affecting career preferences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    College of Medicine prefer to work as doctors, and (ii) what factors may affect their long-term retention in their home country? Methods. We designed ... from rural areas and small towns, and whose parents were 'non- professionals', were .... needs – 5; city life can be difficult – 3; one is closer to family – 2; there is a sense of ...

  19. Workplace, Biographical and Motivation Factors Affecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the findings of a survey on how workplace, biographical and motivational factors affect the organisational commitment of records officers in federal universities in Nigeria. Single stage random sampling, with equal allocation method, was used to administer questionnaire on 300 sampled participants from ...

  20. Factors affecting IUCD discontinuation in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Subash; Paudel, Ishwari Sharma; Bhattarai, Sailesh

    2015-01-01

    Information related to contraception discontinuation, especially in the context of Nepal is very limited. A nested case-control study was carried out to determine the factors affecting discontinuation of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). A total of 115 cases (IUCD discontinuers) and 115...

  1. INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN FACTORS AFFECTING LABOUR MOBILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SELLIER, F.; ZARKA, C.

    THE GEOGRAPHICAL, OCCUPATIONAL, AND INTERFIRM MOBILITY, AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING THESE MOVEMENTS FOR WORKERS IN FRANCE, ITALY, GERMANY, AND SWEDEN IN THE PERIOD SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR ARE STUDIED. DATA OBTAINED FROM INDUSTRIAL SURVEYS AND GENERAL CENSUSES WERE USED TO COMPARE THE FOUR COUNTRIES WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH THE UNITED STATES.…

  2. Personal factors affecting organizational commitment of records ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated personal factors affecting organizational commitment among records management personnel in the state universities in Nigeria. Simple cluster sampling with equal allocation method was used to select 180 records management personnel from the study population. A five item organizational ...

  3. Food odors trigger an endocrine response that affects food ingestion and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushchak, Oleh V; Carlsson, Mikael A; Nässel, Dick R

    2015-08-01

    Food odors stimulate appetite and innate food-seeking behavior in hungry animals. The smell of food also induces salivation and release of gastric acid and insulin. Conversely, sustained odor exposure may induce satiation. We demonstrate novel effects of food odors on food ingestion, metabolism and endocrine signaling in Drosophila melanogaster. Acute exposure to attractive vinegar odor triggers a rapid and transient increase in circulating glucose, and a rapid upregulation of genes encoding the glucagon-like hormone adipokinetic hormone (AKH), four insulin-like peptides (DILPs) and some target genes in peripheral tissues. Sustained exposure to food odors, however, decreases food intake. Hunger-induced strengthening of synaptic signaling from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) to brain neurons increases food-seeking behavior, and conversely fed flies display reduced food odor sensitivity and feeding. We show that increasing the strength of OSN signaling chronically by genetic manipulation of local peptide neuromodulation reduces feeding, elevates carbohydrates and diminishes lipids. Furthermore, constitutively strengthened odor sensitivity altered gene transcripts for AKH, DILPs and some of their targets. Thus, we show that food odor can induce a transient anticipatory endocrine response, and that boosted sensitivity to this odor affects food intake, as well as metabolism and hormonal signaling.

  4. Intake of Mediterranean foods associated with positive affect and low negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Patricia A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Lee, Jerry W; Youngberg, Wes; Tonstad, Serena

    2013-02-01

    To examine associations between consumption of foods typical of Mediterranean versus Western diets with positive and negative affect. Nutrients influence mental states yet few studies have examined whether foods protective or deleterious for cardiovascular disease affect mood. Participants were 9255 Adventist church attendees in North America who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in 2002-6. Scores for affect were obtained from the positive and negative affect schedule questionnaire in 2006-7. Multiple linear regression models controlled for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, education, sleep, sleep squared (to account for high or low amounts), exercise, total caloric intake, alcohol and time between the questionnaires. Intake of vegetables (β=0.124 [95% CI 0.101, 0.147]), fruit (β=0.066 [95% CI 0.046, 0.085]), olive oil (β=0.070 [95% CI 0.029, 0.111]), nuts (β=0.054 [95% CI 0.026, 0.082]), and legumes (β=0.055 [95% CI 0.032, 0.077]) were associated with positive affect while sweets/desserts (β=-0.066 [95% CI -0.086, -0.046]), soda (β=-0.025 [95% CI -0.037, -0.013]) and fast food frequency (β=-0.046 [95% CI -0.062, -0.030]) were inversely associated with positive affect. Intake of sweets/desserts (β=0.058 [95% CI 0.037, 0.078]) and fast food frequency (β=0.052 [95% CI 0.036, 0.068]) were associated with negative affect while intake of vegetables (β=-0.076 [95% CI -0.099, -0.052]), fruit (β=-0.033 [95% CI -0.053, -0.014]) and nuts (β=-0.088 [95% CI -0.116, -0.060]) were inversely associated with negative affect. Gender interacted with red meat intake (Pnegative affect in females only. Foods typical of Mediterranean diets were associated with positive affect as well as lower negative affect while Western foods were associated with low positive affect in general and negative affect in women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  6. Identification of factors affecting individual industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadat Mirzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High knowledge and technology are rapidly becoming a competitive advantage in today’s world. Individual industries are considered one of the key sectors in the country’s industry. Ranking the factors that affect these industries makes us more familiar with their effectiveness and helps us take actions to improve such factors in knowledge-based companies. Consequently, based on previous research studies on Individual Industries, field observations, and a questionnaire prepared by the researchers, the current study explores and classifies the factors affecting the establishment of these industries. Regarding its purpose, this is an applied research, and regarding data collection, it is a descriptive survey. Using purposive sampling, 60 questionnaires were collected and effective factors were classified applying the SPSS software and the TOPSIS technique. This study suggests that content factors are ranked first place, while contextual and structural factors are ranked second and third, respectively. Therefore, executives and managers in single industries are recommended to strengthen joint enterprise norms and dominant values and beliefs in knowledge-based companies in order to help the growth and development of single industries.

  7. Factors affecting patient dose in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, J.L.

    1994-03-01

    The report, Factors Affecting Patient Dose in Diagnostic Radiology is divided into three main sections. Part one is introductory and covers the basic principles of x-ray production and image formation. It includes discussion of x-ray generators and x-ray tubes, radiation properties and units, specification and measurement of x-ray beams, methods of patient dose measurement, radiation effects, radiation protection philosophy and finally the essentials of imaging systems. Part two examines factors affecting the x-ray output of x-ray machines and the characteristics of x-ray beams. These include the influence of heat ratings, kVp, waveform, exposure timer, filtration, focus-film distance, beam intensity distribution, x-ray tube age and focal spot size. Part three examines x-ray machine, equipment and patient factors which affect the dose received by individual patients. The factors considered include justification of examinations, choice of examination method, film/screen combinations, kVp, mAs, focus-film distance, collimation and field size, exposure time, projection, scatter, generator calibration errors, waveform, filtration, film processing and patient size. The patient dose implications of fluoroscopy systems, CT scanners, special procedures and mammography are also discussed. The report concludes with a brief discussion of patient dose levels in New Zealand and dose optimisation. 104 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs

  8. EFFECTS OF SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON CONSUMPTION OF SELECTED FOOD NUTRIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of socioeconomic and demographic factors on the consumption of food energy, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, phosphorus, and iron are examined. Socioeconomic and demographic factors analyzed are urbanization, region, race, ethnicity, sex, employment status, food stamp participation, household size, weight, height, age, and income. Several of these factors significantly affect consumption of certain nutrients. Income is an important factor affect...

  9. An urban food store intervention positively affects food-related psychosocial variables and food behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B; Henry, Elizabeth G; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a comparison group of eight stores in another low-income area of the city. The intervention (Baltimore Healthy Stores; BHS) included an environmental component to increase stocks of more nutritious foods and provided point-of-purchase promotions including signage for healthy choices and interactive nutrition education sessions. Using pre- and postassessments, the authors evaluated the impact of the program on 84 respondents sampled from the intervention and comparison areas. Exposure to intervention materials was modest in the intervention area, and overall healthy food purchasing scores, food knowledge, and self-efficacy did not show significant improvements associated with intervention status. However, based on adjusted multivariate regression results, the BHS program had a positive impact on healthfulness of food preparation methods and showed a trend toward improved intentions to make healthy food choices. Respondents in the intervention areas were significantly more likely to report purchasing promoted foods because of the presence of a BHS shelf label. This is the first food store intervention trial in low-income urban communities to show positive impacts at the consumer level.

  10. Factors affecting the rural domestic waste generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Darban Astane

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to evaluate the quantity and quality of rural domestic waste generation and to identify the factors affecting it in rural areas of Khodabandeh county in Zanjan Province, Iran. Waste samplings consisted of 318 rural households in 11 villages. In order to evaluate the quality and quantity of the rural domestic waste, waste production was classified into 12 groups and 2 main groups of organic waste and solid waste. Moreover, kriging interpolation technique in ARC-GIS software was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the generated domestic waste and ultimately multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors affecting the generation of domestic waste. The results of this study showed that the average waste generated by each person was 0.588 kilograms per day. with the share of organic waste generated by each person being 0.409 kilograms per day and the share of solid waste generated by each person being 0.179 kilograms per day. The results from spatial distribution of waste generation showed a certain pattern in three groups and a higher rate of waste generation in the northern and northwestern parts, especially in the subdistrict. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the households’ income, assets, age, and personal attitude are respectively the most important variables affecting waste generation. The housholds’ attitude and indigenous knowledge on efficient use of materials are also the key factors which can help reducing waste generation.

  11. An Urban Food Store Intervention Positively Affects Food-Related Psychosocial Variables and Food Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B.; Henry, Elizabeth G.; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a…

  12. Food quantity affects the sensitivity of Daphnia to road salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arran H; Yan, Norman D

    2015-04-07

    Road deicing operations have raised chloride (Cl) levels in many temperate lakes in Europe and North America. These lakes vary widely in trophic status, but to date, no one has quantified the interaction between food quantity and road salt toxicity. We examined the effects of food quantity (particulate algal C concentration (C)) on the chronic toxicity of Cl to Daphnia in soft-water bioassays. There was a strong positive linear relationship (r(2) = 0.92 for NaCl and r(2) = 0.96 for CaCl2) between food quantity and Cl LC50. As food quantity increased from 0.2 to 1.0 mg C/L (levels characteristic of oligotrophic to eutrophic lakes, respectively), the chronic Cl LC50 increased from 55.7 to 284.8 mg Cl/L. Salt type (NaCl or CaCl2) did not affect the Cl LC50, Daphnia life history parameters, or the intrinsic rate of population increase (r). The life history parameter most sensitive to Cl was neonate production. Cl did not inhibit egg production, nor was the maternal lipid investment in eggs changed, but egg viability and the subsequent release of live neonates decreased as Cl levels increased and food decreased. Our results suggest the trophic status of lakes should be considered when assessing ecological threat from Cl.

  13. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level....../distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined...

  14. Factors affecting radiocaesium transfer to ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Howard, B.J.; Vandecasteele, C.; Mayes, R.W.; Belli, M.; Sansone, U.; Stakelum, G.; Colgan, P.A.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Crout, N.M.J.; Jones, B.E.V., Hove, K.; ITE, Merlewood; CEN, Mol; MLURI, Aberdeen; ENEA-DISP, Rome; MPRC, Fermoy; RPII, Dublin; Ioannina Univ., Nuclear Physics; Nottingham Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala; Agricultural Univ., Aas

    1993-01-01

    The studies performed in the 2 year CEG/DG XII Radiation Protection Programme described here have tried to identify and quantify some of the most important factors influencing the radiocaesium levels in animal food products. The programme involved 9 laboratories in 6 countries: Belgium, Ireland, Greece, Italy, Sweden and the UK. Scientists from Norway and Germany also participated on an informal basis and are formally involved in a subsequent project. Experimental studies have largely been conducted using sheep, although some comparative studies have been performed with dairy cattle. In parallel to the experimental studies, a number of research models have been developed by participants in Greece and the UK to be interactively used with a number of different aspects in the programme. This presentation gives a short overview and discussion of the main findings of this project. (orig./DG)

  15. Changes in a middle school food environment affect food behavior and food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordell, Doug; Daratha, Kenn; Mandal, Bidisha; Bindler, Ruth; Butkus, Sue Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    Increasing rates of obesity among children ages 12 to 19 years have led to recommendations to alter the school food environment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are associations between an altered school food environment and food choices of middle school students both in and outside of school. In a midsized western city, two of six middle schools allowed only bottled water in vending machines, only milk and fruit on à la carte menus, and offered a seasonal fruit and vegetable bar. Three years after the intervention was initiated, seventh- and eighth-grade students attending the two intervention schools and four control middle schools were surveyed about their food choices. A total of 2,292 surveys were completed. Self-reported frequency of consumption for nine food groups in the survey was low; consumption was higher outside than in school. Boys consumed more milk than girls although girls consumed more fruits and vegetables. Significant socioeconomic differences existed. Compared with students who paid the full lunch fee, students qualifying for free and reduced-price meals consumed more milk and juice in schools but less outside school; more candy and energy drinks in school; and more sweet drinks, candy, pastries, and energy drinks outside school. Students in intervention schools were 24% more likely to consume milk outside school, 27% less likely to consume juice in school, and 56% less likely to consume sweet pastries in school. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption reported by children in control and intervention schools. Overall, there was a positive association between a modified school food environment and student food behavior in and outside school. Policies related to the school food environment are an important strategy to address the obesity epidemic in our country. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors Affecting Tourist Expenditure Coming To Mugla Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehime Korkmaz Bingöl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing tourist expenditure is a means to increase tourism income, which is extremely important for local economies. The purpose of this study is to understand the expending pattern of tourists coming to Mugla Region and provide empirical background for the policies to increase per tourist expenditure. The survey conducted at Dalaman International Airport and the data has been analyzed using OLS method. Nationality, age, accommodation type, pension type, credit card usage, availability of shopping facilities, standard of night life and entertainment, quality of food and beverage, length of holiday and group size has been found as significant factors affecting tourist expenditure

  17. Factors affecting academic leadership in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martires, Kathryn J; Aquino, Lisa L; Wu, Jashin J

    2015-02-01

    Although prior studies have examined methods by which to recruit and retain academic dermatologists, few have examined factors that are important for developing academic leaders in dermatology. This study sought to examine characteristics of dermatology residency programs that affect the odds of producing department or division chairs/chiefs and program directors (PDs). Data regarding program size, faculty, grants, alumni residency program attended, lectures, and publications for all accredited US dermatology residency programs were collected. Of the 103 programs examined, 46% had graduated at least 1 chair/chief, and 53% had graduated at least 1 PD. Results emphasize that faculty guidance and research may represent modifiable factors by which a dermatology residency program can increase its graduation of academic leaders.

  18. Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

  19. Factors Affecting Gastrointestinal Microbiome Development in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Yieh Lin Chong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiome is established in the newborn period and is recognised to interact with the host to influence metabolism. Different environmental factors that are encountered during this critical period may influence the gut microbial composition, potentially impacting upon later disease risk, such as asthma, metabolic disorder, and inflammatory bowel disease. The sterility dogma of the foetus in utero is challenged by studies that identified bacteria, bacterial DNA, or bacterial products in meconium, amniotic fluid, and the placenta; indicating the initiation of maternal-to-offspring microbial colonisation in utero. This narrative review aims to provide a better understanding of factors that affect the development of the gastrointestinal (GI microbiome during prenatal, perinatal to postnatal life, and their reciprocal relationship with GI tract development in neonates.

  20. Factors affecting outcome in ocular myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, Marco; Ariatti, Alessandra; Valzania, Franco; Kaleci, Shaniko; Tondelli, Manuela; Nichelli, Paolo F; Galassi, Giuliana

    2018-01-01

    50%-60% of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) progress to generalized myasthenia gravis (GMG) within two years. The aim of our study was to explore factors affecting prognosis of OMG and to test the predictive role of several independent clinical variables. We reviewed a cohort of 168 Caucasian patients followed from September 2000 to January 2016. Several independent variables were considered as prognostic factors: gender, age of onset, results on electrophysiological tests, presence and level of antibodies against acetylcholine receptors (AChR Abs), treatments, thymic abnormalities. The primary outcome was the progression to GMG and/or the presence of bulbar symptoms. Secondary outcomes were either achievement of sustained minimal manifestation status or worsening in ocular quantitative MG subscore (O-QMGS) or worsening in total QMG score (T-QMGS), assessed by Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) quantitative scores. Changes in mental and physical subscores of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed with SF-36 questionnaire. Variance analysis was used to interpret the differences between AChR Ab titers at different times of follow up among the generalized and non-generalized patients. Conversion to GMG occurred in 18.4% of patients; it was significantly associated with sex, later onset of disease and anti-AChR Ab positivity. Antibody titer above the mean value of 25.8 pmol/mL showed no significant effect on generalization. Sex and late onset of disease significantly affected T-QMGS worsening. None of the other independent variables significantly affected O-QMGS and HRQoL. Sex, later onset and anti-AChR Ab positivity were significantly associated with clinical worsening.

  1. Factors affecting scholastic performances of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashidhar, Saraswati; Rao, Chandrika; Hegde, Radhakrishna

    2009-05-01

    The present study aims at recognizing the social influence, study habits and health factors affecting scholastic performances of adolescents and to compare these factors among the adolescents between two categories of school. A total of 1230 adolescents (13-18 yrs) were screened. Data was collected by personal interview, using the teenage screening questionnaire, Trivandrum, between May 2004 and November 2005. A total 615 students from corporation and private schools were studied. 39.76% (489) were high achievers, 13.5% (166) were low achievers with p poor study habits and social factors were increased in low achievers of corporation schools. On multivariate analysis, the predictor variables for poor scholastic performance were adolescent having refractory error, not having help for study at home, not doing home work regularly, not solving question bank papers and reading only before examinations. It is feasible and worthwhile to identify the determinants of scholastic performance and plan intervention strategies at each school. The results of this study highlight the importance of implementing newer strategies, focusing on strict study patterns and creating the conducive school and home environment for study, so as to achieve better scholastic performances.

  2. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  3. The glycaemic index values of foods containing fructose are affected by metabolic differences between subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, T M S; Jenkins, A L; Vuksan, V; Campbell, J

    2009-09-01

    Glycaemic responses are influenced by carbohydrate absorption rate, type of monosaccharide absorbed and the presence of fat; the effect of some of these factors may be modulated by metabolic differences between subjects. We hypothesized that glycaemic index (GI) values are affected by the metabolic differences between subjects for foods containing fructose or fat, but not for starchy foods. The GI values of white bread (WB), fruit leather (FL) and chocolate-chip cookies (CCC) (representing starch, fructose and fat, respectively) were determined in subjects (n=77) recruited to represent all 16 possible combinations of age (40 years), sex (male, female), ethnicity (Caucasian, non-Caucasian) and body mass index (BMI) (25 kg/m2) using glucose as the reference. At screening, fasting insulin, lipids, c-reactive protein (CRP), aspartate transaminase (AST) and waist circumference (WC) were measured. There were no significant main effects of age, sex, BMI or ethnicity on GI, but there were several food x subject-factor interactions. Different factors affected each food's area under the curve (AUC) and GI. The AUC after oral glucose was related to ethnicity, age and triglycerides (r 2=0.27); after WB to ethnicity, age, triglycerides, sex and CRP (r 2=0.43); after CCC to age and weight (r 2=0.18); and after FL to age and CRP (r 2=0.12). GI of WB was related to ethnicity (r 2=0.12) and of FL to AST, insulin and WC (r 2=0.23); but there were no significant correlations for CCC. The GI values of foods containing fructose might be influenced by metabolic differences between -subjects, whereas the GI of starchy foods might be affected by ethnicity. However, the proportion of variation explained by subject factors is small.

  4. CRITICAL THINKING AND ITS AFFECTING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Slameto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to measure the success rate achieved by the alumni of Open/Distance Learning (O/DL, the Bachelor Education In-service Teachers Program (BEITP, Staya Jacana Christian University(SWCU, Salatiga in their critical thinking habit that lead to their success, and to find factors which determined their critical thinking habit. The factors concerned were student factor (learning motivation, alumni’s readiness to enter ICT community, prerequisite or teacher factor (teacher’s ability in creating and using a new instructional context. This quantitative research belongs to the causality ex-post facto research. The data source was one class of O/ DL, the BEITP, SWCUstudents, who were chosen out of four classes, as many as 32 alumni in the academic year 2015/2016. Data were screened using a self-rating scale, which consisted of 40 items tested valid and reliable, and then reduced to 5 variablas. The BEITP, SWCU Salatiga had graduated most of its alumni who owned critical thinking habit at a high rate. The critical thinking habit was affected by the instructional contexts which enabled a new situation (Model 1, alumni’s readiness to enter the ICT community (Model 2, pre-requisite, i.e., mastery of previous lecture materials (Model 3, and student’s learning motivation (Model 4 to reach 81%. The alumni’s critical thinking habit of 51.20% was determined by the teacher’s role in developing instructional contexts which made a new situation possible. This finding was useful for educational quality management for the effectiveness and productivity of higher education, which should have been focused on the teacher in developing an instructional strategy based on context, alumni readiness to enter the ICT community, prerequisite, and student’s learning motivation.

  5. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  6. Factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sanaa Abd El Azim

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, on 207 student nurses from four different grades. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, consisted of 30 items, was used to measure the students' assertiveness level and a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer was used to measure students' psychological empowerment. The study results showed that 60.4% of the students were assertive, while about half of the students were empowered. A positive relation between student assertiveness and psychological empowerment was detected. Moreover, positive relations regarding family income and students' assertiveness and psychological empowerment were determined. The study recommended introduction of specific courses aiming at enhancing the acquisition of assertiveness skills, in addition, nurse educators must motivate their students to express their opinion and personal rights and also they must pay attention for students' empowerment and enhance students' autonomy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors Affecting Fertility Desires in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa C. David

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting fertility desires in the Philippines were examined using data from a national survey and from individual and group qualitative interviews involving 143 respondents. Fertility goals usually range from two to three children, but evidence suggests that they are dynamic and may change over a person’s lifetime. Qualitative interviews reveal that when negotiating about family size, it is the partner who wants more children that will be followed. A strong demand for gender balance among offspring creates a willingness to have more children than originally desired. Fertility goals increase over time among women. While those who start childbirth at a very young age successfully space their children, they tend to want larger families than those who start late. Initial fertility goals among women are generally low but may increase because of higher fertility desires among men, a demand for gender balance in children, and the desire for babies once their children have grown.

  8. Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Tomohiro; Kahn, B.

    1989-09-01

    In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

  9. Emergency Nurses' Perspectives: Factors Affecting Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Carol L; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V

    2016-05-01

    Caring is a universal phenomenon. However, as a result of higher patient acuity and staff shortages within the chaotic ED environment, caring behaviors may be in peril. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the meaning of caring from the perspective of emergency nurses. Exploring nurses' perspectives of caring is central to improving staffing and retention issues in this unique work environment. As part of a larger study, a subsample of emergency nurses who work in public hospitals in Manitoba, Canada (n = 17) were interviewed. A qualitative descriptive design was used to gain insight into the caring perspectives of nurses by asking them, "What does caring meaning to you?" and "What affects caring in your practice in the emergency department?" Emerging themes were extracted through analysis of audio tapes and transcripts. Advocacy and holistic care emerged as major themes in the meaning of caring for emergency nurses. Caring was affected by a number of factors, including workload, lack of time, staffing issues, shift work, and lack of self-care. However, lack of management support was the most consistent hindrance to caring identified by study participants. Caring continues to be a unifying concept in nursing; however, influencing factors continue to undermine caring for emergency nurses. Caring is not subsidiary to nursing; it is the central core of nursing. Therefore, fostering a caring working environment is essential for nurses to practice holistic nursing care. It is also imperative to job satisfaction and the retention of emergency nurses. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors affecting medication-order processing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, M A; Kotzan, J A

    1982-11-01

    The factors affecting medication-order processing time at one hospital were studied. The order processing time was determined by directly observing the time to process randomly selected new drug orders on all three work shifts during two one-week periods. An order could list more than one drug for an individual patient. The observer recorded the nature, location, and cost of the drugs ordered, as well as the time to process the order. The time and type of interruptions also were noted. The time to process a drug order was classified as six dependent variables: (1) total time, (2) work time, (3) check time, (4) waiting time I--time from arrival on the dumbwaiter until work was initiated, (5) waiting time II--time between completion of the work and initiation of checking, and (6) waiting time III--time after the check was completed until the order left on the dumbwaiter. The significant predictors of each of the six dependent variables were determined using stepwise multiple regression. The total time to process a prescription order was 58.33 +/- 48.72 minutes; the urgency status of the order was the only significant determinant of total time. Urgency status also significantly predicted the three waiting-time variables. Interruptions and the number of drugs on the order were significant determinants of work time and check time. Each telephone interruption increased the work time by 1.72 minutes. While the results of this study cannot be generalized to other institutions, pharmacy managers can use the method of determining factors that affect medication-order processing time to identify problem areas in their institutions.

  11. Factors affecting hydrocarbon removal by air stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper includes an overview of the theory of air stripping design considerations and the factors affecting stripper performance. Effects of temperature, contaminant characteristics, stripping tower geometry and air/water ratios on removal performance are discussed. The discussion includes treatment of groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents such as TCE and PCE. Control of VOC emissions from air strippers has become a major concern in recent years, due to more stringent restrictions on air quality in many areas. This paper includes an overview of available technology to control air emissions (including activated carbon adsorption, catalytic oxidation and steam stripping) and the effects of air emission control on overall efficiency of the treatment process. The paper includes an overview of the relative performance of various packing materials for air strippers and explains the relative advantages and disadvantages of comparative packing materials. Field conditions affecting selection of packing materials are also discussed. Practical guidelines for the design of air stripping systems are presented, as well as actual case studies of full-scale air stripping projects

  12. Factors Affecting the Underperformance of Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeeka Amarasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama is the largest factory of Brandix Group of Companies catering to VS Pink. It has a labour force of 1250 employees including a direct labour force of 659. Production capabilities have been extended to in-house printing and embroidery sections in addition to cutting and shipping facilities. Like other apparel manufacturers in the industry, BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama also faces much competition and problems in its day to day business operations. One of the major issues so faced is On-Time-Delivery due to underperformance of the employees. Therefore, with the objectives of studying factors affecting the underperformance of the employees of the production department, analysing and identifying such factors, and providing recommendations, a few variables i.e. machines and methods, skill level, financial incentives, leadership practices and working conditions were identified as having a potential impact over the performance of the production employees. Stratified random sampling method was used to select 64 team members from the 32 production modules, and research work continued to collate primary data through administrating a structured questionnaire among selected associates. Null and alternative hypotheses were tested using correlations, and the data is presented as graphical pictures, tables, and in narrative form. However, there were a few limitations such as management influence, sample basis selection, service period, level of understating, time availability and commitment, time availability for the study etc. which may have had an impact over the research findings.

  13. Factors affecting seismic response of submarine slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biscontin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.

  14. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  15. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilijus Sakalauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  16. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Liutvinavičius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient  attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  17. Ranking agility factors affecting hospitals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdi Talarposht

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were selected hospitals. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from the health centers. The construct validity of the questionnaire was approved by confirmatory factor analysis test and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α=0.97. All data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Friedman tests. Findings: The development of staff skills, the use of information technology, the integration of processes, appropriate planning, and customer satisfaction and product quality had a significant impact on the agility of public hospitals of Iran (P<0.001. New product introductions had earned the highest ranking and the development of staff skills earned the lowest ranking. Conclusion: The new product introduction, market responsiveness and sensitivity, reduce costs, and the integration of organizational processes, ratings better to have acquired agility hospitals in Iran. Therefore, planners and officials of hospitals have to, through the promotion quality and variety of services customer-oriented, providing a basis for investing in the hospital and etc to apply for agility supply chain public hospitals of Iran.

  18. Environmental Factors Affecting Where People Geocache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Golbeck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from OpenCaching.com and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.

  19. Factors Influencing the Performance of German Food SME Formal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivka Deiters

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The food sector in Europe can be characterized as a complex, global and dynamically changing network of trade streams, food supply network relations and related product flows which offers a big spectrum for economic output and employment. Innovation is important for the competitiveness of the food industry that is to a large extent comprised of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. For them, innovation has grown extremely subordinate to interaction in networks. Network initiatives that could provide appropriate support involve social interaction and knowledge exchange, learning and competence development, and coordination (organization and management ofimplementation. This paper is designed to assess the factors that affect the performance of German food SME formal networks. It also addresses the consequences at the network and macro level. The analysis was explored by using the laddering technique based on the means‐end chain theory. The findings will help to build up a “network learning toolbox” that is adapted to the particular requirements of the different target groups such as of SMEs, network managers and policy makers. The “network learning toolbox” should improve network learning, which is adriver for improvements in innovation, economic growth and sustainable competitive advantage for food SMEs.

  20. Factors Influencing Household Food Security in West Africa: The Case of Southern Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seydou Zakari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity is a major challenge for Niger and for many African countries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting household food security in Niger. Based on survey data covering 500 households, drought, high food prices, poverty, soil infertility, disease and insect attacks are reported by the respondents to be the main causes of food insecurity. The empirical results from logistic regression revealed that the gender of the head of household, diseases and pests, labor supply, flooding, poverty, access to market, the distance away from the main road and food aid are significant factors influencing the odds ratio of a household having enough daily rations. Another important finding is that female headed households are more vulnerable to food insecurity compared to male headed households. The findings of this study provide evidence that food insecurity continues to affect the Nigerien population.

  1. Food fraud vulnerability and its key factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van Saskia M.; Huisman, Wim; Luning, Pieternel A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Food fraud prevention and fraud vulnerability reduction are the first steps to combat food fraud and require a recurrent effort throughout the food supply chain. Due to the intentional nature of fraud, it requires different tactics than the common food safety approaches. However,

  2. Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Pınar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Başkent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

  3. Examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease among food bank members in Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Fowokan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Food banks provide supplemental food to low-income households, yet little is known about the cardiovascular health of food banks members. This study therefore described cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among food bank members and explored associations between food insecurity and CVD risk.Adults ≥18 years (n = 77 from three food bank sites in metro Vancouver, British Columbia completed surveys and physical assessments examining a range of socio-demographic variables and CVD risk factors. A composite measure of myocardial infarction (MI risk called the INTERHEART score was assessed and household food insecurity was measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module. Regression models were used to explore associations between food insecurity and CVD risk measures, including the INTERHEART score.Ninety-seven percent of food bank members reported experiencing food insecurity, 65% were current smokers, 53% reported either chronic or several periods of stress in the past year, 55% reported low physical activity levels and 80% reported consuming fewer than five servings of fruit and vegetables daily. Prevalence of self-reported diabetes and hypertension were 13% and 29% respectively. Fifty-two percent of the sample were at high risk of non-fatal MI. No statistically significant associations were found between increased severity of food insecurity and CVD risk factors among this sample where both severe food insecurity and high CVD risks were prevalent.Food bank members were at elevated risk for CVD compared with the general population. Strategies are needed to reduce prevalence of food insecurity and CVD risk factors, both of which disproportionately affected food bank members. Keywords: Food insecurity, Food banks, Cardiovascular disease, Risk factors, Canada

  4. Factors Affecting Internationalization of Indonesia Franchise Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Halim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Franchise is one of successful business strategies in business expansion. Franchise format has been already adopted in all countries. The success is proven in the world and also in Indonesia. Franchise system can be implemented not only in franchisor country but also in other countries. The spirit of internalization is not only because of market saturated, but also to increase reputation of franchise companies and to follow competitors or customers. Important thing discussed in this research is the franchise life-cycle, franchise growth model, and franchise companies’ profile.  It is found that the Indonesia franchise companies are in the introduction stage. The stage in life-cycle shows its reputation. This study used literature review as methodology, and the purpose of this study is to give a big picture for Indonesia franchise companies to make internationalization. There are some Indonesia franchise business profiles in the discussion part. The factors affecting franchise internationalization were analyzed by PESTEL analysis. Some strategies should be prepared in making decision to go international.  At the end, there are some recommendations and future research relating to internationalize franchise business.

  5. Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien T. Supangco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality

  6. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admpather

    food choice in order to help people make healthful food and beverage choices .... consumption patterns, lifestyles, health status and the different factors .... relative importance in human eating behaviour: review and preliminary suggestions for.

  7. Listening to food workers: Factors that impact proper health and hygiene practice in food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Megan L; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Neff, Roni A; Pollack, Keshia M; Ensminger, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne disease is a significant problem worldwide. Research exploring sources of outbreaks indicates a pronounced role for food workers' improper health and hygiene practice. To investigate food workers' perceptions of factors that impact proper food safety practice. Interviews with food service workers in Baltimore, MD, USA discussing food safety practices and factors that impact implementation in the workplace. A social ecological model organizes multiple levels of influence on health and hygiene behavior. Issues raised by interviewees include factors across the five levels of the social ecological model, and confirm findings from previous work. Interviews also reveal many factors not highlighted in prior work, including issues with food service policies and procedures, working conditions (e.g., pay and benefits), community resources, and state and federal policies. Food safety interventions should adopt an ecological orientation that accounts for factors at multiple levels, including workers' social and structural context, that impact food safety practice.

  8. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin HK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyekyung Jin,1 Yeonhee Kim,2 Sandy Jeong Rhie1,3 1College of Pharmacy, 2Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, 3Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160 aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15. The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=-0.215, P=0.022, sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=-0.335, P=0.000, education level (β=-0.153, P=0.045, health-related problems (β=-0.239, P=0.004, and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018. Conclusion: In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists

  9. perceived nutrition benefits and socio-demographic factors affecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2018-05-07

    May 7, 2018 ... AFFECTING CONSUMPTION OF FOREST FOODS IN EASTERN AND ... P. O. Box 2067, .... and knowledge of health benefits of forest .... R FUNGO et al. 210. TABLE 5. Logistic regression analysis on the socio demographic ...

  10. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / ... to learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. ...

  11. Critical factors for sustainable food procurement in zoological collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Food procurement can play an important role in sustainable food supply chain management by zoos, linking organizational operations to the biodiversity conservation and sustainability mission of zoological collections. This study therefore examines the critical factors that shape sustainable food procurement in zoo and aquariums. Using a web-based survey data was collected from 41 members of the British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums (BIAZA). This included information on the sustainable food procurement practices of these institutions for both their human and animal food supply chains, as well as profile information and data on the factors contributing to and inhibiting sustainable procurement practices. Zoological collections operated by charities, and those with a certified sustainability standard, were found to have significantly higher levels of sustainable food procurement. Zoos and aquariums whose human food operations were not contracted to an external party were also found to have significantly higher levels of sustainable food procurement in their human food supply chain. The most important drivers of sustainable food procurement were cost savings, adequate financial support and improved product quality. The highest ranking barriers were higher costs, other issues taking priority and a lack of alternative suppliers. The results suggest that a number of critical factors shape sustainable food procurement in zoological collections in the British Isles. Financial factors, such as cost savings, were important considerations. The significance of mission-related factors, such as charity status, indicated that core values held by zoos and aquariums can also influence their food procurement practices. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Parents of Food-Allergic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sheila Ohlsson; Mao, Guangyun; Caruso, Deanna; Hong, Xiumei; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that chronic stress may induce immune system malfunction and a broad range of adverse health outcomes; however, the underlying pathways for this relationship are unclear. Our study aimed to elucidate this question by examining the relationship between parental cardiovascular risk factors including systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and maternal psychological stress score (MPSS) relative to the severity of the child's food allergy (FA) and number of affected children. SBP, DBP, BMI, and WHR were measured and calculated at the time of recruitment by trained nurses. MPSS was obtained based on self-report questionnaires covering lifestyle adjustments, perceived chronic stress, and quality of life. General linear models examined whether caregiver chronic stress was associated with FA. For mothers with children under age 5 years, SBP, DBP and number of affected children had strong and graded relationships with severity of the child's FA. MPSS was also significantly and positively associated with child FA severity (P parent. This was also the case for paternal SBP, DBP, and number of affected children of any age. There is a strong and graded link between cardiovascular risk and perceived stress in mothers of food-allergic children under age 5. Findings may have important implications for family-centered care of FA, may generalize to caregivers of children with chronic conditions, and extend the literature on allostatic load.

  13. Nutrition research to affect food and a healthy lifespan12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlhorst, Sarah D.; Russell, Robert; Bier, Dennis; Klurfeld, David M.; Li, Zhaoping; Mein, Jonathan R.; Milner, John; Ross, A. Catharine; Stover, Patrick; Konopka, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Proper nutrition offers one of the most effective and least costly ways to decrease the burden of many diseases and their associated risk factors, including obesity. Nutrition research holds the key to increasing our understanding of the causes of obesity and its related comorbidities and thus holds promise to markedly influence global health and economies. After outreach to 75 thought leaders, the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) convened a Working Group to identify the nutrition research needs whose advancement will have the greatest projected impact on the future health and well-being of global populations. ASN’s Nutrition Research Needs focus on the following high priority areas: 1) variability in individual responses to diet and foods; 2) healthy growth, development, and reproduction; 3) health maintenance; 4) medical management; 5) nutrition-related behaviors; and 6) food supply/environment. ASN hopes the Nutrition Research Needs will prompt collaboration among scientists across all disciplines to advance this challenging research agenda given the high potential for translation and impact on public health. Furthermore, ASN hopes the findings from the Nutrition Research Needs will stimulate the development and adoption of new and innovative strategies that can be applied toward the prevention and treatment of nutrition-related diseases. The multidisciplinary nature of nutrition research requires stakeholders with differing areas of expertise to collaborate on multifaceted approaches to establish the evidence-based nutrition guidance and policies that will lead to better health for the global population. In addition to the identified research needs, ASN also identified 5 tools that are critical to the advancement of the Nutrition Research Needs: 1) omics, 2) bioinformatics, 3) databases, 4) biomarkers, and 5) cost-effectiveness analysis. PMID:24038264

  14. Factors Affecting Turkish Students' Achievement in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil; Depren, Ozer

    2009-01-01

    Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…

  15. Factors Affecting Success of Training Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogala, Piotr; Batko, Roman; Wawak, Slawomir

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the key factors which influence the functioning quality and success of training companies. Based on an analysis of the requirements included in the quality management system standards for providers of education and training services, a set of twenty factors has been developed. This was followed by a survey for…

  16. Do increasing prices affect food deprivation in the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol García-Germán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The rise of prices of agricultural commodities in global markets during 2007-2012 was followed by increased consumer food prices around the world. More expensive food may have an impact on consumer food access and thus on their welfare, not only in developing countries but also amongst the most vulnerable in developed countries. Using a longitudinal database from the Statistics on Income and Living Conditions and population-averaged models, we tested whether increasing food prices had an impact on household food deprivation in 26 European Union (EU member states. Results revealed a significant relationship between food deprivation and the consumer food price index and disposable income. Households in the lowest income quintile in the member states recently acceded to the EU were the most vulnerable to food deprivation. Results also showed that low-income households in densely populated areas were more vulnerable to food deprivation. This should be taken into account when evaluating food assistance programmes that focus on the segments of the population most at risk of food deprivation.

  17. Do increasing prices affect food deprivation in the European Union?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Germán, S.; Bardají, I.; Garrido, A.

    2018-01-01

    The rise of prices of agricultural commodities in global markets during 2007-2012 was followed by increased consumer food prices around the world. More expensive food may have an impact on consumer food access and thus on their welfare, not only in developing countries but also amongst the most vulnerable in developed countries. Using a longitudinal database from the Statistics on Income and Living Conditions and population-averaged models, we tested whether increasing food prices had an impact on household food deprivation in 26 European Union (EU) member states. Results revealed a significant relationship between food deprivation and the consumer food price index and disposable income. Households in the lowest income quintile in the member states recently acceded to the EU were the most vulnerable to food deprivation. Results also showed that low-income households in densely populated areas were more vulnerable to food deprivation. This should be taken into account when evaluating food assistance programmes that focus on the segments of the population most at risk of food deprivation.

  18. Examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease among food bank members in Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowokan, A O; Black, J L; Holmes, E; Seto, D; Lear, S A

    2018-06-01

    Food banks provide supplemental food to low-income households, yet little is known about the cardiovascular health of food banks members. This study therefore described cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among food bank members and explored associations between food insecurity and CVD risk. Adults ≥18 years (n = 77) from three food bank sites in metro Vancouver, British Columbia completed surveys and physical assessments examining a range of socio-demographic variables and CVD risk factors. A composite measure of myocardial infarction (MI) risk called the INTERHEART score was assessed and household food insecurity was measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module. Regression models were used to explore associations between food insecurity and CVD risk measures, including the INTERHEART score. Ninety-seven percent of food bank members reported experiencing food insecurity, 65% were current smokers, 53% reported either chronic or several periods of stress in the past year, 55% reported low physical activity levels and 80% reported consuming fewer than five servings of fruit and vegetables daily. Prevalence of self-reported diabetes and hypertension were 13% and 29% respectively. Fifty-two percent of the sample were at high risk of non-fatal MI. No statistically significant associations were found between increased severity of food insecurity and CVD risk factors among this sample where both severe food insecurity and high CVD risks were prevalent. Food bank members were at elevated risk for CVD compared with the general population. Strategies are needed to reduce prevalence of food insecurity and CVD risk factors, both of which disproportionately affected food bank members.

  19. How nutrition policy affects food and agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S R

    1994-09-01

    The impact of the improved understanding of nutrition and the importance of the diet in nutrition status has had subtle but far-reaching consequences for food and agricultural policy. Many of the changes in the food supply are in response to increased consciousness of diet, nutrition and health status. The simple connection between nutrition policy and food and agricultural policy follows from the sovereignty of the consumer. Nutrition policy influences consumers' attitudes and choices. These impact the behavior of agents in the food and production system. And, if properly designed, food and agricultural policies can accelerate the process of adapting the production and distribution systems for agriculture and food to better meet the demands of the more informed consumer. Policies that reflect the behavior of consumers and supply better information to the agents in the food and agricultural system will be the most effective.

  20. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid

  1. Factors affecting endoglucanase production by Trichoderma reesei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors involved in the screening process were peptone concentration, urea ... ammonium sulfate concentration, calcium nitrate concentration, yeast extract ... pH, incubation time, initial moisture content, inoculum size and substrate amount.

  2. The Factors affect equity investors in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Niavand

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial specialist conduct is a focal idea in the behavioral fund which breaks down the impact of different factors on singular value speculator basic leadership. The nature and centrality of these factors on financial specialist basic leadership can be unique and intriguing in different nations. This investigation, thusly, looks at the impact of financial, and behavioral, factors in molding the venture conduct of value speculators in India. The factor incorporates advocate suggestion, unbiased data, individual back requirements, bookkeeping data, established riches expansion and mental self-view/firm-picture incident. The examination found the solid impact of mental self-portrait/firm-picture occurrence, unbiased data, and supporter suggestion on value speculator basic leadership. While, no impacts of variables like great riches amplification, bookkeeping data, and individual budgetary needs are found on value financial specialist's basic leadership with regards to India.

  3. External risk factors affecting construction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia

    2017-11-01

    Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.

  4. Factors Affecting Organizational Commitment in Navy Corpsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Kewley, Stephanie; Dell'Acqua, Renée G; Thomsen, Cynthia J

    2017-07-01

    Organizational commitment is a psychological state that has a strong impact on the likelihood that employees will remain with an organization. Among military personnel, organizational commitment is predictive of a number of important outcomes, including reenlistment intentions, job performance, morale, and perceived readiness. Because of the unique challenges and experiences associated with military service, it may be that organizational commitment is even more critical in the military than in civilian populations. Despite the essential role that they play in protecting the health of other service members, little is known about the factors that influence Navy Corpsmen's organizational commitment. This study investigated demographic and psychosocial factors that may be associated with organizational commitment among Corpsmen. Surveys of organizational commitment and possible demographic and psychosocial correlates of organizational commitment were completed by 1,597 male, active duty Navy Corpsmen attending Field Medical Training Battalion-West, Camp Pendleton, California. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors of organizational commitment. Of the 12 demographic and psychosocial factors examined, 6 factors emerged as significant predictors of organizational commitment in the final model: preservice motivation to be a Corpsman, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, confidence regarding promotions, occupational self-efficacy, social support for a Corpsman career, and lower depression. Importantly, a number of the factors that emerged as significant correlates of organizational commitment in this study are potentially modifiable. These factors include confidence regarding promotions, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, and occupational self-efficacy. It is recommended that military leaders and policy-makers take concrete steps to address these factors, thereby strengthening

  5. Identifying factors affecting optimal management of agricultural water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2015-01-01

    In addition to quantitative methodology such as descriptive statistics and factor analysis a qualitative methodology was employed for dynamic simulation among variables through Vensim software. In this study, the factor analysis technique was used through the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett tests. From the results, four key elements were identified as factors affecting the optimal management of agricultural water in Hamedan area. These factors were institutional and legal factors, technical and knowledge factors, economic factors and social factors.

  6. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  7. Some factors affecting the distribution of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grainger, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The importance of the distribution of radon in the natural background radiation exposures for man is stressed. Factors which effect the distribution include the origin of the rocks, the permeability of the rocks, fractures in the rocks and ground water flow. (U.K.)

  8. Factors Affecting the Internal Audit Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mustika, Adhista Cahya

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the factors that influence the internal audit effectiveness, including internal auditor competencies, internal auditor independence, auditee support to internal audit activity, and the internal and external auditor relationship. Using the internal auditor inspectorate in Java Province, Indonesia, we found that the internal audit effectiveness can be attained through increase internal audit competence, independence and strong relationship between internal and external auditor....

  9. Review: Factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Bertelsen, Maja; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    and pigs’ earlier experience. Further, these primary factors are affected by secondary factors such as the shape of the pen, the weight of the pigs and especially the heat balance of the pigs, which is affected by several tertiary factors including, for example, temperature, humidity and draught. Results...

  10. Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian University system. ... which mostly affect women‟s job performance in the Nigerian university system. ... are essential in building a gender-friendly university work environment.

  11. Factors Affecting the Thickness of Thermal Aureoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Annen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Intrusions of magma induce thermal aureoles in the country rock. Analytical solutions predict that the thickness of an aureole is proportional to the thickness of the intrusion. However, in the field, thermal aureoles are often significantly thinner or wider than predicted by simple thermal models. Numerical models show that thermal aureoles are wider if the heat transfer in the magma is faster than in the country rock due to contrasts in thermal diffusivities or the effect of magma convection. Large thermal aureoles can also be caused by repeated injection close to the contact. Aureoles are thin when heat transfer in the country rock is faster than heat transfer within the magma or in case of incrementally, slowly emplaced magma. Absorption of latent heat due to metamorphic reactions or water volatilization also affects thermal aureoles but to a lesser extent. The way these parameters affect the thickness of a thermal aureole depends on the isotherm under consideration, hence on which metamorphic phase is used to draw the limit of the aureole. Thermal aureoles provide insight on the dynamics of intrusions emplacement. Although available examples are limited, asymmetric aureoles point to magma emplacement by over-accretion for mafic cases and by under-accretion for felsic cases, consistent with geochronological data.

  12. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D A; Thayne, W V; Dailey, R A

    1985-07-01

    We conducted two studies to determine how herd management practices and traits of individual cows affect performance of the herd and of the cow within a herd. Management practices, reproductive performance of the herd, and relationships between management and reproductive performance were characterized on 83 dairy farms with 7596 cows. Data included 21 management variables (e.g., facilities, herd health program, estrous detection program) and 8 performance variables obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement or unofficial records (e.g., size of herd, production, days open). Although varying among herds, annual average herd incidences of reproductive disorders and reproductive performance were similar to those reported. Managerial practices influenced incidences of retained placenta and uterine infection, days open of cows not bred and of all cows, services per conception, and percentages of herd open more than 100 days and culled for low production. Veterinarian was the most consistent variable influencing herd reproductive performance. Data also were collected from production and lifetime records of 2532 cows in 19 herds. Reproductive performance was affected by season of calving, production, maturity, and reproductive disorders. Several cows with extremely poor reproductive records were maintained.

  13. CONSUMER BIOTECHNOLOGY FOOD AND NUTRITION INFORMATION SOURCES: THE TRUST FACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ekanem, Enefiok P.; Muhammad, Safdar; Tegegne, Fisseha; Singh, Surendra P.

    2004-01-01

    Although much has been written on consumer attitudes toward genetically modified foods, not much is known about how or where consumers get the information for the decisions they make about genetically modified foods. This paper reports on the media used by consumers in acquiring information about biotech food and nutrition issues, and examines how much trust consumers put in selected information sources. The paper also discusses how socio-economic variables affect level of trust in selected s...

  14. Factors Affecting Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the factors influencing labour productivity in the manufacturing business sector in 20042008. Labour productivity was analyzed in the context of the assets productivity, technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, wages, value added and depreciation costs, and using linear stepwise regression. The study shows that despite significant progress, the level of labour productivity in domestic manufacturing significantly lower than the average in the European Union. Lower than in Poland, the level of labour productivity gain only companies in Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Estimated parameters of the regression function showed that the most important determinants of labour productivity in manufacturing are technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, assets productivity, level of added value in relation to revenues. These factors explain the variability of labour productivity in 20042008 in a high degree.

  15. Trust Factors Affecting Cooperation in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev; Haugbølle, Kim; Bejder, Erik

    2013-01-01

    advisor was carried out. The analysis showed that the ability to be trustful can be developed through the experience of different factors (e.g. control mechanisms, mutual respect, repeated cooperation, shared understanding and communication). Furthermore, the ability to trust other parties depends...... on knowledge of others' skillsets. Interdisciplinary collaboration through education would limit the formation of negative stereotypes and the overall trust level increases, due to more and better knowledge of other disciplines....

  16. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed quality, crop year, planting date (even in the same crop year, and planting location. Most varieties (except for Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 had significantly higher isoflavone content when planted in early rather than in late dry season. Additionally, seed viability as well as long-term storage at 10∘C or at ambient condition seemed unlikely to affect isoflavone content in Thai soybean varieties. Isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand depends on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Some varieties (Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 exhibited moderately high isoflavone content regardless of sowing date. Soybeans with decreased seed viability still retained their isoflavone content.

  17. Food depictions in picture books for preschool children: Frequency, centrality, and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jane A; Descartes, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The food content and messages depicted in popular children's picture books were examined using a set of 100 "Favorite Books for Preschoolers." Sixty-nine of these books depicted food and comprised the sample. Examined were: the types and frequencies of food depicted in the text and/or illustrations of the books; the centrality (central, background); and the affect (positive, neutral, or negative) of those depictions. Each food item was counted, categorized by type, and where possible, coded for centrality and affect. Fruit was the most frequently depicted food, followed by sweetened baked goods, dairy, and vegetables. However, centrality and affect differed for these foods. For example, sweet baked goods were high in both centrality and affect. In contrast vegetables were relatively high in centrality but most often neutral in affect. Ice cream, although not in many books, always was associated with positive outcomes. Results were compared to findings in the literature on food messages presented in children's television programs. The ratio of healthy foods to nutrient-poor foods was higher in the books. However, as in television, the books emphasized the desirability of sweetened foods. The results point to the need for detailed analyses of the types of presentations associated with different foods presented in books for children, as well as for continued investigations into food messages in the growing range of media available to young children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors associated with parents' attitudes to unhealthy foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Quester, Pascale; Chapman, Kathy; Miller, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has identified convenience, enjoyment, value for money and perceived goodness as primary dimensions of parents' attitudes to foods and beverages. The aim of the present study was to examine the factors associated with parents' scores on each of these attitudinal dimensions to identify key issues for future interventions designed to improve parents' food provision behaviours and children's diets. A sample of 1302 Australian parents of children aged 8 to 14 years completed an online survey relating to their food-related beliefs. Linear regression analyses were undertaken to examine factors associated with parents' attitudes to soft drinks and energy-dense nutrient-poor foods. Consistent factors were identified for both energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and soft drinks, indicating that similar approaches could be adopted in interventions for both product categories. The primary factors were social norms, child pestering, television viewing and exposure to food advertising. Food advertising represents a common link between the primary factors, indicating that it constitutes a critical component of future interventions designed to modify parents' attitudes to unhealthy food products and to reduce the frequency with which these foods are consumed by children. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  19. Overview of factors affecting the leachability of nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of various factors that affect the leachability of nuclear waste forms is presented. The factors affect primarily the leaching system (temperature, for example), the leachant (pH, for example), or the solid being leached (surface condition, for example). A qualitative understanding exists of the major factors affecting leaching, but further studies are needed to establish leaching mechanisms and develop predictive models. 67 refs

  20. Using the theory of planned behavior to determine factors influencing processed foods consumption behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Og Yeon; Shim, Soonmi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to identify how level of information affected intention, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted survey in diverse community centers and shopping malls in Seoul, which yielded N = 209 datasets. To compare processed foods consumption behavior, we divided samples into two groups based on level of information about food additives (whether respondents felt that information on food additives was sufficient or not). We analyzed differences in attitudes toward food additives and toward purchasing processed foods, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intentions to processed foods between sufficient information group and lack information group. RESULTS The results confirmed that more than 78% of respondents thought information on food additives was insufficient. However, the group who felt information was sufficient had more positive attitudes about consuming processed foods and behavioral intentions than the group who thought information was inadequate. This study found people who consider that they have sufficient information on food additives tend to have more positive attitudes toward processed foods and intention to consume processed foods. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests increasing needs for nutrition education on the appropriate use of processed foods. Designing useful nutrition education requires a good understanding of factors which influence on processed foods consumption. PMID:24944779

  1. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Using the theory of planned behavior to determine factors influencing processed foods consumption behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sunhee; Kim, Og Yeon; Shim, Soonmi

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify how level of information affected intention, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. The study was conducted survey in diverse community centers and shopping malls in Seoul, which yielded N = 209 datasets. To compare processed foods consumption behavior, we divided samples into two groups based on level of information about food additives (whether respondents felt that information on food additives was sufficient or not). We analyzed differences in attitudes toward food additives and toward purchasing processed foods, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intentions to processed foods between sufficient information group and lack information group. The results confirmed that more than 78% of respondents thought information on food additives was insufficient. However, the group who felt information was sufficient had more positive attitudes about consuming processed foods and behavioral intentions than the group who thought information was inadequate. This study found people who consider that they have sufficient information on food additives tend to have more positive attitudes toward processed foods and intention to consume processed foods. This study suggests increasing needs for nutrition education on the appropriate use of processed foods. Designing useful nutrition education requires a good understanding of factors which influence on processed foods consumption.

  3. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Emma; Sadler, Jon P.; Telfer, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

  4. Variability in the contents of pork meat nutrients and how it may affect food composition databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Milagro; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2013-10-01

    Pork meat is generally recognised as a food with relevant nutritional properties because of its content in high biological value proteins, group B vitamins, minerals especially heme iron, trace elements and other bioactive compounds. But pork meat also contributes to the intake of fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and other substances that, in inappropriate amounts, may result in negative physiologically effects. However, there are relevant factors affecting the content of many of these substances and somehow such variability should be taken into consideration. So, genetics, age and even type of muscle have a relevant influence on the amount of fat and the contents in heme iron. Also the composition in fatty acids of triacylglycerols is very sensitive to the contents of cereals in the feed; for instance, polyunsaturated fatty acids may range from 10% to 22% in pork meat. The content of other nutrients, like vitamins E and A, are also depending on the type of feed. Some bioactive substances like coenzyme Q10, taurine, glutamine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine and anserine show a large dependence on the type of muscle. This manuscript describes the main factors affecting the composition of pork meat nutrients and how these changes may affect the general food composition databases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors affecting accelerated testing of polymer photostability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Jan; Pilař, Jan; Billingham, N. C.; Marek, Antonín; Horák, Zdeněk; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2006), s. 417-422 ISSN 0141-3910. [International Conference on Modification, Degradation, Stabilization Conference /3./. Lyon, 29.08.2004-02.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/1243; GA ČR GA202/01/0518; GA MŠk ME 543 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : photodegradation * photostabilization * testing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2006

  6. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    A review is given of the factors determining placental oxygen transfer and the oxygen supply to the fetus. In the case of continuous variables, such as the rate of placental blood flow, it is not possible to trace evolutionary trends. Discontinuous variables, for which we can define character sta......, where fetal and adult haemoglobin are not different, developmental regulation of 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate ensures the high oxygen affinity of fetal blood. Oxygen diffusing capacity is dependent on diffusion distance, which may vary with the type of interhaemal barrier. It has been shown...

  7. Risk factors that affect metabolic health status in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaogullari, Selin; Demirel, Fatma; Hatipoglu, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    While some obese children are metabolically healthy (MHO), some have additional health problems, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, which increase mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. These children are metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. In this study we assessed the factors that affect metabolic health in obesity and the clinical and laboratory findings that distinguish between MHO and MUO children. In total, 1085 patients aged 6-18 years, with age- and sex-matched BMI exceeding the 95th percentile were included in the study (mean 11.1±2.9 years, 57.6% female, 59.7% pubertal). Patients without dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, or hypertension were considered as MHO. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL, triglyceride over 150 mg/dL, LDL over 130 mg/dL, or HDL under 40 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model of assesment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Hepatosteatosis was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound. Duration of obesity, physical activity and nutritional habits, screen time, and parental obesity were questioned. Thyroid and liver function tests were performed. Six hundred and forty-two cases (59.2%) were MUO. Older age, male sex, increased BMI-SDS, and sedentary lifestyle were associated with MUO. Excessive junk food consumption was associated with MUO particularly among the prepubertal obese patients. Our results revealed that the most important factors that affect metabolic health in obesity are age and BMI. Positive effects of an active lifestyle and healthy eating habits are prominent in the prepubertal period and these habits should be formed earlier in life.

  8. Factors affecting membership in specialty nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary Joe; Olson, Rhonda S

    2004-01-01

    A discouraging trend in many specialty nursing organizations is the stagnant or declining membership. The research committee of the Southeast Texas Chapter of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN) collected data and studied this trend to determine what changes would be necessary to increase membership. Using Herzberg's motivational theory as a framework, a review of the literature was initiated. There were few current studies on this issue, but relevant information was found about nursing's emerging workforce, as well as implications of the growth of magnet hospitals, which affect whether nurses join specialty nursing organizations. A multifaceted data-collection approach using convenience samples was designed. First, relevant literature was reviewed. Second, a survey was sent by e-mail to other ARN chapters. Third, a telephone survey on other specialty organizations in the geographic region was completed. Finally, members of the local ARN chapter and four other specialty organizations, as well staff nurses in the geographic area, were given questionnaires to complete. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to determine why nurses do and do not join specialty organizations (N = 81). The most frequent reasons for joining an organization were to increase knowledge, benefit professionally, network, and earn continuing education units. Reasons for choosing not to participate were family responsibilities, lack of information about these organizations, and lack of time. Ways to reverse the decline in membership are discussed.

  9. Eating in groups: Do multiple social influences affect intake in a fast-food restaurant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference = 967 kJ, p < .05), while male diners eating in mixed-sex company ate more in groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference = 1067 kJ, p = .019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan FERENCZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  11. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin . Methods: ... methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were ... The high performance liquid chromatography ..... Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Investigate Regional.

  12. Ranking and evaluating the factors affecting the success of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ranking and evaluating the factors affecting the success of management team in construction projects. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home ... The project management team is one of these important factors.

  13. Factors affecting the organization and management of emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting the organization and management of emergency mass casualty ... service all under a unified command of leadership with a specified job description. Factors identified were: Political will, human resource planning, appropriate ...

  14. Experimental Study of Factors Affecting Soil Erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, G. A.; Bushueva, O. G.; Gorobets, A. V.; Dobrovolskaya, N. G.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Litvin, L. F.; Maksimova, I. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of different factors and preparation conditions of monofraction samples from the arable horizon of leached chernozem on soil erodibility and its relationship with soil tensile strength (STS) has been studied. The exposure of samples at 38°C reduces their erodibility by two orders of magnitude. The drying of samples, on the contrary, increases their erodibility. It has been shown that erodibility decreases during the experiment. It has been found that the inoculation of soil with yeast cultures ( Naganishia albida, Lipomyces tetrasporus) reliably increases the STS value in 1.5-1.9 times. The sterile soil is eroded more intensively than the unsterile soil: at 4.9 and 0.3 g/(m2 s), respectively. The drying of soil followed by wetting to the initial water content (30%) has no significant effect on the STS value in almost all experimental treatments.

  15. An exploration study on factors influencing Iranian food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Hosseinzadeh; Seyed Mohsen Seyedaliakbar; Naser Azad; Ashkan Arabi

    2013-01-01

    The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship a...

  16. How message framing affects consumer attitudes in food crises

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, V-W.; Bakewell, C.; Jackson, P. R.; Heslin, C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between consumer risk perceptions and behaviour when information about food risks is framed in a positive or negative way.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach - Using food consumption scenarios in an on-line experiment consumers perceived risk and risk tolerance is examined when messages are framed in three different news-type stories.\\ud \\ud Findings - As anticipated, message framing emerged as a significant predictor of perce...

  17. Visual food cues decrease postprandial glucose concentrations in lean and obese men without affecting food intake and related endocrine parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Swantje; Sputh, Annika; Hartmann, Ann-Christin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Lehnert, Hendrik; Klement, Johanna

    2017-10-01

    The abundance of highly palatable food items in our environment represents a possible cause of overconsumption. Neuroimaging studies in humans have demonstrated that watching pictures of food increases activation in brain areas involved in homeostatic and hedonic food cue processing. Nevertheless, the impact of food cues on actual food intake and metabolic parameters has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that watching high-calorie food cues increases food intake and modifies anticipatory blood parameters in lean and especially in obese men. In 20 normal-weight and 20 obese healthy fasted men, we assessed the effects of watching pictures of high-calorie food items versus neutral contents on food intake measured during a standardized test buffet and subsequent snacking as well as on glucose homeostasis and endocrine parameters. Compared to neutral pictures, viewing food pictures reduced postprandial blood glucose concentrations in lean (p = 0.016) and obese (p = 0.044) subjects, without any differences in insulin or C-peptide concentrations (all p > 0.4). Viewing food pictures did not affect total calorie intake during the buffet (all p > 0.5) and snack consumption (all p > 0.4). Concentrations of ghrelin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and glucagon also remained unaffected (all p > 0.08). These data indicate that preprandial processing of food cues curbs postprandial blood glucose excursions, without immediately affecting eating behavior in normal-weight and obese men. Findings indicate that exposure to food cues does not acutely trigger calorie overconsumption but rather improves the glucoregulatory response to food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors Affecting Hypertension among the Malaysian Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ataollahi Eshkoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common chronic disease in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, nutritional parameters, and blood elements on the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. This research was conducted on a group of 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of hypertension in respondents. Approximately, 45.61% of subjects had hypertension. The findings indicated that the female gender (Odds ratio (OR = 1.54, an increase in body weight (OR = 1.61, and an increase in the blood levels of albumin (OR = 1.51, glucose (OR = 1.92, and triglycerides (OR = 1.27 significantly increased the risk of hypertension in subjects (p < 0.05. Conversely, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates (OR = 0.74, and blood cholesterol level (OR = 0.42 significantly reduced the risk of hypertension in samples (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that ethnicity was a non-relevant factor to increase the risk of hypertension in subjects. It was concluded that female gender, an increase in body weight, and an increase in the blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, and albumin enhanced the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. In addition, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates and blood cholesterol level decreased hypertension in subjects.

  19. Factors Affecting Patient Satisfaction During Endoscopic Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M. O.; Shafqat, F.; Ahmed, S.; Niazi, T. K.; Khokhar, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality and patient satisfaction in Endoscopy Unit of Shifa International Hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Division of Gastroenterology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Quality and patient satisfaction after the endoscopic procedure was assessed using a modified GHAA-9 questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 1028 patients were included with a mean age of 45 A+- 14.21 years. Out of all the procedures, 670 (65.17%) were gastroscopies, 181 (17.60%) were flexible sigmoidoscopies and 177 (17.21%) were colonoscopies. The maximum unsatisfactory responses were on the waiting time before the procedure (13.13 %), followed by unsatisfactory explanation of the procedure and answers to questions (7.58%). Overall, unsatisfied impression was 4.86%. The problem rate was 6.22%. Conclusion: The quality of procedures and level of satisfaction of patients undergoing a gastroscopy or colonoscopy was generally good. The factors that influence the satisfaction of these patients are related to communication between doctor and patient, doctor's manner and waiting time for the procedure. Feedback information in an endoscopy unit may be useful in improving standards, including the performance of endoscopists. (author)

  20. Radioactivity and food choice: risk factors and perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnerts, W.T.; Hermsen, S.; Kamp, M. van der; Loyens, L.; Ruven, H.J.T.

    1986-01-01

    A preceding study revealed much difference among a selected number of radioisotopes in the passing of the food chains. The present study confirms the possibility to reduce radioactivity intake by a careful food choice. The physiology of metabolism of 131 I, 90 Sr and 137 Cs, and other radionuclides is shortly recapitulated. Discrimination and speciation are seen to be main factors in reduction or enrichment in animal food products. Several calculations are given relating intake of radioactivity and food sources. Risk factors are mentioned, as well as the psychology around them. Although it is not urgent, it seems possible to reduce the intake of radioactivity by individuals, mainly by preference for animal products (except milk during the first weeks of a nuclear incident), and by consumption of refined food instead of 'health products'. For mankind as a whole, the popular conceptions about risk and health food need to be studied first and to be redressed, eventually. 13 refs.; 1 figure; 3 tabs

  1. Factors affecting mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczak, Andrew M; Ranheim, Birgit; Fosse, Torunn K; Hild, Sophie; Nordgreen, Janicke; Moe, Randi O; Zanella, Adroaldo J

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the stability and repeatability of measures of mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets and to examine potentially confounding factors when using a hand held algometer. Descriptive, prospective cohort. Forty-four piglets from four litters, weighing 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) at 2 weeks of age. Mechanical thresholds were measured twice on each of 2 days during the first and second week of life. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design to test the effects of behavior prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, and repetition within day. The effect of body weight and the interaction between piglet weight and behaviour were also tested. Piglet was entered into the model as a random effect as an additional test of repeatability. The effect of repeated testing was used to test the stability of measures. Pearson correlations between repeated measures were used to test the repeatability of measures. Variance component analysis was used to describe the variability in the data. Variance component analysis indicated that piglet explained only 17% of the variance in the data. All variables in the model (behaviour prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, repetition within day, body weight, the interaction between body weight and behaviour, piglet identity) except sex had a significant effect (p testing and measures changed with repeated testing and increased with increasing piglet weight, indicating that time (age) and animal body weight should be taken into account when measuring mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. Mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds can be used both for testing the efficacy of anaesthetics and analgesics, and for assessing hyperalgesia in chronic pain states in research and clinical settings. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  2. Factors Influencing Organic Food Purchase of Young Chinese Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiufeng; Xin, Yazhi

    2015-01-01

    Organic food has drawn attention of more and more consumers. As a result, many researchers have attempted to explain the motivations and marketing issues relevant to the topic. The previous studies provide some conflicting results and could not produce a comprehensive understanding of organic food consumers in China. Given the present research, this paper attempts to conduct a comprehensive study of organic food consumption by examining a variety of factors influencing the consumption of orga...

  3. Perceived Factors Affecting Performance Of Extension Workers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on perceived factors affecting performance of extension workers in Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected from 83 Extension agents from the Imo State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). Results of the study revealed that the organizational factors that affect performance are ...

  4. Factors affecting the runoff response of watersheds to precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    DROZDOVÁ, Martina

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the factors that affect the drainage basin of the response. It contains a literature review, which deals with the hydrological cycle characteristics of precipitation, surface runoff and flood and erosion protection. The aim of the work is to evaluate the factors that adversely affect the runoff from the catchment.

  5. Factors Affecting Prenatal Care Utilization in East Wollega Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to identify factors affecting utilization of prenatal care and skilled birth attendant in East Wollega zone. Prenatal care and skilled birth attendant are crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn and help the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, ...

  6. The relationship between affective factors and the academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between affective factors and the academic achievement of students at the University of Venda. To this end, self-concept, motivation and attitude are the affective factors selected for the study. The general aim of the study is to determine the role of self-concept, ...

  7. Factors affecting graded and ungraded memory loss following hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris; Sekeres, Melanie J

    2013-11-01

    This review evaluates three current theories--Standard Consolidation (Squire & Wixted, 2011), Overshadowing (Sutherland, Sparks, & Lehmann, 2010), and Multiple Trace-Transformation (Winocur, Moscovitch, & Bontempi, 2010)--in terms of their ability to account for the role of the hippocampus in recent and remote memory in animals. Evidence, based on consistent findings from tests of spatial memory and memory for acquired food preferences, favours the transformation account, but this conclusion is undermined by inconsistent results from studies that measured contextual fear memory, probably the most commonly used test of hippocampal involvement in anterograde and retrograde memory. Resolution of this issue may depend on exercising greater control over critical factors (e.g., contextual environment, amount of pre-exposure to the conditioning chamber, the number and distribution of foot-shocks) that can affect the representation of the memory shortly after learning and over the long-term. Research strategies aimed at characterizing the neural basis of long-term consolidation/transformation, as well as other outstanding issues are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Can diet composition affect behaviour in dogs? : food for thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.

    2009-01-01

    The consumption of food goes beyond the basic provision of energy and essential nutrients for the maintenance of physical health. Studies in rats, pigs, and human subjects have shown that behaviour and mood can be influenced by specific nutrients consumed. The research described in this thesis aimed

  9. Implicit and Explicit Measurements of Affective Responses to Food Odors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Wei; Wijk, de R.A.; Graaf, de C.; Boesveldt, S.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main functions of olfaction is to activate approach/avoidance behavior, toward or away from people, foods, or other odor sources. These behaviors are partly automated and therefore poorly accessible via introspection. Explicit tests need therefore be complemented by implicit tests to

  10. The Impact of Cooling Rate on the Safety of Food Products as Affected by Food Containers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coorey, Ranil; Ng, Denise Sze Hu; Jayamanne, Vijith S.

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, the demand for ready‐to‐eat (RTE) food items prepared by the food catering sector has increased together with the value of cook‐serve, cook‐chill, and cook‐freeze food products. The technologies by which foods are cooked, chilled, refrigerated for storage, and reheated before...... serving are of prime importance to maintain safety. Packaging materials and food containers play an important role in influencing the cooling rate of RTE foods. Food items that are prepared using improper technologies and inappropriate packaging materials may be contaminated with foodborne pathogens....... Numerous research studies have shown the impact of deficient cooling technologies on the survival and growth of foodborne pathogens, which may subsequently pose a threat to public health. The operating temperatures and cooling rates of the cooling techniques applied must be appropriate to inhibit...

  11. The rise of food allergy: Environmental factors and emerging treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Benedé

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy has rapidly increased in prevalence, suggesting an important role for environmental factors in disease susceptibility. The immune response of food allergy is characterized by IgE production, and new findings from mouse and human studies indicate an important role of the cytokine IL-9, which is derived from both T cells and mast cells, in disease manifestations. Emerging evidence suggests that route of exposure to food, particularly peanut, is important. Exposure through the skin promotes sensitization while early exposure through the gastrointestinal tract promotes tolerance. Evidence from mouse studies indicate a role of the microbiome in development of food allergy, which is supported by correlative human studies showing a dysbiosis in food allergy. There is no approved treatment for food allergy, but emerging therapies are focused on allergen immunotherapy to provide desensitization, while pre-clinical studies are focused on using adjuvants or novel delivery approaches to improve efficacy and safety of immunotherapy.

  12. Food-cue affected motor response inhibition and self-reported dieting success: a pictorial affective shifting task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibition is one of the basic facets of executive functioning and is closely related to self-regulation. Impulsive reactions, i.e. low inhibitory control, have been associated with higher body-mass-index (BMI, binge eating, and other problem behaviors (e.g. substance abuse, pathological gambling, etc.. Nevertheless, studies which investigated the direct influence of food-cues on behavioral inhibition have been fairly inconsistent. In the current studies, we investigated food-cue affected behavioral inhibition in young women. For this purpose, we used a go/no-go task with pictorial food and neutral stimuli in which stimulus-response mapping is reversed after every other block (affective shifting task. In study 1, hungry participants showed faster reaction times to and omitted fewer food than neutral targets. Low dieting success and higher BMI were associated with behavioral disinhibition in food relative to neutral blocks. In study 2, both hungry and satiated individuals were investigated. Satiation did not influence overall task performance, but modulated associations of task performance with dieting success and self-reported impulsivity. When satiated, increased food craving during the task was associated with low dieting success, possibly indicating a preload-disinhibition effect following food intake. Food-cues elicited automatic action and approach tendencies regardless of dieting success, self-reported impulsivity, or current hunger levels. Yet, associations between dieting success, impulsivity, and behavioral food-cue responses were modulated by hunger and satiation. Future research investigating clinical samples and including other salient non-food stimuli as control category is warranted.

  13. Geographic factors as determinants of food security: a Western Australian food pricing and quality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina Mary; Landrigan, Timothy John; Ellies, Pernilla Laila; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Lester, Matthew Langdon Underwood; Goodchild, Stanley Edward

    2014-01-01

    Food affordability and quality can influence food choice. This research explores the impact of geographic factors on food pricing and quality in Western Australia (WA). A Healthy Food Access Basket (HFAB) was cost and a visual and descriptive quality assessment of 13 commonly consumed fresh produce items was conducted in-store on a representative sample of 144 food grocery stores. The WA retail environment in 2010 had 447 grocery stores servicing 2.9 million people: 38% of stores the two major chains (Coles® Supermarkets Australia and Woolworths ® Limited) in population dense areas, 50% were smaller independently owned stores (Independent Grocers Association®) in regional areas as well, and 12% Indigenous community stores in very remote areas. The HFAB cost 24% (pfoods cost more and the quality of fresh produce was lower. Food affordability and quality may deter healthier food choice in geographically isolated communities. Improving affordability and quality of nutritious foods in remote communities may positively impact food choices, improve food security and prevent diet-sensitive chronic disease. Policy makers should consider influencing agriculture, trade, commerce, transport, freight, and modifying local food economies.

  14. Turn on the Lights: Macroeconomic Factors Affecting Renewable in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ihtisham Abdul Malik; Ghamz-e-Ali Siyal; Alias Bin Abdullah; Arif Alam; Khalid Zaman

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between macroeconomic factors (i.e., population growth; urbanization, industrialization, exchange rate, price level, food production index and live stock production index) and renewable energy in Pakistan over a period of 1975-2012. In addition, this study uses oil rent as an intervening variable to overcome the biasness of the single equation model. The results indicate that macroeconomic factors positively contributed to renewable en...

  15. An exploration study on factors influencing Iranian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hosseinzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.

  16. Evaluation of influential factors on food risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Kosuke; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Influential factors on food risk perception were investigated from the viewpoints of socio-demographics, lifestyles and personalities. The anxieties about 24 types of food based on six product areas and four food types were investigated through the questionnaire survey getting 16,650 respondents in Japan. Besides, 60 questions were prepared to investigate the personalities based on 14 sub-scales. The anxiety was influenced mainly by the product areas instead of food types; the highest anxiety was observed for the foods from China, followed by those from developing countries (except for China), developed countries, and Fukushima. For personality, nine factors were extracted. The results of multiple regression analysis incorporating socio-demographic, lifestyle, and personality variables were not influenced by the food types but influenced by the product areas. The most influential variable on the anxiety for all product areas was 'habits to check product areas.' It was also indicated that 'general trust' and 'being strict in discipline' were most influential personalities on the anxiety about foods from Fukushima and foods from China, respectively. (author)

  17. Factors related to food involvement in the adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara de ALENCAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to investigate aspects associated with food involvement and to ascertain whether individuals with higher food involvement consume larger amounts of fruits and vegetables. Methods This cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted with 301 adults (19-59 years old from the Federal District, Brazil. Sample size calculation was based on numbers from the Brazilian Demographic Census and on consumption data for fruits and vegetables obtained from the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Interviews survey. Data were collected in October of 2012. The questionnaire comprised 28 questions and included socio-demographic variables, reported fruit and vegetable consumption, and an adapted food involvement scale. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed to determine population characteristics . Results Women and older individuals displayed a higher degree of food involvement than did men and younger individuals ( p <0.001. Among the factors included in food involvement, the highest influence was attributed to satisfaction in preparing food (cooking, pre-preparation of food, and pleasure in cooking for other people ( p <0.001. Conclusion The results presented here suggest that food involvement can be stimulated through innovative strategies of communication that go beyond the biological arguments and focus on the cultural expression of the elements of socialization, whose relationship with eating is well established.

  18. Factors influencing food choice of athletes at international competition events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, Fiona E; Burkhart, Sarah J; Dunn, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Although the nutrient requirements and dietary intake of athletes have been thoroughly investigated, little is known about the influences on their food choice, particularly prior to and during competition. This study sought to investigate factors that influence food selection of athletes at two similar international competition events: the Melbourne 2006 and Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games. A secondary aim was to explore differences in these factors between at each event given the culturally diverse locations. A survey developed for this study was distributed to athletes in the village dining hall at both events. Athletes scored a selection of factors influencing food choice on a scale of 1 (not important) to 5 (very important). A total of 769 individuals completed the questionnaire in total, with 351 (46%) from Delhi and 418 (54%) from Melbourne. Overall, athletes rated nutrient composition (M = 4.22), stage of competition (M = 4.09), time of day (M = 4.02) and familiarity of the food (M = 4.07) higher than sensory properties (smell M = 3.88; visual appearance M = 3.22) when making a food selection. Visual appearance (p = 0.01), stage of competition (p food (p motives for food section of athletes from a range of sports and cultures is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Low levels of food involvement and negative affect reduce the quality of diet in women of lower educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, M; Lawrence, W; Ntani, G; Tinati, T; Pease, A; Black, C; Baird, J; Barker, M

    2012-10-01

    Women of lower educational attainment tend to have poorer quality diets and lower food involvement (an indicator of the priority given to food) than women of higher educational attainment. The present study reports a study of the role of food involvement in the relationship between educational attainment and quality of diet in young women. The first phase uses six focus group discussions (n = 28) to explore the function of food involvement in shaping the food choices of women of lower and higher educational attainment with young children. The second phase is a survey that examines the relationship between educational attainment and quality of diet in women, and explores the role of mediating factors identified by the focus group discussions. The focus groups suggested that lower food involvement in women of lower educational attainment might be associated with negative affect (i.e. an observable expression of negative emotion), and that this might mean that they did not place a high priority on eating a good quality diet. In support of this hypothesis, the survey of 1010 UK women found that 14% of the effect of educational attainment on food involvement was mediated through the woman's affect (P ≤ 0.001), and that 9% of the effect of educational attainment on quality of diet was mediated through food involvement (P ≤ 0.001). Women who leave school with fewer qualifications may have poorer quality diets than women with more qualifications because they tend to have a lower level of food involvement, partly attributed to a more negative affect. Interventions to improve women's mood may benefit their quality of diet. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ( Coffea robusta ... of coffee in the study area was poor pricing and marketing systems; this is as a ... of quality control and relevant information on improved coffee technologies.

  1. Factors Affecting Behaviours that address HIV Risk among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction ... Main outcome measures: Sexual behavior and condom use, knowledge about ... attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS ...

  2. Motivation factors affecting employees job performance in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivation can be intrinsic, such as satisfaction and feelings of achievement; or extrinsic, such as rewards, punishment, and goal obtainment. The study assessed the motivating factors affecting the job performance of two oil palm companies' ...

  3. Factors that affect South African Reading Literacy Achievement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that affect South African Reading Literacy Achievement: evidence from prePIRLS 2011. ... achievement among Grade 4 learners in South Africa by utilising aspects of Carroll's model of school learning. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Multiple factors affecting South African anchovy recruitment in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple factors affecting South African anchovy recruitment in the spawning, transport and nursery. ... and are inversely linked to high rates of gonad atresia in anchovy and reduced subsequent recruitment. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. Identifying factors affecting destination choice of medical tourists: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical tourism”, has emerged as a new source of competitive advantage all over the world. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect destination choice of medical tourists. Methods: We systematically searched relevant databases ...

  6. Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective service to pre and ... Small, micro and medium entrepreneurs play an important role in economic ... such as production, marketing and management to adequately service the ...

  7. Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts in Merinos divergently selected for reproduction. ... The fixed effect of birth year x sex interaction was significant, with rams showing higher mean values for FWEC than ewes ...

  8. Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of Smallholders ... socio-economic characteristics which influence technical efficiency in maize production. ... Ministry of Agriculture and livestock, records, books, reports and internet.

  9. Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to antihypertensive medications and blood pressure control among patients attending the family practice clinic in a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria.

  10. An Initial Investigation of Factors Affecting Multi-Task Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Branscome, Tersa A; Swoboda, Jennifer C; Fatkin, Linda T

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first in a series of investigations designed to increase fundamental knowledge and understanding of the factors affecting multi-task performance in a military environment...

  11. Factors Affecting Community Participation in O and OD Planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Community Participation in O and OD Planning and ... great success at start but later dropped in number of cattle taken for dipping. ... and to establish the measures taken by the district leadership in addressing the problems.

  12. Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. ... Two hundred maize marketers were selected from Vandeikya Local Area (LGA) of ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  13. Factors affecting the adoption and diffusion of Internet in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa ... Factors affecting the adoption and diffusion of Internet in higher educational institutions in Kenya ... communication Technologies (ICTs) such as the Internet, Learning ...

  14. factors affecting antenatal care service utilization in yem special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jhon

    assess antenatal care utilization and factors that affect it in Yem Special Woreda, South Western Ethiopia. METHODS: A ... A pre-tested structured questionnaire consisting of information on socio- ..... model and access to medical care: does it.

  15. Determining the Factors Affecting Labor Productivity of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdanur Dikmen

    2016-12-01

    Results: It was found that the 45.5% of nurses participated in the study were in the 23-53 age group, 79.5% were women, 76.9% married, 41.1% associate degree graduates. 42.3% of nurses' durations of professional experience were 0-5 years, 22.4% of nurses were clinical chief, 69.2% were working as shifts. Participants believe that the factors affecting the labor productivity were respectively organizational factors, ergonomic factors and personal factors. When organizational factors was examined; nurses stated that the lack of working personnel in the section, the low wages and unequal wages for the same work, the long working hours and the system which based on personal relations instead of merit were affecting productivity. The factors affecting labor productivity of nurses were not different according to age, gender, education level and marital status (p>0.05, but different according to mode of operation and years of experience (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to this study, it was found that there are many factors that affect the efficiency of the nurses. The most important factors affecting nurses' efficiency were determined as wage and working conditions. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(4.000: 334-342

  16. Food as Risk: How Eating Habits and Food Knowledge Affect Reactivity to Pictures of Junk and Healthy Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegiyan, Narine S; Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how people respond to images of junk versus healthy food as a function of their eating habits and food knowledge. The experiment reported here proposed and tested the idea that those with unhealthy eating habits but highly knowledgeable about healthy eating would feel more positive and also more negative toward junk food images compared to images of healthy food because they may perceive them as risky--desirable but potentially harmful. The psychophysiological data collected from participants during their exposure to pictures of junk versus healthy food supported this idea. In addition, unhealthy eaters compared to healthy eaters with the same degree of food knowledge responded more positively to all food items. The findings are critical from a health communication perspective. Because unhealthy eaters produce stronger emotional responses to images of junk food, they are more likely to process information associated with junk food with more cognitive effort and scrutiny. Thus, when targeting this group and using images of junk food, it is important to combine these images with strong message claims and relevant arguments; otherwise, if the arguments are perceived as irrelevant or weak, the motivational activation associated with junk food itself may transfer into an increased desire to consume the unhealthy product.

  17. The quantum walk search algorithm: Factors affecting efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lovett, Neil B.; Everitt, Matthew; Heath, Robert M.; Kendon, Viv

    2011-01-01

    We numerically study the quantum walk search algorithm of Shenvi, Kempe and Whaley [PRA \\textbf{67} 052307] and the factors which affect its efficiency in finding an individual state from an unsorted set. Previous work has focused purely on the effects of the dimensionality of the dataset to be searched. Here, we consider the effects of interpolating between dimensions, connectivity of the dataset, and the possibility of disorder in the underlying substrate: all these factors affect the effic...

  18. Determining the Factors Affecting Labor Productivity of Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Yurdanur Dikmen; Dilek Kara Yilmaz; Handenur Basaran; Nasibe Yagmur Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the factors affecting the labor productivity of nurses. Material and Methods: The study which was planned as descriptive and analytical was carried out with 156 nurses who volunteered to participate in the study in a public hospital in the northwest of Turkey. Data was collected with the and ldquo;Participant Presentation Form and rdquo; and the questionnaire including the factors affecting labor productivity which was developed by Ozkoc (2005). ...

  19. Investigating factors influencing consumer willingness to buy GM food and nano-food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Chengyan; Zhao, Shuoli; Cummings, Christopher; Kuzma, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Emerging technologies applied to food products often evoke controversy about their safety and whether to label foods resulting from their use. As such, it is important to understand the factors that influence consumer desires for labeling and their willingness-to-buy (WTB) these food products. Using data from a national survey with US consumers, this study employs structural equation modeling to explore relationships between potential influences such as trust in government to manage technologies, views on restrictive government policies, perceptions about risks and benefits, and preferences for labeling on consumer’s WTB genetically modified (GM) and nano-food products. Some interesting similarities and differences between GM- and nano-food emerged. For both technologies, trust in governing agencies to manage technologies did not influence labeling preferences, but it did influence attitudes about the food technologies themselves. Attitudes toward the two technologies, as measured by risk–benefit comparisons and comfort with consumption, also greatly influenced views of government restrictive policies, labeling preferences, and WTB GM or nano-food products. For differences, labeling preferences were found to influence WTB nano-foods, but not WTB GM foods. Gender and religiosity also had varying effects on WTB and labeling preferences: while gender and religiosity influenced labeling preferences and WTB for GM foods, they did not have a significant influence for nano-foods. We propose some reasons for these differences, such as greater media attention and other heuristics such as value-based concerns about “modifying life” with GM foods. The results of this study can help to inform policies and communication about the application of these new technologies in food products

  20. Investigating factors influencing consumer willingness to buy GM food and nano-food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chengyan; Zhao, Shuoli; Cummings, Christopher; Kuzma, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    Emerging technologies applied to food products often evoke controversy about their safety and whether to label foods resulting from their use. As such, it is important to understand the factors that influence consumer desires for labeling and their willingness-to-buy (WTB) these food products. Using data from a national survey with US consumers, this study employs structural equation modeling to explore relationships between potential influences such as trust in government to manage technologies, views on restrictive government policies, perceptions about risks and benefits, and preferences for labeling on consumer's WTB genetically modified (GM) and nano-food products. Some interesting similarities and differences between GM- and nano-food emerged. For both technologies, trust in governing agencies to manage technologies did not influence labeling preferences, but it did influence attitudes about the food technologies themselves. Attitudes toward the two technologies, as measured by risk-benefit comparisons and comfort with consumption, also greatly influenced views of government restrictive policies, labeling preferences, and WTB GM or nano-food products. For differences, labeling preferences were found to influence WTB nano-foods, but not WTB GM foods. Gender and religiosity also had varying effects on WTB and labeling preferences: while gender and religiosity influenced labeling preferences and WTB for GM foods, they did not have a significant influence for nano-foods. We propose some reasons for these differences, such as greater media attention and other heuristics such as value-based concerns about "modifying life" with GM foods. The results of this study can help to inform policies and communication about the application of these new technologies in food products.

  1. Investigating factors influencing consumer willingness to buy GM food and nano-food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Chengyan [University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Departments of Applied Economics and Horticultural Science, Bachman Endowed Chair in Horticultural Marketing (United States); Zhao, Shuoli [University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Department of Applied Economics (United States); Cummings, Christopher [Nanyang Technological University, Division of Communication Research, Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information (Singapore); Kuzma, Jennifer, E-mail: jkuzma@ncsu.edu [North Carolina State University, Genetic Engineering & Society Center (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Emerging technologies applied to food products often evoke controversy about their safety and whether to label foods resulting from their use. As such, it is important to understand the factors that influence consumer desires for labeling and their willingness-to-buy (WTB) these food products. Using data from a national survey with US consumers, this study employs structural equation modeling to explore relationships between potential influences such as trust in government to manage technologies, views on restrictive government policies, perceptions about risks and benefits, and preferences for labeling on consumer’s WTB genetically modified (GM) and nano-food products. Some interesting similarities and differences between GM- and nano-food emerged. For both technologies, trust in governing agencies to manage technologies did not influence labeling preferences, but it did influence attitudes about the food technologies themselves. Attitudes toward the two technologies, as measured by risk–benefit comparisons and comfort with consumption, also greatly influenced views of government restrictive policies, labeling preferences, and WTB GM or nano-food products. For differences, labeling preferences were found to influence WTB nano-foods, but not WTB GM foods. Gender and religiosity also had varying effects on WTB and labeling preferences: while gender and religiosity influenced labeling preferences and WTB for GM foods, they did not have a significant influence for nano-foods. We propose some reasons for these differences, such as greater media attention and other heuristics such as value-based concerns about “modifying life” with GM foods. The results of this study can help to inform policies and communication about the application of these new technologies in food products.

  2. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers.

  3. Factors affecting dignity of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Simin; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas

    2016-12-01

    MS is one of the most common chronic diseases of the nervous system. Apart from disease progression, other complications such as unemployment, separation and divorce could potentially threat patients' dignity. Most of the previous studies have been done of maintaining patients' dignity in interaction with healthcare team, but studies on affecting factors of dignity in chronic patients in the society and in interaction with usual people are scarce. We aimed to investigate factors affecting dignity of Iranian patients with MS in daily living and in interaction of them with the society. In this qualitative study, 13 patients with multiple sclerosis were chosen by purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews were conducted until data saturation. The study was done in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Factors affecting dignity were classified as 'personal factors' and 'social factors'. Personal factors consist of the following subcategories: patients' communication with self, patients' knowledge, patients' values and beliefs and patients' resources. Social factors include others' communication with patients, social knowledge, social values and beliefs and social resources. Multiple personal and social factors interfere in perceived patient dignity. In fact, interaction between personal and social factors can be influential in final perceived dignity. By focusing on whole aspects of the patients' lives, we can identify dignity-promoting or dignity-threatening factors and help patients maintain their dignity by taking appropriate measures for moderating threatening factors and improving dignity enhancing ones. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  4. Hygiene factors associated with childhood food allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Singh, Anne Marie; Walkner, Madeline; Caruso, Deanna; Bryce, Paul J; Wang, Xiaobin; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Smith, Bridget M

    2016-11-01

    Childhood food allergy and asthma rates are increasing. The hygiene hypothesis has been proposed as an explanation for the increased incidence of allergic disease. To describe the association of childhood food allergy and asthma with hygiene factors, such as the number of siblings, antibiotic use, infection history, pet exposure, child care exposure, and maternalchild factors. Children ages 021 years old (N = 1359) were recruited for a cross-sectional family-based study, including children with food allergy and children without food allergy, and their siblings. We assessed the associations between childhood food allergy and asthma with hygiene factors. Of the 1359 children, 832 (61.2%) had food allergy, and 406 (30%) had asthma. In the adjusted analysis, the prevalence of food allergy was increased if there was a history of skin infection (prevalence ratio [RRR] 1.12 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.011.24]) or eczema (RRR 1.89 [95% CI, 1.702.10]). The prevalence of asthma was increased with a history of respiratory syncytial virus infection (RRR 1.60 [95% CI, 1.341.90]) or eczema (RRR 1.54 [95% CI, 1.271.86]). A greater number of siblings were associated with a decreased prevalence of food allergy (RRR 0.79 [95% CI, 0.750.84]) and asthma (RRR 0.82 [95% CI, 0.740.91]). Our findings supported the accumulating evidence of an association between skin infections and eczema with food allergy. Because these results could be subject to recall bias, additional prospective studies are needed to substantiate these findings.

  5. The effects of customised food advergames on children’s affective, cognitive, and conative responses

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Shelly

    2017-01-01

    The practice of promoting food to children via advergames is a highly topical issue which attracts much concern due to the low nutritional value of the promoted foods. This thesis examines the effects of customised food advergames on children’s affective, cognitive and conative responses. It also investigates the role persuasion knowledge and prior brand usage have in children’s interaction with advergames. In particular, whether children’s persuasion knowledge acts as a barrier to those resp...

  6. Food irradiation: Issues affecting its acceptance by governments, the food industry and consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.; Ladomery, L.; Ahmed, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article, in reviewing current trends and issues regarding the acceptability of food irradiation at different levels, highlights the role of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI). This group was established under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the IAEA and the World Health Organization (WHO) in May 1984, and provides information and advice to the three organizations and ICGFI member countries (35 to date) on work in this field. 21 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  7. Emerging Food Processing Technologies and Factors Impacting their Industrial Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Anushree; Rajauria, Gaurav; O'Donnell, Colm P; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2018-06-04

    Innovative food processing technologies have been widely investigated in food processing research in recent years. These technologies offer key advantages for advancing the preservation and quality of conventional foods, for combatting the growing challenges posed by globalization, increased competitive pressures and diverse consumer demands. However, there is a need to increase the level of adoption of novel technologies to ensure the potential benefits of these technologies are exploited more by the food industry. This review outlines emerging thermal and non-thermal food processing technologies with regard to their mechanisms, applications and commercial aspects. The level of adoption of novel food processing technologies by the food industry is outlined and the factors that impact their industrial adoption are discussed. At an industry level, the technological capabilities of individual companies, their size, market share as well as their absorptive capacity impact adoption of a novel technology. Characteristics of the technology itself such as costs involved in its development and commercialization, associated risks and relative advantage, its level of complexity and compatibility influence the technology's adoption. The review concludes that a deep understanding of the development and application of a technology along with the factors influencing its acceptance are critical for its commercial adoption.

  8. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  9. Personality factors and adult attachment affecting job mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, A.E.M.; Feij, J.A.; Krausz, M.; Taris, R.

    2003-01-01

    Past research has revealed that individuals' job mobility is affected by factors such as job satisfaction, specific career enhancing attributes and job availability. This study examined personality factors predicting voluntary internal and external job mobility. Three types of voluntary job mobility

  10. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin. Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...

  11. Factors Affecting Utilization of Skilled Birth Attendants by Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This underscores the need to investigate factors responsible for low use of skilled attendants at birth. The main purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting utilization of skilled attendants at birth by pregnant women in Kasama district in order to help contribute to the reduction of maternal and child complications.

  12. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin . Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...

  13. The Differential Effects of Mindfulness and Distraction on Affect and Body Satisfaction Following Food Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Tsai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether engaging in mindfulness following food consumption produced changes in affect and body satisfaction, as compared to a control distraction task. The moderating effects of eating pathology and neuroticism were also examined. A total of 110 female university students consumed food and water before engaging in either a mindfulness induction or a control distraction task. Participants completed trait measures of eating pathology and neuroticism at baseline, and measures of state affect and body satisfaction before and after food consumption, and after the induction. Results revealed that consuming food and water reduced positive affect. Unexpectedly, both the mindfulness group and distraction control group experienced similar improvements in negative affect and body satisfaction following the induction. Eating pathology and neuroticism did not moderate the observed changes. These findings suggest that both mindfulness and distraction may contribute to the effectiveness of treatments for disordered eating that incorporate both of these techniques, such as Dialectical Behavior Therapy.

  14. The Differential Effects of Mindfulness and Distraction on Affect and Body Satisfaction Following Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alice; Hughes, Elizabeth K; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Buck, Kimberly; Krug, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether engaging in mindfulness following food consumption produced changes in affect and body satisfaction, as compared to a control distraction task. The moderating effects of eating pathology and neuroticism were also examined. A total of 110 female university students consumed food and water before engaging in either a mindfulness induction or a control distraction task. Participants completed trait measures of eating pathology and neuroticism at baseline, and measures of state affect and body satisfaction before and after food consumption, and after the induction. Results revealed that consuming food and water reduced positive affect. Unexpectedly, both the mindfulness group and distraction control group experienced similar improvements in negative affect and body satisfaction following the induction. Eating pathology and neuroticism did not moderate the observed changes. These findings suggest that both mindfulness and distraction may contribute to the effectiveness of treatments for disordered eating that incorporate both of these techniques, such as Dialectical Behavior Therapy.

  15. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, M.C.W.; Wingen, G.A. van; Wittwer, J.; Mohajeri, M.H.; Kloek, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, tryptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport

  16. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, Marijn C. W.; van Wingen, Guido A.; Wittwer, Jonas; Mohajeri, M. Hasan; Kloek, Joris; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, hyptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport across

  17. Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

  18. Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of clod steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, K J; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Courington, S M; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2002-02-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of clod steaks (n = 1,264) as influenced by USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), city (Chicago and Philadelphia), consumer segment (Beef Loyals, who are heavy consumers of beef; Budget Rotators, who are cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and Variety Rotators, who have higher incomes and education and split their meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, and cooking method. Consumers evaluated each steak for Overall Like, Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavor Like, and Flavor Amount using 10-point scales. Grilling was the predominant cooking method used, and steaks were cooked to medium-well and greater degrees of doneness. Interactions existed involving the consumer-controlled factors of degree of doneness and(or) cooking method for all consumer-evaluated traits for the clod steak (P affect any consumer evaluation traits or Warner-Bratzler shear force values (P > 0.05). One significant main effect, segment (P = 0.006), and one significant interaction, cooking method x city (P = 0.0407), existed for Overall Like ratings. Consumers in the Beef Loyals segment rated clod steaks higher in Overall Like than the other segments. Consumers in Chicago tended to give more uniform Overall Like ratings to clod steaks cooked by various methods; however, consumers in Philadelphia gave among the highest ratings to clod steaks that were fried and among the lowest to those that were grilled. Additionally, although clod steaks that were fried were given generally high ratings by consumers in Philadelphia, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks cooked in this manner significantly lower than those in Philadelphia. Conversely, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks that were grilled significantly higher than consumers in Philadelphia. Correlation and stepwise regression analyses indicated that Flavor Like was driving customer satisfaction of the

  19. Distinguishing the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes to improve prediction of food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendel, Olivier; Werle, Carolina O C

    2016-09-01

    Eating behaviors largely result from automatic processes. Yet, in existing research, automatic or implicit attitudes toward food often fail to predict eating behaviors. Applying findings in cognitive neuroscience research, we propose and find that a central reason why implicit attitudes toward food are not good predictors of eating behaviors is that implicit attitudes are driven by two distinct constructs that often have diverging evaluative consequences: the automatic affective reactions to food (e.g., tastiness; the affective basis of implicit attitudes) and the automatic cognitive reactions to food (e.g., healthiness; the cognitive basis of implicit attitudes). More importantly, we find that the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes directly and uniquely influence actual food choices under different conditions. While the affective basis of implicit attitude is the main driver of food choices, it is the only driver when cognitive resources during choice are limited. The cognitive basis of implicit attitudes uniquely influences food choices when cognitive resources during choice are plentiful but only for participants low in impulsivity. Researchers interested in automatic processes in eating behaviors could thus benefit by distinguishing between the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azimi, Farideh; Kamali, Mohammad Bagher

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural development in Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have a better insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as a learning forum for bringing about changes for all participants, they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciative inquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting the facilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors...

  1. How Can Interdisciplinarity Of food, Design, Architecture, Engineering And Pedagogy Affect Children's Eating Habits And Food Preferences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Rasmussen, Mai

    Meals in day-care centers have for many children a crucial influence on the total experience of the stay. Research already suggests, that the meal situation should not be delimited to the nutritional meaning only, but has to be seen in a broad holistic perspective (Rasmussen and Smidt, 2001). In ...... and pedagogy can create solutions that positively affect eating habits and food preferences among children, and furthermore if this aspect can strengthen innovation in the food sector and create valuable solutions related to health benefits among children.......). In our research, regarding children’s eating habits and food preferences, we collaborated interdisciplinary, working holistically, involving appropriate disciplines, where knowledge from different fields was involved. The importance of working interdisciplinary in food innovation can be seen......, that affect children’s eating habits and food preferences. In order to make evidence in the field, an interdisciplinary team consisting of food specialists, designers, engineers, architects and pedagogues, created a carrot pavilion and appurtenant carrot activities. The aim was to influence the children...

  2. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-04-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia. Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  3. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  4. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Yan, Ng Sze; Zakuan, Norhayati; Bahari, Ahamad Zaidi; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  5. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured ques...

  6. Food Colors as the Factor of Development of Nephropathy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Golovachova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the incidence of nephropathy arouses concern and necessitates the further study of kidney disease factors in the children. Objective: to determine the effect of food colors on the development of kidney pathology in the children. Materials and methods. We observed 199 children aged from 1 year to 17 years, who were divided into two groups: group 1 — 103 children with various renal diseases, group 2 — 96 somatically healthy children. Effect of food colors on children’s kidneys was studied using a questionnaire survey of parents and the child. Results. Mothers of children with kidney disease significantly more frequently had used foods containing food colors (ice cream, confectionery, candies, soft drinks, such as fanta, lemonade, etc. before, during and after pregnancy. The same situation is observed when determining the frequency of using food colors by children: children from group 1 in 14.5 % of cases eat such products continuously, in 36.9 % of cases — often, but not every day, and in 29.1 % of cases — several times a month. While children from group 2 constantly consume foods with food colors only in 4.2 % of cases, often, but not every day — in 20.8 % of cases, several times a month — in 29.1 %. Conclusion. Various environmental factors, such as food colors, influence the development of the child’s body, reducing the adaptive capacity of the kidneys, or directly affecting them.

  7. Food, nutrients and nutraceuticals affecting the course of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uranga, José Antonio; López-Miranda, Visitación; Lombó, Felipe; Abalo, Raquel

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis; Crohn's disease) are debilitating relapsing inflammatory disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract, with deleterious effect on quality of life, and increasing incidence and prevalence. Mucosal inflammation, due to altered microbiota, increased intestinal permeability and immune system dysfunction underlies the symptoms and may be caused in susceptible individuals by different factors (or a combination of them), including dietary habits and components. In this review we describe the influence of the Western diet, obesity, and different nutraceuticals/functional foods (bioactive peptides, phytochemicals, omega 3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics and prebiotics) on the course of IBD, and provide some hints that could be useful for nutritional guidance. Hopefully, research will soon offer enough reliable data to slow down the spread of the disease and to make diet a cornerstone in IBD therapy. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Hanprasertpong, Nutthiya; Teekachunhatean, Thawatchai

    2013-01-01

    Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed qual...

  9. Radioactivity and food choice: risk factors and perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binnerts, W T; Hermsen, S; Kamp, M van der; Loyens, L; Ruven, H J.T.

    1986-12-01

    A preceding study revealed much difference among a selected number of radioisotopes in the passing of the food chains. The present study confirms the possibility to reduce radioactivity intake by a careful food choice. The physiology of metabolism of /sup 131/I, /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs, and other radionuclides is shortly recapitulated. Discrimination and speciation are seen to be main factors in reduction or enrichment in animal food products. Several calculations are given relating intake of radioactivity and food sources. Risk factors are mentioned, as well as the psychology around them. Although it is not urgent, it seems possible to reduce the intake of radioactivity by individuals, mainly by preference for animal products (except milk during the first weeks of a nuclear incident), and by consumption of refined food instead of 'health products'. For mankind as a whole, the popular conceptions about risk and health food need to be studied first and to be redressed, eventually. 13 refs.; 1 figure; 3 tabs.

  10. Factors Affecting Green Residential Building Development: Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Green residential buildings (GRBs are one of the effective practices of energy saving and emission reduction in the construction industry. However, many real estate developers in China are less willing to develop GRBs, because of the factors affecting green residential building development (GRBD. In order to promote the sustainable development of GRBs in China, this paper, based on the perspective of real estate developers, identifies the influential and critical factors affecting GRBD, using the method of social network analysis (SNA. Firstly, 14 factors affecting GRBD are determined from 64 preliminary factors of three main elements, and the framework is established. Secondly, the relationships between the 14 factors are analyzed by SNA. Finally, four critical factors for GRBD, which are on the local economy development level, development strategy and innovation orientation, developer’s acknowledgement and positioning for GRBD, and experience and ability for GRBD, are identified by the social network centrality test. The findings illustrate the key issues that affect the development of GRBs, and provide references for policy making by the government and strategy formulation by real estate developers.

  11. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Scott, Tammy; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis. Conversely, many dietary components such as curcumin, resveratrol, blueberry polyphenols, sulforaphane, salvionic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and diets enriched with polyphenols and PUFAs, as well as caloric restriction, physical exercise, and learning, have been shown to induce neurogenesis in adult brains. Although many of the underlying mechanisms by which nutrients and dietary factors affect adult neurogenesis have yet to be determined, nutritional approaches provide promising prospects to stimulate adult neurogenesis and combat neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the role of nutritional factors in modifying adult neurogenesis and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Factors affecting strategic plan implementation using interpretive structural modeling (ISM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Tajik, Hamidreza; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba

    2018-06-11

    Purpose Strategic planning is the best tool for managers seeking an informed presence and participation in the market without surrendering to changes. Strategic planning enables managers to achieve their organizational goals and objectives. Hospital goals, such as improving service quality and increasing patient satisfaction cannot be achieved if agreed strategies are not implemented. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting strategic plan implementation in one teaching hospital using interpretive structural modeling (ISM). Design/methodology/approach The authors used a descriptive study involving experts and senior managers; 16 were selected as the study sample using a purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a questionnaire designed and prepared based on previous studies. Data were analyzed using ISM. Findings Five main factors affected strategic plan implementation. Although all five variables and factors are top level, "senior manager awareness and participation in the strategic planning process" and "creating and maintaining team participation in the strategic planning process" had maximum drive power. "Organizational structure effects on the strategic planning process" and "Organizational culture effects on the strategic planning process" had maximum dependence power. Practical implications Identifying factors affecting strategic plan implementation is a basis for healthcare quality improvement by analyzing the relationship among factors and overcoming the barriers. Originality/value The authors used ISM to analyze the relationship between factors affecting strategic plan implementation.

  13. A study of the factors affecting the foaming properties of egg white - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomakina, K.; MÍKOVÁ, K.

    2006-01-01

    Many foods are prepared using egg white, most of them being based on the foaming properties of egg white which are due to albumen proteins ability to encapsulate and retain air. Therefore, many scientists aim to find new methods to improve the volume and the stability of egg white foam. This paper is a review of various factors affecting the foaming ability of egg white

  14. Empirical Analysis on Factors Affecting User Behavior in Social Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiayi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] This paper aims to discover the factors affecting user behavior in the derivative situation of e-commerce, social commerce, and explore the sustainable development and related marketing advice of it. [Method/process]This paper put forward a theoretical model of factors affecting user behavior in social commerce by integrating emotional state impact into the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R framework. 277 valid samples were collected by questionnaires and PLS. [Result/conclusion]The results show that information quality and tie strength significantly affect user emotional states, while emotional states positively affect user behavior. In addition, graphic features of business information have indirect effects on user emotional states, while it has direct effect on purchase intention.

  15. Impacts of Situational Factors on Process Attribute Uses for Food Purchases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Mueller Loose, Simone; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Consumer buying decisions for food reflect considerations about food production. However, consumers’ interest in process-related product characteristics does not always translate into buying intentions. The present study investigates how situational factors affect the use of process......-related considerations when consumers select food products. A conjoint study provides estimated part worth utilities for product alternatives that differ on five product attributes (including four process-related factors) across two products (bread and sports drink) that differ on perceived naturalness....... The investigation of the utilities of the process-related attributes features both an internal (priming of environmental values/ value centrality) and an external (time pressure) situational factor. The results indicate that the importance of process-related attributes is product specific and also depends...

  16. Factors Affecting Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf

    OpenAIRE

    Luc, J. E.; Crow, W. T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for eit...

  17. Various factors affecting /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy of liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoki, T; Morinari, H; Oono, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-10-01

    Various factors affecting /sup 67/Ga accumulation in liver cancer were studied in 38 patients with liver cancer (19 with hepatocellular carcinoma and 19 with metastatic liver cancer) who had received /sup 67/Ga-scintigraphy and liver scintigraphy. Besides histological types, the size, necrosis, vascularity and treatments of liver cancer, concentrations of transferrin (/sup 67/Ga binding protein) and iron in blood probably affected /sup 67/Ga accumulation in liver cancer.

  18. New product, familiar taste: Effects of slogans on cognitive and affective responses to an unknown food product among food neophobics and neophilics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Leufkens, Jean-Marie; van Hoof, Joris Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Food neophobia is considered a potential barrier for the introduction of new food products. This study investigated how advertising slogans could influence cognitive and affective responses to a new product in food neophobics and food neophilics. An unknown dairy product was used to examine the

  19. Development and Preliminary Testing of the Food Choice Priorities Survey (FCPS): Assessing the Importance of Multiple Factors on College Students' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaro, Melissa J; Zhou, Wenjun; Colby, Sarah E; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Riggsbee, Kristin; Olfert, Melissa D; Barnett, Tracey E; Mathews, Anne E

    2017-12-01

    Understanding factors that influence food choice may help improve diet quality. Factors that commonly affect adults' food choices have been described, but measures that identify and assess food choice factors specific to college students are lacking. This study developed and tested the Food Choice Priorities Survey (FCPS) among college students. Thirty-seven undergraduates participated in two focus groups ( n = 19; 11 in the male-only group, 8 in the female-only group) and interviews ( n = 18) regarding typical influences on food choice. Qualitative data informed the development of survey items with a 5-point Likert-type scale (1 = not important, 5 = extremely important). An expert panel rated FCPS items for clarity, relevance, representativeness, and coverage using a content validity form. To establish test-retest reliability, 109 first-year college students completed the 14-item FCPS at two time points, 0-48 days apart ( M = 13.99, SD = 7.44). Using Cohen's weighted κ for responses within 20 days, 11 items demonstrated moderate agreement and 3 items had substantial agreement. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure (9 items). The FCPS is designed for college students and provides a way to determine the factors of greatest importance regarding food choices among this population. From a public health perspective, practical applications include using the FCPS to tailor health communications and behavior change interventions to factors most salient for food choices of college students.

  20. In vitro selenium accessibility in pet foods is affected by diet composition and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelst, Mariëlle; Hesta, Myriam; Alexander, Lucille G; Gray, Kerry; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, Wouter H; Du Laing, Gijs; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Goethals, Klara; Janssens, Geert P J

    2015-06-28

    Se bioavailability in commercial pet foods has been shown to be highly variable. The aim of the present study was to identify dietary factors associated with in vitro accessibility of Se (Se Aiv) in pet foods. Se Aiv is defined as the percentage of Se from the diet that is potentially available for absorption after in vitro digestion. Sixty-two diets (dog, n 52; cat, n 10) were in vitro enzymatically digested: fifty-four of them were commercially available (kibble, n 20; pellet, n 8; canned, n 17; raw meat, n 6; steamed meat, n 3) and eight were unprocessed (kibble, n 4; canned, n 4) from the same batch as the corresponding processed diets. The present investigation examined if Se Aiv was affected by diet type, dietary protein, methionine, cysteine, lysine and Se content, DM, organic matter and crude protein (CP) digestibility. Se Aiv differed significantly among diet types (Pmeat diets had a lower Se Aiv than pelleted and raw meat diets. Se Aiv correlated positively with CP digestibility in extruded diets (kibbles, n 19; r 0·540, P =0·017) and negatively in canned diets (n 16; r - 0·611, P =0·012). Moreover, the canning process (n 4) decreased Se Aiv (P =0·001), whereas extrusion (n 4) revealed no effect on Se Aiv (P =0·297). These differences in Se Aiv between diet types warrant quantification of diet type effects on in vivo Se bioavailability.

  1. The associations of vegetable consumption with food mavenism, personal values, food knowledge and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farragher, Tahlia; Wang, Wei C; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Poor dietary choices, in particular low consumption of fruits and vegetables are associated with the prevalence of diet related diseases. Ways to increase consumption are urgently required. This paper examines the associations of demographic, psychographic and food knowledge variables with reported vegetable consumption. An online questionnaire was administered in late 2012 to a national sample 2146 Australians who were selected to represent the Australian population in terms of age, sex, education and location of residence. It was divided into sections which assessed food knowledge, food involvement, food mavenism, personal values and personality factors, demographic characteristics and reported consumption of 13 vegetables and the total number of servings of vegetables per day. Principal components analyses of the individual vegetable consumption ratings derived three forms of vegetable consumption scores. These and total serving per day were used as dependent variables in a structural equation model to identify pathways between them and their likely antecedents. Three types of vegetable consumption were formed:Salad vegetables (onion, tomato and lettuce);Dinner vegetables (carrot, peas and beans); and'Green' vegetables (cabbage, spinach broccoli and cauliflower). Food mavenism, food knowledge, food involvement and equality-universalist values mediated the relationships between demographics and conscientiousness and the vegetable consumption variables. The three types of vegetable consumption and total servings per day were associated with different antecedent pathways. The mediating roles of food mavenism, food knowledge, food involvement and equality-universalist values may present opportunities for health promotion and the horticultural industry to increase population vegetable intake. Further research is required to test these associations via experimental and longitudinal studies and qualitative investigation of the meaning and place of the three forms of

  2. Commercial WWW Site Appeal: How Does It Affect Online Food and Drink Consumers' Purchasing Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gregory K.; Manning, Barbara J.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on an online survey of consumer attitudes toward online storefronts marketing barbecue sauce, cheese, olive oil, potato chips, and other specialty food products. The relationship between consumer attitudes toward Web sites and the likelihood of purchase, as well as demographic factors related to online food and drink buying, are described.…

  3. In vitro selenium accessibility in pet foods is affected by diet composition and type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelst, van M.; Hesta, M.; Alexander, L.G.; Gray, K.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Laing, Du G.; Meulenaer, de B.; Goethals, K.; Janssens, G.

    2015-01-01

    Se bioavailability in commercial pet foods has been shown to be highly variable. The aim of the present study was to identify dietary factors associated with in vitro accessibility of Se (Se Aiv) in pet foods. Se Aiv is defined as the percentage of Se from the diet that is potentially available for

  4. What consumers don't know about genetically modified food, and how that affects beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Brandon R; Lusk, Jayson L

    2016-09-01

    In the debates surrounding biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) food, data from consumer polls are often presented as evidence for precaution and labeling. But how much do consumers actually know about the issue? New data collected from a nationwide U.S. survey reveal low levels of knowledge and numerous misperceptions about GM food. Nearly equal numbers of consumers prefer mandatory labeling of foods containing DNA as do those preferring mandatory labeling of GM foods. When given the option, the majority of consumers prefer that decisions about GM food be taken out of their hands and be made by experts. After answering a list of questions testing objective knowledge of GM food, subjective, self-reported knowledge declines somewhat, and beliefs about GM food safety increase slightly. Results suggest that consumers think they know more than they actually do about GM food, and queries about GM facts cause respondents to reassess how much they know. The findings question the usefulness of results from opinion polls as a motivation for creating public policy surrounding GM food.-McFadden, B. R., Lusk, J. L. What consumers don't know about genetically modified food, and how that affects beliefs. © FASEB.

  5. Investigating the factors affecting the investment decision in residential development.

    OpenAIRE

    Narang, Somil

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a rare insight into the motivation behind residential property investors when looking to purchase an apartment. The factors driving demand preferences for housing are constantly changing, difficult to measure, and often deemed to be a complex bundle of attributes. The project attempts to answer the following questions: What are the factors affecting the investment decision in a Residential Development? To identify the significance and weight of su...

  6. Factors Which Affect Academic Achievement of University Students

    OpenAIRE

    RENÇBER, Bahman Alp

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate by analysing factors affecting academic achievement of university students. Also effects of these factors are studied. For this purpose, the students attending “Statistics and Transport Technology” course at Gazi University, Industrial Arts Education and Arts Faculty, Industrial Technology Education Department, in the 2008-2009 academic year have been identified as the study universe. Analysis has been done by taking examples for this universe. The ...

  7. Some factors affecting the cost of irradiation services in thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasemsanta, S.

    1985-01-01

    The future of food irradiation in developing countries depends to a large extent on cost considerations. Although food irradiation technology itself is widely known and appears to offer many advantages, concrete evidence on the economic viability of a multi-product irradiation plant is presently not readily available to the private sector in developing countries. It is doubtful whether such evidence exists in a form which is comprehensible to industrialists outside the radiation technology circle. With respect to the economic aspects of food irradiation, information available from the literature appears to be based largely on a summing-up of studies of single products on a case-by-case basis. In an agricultural country, the main inputs to an irradiation service facility are likely to be agricultural produce which vary in kind and quantity with cropping seasons. Moreover, in most developing countries, uncontrollable factors play an important role in the production of annual crops and their transportation. Thus, it is hardly possible to make a credible long term forecast on the throughput required for the multi-product service plant, let alone determine with confidence the return on investment. Accordingly, as far as the private sector is concerned, investment decisions regarding the establishment of a commercial food irradiation service plant have to be considered as 'decision making under risk'. This paper attempts to raise questions to which the author cannot yet find clear and practical answers from the available literature. It is intended to stimulate a more thorough and objective discussion on the subject of economic viability of a multi-product food irradiation plant under the prevailing environment in ASEAN

  8. Formal Classroom Observations: Factors That Affect Their Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zeba

    2017-01-01

    Formal class room observation is a very delicate topic in any educational institution. It involves a series of emotions and sentiments that come with the package. In this paper, the researcher will attempt to analyze the factors that affect the process in a relatively significant manner and thereby contribute greatly to the success or failure of…

  9. Factors Affecting School Choice: What Do Malaysian Chinese Parents Want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Poh Chua; Christina Ong, Sook Beng; Tan, Swee Mee; Sim, Chzia Poaw; Xian Thoo, Raphael Yi

    2018-01-01

    Aiming to explore factors affecting Malaysian Chinese parents in sending their children to either national secondary schools or Chinese independent schools, 494 parents were surveyed using a questionnaire. Results showed that parents who sent their children to Chinese independent schools have different priorities compared to those who sent theirs…

  10. Factors Affecting Oil Palm Production in Ondo State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discovery of crude oil and the civil war adversely affected oil palm production in Nigeria. This has resulted in scarcity and high cost of palm products and palm oil. The study therefore investigated the factors influencing oil palm production in Ondo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty respondents were selected from ...

  11. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  12. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plas...

  13. Factors affecting sustainable animal trypanosomosis control in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors affecting sustainable trypanosomiasis control in parts of Kaduna State within the sub-humid savannah ecological zone of Nigeria. Focus group discussions were ... More awareness and preference for pour-on and aerial spraying were higher than the use of traps, target or screens. Rearing of ...

  14. Factors affecting disclosure of serostatus to children attending Jinja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting disclosure of serostatus to children attending Jinja Hospital ... twenty children and all (ten) health workers at Jinja Hospital paediatric HIV clinic. ... and child attending psychosocial support group (OR 7.4 CI 3.6-15.3 p < 0.001).

  15. Factors Affecting Online Groupwork Interest: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the personal and contextual factors that may affect students' online groupwork interest. Using the data obtained from graduate students in an online course, both student- and group-level predictors for online groupwork interest were analyzed within the framework of hierarchical linear modeling…

  16. Factors Affecting the Effectiveness and Use of Moodle: Students' Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damnjanovic, Vesna; Jednak, Sandra; Mijatovic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the factors affecting the effectiveness of Moodle from the students' perspective. The research hypotheses derived from the suggested extended Seddon model have been empirically validated using the responses to a survey on e-learning usage among 255 users. We tested the model across higher education…

  17. Identifying factors affecting about outsourcing in paraclinical services

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Outsourcing refers to the transfer of services or functions to an outsider supplier, which controls them through a contract or cooperative. The main problem of senior managers in health organizations is determining the services which should be outsourced. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect ...

  18. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…

  19. Factors Affecting Loan Utilization And Repayment Patterns By Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified factors affecting loan utilization and repayment patterns by small holder farmers of the Nigerian Agricultural Co-operative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) Osogbo branch in Osun State. Two Local Government Areas with large number of loan beneficiaries from 2003 to 2008 in NACRDB were ...

  20. Unemployment in Kenya: Some economic factors affecting wage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the economic factors affecting wage employment in Kenya, where open unemployment fell from 15 per cent in 1998/1999 to 13 per cent in 2005/2006. As of 2005/2006, wage employment constituted 13 per cent of the total working population, which implies that doubling wage employment will absorb ...

  1. Examining the factors affecting willingness to use electronic banking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining the factors affecting willingness to use electronic banking: the ... which information technologies are accepted are of the research studies. ... Customers' understanding of the ease of use of e-banking systems has a significant impact on perceived usefulness and their attitude had. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Factors affecting mortality and epidemiological data in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Burns continue to be responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In this study we aimed to determine the factors affecting mortality and epidemiological data by examining the records of burned patients. Method. The hospital records of 980 patients who were hospitalised in the ...

  3. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  4. Factors Affecting Quality of Audit; Empirical Evidence from Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines factors affecting quality of audit using empirical evidence from Iran Quality of audit was seen as the degree to which an audit report is free from deficiencies and distortions which show up later on. The quality of an audit was measured in terms of an auditor's ability to report financial distortions willingly ...

  5. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller therapy in chest clinics in a sub-Saharan African setting: a cross-sectional study. ... Background: Adherence to controller therapy in asthma is a major concern during the management of the disease. Objective: To determine the adherence rate and identify the ...

  6. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  7. Factors Affecting Utilization of Cooking Banana among Households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated factors affecting utilization of cooking banana among households in Oguta area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 84 randomly selected respondents from six communities in the study area who were administered with structured questionnaire. Data analysis was by use of descriptive ...

  8. Factors affecting farmers' participation in irrigation schemes of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... those factors affecting farmers' participation in irrigated agriculture at the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority (LNRBDA) in Kwara State, Nigeria. One hundred and sixty (160) respondents were selected from communities around LNRBDA site at Oke Oyi for this study through a two-stage sampling procedures.

  9. Factors Affecting Academic Achievement of Students in Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors affecting academic achievement ofstudents in Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) in ChristianReligious Knowledge. A total of three hundred students in SS III from five secondary schools were randomly selected and used as sample for the study. Five hypotheses were tested, ...

  10. Teachers' Perception of the Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    perception of salary as a factor affecting job satisfaction. Also, there .... Thus workers now have higher purchasing power, are given opportunity to use their .... Z-Cal. Z-Crit Significant. Level decision. Female. 70 12.73 3.23. Teachers. 0.32. 1.96.

  11. Factors affecting sports participation among female students at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this study was to examine factors affecting sport participation among resident and non- resident female students at Tshwane University of Technology (TUT), Pretoria, South Africa. The study targeted all students participating in 12 registered sports but due to the fact that only a limited number of the total ...

  12. Scrutinizing the Factors Affecting Fluency of English among Arab Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghazali, Fawzi

    2017-01-01

    This research study investigates the cognitive, psychological and personal factors affecting the accuracy and fluency of English language usage among Arab learners. Early research led by Chomsky (1965) and Krashen (1981) suggested that an individual's Language Acquisition Device once triggered at the appropriate time and supported with adequate…

  13. factors affecting particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we report a range of factors which affect the retention of colloidal particles in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These results are observed among different sizes of polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in both aqueous and nonaqueous liquid carriers and very low density lipoproteins in a phosphate ...

  14. Motivation and Factors Affecting It among Health Professionals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Motivation is an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. This study assessed motivational status and factors affecting it among health professionals in public hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region. METHOD: Facility based cross-sectional survey ...

  15. Factors affecting guidance and counseling programme in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to establish the factors that affect guidance and counseling in primary schools. Guidance and counseling seems not to be adequately helping pupils with physical and psychological problems in Nairobi province of Kenya. Many primary schools are faced with indiscipline and poor performance ...

  16. Factors affecting mortality of critical care trauma patients | Hefny ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common mechanism of injury was road traffic collisions (72.3 %). The overall mortality was 13.9%. A direct logistic regression model has shown that factors that affected mortality were decreased GCS (p < 0.0001), mechanism of injury (p = 0.004) with burns having the highest mortality, increased age (p = 0.004), ...

  17. Factors Affecting Performance of Undergraduate Students in Construction Related Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…

  18. Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  19. Factors affecting the utilisation of electronic medical records system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi Medical Journal 29 (3): September 2017. Electronic medical ... care, as they enable storage of large amounts of data and ... EMRs. This study assessed factors that affect the use of EMRs in Malawi, particularly at Queen Elizabeth and Kamuzu Central ..... paperless hospitals in Norway : A socio-technical perspective.

  20. Factors Affecting Conservation Practice Behavior of CRP Participants in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwudili Onianwa; Gerald Wheelock; Shannon Hendrix

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the factors that affect conservation practice choices of CRP farmers in Alabama. From over 9,000 contracts enrolled in the state between 1986 and 1995, 594 were randomly selected for the study. A multiple-regression analysis was employed to analyze the data. Results indicate that education, ratio ofcropland in CRP, farm size, gender, prior crop...

  1. Factors affecting sustainability of land reform projects in Ehlanzeni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated factors affecting sustainability of land reform projects in Mpumalanga Province in Bushbuckridge Local Municipality (BLM) of Ehlanzeni District. The study was conducted between July and September 2014. A random sampling technique was used in selecting 31 key informants from the projects.

  2. Factors affecting in sacco dietary degradation by Ankole cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting in sacco dietary degradation by Ankole cattle grazing natural range pastures in Uganda. ... Keywords: Ankole cattle, dietary selection, dry matter disappearance, free water intake, in sacco degradation, lignification, live weight change, predictive model, water solubility. African Journal of Range & Forage ...

  3. Factors affecting quality of life in cancer patients undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting quality of life in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. ... Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QoL in cancer patients with solid tumors and at the different chemotherapy cycles (CT). ... Results: A significant relationship between the cancer type, pain intensity, and fatigue was found.

  4. Factors affecting compliance to treatment among children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND:This study aimed to determine the factors affecting compliance to treatment among children with epilepsy in Enugu,Nigeria. METHODS: Children with diagnosis of epilepsy were consecutively recruited.Their 6 months retrospective and 1 month prospective data were collected;and analyzed using SPSS ...

  5. Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

  6. Factors Affecting Time, Cost and Quality Management in Building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is an assessment of time, cost and quality management in the Nigerian construction industry, and it aims to explore time cost and quality management in the construction industry. The objective of the study is to identify factors affecting time; cost and quality management in building construction projects. This study ...

  7. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  8. Relevant Affect Factors of Smartphone Mobile Data Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Husnjak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are used to access a wide range of different information and communication services and perform functions based on data transfer. A number of subscription contracts for smartphones is rapidly increasing, and the development of mobile communications network provides higher speed of data transfer. The continuous increase in the average amount of data traffic per one subscriber contract leads to an increase in the total Mobile Data Traffic (MDT, globally. This research represents a summary of factors that affect the amount of smartphone MDT. Previous literature shows only a few of the factors individually that affect the realization of smartphone MDT. The results of the research clarify the ways which influence the amount of MDT generated by a smartphone. This paper increases the awareness of the users of the methods of generating smartphone MDT. The research also allows users to specify parameters that affect the prediction of generated MDT of a smartphone.

  9. Factors Affecting the Pharmacology of Antibody–Drug Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Lucas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in therapeutic proteins, including antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs, have created revolutionary drug delivery systems in cancer over the past decade. While these immunoconjugate agents provide several advantages compared to their small-molecule counterparts, their clinical use is still in its infancy. The considerations in their development and clinical use are complex, and consist of multiple components and variables that can affect the pharmacologic characteristics. It is critical to understand the mechanisms employed by ADCs in navigating biological barriers and how these factors affect their biodistribution, delivery to tumors, efficacy, and toxicity. Thus, future studies are warranted to better understand the complex pharmacology and interaction between ADC carriers and biological systems, such as the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS and tumor microenvironment. This review provides an overview of factors that affect the pharmacologic profiles of ADC therapies that are currently in clinical use and development.

  10. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W. [Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Dept 7610, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58103-6050 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  11. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W.

    2010-01-01

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market.

  12. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  13. Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, M.; Hassan, S.; Naseer, M.Z.; Baig, I.A.; Asma, J.

    2008-01-01

    The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)

  14. Bioaerosols from a food waste composting plant affect human airway epithelial cell remodeling genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Min-Wei; Lee, Chung-Ru; Hung, Hsueh-Fen; Teng, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Hsin; Chuang, Chun-Yu

    2013-12-24

    The composting procedure in food waste plants generates airborne bioaerosols that have the potential to damage human airway epithelial cells. Persistent inflammation and repair responses induce airway remodeling and damage to the respiratory system. This study elucidated the expression changes of airway remodeling genes in human lung mucoepidermoid NCI-H292 cells exposed to bioaerosols from a composting plant. Different types of microorganisms were detectable in the composting plant, using the agar culture method. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the level of Aspergillus fumigatus and the profile of remodeling genes. The real-time PCR results indicated that the amount of A. fumigatus in the composting hall was less than 10(2) conidia. The endotoxins in the field bioaerosols were determined using a limulus amebocyte lysate test. The endotoxin levels depended on the type of particulate matter (PM), with coarse particles (2.5-10 μm) having higher endotoxin levels than did fine particles (0.5-2.5 μm). After exposure to the conditioned medium of field bioaerosol samples, NCI-H292 cells showed increased pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 release and activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21 WAF1/CIP1) gene expression, but not of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9. Airborne endotoxin levels were higher inside the composting hall than they were in other areas, and they were associated with PM. This suggested that airborne bioaerosols in the composting plant contained endotoxins and microorganisms besides A. fumigatus that cause the inflammatory cytokine secretion and augment the expression of remodeling genes in NCI-H292 cells. It is thus necessary to monitor potentially hazardous materials from bioaerosols in food composting plants, which could affect the health of workers.

  15. Bioaerosols from a Food Waste Composting Plant Affect Human Airway Epithelial Cell Remodeling Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Wei; Lee, Chung-Ru; Hung, Hsueh-Fen; Teng, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Hsin; Chuang, Chun-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The composting procedure in food waste plants generates airborne bioaerosols that have the potential to damage human airway epithelial cells. Persistent inflammation and repair responses induce airway remodeling and damage to the respiratory system. This study elucidated the expression changes of airway remodeling genes in human lung mucoepidermoid NCI-H292 cells exposed to bioaerosols from a composting plant. Different types of microorganisms were detectable in the composting plant, using the agar culture method. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the level of Aspergillus fumigatus and the profile of remodeling genes. The real-time PCR results indicated that the amount of A. fumigatus in the composting hall was less than 102 conidia. The endotoxins in the field bioaerosols were determined using a limulus amebocyte lysate test. The endotoxin levels depended on the type of particulate matter (PM), with coarse particles (2.5–10 μm) having higher endotoxin levels than did fine particles (0.5–2.5 μm). After exposure to the conditioned medium of field bioaerosol samples, NCI-H292 cells showed increased pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 release and activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21WAF1/CIP1) gene expression, but not of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9. Airborne endotoxin levels were higher inside the composting hall than they were in other areas, and they were associated with PM. This suggested that airborne bioaerosols in the composting plant contained endotoxins and microorganisms besides A. fumigatus that cause the inflammatory cytokine secretion and augment the expression of remodeling genes in NCI-H292 cells. It is thus necessary to monitor potentially hazardous materials from bioaerosols in food composting plants, which could affect the health of workers. PMID:24368426

  16. The Factor of Food in Biopolitics and National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Kravchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the role of food factor in the liberal biopolitics from its birth to the present day. According to the author, the consequences of this policy of food administration are ambivalent in character. On the one hand, there are real gains in mass production of food, its delivery to the consumer, medical supervision of the implementation of its quality. However, on the other hand, the basic principles of this biopolitics - scientism, formal rationalism, pragmatism and commercialism have not allowed to solve the problems of social inequality in the access to healthy food and of illuminating the hunger. In the end of the last century the liberal biopolitics acquired globo-networked and neo-liberal character but the corresponding transition from the national to the global scale administration of food production only intensified risks and challenges of modern human nutrition. In a number of countries including Russia there appeared the problems of food security. The adopted national programs to address these challenges in a "world risk society" (U. Beck will not solve them without fully understanding and practical implementation of the principle of the indivisibility of food security for all peoples of the world and implementation of the global food security. To achieve this, the author believes, it is necessary to abandon the "repair" of the current neo-liberal wing of biopolitics and its pragmatic and mercantilist approaches to human nutrition and pass over to a humanistic biopolitics. There offered a concrete roadmap motion to it, in particular, intending to strengthen the natural sciences and engineering for the production of food with the theoretical instruments of social sciences and humanities; to replace the outdated positivistic, scientistic postulate «knowledge - power" with the formula of ethical, humanistically oriented responsibility of scientists: "the integral knowledge of all sciences - quality food for the health of all

  17. Food Preferences and Factors Influencing Food Selectivity for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Kimberly A.; Williams, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Although clinicians and parents widely accept that children with autism spectrum disorder exhibit more feeding problems than their typically developing peers, little information is available concerning the characteristic food items accepted by these children or the possible factors contributing to these feeding problems. This article used an…

  18. Meet OLAF, a good friend of the IAPS! The Open Library of Affective Foods: a tool to investigate the emotional impact of food in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miccoli

    Full Text Available In the last decades, food pictures have been repeatedly employed to investigate the emotional impact of food on healthy participants as well as individuals who suffer from eating disorders and obesity. However, despite their widespread use, food pictures are typically selected according to each researcher's personal criteria, which make it difficult to reliably select food images and to compare results across different studies and laboratories. Therefore, to study affective reactions to food, it becomes pivotal to identify the emotional impact of specific food images based on wider samples of individuals. In the present paper we introduce the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF, which is a set of original food pictures created to reliably select food pictures based on the emotions they prompt, as indicated by affective ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance and by an additional food craving scale. OLAF images were designed to allow simultaneous use with affective images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS, which is a well-known instrument to investigate emotional reactions in the laboratory. The ultimate goal of the OLAF is to contribute to understanding how food is emotionally processed in healthy individuals and in patients who suffer from eating and weight-related disorders. The present normative data, which was based on a large sample of an adolescent population, indicate that when viewing affective non-food IAPS images, valence, arousal, and dominance ratings were in line with expected patterns based on previous emotion research. Moreover, when viewing food pictures, affective and food craving ratings were consistent with research on food cue processing. As a whole, the data supported the methodological and theoretical reliability of the OLAF ratings, therefore providing researchers with a standardized tool to reliably investigate the emotional and motivational significance of food. The OLAF database is publicly

  19. Meet OLAF, a good friend of the IAPS! The Open Library of Affective Foods: a tool to investigate the emotional impact of food in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Laura; Delgado, Rafael; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Guerra, Pedro; García-Mármol, Eduardo; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, food pictures have been repeatedly employed to investigate the emotional impact of food on healthy participants as well as individuals who suffer from eating disorders and obesity. However, despite their widespread use, food pictures are typically selected according to each researcher's personal criteria, which make it difficult to reliably select food images and to compare results across different studies and laboratories. Therefore, to study affective reactions to food, it becomes pivotal to identify the emotional impact of specific food images based on wider samples of individuals. In the present paper we introduce the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF), which is a set of original food pictures created to reliably select food pictures based on the emotions they prompt, as indicated by affective ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance and by an additional food craving scale. OLAF images were designed to allow simultaneous use with affective images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), which is a well-known instrument to investigate emotional reactions in the laboratory. The ultimate goal of the OLAF is to contribute to understanding how food is emotionally processed in healthy individuals and in patients who suffer from eating and weight-related disorders. The present normative data, which was based on a large sample of an adolescent population, indicate that when viewing affective non-food IAPS images, valence, arousal, and dominance ratings were in line with expected patterns based on previous emotion research. Moreover, when viewing food pictures, affective and food craving ratings were consistent with research on food cue processing. As a whole, the data supported the methodological and theoretical reliability of the OLAF ratings, therefore providing researchers with a standardized tool to reliably investigate the emotional and motivational significance of food. The OLAF database is publicly available at zenodo.org.

  20. Exploring paraprofessional and classroom factors affecting teacher supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Dwight W; Ingram, Paul; Huffman, Jonathan; Mason, Rose; Wills, Howard

    2018-02-01

    Paraprofessionals serve a primary role in supporting students with disabilities in the classroom, which necessitates teachers' supervision as a means to improve their practice. Yet, little is known regarding what factors affect teacher supervision. We sought to identify how paraprofessional competence and classroom type affected the levels of teacher direction. We administered an adapted version of the Paraprofessional Needs, Knowledge & Tasks Survey and the Survey for Teachers Supervising Paraprofessionals to teachers supervising paraprofessionals in elementary schools. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the link between paraprofessional competence and classroom factors affecting the level of teacher supervision. Our results indicated that when teachers perceived paraprofessionals as being more skilled, they provided more supervision, and when more supervision was provided the less they thought paraprofessionals should be doing their assigned tasks. Additionally, paraprofessionals working in classrooms with more students with mild disabilities received less supervision than paraprofessionals working in classrooms with more students with moderate-to-severe disabilities. Those paraprofessionals in classrooms serving mostly children with mild disabilities were also perceived as having lower levels of skill competence than those serving in classrooms with students with more moderate-to-severe disabilities. By understanding the factors that affect teacher supervision, policy and professional development opportunities can be refined/developed to better support both supervising teachers and paraprofessionals and, in turn, improve the outcomes of children with disabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influential Factors Affecting Materials Management in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusoh Zairra Mat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects are more often than not plagued by poor performances such as delays, cost overrun, low productivity, construction wastes and compromised quality. Amongst the critical contributory factors of poor project performances, is the ineffectiveness of materials management occurring in the construction sites. Indeed, materials management is a very important component for construction projects. However, there are only limited numbers of research available regarding this topic. Thus, this research focuses its study on materials management, specifically in identifying the influential factors that affect materials management in the construction project activities. Literatures from books, journal articles and conference papers related to poor project performances and materials management have been reviewed. Consequently, this study sorted the salient influential factors and categorized them based on their specific group. Out of 47 factors identified, they are classified into 8 groups. They are (1 site condition; (2 planning and handling on site; (3 management; (4 materials; (5 supplier and manufacturer default; (6 transportation; (7 contractual; and (8 governmental interferences. In conclusion, this study contends that by identifying the influential factors affecting materials management, it will help construction players to avoid the occurrence of those factors and will minimize the negative impacts on the overall performance of construction projects. Hence, the handling-over of project will be according to schedule and not delayed by materials mismanagement.

  2. A review of affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Gardeshi, Zeinab Hamzeh; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Salehi, Fariba

    2014-12-01

    Sex is a complex, important and sensitive issue in human being and interwoven with the whole of human existence. Given the serious changes in attitude, function and behavior in sex, the need to address sexual function, especially sexual satisfaction, is felt completely. Sexual satisfaction has a very important role in creating marital satisfaction and any defect in sexual satisfaction is significantly associated with risky sexual behaviors, serious mental illness, social crimes and ultimately divorce. The aim of this study was to explore affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women based on an overview in scientific database. In this narrative review the researchers searched MEDLINE database, Google Scholar and Science Direct as well as Persian database like Scientific Information Database with search terms of sexual satisfaction and sexual function, restricted to English/ Persian language, during the 20 years ago. Then those articles written by renowned experts were selected. In this regard, 57 articles have been reviewed, which 30 articles related to this research have been extracted. The findings were divided in to four categories including: Demographic factors, Pathophysiological factors, Psychological factors and Sociocultural factors. Sexuality, especially sexual intimacy is sophisticated and yet elegant affair that the other persons has different definitions and different functions. Discrepancies in the results of the studies show that analysis of factors affecting sexual satisfaction regardless of the women's' sociocultural context, religious beliefs, and personal attitudes is undoubtedly inefficient, unscientific and irrational.

  3. Factors Affecting Adoption of Recommended Cauliflower Production Technology in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Raj Dhital

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Binary logit regression model of econometrics was used to identify the factors affecting adoption of recommended agricultural technology by the commercial farmers of Nepal. A survey was carried out in 2012 in 120 households from Kavre district, Nepal. The objective was to appraise factors affecting adoption of recommended technology of cauliflower, finding out the level of adoption, identifying the constraints of cauliflower cultivation, assessing the perceived level of satisfaction and studying the relationship of certain selected variables on the adoption. Education, Occupation, contact with Personal Localite sources of information, Group membership and Experience were the most influencing factors for adoption of recommended technology. Though, other factors were not strong enough to contribute significantly but indirectly influence the adoption decision of farmers as combined effects. Occupation was found as negatively associated. Landholding size was strongly and positively influencing among the non significant factors. The level of satisfaction and the constraints of cauliflower production were also identified. Transfer of technology will be effective if and only if the client adopts the technology. For an effective transfer of technology, it is better to go for activities for the welfare of the socioeconomic factors of the farmers.

  4. The changing food outlet distributions and local contextual factors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Jen; Wang, Youfa

    2014-01-16

    Little is known about the dynamics of the food outlet distributions associated with local contextual factors in the U.S. This study examines the changes in food stores/services at the 5-digit Zip Code Tabulated Area (ZCTA5) level in the U.S., and assesses contextual factors associated with the changes. Data from 27,878 ZCTA5s in the contiguous United States without an extreme change in the number of 6 types of food stores/services (supermarkets, small-size grocery stores, convenience stores, fresh/specialty food markets, carry-out restaurants, and full-service restaurants) were used. ZCTA5s' contextual factors were from the 2000 Census. Numbers of food stores/services were derived from the Census Business Pattern databases. Linear regression models assessed contextual factors' influences (racial/ethnic compositions, poverty rate, urbanization level, and foreign-born population%) on 1-year changes in food stores/services during 2000-2001, adjusted for population size, total business change, and census regions. Small-size grocery stores and fresh/specialty food markets increased more and convenience stores decreased more in Hispanic-predominant than other areas. Among supermarket-free places, new supermarkets were less likely to be introduced into black-predominant than white-predominant areas (odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.30-0.92). However, among areas without the following type of store at baseline, supermarket (OR = 0.48 (0.33-0.70)), small-size grocery stores (OR = 1.32 (1.08-1.62)), and fresh/specialty food markets (OR = 0.70 (0.53-0.92)) were less likely to be introduced into areas of low foreign-born population than into areas of high foreign-born population. Higher poverty rate was associated with a greater decrease in supermarket, a less decrease in small-size grocery stores, and a less increase in carry-out restaurants (all p for trends restaurants than suburban areas. Local area characteristics affect 1-year changes in food

  5. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  6. Factors affecting the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Holland

    Full Text Available Abstract Tissue repair is an essential process that reestablishes tissue integrity and regular function. Nevertheless, different therapeutic factors and clinical conditions may interfere in this process of periapical healing. This review aims to discuss the important therapeutic factors associated with the clinical protocol used during root canal treatment and to highlight the systemic conditions associated with the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth. The antibacterial strategies indicated in the conventional treatment of an inflamed and infected pulp and the modulation of the host's immune response may assist in tissue repair, if wound healing has been hindered by infection. Systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, can also inhibit wound healing. The success of root canal treatment is affected by the correct choice of clinical protocol. These factors are dependent on the sanitization process (instrumentation, irrigant solution, irrigating strategies, and intracanal dressing, the apical limit of the root canal preparation and obturation, and the quality of the sealer. The challenges affecting the healing process of endodontically treated teeth include control of the inflammation of pulp or infectious processes and simultaneous neutralization of unpredictable provocations to the periapical tissue. Along with these factors, one must understand the local and general clinical conditions (systemic health of the patient that affect the outcome of root canal treatment prediction.

  7. Nurse aide decision making in nursing homes: factors affecting empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Tanni; Yeatts, Dale E; Cready, Cynthia M

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate factors affecting structural empowerment among nurse aides in nursing homes. Structural empowerment can be defined as the actual rather than perceived ability to make autonomous decisions within an organisation. Given the paucity of research on the subject, this study helps to close the gap by identifying factors that affect nurse aide empowerment, that is, decision-making among nurse aides. The data for the study come from self-administered questionnaires distributed to direct-care workers (nurse aides) in 11 nursing homes in a southern state in the USA. Ordinary least square regression models were estimated to analyse the effects of demographic predictors, personal factors (competency, emotional exhaustion and positive attitude) and structural characteristics (coworker and supervisor support, information availability and shared governance) on nurse aide decision-making. Findings suggest race among demographic predictors, emotional exhaustion among personal characteristics, and supervisor support, and shared governance among structural factors, significantly affect nurse aide decision-making. It is important to explore race as one of the central determinants of structural empowerment among nurse aides. In addition, the nature and type of emotional exhaustion that propels decision-making needs to be further examined. The study shows the importance of shared governance and supervisor support for fostering nurse aide empowerment. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Factors Affecting Successful Implementation of Hospital Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzandipur, Mehrdad; Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Azimi, Esmaeil

    2016-02-01

    Today, the use of information systems in health environments, like any other fields, is necessary and organizational managers are convinced to use these systems. However, managers' satisfaction is not the only factor in successfully implementing these systems and failed information technology projects (IT) are reported despite the consent of the directors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the factors affecting the successful implementation of a hospital information system. The study was carried out as a descriptive method in 20 clinical hospitals that the hospital information system (HIS) was conducted in them. The clinical and paraclinical users of mentioned hospitals are the study group. 400 people were chosen as samples in scientific method and the data was collected using a questionnaire consisted of three main human, managerial and organizational, and technological factors, by questionnaire and interview. Then the data was scored in Likert scale (score of 1 to 5) and were analyzed using the SPSS software. About 75 percent of the population were female, with average work experience of 10 years and the mean age was 30 years. The human factors affecting the success of hospital information system implementation achieved the mean score of 3.5, both organizational and managerial factors 2.9 and technological factors the mean of 3. Human factors including computer skills, perceiving usefulness and perceiving the ease of a hospital information system use are more effective on the acceptance and successful implementation of hospital information systems; then the technological factors play a greater role. It is recommended that for the successful implementation of hospital information systems, most of these factors to be considered.

  9. Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Quran Firas A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

  10. 76 FR 65734 - Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0733] Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  11. Water as a factor of differentiation in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Nardone

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To foster their competitive advantage, food firms pay an increasing attention to strategies that tend to distinguish their products from the one supplied by their competitors, dedicating to this task most of their resources, knowledge and creativity. In such a framework, also the resource “water”, often seen as an homogenous product, is more and more utilized in the advertisement as an element that increase the quality of the final good. This paper aims to build a model that can explain the observed behavior in the different food industries and that can give some insights about the future perspectives of the utilization of the water as a differentiation factor. To reach this goal, first we present a survey of the commercials of specific food industries (beverages, pasta, bread, fresh produce in which it is shown the contribute of water on the product. On the base of the empirical evidence, we argue that the propensity to use the water as an element of differentiation is greater when greater are the degree of technological knowledge, the consumers’ perceptions, and the importance of the differentiation strategy in that specific industry. Since we expect that these three factors will increase over time, we also conclude that it is rational to experiment a generalized increase of the utilization of the water in the commercials of the food products. We also recommend to extend the analysis testing the results using a quantitative approach.

  12. Water as a factor of differentiation in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Nardone

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available To foster their competitive advantage, food firms pay an increasing attention to strategies that tend to distinguish their products from the one supplied by their competitors, dedicating to this task most of their resources, knowledge and creativity. In such a framework, also the resource “water”, often seen as an homogenous product, is more and more utilized in the advertisement as an element that increase the quality of the final good. This paper aims to build a model that can explain the observed behavior in the different food industries and that can give some insights about the future perspectives of the utilization of the water as a differentiation factor. To reach this goal, first we present a survey of the commercials of specific food industries (beverages, pasta, bread, fresh produce in which it is shown the contribute of water on the product. On the base of the empirical evidence, we argue that the propensity to use the water as an element of differentiation is greater when greater are the degree of technological knowledge, the consumers’ perceptions, and the importance of the differentiation strategy in that specific industry. Since we expect that these three factors will increase over time, we also conclude that it is rational to experiment a generalized increase of the utilization of the water in the commercials of the food products. We also recommend to extend the analysis testing the results using a quantitative approach.

  13. Factors affecting smartphone adoption for accessing information in medical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahamtan, Iman; Pajouhanfar, Sara; Sedghi, Shahram; Azad, Mohsen; Roudbari, Masoud

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to acquire knowledge about the factors affecting smartphone adoption for accessing information in medical settings in Iranian Hospitals. A qualitative and quantitative approach was used to conduct this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 medical residents and interns in 2013 to identify determinant factors for smartphone adoption. Afterwards, nine relationships were hypothesised. We developed a questionnaire to test these hypotheses and to evaluate the importance of each factor. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the causal relations between model parameters and to accurately identify determinant factors. Eight factors were identified in the qualitative phase of the study, including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, training, internal environment, personal experience, social impacts, observability and job related characteristics. Among the studied factors, perceived usefulness, personal experience and job related characteristics were significantly associated with attitude to use a smartphone which accounted for 64% of the variance in attitude. Perceived usefulness had the strongest impact on attitude to use a smartphone. The factors that emerged from interviews were consistent with the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and some previous studies. TAM is a reliable model for understanding the factors of smartphone acceptance in medical settings. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  14. Factors Affecting Sarcopenia in Korean Adults by Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eun-Jung; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors affecting sarcopenia in different age groups among Korean adults aged 20 years or older. In this secondary analysis, data were collected from records for 17,968, participants who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008-2011. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the associated factors of sarcopenia by age groups. The prevalence of sarcopenia increased significantly with age. Physical activity, blood pressure, waist circumference, triglycerides, vitamin D level were found to be factors significantly associated with sarcopenia in all age groups. Total energy intake was found to be a factor that is significantly associated with sarcopenia among the adults aged 20-39 years. Fasting glucose, suicidal ideation, perceived health status, mobility problem, pain/discomfort, total energy intake were found to be factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults aged 40-64 years. Sex, residential area, smoking, drinking, fasting glucose, osteoarthritis, fall experience, usual activity problem, protein intake were factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults over 65 years of age. The findings show that sarcopenia in adults and the associated factors were different by age groups. Thus, these factors should be considered in the development of intervention programs for the care and prevention of sarcopenia, and such programs should be modified according to different age groups.

  15. Factors Affecting Surgical Decision-making—A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gunaratnam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Guidelines and Class 1 evidence are strong factors that help guide surgeons’ decision-making, but dilemmas exist in selecting the best surgical option, usually without the benefit of guidelines or Class 1 evidence. A few studies have discussed the variability of surgical treatment options that are currently available, but no study has examined surgeons’ views on the influential factors that encourage them to choose one surgical treatment over another. This study examines the influential factors and the thought process that encourage surgeons to make these decisions in such circumstances. Methods Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 32 senior consultant surgeons, surgical fellows, and senior surgical residents at the University of Toronto teaching hospitals. An e-mail was sent out for volunteers, and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis using open and axial coding. Results Broadly speaking there are five groups of factors affecting surgeons’ decision-making: medical condition, information, institutional, patient, and surgeon factors. When information factors such as guidelines and Class 1 evidence are lacking, the other four groups of factors—medical condition, institutional, patient, and surgeon factors (the last-mentioned likely being the most powerful—play a significant role in guiding surgical decision-making. Conclusions This study is the first qualitative study on surgeons’ perspectives on the influential factors that help them choose one surgical treatment option over another for their patients.

  16. Factors affecting the transfer of radionuclides from the environment to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golmakani, S.; Moghaddam, V.M.; Hosseini, T.

    2008-01-01

    Much of our food directly or indirectly originates from plant material; thus, detailed studies on plant contamination processes are an essential part of international environmental research. This overview attempts to identify and describe the most important parameters and processes affecting the behaviour of radionuclide transfer to plants. Many parameters influence these processes. These parameters are related to: (1) plant, (2) soil, (3) radionuclide, (4) climate and (5) time. Often there is no boundary between the factors and they are linked to each other. Knowledge of important factors in radionuclide transfer to plants can help to assess and prevent radiological exposure of humans. This knowledge can also help to guide researches and modelling related to transfer of radionuclides to food chain. (authors)

  17. Factors affecting functional prognosis of patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M T

    2011-01-01

    to just one or two single factors. The current article reviews important factors affecting the functional prognosis, and clinicians are encouraged to include all factors potentially influencing the outcome of patients with hip fracture in their individualised treatment and rehabilitation plan. Especially......Having a hip fracture is considered one of the most fatal fractures for elderly people, resulting in impaired function, and increased morbidity and mortality. This challenges clinicians in identifying patients at risk of worse outcome, in order to optimise and intensify treatment in these patients....... A variety of factors such as age, prefracture function and health status, fracture type, pain, anaemia, muscle strength, and the early mobility level have been shown to influence patient outcome. Thus, the outcome of patients with hip fracture is considered multi-factorial, and can therefore not be related...

  18. Factors Affecting Customer Retention in the Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghda Climis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study empirically investigated the factors that affect customer retention in the airline industry in North Cyprus. These factors were service quality attributes, perceived safety, customer satisfaction, loyalty reward program, relationship commitment and customer loyalty. The study also investigated four different groups for purposes of travel (business, education, vacation and family visit in the empirical model. Methodology: A descriptive approach was chosen to conduct this research. A quanhip between customer retention and the related study factors; however, not all of these relations are signifcant. The results also showed that the different purposes of travel had different influences on the variables regarding the positive and signifcant relations between them. Some independent variables had a negative effect on the dependent variables. Conclusions: This research was limited to one group and place: the students of Eastern Mediterranean University in North Cyprus. Originality: This study connected the retention, loyalty, satisfaction and service quality factors as attributes. In addition, this research was the frst to include other independent factors affecting satisfaction and loyalty in a comparison between four different groups regarding the purpose of travel in the airline industry.

  19. Cognitive Factors Affecting Freeze-like Behavior in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Michael W; Pocknell, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary research on survival-related defensive behaviors has identified physiological markers of freeze/flight/fight. Our research focused on cognitive factors associated with freeze-like behavior in humans. Study 1 tested if an explicit decision to freeze is associated with the psychophysiological state of freezing. Heart rate deceleration occurred when participants chose to freeze. Study 2 varied the efficacy of freezing relative to other defense options and found "freeze" was responsive to variations in the perceived effectiveness of alternative actions. Study 3 tested if individual differences in motivational orientation affect preference for a "freeze" option when the efficacy of options is held constant. A trend in the predicted direction suggested that naturally occurring cognitions led loss-avoiders to select "freeze" more often than reward-seekers. In combination, our attention to the cognitive factors affecting freeze-like behavior in humans represents a preliminary step in addressing an important but neglected research area.

  20. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

  1. Factors affecting the tissues composition of pork belly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duziński, K; Knecht, D; Lisiak, D; Janiszewski, P

    2015-11-01

    Bellies derived from the commercial population of pig carcasses are diverse in terms of tissue composition. Knowledge of the factors influencing it and the expected results, permits quick and easy evaluation of raw material. The study was designed to determine the factors affecting the tissues composition of pork bellies and to estimate their lean meat content. The research population (n=140 pig carcasses) was divided into groups according to sex (gilts, barrows), half-carcass mass (meat content class: S (⩾60%), E (55% to 60%), U (50% to 55%), R (meat content affected the growth of the fat and skin mass in a linear way. No differences were observed between class S and E in terms of belly muscle mass. A 0.37% higher share of belly in the half-carcass was found for barrows (Pmeat content in bellies, suggesting they may be used directly in the production line.

  2. Factors Affecting Microbial Contamination of Market Eggs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodová J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.

  3. Factors affecting metal and radionuclide pollution in the Baltic sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lodenius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available External pollution load in the Baltic Sea originates from urban, agricultural and industrial sources. Emissions of heavy metals have decreased substantially in the catchment area but the temporal trends are not always significant and differ with sample, area and pollutant. The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Many factors affect the future development of pollutant concentrations including anthropogenic emissions, political decisions and changes in salinity, temperature and water currents, in eutrophication and oxygen status, in fisheries and in atmospheric deposition of pollutants. Large scale changes like eutrophication and climate change affect ecosystems in many ways, directly and indirectly, causing biological and abiotic effects. These factors are interrelated and difficult to predict. Measures aiming to enhance the ecological status of the Baltic Sea will certainly give positive results but this will take at least several decades.

  4. Literature review of factors affecting continence after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Pacik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical prostatectomy (RP is the most common cause of stress urinary incontinence (UI in men. Several anatomic structures affect or may affect urinary continence - urethral sphincter, levator ani muscle, puboprostatic ligaments, bladder neck, endopelvic fascia, neurovascular bundle - and understanding of the anatomy of pelvic floor and urethra is crucial for satisfactory functional outcome of the procedure. Surgical techniques implemented to improve continence rates include nerve-sparing procedure, bladder neck preservation/plication, urethral length preservation, musculofascial reconstruction, puboprostatic ligaments preservation or seminal vesicle preservation. Perioperative (preoperative and postoperative pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT aims to shorten the duration of postoperative UI and thus, improve early continence rates postoperatively. In the review, complex information regarding anatomical, intra- and perioperative factors affecting urinary continence after RP is provided, including description of important anatomical structures, possible implications for surgical technique and evaluation of different PFMT strategies in perioperative period.

  5. Agroecology and sustainable food systems: Participatory research to improve food security among HIV-affected households in northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Hanson; Mambulu, Faith Nankasa; Bezner Kerr, Rachel; Luginaah, Isaac; Lupafya, Esther

    2016-09-01

    This article shares results from a long-term participatory agroecological research project in northern Malawi. Drawing upon a political ecology of health conceptual framework, the paper explores whether and how participatory agroecological farming can improve food security and nutrition among HIV-affected households. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 farmers in HIV-affected households in the area near Ekwendeni Trading Centre in northern Malawi. The results show that participatory agroecological farming has a strong potential to meet the food, dietary, labour and income needs of HIV-affected households, whilst helping them to manage natural resources sustainably. As well, the findings reveal that place-based politics, especially gendered power imbalances, are imperative for understanding the human impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Overall, the study adds valuable insights into the literature on the human-environment dimensions of health. It demonstrates that the onset of disease can radically transform the social relations governing access to and control over resources (e.g., land, labour, and capital), and that these altered social relations in turn affect sustainable disease management. The conclusion highlights how the promotion of sustainable agroecology could help to partly address the socio-ecological challenges associated with HIV/AIDS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental factors affecting inflammatory bowel disease: have we made progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is only partially understood; various environmental and host (e.g. genetic, epithelial, immune, and nonimmune) factors are involved. The critical role for environmental factors is strongly supported by recent worldwide trends in IBD epidemiology. One important environmental factor is smoking. A meta-analysis partially confirms previous findings that smoking was found to be protective against ulcerative colitis and, after the onset of the disease, might improve its course, decreasing the need for colectomy. In contrast, smoking increases the risk of developing Crohn's disease and aggravates its course. The history of IBD is dotted by cyclic reports on the isolation of specific infectious agents responsible for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The more recently published cold chain hypothesis is providing an even broader platform by linking dietary factors and microbial agents. An additional, recent theory has suggested a breakdown in the balance between putative species of 'protective' versus 'harmful' intestinal bacteria - this concept has been termed dysbiosis resulting in decreased bacterial diversity. Other factors such as oral contraceptive use, appendectomy, dietary factors (e.g. refined sugar, fat, and fast food), perinatal events, and childhood infections have also been associated with both diseases, but their role is more controversial. Nonetheless, there is no doubt that economic development, leading to improved hygiene and other changes in lifestyle ('westernized lifestyle') may play a role in the increase in IBD. This review article focuses on the role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis and progression of IBDs. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan, Yousef; Al-Fouzan, Rawan; Al-Ajlan, Sarah; Al-Saleh, Mervat

    2012-01-01

    Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression wer...

  8. Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugan, M.A.

    1990-03-01

    The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

  9. A STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING HEALING OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT ANASTOMOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Anjani; Amit; Vikram Singh; Rajesh; Jalaj

    2014-01-01

    : Aim of this prospective study to identify the factor which affects the morbidity and mortality of gastrointestinal anastomosis. This prospective study was conducted in G.R. Medical College from November 2012 to October 2013. Our study plan was approved by Ethical Committee of our institute 80 patients were included in this study who underwent gastrointestinal anastomosis whether elective or emergency irrespective of age and gender. A detailed history and relevant preoper...

  10. Motivation-One of the Affective Factors and its Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Fang-hua

    2014-01-01

    Affective factors play a positive role in English study and motivation is the most important. Higher motivation predicts better second language acquisition. The types of motivation are mainly divided into two:extrinsic motivation and intrinsic moti-vation. Teachers should study their students as well as the teaching materials and then select scientific methods and make good use of them to reinforce their students' motivation.

  11. Factors affecting customer satisfaction of online travel agencies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Sabyasachi; Kumar Chauhan, Ram; Chauhan, Kavita

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors affecting customer satisfaction for online travel agencies in India. It will help guide existing online travel agencies and future entrants to have an in-depth understanding of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in their domain. It will also help to improve their business operations and investment focus, which in turn will lead to greater customer satisfaction and loyalty. Design – This paper defines the concept of cust...

  12. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  13. Factors affecting polyamide prototypes design of Albedo dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, M.M.; Mauricio, C.L.P.; Fonseca, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    This work studies the most important factors which affect the response of albedo neutron dosemeters containing LiF TLDs with the aim to improve their sensitivity. It includes tests of thickness and shape of the polyamide moderator body prototypes, albedo window diameter and TLD position inside the moderator. Analyzing the results, an albedo neutron dosemeter prototype, B 4 C covered, was developed. The prototype has a response three times higher than the albedo dosemeter now in use in Brazil. (author)

  14. Factors Affecting Aggression in South Korean Middle School Students

    OpenAIRE

    MiJeong Park, PhD, RN; Jihea Choi, PhD, RN, CPNP; Seung-Joo Lim, PhD, RN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using...

  15. Control of exogenous factors affecting plasma homovanillic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Giordani, A B; Mohs, R C; Mykytyn, V V; Platt, S; Aryan, Z S; Davis, K L

    1987-04-01

    Measurements of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations appear to be a valid research strategy in psychiatric disorders in which a central dopamine (DA) abnormality has been implicated. This study provides guidance about the control of some of the exogenous factors affecting pHVA concentrations. Fasting for 14 hours eliminates the dietary effects on pHVA in healthy human subjects. Changing position, walking for 30 minutes, or smoking two cigarettes has no effect on pHVA concentrations.

  16. Parallel factor analysis PARAFAC of process affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewanchuk, A.M.; Ulrich, A.C.; Sego, D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Alostaz, M. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    A parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of oil sands process-affected water was presented. Naphthenic acids (NA) are traditionally described as monobasic carboxylic acids. Research has indicated that oil sands NA do not fit classical definitions of NA. Oil sands organic acids have toxic and corrosive properties. When analyzed by fluorescence technology, oil sands process-affected water displays a characteristic peak at 290 nm excitation and approximately 346 nm emission. In this study, a parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was used to decompose process-affected water multi-way data into components representing analytes, chemical compounds, and groups of compounds. Water samples from various oil sands operations were analyzed in order to obtain EEMs. The EEMs were then arranged into a large matrix in decreasing process-affected water content for PARAFAC. Data were divided into 5 components. A comparison with commercially prepared NA samples suggested that oil sands NA is fundamentally different. Further research is needed to determine what each of the 5 components represent. tabs., figs.

  17. Environmental and Individual Factors Affecting Menu Labeling Utilization: A Qualitative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Jennifer; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Islam, Nadia; Elbel, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health concern that disproportionally affects low-income and minority populations. Recent policies mandating the posting of calories on menus in fast food chain restaurants have not proven to uniformly influence food choice. This qualitative research study uses focus groups to study individual and environmental factors affecting the usage of these menu labels among low-income, minority populations. Ten focus groups targeting low-income residents (n=105) were conducted at various community organizations throughout NYC in Spanish, English, or a combination of both languages, over a nine-month period in 2011. In late 2011 and early 2012, transcripts were coded through the process of thematic analysis using Atlas.ti for naturally emerging themes, influences, and determinants of food choice. Few used menu labels, despite awareness. Among the themes pertaining to menu label usage, price and time constraints, confusion and lack of understanding of caloric values, as well as the priority of preference, hunger, and habitual ordering habits were most frequently cited as barriers to menu label usage. Based on the individual and external influences on food choice that often take priority over calorie consideration, a modified approach may be necessary to make menu labels more effective and user-friendly. PMID:23402695

  18. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and

  19. Factors that influence the reinforcing value of foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jennifer L

    2014-09-01

    Behavioral economic principles state that as the cost of a product increases, purchasing or consumption of that product will decrease. To understand the impact of behavioral economics on ingestive behavior, our laboratory utilizes an operant behavior paradigm to measure how much work an individual will engage in to get access to foods and beverages. This task provides an objective measure of the reinforcing value. We have shown that consumption of the same high fat snack food every day for two weeks reduces its reinforcing value in lean individuals, but increases its reinforcing value in a subset of obese individuals. This increase in the reinforcing value of food predicts future weight gain. Similarly, we have shown that repeated intake of caffeinated soda increases its reinforcing value in boys, but not in girls. This increase in reinforcing value is not related to usual caffeine consumption, but may be associated with positive, subjective effects of caffeine that are more likely to be reported by boys than by girls. Because food and beverage reinforcement relates to real-world consumption, it is important to determine factors that increase or decrease the reinforcing value and determine the consequences of these responses. We are especially interested in determining ways to shift the behavioral economic curve in order to develop novel strategies to decrease the reinforcing value of less healthy snack foods and beverages, such as soda, potato chips and candy and to increase the reinforcing value of healthier foods and beverages, such as water, fruits, and vegetables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Susceptibility of South Korea to Extremes Affecting the Global Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, So Young; Puma, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Food security in South Korea is tightly linked to the global food system. The country's production of major grains declined from 5.8 million metric tons (mmt) in 1998 to 4.8 mmt in 2014, which caused the country's grain self suciency to decline from 31.4% to 24%. This decline is a consequence of several factors including reductions in domestic agricultural land, governmental policies supporting industry over agriculture, and a push towards trade liberalization. South Korea's self suciency is now one of the lowest among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, leaving it vulnerable to disruptions in the global food system.

  1. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tatarinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  2. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Salih, Bilal; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Cohen, Irit; Bolshoy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases) may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content) tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  3. EXPLORING THE FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES’ ADOPTION AND USE OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majharul Talukder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the factors affecting innovation adoption by individual employees within an organization in Australia. Following a qualitative research approach, this paper uses a series of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions involving academic and administrative employees at a tertiary educational institution in Australia. The qualitative approach is adopted to have a deeper insight into the complexities and dynamism associated with the factors influencing innovation adoption process in organizational settings. The findings of this research highlight the need for broadening an understanding of the key factors affecting employee’s decisions to uptake the adoption of innovation. The results provide important clues for comprehending the factors influencing and determining the employee’s adoption and continued use of innovation in the work environment. In the face of the current trend towards end-user applications of technological innovation, the results suggest some guidelines for management toward effective and efficient adoption and use of innovation in organizational settings. This paper has highlighted the above findings and their implications for management practices related to innovation management in an Australian organizational setting. This paper also identifies possible limitations and future research potential in the relevant field.

  4. Factors affecting midwives' confidence in intrapartum care: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Carol; McGowan, Linda; Lavender, Tina

    2015-01-01

    midwives are frequently the lead providers of care for women throughout labour and birth. In order to perform their role effectively and provide women with the choices they require midwives need to be confident in their practice. This study explores factors which may affect midwives' confidence in their practice. hermeneutic phenomenology formed the theoretical basis for the study. Prospective longitudinal data collection was completed using diaries and semi-structured interviews. Twelve midwives providing intrapartum care in a variety of settings were recruited to ensure a variety of experiences in different contexts were captured. the principal factor affecting workplace confidence, both positively and negatively, was the influence of colleagues. Perceived autonomy and a sense of familiarity could also enhance confidence. However, conflict in the workplace was a critical factor in reducing midwives' confidence. Confidence was an important, but fragile, phenomenon to midwives and they used a variety of coping strategies, emotional intelligence and presentation management to maintain it. this is the first study to highlight both the factors influencing midwives' workplace confidence and the strategies midwives employed to maintain their confidence. Confidence is important in maintaining well-being and workplace culture may play a role in explaining the current low morale within the midwifery workforce. This may have implications for women's choices and care. Support, effective leadership and education may help midwives develop and sustain a positive sense of confidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk factors of metabolic syndrome among food suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasdar Yahya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. As a risk factor for chronic diseases, metabolic syndrome (MS is increasing at an alarming rate. The prevalence of MS varies according to lifestyle and occupation in different populations. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of MS and its components in food suppliers. Methods. A total of 112 food suppliers were randomly selected from all around the city. Data collection tools included demographic, physical activity, and food frequency questionnaires. Body composition was measured using Bio-Electrical Body Analyzer. A sample of 5 ml of fasting blood was taken from participants to assess lipid profile, blood sugar, insulin, and liver enzymes. The data were analyzed using χ2, Kolmogorov–Smirnov and ANOVA tests. Results. Participants’ mean BMI was 27.1 ± 3.9 kg/m2, 43.6% were overweight, and 26.4% were obese. Consumption of vegetables was less and of meats more than recommended amounts. The prevalence of MS was 45.5% (51 people, which increased with aging (p = 0.02. Among factors causing MS, the most common one was waist-to-hip ratio (WHR > 0.09 (72.7%, followed by high triglyceride and low HDL. Conclusion. In this study, the prevalence of MS among food suppliers was higher than the world average and than prevalence in other countries. WHR (or obesity was found to be the most important risk factor for MS. To reduce the risk of MS, changing dietary consumption habits and increased physical activity are recommended to persons with high risk and sedentary occupations.

  6. Mothers recovering from cocaine addiction: factors affecting parenting skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyer, S M

    2001-01-01

    To identify factors that may influence parenting by mothers who are recovering from cocaine addiction. Exploratory descriptive, with in-depth unstructured interviews. Interviews were conducted in the woman's home or in a treatment center. A convenience sample of 11 women recovering from cocaine addiction who were mothers of children 3 years of age and younger. A content analysis was used to analyze the interview data. Two themes, personal/psychologic factors and environmental/contextual factors, and four subthemes emerged. They identify issues that may affect parenting by mothers being treated for cocaine addiction. Subthemes included low self-esteem, difficulty developing a maternal identity, isolation from friends and family, and chronic life stress. This study provides a better understanding of the sources contributing to vulnerability in the parenting role for mothers recovering from cocaine addiction and will assist nurses in providing care for these mothers and their children.

  7. Factors affecting aggression in South Korean middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, MiJeong; Choi, Jihea; Lim, Seung-Joo

    2014-12-01

    The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regressions. Aggression had significant correlations with academic stress (r = .21, p decision-making competency (r = -.25, p emotional factors like depression and academic stress. Additionally, development of positive factors such as self esteem, decision-making skills, and happiness in middle school students is important to reduce aggression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Identification of food intake patterns and associated factors in teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Márcia Oliveira Mascarenhas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify schoolchildren"s dietary patterns and investigate the demographic, social, and economic determinants of the differences found between patterns. METHODS: The sample consisted of 1,330 students aged 11 to 17 years attending the public schools of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The subjects' food intake data were collected by a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire comprising 97 food items. All information was collected during a single interview. The exposure variables were gender, age, and socioeconomic class, and the outcome variables were categorized food consumption pattern in "mixed pattern", "traditional pattern", and "healthy pattern". The data were treated by simple and multiple linear regression analyses and the dietary patterns determined by factor analysis. RESULTS: Most participants were female (56.9% and over 13 years old (79.2%. The "mixed pattern" was positively associated with females (β=0.181, p0.0001 and classes D, C, and B (β=-0.125, p<0.023. CONCLUSION: Three dietary patterns were identified among the adolescents, namely mixed, traditional, and healthy. Gender and socioeconomic class were associated with dietary patterns. Male teenagers and those in the lower socioeconomic classes had a healthier dietary pattern than their peers of higher socioeconomic classes and females.

  9. A Pattern to Evaluation of Motivational Factors Affecting Knowledge Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Hajian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the motivational factors affecting the willingness of employees to share knowledge and examine intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and influences on attitudes toward knowledge sharing and explicit and implicit knowledge sharing intention. Planned behavior pattern is used as a theoretical framework. This research was conducted in two phases. First, factors were identified according to the literature review and exploratory interviews. Then the impact of each factor was evaluated in terms of structural equation modeling. This is an empirical research and the research method is descriptive survey. Data was collected using a questionnaire and interview. The study was on the staff working in administrative units of Tehran Municipality and the number of staff at the time of study was 2230. Cluster sampling method and sample size based on population and using Cochran formula of 328 people determined that 35 persons were not held accountable. To determine the reliability of questionnaires, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated to 0.824 which was found at a high level. Data was analyzed by SPSS and LISREL software. Finally, the proposed pattern was confirmed. The results showed that the intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influence on the attitude of employees and the attitude influence on tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intention. Also, extrinsic motivational factors influence on tacit knowledge sharing intention and intrinsic motivational factors influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention. Extrinsic motivational factors influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention and intrinsic motivational factors influence on tacit knowledge sharing intention by the attitude and tacit knowledge sharing intention influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention.

  10. The Food Matrix and Sterol Characteristics Affect the Plasma Cholesterol Lowering of Phytosterol/Phytostanol1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S.

    2013-01-01

    Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ≥10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when β-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c. PMID:24228192

  11. The food matrix and sterol characteristics affect the plasma cholesterol lowering of phytosterol/phytostanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S

    2013-11-01

    Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ≥10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when β-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c.

  12. Food matrix and cooking process affect mineral bioaccessibility of enteral nutrition formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, María Gimena; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2014-02-01

    When enteral formulas (EF) are administered orally as a supplement to the normal diet, they are often mixed with conventional foods or included in recipes in order to seek new flavors and textures and avoid monotony. The aims of this work were to study the bioaccessibility of Fe, Zn and Ca from commercial EF and the impact upon their incorporation into sweet preparations. Twenty commercial EF, before and after inclusion in sweet food (rice pudding, RP; banana smoothie, BS; tea, T; chocolate dessert, CD) were evaluated regarding Fe, Zn and Ca dialyzability (%DFe , %DZn , %DCa ) as an estimator of mineral bioaccessibility. Fe, Zn and Ca dialyzability from EF was variable and generally low. Heating during EF-sweet food preparation (T and CD) lowered values to 44.1 %DFe , possibly due to degradation of vitamin C, and 52.7 %DZn and 25.3 %DCa , due to the interaction with food components. EF and EF-sweet foods did not represent a good supply of Fe, Zn and Ca as recommended. This study demonstrated how the bioaccessibility of these minerals is affected by the food matrix in which EF is included as well as heating during food preparation. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Factors affecting 30-month survival in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P A; Archana, S; Jayaraj, B S; Patil, Shekar; Chaya, S K; Shashidhar, H P; Sunitha, B S; Prabhakar, A K

    2012-10-01

    Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factors affecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients.

  14. THE FACTORS AFFECTING SATISFACTION LEVELS IN HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS: AN APPLICATION IN PUBLIC HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neşe ACAR

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the factors that affect the level of satisfaction of services provided by public hospitals. Patients' satisfaction levels were measured by interviewing 156 patients in a public hospital. Factor analysis of the data obtained from the research resulted in five factors called nurses 'behaviors, physical conditions, doctors' behavior, technical staff behaviors, food and beverage. MANOVA analysis was conducted to determine the differences in the perception of factors with respect to the demographic characteristics of the patients and differences were found in terms of profession. It has been seen that it is important that public hospitals have specialist doctors and modern equipment and that they have qualities such as the quality of the health personnel in preferring patients to public hospitals.

  15. An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuremoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

  16. Risk factors that influence suicidal behavior in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Albina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known in the literature that the incidence and prevalence of suicide and attempted suicide in psychiatric patients is significantly higher than in the general population. The paper examined risk factors for suicidal behavior in the category of admitted patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of sleep disorders and affective (Unipolar resp. Bipolar depression. Study activated by 80 patients, 40 in both diagnostic groups received treatment at the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Gornja Toponica near Nis. The work methodology used are: psychiatric interview, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, and the C-SSRS (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale- assessment tool that assesses suicidal ideation and behavior. The study results show that there is a relationship between suicidal behavior (suicide attempts and suicidal ideation and the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, positive history of previous suicide attempts, so that these factors are stronger, to the degree of suicidality higher. On this sample, clearly suicidal behavior, with the same purpose, intensity of suicidal thoughts and medical impairment after suicide attempts were significantly more frequent in patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder in the depressive phase of the illness. Patients with a previous suicide attempt, and poor personal and social circumstances had a higher rate of attempted suicide.

  17. Negative affect and neural response to palatable food intake in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Binge eating is often preceded by reports of negative affect, but the mechanism by which affect may lead to binge eating is unclear. This study evaluated the effect of negative affect on neural response to anticipation and receipt of palatable food in women with bulimia nervosa (BN) versus healthy controls. We also evaluated connectivity between the amygdala and reward-related brain regions. Females with and without BN (n=26) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless solution. We measured negative affect just prior to the scan. Women with BN showed a positive correlation between negative affect and activity in the putamen, caudate, and pallidum during anticipated receipt of milkshake (versus tasteless solution). There were no significant relations between negative affect and receipt of milkshake. Connectivity analyses revealed a greater relation of amygdala activity to activation in the left putamen and insula during anticipated receipt of milkshake in the bulimia group relative to the control group. The opposite pattern was found for the taste of milkshake; the control group showed a greater relation of amygdala activity to activation in the left putamen and insula in response to milkshake receipt than the bulimia group. Results show that as negative affect increases, so does responsivity of reward regions to anticipated intake of palatable food, implying that negative affect may increase the reward value of food for individuals with bulimia nervosa or that negative affect has become a conditioned cue due to a history of binge eating in a negative mood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How can interdisciplinarity of food, design, architecture and pedagogy affect children’s eating habits and food preferences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Rasmussen, Mai

    2012-01-01

    Abstract for the International Conference on Designing Food and Designing for Food 2012, London June 28-29, 2012......Abstract for the International Conference on Designing Food and Designing for Food 2012, London June 28-29, 2012...

  19. Factors affecting yearly and monthly visits to Taipei Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ai-Tsen; Lin, Yann-Jou

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated factors affecting yearly and monthly numbers of visits to Taipei Zoo. Both linear and nonlinear regression models were used to estimate yearly visits. The results of both models showed that the "opening effect" and "animal star effect" had a significantly positive effect on yearly visits, while a SARS outbreak had a negative effect. The number of years had a significant influence on yearly visits. Results showed that the nonlinear model had better explanatory power and fitted the variations of visits better. Results of monthly model showed that monthly visits were significantly influenced by time fluctuations, weather conditions, and the animal star effect. Chinese New Year, summer vacation, numbers of holidays, and animal star exhibitions increased the number of monthly visits, while the number of days with temperatures at or below 15 °C, the number of days with temperatures at or above 30 °C, and the number of rainy days had significantly negative effects. Furthermore, the model of monthly visits showed that the animal star effect could last for over two quarters. The results of this study clarify the factors affecting visits to an outdoor recreation site and confirm the importance of meteorological factors to recreation use.

  20. A systematic study on factors affecting patient dose, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Akiyoshi; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Utsumi, Hiromoto; Ota, Masaji; Nakanishi, Takashi

    1979-01-01

    In the study of possible reduction in irradiation dose to patients during medical treatments, the following two methods can be considered: (1) To obtain absorbed doses for each part of a body in diagnostic X-ray examinations. (2) To obtain data on factors such as the tube voltage which may affect patient dose. There are a number of reports both at home and abroad concerning the above (1), but very few reports are available concerning the above (2). Moreover, most of them are on fragmentary aspects of each factor and no systematic reports have been made. For this reason, we have taken up, as factors affecting the patient dose, the field size, the tube voltage, and by checking them again, we wanted to obtain some systematic data. Our aim has been fully attained by conducting an experiment. In the ICRP's Publ. 26 issued last year, the idea of the critical organ which had not been fully elucidated in the Publ. 9 was abandoned. As a result, assessment of the irradiation doses has become more rational and the total risk for an individual was obtained. In Japan, the idea proposed in the Publ. 9 is adopted. Therefore, in this paper, we will raise some questions regarding the assessment of the irradiation doses, pointing out at the same time the rationality of the idea put forward in Publ. 26. (author)

  1. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Nazarpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental–emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse.

  2. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. External factors affecting data acquisition during corneal topography examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Méijome, José Manuel; Queirós, Antonio; Jorge, Jorge; Fernandes, Paulo; Cerviño, Alejandro; de Almeida, José Borges

    2007-03-01

    To analyze the factors affecting data acquisition during corneal topography examination with the Medmont E-300 videokeratoscope and to provide strategies to minimize their effects. Sixty eyes from thirty young adults were examined. A second observer registered incidences with the potential to affect data acquisition. Those factors were correlated with the difficulty of measurements as judged subjectively by the practitioner who performed the examination. Measurements of axial curvature were analyzed to evaluate the variability expressed as intrasession and intersession coefficient of variation and the standard error of the mean (SEM). The level of difficulty rated by the practitioner was in general low, with 70% of the eyes being easy or very easy to measure. For the remaining 30% of the eyes, corneal topography measurements were considered to be difficult (27%) or very difficult (3%). Of the external parameters investigated, only fixation instability (PSEM improved when three readings from each session were considered. The level of subjective difficulty found during videokeratoscopy examination is correlated strongly with fixation instability and the need for head reorientation in the chin rest, whereas tear-related events seem to be less relevant in the practitioner perception of test ease or difficulty. Those factors have relevance in measurement variability.

  4. Factors affecting cardiac rehabilitation referral by physician specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sherry L; Grewal, Keerat; Stewart, Donna E

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is widely underutilized because of multiple factors including physician referral practices. Previous research has shown CR referral varies by type of provider, with cardiologists more likely to refer than primary care physicians. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral in primary care physicians versus cardiac specialists. A cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of 510 primary care physicians and cardiac specialists (cardiologists or cardiovascular surgeons) in Ontario identified through the Canadian Medical Directory Online was administered. One hundred four primary care physicians and 81 cardiac specialists responded to the 26-item investigator-generated survey examining medical, demographic, attitudinal, and health system factors affecting CR referral. Primary care physicians were more likely to endorse lack of familiarity with CR site locations (P negatively impacting CR referral practices than cardiac specialists. Cardiac specialists were significantly more likely to perceive that their colleagues and department would regularly refer patients to CR than primary care physicians (P Marketing CR site locations, provision of standardized referral forms, and ensuring discharge summaries are communicated to primary care physicians may improve their willingness to refer to CR.

  5. A holistic approach to factors affecting depression in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerogianni, Georgia; Kouzoupis, Anastasios; Grapsa, Eirini

    2018-05-19

    Depression in dialysis populations is affected by co-morbid diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and immune dysfunction, and it also includes high suicide risk and frequent hospitalizations. Depressive disorders have a close association with malnutrition and chronic inflammation, as well as with cognitive impairment. Impaired cognitive function may be manifested as low adherence to dialysis treatment, leading to malnutrition. Additionally, chronic pain and low quality of sleep lead to high rates of depressive symptoms in haemodialysis patients, while an untreated depression can cause sleep disturbances and increased mortality risk. Depression can also lead to sexual dysfunction and non-adherence, while unemployment can cause depressive disorders, due to patients' feelings of being a financial burden on their family. The present review provides a holistic approach to the factors affecting depression in haemodialysis, offering significant knowledge to renal professionals.

  6. Factors Affecting Accuracy and Time Requirements of a Glucose Oxidase-Peroxidase Assay for Determination of Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate and rapid assays for glucose are desirable for analysis of glucose and starch in food and feedstuffs. An established colorimetric glucose oxidase-peroxidase method for glucose was modified to reduce analysis time, and evaluated for factors that affected accuracy. Time required to perform t...

  7. Recovery of heat treated Bacillus cereus spores is affected by matrix composition and factors with putative functions in damage repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, A.K.; Tempelaars, M.H.; Abee, T.; Nierop Groot, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of spores to recover and grow out after food processing is affected by cellular factors and by the outgrowth conditions. In the current communication we studied the recovery and outgrowth of individually sorted spores in BHI and rice broth media and on agar plates using flow cytometry.

  8. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured questionnaire; study reveals that service innovativeness, service reli- ability, service competitiveness and service consistency have significant influence on making customer satisfied and the operator’s network/signal coverage, pricing, offering, fulfillment of customer demand, value added service, brand value and op - erators contribution for society have insignificant influences on making customer satisfied at five percent level of significant at multiple regression analysis. On the basis of these findings; study concludes that in promoting customer satisfaction mobile service providers should be concerned for factors responsible for insignifi- cant influence on customer satisfaction and care of those factors have significant influence on promoting customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.

  9. How social factors and behavioural strategies affect feeding and social interaction patterns in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Iris J M M; de Boer, Imke J M; Hofstede, Gert Jan; Bokkers, Eddie A M

    2018-04-26

    Animals living in groups compete for food resources and face food conflicts. These conflicts are affected by social factors (e.g. competition level) and behavioural strategies (e.g. avoidance). This study aimed to deepen our understanding of the complex interactions between social factors and behavioural strategies affecting feeding and social interaction patterns in animals. We focused on group-housed growing pigs, Sus scrofa, which typically face conflicts around the feeder, and of which patterns in various competitive environments (i.e. pig:feeder ratio) have been documented soundly. An agent-based model was developed to explore how interactions among social factors and behavioural strategies can affect various feeding and social interaction patterns differently under competitive situations. Model results show that pig and diet characteristics interact with group size and affect daily feeding patterns (e.g. feed intake and feeding time) and conflicts around the feeder. The level of competition can cause a turning point in feeding and social interaction patterns. Beyond a certain point of competition, meal-based (e.g. meal frequency) and social interaction patterns (e.g. displacements) are determined mainly by behavioural strategies. The average daily feeding time can be used to predict the group size at which this turning point occurs. Under the model's assumptions, social facilitation was relatively unimportant in the causation of behavioural patterns in pigs. To validate our model, simulated patterns were compared with empirical patterns in conventionally housed pigs. Similarities between empirical and model patterns support the model results. Our model can be used as a tool in further research for studying the effects of social factors and group dynamics on individual variation in feeding and social interaction patterns in pigs, as well as in other animal species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards redesigning indigenous mung bean foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahiya, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Redesigning traditional foods requires consideration of the various factors affecting the nutrient intake from such foods. Amongst these factors are adequate consumption, proper nutrient bioavailability and consumer satisfaction. These factors are related to traditional food quality at various

  11. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

    2014-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

  12. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Jiménez-Granado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI, and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cow’s milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats, prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births, milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking, seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards.

  13. Factors Shaping Agri-food Product Trade in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bórawski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to recognize the role of internal and external factors in the trade balance. The analysis of the trade balance is useful to help formulate goals and premises of economy policy to properly allocate production means to eliminate the negative effects of trade liberalization. The authors have studied data about trade of agricultural commodities in the years 2000–2010. To measure the impact of macroeconomic variables used a regression model. The macroeconomic factors included: X1 (inflation, X2 (investment in agriculture and hunting, X3 (GDP and X4 (exchange rate and X5 (FAO food price index. We wanted to recognize the impact of macroeconomic factors on: Y1 (total export, Y2 (total import, Y3 (trade balance.

  14. Baseline survey on factors affecting sorghum production and use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Sorghum, which is closely related to maize in utilization, therefore, could be an alternative staple food crop in arid areas ...

  15. Factors affecting the seasonal movements of Cape mountain zebras ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-02-11

    Feb 11, 1987 ... indicated by crude protein contents of preferred food plants and of the faeces) between the summer and .... habitat. Collection and crude protein analysis of food plants ..... In: Species and speciation. pp. 167-171. Ed. E. Vrba.

  16. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  17. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  18. The concept of and factors affecting transport accessibility of seaports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Dąbrowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport accessibility of seaports is a frequently studied area in economic research. In practice, port operators and authorities use it to promote their services and compete in the market. Up to this day, theoretical basis of seaports transport accessibility has not been properly described. The article attempts to systematize and expend the knowledge in this field. New definitions of transport availability from wider and narrower perspectives were suggested; different types of accessibility and their mutual relations were explained. These ideas were complemented by introducing classification of factors affecting transport accessibility of seaports.

  19. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academ...

  20. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemontt, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  1. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemontt, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  2. Job satisfaction and factors affecting motivation at Posti Oyj

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    The business trends and life style of humans are changing rapidly due to globalization and it visibly affects the work environment and employee’s attitude towards the work as the needs and desires of human being are changing too. In such circumstance, it is essential to have motivated team to survive in the market is vital agenda for the firms, where Posti Oyj is not an exception. It has become a challenge for HR officials to study about job satisfaction and motivation including factors affec...

  3. 78 FR 46418 - Proposed Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting... entitlement factors. Individual factors such as income, marital status, and the beneficiary's number of...

  4. Some factors including radiation affecting the productivity of proteinase enzymes by mucor lamprosporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kabbany, H.M.I.

    1996-01-01

    In the present time, great attention has been focused on the production of milk clotting enzymes from microbial source for use as remain substitute due to the increasing demands on rennin for cheese making and the prohibition of the slaughter of small calves. The present investigation included the isolation and identification of remin-like enzyme fungal producers from different egyptian food and soil samples. Different factors including gamma radiation affecting the capability of selected isolate to produce the enzyme was also included. Special attention has also given to study the effect of different purification methods of the produced enzyme. The properties of the purified enzyme were also investigated

  5. Factors affecting intra-oral pH - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, C; Lee, J; Sander, S; Mei, L; Farella, M

    2016-10-01

    One of the greatest challenges to modern dentistry is the progressive destruction of tooth material due to chemical erosion. Dental erosion is the loss of dental hard tissue, without the action of bacteria, in which demineralisation of enamel and dentine results due to a decrease in intra-oral pH. The aim of this review was to appraise the scientific literature on the factors that can affect intra-oral pH. The review will examine (i) the protective role of human saliva, in terms of its mineral composition, flow rates and buffering systems and (ii) sources of in-mouth acids such as extrinsic acids, which are derived from the diet and environment, as well as intrinsic acids, which are related to disorders of the gastro-oesophageal tract. This review may assist clinicians to identify the risk factors for tooth wear and to recommend adequate preventive measures to patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmo Kang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service system such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - ‘wireless internet’ and ‘mobile applications’ - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

  7. Human Factors Affecting the Patient's Acceptance of Wireless Biomedical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensli, Rune; Boisen, Egil

    In monitoring arrhythmia, the quality of medical data from the ECG sensors may be enhanced by being based on everyday life situations. Hence, the development of wireless biomedical sensors is of growing interest, both to diagnose the heart patient, as well as to adjust the regimen. However, human factors such as emotional barriers and stigmatization, may affect the patient's behavior while wearing the equipment, which in turn may influence quality of data. The study of human factors and patient acceptance is important both in relation to the development of such equipment, as well as in evaluating the quality of data gathered from the individual patient. In this paper, we highlight some important aspects in patient acceptance by comparing results from a preliminary clinical trial with patients using a wireless ECG sensor for three days out-of-hospital service, to available published results from telehomecare projects, and discuss important aspects to be taken into account in future investigations.

  8. Extrinsic factors affecting accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters for LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managan, W.W.

    1976-08-01

    Assuming that ultrasonic flowmeters of suitable intrinsic accuracy are feasible, this report explores factors extrinsic to the flowmeter which affect the accuracy such as asymmetric flow profile, regions of high turbulence and thermal stratification. By integrating isovelocity flow profile maps, the predicted performance of various flowmeter configurations may be compared to experimental data. For the two pipe arrangements analyzed, the single diametral path flowmeter results were within 5 percent of true flow rate. Theoretical correction factors could reduce the error for the straight pipe but increased the error for asymmetrical flow. On the same pipe arrangements a four path ultrasonic flowmeter spaced for Gaussian integration gave less than 1 percent error. For more general conclusions a range of flow profiles produced by typical LMFBR piping arrangements must be analyzed

  9. Factors affecting children's oral health: perceptions among Latino parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Dharma E; Réategui-Sharpe, Ludmila; Spiro Iii, Avron; García, Raul I

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand factors that influence the oral health-related behaviors of Latino children, as reported by their parents. Focus groups and in-depth interviews assessed parental perceptions, experiences, attributions, and beliefs regarding their children's oral health. Guiding questions focused on a) the participant's child dental experiences; b) the impact of dental problems on the child's daily activities, emotions, self-esteem; c) parental experiences coping with child's dental problems; and d) hygienic and dietary habits. Participants were purposively sampled from dental clinics and public schools with a high concentration of Latinos; 92 urban low-income Latino Spanish-speaking parents participated. Transcriptions of the audio files were thematically analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Parents' explanations of their children's dental experiences were categorized under the following themes: caries and diet, access to dental care, migration experiences, and routines. Findings revealed fundamental multilevel (i.e., individual/child, family, and community) factors that are important to consider for future interventions to reduce oral health disparities: behaviors leading to caries, parental knowledge about optimal oral health, access to sugary foods within the living environment and to fluoridated water as well as barriers to oral health care such as lack of health insurance or limited health insurance coverage, among others. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  10. Factors affecting the employability in people with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wo, Monica Chen Mun; Lim, Kheng Seang; Choo, Wan Yuen; Tan, Chong Tin

    2016-12-01

    People with epilepsy (PWE) are negatively prejudiced in their ability to work. This study aimed to examine demographic, clinical and psychological factors associated with employability in PWE. This study recruited epilepsy patients from a neurology clinic in Malaysia. Employability was measured using employment ratio, with a ratio ≥90% (ER90) classified as high employability. Basic demographic data such as age, gender, marital status, religion, education level and household income was collected. Clinical measures consisted of age of seizure onset, seizure frequency, type of epilepsy, aura, polytherapy, nocturnal seizures and seizure control. Psychological measures included Work Self-Determination Index (WSDI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Of 146 PWE, 64.4% had high employability. The participants were predominantly female (52%), Chinese (50.7%), single (50%), having tertiary education (55.5%) and focal epilepsy (72.6%). Clinically, only type of epilepsy was significantly correlated to employability of PWE. Employability of PWE was associated with ability to work (indicated by education level, work performance affected by seizures, ability to travel independently and ability to cope with stress at work) and family overprotection. The high employability group was found to have lower self-perceived stigma (ESS), higher self-determined motivation (WSDI), self-esteem (SES) and perceived social support (MSPSS), than the low employability group. Logistic regression analysis showed that tertiary education level (AOR 3.42, CI: 1.46-8.00), higher self-determination (WSDI, AOR 1.09, CI: 1.012-1.17), lower family overprotection (AOR 0.76, CI: 0.61-0.95), and generalised epilepsy (AOR 4.17, CI: 1.37-12.70) were significant predictors for higher employability in PWE. Ability to work (education level), clinical factor (type of epilepsy) and psychological factor (self-determined motivation and family

  11. COLLABORATION PRACTICE BETWEEN NURSES AND PHYSICIAN AND THE AFFECTING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwin Martiningsih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Collaboration is basically discuss about togetherness, cooperation, sharing tasks, equality, responsibility, and accountability. Purpose of this research was to learn the collaboration practice beetwen nurses and physician and the factors affecting. Method: Design of this research was correlational and comparational study, and population were the physician who work in Ngudi Waluyo Blitar hospitals, intensive cooperation with the nurse in the room, not holding structural positions and not studying, there are 19 peoples taken by total population and nurses who work in Ngudi Waluyo hospitals, not holding structural positions (Head of Division or Head of Section, having relationship with the physician and the samples were 31 peoples taken by probability proportional to size (PPS. Methods of data collection by giving questionnaire about the characteristics of respondents (nurses and physician and practice of collaboration scale. Data characteristics and attitudes of nurses and physicians about the practice of collaboration is analyzed with descriptive statistics, to know the differences between nurses and physicians attitude using mann whitney u test. To know affecting characteristic with nurses and physician attitude by multivariate analysis. Result: Results of mann whitney test p value is 0.611, which means that there is no difference between nurses and physician attitude in practice collaboration, and result of multivariate analysis the influence of nurse characteristics (age, education, functional potition, length of working with attitude are 0.460 or 46%, while 54% influenced by other factors, and the influence of physician characteristics (age, education, length of working with attitude are 0.435 or 43.5%, while 56.5% influenced by other factors. Discussion: Further need to study other factors that influence and research by observation the impact of collaboration between the nurse with physician on the service quality.

  12. Group decision-making: Factors that affect group effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Osmani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are operating in a dynamic and turbulent environment. In these conditions, they have to make decisions for new problems or situations. Most of decisions are therefore non-programmed and unstructured, accompanied by risk and uncertainty. Moreover, the problems and situations are complex. All organizations are oriented towards group decisionmaking processes, as useful tools to cope with uncertainty and complexity. Apart from the necessity, companies are turning towards participatory processes also to benefit from the important advantages that these processes offer. Organizations have realized the importance of group decision-making processes to contribute to the creation of sustainable competitive advantages. Main objective of this paper is to show that group decision-making processes do not offer guarantee for good decisions, because the effectiveness of group is affected by many factors. So, the first thing done in this paper is discussing about the benefits and limitations that accompany the use of groups with decision-making purpose. Afterwards, we stop on the different factors that influence the group’s ability to make good decisions. The aim is to emphasize that regardless of the many advantages of groups, some factors as group size, type of communication within the group, leadership style, the norms, the differentiation of roles and statuses, cohesion and compliance degree should be the main elements to keep into consideration because they affect the effectiveness of group. In this regard, is discussed how such factors influence the quality of decision and then we try to draw some conclusions that can improve and make better and easier group decision-making processes.

  13. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities

  14. Factors Affecting Husband Participation in Antenatal Care Attendance and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumaseuw, R.; Berliana, S. M.; Nursalam, N.; Efendi, F.; Pradanie, R.; Rachmawati, P. D.; Aurizki, G. E.

    2018-02-01

    The government has implemented several programs to prevent and reduce a mother’s mortality rate by enhancing active role of the family. The most responsible family member on maintaining the pregnancy and delivery process is the husband. The husband must be active to take care of his wife. Active participation of the husband in accompanying his wife during pregnancy and the delivery process is one of the substantial factors, which helps the husband to take decisions related to the health of his wife. This study aimed to identify variables and its trends, which significantly affect a husband’s participation in accompanying his wife during pregnancy and the delivery process. The data used in this study was from an Indonesian Demographic Health Survey 2012. The study used binary logistic regression as the analysis method. The result showed as many as 8,237 husbands accompanied their wife in antenatal care and the delivery process. The significant variables affecting the husband participation are the age of the wife, the education of wife, the education of the husband, the occupational status of the wife and the husband, the number of children, pregnancy status, and residency region. The possibility for a husband to accompany his wife is larger in several factors, such as the wife being between the ages of 21 - 35 years old, a husband who minimally graduated from junior high school, a working husband, as well as a wife, and the number of children less than and equal to two and the expected pregnancy. The government should consider those factors to create policy related women’s health and integrate the factors into various sectors.

  15. Factors that affect coseismic folds in an overburden layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaogang; Cai, Yongen

    2018-03-01

    Coseismic folds induced by blind thrust faults have been observed in many earthquake zones, and they have received widespread attention from geologists and geophysicists. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding fold kinematics; however, few have studied fold dynamics quantitatively. In this paper, we establish a conceptual model with a thrust fault zone and tectonic stress load to study the factors that affect coseismic folds and their formation mechanisms using the finite element method. The numerical results show that the fault dip angle is a key factor that controls folding. The greater the dip angle is, the steeper the fold slope. The second most important factor is the overburden thickness. The thicker the overburden is, the more gradual the fold. In this case, folds are difficult to identify in field surveys. Therefore, if a fold can be easily identified with the naked eye, the overburden is likely shallow. The least important factors are the mechanical parameters of the overburden. The larger the Young's modulus of the overburden is, the smaller the displacement of the fold and the fold slope. Strong horizontal compression and vertical extension in the overburden near the fault zone are the main mechanisms that form coseismic folds.

  16. The main factor affecting the competitiveness of Contractor Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurisra; Malahayati, Nurul; Mahmuddin

    2018-05-01

    Contractor companies must have the competitive advantage to compete in maintaining the survival of the company. Problems arise because quite a lot of advantages can be used and these advantages must be used appropriately to produce competitiveness for the company to continue to compete and to win the competition. This study aims to determine the main factors affecting the competitiveness of medium-class contractors in Banda Aceh. Data collection was obtained through questionnaires distributed to 31 middle-class contractors in Banda Aceh. Data processing and analysis is done by using descriptive analysis. Based on the result of descriptive analysis, it can be concluded that the most important competitiveness factor with a mean score value 4.52 is the relationship, and the factor that has the highest mean score value is the relationship with the government of 4.97, while the result of the ranking analysis is obtained 25 factor that is critical to the competitiveness of medium-class contractors in Banda Aceh.

  17. Factor affecting happiness among nursing students in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, W H; Jo, M J

    2016-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Despite the increased interest in nursing students' happiness in South Korea, few studies have attempted to identify factors influencing their happiness. Therefore, nursing educators should consistently investigate the factors influencing happiness and develop strategies to improve happiness among Korean nursing students. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study confirmed that there were positive correlations between grateful disposition, social support and happiness. In addition, grateful disposition and support from intimate people were identified as predictors of happiness in Korean nursing students. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Development of intervention programmes to help nursing students increase grateful disposition and support from intimate people may be helpful for improving happiness. These programmes can include activity, such as writing a gratitude journal, and extracurricular programmes, such as mentoring programmes between seniors and juniors and/or professor and student. Introduction Happiness is very important in the training and development of nursing students as future nurses. However, nursing students experience a high level of stress and low level of happiness in South Korea. Aim This study aimed to investigate factors that affect happiness among nursing students in South Korea. Method Data were collected from a total of 241 nursing enrolled in two 4-year baccalaureate nursing programmes in South Korea, using a self-administrated questionnaire. To identify predictors of happiness, stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Results The results indicated that grateful disposition and support from intimate people significantly predict happiness among Korean nursing students. These two factors accounted for 38.0% of the variance in happiness. Discussion This study indicated grateful disposition and support from intimate people as factors promoting happiness in nursing students. The findings

  18. Mothers’ Negative Affectivity During Pregnancy and Food Choices for Their Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Tonstad, Serena; Irgens, Lorentz M.; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Vollrath, Margarete

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity assessed in pregnancy is related to subsequent infant food choices. Design Cohort study. Subjects Mothers (N = 37, 919) and their infants participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Measurements Maternal negative affectivity assessed pre-partum (SCL-5 at week 17 and 30 of pregnancy), introduction of solid foods by month 3, and feeding of sweet drinks by month 6 (by mothers’ reports). Results Mothers with higher negative affectivity were 64% more likely (95% CI 1.5–1.8) to feed sweet drinks by month 6, and 79% more likely (95% CI 1.6–2.0) to introduce solid foods by month 3. These odds decreased to 41% and 30%, respectively, after adjusting for mother’s age, body mass index, and education. Conclusion The maternal trait of negative affectivity is an independent predictor of infant feeding practices that may be related to childhood weight gain, overweight, and obesity. PMID:19918247

  19. Relative Preference and Localized Food Affect Predator Space Use and Consumption of Incidental Prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler E Schartel

    Full Text Available Abundant, localized foods can concentrate predators and their foraging efforts, thus altering both the spatial distribution of predation risk and predator preferences for prey that are encountered incidentally. However, few investigations have quantified the spatial scale over which localized foods affect predator foraging behavior and consumption of incidental prey. In spring 2010, we experimentally tested how point-source foods altered how generalist predators (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus utilized space and depredated two incidental prey items: almonds (Prunus dulcis; highly profitable and maple seeds (Acer saccharum; less profitable. We estimated mouse population densities with trapping webs, quantified mouse consumption rates of these incidental prey items, and measured local mouse activity with track plates. We predicted that 1 mouse activity would be elevated near full feeders, but depressed at intermediate distances from the feeder, 2 consumption of both incidental prey would be high near feeders providing less-preferred food and, 3 consumption of incidental prey would be contingent on predator preference for prey relative to feeders providing more-preferred food. Mouse densities increased significantly from pre- to post-experiment. Mean mouse activity was unexpectedly greatest in control treatments, particularly <15 m from the control (empty feeder. Feeders with highly preferred food (sunflower seeds created localized refuges for incidental prey at intermediate distances (15 to 25m from the feeder. Feeders with less-preferred food (corn generated localized high risk for highly preferred almonds <10 m of the feeder. Our findings highlight the contingent but predictable effects of locally abundant food on risk experienced by incidental prey, which can be positive or negative depending on both spatial proximity and relative preference.

  20. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  1. Identification and assessment of risk factors affecting construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sayed Bassiony Ahmed Abd El-Karim

    2017-08-01

    Unexpected increase in cost and delays in construction projects are caused by owner, contractor, environments, etc. in which several types of risk factors may occur concurrently. The effect of cost overrun and schedule overrun do not only influence the construction industry but the overall economy as well. Even though construction project increasing in cost and schedule has received extensive attention of researchers, but because of continuous changes and development in the field, the study considered of added value to the construction industry in Egypt, in addition to risk strategy and plan analysis. In order to meet the deadline of a project and due to the complex nature of construction projects, cost and scheduling should be flexible enough to accommodate changes without negatively affecting the overall project cost and duration. As such, the objectives of the presented research in this paper are to identify, study, and assess the effect of the factors that affect cost and time contingency. Data are collected from sixteen construction companies in Egypt. The collected data, output charts and analyses spreadsheets will be used for the development of computerized model built by the authors with identification abbreviation RIAM.

  2. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.

  3. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, R.; Levanon, D.; Hadar, Y.; Chet, I.

    1995-01-01

    Amir, R., Levanon, D., Hadar, Y., and Chet, I. 1995. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta. Experimental Mycology 19, 61-70. Morchella esculenta was grown on square split plates, forming sclerotia on one side and mycelium on the other. After the fungus ceased to colonize and before sclerotial initials appeared, [ 14 C]3-O-methyl glucose was added to the edge of the plate on the mycelial side. The effect of various activities in the mycelium (source) and sclerotia (sink) on sclerotial formation and translocation were examined using inhibitors and water potential changes of the media. Sodium azide or cycloheximide applied separately to both sides inhibited both sclerotial formation and translocation, showing that processes in the source and sink depend on metabolic activities as well as protein synthesis. The use of nikkomycin inhibited sclerotial formation, without affecting translocation to the sclerotia. Since the hyphal tips swelled and burst, the translocated compounds were lost to the media. In a strain defective in sclerotial formation, used as a control, no translocation took place, showing that there is a connection between sclerotial formation and translocation. Reversal of the water potential gradient between the two media (lower on the mycelial side), reduced the formation of sclerotia and translocation to them. Translocation to Morchella sclerotia takes place via turgor driven mass flow, but is nevertheless affected by activities in both the source and the sink. (author)

  4. Factors affecting the reproductive potential of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folman, Y.; Rosenberg, M.; Kaim, M.

    1990-01-01

    Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P 4 ) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (≤2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (≥4.1 ng/mL) P 4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P 4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

  5. Polyphenols: factors influencing their sensory properties and their effects on food and beverage preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesschaeve, Isabelle; Noble, Ann C

    2005-01-01

    Bitterness and astringency are found in a variety of foods, including nuts, fruits, chocolate, tea, wine, and soymilk. In fruits and beverages, the taste of bitterness and the tactile sensation of astringency are elicited primarily by flavanol polymers (proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins). Variations in proanthocyanidin composition, such as polymer size, extent of galloylation, and formation of derivatives, affect both bitterness and astringency. In beverages, other factors also influence these sensations, including the pH and the levels of ethanol, sweetness, and viscosity. Similarly, foods eaten with beverages can influence astringency. For example, eating dark chocolate increases the astringency of red wine more than does milk chocolate. Individuals perceive astringency differently because of variations in salivary flow rates, and preferences for and acceptance of a product may vary tremendously among individuals; decreasing bitterness and/or astringency may not increase preference. Factors influencing bitterness, astringency, and individual preference decisions are discussed.

  6. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  7. Companion of choice at birth: factors affecting implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar; Portela, Anayda

    2017-08-31

    Two recent recommendations made by the World Health Organization confirm the benefits of companion of choice at birth on labour outcomes; however institutional practices and policies do not always support its implementation in different settings around the world. We conducted a review to determine factors that affect implementation of this intervention considering the perspectives and experiences of different stakeholders and other institutional, systemic barriers and facilitators. Forty one published studies were included in this review. Thirty one publications were identified from a 2013 Cochrane review on the effectiveness of companion of choice at birth. We also reviewed 10 qualitative studies conducted alongside the trials or other interventions on labour and birth companionship identified through electronic searches. The SURE (Supporting the Use of Research Evidence) framework was used to guide the thematic analysis of implementation factors. Women and their families expressed appreciation for the continuous presence of a person to provide support during childbirth. Health care providers were concerned about the role of the companion and possible interference with activities in the labour ward. Allocation of resources, organization of care, facility-related constraints and cultural inclinations were identified as implementation barriers. Prior to introducing companion of choice at birth, understanding providers' attitudes and sensitizing them to the evidence is necessary. The commitment of the management of health care facilities is also required to change policies, including allocation of appropriate physical space that respects women's privacy. Implementation research to develop models for different contexts which could be scaled up would be useful, including documentation of factors that affected implementation and how they were addressed. Future research should also focus on documenting the costs related to implementation, and on measuring the impact of

  8. [Factors affecting re-smoking in male workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Hoon; Ha, Hee-Sook; Kam, Sin; Lim, Ji-Seun; Kang, Yune-Sik; Lee, Duk-Hee; Chun, Byung-Yeol

    2005-05-01

    This study was performed to examine the factors affecting re-smoking in male workers. A self-administrated questionnaire survey was conducted during April 2003 to examine the smoking state of 1,154 employees of a company that launched a smoking cessation campaign in 1998. Five hundred and eighty seven persons, who had stopped smoking for at least one week, were selected as the final study subjects. This study collected data on smoking cessation success or failure for 6 months, and looked at the factors having an effect on resmoking within this period. This study employed the Health Belief Model as its theoretical basis. The re-smoking rate of the 587 study subjects who had stopped smoking for at least one week was 44.8% within the 6 month period. In a simple analysis, the resmoking rates were higher in workers with a low age, on day and night shifts, blue collar, of a low rank, where this was their second attempt at smoking cessation and for those with a shorter job duration (pHeath Belief Model, re-smoking was significantly related with the perceived susceptibility factor, economic advantages of smoking cessation among the perceived benefits factor, the degree of cessation trial's barrier of the perceived barriers factor, smoking symptom experience, recognition of the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke and the existence of chronic disease due to smoking (psmoking, the significant variables were age, perceived susceptibility for disease, economic advantages due to smoking cessation, the perceived barrier for smoking cessation, recognition on the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke, the existence of chronic disease due to smoking and the number of attempts at smoking cessation (psmoking ban policy within the work place, health education that improves the knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and the harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke will be required, as well as counter plans to reduce the barriers for smoking

  9. What should primary health care practitioners know about factors influencing young people’s food choices?

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Holmberg; John Coveney; Julie Henderson; Samantha Meyer

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundTo identify factors that determine the nature and extent ofyoung consumers trust in food; sources of information whichinfluence young consumer food choices; and how trustimpacts on young people’s food choices.MethodIn-depth qualitative research interviews were conducted withyoung women and men, who are the primary food purchasersin their household (n=8)ResultsFood choices of young adults were generally determined bycost and convenience. The overall perception was thatAustralian food...

  10. Lateral septum growth hormone secretagogue receptor affects food intake and motivation for sucrose reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Sarah J; Wall, Kaylee D; Medina, Nelson D; Maske, Calyn B; Williams, Diana L

    2018-03-28

    The hormone ghrelin promotes eating and is widely considered to be a hunger signal. Ghrelin receptors, growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSRs), are found in a number of specific regions throughout the brain, including the lateral septum (LS), an area not traditionally associated with the control of feeding. Here we investigated whether GHSRs in the LS play a role in the control of food intake. We examined the feeding effects of ghrelin and the GHSR antagonists ([D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and JMV 2959), at doses subthreshold for effect when delivered to the lateral ventricle. Intra-LS ghrelin significantly increased chow intake during the mid-light phase, suggesting that pharmacologic activation of LS GHSRs promotes feeding. Conversely, GHSR antagonist delivered to the LS shortly before dark onset significantly reduced chow intake. These data support the hypothesis that exogenous and endogenous stimulation of GHSRs in the LS influence feeding. Ghrelin is known to affect motivation for food, and the dorsal subdivision of LS (dLS) has been shown to play a role in motivation. Thus, we investigated the role of dLS GHSRs in motivation for food reward by examining operant responding for sucrose on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Intra-dLS ghrelin increased PR responding for sucrose, while blockade of LS GHSRs did not affect responding in either a fed or fasted state. Together these findings for the first time substantiate the LS as a site of action for ghrelin signaling in the control of food intake.

  11. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  12. Risk factors affecting chronic rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Jae Jung

    2014-03-01

    Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We analyzed risk factors causing plantar fascia rupture in the presence of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed 286 patients with plantar fasciitis who were referred from private clinics between March 2004 and February 2008. Patients were divided into those with or without a plantar fascia rupture. There were 35 patients in the rupture group and 251 in the nonrupture group. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for plantar fascia rupture were compared between the 2 groups. We compared age, gender, the affected site, visual analog scale pain score, previous treatment regimen, body mass index, degree of ankle dorsiflexion, the use of steroid injections, the extent of activity, calcaneal pitch angle, the presence of a calcaneal spur, and heel alignment between the 2 groups. Of the assessed risk factors, only steroid injection was associated with the occurrence of a plantar fascia rupture. Among the 35 patients with a rupture, 33 had received steroid injections. The odds ratio of steroid injection was 33. Steroid injections for plantar fasciitis should be cautiously administered because of the higher risk for plantar fascia rupture. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  13. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  14. Factors Affecting Accidents Risks among Truck Drivers In Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshamly Ahmed Fathalla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is ranked among the countries with the highest rates of road accidents. According to the American Chamber of Commerce more than 96% of Egypt's goods are transported by trucks and due to their large volume and excessive weight, the severity and number of truck accident fatalities are much higher than other vehicles in Egypt. The present study aims at identifying truck driver's behavior and its influence on crash involvement. Due to the shortage in recording accident data and the inaccurate road accident audit, data was collected from several governorates in Egypt through questionnaire. Questionnaire forms were filled out through personal interviews with truck drivers. The total number of respondents was 643. The final analysis was made on the 615 questionnaires with complete answers. The data was analyzed and logistic regression was applied to accident related data to examine the contributing factors affecting accident occurrence of truck drivers. Results showed that fatigue in terms of driving hours (continuous and total and lack of sleep, drug use during driving, and driver obesity are the most influencing factors on the occurrence of truck accidents in Egypt. The findings of this research highlight the important role human factors have on the risk of crash involvement amongst Egypt's truck drivers and the need to improve their work conditions.

  15. The Consumption of Poultry Products in Sivas Province and Factors Affecting on the Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüdaverdi Bircan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, face-to-face surveys were conducted with 461 families in order to determine the consumption values of poultry products in Sivas city centre and the factors affecting them. 85.5% of the participants are in the age range of 18-54, which is considered as the active age group. The sum of high school and college graduates was found to be 68.7%. In terms of monthly food intake, the difference between the income groups was significant and the average monthly food intake was calculated as TL 595.44. In terms of the proportion of poultry products among monthly food expenditures, significant differences were determined among the income groups and the average of the participants was determined as 10.49%. The difference observed in the monthly income of the household income groups was significant, average monthly egg consumption is calculated as 34.47 Units/Month and annual egg consumption per person is calculated as 123.40 Units/year. The difference in monthly household chicken’s consumption values between income groups was found to be significant, monthly household average consumption of chicken meat is 4.13 Kg/Month, average monthly consumption of chicken meat per person is 14.89 Kg/Year. On the consumption of poultry meet, family income level, number of family members and occupational groups were effective, but these factors as well as education levels were effective on egg consumption.

  16. Ecological factors affect the level and scaling of avian BMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Brian Keith

    2009-01-01

    The basal rate of metabolism (BMR) in 533 species of birds, when examined with ANCOVA, principally correlates with body mass, most of the residual variation correlating with food habits, climate, habitat, a volant or flightless condition, use or not of torpor, and a highland or lowland distribution. Avian BMR also correlates with migratory habits, if climate and a montane distribution is excluded from the analysis, and with an occurrence on small islands if a flightless condition and migration are excluded. Residual variation correlates with membership in avian orders and families principally because these groups are behaviorally and ecologically distinctive. However, the distinction between passerines and other birds remains a significant correlate of avian BMR, even after six ecological factors are included, with other birds having BMRs that averaged 74% of the passerine mean. This combination of factors accounts for 97.7% of the variation in avian BMR. Yet, migratory species that belong to Anseriformes, Charadriiformes, Pelecaniformes, and Procellariiformes and breed in temperate or polar environments have mass-independent basal rates equal to those found in passerines. In contrast, penguins belong to an order of polar, aquatic birds that have basal rates lower than passerines because their flightless condition depresses basal rate. Passerines dominate temperate, terrestrial environments and the four orders of aquatic birds dominate temperate and polar aquatic environments because their high BMRs facilitate reproduction and migration. The low BMRs of tropical passerines may reflect a sedentary lifestyle as much as a life in a tropical climate. Birds have BMRs that are 30-40% greater than mammals because of the commitment of birds to an expensive and expansive form of flight.

  17. Elucidating key factors affecting radionuclide aging in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roig, M. [Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Barcelona (Spain); Rigola, A.; Vidal, M.; Rauret, G. [Barcelona Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Mechanistic studies allow at present to describe the processes governing the short-term interaction of radiostrontium and radiocaesium in soils. The initial sorption step can be described through the estimation of the soil-soil solution distribution coefficient from soil parameters, as cationic exchange capacity, radiocaesium interception potential and concentration of competing ions in the soil solution. After the initial soil-radionuclide interaction, a fraction of radionuclide is no longer available for exchange with the solution, and it remains fixed in the solid fraction. At present, the initial fixed fraction of a radionuclide in a given soil cannot be predicted from soil properties. Besides, little is known about soil and environmental factors (e.g., temperature; hydric regime) provoking the increase in the fixed fraction with time, the so-called aging process. This process is considered to control the reduction of food contamination with time at contaminated scenarios. Therefore, it is crucial to be able to predict the radionuclide aging in the medium and long term for a better risk assessment, especially when a decision has to be made between relying on natural attenuation versus implementing intervention actions. Here we study radiostrontium and radiocaesium aging in a set of soils, covering a wide range of soil types of contrasting properties (e.g., loamy calcareous; podzol; chernozem, organic). Three factors are separately and simultaneously tested: time elapsed since contamination, temperature and hydric regime. Changes in the radionuclide fixed fraction are estimated with a leaching test based on the use of a mild extractant solution. In addition to this, secondary effects on the radiocaesium interception potential in various soils are also considered. (author)

  18. Factors associated with household food security of participants of the MANA food supplement program in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo; Taylor, Christopher A; Alvarez Uribe, Martha Cecilia

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore demographic and economic characteristics associated with household food security of 2,784 low-income households with pre-school aged children receiving food supplements from the Colombian Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia - MANA (Mejoramiento Alimentario y Nutricional de Antioquia) in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. Included in the study was a 12-item household food security survey was collected from a cross-sectional, stratified random sample of MANA participants in which households were characterized as food secure, mildly food insecure, moderately food insecure, and severely food insecure. It was hypothesized that household food security status would be strongly associated with demographic characteristics, food expenditure variables, and food supplement consumption by children in MANA. Food insecure households were characterized by more members, older parents, and lower income (p < 0.0001). Rural residence and female head of households had higher rates of food insecurity (p < 0.01). Food insecure households had the lowest monthly expenditures food (p < 0.0001). Severely food insecure households saved the highest percentage of per capita food expenditure from consuming MANA supplements (p < 0.0001), similarly, MANA food supplement intakes were greatest in households reporting the most food insecurity (p < 0.001). The results of this study are important to describe characteristics of the population benefiting from the MANA nutrition intervention by their unique level of household food security status.

  19. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fouzan, Rawan; Al-Ajlan, Sarah; Marwan, Yousef; Al-Saleh, Mervat

    2012-01-01

    Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students' sociodemographic and academic factors. Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7%) decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2%) students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties - 18 (12.5%), 17 (11.8%), and 16 (11.1%) students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4%) of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8%) and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3%) were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498-6.065) more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002). A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

  20. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan Al-Fouzan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results: Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7% decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2% students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%, 17 (11.8%, and 16 (11.1% students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4% of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8% and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3% were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065 more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002. Conclusion : A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

  1. Factors affecting compliance with measles vaccination in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimmasane, Maniphet; Douangmala, Somthana; Koffi, Paulin; Reinharz, Daniel; Buisson, Yves

    2010-09-24

    In line with WHO objectives, the Lao Government is committed to eliminate measles by 2012. Yet from 1992 to 2007, the annual incidence of measles remained high while the vaccination coverage showed a wide diversity across provinces. A descriptive study was performed to determine factors affecting compliance with vaccination against measles, which included qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative study used a convenience sample of 13 persons in charge of the vaccination program, consisting of officials from different levels of the health care structure and members of vaccination teams. The quantitative study performed on the target population consisted of a matched, case-control survey conducted on a stratified random sample of parents of children aged 9-23 months. Overall, 584 individuals (292 cases and 292 controls) were interviewed in the three provinces selected because of low vaccination coverage. On the provision of services side (supply), the main problems identified were a lack of vaccine supply and diluent, a difficulty in maintaining the cold chain, a lack of availability and competence among health workers, a lack of coordination and a limited capacity to assess needs and make coherent decisions. In the side of the consumer (demand), major obstacles identified were poor knowledge about measles immunization and difficulties in accessing vaccination centers because of distance and cost. In multivariate analysis, a low education level of the father was a factor of non-immunization while the factors of good compliance were high incomes, spacing of pregnancies, a feeling that children must be vaccinated, knowledge about immunization age, presenting oneself to the hospital rather than expecting the mobile vaccination teams and last, immunization of other family members or friends' children. The main factors affecting the compliance with vaccination against measles in Laos involve both the supply side and the demand side. Obtaining an effective

  2. SOME ENVIRONMENTEAL FACTORS AFFECTING BROILER HOUSING IN WINTER SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850.2 W/ºC , 0.34 kg /h. ºC and 308.9 kJ/h. kg at the first week of age to 6213.4 W/ºC , 0.36 kg /h. ºC and 19.3 kJ/h. kg at the end of the life respectively

  3. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  4. Analysis of factors affecting the effect of stope leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wangnan; Dong Chunming

    2014-01-01

    The industrial test and industrial trial production of stope leaching were carried out at Taoshan orefield of Dabu deposit. The results of test and trial production showed obvious differences in leaching rate and leaching time. Compared with industrial trial production of stope leaching, the leaching rate of industrial test was higher, and leaching time was shorter. It was considered that the blasting method and liquid arrangement were the main factors affecting the leaching rate and leaching time according to analysis. So we put forward the following suggestions: the technique of deep hole slicing tight-face blasting was used to reduce the yield of lump ores, the effective liquid arrangement methods were adopted to make the lixiviant infiltrating throughout whole ore heap, and bacterial leaching was introduced. (authors)

  5. Factors and mechanisms affecting corrosion of steel in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehqanian, Ch.

    1986-01-01

    Atomic power plants possess reinforced concrete structures which are exposed to sea water or sea atmosphere. Sea water or its surrounding environment contain very corrosive species which cause corrosion of metal in concrete. It should be mentioned that corrosion of steel in concrete is a complex problem that is not completely understood. Some of the factors which influence the corrosion mechanism and can be related to the pore solution composition is discussed. Chloride ion caused problems are the main source of the corrosion damage seen on the reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion rate in concrete varies and depends on the way chloride ion diffuses into concrete. In addition, the associated cations can influence diffusion of chloride into concrete. The type of portland cement and also the concrete mix design all affect the corrosion behaviour of steel in concrete

  6. Analysis of Factors Affecting Inflation in Indonesia: an Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Ratna Wulan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors affecting inflation. The research is descriptive quantitative in nature. The data used are reported exchange rates, interest rates, money supply and inflation during 2008-2012. The research data was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed in the year 2008-2012 the condition of each variable are (1 the rate of inflation has a negative trend, (2 the interest rate has a negative trend, (3 the money supply has a positive trend, (4 the value of exchange rate has a positive trend. The test results by using multiple linear regression analysis result that variable interest rates, the money supply and the exchange rate of the rupiah significant effect on the rate of inflation.

  7. An Analysis on the Contextual Factors Affecting Motivation in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>For us Chinese,a foreign language is something to be acquired as a kind of communicative tool,so we can infer that an effective way in SLA(Second Language Acquisition) must be learning the target language in a communicative context.A communicative context certainly concerns not only the interactional classroom activities designed in accordance with some stated curriculum tasks to lead the L2 students to learning swimming by swimming,but also other relevant elements which have a lot to do with all the situational,interactional and cultural contexts.In order to lessen some potential sources of conflict between L2 teacher and L2 learner,this article is an attempt to urge a careful study on the contextual factors affecting motivation in SLA.

  8. Factors affecting the electrostatic charge of ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorite, I.; Romero, J.; Fernandez, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of electrostatic charge in ceramic powders takes place when the particle surfaces enter in contact between them or with the containers. The accumulation of electrostatic charge is of relevance in ceramic powders in view of their insulating character and the risk of explosions during the material handling. In this work the main factors that affect the appearance of intrinsic charge and tribo-charge in ceramic powder have been studied. In ceramic powders of alumina it has been verified that the smallest particle sizes present an increase of the electrostatic charge of negative polarity. A correlation has been observed between the nature of the OH -surface groups and the electrostatic charge. The intrinsic charge and the tribocharge in ceramic powders can be diminished by compensating the surface groups that support the charge. The dry dispersion of nanoparticles on microparticles allows surface charge compensation with a noticeable modification of the powder agglomeration. (Author) 19 refs.

  9. FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Buňka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ˂2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ˂30 mg.l-1; spermidine ˂10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ˂5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

  10. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2017-06-01

    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  11. Factors affecting sorption of radiocobalt by river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Din, M.R.E.; Ramadan, A.B.; Atta, E.R.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the principal factors affecting the interaction of radio cobalt with fresh water sediments and their importance for migration of radio cobalt in surface water streams. The uptake percent (U%) of radio cobalt by Ismailia Cannal bottom sediments (ICUBS) have been studied as a function of contact time, ph, competing ion, carrier concentration and natural ligands such as humic acid using batch technique. Mineralogical analyses of the sediment samples were carried out. The amount sorbed per gram sediment, (X/m), increased as the carrier concentration increased from 10 -8 mol. Following a Freundlich type isotherm. The uptake of radio cobalt was found to be affected by changing in the ph of the aqueous phase. Presence of Mg 24 ions as competing cation decreases the sorption of 60 Co. Presence of humic acid shows a slight effect on the sorption of 60 Co. Desorption of the investigated metal ion from the loaded sediment samples was also studied. A mathematical model for the migration of the investigated radioisotope in Ismailia canal water stream was developed to predict the concentrations of cobalt ion at different distances in X-direction

  12. Factors Affecting Antenatal Corticosteroid Administration from the Obstetricians’ Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Kurtoğlu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the factors affecting antenatal corticosteroid administration from the obstetricians’ viewpoint. STUDY DESIGN: The pregnant women who delivered between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation were divided into two groups: Group 1, pregnant patients given corticosteroid therapy; Group 2, pregnant patients who were not given corticosteroid therapy. The indications for delivery, gestational week at administration, dosing, residence and manner of transfer of the patients to the tertiary center, and the interval between admission to hospital and delivery were evaluated. RESULTS: The percentage of patients who received antenatal corticosteroid treatment was 68.4%, whereas 31.6% of the pregnant women didn’t receive corticosteroid therapy. The most common indications for preterm delivery were preterm labor and severe preeclampsia. The interval between admission to hospital and delivery was significantly higher in group 1. CONCLUSION: Even though obstetricians are aware of the importance of corticosteroid treatment in preterm deliveries, indications for impending delivery can affect administration of the therapy.

  13. Factors affecting the diagnostic delay in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellura, Eleonora; Spataro, Rossella; Taiello, Alfonsa Claudia; La Bella, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    Although amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relentlessly progressive disorder, early diagnosis allows a prompt start with the specific drug riluzole and an accurate palliative care planning. ALS at onset may however mimic several disorders, some of them treatable (e.g., multifocal motor neuropathy) or epidemiologically more frequent (e.g., cervical myelopathy). To study the delay from onset to diagnosis in a cohort of ALS patients and to the variables that may affect it. We performed a retrospective analysis of the diagnostic delays in a cohort of 260 patients affected by ALS (M/F = 1.32) followed at our tertiary referral ALS Center between 2000 and 2007. The median time from onset to diagnosis was 11 months (range: 6-21) for the whole ALS cohort, 10 months (range: 6-15) in bulbar-onset (n = 65) and 12 months (range: 7-23) in spinal-onset (n = 195) patients (p = 0.3). 31.1% of patients received other diagnoses before ALS and this led to a significant delay of the correct diagnosis in this group (other diagnoses before ALS, n = 81: median delay, 15 months [9.75-24.25] vs ALS, n = 179, median delay, 9 months [6-15.25], p heuristics might represent an important contributing factor. Furthermore, the length of the differential diagnosis from other disorders and delays in referral to the neurologist seems to be positively associated with the delay in diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors affecting jail detention of defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Annette; Otto, Randy; Finch, Jacquelyn; Ringhoff, Daniel; Kimonis, Eva R

    2010-01-01

    The movement of defendants through the legal process who have been adjudicated incompetent to proceed is little studied, yet it is important. The purpose of this study was to provide empirical data regarding factors that affected the amount of time defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed and ordered to undergo hospitalization remained in jail while awaiting transfer to a state hospital. Statewide data collected in Florida between July 2005 and June 2008 were used to determine the lengths of time incompetent defendants spent at certain stages in the legal process. The addition of forensic bed capacity following media attention and litigation resulted in a significant decrease in the amount of time defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed waited in jail for transfer to a state hospital for treatment. The amount of time it took for completed commitment orders to be submitted to the state mental health authority by the Clerks of Court of each county accounted for a meaningful portion of days defendants spent in jail awaiting transfer to a state hospital, with considerable variation across counties with respect to waiting times. These findings reflect how various stakeholders can affect the amount of time defendants spend in jail while awaiting hospitalization. These issues are discussed in the context of controversy related to Florida's forensic mental health system, as well as issues related to the political process and funding of the state's mental health authority. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Factors Influencing Knowledge, Food Safety Practices and Food Preferences During Warm Weather of Salmonella and Campylobacter Cases in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Adriana; Giles, Lynne C; Zhang, Ying; Koehler, Ann P; Hiller, Janet E; Bi, Peng

    2017-03-01

    To assess food safety practices, food shopping preferences, and eating behaviors of people diagnosed with Salmonella or Campylobacter infection in the warm seasons, and to identify socioeconomic factors associated with behavior and practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Salmonella and Campylobacter cases with onset of illness from January 1 to March 31, 2013. Multivariable logistic regression analyses examined relationships between socioeconomic position and food safety knowledge and practices, shopping and food preferences, and preferences, perceptions, and knowledge about food safety information on warm days. Respondents in our study engaged in unsafe personal and food hygiene practices. They also carried out unsafe food preparation practices, and had poor knowledge of foods associated with an increased risk of foodborne illness. Socioeconomic position did not influence food safety practices. We found that people's reported eating behaviors and food preferences were influenced by warm weather. Our study has explored preferences and practices related to food safety in the warm season months. This is important given that warmer ambient temperatures are projected to rise, both globally and in Australia, and will have a substantial effect on the burden of infectious gastroenteritis including foodborne disease. Our results provide information about modifiable behaviors for the prevention of foodborne illness in the household in the warm weather and the need for information to be disseminated across the general population. An understanding of the knowledge and factors associated with human behavior during warmer weather is critical for public health interventions on foodborne prevention.

  16. Approach to novel functional foods for stress control 4. Regulation of serotonin transporter by food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mikiko; Haito, Sakiko; Furumoto, Mari; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2005-11-01

    Serotonin transporters (SERTs) are pre-synaptic proteins specialized for the clearance of serotonin following vesicular release at central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system synapses. SERTs are high affinity targets in vivo for antidepressants such as serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These include 'medical' psychopharmacological agents such as analgesics and antihistamines, a plant extract called St John's Wort (Hypericum). Osteoclasts are the primary cells responsible for bone resorption. They arise by the differentiation of osteoclast precursors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. The expression of SERTs was increased in RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells. Using RANKL stimulation of RAW264.7 cells as a model system for osteoclast differentiation, we studied the direct effects of food factor on serotonin uptake. The SSRIs (fluoxetine and fluvoxamine) inhibited markedly (approximately 95%) in serotonin transport in differentiated osteoclast cells. The major components of St. John's Wort, hyperforin and hypericine were significantly decreased in serotonin transport activity. Thus, a new in vitro model using RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells may be useful to analyze the regulation of SERT by food factors and SSRIs.

  17. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  18. Factors Affecting Mortality in Elderly Patients Hospitalized for Nonmalignant Reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teslime Ayaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elderly population is hospitalized more frequently than young people, and they suffer from more severe diseases that are difficult to diagnose and treat. The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting mortality in elderly patients hospitalized for nonmalignant reasons. Demographic data, reason for hospitalization, comorbidities, duration of hospital stay, and results of routine blood testing at the time of first hospitalization were obtained from the hospital records of the patients, who were over 65 years of age and hospitalized primarily for nonmalignant reasons. The mean age of 1012 patients included in the study was 77.8 ± 7.6. The most common reason for hospitalization was diabetes mellitus (18.3%. Of the patients, 90.3% had at least a single comorbidity. Whilst 927 (91.6% of the hospitalized patients were discharged, 85 (8.4% died. Comparison of the characteristics of the discharged and dead groups revealed that the dead group was older and had higher rates of poor general status and comorbidity. Differences were observed between the discharged and dead groups in most of the laboratory parameters. Hypoalbuminemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypopotassemia, hypernatremia, hyperuricemia, and high TSH level were the predictors of mortality. In order to meet the health necessities of the elderly population, it is necessary to well define the patient profiles and to identify the risk factors.

  19. Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Ho; Jeong, Won Mee; Yu, Seung Hum; Lee Sun Hee; Sohn, Tae Yong

    1997-01-01

    Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future

  20. Validating YouTube Factors Affecting Learning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Yoga; Hartanto, Rudy; Suning Kusumawardani, Sri

    2018-03-01

    YouTube is often used as a companion medium or a learning supplement. One of the educational places that often uses is Jogja Audio School (JAS) which focuses on music production education. Music production is a difficult material to learn, especially at the audio mastering. With tutorial contents from YouTube, students find it easier to learn and understand audio mastering and improved their learning performance. This study aims to validate the role of YouTube as a medium of learning in improving student’s learning performance by looking at the factors that affect student learning performance. The sample involves 100 respondents from JAS at audio mastering level. The results showed that student learning performance increases seen from factors that have a significant influence of motivation, instructional content, and YouTube usefulness. Overall findings suggest that YouTube has a important role to student learning performance in music production education and as an innovative and efficient learning medium.

  1. The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.-S.; Chen, Y.-T.; Chen, W.-D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship.

  2. Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Immigrant Korean Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ji-Young; Cha, Sunkyung; Moon, Hyunjung; Ruggiero, Jeanne S; Jang, Haeran

    2016-03-01

    An increasing number of foreign-born nurses are working in the United States. Nurses' job satisfaction is a critical issue for quality patient care. The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting the job satisfaction of immigrant Korean nurses. We used a cross-sectional mailed survey design. A convenience sample (n = 105) of members of the Greater New York Korean Nurses Association currently working or had previously worked in the United States completed the questionnaires. We used hierarchical regression to test the effects of acculturation and life satisfaction on job satisfaction. Most participants were female (n = 98, 93.3%) aged 27 to 70 years (mean = 52.27 years, SD = 10.67). In the regression model, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and perceived stress predicted job satisfaction (F = 5.127, p job satisfaction. U.S. nurses need to gain insight into factors influencing job satisfaction in Korean nurses to promote retention and quality care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Factors affecting mechanical nociceptive thresholds in healthy sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalon, Elena; Maes, Dominiek; Piepers, Sofie; Taylor, Polly; van Riet, Miriam M J; Janssens, Geert P J; Millet, Sam; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-05-01

    To describe anatomical and methodological factors influencing mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) and intra-site variability in healthy sows. Prospective, randomized validation. Eight pregnant, healthy, mixed-parity sows (176-269 kg). Repeated MNT measurements were taken: 1) with a hand-held probe and a limb-mounted actuator connected to a digital algometer; 2) at nine landmarks on the limbs and tail; and 3) at 1 and 3 minute intervals. Data were analysed using linear mixed regression models. The MNTs (±SEM) of the limbs were lower with the probe (14.7 ± 1.2 N) than with the actuator (21.3 ± 1.2 N; p testing compared with day 1 (p < 0.001). The mean CV (±SE) was 38.9% (±1.1%). MNTs and intra-site variability in healthy sows were affected by several factors, indicating that this methodology requires considerable attention to detail. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  4. Factors affecting RAIU in hyperthyroidism patients: an analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Yi; Liu Jianfeng; Zhang Xiuli

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the factors affecting thyroid radioiodine uptake (RAIU) of hyperthyroidism patients. Methods; RAIU was performed in 106 hyperthyroidism patients. Some factors were studied to analyze influences on the peak of RAIU, including patients' age and sex, gland weight, taking antithyroid drugs (ATD) or not, time of ATD taking and withdrawal. Results: Patients' RAIU peak had no significant difference for different ages and sex (F=1.68, P=0.1439). If preparation was performed according to the requirements before RAIU measurement, taking ATD or not had no influence on RAIU (t=1.1362, P=0.2625). RAIU peak was different between patients whose gland weight was ≤ 30 g and >30 g. Conclusions: Age and sex have no influence on RAIU. As long as ATD was discontinued at least one week before RAIU measurement, time of taking ATD and discontinuation have no influence on RAIU, and the result of measurement coincide with that of patients who do not take medicine. RAIU peak has relation with gland weight, and RAIU of people with gland weight ≤30 g was lower than that of people with gland weight >30 g

  5. MICROECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING BANKS’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUŢU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are important cells in the economy as they have a significant role by maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. They refocus the resources from those who have surplus to those which have a deficit. Therefore, as any other enterprises, performance is highly desirable for banks and, then, it is crucial to discover what the main factors that influence this objective are. So, this paper analyzes the microeconomic factors affecting bank’s financial performance focusing on 11 entities for the period between 2003 and 2013. The performance is measured by return on assets. The independent variables used are bank’s size, financial leverage,loans to assets ratio, deposits to assets ratio, number of employees, liquidity, net result and monetary policy rate. The results show that bank’s size, loans to assets ratio and liquidity have not a significant impact on performance. Financial leverage has a negative impact, meanwhile the number of employees, deposits to assets ratio and net result have a positive effect.

  6. Study of the factors affecting radon diffusion through building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following - decay of 226 Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. Radon can originate from the deeply buried deposit beneath homes and can migrate to the surface of earth. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. It is well known that for building construction materials the porosity, permeability and the diffusion coefficient are the parameters, which can quantify the materials capability to hinder the flow of radon soil gas. An increase in porosity will provide more air space within the material for radon to travel, thus reducing its resistance to radon transport. The permeability of material describes its ability to act as a barrier to gas movement when a pressure gradient exists across it and is closely related to the porosity of material. The radon diffusion coefficient of a material quantifies the ability of radon gas to move through it when a concentration gradient is the driving force. This parameter depends upon the porosity and permeability of the medium. As diffusion process is the major contributor to indoor levels, therefore, the factors affecting the diffusion process need to be kept in consideration. Keeping this in mind the experimental arrangements have been made for control study of radon diffusion through some building materials to observe the effects of different factors viz.; compaction, grain size, temperature, humidity and the mixing of these materials etc. For the present study alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the recording of alpha tracks caused by radon gas after its diffusion through the

  7. Food availability and maternal immunization affect transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ismail

    Full Text Available The ability of mothers to transfer antibodies (Abs to their young and the temporal persistence of maternal Abs in offspring constitute important life-history traits that can impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. Here, we examined the effects of food availability and parental immunization on the transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons (Columba livia. This species can transmit maternal Abs to offspring before hatching through the egg yolk and potentially after hatching through crop milk. However, the role of this postnatal substance in immunity remains elusive. We used a full cross-fostering design to disentangle the effects of food limitation and parental immunization both before and after hatching on the levels and persistence of maternal Abs in chicks. Parents were immunized via injection with keyhole limpet hemocyanin antigens. Using an immunoassay that specifically detected the IgY antibodies that are known to be transmitted via the yolk, we found that the levels of anti-KLH Abs in newly hatched chicks were positively correlated with the levels of anti-KLH Abs in the blood of their biological mothers. However, this correlation was not present between chicks and their foster parents, suggesting limited IgY transfer via crop milk to the chick's bloodstream. Interestingly, biological mothers subjected to food limitation during egg laying transferred significantly fewer specific maternal Abs, which suggests that the transfer of antibodies might be costly for them. In addition, the persistence of maternal Abs in a chick's bloodstream was not affected by food limitation or the foster parents' anti-KLH Ab levels; it was only affected by the initial level of maternal anti-KLH Abs that were present in newly hatched chicks. These results suggest that the maternal transfer of Abs could be costly but that their persistence in an offspring's bloodstream may not necessarily be affected by environmental conditions.

  8. Sensory factors affecting female consumers' acceptability of nail polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C; Koppel, K; Adhikari, K

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine what sensory factors impact consumers' acceptability of nail polishes, to explore how these sensory factors impact consumers' acceptability of nail polishes, to investigate whether there are any consumer segments according to their overall acceptability on different nail polishes and to scrutinize how the consumer segments are related to the sensory factors. Ninety-eight females participated in a nail polish consumer study at Kansas State University. Eight commercial products belonging to four categories - regular (REG), gel (GEL), flake (FLK) and water-based (WAT) - were evaluated. Each nail polish sample was evaluated twice by each participant in two different tasks - a task devoted to applying and evaluating the product and a task devoted to observing the appearance and evaluating the product. Pearson's correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), external preference mapping, cluster analysis and internal preference mapping were applied for data analysis. Participants' scores of overall liking of the nail polishes were similar in the application task and in the observation task. In general, participants liked the REG and GEL product samples more than the FLK and WAT samples. Among all the sensory attributes, appearance attributes were the major factors that affected participants' overall liking. Aroma seemed to be a minor factor to participants' overall liking. Some sensory attributes, such as runny, shininess, opacity, spreadability, smoothness, coverage and wet appearance, were found to drive participants' overall acceptability positively, whereas others such as pinhole, fatty-edges, blister, brushlines, pearl-like, flake-protrusion, glittery and initial-drag impacted participants' overall acceptability negatively. Four clusters of participants were identified according to their overall liking scores from both the application task and the observation task. Participants' acceptability, based on different

  9. Identifying Nonprovider Factors Affecting Pediatric Emergency Medicine Provider Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Fareed; Breslin, Kristen; Mullan, Paul C; Tillett, Zachary; Chamberlain, James M

    2017-10-31

    The aim of this study was to create a multivariable model of standardized relative value units per hour by adjusting for nonprovider factors that influence efficiency. We obtained productivity data based on billing records measured in emergency relative value units for (1) both evaluation and management of visits and (2) procedures for 16 pediatric emergency medicine providers with more than 750 hours worked per year. Eligible shifts were in an urban, academic pediatric emergency department (ED) with 2 sites: a tertiary care main campus and a satellite community site. We used multivariable linear regression to adjust for the impact of shift and pediatric ED characteristics on individual-provider efficiency and then removed variables from the model with minimal effect on productivity. There were 2998 eligible shifts for the 16 providers during a 3-year period. The resulting model included 4 variables when looking at both ED sites combined. These variables include the following: (1) number of procedures billed by provider, (2) season of the year, (3) shift start time, and (4) day of week. Results were improved when we separately modeled each ED location. A 3-variable model using procedures billed by provider, shift start time, and season explained 23% of the variation in provider efficiency at the academic ED site. A 3-variable model using procedures billed by provider, patient arrivals per hour, and shift start time explained 45% of the variation in provider efficiency at the satellite ED site. Several nonprovider factors affect provider efficiency. These factors should be considered when designing productivity-based incentives.

  10. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  11. An empirical study of various factors, influencing the behavior of consumers towards fast food joints in Indian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugandha Agarwal

    2017-12-01

    analyze the consumer behavior which is largely influenced by number of socio-cultural, demographic and psychological factors. To differentiate itself from others in the market is the core purpose of organizations and to achieve this, an all-inclusive approach is essential to integrate all the crucial yet important factors that could improve the overall business strategy. Fast food joints realize the importance of factors that influence and affect the customer behavior and the potential of customer loyalty program in order to improve their brand image and company identity in the consumer market. Key Words: consumer behavior, business strategies, socio-cultural factors, psychological factors, sensory appeals, demographic factors

  12. [NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND POSSIBLE PREVENTABLE FACTORS AFFECTING THIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puharić, Z; Rafaj, G; Kenjerić, D Čačič

    2015-01-01

    Eating habits and attitudes are formed in early childhood, and acquired knowledge and skills are transferred to the next generation. The aim of this study was to examine nutritional status and dietary habits of elementary school fifth-graders in Bjelovar-Bilogora County and connect them with certain socioeconomic and demographic family factors (residence, parental education, and activity). The survey was conducted during the obligatory systematic examination. The students filled out an anonymous questionnaire specially designed for this purpose and then they had their body weight and height measured. The survey included 466 students, which made 40.5% of the population. The results showed, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 15.0% of study subjects to be underweight, 56.0% had normal weight and 29.0% were overweight and obese children. Furthermore, 54.5% of the children had three meals per day, two of these cooked. About 4.7% of study subjects reported taking fast food daily and 11.6% drank soda. Daily consumption of meat was reported by 24.7%, fruit and vegetables by 55.8%, sweets by 21.9% and milk by 56.9% of the subjects. Organized activities outside the school were reported by 57.6% of students, whereas 11.8% of subjects spent 4 or more hours watching TV and 7.8% playing for 3 hours and more, 77.3% of these of sedentary types. The research identified a significant proportion of overweight and obese children in the county, who had poor eating habits and low physical activity, with an increased proportion of sedentary lifestyle.

  13. Combination of preservation factors applied to minimal processing of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia de Daza, M S; Alzamora, S M; Chanes, J W

    1996-07-01

    Innovative technologies for producing minimally processed (MP) foods that apply the concept of combination of preservation factors are addressed in this article with special emphasis on a new combined approach that has been successfully applied in several Latin American countries for MP high-moisture fruit products (HMFP). HMFP can be regarded as a different approach to the commercially available and widely accepted MP concept for fruits and vegetables (even if developed for the same purpose of obtaining freshlike high-quality products with an extended shelf life) that is better adapted to Latin American countries in terms of independence of the chill chain and the use of simple and energy-efficient technologies. The continuous refrigeration hurdle associated with MP refrigerated fruits is not included in the preservation system of HMFP because a different combination of hurdles must be overcome to enhance the shelf stability of nonrespiring vegetable tissues while preserving freshlike character. Guidelines to obtain safe and high-quality MP fruit products are proposed. Other products preserved by combined factors technology are also discussed, as well as some other classical and new preservation factors whose application could enhance the quality of HMFP.

  14. Retorting conditions affect palatability and physical characteristics of canned cat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A; Orlanes, Denmark F; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, Wouter H; van der Poel, Antonius F B

    2017-01-01

    The effects of different temperature and time conditions during retorting of canned cat food on physicochemical characteristics and palatability were examined. For this purpose, lacquer cans containing an unprocessed loaf-type commercial cat food were heated in a pressurised retorting system at three specified temperature-time profiles (113°C/232 min, 120°C/103 min and 127°C/60 min) to equal a similar lethality ( F 0 value = 30). Physicochemical properties (viscosity, texture, particle size, pH) were determined, and a 10 d three-bowl palatability test was performed with ten European shorthair cats. Retorting at 113°C/232 min resulted in differences in all the physical parameters examined ( particle size). Significant pH differences were observed (6·53, 6·63 and 6·66 for T113/232, 120 and 127°C, respectively). Preference ratios were 0·38, 0·31 and 0·31 for T113/232, 120 and 127°C, respectively ( P  = 0·067). It can be concluded that different retorting temperature-time profiles with equal F 0 value significantly affect physical characteristics and tended to affect palatability of moist cat food.

  15. Keystones affecting sub-Saharan Africa's prospects for achieving food security through balanced diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Julian

    2018-02-01

    Socio-economic dynamics determine the transition from diets characterized by the risk of famine, to those characterized by the risk of diet-related non-communicable disease (DR-NCD). This transition is of particular concern in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in which key socio-economic interactions that influence diet include economic growth and rapid urbanization; inequality and a growing middle class; and obesogenic food environments and an increasing prevalence of DR-NCD. In each case, countries in SSA are among those experiencing the most rapid change in the world. These interactions, styled as 'keystones', affect the functioning of other components of the food system and the diets that result. Data from the wealthiest quartile of countries in SSA suggest that these keystones may be increasing the risk of DR-NCD, widening inequalities in health outcomes due to unbalanced diets. To address this, new consumer and government capabilities that address these keystones are required. Food sensitive urban planning, supporting food literacy and fiscal management of consumption are examples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estrous cycle and food availability affect feeding induced by amygdala 5-HT receptor blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Graham C; Bishop, Christopher; Coscina, Donald V

    2002-04-01

    We have recently reported that bilateral infusions of the 5-HT receptor antagonist metergoline (MET) into the posterior basolateral amygdala (pBLA) elicit feeding in female rats tested at mid-light cycle. The present study was performed to determine whether (1) testing at two different phases of the estrous cycle, and/or (2) the palatability of the food might modify this effect. Subjects were 18 adult females with bilateral pBLA cannulae. Following familiarization with Froot Loops cereal, a within-subjects design tested all animals for 1- and 2-h food intake under 2 Drug (0.3 nmol MET vs. Vehicle), 2 Estrous Cycle (diestrus vs. estrus) and 2 Food (lab chow vs. Froot Loops) conditions. Rats weighed more at diestrus than at proestrus (Pestrus (Pestrus. A three-way interaction (Pestrus than in diestrus to lab chow but not Froot Loops. These data suggest pBLA MET differentially affects feeding over the estrous cycle depending on the palatability of food available.

  17. An (un)healthy poster: When environmental cues affect consumers' food choices at vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckli, Sabrina; Stämpfli, Aline E; Messner, Claude; Brunner, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Environmental cues can affect food decisions. There is growing evidence that environmental cues influence how much one consumes. This article demonstrates that environmental cues can similarly impact the healthiness of consumers' food choices. Two field studies examined this effect with consumers of vending machine foods who were exposed to different posters. In field study 1, consumers with a health-evoking nature poster compared to a pleasure-evoking fun fair poster or no poster in their visual sight were more likely to opt for healthy snacks. Consumers were also more likely to buy healthy snacks when primed by an activity poster than when exposed to the fun fair poster. In field study 2, this consumer pattern recurred with a poster of skinny Giacometti sculptures. Overall, the results extend the mainly laboratory-based evidence by demonstrating the health-relevant impact of environmental cues on food decisions in the field. Results are discussed in light of priming literature emphasizing the relevance of preexisting associations, mental concepts and goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors affecting quality of social interaction park in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangunsong, N. I.

    2018-01-01

    The existence of social interactions park in Jakarta is an oasis in the middle of a concrete jungle. Parks is a response to the need for open space as a place of recreation and community interaction. Often the social interaction parks built by the government does not function as expected, but other functions such as a place to sell, trash, unsafe so be rarely visited by visitors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that affect the quality of social interaction parks in Jakarta by conducting descriptive analysis and correlation analysis of the variables assessment. The results of the analysis can give an idea of social interactions park based on community needs and propose the development of social interactioncity park. The object of study are 25 social interaction parks in 5 municipalities of Jakarta. The method used is descriptive analysis method, correlation analysis using SPSS 19 and using crosstab, chi-square tests. The variables are 5 aspects of Design, Plants composition: Selection type of plant (D); the beauty and harmony (Ind); Maintenance and fertility (P); Cleanliness and Environmental Health (BS); Specificity (Drainage, Multi Function garden, Means, Concern/Mutual cooperation, in dense settlements) (K). The results of analysis show that beauty is the most significant correlation with the value of the park followed by specificity, cleanliness and maintenance. Design was not the most significant variable affecting the quality of the park. The results of this study can be used by the Department of Parks and Cemeteries as input in managing park existing or to be developed and to improve the quality of social interaction park in Jakarta.

  19. Factors affecting workers' delivery of good hygienic and sanitary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-03-06

    Mar 6, 2015 ... adhere to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and. Good Hygiene Practices ... has resulted in meat contamination and poor waste disposal, with ... and other food animals arrive these slaughterhouses from various parts of ...

  20. Factors affecting the parasitic contamination of edible locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ... of edible locally produced dry season leafy vegetables cultivated in south east Enugu, Nigeria ... Public enlightenment is necessary to enhance the adoption of effective food safety ...