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Sample records for factors affecting fertility

  1. Factors Affecting Fertility Desires in the Philippines

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    Clarissa C. David

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting fertility desires in the Philippines were examined using data from a national survey and from individual and group qualitative interviews involving 143 respondents. Fertility goals usually range from two to three children, but evidence suggests that they are dynamic and may change over a person’s lifetime. Qualitative interviews reveal that when negotiating about family size, it is the partner who wants more children that will be followed. A strong demand for gender balance among offspring creates a willingness to have more children than originally desired. Fertility goals increase over time among women. While those who start childbirth at a very young age successfully space their children, they tend to want larger families than those who start late. Initial fertility goals among women are generally low but may increase because of higher fertility desires among men, a demand for gender balance in children, and the desire for babies once their children have grown.

  2. Factors Affecting Fertility – New Evidence from Malaysia

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    Awad Atif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research paper investigates long and short term determinants of fertility rates in Malaysia based on basic macroeconomic variables for the period 1980-2014 using Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL method. The study reveals that over a long term period, all the selected variables (GDP, infant mortality rate, females’ education and employment have had significant and negative impact on total fertility rates. Whilst during the short term period, only the infant mortality rate has had a positive impact. Since population growth is partly determined by fertility rates, efforts to increase population in Malaysia should consider factors that affect those rates.

  3. Some cultural factors affecting costs of fertility regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, M

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a framework of the costs or constraints in the use of fertility regulation, reviews the existing knowledge on the subject in a cross-cultural context, and indicates the need for further studies. It is suggested that the apparent contradiction noted in fertility surveys between a couple's desire to have no more children or to postpone the next birth and actual behavior can be explained by the costs involved in the use of fertility regulation methods. The costs of fertility regulation can be broadly classified into 4 categories: 1) physical/health (disruption of menstrual cycle, side effects and health hazards of contraceptive methods, perceived health hazards based on ethno-physical concepts, and sacrifice of sexual pleasure); 2) psychic (violation of sexual modesty and human dignity, conflict with religious beliefs; 3) social opinion (challenges to spouse and sex role expectations, challenges to social influence group); and 4) economic (money, time). The economic costs of fertility regulation to individuals vary greatly according to the presence or absence of public sector family planning programs. A substantial part of these costs could be eliminated by national and international programs. So far, no study has focused on the costs of fertility regulation and factors affecting them. A methodology that combines elements of both a questionnaire survey and anthropological investigation and collects data on both the individual and community levels may be most amenable to assessing the impact of costs on the use or nonuse of fertility regulation.

  4. Factors Affecting Fertility – New Evidence from Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atif Awad; Ishak Yussof

    2017-01-01

    This research paper investigates long and short term determinants of fertility rates in Malaysia based on basic macroeconomic variables for the period 1980-2014 using Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) method...

  5. Factors of a noninfectious nature affecting fertility after artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gatius, F

    2012-04-01

    After 80 years of the commercial application of artificial insemination (AI) in the cow, the method still has numerous benefits over natural insemination including worldwide gene improvement. The efficiency of insemination depends, among many other factors, on the delivery of an appropriate number of normal spermatozoa to the appropriate reproductive tract site at the appropriate time of estrus. The metabolic clearance of steroid hormones and pregnancy associated glycoproteins and the negative effects of different types of stress related to high milk production makes the high-producing dairy cow a good animal model for addressing factors affecting fertility. Nevertheless, extensive studies have shown a positive link between high milk production in an individual cow and high fertility. When a cow becomes pregnant, the effect of pregnancy loss on its reproductive cycle is also a topic of interest. This paper reviews the factors of a noninfectious nature that affect the fertility of lactating dairy cows following AI. Special attention is paid to factors related to the cow and its environment and to estrus confirmation at insemination. Pregnancy maintenance during the late embryonic/early fetal period is discussed as a critical step. Finally, the use of Doppler ultrasonography is described as an available research tool for improving our current understanding of the health of the genital structures and conceptus.

  6. Factors affecting potassium fixation in seven soils under 15-year long-term fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HuiMin; XU MingGang; ZHANG WenJu; HE XinHua

    2009-01-01

    Potassium (K) fixation by seven soils, including black soil, fluvo-aquic soil, grey desert soil, loess soil, paddy soil, red soil and purple soil, was determined by laboratory simulation under a fifteen-year-pe-riod of long-term fertilization. Factors affecting soil K fixation were then discussed by factor analysis and stepwise regression. Magnitude of soil K fixation rate was as follows: the black soil > the purple soil > the loess soil > the fluvo-aquic soil > the paddy soil > the grey desert soil > the red soil. Our re-sulta showed that soil K fixation capacity was significantly affected by the clay mineral types in the soils. Potassium fixation capacity of soils, whose 2:1 layer silicates were dominant minerals, was af-fected by two components extracted by the method of principal component analysis: the first including soil available K, slow available K and K+ saturation, and the second including cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter (SOM) and <0.002 mm clay contents. Potassium fixation rate was mainly af-fected by K+ saturation and CEC with lower added K concentration (from 0.4 to 1.6 g/L), and by K+ saturation and <0.002 mm clay content with higher added K concentration (from 2.4 to 4.0 g/L).

  7. Factors affecting fertility after cervical insemination with cooled semen in meat sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacín, I; Yániz, J L; Fantova, E; Blasco, M E; Quintín-Casorrán, F J; Sevilla-Mur, E; Santolaria, P

    2012-06-01

    Field results of 18,328 cervical artificial inseminations (AI) with cooled semen in Rasa Aragonesa meat sheep under field conditions in north-eastern Spain AI were analyzed. Logistic regression procedures were used including fertility at AI as the dependent variable (measured by lambing, 0 or 1) and year, month of AI, farm, hours between extraction and insemination, number of ewes inseminated in a set of AI, parity, lambing-treatment interval, total number of synchronization treatment per ewe, inseminating ram and AI technician as independent factors. Previous parturitions, lambing-AI interval, month, farm, inseminating ram and technician were factors with significant impact on AI fertility. Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of pregnancy decreased: in ewes with more than five previous parturitions (by a factor of 0.87, 0.79 and 0.66 for the 6th, 7th and ≥8 parturitions, respectively); in ewes with lambing-AI interval higher than 240 days (by a factor of 0.8); and for inseminations performed during the spring period, (March, April, May and June, 0.70, 0.76, 0.66, and 0.76, respectively). We noted a higher fertility in seven inseminating rams (odds ratios between 1.4 and 1.7) and lower in two rams (odds ratios between 0.6 and 0.7). Of the 17 AI technicians, two were related to fertilities improved by odds ratio of 1.6, and 1.30, whereas two technicians were attributed fertility rates reduced by odds ratios of 0.68 and 0.40. These findings should be taken into account to evaluate the AI technique performance and make decisions to enhance fertility results.

  8. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal

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    Adhikari Ramesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (β = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal

  9. Factors affecting 137Cs bio- availability under the application of different fertilizing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorkova, M. V.; Belova, N. I.

    2012-04-01

    Although it has been 25 years since the Chernobyl accident, it was generally found that radiocaesium remained bio-availability in some regions. Plant uptake of 137Cs is depended from quantity of exchangeable radionuclide and strongly influenced by soil properties. The addition of fertilizers to soil induces chemical and biological changes that influence the distribution of free ions the different phases (soil and soil solution). In this study we try to estimate influence of different soil conditions affecting the 137Cs bio-availability under the application of manure and inorganic fertilizers. Our research carried out in 2001-2008 years on contaminated after Chernobyl accident sod-podzolic soil during of prolonged field experiment. The experimental site was located in south-west of Bryansk region, Russia. Contamination density by 137Cs in the sampling point was equal to 475±30 kBq/m2. The sequence of crops in rotation was: 1) potato; 2) oats 3) lupine 4) winter rye. Three fertilizing systems were compared: organic - 80 tons per hectare of cow manure; inorganic fertilizing system - different rates of NPK (low, temperate and high) and mixed - 40 tons per hectare of cow manure + NPK. Main soil properties and chemical form of 137Cs and K (potassium) were detected. Radiocaesium activity was determined in soil and plant samples by gamma spectrometry, using a high purity Ge detectors. Overall efficiency was known to an accuracy of about 10-12%. Obtained results shows, that various fertilizing systems influence soil properties, chemical forms of 137Cs and K in soil and radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer in different ways. The highest reduction of exchangeable 137Cs in soil was found in case with application of organic fertilizers and also - temperate NPK rates. Part of exchangeable 137Cs is equal 6.8% (from total activity) in case of manure, 7.8% in case of inorganic fertilizers with control value - 10.2%. Caesium mobility in soil is affected by such soil properties as

  10. Analysis of the factors affecting abnormal fertilization on in vitro fertilization%体外受精后异常受精的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芬; 徐望明; 谢青贞

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the factors affecting monopronuclear and polypronuclear in in vitro fertilization. Methods: The 6815 fertilized ovum of 9718 oocytes from 608 IVF cycles and 319 ICSI cycles were analyzed by analysis of variance to show the influence of the age of women, the stimulating protocol, serum estradiol level on day of hCG , the number of retrieved oocytes on the incidence of monopronuclear and polypronuclear. Results: (1) The age of women, the stimulating protocol, serum estradiol level on day of hCG , the number of retrieved oocytes have no significant influence on the incidence of monopronuclear. (2) In IVF group, the incidence of polypronuclear is higher than that in ICSI group, but total fertility rate was inferior to the latter. And the incidence of polypronuclear is significantly increased when retrieved oecytes are more than 15 or serum estradiol level on day of hCG is more than > 4000 pg/ml. (3) In ICSI group, the incidence of polypronuclear is significantly increased when the age of female is older than 30 years old. Conclusion: The affecting factors and incidence mechanism are different between IVF and ICSI, make sure that every couple of infertility have optimal modality in vitro fertilization will help to decline the incidence of monopronuclear and polypronuclear.%目的 探讨体外受精后单原核和多原核孕卵生成的影响因素,为降低异常受精率探寻可行的方法.方法 应用卡方检验分析927个体外受精周期(608个IVF周期和319个ICSI周期),共计9718个卵细胞资料,研究多原核和单原核孕卵生成率与体外受精方式,女方年龄,超促排卵方案,HCG日血清E2水平和获卵教的关系;结果 (1)体外受精中单原核孕卵生成率与体外受精方式、女方年龄、获卵数、HCG日血清E2水平、超促排卵方案均无显著性关系;(2)常规IVF周期中多原核孕卵生成率显著高于ICSI组,但总的受精率显著低于后者;当获卵数>15个和HCG日血清E2

  11. Factors affecting the toxicity of trace metals to fertilization success in broadcast spawning marine invertebrates: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspith, M; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda; Harrison, Peter L

    2017-03-01

    Significant amounts of trace metals have been released into both nearshore and deep sea environments in recent years, resulting in increased concentrations that can be toxic to marine organisms. Trace metals can negatively affect external fertilization processes in marine broadcast spawners and may cause a reduction in fertilization success at elevated concentrations. Due to its sensitivity and ecological importance, fertilization success has been widely used as a toxicity endpoint in ecotoxicological testing, which is an important method of evaluating the toxicity of contaminants for management planning. Ecotoxicological data regarding fertilization success are available across the major marine phyla, but there remain uncertainties that impair our ability to confidently interpret and analyse these data. At present, the cellular and biochemical events underlying trace metal toxicity in external fertilization are not known. Metal behavior and speciation play an important role in bioavailability and toxicity but are often overlooked, and disparities in experimental designs between studies limit the degree to which results can be synthesised and compared to those of other relevant species. We reviewed all available literature covering cellular toxicity mechanisms, metal toxicities and speciation, and differences in methodologies between studies. We conclude that the concept of metal toxicity should be approached in a more holistic manner that involves elucidating toxicity mechanisms, improving the understanding of metal behavior and speciation on bioavailability and toxicity, and standardizing the fertilization assay methods among different groups of organisms. We identify opportunities to improve the fertilization assay that will allow robust critical and comparative analysis between species and their sensitivities to trace metals during external fertilization, and enable data to be more readily extrapolated to field conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Climate factors affecting fertility after cervical insemination during the first months of the breeding season in Rasa Aragonesa ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria, P.; Yániz, J.; Fantova, E.; Vicente-Fiel, S.; Palacín, I.

    2014-09-01

    This study was carried out to examine the impact of several climate variables on the pregnancy rate after cervical artificial insemination (AI) of Rasa Aragonesa ewes. Data were derived from 8,977 inseminations in 76 well-managed flocks performed during the first month of the breeding season (July to October). The following data were recorded for each animal: farm, year, month of AI, parity, lambing-treatment interval, inseminating ram, AI technician, and climatic variables such as mean, maximum and minimum temperature, mean and maximum relative humidity, rainfall, and mean and maximum temperature-humidity index (THI) for each day from day 12 before AI to day 14 post-AI. Means were furthermore calculated for the following periods around AI (day 0): -12 to 0, -2 to 0, AI day, 0 to 2, and 0 to 14. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the likelihood of pregnancy decreased when maximum temperature in the 2 days prior to AI was higher than 30 °C (by a factor of 0.81). Fertility was also lower for primiparous ewes and in multiparous ewes with more than five previous parturitions. Other factors with significant impact on fertility were flock, technician, inseminating ram, and a lambing-AI interval longer than 240 days. It was concluded that the 2 days prior to AI seems to be the period when heat stress had the greatest impact on pregnancy rate in Rasa Aragonesa ewes.

  13. Sperm Shape (Morphology): Does It Affect Fertility?

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    ... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Sperm morphology (shape): Does it affect fertility? How is ... semen analysis. This measures many features of the sperm and semen (the fluid in which the sperm ...

  14. Factors Affecting of Attitude in Breast Self-Examination among Fertile Age Women in Wosi Sub District of West Manokwari

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    Jeane Caroline Etwiory

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2010 the WHO (World Health Organization estimates that the incidence of breast cancer are 11 million and in 2030 will grow to 27 million cancer deaths. Ministry of Health, there are about 80 cases of breast cancer in the province of West Papua. This is not as much as the one in Papua province whose cases reached 466 cases of breast cancer. The factors that influence the actions breast self examination (BSE in women of childbearing age in the Wosi sub district, western Manokwari. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study design. Cross-sectional study. Women of fertile age population is 259 and 157 samples. Results indicated that there was an effect of age with action (p-value 0.000 RP = Lower 0.102-Upper 0.519, no effect of recent education (p-value 0.516 RP = Lower 1.479 - Upper 1.919, there was no effect of the work (p-value 0.406 RP = Lower 0.714 - Upper 2.671, there was no effect of Social Economy (p-value 1.000 RP = Lower .545 - Upper 1.958, there was the influence of Information (p-value 0.000 RP = Lower 3,022 - Upper 15.383, there is no influence of Knowledge ( p-value 0.840 0.410 RP = Lower - Upper 2.023, there is no influence of attitude (p-value 0.316 RP = Lower 0,493- Upper 12.218, there is the influence of Family Support (p-value 0.000 RP = Lower 3,186- Upper 13.175.

  15. [Dynamics of microbial biomass C in a black soil under long-term fertilization and related affecting factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongpo; Wu, Zhijie; Chen, Lijun; Zhu, Ping; Ren, Jun; Peng, Chang; Liang, Chenghua

    2004-08-01

    The effect of long-term fertilization on the dynamics of microbial biomass C in a typical black soil of Northeastern China was studied in a field trail treated by different fertilizations. The results showed that the amount of soil microbial biomass C under different fertilizations varied significantly with growth stages. It was the highest in farmyard manure (M2 and M4) treatments, with a less seasonal fluctuation, second in NPK treatment, the peak at sowing period, and the lowest in CK, the peak at wax maturity stage. No significant correlation was found between the dynamic changes of soil microbial biomass C and soil biological, physical and chemical properties in all treatments, but the correlation of soil microbial biomass C with the contents of N, P and K in plants and that of crude protein in grain was significantly positive.

  16. [Dynamics of microbial biomass P and its affecting factors in a long-term fertilized black soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongpo; Wu, Zhijie; Chen, Lijun; Zhu, Ping; Ren, Jun; Liang, Chenghua; Peng, Chang; Gao, Hongjun

    2004-10-01

    This paper studied the microbial biomass P in a long-term fertilized black soil. The soil was fertilized by farmyard manure (M2, M4) and chemical fertilizer (NPK), and the dynamics of soil microbial biomass P was monitored during crop growth season. The results showed that the microbial biomass P in different treatments was 8.75-47.68 mg x kg(-1) (M4), 3.02-37.16 mg x kg(-1) (M2), 1.59-10.62 mg x kg(-1) (NPK), and 0.76-6.74 mg x kg(-1) (CK). The microbial biomass P in M4 and M2 was the highest at reproductive growth stage, and that in NPK and CK was the highest at early growth stage. The significant difference of soil microbial biomass P induced by different amounts and types of fertilizer application was not varied with the period and stage of plant growth. In all treatments, no significant correlation was found between the dynamics of soil microbial biomass P and the soil biological, physical and chemical properties in plant growth period. Soil microbial biomass P had a very significant positive correlation with soil biological, physical and chemical properties (expect K), and a significant positive correlation with the N, P and K contents of plants and soil water content.

  17. Factors affecting the production of seeds in fully fertile tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill. and those showing a tendency to parthenocarpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Gabara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on the development of the female gametophyte, pollination and fertilization in two lines of Lycopersicon esculentum, Kholodostoykye (Kh, fertile and A33 (with a tendency to parthenocarpy have revealed that seed production is affected by disturbances in embryo sac formation but mainly by its degeneration after anthesis, which is especially visible in line A33. Moreover, delayed development of some embryo sacs and incomplete pollination due to various stigma levels seem to be responsible for the diminution of seed number in line A33. Deep fluorescence of numerous pollen grains as well as whole pollen tubes in 83.3 per cent of A33 stigmas and only 24.1 per cent in the Kh line points to the heterogeneity of pollen. This could be one more reason for reduced fertility. The results of application of plant growth regulators (auxin, PCIB which affect seed production in tomato of line A33 remain inconclusive.

  18. Two bHLH-type transcription factors, JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE2 and JAM3, are transcriptional repressors and affect male fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Nakata, Masaru; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The jasmonate (JA) plant hormones regulate responses to biotic and abiotic stress and aspects of plant development, including male fertility in Arabidopsis thaliana. The bHLH-type transcription factor JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1) negatively regulates JA signaling and gain-of-function JAM1 transgenic plants have impaired JA-mediated male fertility. Here we report that JAM2 and JAM3, 2 bHLHs closely related to JAM1, also act as transcriptional repressors. Moreover, overexpression of JAM2 and...

  19. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

  20. Do Land Characteristics Affect Farmers’ Soil Fertility Management?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Shu-hao

    2014-01-01

    Soil fertility management (SFM) has important implications for sustaining agricultural development and food self-sufifciency. Better understanding the determinants of farmers’ SFM can be a great help to the adoption of effective SFM practices. Based on a dataset of 315 plots collected from a typical rice growing area of South China, this study applied statistical method and econometric models to examine the impacts of land characteristics on farmers’ SFM practices at plot scale. Main results showed that in general land characteristics affected SFM behaviors. Securer land tenure arrangements facilitated effective practices of SFM through more diversiifed and more soil-friendly cropping pattern choices. Plot size signiifcantly reduced the intensities of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer application. Given other factors, 1 ha increase in plot size might reduce 3.0 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 1.8 kg ha-1 K2O. Plots far from the homestead were paid less attention in terms of both chemical fertilizers and manure applications. Besides, plots with better quality were put more efforts on management by applying more nitrogen and manure, and by planting green manure crops. Signiifcant differences existed in SFM practices between the surveyed villages with different socio-economic conditions. The ifndings are expected to provide important references to the policy-making incentive for improving soil quality and crop productivity.

  1. Female fertility affects men's linguistic choices.

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    Jacqueline M Coyle

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women.

  2. Asthma affects time to pregnancy and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth J; Thomsen, Simon F; Lindenberg, Svend;

    2014-01-01

    Coexistence of infertility and asthma has been observed clinically. Therefore, we investigated the association between asthma and delayed pregnancy in a nationwide population-based cohort of twins. A cohort of 15 250 twins living in Denmark (aged 12-41 years) participated in a questionnaire study...... including questions about the presence of asthma and fertility. Differences in time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome were analysed in subjects with asthma, allergy and in healthy individuals using multiple regression analysis. Asthma was associated with an increased time to pregnancy, the percentage...... in those >30 years of age (32.2% versus 24.9%, OR (95% CI) 1.44 (1.1-1.9); p=0.04). Untreated asthmatics had a significant increased risk of prolonged time to pregnancy compared to healthy individuals (OR (95% CI) 1.79 (1.20-2.66); p=0.004), while asthmatics receiving any kind of treatment for asthma...

  3. [In vitro fertilization. Prognostic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpüstün, S; al-Hasani, S; Diedrich, K; Bauer, O; Werner, A; Krebs, D

    1993-05-01

    Multiple factors influence the outcome of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). In our prospective study different factors have been subject of examination concerning their effect on the outcome of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer. 1237 couples undergoing 1675 consecutive treatment cycles between 1.1.1990-31.12.1991 were included in this study. Prior to treatment, couples were divided into "good" and "poor" prognosis groups. Cycles were prospectively labelled as carrying a potentially "poor prognosis", if one or more of the following factors were noted: 1) female age > 35; 2) an existence of male factor; 3) couples with more than 3 previous unsuccessful treatment cycles. Couples with none of these factors were assigned to the "good" prognosis group. The pregnancy rate per cycle in the "poor" prognosis group was 5.96%, compared with 17.92% per cycle in the "good" prognosis group (p cycle. An explanation may be seen in lower fertilisation rates after the age of 35 and cases of poor semen quality. Both will result in poor embryo quality.

  4. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L A

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  5. Affective Factors: Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnimi, Mahshad

    2009-01-01

    Affective factors seem to play a crucial role in success or failure in second language acquisition. Negative attitudes can reduce learners' motivation and harm language learning, while positive attitudes can do the reverse. Discovering students' attitudes about language will help both teacher and student in teaching learning process. Anxiety is…

  6. 猪卵母细胞体外受精影响因素的研究%Study on Factors Affecting in-vitro Fertilization of Porcine Oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立苹

    2015-01-01

    The effects of caffeine concentration in fertilization medium mTBM , sperm floating capacitation time, and sperm-oo-cyte co-incubation time on the in-vitro fertilization and subsequent embryonic development of porcine oocytes were explored .The re-sults showed that adding different concentrations of caffeine into mTBM had no significant effect on the blastocyst rate of pig oocytes after in-vitro fertilization, but the fertilized cleavage rate in 3 mmol/L caffeine supplement group was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that in 5 mmol/L and 0 mmol /L caffeine supplement groups .When the time of sperm floating capacitation was lengthened , both the cleavage rate and the blastocyst rate of fertilized ovum increased first and then decreased , and the cleavage rate and blastocyst rate in 1.0 h floating group were significantly (P<0.05 ) higher than those in 1.5 h and2 .0 h floating groups.The time of sperm-oo -cyte co -incubation had no significant effect on the fertilized cleavage rate , while the blastocyst rate in 9 h co-incubation group was significantly lower than that in 3 h and 6 h co-incubation groups.%探讨了 mTBM 中咖啡因浓度、精子上浮时间和精卵孵育时间对猪卵母细胞体外受精胚胎早期发育的影响。结果表明:咖啡因的添加浓度对猪卵母细胞体外受精胚胎的囊胚率无显著影响,但添加3 mmol/L 咖啡因组的精子入卵率显著高于添加5 mmol /L 咖啡因组和未添加咖啡因组的(P<0.05);随着精子上浮时间的延长,受精卵卵裂率和囊胚率均呈先上升后下降的趋势,上浮1.0 h 组的卵裂率和囊胚率显著高于上浮1.5 h 组和2.0 h 组的(P<0.05);精卵共孵育时间对精子入卵率无显著影响,但受精9 h 处理组的囊胚率显著低于受精3 h 组和6 h 组的。

  7. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  8. How does childbearing affect fertility motivations and desires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W B; Pasta, D J

    1995-01-01

    In this study we assume that fertility decisions are made one birth at a time and use longitudinal data collected from 401 married couples over a two-year period to explore how having a child affects two types of fertility motivation and three types of fertility desires. Using a series of five constrained multiple regression analyses, we tested the effects of two childbearing variables on these five types of motivation and desires in the context of a large set of control variables also hypothesized to affect fertility motivation and desires. The results demonstrate that the childbearing variables have a substantial effect in all five regression models. Specific findings indicate that childbearing stimulates greater positive motivation for childbearing and an increase in the number of children desired. Although this situation would appear to create a positive feedback loop in which each child born further increases the motivation and desire for children, the findings also suggest three different mechanisms whereby childbearing causes a counterbalancing regulation of that loop. These mechanisms include a negative motivation mechanism, a satiation mechanism, and a delay mechanism. The effect of these mechanisms on the termination of childbearing is considered in conjunction with a fourth mechanism, the achievement of desired family size.

  9. Grain, milling, and head rice yields as affected by nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed FIROUZI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application on grain, milling, and head rice yields, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Station of Tonekabon, Iran, in 2013. The experimental design was a factorial treatment arrangement in a randomized complete block with three replicates. Factors were three N rates (0, 75, and 150 kg ha-1 and two bio-fertilizer applications (inoculation and uninoculation with Nitroxin, a liquid bio-fertilizer containing Azospirillum spp. and Azotobacter spp. bacteria. Analysis of variance showed that rice grain yield, panicle number per m2, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, grains N concentration and uptake, grain protein concentration, and head rice yield were significantly affected by N rate, while bio-fertilizer application had significant effect on rice grain yield, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, harvest index, grains N concentration and uptake, and grain protein concentration. Results showed that regardless of bio-fertilizer application, rice grain and biological yields were significantly increased as N application rate increased from 0 to 75 kg ha-1, but did not significantly increase at the higher N rate (150 kg ha-1. Grain yield was significantly increased following bio-fertilizer application when averaged across N rates. Grains N concentration and uptake were significantly increased as N rate increased up to 75 kg ha-1, but further increases in N rate had no significant effect on these traits. Bio-fertilizer application increased significantly grains N concentration and uptake, when averaged across N rates. Regardless of bio-fertilizer application, head rice yield was significantly increased from 56 % to 60 % when N rate increased from 0 to 150 kg ha-1. Therefore, this experiment illustrated that rice grain and head yields increased with increasing N rate, while bio-fertilizer application increased only rice grain

  10. Maize nutrient uptake affected by genotype and fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đalović Ivica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of nutrients in maize are commonly related with fertilization and soil quality and rarely explained with the individual hybrid properties. Therefore, the aim of this study is to access a long term fertilization system on ear leaf of Mg, Fe, Mn and Cu content in six maize hybrids(NS 3014, NS 4015, NS 5043, NS 6010, NS 6030 and NS 7020. Samples were collected from a long-term experiment at the Rimski Šančevi experimental field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The study included maize monoculture and 2-year rotations with the application of NPK and manure. Results showed that ear Mg content was influenced with the treatments, hybrid and their interaction and ranged from 1.77-2.69 g kg-1. Iron variability was significantly affected with the treatments and interaction (hybrid x treatments in range from 103.2 to151.9g kg-1. The ear manganese content (41.1-63.6g kg-1 derived from treatments and hybrid effect and Cu (12.3-23.6 g kg-1 was significantly influenced with treatments. Across all treatments, in average, NS6030 had higher values of nutrient and NS3014 was lower in ear nutrient content. This indicates that vegetation length could favor nutrient accumulation. Obtained results suggested that even on fairly productive soil such as Chernozem hybrid selection and the balanced fertilization is crucial for managing the maize nutrient content. [Projekat Ministarsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR031073

  11. The Relationship of Socio-Demographic Factors, Fertility Behavior and Child’s Perceived Value with Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmoude, Elham; Behnam, Haniye; Barati-Far, Saeede; Kabirian, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Fertility intention is one of the strongest predictors of couple’s fertility behavior that is affected by many variables. This study aimed to identify the relationship of socio-demographic factors, fertility behavior, and child’s perceived value with fertility intention of women in a region in the east Iran Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 241 married women aged between 15 and 49 years of Torbat Heydariyeh City in 2015, were studied. The data collection scales included a demographic information form, fertility information questionnaire and Trommsdorff’s child value questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 by Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, t-independent test and logistic regression. The significance level of Pcosts of children (P=0.001). In addition, in subjects with children of both sexes, intention for childbearing was significantly lower when compared to subjects with only one sex in children (P=0.001). However, when the logistic regression test was performed, being housewife, number of children, having children of both sexes, benefit and costs of children showed statistical significance (Pcurrent children, having children of both sexes, and perceived childbearing costs are important in determining the odds that a woman will intend to have a child. These findings can contribute to the realization of new population programs towards higher fertility rate in the country. PMID:28409166

  12. Factors affecting soil cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erodibility is a measure of a soil’s resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...

  13. Factors affecting emotional divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Said Shabanlou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional Divorce is the most important factor in the rupture of the most fundamental structures of society, the family.Due to the sensitivity and position of the familyAnd its functions specifically to investigate the factors underlying emotional divorce has of particular importance.Emotional Divorce phenomenon is not a single factor, but rather a set of related factors together led to Emotional Divorce.In this paper the role of psychological factors such as early maladaptive schemas, negative body image, perfectionism is discussed on an emotional divorce.Also quality of life and family relationships of couples with emotional divorce,Such as quality of health, sexual dissatisfaction, ignoring the needs, expectations and opinions of women by men or vice versa,And also social and economic factors such as subcultures families, couples, the quality of social relationships, social networks couple,Economic situation of the families of the couple, financial crisis, unemployment and economic revenues couples studied and some suggestions are presented based on the findings.

  14. From desires to behavior: Moderating factors in a fertility transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Hayford

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Extensive research in both developed and developing countries has shown that preferences and intentions for future childbearing predict behavior. However, very little of this research has examined high-fertility contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the factors that increase or decrease correspondence between fertility desires and behavior in these settings are not well understood. OBJECTIVE This article documents the degree to which the desire to stop childbearing predicts fertility behavior over the short term among married women in rural southern Mozambique, a context where fertility transition is still in the early stages. Analyses test the moderating powers of individual, household, and community characteristics. METHODS Analyses use data from a longitudinal survey of married women of reproductive age (N=1678 carried out in 2006 and 2009 in rural areas of southern Mozambique. Logistic regression models are estimated to predict childbearing between 2006 and 2009 based on desires to stop childbearing and characteristics measured in 2006. RESULTS As expected, the desire to stop childbearing is strongly predictive of fertility behavior. Household wealth, local adult AIDS mortality, and being married to an unsuccessful labor migrant are associated with higher correspondence between reported desire to stop childbearing and fertility behavior. CONCLUSIONS Both factors related to the ability to carry out desires to stop childbearing and factors related to the strength and consistency of these desires moderate the association between desires and behaviors. Future research should expand measurement of fertility preferences to incorporate their strength and consistency as well as direction.

  15. From desires to behavior: Moderating factors in a fertility transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayford, Sarah R; Agadjanian, Victor

    2012-05-31

    Extensive research in both developed and developing countries has shown that preferences and intentions for future childbearing predict behavior. However, very little of this research has examined high-fertility contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the factors that increase or decrease correspondence between fertility desires and behavior in these settings are not well understood. This article documents the degree to which the desire to stop childbearing predicts fertility behavior over the short term among married women in rural southern Mozambique, a context where fertility transition is still in the early stages. Analyses test the moderating powers of individual, household, and community characteristics. Analyses use data from a longitudinal survey of married women of reproductive age (N=1678) carried out in 2006 and 2009 in rural areas of southern Mozambique. Logistic regression models are estimated to predict childbearing between 2006 and 2009 based on desires to stop childbearing and characteristics measured in 2006. As expected, the desire to stop childbearing is strongly predictive of fertility behavior. Household wealth, local adult AIDS mortality, and being married to an unsuccessful labor migrant are associated with higher correspondence between reported desire to stop childbearing and fertility behavior. Both factors related to the ability to carry out desires to stop childbearing and factors related to the strength and consistency of these desires moderate the association between desires and behaviors. Future research should expand measurement of fertility preferences to incorporate their strength and consistency as well as direction.

  16. Analysis on Factors Influencing Organic Fertilizer Use in China : A case study on wheat farmers in six eastern provincial–level regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Hui; Nanseki, Teruaki; Song, Min; Chen, Tinggui; Li, Dongpo

    2014-01-01

    The overuse and residue of chemical fertilizer are becoming big problems in food safety and negatively affect the environment in China Organic fertilizer is considered less harmful to food safety, soil quality and environment than chemical fertilizer; however, it is not as widely used as chemical fertilizer The main research objective in this study is to examine the factors influencing organic fertilizer use in China In this research, the farmers who sell less agricultural products are measur...

  17. Y-chromosomal genes affecting male fertility: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasdeep Kaur Dhanoa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian sex-chromosomes (X and Y have evolved from autosomes and are involved in sex determination and reproductive traits. The Y-chromosome is the smallest chromosome that consists of 2-3% of the haploid genome and may contain between 70 and 200 genes. The Y-chromosome plays major role in male fertility and is suitable to study the evolutionary relics, speciation, and male infertility and/or subfertility due to its unique features such as long non-recombining region, abundance of repetitive sequences, and holandric inheritance pattern. During evolution, many holandric genes were deleted. The current review discusses the mammalian holandric genes and their functions. The commonly encountered infertility and/or subfertility problems due to point or gross mutation (deletion of the Y-chromosomal genes have also been discussed. For example, loss or microdeletion of sex-determining region, Y-linked gene results in XY males that exhibit female characteristics, deletion of RNA binding motif, Y-encoded in azoospermic factor b region results in the arrest of spermatogenesis at meiosis. The holandric genes have been covered for associating the mutations with male factor infertility.

  18. Nitrogen fluxes from irrigated common‑bean as affected by mulching and mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Thaís de Melo Carvalho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to measure the fluxes of N2O‑N and NH3‑N throughout the growing season of irrigated common‑bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, as affected by mulching and mineral fertilization. Fluxes of N2O‑N and NH3‑N were evaluated in areas with or without Congo signal grass mulching (Urochloa ruziziensis or mineral fertilization. Fluxes of N were also measured in a native Cerrado area, which served as reference. Total N2O‑N and NH3‑N emissions were positively related to the increasing concentrations of moisture, ammonium, and nitrate in the crop system, within 0.5 m soil depth. Carbon content in the substrate and microbial biomass within 0.1 m soil depth were favoured by Congo signal grass and related to higher emissions of N2O‑N, regardless of N fertilization. Emission factors (N losses from the applied mineral nitrogen for N2O‑N (0.01-0.02% and NH3‑N (0.3-0.6% were lower than the default value recognized by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Mulch of Congo signal grass benefits N2O‑N emission regardless of N fertilization.

  19. Fertilization and pesticides affect mandarin orange nutrient composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of the application of foliar fertilization and pesticide on nutritional quality of mandarin orange juices were evaluated using 1H NMR metabolomics. Significant differences between the use of fertilizer and pesticides during fruit formation were observed, and included changes in sugar, am...

  20. Factors Affecting the Income of Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the introduction of factors affecting the income level of farmers in China,a total of 31 provinces,autonomous regions and municipality cities are taken as samples to select 13 factors affecting the income level of farmers,which are arable land area(X1),disaster area(X2),effective irrigation area(X3),fertilizer application(X4),mobile phone(X5),personal computer(X6),people joining in the new rural cooperative medical care(X7),rural investment(X8),household-use machine(X9),agricultural product price(X10),proportion of labor force with above junior high school education(X11),rural delivery route(X12),and rural electricity consumption(X13).At the same time,factor analysis method is used to analyze the factors affecting the income level of farmers.Result shows that common factors affecting the income of farmers are the agricultural production factor F1,the expanded reproduction factor F2,the information use factor F3,and the output reduction factor F4.At present,education degree of farmers and ability of farmers in grasping information have relatively great impact on the income of farmers,and can effectively promote the income growth of farmers.Scores of F1 in Henan,Shandong and Hebei are generally higher;Jiangsu,Guangdong,Zhejiang and Shandong Provinces have relatively high scores of F2;Shanghai,Beijing and Guangdong have relatively high scores of F3;and Hunan,Hubei and Xinjiang have relatively high scores of F4.Finally,countermeasures are put forward to improve the income of farmers based on empirical study.

  1. How does obesity affect fertility in men - and what are the treatment options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Victoria J; Anderson, Richard A; George, Jyothis T

    2015-05-01

    Adiposity is associated with reduced fertility in men. The aetiology is multifactorial, with obese men at greater risk of suffering from impaired spermatogenesis, reduced circulating testosterone levels, erectile dysfunction and poor libido. The diagnosis and treatment of reduced fertility observed in obese men therefore requires insight into the underlying pathology, which has hormonal, mechanical and psychosocial aspects. This article summarises the current epidemiological, experimental and clinical trial evidence from the perspective of a practicing clinician. The following conclusions and recommendations can be drawn: Obesity is associated with low serum testosterone concentrations, but treatment with exogenous testosterone is likely to adversely impact on fertility. It is important to discuss this with men prior to initiation of testosterone therapy. Obesity adversely affects sperm concentration and may affect sperm quality. However, whether or not weight loss will correct these factors remain to be established. Oestrogen receptor modulators (and aromatase inhibitors) are unlicensed in the treatment for male hypogonadism and/or infertility. These treatments should hence be considered experimental approach until ongoing clinical trials report their outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Stress factors in affective diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidzińska, E J

    1984-02-01

    An investigation carried out on 97 patients with affective disorders and on 100 healthy control subjects, revealed that acute and chronic stress factors occurred more in the group of patients with affective disorders than among healthy control over a similar time period. The frequency of stressful life situations was the same before the first affective episode in patients with unipolar and bipolar illness. The possible participation of such factors in triggering the first phase of illness is discussed. Similar factors appeared in both types of affective disorders. Significantly more frequent among patients than in the control group were: marital and family conflicts, health problems, emotional and ambitional failures, lack of success and work overload.

  3. On Factors Affecting Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗琴

    2014-01-01

    In English teaching and learning, listening ability is an important part of communicative competence, is a very practical integrated skill. It has been a difficult skill in second language acquisition for many students. Many Chinese students are skilled in reading, but often they tend to neglect the listening. However, owing to the higher requirements of many English tests and the great importance in communication, students begin to pay attention to develop their English listening skills. But there are many factors affecting listening, the paper mainly focuses on linguistic factors and non-linguistic factors that affect listening, to provide a theoretical basis to help exploring ways of improving listening and comprehension skills.

  4. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians.Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran.Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Qu...

  5. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhib...

  6. The demand for children as a factor in fertility trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A C

    1989-01-01

    Research studies conducted in the Philippines in 1987 indicate that various factors influence family size preferences and decisions. For instance, surveys found that child mortality, child sex preferences, and parental desire for security in old-age were positively correlated with fertility. On the other hand, maternal education, and the desire for financial and occupational status were inversely related to fertility. As the demand for children is a major determinant in fertility trends, it is important to understand the factors involved in the demand for children. Many of these factors can be subject to policy management, namely, improved education, health, nutrition, and greater participation of women in the labor force. Smaller families may become more desirable if favorable political, economic, and social climates are instituted.

  7. Multiple Factors Affecting Human Repregnancy after Microsurgical Vasovasostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明孔; 吴晓庆; 付成善; 邹平; 高晓平; 黄强

    1997-01-01

    To determine the factors which might affect the recover), of fertility after an accurate microsurgical vasovasostomy, we conducted a 3 year-follow-up study in 56 men after microsurgical vasovasostomy. Twenty-two variables as putative factors associated with recovery of fertility were measured. The results of Logistic regression and ather statistical analyses suggest that 8 factors including age of husband, age of wife, history of past pregnancies of current wife, number of vasovasostomies, serum FSH, LH and T before vasovasostomy, and sperm granuloma of vas nodule are of no significance in recovery of fertility, whereas 14 factors including years after vasectomy, sperm concentration, progressive motility, sperm motility, viability, normal morphology, sperm egg penetration rate, TAT and SIT before and after vasovasostomy, MAR, IBT adherent IgG and IgA after vasovasostomy are significantly, associated with repregnancy.

  8. Rice fertility affected by lower temperature in intersubspecific hybrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Intersubspecific hybrids of indica-japonica show strong heterosis on yield,and the partial sterility in F1 hybrids can be mitigated by using the wide-compatibility gene, S5n. In the past decade, such hybrids showed normal fertility and high level of heterosis on grain yield, but some of them showed unstable seed-setting rate at low temperature. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of low temperature on fertility of intersubspecific hybrids and to investigate the male gamete abortion at some markers.

  9. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  10. Factors affecting forage stand establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulc R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should be expanded in the industry to enable matching seed lot performance to specific environmental conditions where performance can be maximized. Seed treatment and seed coating are used in the forage seed industry, and studies have shown they are of benefit in some environments. There is an increase in no-tillage seeding of forage crops, but improvements in the no-tillage planting equipment are needed to make them better suited to small seeds. Other recent developments in seeding techniques include broadcasting seed with dry granular and fluid fertilizers, which improves the efficiency of the seeding operation.

  11. Chemical and organic fertilizers affect physiological performance and antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mardani-Talaee1

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Myzus persicae is a widespread and polyphagous insect that causes severe damages to hundreds of host plants. In the current study, zinc sulfate and vermicompost as chemical and organic fertilizers, were added into cultural soil of Capsicum annuum to determine their effects on physiology and antioxidant activities of M. persicae. The aphids reared on zinc sulfate-treated culture showed the highest activities of general protease, trypsin, cathepsins, carboxypeptidase and lipase but activities of chymotrypsin and aminopeptidase were the highest in vermicompost-treated culture. Although activities of α-amylase in the fertilizer-treated cultures were higher than control but activities of α- and β-glucosideases showed the highest values in zinc sulfate and vermicompost treatments, respectively. Aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase showed the highest activity in the aphids reared on the vermicompost-treated culture but alanine aminotransferase activity got the lowest value in fertilizer-treated cultures. Activities of aldolase and lactate dehydrogenase in the fertilizer-treated aphids were higher than those of control and vermicompost-treated aphids, but alkaline phosphatase showed the lower activity although activity of acid phosphatase decreased in vermicompost- treated aphids compared to other treatments. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were found to be the highest in the aphids fed on vermicompost-treated culture including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and ascorbate oxidase but catalase in vermicompost treatment had lower activity than control and zinc-sulfate treatments. Also, malondialdehyde and RSSR/RSH ratio demonstrated higher values in the aphids fed on zinc sulfate- and vermicompost-treated plants than control, respectively. Finally, the amounts of glycogen and triglyceride revealed the highest values in zinc sulfate-treated plants compared to other treatments. These results

  12. Infertility factors at the Groote Schuur Hospital Fertility Clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-15

    Jul 15, 1989 ... the rest between 2 and 5 factors contributed to the infertility of the couple. ... The selection criteria at the Fertility Clinic at Groote Schuur. Hospital .... explained by the fact that most of the patients were referred by private ...

  13. Nitrogen fertilization affects silicon concentration, cell wall composition and biofuel potential of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Lindedam, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential input factor required for plant growth and biomass production. However, very limited information is available on how nitrogen fertilization affects the quality of crop residues to be used as lignocellulosic feedstock. In the present study, straw of winter wheat plants grown...... linearly from 0.32% to 0.71% over the range of nitrogen treatments. Cellulose and hemicellulose were not affected by the nitrogen supply while lignin peaked at medium rates of nitrogen application. The nitrogen treatments had a distinct influence on the silicon concentration, which decreased from 2.5% to 1...... saccharification efficiency was negatively correlated with the rate of nitrogen supply. We conclude that the level of nitrogen supply to wheat plants alters the composition of cell wall components in the straw and that this may result in reduced saccharification efficiency....

  14. Does nitrogen fertilizer application rate to corn affect nitrous oxide emissions from the rotated soybean crop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Mitchell, David C; Barker, Daniel W; Miguez, Fernando; Sawyer, John E; Pantoja, Jose; Castellano, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Little information exists on the potential for N fertilizer application to corn ( L.) to affect NO emissions during subsequent unfertilized crops in a rotation. To determine if N fertilizer application to corn affects NO emissions during subsequent crops in rotation, we measured NO emissions for 3 yr (2011-2013) in an Iowa, corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation with three N fertilizer rates applied to corn (0 kg N ha, the recommended rate of 135 kg N ha, and a high rate of 225 kg N ha); soybean received no N fertilizer. We further investigated the potential for a winter cereal rye ( L.) cover crop to interact with N fertilizer rate to affect NO emissions from both crops. The cover crop did not consistently affect NO emissions. Across all years and irrespective of cover crop, N fertilizer application above the recommended rate resulted in a 16% increase in mean NO flux rate during the corn phase of the rotation. In 2 of the 3 yr, N fertilizer application to corn (0-225 kg N ha) did not affect mean NO flux rates from the subsequent unfertilized soybean crop. However, in 1 yr after a drought, mean NO flux rates from the soybean crops that received 135 and 225 kg N ha N application in the corn year were 35 and 70% higher than those from the soybean crop that received no N application in the corn year. Our results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that cover crop effects on NO emissions are not easily generalizable. When N fertilizer affects NO emissions during a subsequent unfertilized crop, it will be important to determine if total fertilizer-induced NO emissions are altered or only spread across a greater period of time.

  15. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  16. Humic Fertilizer and Vermicompost Applied to the Soil Can Positively Affect Population Growth Parameters of Trichogramma brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Eggs of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohamadi, P; Razmjou, J; Naseri, B; Hassanpour, M

    2017-01-01

    .... Interactions between natural enemies and insect pests may be affected by application of fertilizers, because changes in plant quality through the fertilizer application may therefore affect herbivore...

  17. Plant maturity and nitrogen fertilization affected fructan metabolism in harvestable tissues of timothy (Phleum pratense L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould-Ahmed, Marouf; Decau, Marie-Laure; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; Lafrenière, Carole; Drouin, Pascal

    2014-10-15

    Timothy (Phleum pratense L.) is an important grass forage used for pasture, hay, and silage in regions with cool and humid growth seasons. One of the factors affecting the nutritive value of this grass is the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), mainly represented by fructans. NSC concentration depends on multiple factors, making it hardly predictable. To provide a better understanding of NSC metabolism in timothy, the effects of maturity stage and nitrogen (N) fertilization level on biomass, NSC and N-compound concentrations were investigated in the tissues used for forage (leaf blades and stems surrounded by leaf sheaths) of hydroponically grown plants. Moreover, activities and relative expression level of enzymes involved in fructan metabolism were measured in the same tissues. Forage biomass was not altered by the fertilization level but was strongly modified by the stage of development. It increased from vegetative to heading stages while leaf-to-stem biomass ratio decreased. Total NSC concentration, which was not altered by N fertilization level, increased between heading and anthesis due to an accumulation of fructans in leaf blades. Fructan metabolizing enzyme activities (fructosyltransferase-FT and fructan exohydrolase-FEH) were not or only slightly altered by both maturity stage and N fertilization level. Conversely, the relative transcript levels of genes coding for enzymes involved in fructan metabolism were modified by N supply (PpFT1 and Pp6-FEH1) or maturity stage (PpFT2). The relative transcript level of PpFT1 was the highest in low N plants while that of Pp6-FEH1 was the highest in high N plants. Morevoer, transcript level of PpFT1 was negatively correlated with nitrate concentration while that of PpFT2 was positively correlated with sucrose concentration. This distinct regulation of the two genes coding for 6-sucrose:fructan fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) may allow a fine adequation of C allocation towards fructan synthesis in

  18. Factors Affecting Radiologist's PACS Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Daniel; Rosipko, Beverly; Sunshine, Jeffrey L

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if any of the factors radiologist, examination category, time of week, and week effect PACS usage, with PACS usage defined as the sequential order of computer commands issued by a radiologist in a PACS during interpretation and dictation. We initially hypothesized that only radiologist and examination category would have significant effects on PACS usage. Command logs covering 8 weeks of PACS usage were analyzed. For each command trace (describing performed activities of an attending radiologist interpreting a single examination), the PACS usage variables number of commands, number of command classes, bigram repetitiveness, and time to read were extracted. Generalized linear models were used to determine the significance of the factors on the PACS usage variables. The statistical results confirmed the initial hypothesis that radiologist and examination category affect PACS usage and that the factors week and time of week to a large extent have no significant effect. As such, this work provides direction for continued efforts to analyze system data to better understand PACS utilization, which in turn can provide input to enable optimal utilization and configuration of corresponding systems. These continued efforts were, in this work, exemplified by a more detailed analysis using PACS usage profiles, which revealed insights directly applicable to improve PACS utilization through modified system configuration.

  19. Psychological Factors Affecting Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sati Unal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was performed to determine the psychological factors affecting infertile women presenting at the infertility outpatients department. METHOD: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women who presented at the IVF center of a special branch hospital or a university hospital, March 2008 through September 2008, as determined by the non-random sampling method. All participating women gave their informed consent. The data were collected using the Data Form that consisted of questions on socio-demographic features and the Infertility Distress Scale (IDS. In the results, percentages were provided along with the Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U and Spearman correlation tests. RESULTS: The mean IDS was 39.01±9.6. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between the mean IDS score and age (r=0.106, p=0.048, marriage duration (r=0.232, p<0.001 and duration of desire to have a child (r=0.217, p<0.001. Women who were primary school graduates (X²=13.03, p=0.004, did not work (p=0.007, had no social security benefits (p=0.021 or from low socioeconomic status (X²=24.85, p<0.001 had significantly higher mean IDS scores. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show women become more adversely affected by infertility as their age, duration of marriage, and duration of desire to have a child increase. Women who are primary school graduates, do not work, have no social security benefits or have lower income are affected more negatively. We believe that taking these features into account when evaluating and planning supportive approaches for women presenting at the infertility treatment center and determining the psychological state of the women using the IDS will increase treatment success. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 481-486

  20. Factors affecting tactile spatial acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J C; Kisner, J M

    1998-01-01

    Tactile spatial acuity on the fingerpad was measured using a grating orientation task. In this task, subjects are required to identify the orientation of square-wave gratings placed on the skin. Previous studies have shown that performance varies as a function of the width of the grooves in the gratings. In the present study, both groove width and the overall size and configuration of the contactors were varied. Sensitivity improved with wider grooves and with larger contactors. Additional measurements showed that the improved sensitivity is not the result of the increase in total area contacted, but rather is due to two other factors associated with larger contactors. One is the greater linear extent of the larger contactors. The other appears to be due to the reduction in the interference produced by the outer edge of the contactor. Specifically, as the contactor increases in size, the distance between the outer edge and the center portion of the grooves also increases. It was also shown that subjects are more sensitive to a single, continuous groove as compared with two grooves of the same total length but spatially discontinuous. Similarly, subjects are more sensitive to a contactor with a continuous groove than to a contactor in which just the end points of the groove are presented. The results are generally consistent with the results of peripheral, neurophysiological recordings. The results are discussed in terms of the way in which both spatial and intensive factors may affect sensitivity to grating orientation.

  1. Factors affecting dental service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Baldacchino, Donia

    2015-01-01

    Measuring dental clinic service quality is the first and most important factor in improving care. The quality provided plays an important role in patient satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting dental service quality from the patients' viewpoint. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in a dental clinic in Tehran between January and June 2014. A sample of 385 patients was selected from two work shifts using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The data were collected, a self-administered questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study, based on the Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model of service quality which consisted of two parts: the patients' demographic characteristics and a 30-item questionnaire to measure the five dimensions of the service quality. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 18.0 through some descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, as well as analytical methods, including confirmatory factor. Results showed that the correlation coefficients for all dimensions were higher than 0.5. In this model, assurance (regression weight=0.99) and tangibility (regression weight=0.86) had, respectively, the highest and lowest effects on dental service quality. The Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model is suitable to measure quality in dental services. The variables related to dental services quality have been made according to the model. This is a pioneering study that uses Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model and CFA in a dental setting. This study provides useful insights and guidance for dental service quality assurance.

  2. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxu; Lin, Jintai; Ni, Ruijing

    2016-04-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant a large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RF of aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissions per unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size. South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions, its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency. The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is lowered by a small per capita GDP. Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The

  3. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  4. Cadmium but not lead exposure affects Xenopus laevis fertilization and embryo cleavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaby, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Lemière, Sébastien [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Hanotel, Julie; Lescuyer, Arlette [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Demuynck, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Bodart, Jean-François [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • First embryonic steps were studied. • Fertilization success was impacted by cadmium exposures. • Oocytes were most affected instead of spermatozoa by cadmium exposures. • First embryonic cleavages were slown down or stopped by cadmium exposures. • Lead exposures did not affected fertilization and segmentation. - Abstract: Among the toxicological and ecotoxicological studies, few have investigated the effects on germ cells, gametes or embryos, while an impact at these stages will result in serious damage at a population level. Thus, it appeared essential to characterize consequences of environmental contaminant exposures at these stages. Therefore, we proposed to assess the effects of exposure to cadmium and lead ions, alone or in a binary mixture, on early stages of Xenopus laevis life cycle. Fertilization and cell division during segmentation were the studied endpoints. Cadmium ion exposures decreased in the fertilization rates in a concentration-dependent manner, targeting mainly the oocytes. Exposure to this metal ions induced also delays or blockages in the embryonic development. For lead ion exposure, no such effect was observed. For the exposure to the mixture of the two metal ions, concerning the fertilization success, we observed results similar to those obtained with the highest cadmium ion concentration.

  5. Factors Affecting Children Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠

    2002-01-01

    By reviewing the literature, the author points out some theoretical defects of the CPH on which the policy was based. CPH is the conceptualization formulation of the maturational constraints for SLA. The paper, based on the reality of China, put forward some suggestion, which includes the time factor, the teacher's factor and the content factor.

  6. EFFECTS OF COMBINED APPLICATION OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS PLUS DMPP ON NITROGEN TRANSFORMATION IN SOILS AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT FACTORS%不同作用因子下有机无机配施添加DMPP对氮素转化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷建祯; 俞巧钢; 符建荣; 马军伟; 邹平; 王欣欣; 费杰; 方晓波

    2013-01-01

    To provide scientific basis for management and efficient utilization of nitrogen in fields,effects of combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers plus DMPP (3,4-dimethypyrazole phosphate) on nitrogen transformation in soils as affected by to various factors were studied.For that end,an aerobic thermostat pot experiment was designed to have various affecting factors,like fertilization rate,soil moisture,environmental temperature,soil type,etc.,and carried out.After 60 days of incubation,it was found that NH~-N concentration was 89 times higher and NO3--N concentration 57.8% lower in the pots higher in fertilization rate than in the pots conventional in fertilization rate (no DMPP was added in either pots) ; in the pots subjected to flooding and combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers plus DMPP,NH4+-N concentration kept on rising and nitrification process was more significantly inhibited; NH4+-N concentration was 56 times higher and NO3--N concentration 18 times lower in the pots incubated under 15℃ than in the pots under 25℃,and NH4+-N concentration was 30 and 31 times higher and NO3--N concentration was 44.3% and 66.4% lower in the pots of red soil than in the pots of silt paddy soil and blue clayey paddy soil,respectively.The optimal nitrification inhibitory effect was observed during the period from day 30 to day 40 in the pots of blue clayey paddy soil,silt paddy soil and red soil subjected to combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers plus DMPP under 25℃,and inhibitory effect of the treatment may last throughout the experiment period of 60 days.Obviously the addition of DMPP could increase NH4+-N concentration in the pots subjected to combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers,and effectively extend residence of the NH4+-N in the soils,and keep NO3--N concentration at a lower level for a longer period.The inhibitory effect of DMPP was more outstanding in the pots subjected to high rates

  7. Soil Fertility and Electrical Conductivity Affected by Organic Waste Rates and Nutrient Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Lopes do Carmo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The composition of organic waste (OW and its effect on soil processes may change soil fertility and electrical conductivity (EC. The side effects of waste use in crop fertilization are poorly understood for Brazilian soils. This study examined the effect of the addition of 15 different organic wastes to Oxisols and a Neosol on pH, base saturation, EC, cation exchange capacity (CEC at pH 7, and the availability of Al, macro (P, K, Ca2+, Mg2+ and S and micronutrients (B, Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. Soil samples (150 g were treated with chicken, pig, horse, cattle, and quail manures, sewage sludge 1 and 2, eucalyptus sawdust, plant substrate, coconut fiber, pine bark, coffee husk, peat, limed compost, and biochar. Wastes were added considering a fixed amount of C (2 g kg-1, which resulted in waste rates ranging from 2.5 to 25.6 Mg ha-1. The soil-waste mixtures were incubated for 330 days in laboratory conditions. The waste liming or acidification values were soil-dependent. The use of some manures and compost increased the pH to levels above of those considered adequate for plant growth. The soil EC was slightly increased in the Neosol and in the medium textured Oxisol, but it was sharply changed (from 195 to 394 µS cm-1 by the addition of organic wastes in the clayey Oxisol, although the EC values were below the range considered safe for plant growth. Changes in the soil availability of P, K+, Ca2+ and Zn2+ were highly related to the inputs of these nutrients by the wastes, and other factors in soil changed due to waste use. Organic waste use simultaneously affects different soil fertility attributes; thus, in addition to the target nutrient added to the soil, the soil acidity buffering capacity and the waste liming and agronomic value must be taken into account in the waste rate definition.

  8. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Yurdun Kuyucu; Ozgul Tap

    2009-01-01

    Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf) follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted til...

  9. The sociodemographic, behavioral, reproductive, and health factors associated with fertility in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Cesar Augusto Oviedo; Triaca, Lívia Madeira; da Costa, Flávia Katrein; Hellwig, Franciele

    2017-01-01

    High fertility rates among disadvantaged subgroups are a public health problem because fertility levels significantly affect socioeconomic conditions and a population’s welfare. This paper aims to analyze the sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive factors associated with fertility rates among Brazilian women aged between 15–49 years. A Poisson regression was used to analyze data from the 2006 PNDS (Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher), which evaluates socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, reproductive, behavioral, and chronic disease variables. The results show that the following characteristics are positively associated with an increase in the number of children born: being aged 20–24, residing in the North, being nonwhite, not being in paid employment, having lower education levels, having lower socioeconomic status, being in a stable union, having the first sexual intercourse before the age of 16 and having the first child before the age of 20. Thus, it is important to implement efficient family planning policies targeting these subgroups in order to improve life conditions, reduce inequalities and avoid the adverse outcomes of high fertility. PMID:28187167

  10. The sociodemographic, behavioral, reproductive, and health factors associated with fertility in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Cesar Augusto Oviedo; Triaca, Lívia Madeira; da Costa, Flávia Katrein; Hellwig, Franciele

    2017-01-01

    High fertility rates among disadvantaged subgroups are a public health problem because fertility levels significantly affect socioeconomic conditions and a population's welfare. This paper aims to analyze the sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive factors associated with fertility rates among Brazilian women aged between 15-49 years. A Poisson regression was used to analyze data from the 2006 PNDS (Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher), which evaluates socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, reproductive, behavioral, and chronic disease variables. The results show that the following characteristics are positively associated with an increase in the number of children born: being aged 20-24, residing in the North, being nonwhite, not being in paid employment, having lower education levels, having lower socioeconomic status, being in a stable union, having the first sexual intercourse before the age of 16 and having the first child before the age of 20. Thus, it is important to implement efficient family planning policies targeting these subgroups in order to improve life conditions, reduce inequalities and avoid the adverse outcomes of high fertility.

  11. Bacterial diversity in Greenlandic soils as affected by potato cropping and inorganic versus organic fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Charlotte Frydenlund; Pedas, Pai Rosager; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas

    2014-01-01

    with only limited pest management, despite the presence of plant pathogenic fungi. The microbial community composition in agricultural soils, which plays an important role for soil and plant health and for crop yield, may be affected by the use of different fertilizer treatments. Currently, only limited...... on bacterial diversity, nutrient composition and crop yield in two Greenlandic agricultural soils. An effect of fertilizer was found on soil and plant nutrient levels and on crop yields. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences did not reveal any major changes in the overall bacterial community composition...... research has been performed on the effects of these treatments on bacterial communities in Arctic and Subarctic agricultural soils. The major objective of this study was to investigate the short-term impact of conventional (NPK) and organic (sheep manure supplemented with nitrogen) fertilizer treatments...

  12. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization negatively affects strigolactone production and exudation in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Kaori; Xie, Xiaonan; Kisugi, Takaya; Nomura, Takahito; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2013-11-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are essential host recognition signals for both root parasitic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and SLs or their metabolites function as a novel class of plant hormones regulating shoot and root architecture. Our previous study indicated that nitrogen (N) deficiency as well as phosphorus (P) deficiency in sorghum enhanced root content and exudation of 5-deoxystrigol, one of the major SLs produced by sorghum. In the present study, we examined how N and P fertilization affects SL production and exudation in sorghum plants subjected to short- (5 days) or long-term (10 days) N or P deficiency and demonstrated their common and distinct features. The root contents and exudation of SLs in the N- or P-deficient sorghum plants grown for 6, 12 or 24 h with or without N or P fertilization were quantified by LC-MS/MS. In general, without fertilization, root contents and exudation of SLs stayed at similar levels at 6 and 12 h and then significantly increased at 24 h. The production of SLs responded more quickly to P fertilization than the secretion of SLs, while regulation of SL secretion began earlier after N fertilization. It is suggested that sorghum plants regulate SL production and exudation when they are subjected to nutrient deficiencies depending on the type of nutrient and degree of deficiency.

  13. Stages of endometriosis: Does it affect in vitro fertilization outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Pop-Trajkovic

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The American Society for Reproductive Medicine classification of endometriosis is useful in predicting IVF outcome. Advanced endometriosis means a worse prognosis for IVF treatment compared to milder stages or tubal factor infertility. The decreased fertilization rate in Stage I/II endometriosis might be a cause of subfertility in these women, as a result of a hostile environment caused by the disease.

  14. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdun Kuyucu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

  15. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yongi-Mi; University of Oklahoma

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR); yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider univers...

  16. Macroenvironmental factors affecting ethical behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Önsel Ekici, Şule; Ekici, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to take a macroethical perspective and study the relationships between various structural factors and ethical behavior of firms. Using the data obtained from the Global Competitiveness Network of the World Economic Forum-WEF, and through the Bayesian Causal Map (BCM) methodology, we study how ethical behaviors of firms in a given country group are shaped by how managers perceive the political, legislative, and protective environment of business in these countries....

  17. Maritime Factors Affecting Iberian Security,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    AFECTAN LA SECURIDAD IBERICA FACTORES MARITIMOS QUE AFECTANJ LA SEGURIDAD IBE RICA Introduccion En lo que ataine a la seguridad ibe~rica, la realidad ...fuerzas naval.. sera~n de significado periferico. Aquella part. do la marina do guerra sovietica quo esta ya desplegada en el oce’ano sera/ aumentada ...nota de la realidad consabida de que tanto la hora de introduccion como la escala de emplec de las armas nlu- cleares en una guerra general anibas

  18. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  19. Repeated administrations of carbon nanotubes in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-09-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes show promise as materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here, we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multiwalled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired at 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice.

  20. Effectiveness of Organic Wastes as Fertilizers and Amendments in Salt-Affected Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Diacono

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Excessive salt rate can adversely influence the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils, mainly in arid and semi-arid world regions. Therefore, salt-affected soils must be reclaimed to maintain satisfactory fertility levels for increasing food production. Different approaches have been suggested to solve these issues. This short review focuses on selected studies that have identified organic materials (e.g., farmyard manures, different agro-industrial by-products, and composts as effective tools to improve different soil properties (e.g., structural stability and permeability in salt-affected soils. Organic fertilization is highly sustainable when compared to other options to date when taken into consideration as a solution to the highlighted issues. However, further experimental investigations are needed to validate this approach in a wider range of both saline and sodic soils, also combining waste recycling with other sustainable agronomic practices (crop rotations, cover crops use, etc..

  1. Teratogenic factors affect transcription factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takuya; Asano, Shinya; Takahashi, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Chemical compounds are produced every day, many with adverse effects on human health, and hence it is vital to predict the risks to humans simply, rapidly, and accurately. Teratogens have a serious impact on fetal development. This has been studied mainly by phenotypic analysis of experimental animals. However, since phenotypes can vary within different species, we established a new evaluation system based on our recent finding that teratogens influence Hox gene expression in mice. Similarly to the Hox gene expression changes, the expression patterns of several transcription factors involved in development, including the Dlx, Irx, Sall, and T-box families, were altered after 6 h of exposure to retinoic acid (RA) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The expression changes in Dlx4, Dlx6, Irx5, Sall2, Sall3, Sall4, Tbx10, and Tbx22 were linked to teratogen-induced phenotypes, and our results indicate that expression changes in developmental transcription factors can help to predict teratogenic risk.

  2. Factors Affecting Traditional Markets Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotnier Sipahutar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, traditional market is increasingly squeezed by the emergence of modern market that develops rapidly. The dominance shift in national retail is apparent when globalization can no longer be contained, let alone be banned. Middle class and small class (traditional market business retail seem to be in increasingly difficult condition to compete with upscale retail business (modern market. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors influencing the competitiveness of traditional market and to develop policies to improve the competitiveness of traditional market. This study utilizes research strategy of case study in Bandung City, Serang City, and Surabaya City with qualitative descriptive approach. The study shows that the factors inhibiting the competitiveness of traditional market with modern stores are (1 Traditional market’s bad image, and (2 Traditional market’s sellers and managers are unprofessional. To improve the competitiveness of traditional market, this study recommends: (1 routine and regular maintenance of buildings and infrastructure of traditional market, (2 professionalism improvement of traditional market’s sellers and managers, and (3 the partiality of local government in traditional markets.

  3. Citrus limon extract: possible inhibitory mechanisms affecting testicular functions and fertility in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nidhi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of 50% ethanolic leaf extract of Citrus limon (500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight/day) for 35 days on fertility and various male reproductive endpoints was evaluated in Parkes strain of mice. Testicular indices such as histology, 3β- and 17β-HSD enzymes activity, immunoblot expression of StAR and P450scc, and germ cell apoptosis by TUNEL and CASP- 3 expression were assessed. Motility, viability, and number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymidis, level of serum testosterone, fertility indices, and toxicological parameters were also evaluated. Histologically, testes in extract-treated mice showed nonuniform degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules. Treatment had adverse effects on steroidogenic markers in the testis and induced germ cell apoptosis. Significant reductions were noted in epididymal sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in Citrus-treated mice compared to controls. Fertility of the extract-treated males was also suppressed, but libido remained unaffected. By 56 days of treatment withdrawal, alterations induced in the above parameters returned to control levels suggesting that Citrus treatment causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in Parkes mice. Suppression of spermatogenesis may result from germ cell apoptosis because of decreased production of testosterone. The present work indicated that Citrus leaves can affect male reproduction.

  4. Daily exposure to summer circadian cycles affects spermatogenesis, but not fertility in an in vivo rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabés-Alsina, Maria; Planell, Núria; Torres-Mejia, Elen; Taberner, Ester; Maya-Soriano, Maria José; Tusell, Llibertat; Ramon, Josep; Dalmau, Antoni; Piles, Miriam; Lopez-Bejar, Manel

    2015-01-15

    Heat stress (HS) in mammals is a determining factor in the deterioration of spermatogenesis and can cause infertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of continuous summer circadian cycles on semen production, sperm cell features, fertility, prolificacy, and fecal cortisol metabolites from rabbits kept under an in vivo HS model. We split randomly 60 New Zealand White rabbits into two temperature-controlled rooms: The control group was maintained at comfort temperature (18 °C-22 °C) and an HS group, where the environmental temperature was programmed to increase from 22 °C to 31 °C and be maintained for 3 hours to this temperature at the central part of the day. Fecal cortisol metabolites were assessed to evaluate the stress conditions. Seminal parameters were analyzed. Although animals exposed to HS showed higher values of fecal cortisol metabolites (P = 0.0003), no differences were detected in fertility or prolificacy. Semen samples from HS males showed a significant decrease (P cycle that allows periods of time to recover as it occurs under natural conditions. Although negative effects have been detected in several sperm parameters, fertility and prolificacy were not affected, suggesting a recovery of the reproductive function when normal conditions are reestablished.

  5. Factors affecting calculation of L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotola, Mark P.

    2001-08-01

    A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient

  6. Sex-sorting of spermatozoa affects developmental competence of in vitro fertilized oocytes in a bull-dependent manner

    OpenAIRE

    INABA, Yasushi; Abe, Reika; GESHI, Masaya; MATOBA, Satoko; Nagai, Takashi; Somfai, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify if flow-cytometric sex-sorting of bovine sperm affected in vitro blastocyst production in different bulls, either in terms of its ability to fertilize the oocyte or by interfering with post-fertilization embryo development. We performed in vitro fertilization (IVF) using both commercially available frozen-thawed X-sorted and non-sorted sperm of 4 Holstein bulls at 3 concentrations (1 × 106, 2 × 106, and 5 × 106 sperm/ml). When fertilization rates we...

  7. Nitrous oxide emission and denitrifier communities in drip-irrigated calcareous soil as affected by chemical and organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rui; Wakelin, Steven A; Liang, Yongchao; Hu, Baowei; Chu, Guixin

    2017-08-31

    The effects of consecutive application of chemical fertilizer with or without organic fertilizer on soil N2O emissions and denitrifying community structure in a drip-irrigated field were determined. The four fertilizer treatments were (i) unfertilized, (ii) chemical fertilizer, (iii) 60% chemical fertilizer plus cattle manure, and (iv) 60% chemical fertilizer plus biofertilizer. The treatments with organic amendments (i.e. cattle manure and biofertilizer) reduced cumulative N2O emissions by 4.9-9.9%, reduced the N2O emission factor by 1.3-42%, and increased denitrifying enzyme activities by 14.3-56.2%. The nirK gene copy numbers were greatest in soil which received only chemical fertilizer. In contrast, nirS- and nosZ-copy numbers were greatest in soil amended with chemical fertilizer plus biofertilizer. Chemical fertilizer application with or without organic fertilizer significantly changed the community structure of nirK-type denitrifiers relative to the unfertilized soil. In comparison, the nirS- and nosZ-type denitrifier genotypes varied in treatments receiving organic fertilizer but not chemical fertilizer alone. The changes in the denitrifier communities were closely associated with soil organic carbon (SOC), NO3(-), NH4(+), water holding capacity, and soil pH. Modeling indicated that N2O emissions in this soil were primarily associated with the abundance of nirS type denitrifying bacteria, SOC, and NO3(-). Overall, our findings indicate that (i) the organic fertilizers increased denitrifying enzyme activity, increased denitrifying-bacteria gene copy numbers, but reduced N2O emissions, and (ii) nirS- and nosZ-type denitrifiers were more sensitive than nirK-type denitrifiers to the organic fertilizers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure affects fertilization outcome in swine animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabò, N; Tettamanti, E; Russo, V; Martelli, A; Turriani, M; Mattoli, M; Barboni, B

    2010-06-01

    Modern society continuously exposes the population to electromagnetic radiation, the effects of which on human health, in particular reproduction, are still unknown. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of acute (1h) exposure of boar spermatozoa to a 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on early fertility outcome. The effect of intensities ranging from 0 to 2 mT on morpho-functional integrity of capacitated spermatozoa was examined in vitro. The oviducts containing or without spermatozoa were then exposed to the minimum in vivo, TD(50,) and maximum intensities determined in vitro, 4h before ovulation. The effects of ELF-EMF on spermatozoa in terms of early embryo development were evaluated after 12h and 6 days. It was found that in vitro ELF-EMF > 0.5 mT induced a progressive acrosome damage, thus compromising the ability of spermatozoa to undergo acrosomal reaction after zona pellucida stimulation and reducing the in vitro fertilization outcome. These effects became evident at 0.75 mT and reached the plateau at 1 mT. Under in vivo conditions, the ELF-EMF intensity of 1 mT was able to compromise sperm function, significantly reducing the fertilization rate. In addition, the exposure of oviducts to fields > or = 0.75 mT in the absence of spermatozoa was able to negatively affect early embryo development. In fact, it was found to cause a slowdown in the embryo cleavage. In conclusion, it was demonstrated how and at which intensities ELF-EMF negatively affect early fertility outcome in a highly predictive animal model.

  9. HYPERANDROGENISM OF PUBERTY AGE AS A FACTOR REDUCING FERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bogatyreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Hyperandrogenism is a common cause of infertility in women. The onset of symptoms of hyperandrogenism takes place during puberty in the majority of women. Hyperandrogenism reduces reproductive potential,so early detection and development of its prognostic factors, allows us to solve serious problems of puberty and prevent infertility.Materials and methods. 113 adolescent girls with hyperandrogenism from 14 to 19 years were included. The control group consists of 25 healthy girls of a similar age. To confirm the prediction of decreased reproductive capacity were examined 35 women with hyperandrogenism from 19 to 36 years. In addition to routine methods of examination (anamnesis, physical examination, anthropometry, assessment of the hairline using Ferriman – Gallwey scale, ultrasound of the pelvic organs, the definition of the hormonal status (LH, FSH, prolactin, 17-OHP, estradiol, TSH, DHEAS-s, GHPG, testosterone, glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance test and dexamethasone suppression test when necessary.Results. We have proved the reduction of reproductive potential of adolescent girls with high free androgen index (FAI. When the FAI has increased from 36 to 100 conventional units it caused reduction of the reproductive capacity in 9.7 times in comparison with control group (χ2=56,24; p < 0.001; overall prediction accuracy of 92.8%.Conclusion. Free androgen index more than 36 conventional units is a high risk factor of reduced fertility.

  10. Environmental factors affecting autoimmune thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safran, M.; Paul, T.L.; Roti, E.; Braverman, L.E.

    1987-06-01

    A number of environmental factors affect the incidence and progression of autoimmune thyroid disease. Exposure to excess iodine, certain drugs, infectious agents and pollutants, and stress have all been implicated.

  11. Factors affecting effective performance of rural producers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Factors affecting effective performance of rural producers' organizations in the ... Linkages are vital for effective achievement of purposes and most RPOs (80%), had established them ..... Success: Learning from Instructive Experiences in Ru-.

  12. Factors Affecting the Difficulty of Verbal Analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccas, Sonia; Moshinsky, Avital

    2003-01-01

    Examined factors affecting the difficulty of verbal analogies in a psychometric examination by characterizing 104 analogies using 5 defined attributes. Both knowledge and process attributes were found to contribute to the difficulty of verbal analogies assessed by 10 judges. (SLD)

  13. Factors Affecting Students’ Achievement in Mathematics ∗

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the factors that affect students’ mathematics achievement in secondary school mathematics grades of 6th, 7th and 8th were explored. For this purpose, the factors that affect mathematics education and mathematics achievement such as type of school, family income, studying time and students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses have been investigated. The sample of the study consisted of 275 students from one private (n=58) and two state schools (n= 217)...

  14. EFL Teachers' Factors and Students' Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei

    2007-01-01

    Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in the classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence…

  15. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  16. Factors Affecting Methane Emission from Rice Paddies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于心科; 王卫东; 等

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study of rice paddies and the uncovered water field in Taoyuan(Hunan) showed that methane emission from rice-vegetated paddy fields in 1993 was different from that in 1992(I,e,lower in rates and irregular in pattern).Climate has obvious influence on methane emission .And ebullition made a considerable contribution to the total flux of methane emission from rice paddies (45%).This implies that the intensification of paddy cultivation of rice might not be,as was proposed,the main con-tributor to the observed gradual increasing of atmospheric methane.24-hour automatic measurements of atmospheric temperature,air temperature and methane concentration in the static sampling boxes revealed that temperature,in addition to fertilization and irrigation style,is one of the most important factors that control the emission of methane from rice paddies.

  17. Tillage, mulch and N fertilizer affect emissions of CO2 under the rain fed condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, Sikander Khan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Lu, Xing Li; Zhang, Junli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2013-01-01

    A two year (2010-2012) study was conducted to assess the effects of different agronomic management practices on the emissions of CO2 from a field of non-irrigated wheat planted on China's Loess Plateau. Management practices included four tillage methods i.e. T1: (chisel plow tillage), T2: (zero-tillage), T3: (rotary tillage) and T4: (mold board plow tillage), 2 mulch levels i.e., M0 (no corn residue mulch) and M1 (application of corn residue mulch) and 5 levels of N fertilizer (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 kg N/ha). A factorial experiment having a strip split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in the sub plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots with three replicates, was used for this study. The CO2 data were recorded three times per week using a portable GXH-3010E1 gas analyzer. The highest CO2 emissions were recorded following rotary tillage, compared to the lowest emissions from the zero tillage planting method. The lowest emissions were recorded at the 160 kg N/ha, fertilizer level. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded during the cropping year 2010-11 relative to the year 2011-12. During cropping year 2010-11, applications of corn residue mulch significantly increased CO2 emissions in comparison to the non-mulched treatments, and during the year 2011-12, equal emissions were recorded for both types of mulch treatments. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded immediately after the tillage operations. Different environmental factors, i.e., rain, air temperatures, soil temperatures and soil moistures, had significant effects on the CO2 emissions. We conclude that conservation tillage practices, i.e., zero tillage, the use of corn residue mulch and optimum N fertilizer use, can reduce CO2 emissions, give better yields and provide environmentally friendly options.

  18. Tillage, mulch and N fertilizer affect emissions of CO2 under the rain fed condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikander Khan Tanveer

    Full Text Available A two year (2010-2012 study was conducted to assess the effects of different agronomic management practices on the emissions of CO2 from a field of non-irrigated wheat planted on China's Loess Plateau. Management practices included four tillage methods i.e. T1: (chisel plow tillage, T2: (zero-tillage, T3: (rotary tillage and T4: (mold board plow tillage, 2 mulch levels i.e., M0 (no corn residue mulch and M1 (application of corn residue mulch and 5 levels of N fertilizer (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 kg N/ha. A factorial experiment having a strip split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in the sub plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots with three replicates, was used for this study. The CO2 data were recorded three times per week using a portable GXH-3010E1 gas analyzer. The highest CO2 emissions were recorded following rotary tillage, compared to the lowest emissions from the zero tillage planting method. The lowest emissions were recorded at the 160 kg N/ha, fertilizer level. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded during the cropping year 2010-11 relative to the year 2011-12. During cropping year 2010-11, applications of corn residue mulch significantly increased CO2 emissions in comparison to the non-mulched treatments, and during the year 2011-12, equal emissions were recorded for both types of mulch treatments. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded immediately after the tillage operations. Different environmental factors, i.e., rain, air temperatures, soil temperatures and soil moistures, had significant effects on the CO2 emissions. We conclude that conservation tillage practices, i.e., zero tillage, the use of corn residue mulch and optimum N fertilizer use, can reduce CO2 emissions, give better yields and provide environmentally friendly options.

  19. [Application effect, affecting factors, and evaluation of nitrification inhibitor: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Mei; Wu, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Li-Jun; Ma, Xing-Zhu

    2008-07-01

    The agronomic, environmental, and ecological significances of applying nitrification inhibitor (NI) have been demonstrated by many researches, but the efficiency of NI application was affected by many factors. In this paper, the effects of NI on soil N transformation, nitrate leaching and greenhouse gases emission, fertilizer N use efficiency, yield and quality of agricultural products, and availability of soil nutrients besides N were reviewed, and the factors affecting the efficiency of NI application as well as the evaluation criteria of NI were summarized.

  20. Soil NH+4 Fixation and Fertilizer N Recovery as Affected by Soil Moisture and Fertilizer Application Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Yah-An; O.EMTERYD; H.GRIP; LU Dian-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Ammonium fixation and the effects of soil moisture and application methods on fertilizer N recovery were investigated in two soils of Shaanxi Province,China,a Luvisol and an Entisol,through two experiments performed in the laboratory and in a glass shelter,respectively,by using ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3). The laboratory closed incubation box experiment was conducted using the Luvisol to study NH4+ fixation rate at soil moisture levels of 10.1%,22.7% and 35.3% water filled pore space (WFPS). The fixed NH4+-N increased dramatically to 51% and 66%,67% and 74%,and 82% and 85% 1,2 and 36 h after fertilizer incorporation at moisture levels of 10.1% and 22.7% WFPS and 35.3%WFPS,respectively. The rapid NH4+ fixation rates at all moisture levels could help prevent NH4+ losses from ammonia volatilization. In the glass shelter pot experiment,N fertilizer was applied by either banding (in a concentrated strip)or incorporating (thoroughly mixing) with the Entisol and the Luvisol. An average of 74.2% of the added N fertilizer was recovered 26 days after application to the Luvisol,while only 61.4% could be recovered from the Entisol,due to higher NH4+ fixation capacity of the Luvisol. The amount of fixed NH4+ decreased with increasing WFPS. The amount of fixed NH4+ in the incorporated fertilizer treatment was,on average,10% higher than that in the banded treatment.Higher NH4+ fixation rates could prevent N loss and thus increase N recovery. The results from the Luvisol showed lower nitrogen recovery as soil moisture level increased,which could be explained by the fact that most of the fixed NH4+ was still not released when the soil moisture level was low. When the fertilizer was incorporated into the soil,the recovery of N increased,compared with the banded treatment,by an average of 26.2% in the Luvisol and 11.2% in the Entisol,which implied that when farmers applied fertilizer,it would be best to mix it well with the soil.

  1. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongi-Mi Kim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR; yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider university guidelines, review other websites, and consult with experts and other divisions within the library; however, resources and training for the design process are lacking. While website designers assess their websites as highly successful, user evaluations are somewhat lower. Accordingly, use is low, and users rely heavily on commercial websites. Suggestions for enhancing the usage of ULWR are provided.

  2. Factors Affecting the Productivity of Government Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. Haenisch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While there have been a variety of studies concerning government worker motivation and productivity, few, if any, studies have focused specifically on state government workers’ perceptions about what factors affect their productivity. With more than 5 million workers employed by state governments in the United States, any improvement in state workplace productivity could have significant financial and service impact for society. In this study, state government workers identified those factors perceived as most affecting their workplace productivity. Data were collected through a survey offered to state government workers in the state of Wyoming. Factor analysis was used to derive key productivity factors from survey responses. The results indicate that state government workers appreciate having freedom and autonomy, like their jobs and the sense of achievement, and welcome teamwork, but feel limited by poor supervision and management, poor communications, and insufficient budgets and staffing. To improve productivity, the workers would eliminate bureaucracy, supervise better, and improve communication.

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  4. Analysis of Economic Factors Affecting Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Linyin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation concentrates on analysis of economic factors affecting Chinese stock market through examining relationship between stock market index and economic factors. Six economic variables are examined: industrial production, money supply 1, money supply 2, exchange rate, long-term government bond yield and real estate total value. Stock market comprises fixed interest stocks and equities shares. In this dissertation, stock market is restricted to equity market. The stock price in thi...

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING PERSISTENCE IN STUDENTS' LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShenPanyang

    2004-01-01

    It is one thing that currently in China English learning persists through a student's whole study life, but it is another how long his persistence, an important factor in any language learning, can last. The factors affecting a student's persistence in this regard practically merits our attention. This paper traces and observes twenty students chosen by random. The research conducted here included their study motivation, academic excellence, psychological aspects relating to language learning and established corresponding models showing how these factors affect a student's persistence in his English learning. Although a small sample number was taken,of different students in China.the twenty students were typical of different students in China. The students' backgrounds were varied including both educational and environmental. Some suggestions are given indicating three separate but inter-related ways in how to further develop a student's persistence.

  6. Micro and macro factors affecting childbearing aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y

    1992-01-01

    The conclusion of the discussion of factors affecting childbearing aspirations is that both a micro and a macro perspective must be included in an empirical analysis which would be useful for policy decisions. Micro factors tend to the economic function of the family, the economic value of children, cost of labor training, women's occupation, social security, household consumption, and education level. Attention to micro factors is important in the link between individual interests and state family planning (FP) policy. Macro factors tend to be ignored, but also impact on childbearing decisions. Macro factors are economic conditions, social and political factors, culture, and environmental factors such as ecology, natural resources, employment, economic development, and education. Macro factors affect the population as a whole and indirectly impact on individuals and the family. China's achievements in FP policy have been identified as a reduction of 200 million people, a shift in the population reproduction cycle downwards, increased standard of living, reduction in the burden of working people, and stabilization of macro factors. Successful policy should not rely on forced implementation. The past and present policies were successful not because of forced implementation, but because of awareness of macro and micro factors and voluntary use of FP. The voluntary nature of acceptance of FP suggests support for the FP policies. The current focus is on rural areas, and farmers in particular who are only aware of their needs and may feel state policy may interfere with their own interests. Implementation of FP among the rural population would be enhanced with an emphasis on their concerns such as social security in old age, the practical issues of having only daughters, and educational status. Educational campaigns promoting awareness of population pressure are needed and will benefit all the people. Social democratic doctrines can be introduced only from the outside

  7. Short communication: A missense mutation in the PROP1 (prophet of Pit 1) gene affects male fertility and milk production traits in the US Holstein population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, X Y; Peñagaricano, F; DeJung, L; Weigel, K A; Khatib, H

    2013-02-01

    In previous studies, we reported significant associations of the POU1F1 pathway genes with reproduction and production traits in several dairy cattle populations. Polymorphisms in genes of this pathway were found to be associated with both female and male fertility traits in dairy cattle. The POU1F1 gene is a direct downstream target for the regulation of the prophet of Pit1 (PROP1) gene, also known as PROP paired-like homeobox 1. Interestingly, the position of PROP1 coincides with a quantitative trait locus affecting ovulation rate in cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether PROP1 affects fertility and milk production traits in Holstein cattle. Using the DNA pooling sequencing approach, a missense single nucleotide polymorphism that replaces a histidine amino acid with an arginine was detected in exon 3 of PROP1. The arginine allele was found to be associated with a decrease in sire conception rate and an increase in productive life, protein yield, and net merit index in a population of 1,951 Holstein bulls. The transcription factors produced from the histidine and arginine isoforms are known to have different transcription, DNA binding, and regulation activities. As such, we propose that the association of the arginine isoform with decreased bull fertility is likely caused by reduced activity of this allele in male functions. The findings of this study suggest PROP1 polymorphisms as candidates in selection programs for fertility, health, and milk production traits in dairy cattle.

  8. Conventional and organic soil fertility management practices affect corn plant nutrition and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larval performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Ebony G; Cullen, Eileen M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies compare how different soil fertilization practices affect plant mineral content and insect performance in organic systems. This study examined: 1) The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), larval response on corn (Zea mays L.) grown in field soils with different soil management histories; and 2) resilience of these plants to O. nubilalis herbivory. Treatments included: 1) standard organic--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and 2 yr of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the rotation; 2) basic cation saturation ratio--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and alfalfa nitrogen credits, plus addition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) according to the soil balance hypothesis; and 3) conventional--conventionally managed soil fertilized with synthetic fertilizers. Corn plants were reared to maturity in a greenhouse, and then infested with 0-40 O. nubilalis larvae for 17 d. O. nubilalis exhibited negative competitive response to increasing larval densities. Mean development time was significantly faster for larvae consuming basic cation saturation ratio plants than those on standard organic plants, with intermediate development time on conventional plants. Neither total yield (number of kernels) nor proportion kernels damaged differed among soil fertility treatments. Soil nutrients differed significantly in S and in Ca:Mg and Ca:K ratios, but principal components analysis of plant tissue samples taken before O. nubilalis infestation showed that S, Fe, and Cu contributed most to differences in plant nutrient profiles among soil fertility treatments. Results demonstrate that different fertilization regimens can significantly affect insect performance within the context of organic systems, but the effects in this study were relatively minor compared with effects of intraspecific competition.

  9. ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kiseleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The external factors influencing the process of formation of tariffs of commercial services are considered in the article. External environment is known to be very diverse and changeable. Currently, pricing has become one of the key processes of strategic development of a company. Pricing in the service sector, in turn, is highly susceptible to changes in the external environment. Its components directly or indirectly affect the market of services, changing it adopted economic processes. As a rule, firms providing services can’t influence the changes in external factors. However, the service market is very flexible, which enables businesses to reshape pricing strategy, to adapt it to the new environment.

  10. The factors affecting the recarburization process indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janerka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the factors affecting the carburizing rates obtained (rate and efficiency during the process of melting cast iron. The analysis includes the recarburizer type (anthracite, natural and synthetic graphite, petroleum coke and particle size. Further factors considered in work are the methods of recarburization (recarburizer introduction to a solid charge and on the surface of the metal bath and the parameters of the melt (temperature and chemical composition. The analysis was based on experiments performed, the calculation results of computer simulations and literature data.

  11. Factors Affecting Students’ Achievement in Mathematics ∗

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem SAVAŞ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the factors that affect students’ mathematics achievement in secondary school mathematics grades of 6th, 7th and 8th were explored. For this purpose, the factors that affect mathematics education and mathematics achievement such as type of school, family income, studying time and students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses have been investigated. The sample of the study consisted of 275 students from one private (n=58 and two state schools (n= 217 in Van. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and Chi-Square analysis. The result of study showed that type of school, family income, studying time, students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses had statistically significant effects on students’ mathematics achievement.

  12. Factors affecting home delivery in rural Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Schellenberg, Joanna A; Mushi, Adiel K.; Obrist, Brigit; Mshinda, Hassan; Tanner, Marcel; Schellenberg, David

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies of factors affecting place of delivery have rarely considered the influence of gender roles and relations within the household. This study combines an understanding of gender issues relating to health and help-seeking behaviour with epidemiological knowledge concerning place of delivery. METHODS In-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation were used to explore determinants of home delivery in southern Tanzania. Quantitative data were ...

  13. Analysis of factors affecting fattening of chickens

    OpenAIRE

    OBERMAJEROVÁ, Barbora

    2013-01-01

    Poultry meat belongs to the basic assortment of human nutrition. The meat of an intensively fattened poultry is a source of easily digestible proteins, lipids, mineral substances and vitamins. The aim of this bachelor´s thesis was to write out a literature review, which is focused on the intensity of growth, carcass yield, quality and composition of broiler chickens meat. The following describes the internal and external factors that affect them, i.e. genetic foundation, hybrid combination, s...

  14. Factors affecting the rural domestic waste generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Darban Astane

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to evaluate the quantity and quality of rural domestic waste generation and to identify the factors affecting it in rural areas of Khodabandeh county in Zanjan Province, Iran. Waste samplings consisted of 318 rural households in 11 villages. In order to evaluate the quality and quantity of the rural domestic waste, waste production was classified into 12 groups and 2 main groups of organic waste and solid waste. Moreover, kriging interpolation technique in ARC-GIS software was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the generated domestic waste and ultimately multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors affecting the generation of domestic waste. The results of this study showed that the average waste generated by each person was 0.588 kilograms per day. with the share of organic waste generated by each person being 0.409 kilograms per day and the share of solid waste generated by each person being 0.179 kilograms per day. The results from spatial distribution of waste generation showed a certain pattern in three groups and a higher rate of waste generation in the northern and northwestern parts, especially in the subdistrict. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the households’ income, assets, age, and personal attitude are respectively the most important variables affecting waste generation. The housholds’ attitude and indigenous knowledge on efficient use of materials are also the key factors which can help reducing waste generation.

  15. Research on Factors Influencing Fertilizer Application of Farmer Households in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Known as the " food of grain",chemical fertilizer plays a very important role in increasing the output of agricultural products. In the meantime,its negative externalities such as soil and water environment pollutions as well as the quality and safety hazards caused to agricultural products have been revealed gradually. Taking 126 farmer households in 5 counties( districts) of Anhui Province as samples,the fertilizer application behaviors of farmer households are analyzed. Research shows that farmers applying fertilizer are generally older in age with relatively lower degree of education,inveterate farming habits and small area of cultivation. Besides,the farmer households wish to receive training and guidance on techniques of fertilization,but very few of them have attended the trainings on agricultural technology. Moreover,the individual characteristics and family factors of farmer households have a significant impact on their fertilizer application behaviors. And the degrees of impact are also different for the fertilizer applying behaviors in different stages. Therefore,improving the educational level of farmer households,strengthening the training and promotion of agricultural techniques and accelerating land transfer among farmer households will play a fundamental role in regularizing the fertilizer application behaviors of farmer households and improving the quality and safety of agricultural products.

  16. Distribution of Exchangeable Calcium,Magnesium and Potassium as Affected by Fertilizer Application to Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENREN-FANG; ZHAOQI-GUO

    1995-01-01

    A leaching experiment was Carried out with repacked soil columns in laboratory to study the leaching process of a red soil derived from sandstone as affected by various fertilization practices.The treatments were CK(as a control),CaCO3,CaSO4,MgCO3,Ca(H2PO4)2,Urea,KCl,Multiple(a mixture of the above mentioned fertilizers) and KNO3,The fertilizers were added to the bare surface of the soil columns,and then the columns were leached with 120 mL deionized water daily through perstaltic pumps over a period of 92 days,At the end of leaching process,soils were sampled from different depths of the soil profiles ,i.o.,of 92 days,At the end of leaching process,soils were sampled from different depths of the soil profiles,I.e.0-5cm,5-10cm,10-20cm,20-40cm,and 40-60cm,The results showed when applying Ca,Mg,and K to the bare surface of the soil columns,exchangeable Ca2+,Mg2+,and K+ in the upper layer of the soil profile increased correspondingly,with an extent depending mainly on the application rates of Ca,Mg,and K and showing a downward trend,CaCO3,CaSO4,MgCO3,and Ca(H2PO4)2 treatments had scarcely and effect on movement of exchangeable K+,while CaCO3,and CaSO4 treatments singnificantly promoted the downward movement of exchangealble Mg2+ although these two treatments had no obvious effect on leaching losses of Mg,The fact that under Urea treatment,exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+,were higher as compared to CK treatment showed urea could prevent leaching of exchangeable Ca2+and Mg2+,the obvious downward movement of exchangeable Ca2+and Mg2+ was noticed in KCl treatment ,In Multiple treatment,the downward movement of exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ was evident,while that of K+ was less evident,Application of KNO3 strongly promoted the downward movement of exchangeable Ca2+and Mg2+ in the soil profile.

  17. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Kamali

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural developmentin Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have abetter insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as alearning forum for bringing about changes for all participants,they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciativeinquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting thefacilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors andpreventing factors. The former are: two-way communication,election of rural eligible facilitators, participation, sense ofresponsibility, and the latter are: cultural and tribal fanaticism,lack of permanent female extension workers and frequentmanagement changes. Appreciative inquiry as a positive modeof action research could facilitate the process of education andcommunication for all stakeholders. We suggested that thereshould be a shift from the extension as a knowledge transfer tofacilitation as people’s own knowledge creation. This studyshowed that appreciative inquiry could facilitate the process ofchange and gender-awareness. This research method couldalso facilitate mutual communication between the rural facilitatorsand extension workers.

  18. Potassium supply to cotton roots as affected by potassium fertilization and liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosolem Ciro Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum is known to have a high requirement for K and to be very sensitive to low soil pH. Most of K reaches plant roots by diffusion in the soil. As K interacts with Ca and Mg, liming can interfere in K movement in the soil, affecting eventually the plant nutrition. The objective of this work was to study the effect of dolomitic lime and 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 g kg-1 of K on the supply of K to cotton roots. Cotton plants were grown up to 40 days in 5 L pots containing a Dark Red Latosol (Typic Haplusthox with 68% and 16% of sand and clay, respectively. There was an increase in dry matter yields and in K accumulation due to K fertilization. Root interception of soil K was also increased by K application, but was not affected by lime. Mass flow and diffusion increased linearly with K levels up to 60 mg kg-1, in pots with lime. In pots without lime the amount of K reaching the roots by diffusion increased up to 45 mg kg-1, but decreased at the highest K level. Accordingly, there was more K reaching the roots through mass flow at the highest K level. This happened because there were more fine roots in pots without lime, at the highest K level. As the roots grew closer, there was a stronger root competition leading to a decrease in the amount of K diffused to cotton roots.

  19. Dynamics of Soil and Grain Micronutrients as Affected by Long-Term Fertilization in an Aquic Inceptisol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ben-Yin; HUANG Shao-Min; WEI Ming-Bao; H.L.ZHANG; SHEN A-Lin; XU Jian-Ming; RUAN Xin-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Micronutrient status in soils can be affected by long-term fertilization and intensive cropping.A 19-year experiment (1990-2008) was carried out to investigate the influence of different fertilization regimes on micronutrients in an Aquic Inceptisol and maize and wheat grains in Zhengzhou,China.The results showed that soil total Cu and Zn markedly declined after 19 years with application of N fertilizer alone.Soil total Fe and Mn were significantly increased mainly due to atmospheric deposition.Applications of P and organic fertilizer with incorporation of straws resulted in dramatic increases in soil total Cu,Zn,Fe,and Mn.Soil diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cu in all treatments sharply decreased from initially 1.12 to about 0.8 mg kg-1.The treatments with organic fertilizer had the highest soil DTPA-extractable Cu,Zn,Fe,and Mn after 19 years of cropping and fertilization,thus demonstrating the important role of organic fertilizer application in improving available micronutrient status.Cu and Zn contents in wheat grains in the no-P treatments were significantly higher than those of the treatments with P application.In addition,Fe and Mn contents in wheat grains were positively correlated with their soil DTPA-extractable concentrations.These indicated that the long-term application of organic fertilizer resulted in significant increases in soil total and available micronutrient concentrations and remarkable reduction in wheat grain Cu and Zn contents,which was due to high soil available P.

  20. Loss of all 3 Extended Synaptotagmins does not affect normal mouse development, viability or fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Michel G; Moss, Tom

    2016-09-01

    The extended synaptotagmins, E-Syt1, 2 and 3, are multiple C2 domain membrane proteins that are tethered to the endoplasmic reticulum and interact in a calcium dependent manner with plasma membrane phospholipids to form endoplasmic reticulum - plasma membrane junctions. These junctions have been implicated in the exchange of phospholipids between the 2 organelles. The E-Syts have further been implicated in receptor signaling and endocytosis and can interact directly with fibroblast growth factor and other cell surface receptors. Despite these multiple functions, the search for a requirement in vivo has been elusive. Most recently, we found that the genes for E-Syt2 and 3 could be inactivated without effect on mouse development, viability, fertility or morphology. We have now created insertion and deletion mutations in the last of the mouse E-Syt genes. We show that E-Syt1 is specifically expressed throughout the embryonic skeleton during the early stages of chrondrogenesis in a pattern quite distinct from that of E-Syt2 or 3. Despite this, E-Syt1 is also not required for mouse development and propagation. We further show that even the combined inactivation of all 3 E-Syt genes has no effect on mouse viability or fertility in the laboratory. However, this inactivation induces an enhancement in the expression of the genes encoding Orp5/8, Orai1, STIM1 and TMEM110, endoplasmic reticulum - plasma membrane junction proteins that potentially could compensate for E-Syt loss. Given the multiple functions suggested for the E-Syts and their evolutionary conservation, our unexpected findings suggest that they may only provide a survival advantage under specific conditions that have as yet to be identified.

  1. Fertilization regimes affect the soil biological characteristics of a sudangrass and ryegrass rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, WenXi; Lu, JianWei; Li, FangBai; Wang, Yan; Lu, JunMing; Li, XiaoKun

    2011-06-01

    The sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) rotation is an intensive and new cropping system in Central China. Nutrient management practices in this rotation system may influence soil fertility, the important aspects of which are soil biological properties and quality. As sensitive soil biological properties and quality indicators, soil microbial community activity, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, soil organic matter (SOM) and total N resulting from different fertilization regimes in this rotation system were studied through a four-year field experiment from April 2005 to May 2009. Treatments included control (CK), fertilizer phosphorus and potassium (PK), fertilizer nitrogen and potassium (NK), fertilizer nitrogen and phosphorus (NP) and a fertilizer nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium combination (NPK). Soil microbial community activities in the NK, NP and NPK treatments were significantly lower than those in the CK and PK treatments after the sudangrass and ryegrass trial. The highest microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, SOM, total N, sucrase and urease activities were found in the NPK treatment, and these soil quality indicators were significantly higher in the NK, NP and NPK treatments than in the PK and CK treatments. Soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities were positively associated with SOM in the sudangrass and ryegrass rotation system, indicating that fertilization regimes, especially N application, reduced microbial community activity in the soil. Proper fertilization regimes will increase microbial biomass, enzyme activity and SOM and improve soil fertility.

  2. Nitrous oxide emission factors from N-fertilizer in sugarcane production in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdos, M. V.; Siqueira Neto, M.; Feigl, B. J.; Carvalho, J. L.; Cerri, C. E.; Cerri, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Brazilian sugarcane production is rapidly expanding due to the increase of global demand for ethanol. Concurrently the necessary inputs to culture, especially N-fertilizer, are growing, since N is one of the key element to maintain sugarcane productivity. However, it is known that N-fertilizer is responsible for the largest share of N2O emissions from agricultural soils. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes (IPCC) estimated that under favorable climatic conditions approximately 1% of the N-fertilizer applied can be emitted as N2O. Our goal was to estimate N2O emission factors from N-fertilizer used in the sugarcane ratoon for ethanol production. A field study was conducted at the Capuava Mill, located in southeastern Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications in a factorial scheme (2 x 2): two N sources (urea and ammonium nitrate), two application rates (80 and 120 kg ha-1), and a control treatment. N2O concentrations were determined by gas chromatography using a Shimadzu© GC-mini. N2O fluxes were calculated from linear regressions of concentration versus incubation time in the soil static chambers. The N2O emission factor of N-fertilizer was calculated according to the methodology described in the Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC). Comparatively, ammonium nitrate emitted 45 to 75% less N2O than urea application. There was no significant difference in N2O emission between the two applied rates of urea. Also the N2O emission factor of ammonium nitrate (0.3×0.2%) was lower than that of urea (1.1×0.4%). Our results indicated that on average the N fertilization of sugarcane plantation has an emission factor of 0.7×0.5% suggesting that N-fertilizer management can be used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to improve the sustainability of bioethanol from sugarcane.

  3. Systematic review of factors affecting pharmaceutical expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousnad, Mohamed Awad; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham

    2014-06-01

    To systematically identify the main factors contributing to the increase in pharmaceutical expenditures. A systematic search of published studies was conducted utilising major widely used electronic databases using the search terms 'factors,' 'financing,' 'pharmaceutical,' and 'expenditures.' To be included, the studies needed to: (1) measure at least one of the following outcomes: total growth in pharmaceutical expenditures, price growth or quantity growth; (2) mention a clear method for analysing the impact of factors affecting the increases in drug expenditures; (3) be written in English. Nonprimary articles that were published only as an abstract, a review, a commentary or a letter were excluded. From a total of 2039 studies, only 25 were included in the full review. The main determinant categories that were identified in the review were factors related to price, utilisation, therapeutic choice, demand and health care system. The major cost drivers were found to be changes in drug quantities and therapies as well as new drugs. It is important for policymakers to understand pharmaceutical spending trends and the factors that influence them in order to formulate effective cost containment strategies and design optimum drug policy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect chemical properties of bagged substrates containing controlled release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagged potting mixes can be stored for weeks or months before being used by consumers. Some bagged potting mixes are amended with controlled release fertilizers (CRF). The objective of this research was to observe how initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect the chemical p...

  5. [Folate and iron in fertile age women from a Venezuelan community affected by incidence of neural tube defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariela, Montilva; Jham, Papale; Nieves, García-Casal María; Yelitza, Berné; Yudith, Ontiveros; Lourdes, Durán

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this transversal study was to determine folate and iron nutritional status of women in fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, Lara State, Venezuela. The sampling was probabilistic by conglomerates from the urban and rural areas, selecting 15 conglomerates from which women between 12 and 45 years (269), were studied. After signing informed consent, participating were interviewed for personal data, antecedents related to folate and iron, socioeconomic data (Graffar-Mendez Castellano method and unsatisfied basic needs). In blood sample was determined Hemoglobin, and Erythrocytic Folate (FE). Serum was obtained to determine Ferritin and Serum Folate (FS). 53.53% of the sample presented low FS levels, 10.78% were FS deficient. Severe FE deficiency was present in 80.7% of the cases, moderate deficiency affected 5.9%. For both tests, median was higher for women in treatment with Acido Fólico or pregnant (p = 0.000), median for FE was higher for adults (p = 0.001) and in non poor women (p = 0.011). There were no significant differences for coffee, alcohol, anticonceptive consumption, urban or rural resident or socioeconomic strata. The prevalence of anemia was 11.2% being significantly more frequent in adults than in adolescents (p = 0.029) and in urban women (p = 0.042). Low ferritin were found in 37.3% of the sample, the effect of different variables was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of iron and folate deficiencies in women of fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, which could constitute a conditioning factor for the appearance of neural tube defects.

  6. Factors affecting the placental transfer of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikov, M.R.; Kelman, B.J. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to consider factors that affect the availability and transport of actinides from maternal blood, through the placenta, to the conceptus. These factors, of particular importance in scaling results from animals to man, include the route and temporal pattern of administration, the mass and physicochemical state of material administered, metabolism of the pregnant animal and fetal organs or tissue, and species-specific changes in placental structure relative to stage of gestation at exposure. Preliminary concepts for descriptive and kinetic models are proposed to integrate these results, to identify additional information required for developing more comprehensive models, and to provide a basis for scaling to human pregnancies for purposes of radiation dosimetry.

  7. State based factors affecting inward FDI employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Kornecki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical research investigates state based factors affecting the inward FDI employment among fifty states of the United States, uses annual data for the period of time from 1997 to 2007 and identifies several state-specific determinants of FDI employment. The results indicate that the major factors exerting positive impact on inward US FDI employment are: real wages, infrastructure, unionization level, educational attainment, FDI stock and manufacturing density.  In addition, the results show that gross state product growth rate, real per capita taxes and share of scientists and engineers have negative impact on FDI employment. Our findings indicate the importance of selected variables in evaluating the effects of FDI flow.Keywords: FDI, Growth, Employment, State, Economy

  8. Verrucomicrobial community structure and abundance as indicators for changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Soares, Tielle; Rossetto, Raffaella; van Veen, Johannes Antonie; Tsai, Siu Mui; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya

    2015-09-01

    Here we show that verrucomicrobial community structure and abundance are extremely sensitive to changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint and real-time quantitative PCR assay were used to analyze changes in verrucomicrobial communities associated with contrasting soil nutrient conditions in tropical regions. In case study Model I ("Slash-and-burn deforestation") the verrucomicrobial community structures revealed disparate patterns in nutrient-enriched soils after slash-and-burn deforestation and natural nutrient-poor soils under an adjacent primary forest in the Amazonia (R = 0.819, P = 0.002). The relative proportion of Verrucomicrobia declined in response to increased soil fertility after slash-and-burn deforestation, accounting on average, for 4 and 2 % of the total bacterial signal, in natural nutrient-poor forest soils and nutrient-enriched deforested soils, respectively. In case study Model II ("Management practices for sugarcane") disparate patterns were revealed in sugarcane rhizosphere sampled on optimal and deficient soil fertility for sugarcane (R = 0.786, P = 0.002). Verrucomicrobial community abundance in sugarcane rhizosphere was negatively correlated with soil fertility, accounting for 2 and 5 % of the total bacterial signal, under optimal and deficient soil fertility conditions for sugarcane, respectively. In nutrient-enriched soils, verrucomicrobial community structures were related to soil factors linked to soil fertility, such as total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sum of bases, i.e., the sum of calcium, magnesium and potassium contents. We conclude that community structure and abundance represent important ecological aspects in soil verrucomicrobial communities for tracking the changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility under tropical environmental conditions.

  9. Application technique affects the potential of mineral concentrates from livestock manure to replace inorganic nitrogen fertilizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Velthof, G.L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that mineral concentrates (MCs) produced from livestock manure might partly replace inorganic N fertilizers, thereby further closing the nitrogen (N) cycle. Here, we quantified nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and N loss pathways associated with MCs, compared with inorganic fertil

  10. Bacterial community structure and diversity in a black soil as affected by long-term fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Dan; YANG Qian; ZHANG Jun-Zheng; WANG Shuang; CHEN Xue-Li; ZHANG Xi-Lin; LI Wei-Qun

    2008-01-01

    Black soil (Mollisol) is one of the main soil types in northeastern China.Biolog and polymerase chain reactiondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) methods were used to examine the influence of various fertilizer combinations on the structure and function of the bacterial community in a black soil collected from Harbin,Heilongjiang Province.Biolog results showed that substrate richness and catabolic diversity of the soil bacterial community were the greatest in the chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer+manure treatments.The metabolic ability of the bacterial community in the manure treatment was similar to the control.DGGE fingerprinting indicated similarity in the distribution of most 16S rDNA bands among all treatments,suggesting that microorganisms with those bands were stable and not influenced by fertilization.However,chemical fertilizer increased the diversity of soil bacterial community.Principal component analysis of Biolog and DGGE data revealed that the structure and function of the bacterial community were similar in the control and manure treatments,suggesting that the application of manure increased the soil microbial population,but had no effect on the bacterial community structure.Catabolic function was similar in the chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer+manure treatments,but the composition structure of the soil microbes differed between them.The use of chemical fertilizers could result in a decline in the catabolic activity of fast-growing or eutrophic bacteria.

  11. LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR IN FERTILE AND INFERTILE HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE TRACT IN VIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaffari

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF is required for successful implanta¬tion in mice, but little is known about its role and expression in human reproduc¬tion. Here we report on the pattern of LIF mRNA expression in 30 samples of previously fertile and 11 infertile human endometrium, 10 samples of previously fertile post-menopausal endometrium and 10 uterine (Fallopian tubes from pre¬viously fertile women using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. All samples were removed with informed patient consent and Ethical Sheffield university Committee approval. Pieces of each sample were processed for electron microscopy to confirm tissue normality and stage of cycle. LIF mRNA was expressed throughout most of the secretory phase (from about day 18 of the cycle and menstruation phase (days 1-4 of cycles in fertile women. However it was not expressed during the proliferative phase. In addition LIF mRNA was absent from the uterine tube at all stages of the cycle and from the postmeno¬pausal and infertile tissue. These results suggest that LIF is expressed in a men¬strual cycle-dependent manner in fertile human endometrium and its expression is likely to be under hormonal control and is not dependent on pregnancy. In addition, our results showed lack of LIF production in infertile women, which may suggest a role for LIF in fertility.

  12. Heavy metal phytoextraction by Sedum alfredii is affected by continual clipping and phosphorus fertilization amendment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huagang Huang; Tingqiang Li; D.K.Gupta; Zhenli He; Xiao-e Yang; Bingnan Ni; Mao Li

    2012-01-01

    Improving the efficacy of phytoextraction is critical for its successful application in metal contaminated soils.Mineral nutrition affects plant growth and metal absorption and subsequently the accumulation of heavy metal through hyper-accumulator plants.This study assessed the effects of di-hydrogen phosphates(KH2PO4,Ca(H2PO4)2,NaH2PO4 and NH4H2PO4)application at three levels(22,88 and 352 mg P/kg soil)on Sedum alfredii growth and metal uptake by three consecutive harvests on aged and Zn/Cd combined contaminated paddy soil.The addition of phosphates(P)significantly increased the amount of Zn taken up by S.alfredii due to increased shoot Zn concentration and dry matter yield(DMY)(P < 0.05).The highest phytoextraction of Zn and Cd was observed in KH2PO4 and NH4H2PO4 treatment at 352 mg P/kg soil.The amount of Zn removed by phytoextraction increased in the order of 1st clipping < 2nd clipping < 3rd clipping,and for Cd extraction the order was 2nd clipping < 1st clipping < 3rd clipping.These results indicate that the application of P fertilizers coupled with multiple cuttings can enhance the removal of Zn and Cd from contaminated soils by S.alfredii,thus shortening the time needed for accomplishing remediation goals.

  13. Do soil fertilization and forest canopy foliage affect the growth and photosynthesis of Amazonian saplings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilvanda dos Santos Magalhães

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most Amazonian soils are highly weathered and poor in nutrients. Therefore, photosynthesis and plant growth should positively respond to the addition of mineral nutrients. Surprisingly, no study has been carried out in situ in the central Amazon to address this issue for juvenile trees. The objective of this study was to determine how photosynthetic rates and growth of tree saplings respond to the addition of mineral nutrients, to the variation in leaf area index of the forest canopy, and to changes in soil water content associated with rainfall seasonality. We assessed the effect of adding a slow-release fertilizer. We determined plant growth from 2010 to 2012 and gas exchange in the wet and dry season of 2012. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect sapling growth or leaf gas exchange parameters. Although soil amendment increased phosphorus content by 60 %, neither plant growth nor the photosynthetic parameters were influenced by the addition of mineral nutrients. However, photosynthetic rates and growth of saplings decreased as the forest canopy became denser. Even when Amazonian soils are poor in nutrients, photosynthesis and sapling growth are more responsive to slight variations in light availability in the forest understory than to the availability of nutrients. Therefore, the response of saplings to future increases in atmospheric [CO2] will not be limited by the availability of mineral nutrients in the soil.

  14. Soil greenhouse gas emissions affected by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainju, Upendra M; Stevens, William B; Caesar-Tonthat, Thecan; Liebig, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Management practices, such as irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization, may influence soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We quantified the effects of irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on soil CO, NO, and CH emissions from March to November, 2008 to 2011 in a Lihen sandy loam in western North Dakota. Treatments were two irrigation practices (irrigated and nonirrigated) and five cropping systems (conventional-tilled malt barley [ L.] with N fertilizer [CT-N], conventional-tilled malt barley with no N fertilizer [CT-C], no-tilled malt barley-pea [ L.] with N fertilizer [NT-PN], no-tilled malt barley with N fertilizer [NT-N], and no-tilled malt barley with no N fertilizer [NT-C]). The GHG fluxes varied with date of sampling and peaked immediately after precipitation, irrigation, and/or N fertilization events during increased soil temperature. Both CO and NO fluxes were greater in CT-N under the irrigated condition, but CH uptake was greater in NT-PN under the nonirrigated condition than in other treatments. Although tillage and N fertilization increased CO and NO fluxes by 8 to 30%, N fertilization and monocropping reduced CH uptake by 39 to 40%. The NT-PN, regardless of irrigation, might mitigate GHG emissions by reducing CO and NO emissions and increasing CH uptake relative to other treatments. To account for global warming potential for such a practice, information on productions associated with CO emissions along with NO and CH fluxes is needed.

  15. Factors Affecting Current and Future CSA Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vassalos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Community Supported Agriculture (CSA is one of the widely used direct marketing strategies for small- and midsized farmers. CSA programs are an important option for sustainable production and consumption. It helps growers generate income (improve financial security and consumers obtain fresh local foods. Sustaining and growing CSA participation is critical in order to continue enjoying these benefits. We used a national online survey in conjunction with discrete choice models to investigate the impact of demographic characteristics, lifestyle preferences, and different information outlets on the probability that a consumer is or will become a CSA member. The results indicate that the factors affecting current and future CSA participation differ substantially. While none of the demographic characteristics has a significant impact on current CSA participation, some of them significantly affect the probability that a consumer will become a CSA member in the future. Lifestyle preferences have a significant impact on current and future CSA participation. Although none of the information outlets examined affect current CSA participation, word-of-mouth and online sources significantly influence the probability that a consumer will join a CSA program in the future. These findings may have important implications for policy makers’ and CSA farm managers’ efforts to sustain future CSA development.

  16. A putative transcription factor MYT1 is required for female fertility in the ascomycete Gibberella zeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lin

    Full Text Available Gibberella zeae is an important pathogen of major cereal crops. The fungus produces ascospores that forcibly discharge from mature fruiting bodies, which serve as the primary inocula for disease epidemics. In this study, we characterized an insertional mutant Z39P105 with a defect in sexual development and identified a gene encoding a putative transcription factor designated as MYT1. This gene contains a Myb DNA-binding domain and is conserved in the subphylum Pezizomycotina of Ascomycota. The MYT1 protein fused with green fluorescence protein localized in nuclei, which supports its role as a transcriptional regulator. The MYT1 deletion mutant showed similar phenotypes to the wild-type strain in vegetative growth, conidia production and germination, virulence, and mycotoxin production, but had defect in female fertility. A mutant overexpressing MYT1 showed earlier germination, faster mycelia growth, and reduced mycotoxin production compared to the wild-type strain, suggesting that improper MYT1 expression affects the expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and secondary metabolite production. This study is the first to characterize a transcription factor containing a Myb DNA-binding domain that is specific to sexual development in G. zeae.

  17. The influence of environmental factors on male fertility; Beeintraechtigung der maennlichen Fertilitaet durch Umweltfaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, A.; Schill, W.B. [Giessen Univ. (DE). Hautklinik (Zentrum fuer Dermatologie und Andrologie); Schuppe, H.C. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Hautklinik; Koehn, F.M. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dermatologische Klinik und Poliklinik

    2000-07-01

    It is of increasing importance to assess the relationship between impaired male fertility and environmental factors. Due to the complex development and regulation of spermatogenesis, a variety of sites may be affected by exogenous noxae such as coffee, tobacco, alcohol, pharmaceuticals, professional agents, environmental chemicals and also physical factors. However, reliable findings in humans are only available for a few noxae. Unfortunately, results from animal experimental studies cannot be simply transferred. In the andrological practice, detailed history taking is of utmost importance for early recognition of possible exposure risks. Thorough analysis of the ejaculate is a prerequisite for detection and differentiation especially of disturbed spermatogenesis. Under aspects of occupational and environmental medicine, systematic search for data according to standardized criteria in exposed and unexposed men is imperative to find out potential reproductive toxins. (orig.) [German] Die Erfassung von Zusammenhaengen zwischen Einschraenkungen der maennlichen Fertilitaet und Umweltfaktoren gewinnt zunehmend an Bedeutung. Aufgrund der komplexen Entwicklung und Regulation der Spermatogenese ergeben sich vielfaeltige Angriffsmoeglichkeiten fuer exogene Noxen wie Genussmittel, Pharmaka, Arbeitsstoffe, Umweltchemikalien und auch physikalische Faktoren. Gesicherte Erkenntnisse liegen jedoch beim Menschen nur fuer wenige Noxen vor. Leider lassen sich tierexperimentelle Befunde nur begrenzt uebertragen. In der andrologischen Praxis kommt einer ausfuehrlichen Anamnese ein wichtiger Stellenwert zu, um moegliche Expositionsrisiken fruehzeitig erfassen zu koennen. Detaillierte Ejakulatanalysen sind hier zur Erfassung und Differenzierung, insbesonders von Spermatogenesestoerungen, unerlaesslich. Unter arbeits- und umweltmedizinischen Gesichtspunkten sind systematische Datenerhebungen nach standardisierten Kriterien bei exponierten und nicht exponierten Maennern unerlaesslich, um

  18. Heterotrophic Soil Respiration Affected by Compound Fertilizer Types in Red Pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z. Stands of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyeob Jeong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fertilizer application on heterotrophic soil respiration (Rh in soil respiration (Rs components in red pine stands. Two types of fertilizer (N3P4K1 = 113:150:37 kg·ha−1·year−1; P4K1 = 150:37 kg·ha−1·year−1 were applied manually on the forest floor for two years. Rs and Rh rates were monitored from April 2011 to March 2013. Mean Rs and Rh rates were not significantly affected by fertilizer applications. However, Rh in the second year following fertilizer application fell to 27% for N3P4K1 and 17% in P4K1 treatments, while there was an increase of 5% in the control treatments compared with the first fertilization year. The exponential relationships between Rs or Rh rates and the corresponding soil temperature were significant (Rh: R2 = 0.86–0.90; p < 0.05; Rs: R2 = 0.86–0.91; p < 0.05 in the fertilizer and control treatments. Q10 values (Rs increase per 10 °C increase in temperature in Rs rates were lowest for the N3P4K1 treatment (3.47, followed by 3.62 for the P4K1 treatment and 3.60 in the control treatments, while Rh rates were similar among the treatments (3.59–3.64. The results demonstrate the importance of separating Rh rates from Rs rates following a compound fertilizer application.

  19. Acute hypoxic exposure affects gamete quality and subsequent fertilization success and embryonic development in a serpulid polychaete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, P K S; Leung, J Y S; Qiu, J W; Ang, P O; Chiu, J M Y; Thiyagarajan, V; Cheung, S G

    2014-08-30

    Hypoxia likely compromises the reproductive success of those marine organisms carrying out external fertilization because their gametes and embryos are inevitably exposed to the external environment. Hydroides elegans, a dominant serpulid polychaete in Hong Kong waters, can spawn throughout the year but the number of recruits drops during summer when hypoxia commonly occurs. This study attempted to explain such observation by investigating the gamete quality, including sperm motility, egg size, complexity and viability, after 1-h hypoxic exposure (1 mg O2 l(-1)). In addition, how gamete quality affects fertilization success and embryonic development was examined. After 1-h hypoxic exposure, sperm motility was significantly reduced, compromising fertilization success. Although the eggs remained viable, more malformed embryos and retarded embryonic development were observed. We interpreted that the harmful effect of hypoxia on embryonic development was attributed to the teratogenicity and induced oxidative stress, ultimately causing the reduction in recruitment during summer.

  20. Sociocultural factors influencing decision-making related to fertility among the Kanuri tribe of north-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkarim G. Mairiga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Kanuri tribe is found in the Lake Chad basin. However, the majority of the tribe lives in Borno State, Nigeria. Before this study was undertaken, factors related to fertility decisions among the tribe were not known. Objectives: This study is aimed at describing and documenting the sociocultural factors affecting decisions related to fertility among the Kanuri tribe. Method: The study applied the qualitative research method. In-depth interviews and focus-group discussions were used as data collection methods. Analysis was done manually.Results: Children among the Kanuri were highly valued and desired irrespective of their gender. The ideal family size, according to most of the respondents, was 16 children. Kanuri men are polygamous and can marry up to four wives in order to form large families. However, it is an abomination among Kanuri women to fall pregnant in quick succession; a phenomenon they termed konkomi. Other reasons for child-spacing were related to child welfare and maternal well-being. Methods for child-spacing included prolonged breastfeeding (Nganji yaye, ornaments in various forms and shapes, spiritual invocations and dried herbs (Nganji Yandeye. Few Kanuri women practiced modern methods of family planning. Conclusion: Trends in fertility among the Kanuri tribe need to be monitored regularly and appropriate measures be taken to introduce and promote modern family planning and child health services to ensure a healthier family life.

  1. Study identifies socio-cultural factors affecting demographic behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is undertaking a project that will produce a state-of-the-art paper on sociocultural factors affecting demographic behavior. Particular emphasis will be placed on reproductive behavior in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Arab states region. The extent to which this information is incorporated in current population policies and programs will also be examined, and recommendations will be made. The factors to be studied include family and kinship structure; gender status and role; patterns of sexual relations and procreation in general and adolescent sexual behavior and fertility; religion, beliefs, customs, and traditions concerned with sexual relations and procreation; child rearing, socialization, and education; status and role of women; and sociocultural change, change agents, and influentials. The literature search will provide an inventory of methodologies. Guidelines on the use of the methodologies will be drafted for use by project personnel. These will later be tested in pilot studies in rural and urban communities in selected developing countries. The goal is to design programs that will accelerate contraceptive acceptance and sustain contraceptive practice by being sensitive to the sociocultural influences on the reproductive behavior of different subpopulations.

  2. Factors Affecting Corneal Hysteresis in Taiwanese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Kang Wang; Tzu-Lun Huang; Pei-Yuan Su; Pei-Yao Chang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation of various corneal hysteresis (CH) factors in Chinese adults. Methods: From January 2009 to November 2011, the healthy right eyes of a total of 292 adults were recruited into the study. Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPG) and CH were measured using an ocular response analyzer (ORA). Central corneal thickness was measured using the ORA’s in-tegrated handheld ultrasonic pachymeter. The IOLMaster was used to obtain the ocular biometric measurements including axial length, anterior chamber depth, and keratometric values. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to test correla-tions between CH and quantitative factors. The chi-square test was used to detect differences in categorical values. Results: Longer axial length (P=0.0001), lower IOPG (P=0.03), older age(P=0.003),and thinner central corneal thick-ness (P=0.0001) were significantly associated with lower CH. The anterior chamber depth (P=0.34), gender (P=0.23), and corneal curvature (P=0.18) had no relationship to CH. Conclusion:Various factors including axial length, intraocular pressure, age, and central corneal thickness can affect measure-ment of corneal biomechanical properties in Chinese adults. But the anterior chamber depth, gender, and corneal curvature were irrelevant to CH.

  3. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease.

  4. Dynamics of bacterial communities in rice field soils as affected by different long-term fertilization practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Shin Ae; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Kim, Myung-Sook; Song, Jaekyeong; Weon, Hang-Yeon

    2016-11-01

    Fertilization and the response of the soil microbial community to the process significantly affect crop yield and the environment. In this study, the seasonal variation in the bacterial communities in rice field soil subjected to different fertilization treatments for more than 50 years was investigated using 16S rRNA sequencing. The simultaneous application of inorganic fertilizers and rice straw compost (CAPK) maintained the species richness of the bacterial communities at levels higher than that in the case of non-fertilization (NF) and application of inorganic fertilizers only (APK) in the initial period of rice growth. The seasonal variation in the bacterial community structure in the NF and APK plots showed cyclic behavior, suggesting that the effect of season was important; however, no such trend was observed in the CAPK plot. In the CAPK plot, the relative abundances of putative copiotrophs such as Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were higher and those of putative oligotrophs such as Acidobacteria and Plactomycetes were lower than those in the other plots. The relative abundances of organotrophs with respiratory metabolism, such as Actinobacteria, were lower and those of chemoautotrophs that oxidize reduced iron and sulfur compounds were higher in the CAPK plot, suggesting greater carbon storage in this plot. Increased methane emission and nitrogen deficiency, which were inferred from the higher abundances of Methylocystis and Bradyrhizobium in the CAPK plot, may be a negative effect of rice straw application; thus, a solution for these should be considered to increase the use of renewable resources in agricultural lands.

  5. Mineral fertilization as a factor determining technological value of grain of Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapowski Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, in recent years, there has been a great interest in growing spelt wheat. This is dictated not only by an increasing demand for food with higher healthy properties and unique taste, but also by a possibility of attracting farmers’ attention to this cereal as an alternative crop, with smaller requirements regarding the use of fertilization, as compared with common wheat. The aim of this study was to carry out the assessment of value of some technological characters of grain and flour of spelt wheat depending on different fertilizations with nitrogen (I factor, n=3, 25 and 50 kg N∙ha−1 + control treatment and foliar application of microelements (II factor, n=4, Mn, Cu, combined fertilization with Mn and Cu + control treatment. Based on the performed study, it was found that fertilization with nitrogen, microelements and their interaction had, on average for years, a significant effect on the values of technological characters. Introduction of 25 kg N·ha−1 caused an increase in the value of falling number, whereas total protein content, wet gluten content and sedimentation value increased as a result of increasing nitrogen rates up to a level of 50 kg·ha−1. Of the variants of fertilization with microelements, the highest values of the analysed baking indices were found in the effects of combined foliar application of copper and manganese.

  6. Factors Affecting Profitability of Layer Hens Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebraheem Altahat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Layer hen enterprises suffer from low profitability or losses in many of developing countries all over the world. Jordan is not an acceptance. Approach: This study aimed at investigating the influence of ten main factors affecting the profitability of layer hen producers. The investigated factors include price of purchased pullet, feed price, cost of labor, cost of veterinary service and medicine, building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, length of production cycle, feed conversion ratio, mortality rate, egg sale price and laying percentage. Results: The study used a multiple regression profit model to estimate the effect of the above mentioned factors on profit per kg egg produced. The direction and quantity of relationship between profit per kg egg and variables affecting profit were investigated. Data from 40 operating and randomly selected egg production enterprises in the country was collected. Data was obtained directly from the producers during April to mid August 2010. Semi structured interviews were conducted with a pre-tested questionnaire. The data obtained via interview surveys were processed to calculate profit per kg egg and other relevant information for inclusion in a profit function model. Fifteen eggs are registered to be 1 kg in the study. Cost and income items used to calculate profit in the study. The results of the study revealed that the feed price was found to be the factor which has the highest negative impact on the profitability showing the coefficient-3.01. The egg sale price was with high positive impact on profitability showing the coefficient 2.633. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results of the study it could be concluded that higher prices of purchased or breeding pullet, higher feed price, higher cost of labor, higher cost of veterinary service and medicine, higher other costs including building and machinery depreciation, repairs and

  7. Factors affecting success of agricultural producers groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Chlebicka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor organisation of agricultural markets in Poland remains one of the biggest problems for agricultural sector. There are about 510 agricultural producer groups, but only 2% of Polish farmers selling for market are members. Knowledge on cooperation determinants and different aspects of producer groups performance is crucial to build references for policy makers and producer groups’ managers. The aim of the article was to discuss factors affecting success of producers groups understood as a level of members’ satisfaction. Data for 2006 and 2011 from 30 producers groups in fruit and vegetable sector were analysed using logit model. Three determinants occurred to be statistically important: scope of a group functions, informal cooperation with farmers before starting a formal cooperation and homogeneity of farms.

  8. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

  9. Factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sanaa Abd El Azim

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, on 207 student nurses from four different grades. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, consisted of 30 items, was used to measure the students' assertiveness level and a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer was used to measure students' psychological empowerment. The study results showed that 60.4% of the students were assertive, while about half of the students were empowered. A positive relation between student assertiveness and psychological empowerment was detected. Moreover, positive relations regarding family income and students' assertiveness and psychological empowerment were determined. The study recommended introduction of specific courses aiming at enhancing the acquisition of assertiveness skills, in addition, nurse educators must motivate their students to express their opinion and personal rights and also they must pay attention for students' empowerment and enhance students' autonomy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  11. Factors affecting food selection in Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, M; Riediger, N; Moghadasian, M H

    2008-11-01

    To establish health-related reasons behind Canadian food choices, and how variables such as education, income, gender, ethnicity and age may affect food selection. Approximately 98 733 Canadians responded to the 12 questions regarding food choices in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.1, conducted by the Canadian Government in 2003. These included 13 727 adolescents (12-19 years), 19 089 young adults (20-34 years), 31 039 middle-aged adults (35-54 years), 25 338 older adults (55-74 years) and 9580 elderly (75+ years). Approximately 70% of Canadian adolescents in the sample indicated that their food choices were independent of health concerns. Body weight management was a major concern for food selection by adolescents and adults, while the elderly stated heart disease as their main concern. Among all participants, females, and individuals with high levels of education and income reported the highest response to choosing or avoiding foods due to health concerns and food content. Our data indicate that several factors significantly affect food choices for health-related reasons in the Canadian population. Among them, age- and gender-related gaps, particularly between adolescents and adults, are profound. This observation may urge authorities to implement effective strategies to educate Canadians, especially adolescents, that selection of appropriate foods may prevent chronic diseases.

  12. Fertilization strategies affect phosphorus forms and release from soils and suspended solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda, Teresa; Celi, Luisella; Bünemann, Else K; Oberson, Astrid; Frossard, Emmanuel; Barberis, Elisabetta

    2014-05-01

    The release of phosphorus from soils in surface runoff is strongly influenced by fertilizer inputs and contributes significantly to agriculturally driven eutrophication. This work evaluated the forms and availability of P in bulk soils and suspended solids (SS) produced by a water dispersion test that mimics the action of rain events and/or irrigation. This test was applied on soils cultivated with maize and fertilized with mineral N, P, and K (NPK); mineral P and K (PK); bovine slurry and P (S); or manure and P (M) for 15 yr. The P surplus in the treated soils was in the order NPK fertilizer-derived P salts in the suspended solids control P forms and exchangeability for mineral fertilizer treatments, whereas in M soil carbon content assumed a key role.

  13. Applications of Fertilizer Cations Affect Cadmium and Zinc Concentrations in Soil Solutions and Uptake by Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, S. E.; Hamon, R. E.; McGrath, S. P.

    1994-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study changes over time of Cd and Zn in soil solution and in plants. Radish was grown in a soil which had been contaminated with heavy metals prior to 1961. Constant amounts of a fertilizer solution (NH4N03, KN03) were added daily. Soil solution was obtained...... at intervals by displacement with water. The cumulative additions of small amounts of fertilizers were made equal to the plants' requirements at the final harvest but were found to exceed them during most of the experiment. Excess fertilizers caused substantial increases of major (K, Ca, Mg) and heavy...... was independent of their concentrations in solution. It is concluded that, in order to study effects of plants on heavy-metal availability and obtain soil solution that has not been altered by fertilizer ions, nutrients must be added according to the needs and growth of the plants. This could be achieved...

  14. Fertilization Affects Biomass Production of Suaeda salsa and Soil Organic Carbon Pool in East Coastal Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-feng; YANG Jing-song; YAO Rong-jiang; LIU Guang-ming; YU Shi-peng

    2013-01-01

    Land use practice significantly affects soil properties. Soil is a major sink for atmospheric carbon, and soil organic carbon (SOC) is considered as an essential indicator of soil quality. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of N and P applied to Suaeda salsa on biomass production, SOC concentration, labile organic carbon (LOC) concentration, SOC pool and carbon management index (CMI) as well as the effect of the land use practice on soil quality of coastal tidal lands in east coastal region of China. The study provided relevant references for coastal exploitation, tidal land management and related study in other countries and regions. The field experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design, consisting of four N-fertilization rates (0 (N0), 60 (N1), 120 (N2) and 180 kg ha-1 (N3)), three P-fertilization rates (0 (P0), 70 (P1) and 105 kg ha-1 (P2)) and bare land without vegetation. N and P applied to S. salsa on coastal tidal lands significantly affected biomass production (above-ground biomass and roots), bulk density (ρb), available N and P, SOC, LOC, SOC pool and CMI. Using statistical analysis, significantly interactions in N and P were observed for biomass production and the dominant factor for S. salsa production was N in continuous 2-yr experiments. There were no significant interactions between N and P for SOC concentration, LOC concentration and SOC pool. However, significant interaction was obtained for CMI at the 0-20 cm depth and N played a dominant role in the variation of CMI. There were significant improvements for soil measured attributes and parameters, which suggested that increasing the rates of N and P significantly decreasedρb at the 0-20 cm depth and increased available N and P, SOC, LOC, SOC pool as well as CMI at both the 0-20 and 20-40 cm depth, respectively. By correlation analysis, there were significantly positive correlations between biomass (above-ground biomass and roots) and SOC as well as LOC in

  15. High levels of inorganic nutrients affect fertilization kinetics, early development and settlement of the scleractinian coral Platygyra acuta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, E. K. Y.; Chui, A. P. Y.; Kwok, C. K.; Ip, A. H. P.; Chan, S. W.; Leung, H. N.; Yeung, L. C.; Ang, P. O.

    2015-09-01

    Dose-response experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of ammonia nitrogen (NH3/NH4 +) and orthophosphate (PO4 3-) on four stages of larval development in Platygyra acuta, including fertilization, embryonic development and the survival, motility, and settlement of planula larvae. Fertilization success was reduced significantly under 200 μM NH3/NH4 + or PO4 3-. These high doses of NH3/NH4 + and PO4 - affected egg viability (or sperm viability and polyspermic block simultaneously) and polyspermic block, respectively. These results provide the first evidence to indicate the mechanisms of how inorganic nutrients might affect coral fertilization processes. For embryonic development, NH3/NH4 + at 25-200 μM caused delay in cell division after 2-h exposure and NH3/NH4 + at 100-200 μM resulted in larval death after 72 h. However, no significant differences were observed in the mobility and survivorship of either planula or competent larvae under different levels of NH3/NH4 + or PO4 3-. There was a significant (~30 %) drop in the settlement of competent larvae under the combined effect of 100 μM NH3/NH4 + and PO4 3-. The effects of elevated nutrients appeared to become more significant only on gametes or larvae undergoing active cellular activities at fertilization, early development, and settlement.

  16. Growth and Yield of Chili Pepper as Affected by Weed Based Organic Compost and Nitrogen Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Setyowati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility improvement of Ultisol is inevitable to increase growth and yield of chili pepper since the nutrient availability and organic matter of this soil is relatively low. Application of organic fertilizer will enhance microorganism activity in soil, thereafter will improve the availability of nutrients as well as other chemical, physical, biological properties of the soil. Most of manure releases nutrient quite slowly; therefore, addition of nitrogen to soil is expected to speed up the availability of nutrient to plant. Weed based organic fertilizers from Wedelia (Wedelia trilobata and Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata biomass have potential to substitute inorganic fertilizer. The objective of the experiment was to compare the effects of weed based organic compost and dry leaves compost with or without addition of nitrogen fertilizer on growth and yield of chili pepper. The experiment was carried out using Completely Randomized Design (CRD with treatments of 200 kg urea ha-1; Wedelia compost (WDC 20 ton ha-1; WDC 15, 10, and 5 ton ha-1 with addition of 200 kg urea ha-1 respectively; Siam weed compost (SWC 20 ton ha-1, SWC 15, 10, and 5 ton ha-1 with addition of  200 kg urea ha-1 respectively; and dry leaves compost (DLC 20 ton ha-1, DLC 15, 10, and 5 ton ha-1 with addition of 200 kg urea ha-1 respectively. The result revealed that composts with or without addition of nitrogen fertilizer had similar responses on the growth of chili pepper. Wedelia and Siam weeds compost at 20 ton ha-1 tended to give better yield of chili pepper as compared to application of urea alone. This result indicated that weed based organic fertilizers could substitute nitrogen fertilizer.

  17. Corn response as affected by planting distance from the center of strip-till fertilized rows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Adee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till has been used at a large scale in east central Kansas as an alternative to earlier planting dates under a no-till system. To determine the effects of planting corn (Zea mays under previously established strip-tilled fertilized rows, experiments were conducted on an Osage silty clay loam soil in 2006 and 2008 and on a Woodson silt loam soil in 2009, 2010, and 2011 using three different planting distances from the strip-tilled fertilized rows (0, 10, 20, and 38 cm with a strip-till operation performed between 1 to 73 days before planting. The depth of the strip-till fertilizer application was 13 to 15 cm below the soil surface. Corn that was planted 10 cm from the fertilized row showed greater early season growth, higher plant population, and grain yield. Planting 20 and 38 cm from the center of the fertilized rows showed none of the benefits that are typically associated with strip-tillage system. Enough time should be allowed between the strip-till operation and planting to reach satisfactory soil conditions (e.g., moist and firm seedbed. Our results suggest that the best location for planting strip-tilled fertilized corn vary depending on soil and climatic conditions as well as the time between fertilizer application with the strip-till operation and planting. With fewer number of days, planting directly on the center of fertilized strip-till resulted in decreased plant population and lower grain yield. However the greatest yield benefit across different planting conditions was attained when planting within 10 cm of the strip.

  18. Genetic and epigenetic factors affecting meiosis induction in eukaryotes revealed in paramecium research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajer, Małgorzata

    2008-01-01

    This review presents studies of the induction of meiosis undertaken on the ciliate Paramecium, a unicellular model eukaryotic organism. Meiosis in Paramecium, preceding the process of fertilization, appears in starved cells after passing a defined number of divisions (cell generations), starting from the last fertilization. Investigations were performed on clones of cells entering autogamy, a self-fertilization process. Genetic as well as epigenetic factors, i.e. endo- and exogenous factors, affecting the induction ofmeiosis and changing the duration of the interautogamous interval (IAI), were analyzed. The results show that: (1) Meiosis induction is controlled genetically by the somatic macronucleus. However, besides the nuclear factors, the cytoplasmic protein immaturin also affects this process (Haga & Hiwatashi 1981); (2) Epigenetic factors, such as non-genetically disturbed cytoskeleton structures and changes in the cell architecture observed in doublet Paramecium cells, exert internal mechanical stress (Ingber 2003), which constitutes the endogenous impulse accelerating meiosis; (3) Mild osmotic stress, acting as an exogenous factor, can initiate the specific MAP kinases signaling pathway resulting in earlier meiosis induction, as in other unicellular eukaryotes (Seet & Pawson 2004).

  19. Organic fertilization affecting pests and production of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L.D. Leite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to study the effect of four levels of organic fertilization (0, 3, 6 and 9 kg m-2 to produce the essential oil of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenacea and its pests. A higher number of red mite Tetranychus sp. (Acari: Tetranychiidae was observed on the abaxial face of the median and basal leaves of L. sidoides plants with eight weeks of age cultivated with 6 kg m-2 of organic fertilization. On the other hand, the smallest number of this mite was noted in control (0 kg m-2. L. sidoides cultivated with 6 kg m-2 of organic fertilization produced a greater quantity of essential oil. The highest number of mealy bug Phenacoccus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae was observed on the apical leaves (both leaf surfaces of L. sidoides plants with nine and ten weeks of age cultivated with 3 kg m-2 of organic fertilization. No significant effect of the organic fertilization on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae was detected. However, a greater number of this aphid and of its predator Scymnus sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae was observed on the abaxial face of the bottom leaves of L. sidoides plants with eight weeks of age. The dose of organic fertilization recommended for the production of essential oil of L. Sidoides is 6 kg m-2, however, one must pay attention to the fact this dosage favors the attack by Tetranychus sp.. And, when needed, pulverization must always be directed to the lower surface of the leaf.

  20. Fertilization and Colors of Plastic Mulch Affect Biomass and Essential Oil of Sweet-Scented Geranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Carvalho Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér, a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L·ha−1 of cattle manure; 1,000 kg·ha−1 of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L·ha−1 of cattle manure + 1,000 kg·ha−1 of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien were obtained with mineral fertilizer.

  1. Environmental Factors Affecting Where People Geocache

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    Jennifer Golbeck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from OpenCaching.com and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.

  2. FACTORS AFFECTING PHARMACOKINETIC DISPOSITION OF DRUGS

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    Mehta Hiren R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is a complex process the variability of which is influenced by many physicochemical and physiologic factors. The two most important physicochemical factors that affect both the extent and the rate of absorption are lipophilicity and solubility. The rate and extent of absorption are governed by the solubility, permeability and stability of the drug, with solubility being a pH-dependent parameter for weak acids and bases. The gastrointestinal tract can be viewed as discrete sections with a variety of differential local pH environments ranging from the acidic stomach to the more basic small intestine. The multiple peaking, double peaking or secondary peaking phenomena can occur in the disposition of a variety of xenobiotics during drug development (the pre-clinical phase and in subsequent clinical studies and use. The physicochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence of this phenomenon are often multi factorial and include but are not limited to solubility-limited absorption, modified-release formulations, complexation, enterohepatic recirculation, gastric emptying and the intestinal transit time, site-specific absorption, gastric secretion-enteral reabsorption. Double peak absorption has been described with several orally administered drugs such as cimetidine furosemide, piroxicam, ranitidine, talinolol, alprazolam and phenazopyridine.

  3. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

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    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  4. Ranking agility factors affecting hospitals in Iran

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    M. Abdi Talarposht

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were selected hospitals. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from the health centers. The construct validity of the questionnaire was approved by confirmatory factor analysis test and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α=0.97. All data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Friedman tests. Findings: The development of staff skills, the use of information technology, the integration of processes, appropriate planning, and customer satisfaction and product quality had a significant impact on the agility of public hospitals of Iran (P<0.001. New product introductions had earned the highest ranking and the development of staff skills earned the lowest ranking. Conclusion: The new product introduction, market responsiveness and sensitivity, reduce costs, and the integration of organizational processes, ratings better to have acquired agility hospitals in Iran. Therefore, planners and officials of hospitals have to, through the promotion quality and variety of services customer-oriented, providing a basis for investing in the hospital and etc to apply for agility supply chain public hospitals of Iran.

  5. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

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    Marius Liutvinavičius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient  attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  6. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

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    Virgilijus Sakalauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  7. Factors Affecting the Underperformance of Employees

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    Nadeeka Amarasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama is the largest factory of Brandix Group of Companies catering to VS Pink. It has a labour force of 1250 employees including a direct labour force of 659. Production capabilities have been extended to in-house printing and embroidery sections in addition to cutting and shipping facilities. Like other apparel manufacturers in the industry, BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama also faces much competition and problems in its day to day business operations. One of the major issues so faced is On-Time-Delivery due to underperformance of the employees. Therefore, with the objectives of studying factors affecting the underperformance of the employees of the production department, analysing and identifying such factors, and providing recommendations, a few variables i.e. machines and methods, skill level, financial incentives, leadership practices and working conditions were identified as having a potential impact over the performance of the production employees. Stratified random sampling method was used to select 64 team members from the 32 production modules, and research work continued to collate primary data through administrating a structured questionnaire among selected associates. Null and alternative hypotheses were tested using correlations, and the data is presented as graphical pictures, tables, and in narrative form. However, there were a few limitations such as management influence, sample basis selection, service period, level of understating, time availability and commitment, time availability for the study etc. which may have had an impact over the research findings.

  8. Analyzing blends of herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds with factor analysis: revisiting "cotton plant, Gossypium hirsutum L., defense in response to nitrogen fertilization".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen

    2013-04-01

    Many herbivorous, predaceous, and parasitic insects use constitutive and herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to locate their respective host plant, prey, and hosts. Multivariate statistical tools (e.g., factor analysis) are recognized increasingly as an appropriate approach for analyzing intercorrelated data such as presence/absence or quantities of VOCs. One challenge of implementing factor analysis is determining how many new variables (factors) to retain in the final analysis. I demonstrate a method proposed by Johnson and Wichern to mitigate this problem by using VOC data published in Chen et al. The advantage of using loading (or weight) transformation in interpretation of new variables was also illustrated in the example. Factor analysis found similar nitrogen fertilization effects on VOC production as those in Chen et al. Similarities were 1) nitrogen fertilization interacted with herbivore damage status on VOC production: at low nitrogen (42 ppm) level, beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), damage elicited increases in VOC production, whereas at high nitrogen (196 ppm) VOC production was suppressed; 2) nitrogen fertilization did not affect limonene, alpha-pinene, and beta-pinene production. The seven individual VOCs significantly affected by nitrogen fertilization in Chen et al. were (Z)-3-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-beta-farnesene, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), alpha-bergamotene, gamma-bisabolene, and bisabolol, of which only three ((E)-beta-farnesene, gamma-bisabolene, and bisabolol) weighed heavily on factor 1 in the current study.

  9. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking: Impact of two major lifestyle factors on male fertility

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    Gaur Dushyant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors, like alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, have been reported to affect male fertility. Aims: To find out the specific impact of alcohol and smoking on semen quality of male partners of couples seeking treatment for primary infertility. Materials and Methods: From the semen samples analyzed in our andrology laboratory, results of 100 alcoholics and 100 cigarette smoker males were studied following WHO guidelines and compared with 100 strict nonalcoholic and nonsmoker males for presence of asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by F- test using Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Only 12% alcoholics and six per cent smokers showed normozoospermia compared to 37 % nonalcoholic nonsmoker males. Teratozoospermia, followed by oligozoospermia dominated alcoholics. Overall impact of asthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia, but not of oligozoospermia, was observed in smokers. Light smokers predominantly showed asthenozoospermia. Heavy alcoholics and smokers showed asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia as well as oligozoospermia. Conclusions: Asthenozoospermia, the most common semen variable in our study, can be an early indicator of reduction in quality of semen. Alcohol abuse apparently targets sperm morphology and sperm production. Smoke-induced toxins primarily hamper sperm motility and seminal fluid quality. Progressive deterioration in semen quality is related to increasing quantity of alcohol intake and cigarettes smoked.

  10. Factors influencing serum progesterone level on triggering day in stimulated in vitro fertilization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Hee; Jee, Byung Chul; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Elevated serum progesterone (P) levels on triggering day have been known to affect the pregnancy rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study aimed to identify the possible factors influencing serum P levels on triggering day in stimulated IVF cycles. Three hundred and thirty consecutive fresh IVF cycles were included in the study. All cycles were first attempts and were performed in a single infertility center. The indications for IVF were male factor infertility (n=114), ovulatory infertility (n=84), endometriosis (n=61), tubal infertility (n=59), unexplained infertility (n=41), and uterine factor infertility (n=39). A luteal long protocol of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (n=184) or a GnRH antagonist protocol (n=146) was used for pituitary suppression. Ovarian sensitivity was defined as the serum estradiol level on triggering day per 500 IU of administered gonadotropins (OS[a]) or the retrieved oocyte number per 500 IU of administered gonadotropins (OS[b]). Univariate analysis revealed that the serum P level on triggering day was associated with the serum estradiol level on triggering day (r=0.379, p<0.001), the number of follicles ≥14 mm (r=0.247, p<0.001), the number of retrieved oocytes (r=0.384, p<0.001), and ovarian sensitivity (OS[a]: r=0.245, p<0.001; OS[b]: r=0.170, p=0.002). The woman's age, body mass index, antral follicle count, and basal serum follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol levels were not associated with serum P level on triggering day. The serum P level on triggering day did not show significant variation depending on the type or cause of infertility, pituitary suppression protocol, or the type of gonadotropins used. The serum P level on triggering day was closely related to the response to ovarian stimulation.

  11. Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort

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    Gül Pınar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Başkent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

  12. Effect of different fertilizer resources on yield and yield components of grain maize (Zea mays L. affected by tillage managements

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    Ahmad Ghasemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Due to the development of sustainable agriculture and the reduction of utilizing chemical fertilizers, it is essential to use organic fertilizer. Organic matter is vital to soil fertility and its productivity. To maintain the level of fertility and the strength of soil, organic matter levels should be maintained at an appropriate level. Unfortunately, the level of organic matter in soil is generally less than 1%. One solution to increase the soil’s organic matter content is to use organic fertilizers such as animal manure, green manure, and vermicompost (Nuralvandy, 2011. As a correction factor, green manure can increase water supply and nutrient soil conservation (Tajbakhsh et al., 2005. Materials and methods In order to assess the effects of fertilizer sources (green manure, cow manure, and chemical fertilizer on maize yield and yield components (KSC 704 under tillage management, a field experiment was carried out at Zahak Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Station in two years (from 2013 to 2014. Before corn planting, barley was planted as green manure in the fall of each year. The experiment was conducted as a split plot arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The main plots were tillage and no tillage, whereas the sub plots were: 1-barley green manure (without application of fertilizer, 2-barley green manure with applying 100% chemical fertilizer (NPK to the barley during cultivation, tillering and stemming stages, 3- green manure with 2/3 of chemical fertilizer to the barley and 1/3 to the maize, 4- green manure with 1/3 of chemical fertilizer to the barley and 2/3 to the maize, 5- barley green manure with 50% animal and chemical manures, 6- barley green manure with 40 t ha-1 of animal manure, 7-control (non-fertilizer application. Corn was planted on 15 March each year. Phosphorus, potassium fertilizer, and animal manure were added to the soil as the base fertilizers. At full

  13. Foliar Potassium Fertilizer Additives Affect Soybean Response and Weed Control with Glyphosate

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    Kelly A. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in 2004 and 2005 determined the effects of foliar-applied K-fertilizer sources (0-0-62-0 (%N-%P2O5-%K2O-%S, 0-0-25-17, 3-18-18-0, and 5-0-20-13 and additive rates (2.2, 8.8, and 17.6 kg K ha−1 on glyphosate-resistant soybean response and weed control. Field experiments were conducted at Novelty and Portageville with high soil test K and weed populations and at Malden with low soil test K and weed populations. At Novelty, grain yield increased with fertilizer additives at 8.8 kg K ha−1 in a high-yield, weed-free environment in 2004, but fertilizer additives reduced yield up to 470 kg ha−1 in a low-yield year (2005 depending on the K source and rate. At Portageville, K-fertilizer additives increased grain yield from 700 to 1160 kg ha−1 compared to diammonium sulfate, depending on the K source and rate. At Malden, there was no yield response to K sources. Differences in leaf tissue K (P=0.03, S (P=0.03, B (P=0.0001, and Cu (P=0.008 concentrations among treatments were detected 14 d after treatment at Novelty and Malden. Tank mixtures of K-fertilizer additives with glyphosate may provide an option for foliar K applications.

  14. Factors affecting coastal wetland loss and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, D.R.; Phillips, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    Opening paragraph: Tidal and nontidal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed provide vital hydrologic, water-quality, and ecological functions. Situated at the interface of land and water, these valuable habitats are vulnerable to alteration and loss by human activities including direct conversion to non-wetland habitat by dredge-and-fill activities from land development, and to the effects of excessive nutrients, altered hydrology and runoff, contaminants, prescribed fire management, and invasive species. Processes such as sea-level rise and climate change also impact wetlands. Although local, State, and Federal regulations provide for protection of wetland resources, the conversion and loss of wetland habitats continue in the Bay watershed. Given the critical values of wetlands, the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement has a goal to achieve a net gain in wetlands by restoring 25,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands by 2010. The USGS has synthesized findings on three topics: (1) sea-level rise and wetland loss, (2) wetland restoration, and (3) factors affecting wetland diversity.

  15. Factors Affecting Internationalization of Indonesia Franchise Companies

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    Erwin Halim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Franchise is one of successful business strategies in business expansion. Franchise format has been already adopted in all countries. The success is proven in the world and also in Indonesia. Franchise system can be implemented not only in franchisor country but also in other countries. The spirit of internalization is not only because of market saturated, but also to increase reputation of franchise companies and to follow competitors or customers. Important thing discussed in this research is the franchise life-cycle, franchise growth model, and franchise companies’ profile.  It is found that the Indonesia franchise companies are in the introduction stage. The stage in life-cycle shows its reputation. This study used literature review as methodology, and the purpose of this study is to give a big picture for Indonesia franchise companies to make internationalization. There are some Indonesia franchise business profiles in the discussion part. The factors affecting franchise internationalization were analyzed by PESTEL analysis. Some strategies should be prepared in making decision to go international.  At the end, there are some recommendations and future research relating to internationalize franchise business.

  16. Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk

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    Rubporn Kittivachra

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044. The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

  17. Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen

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    Sompong Te-chato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. were investigated. Types of explants, strains and densities of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and co-culture methods were examined to optimize gene transformation. The results showed that among strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tested, LBA 4404 containing pBI 121 gave the calli with the highest resistance to kanamycin. Kanamycin at the concentration of 50-100 mg/l was the best range for selection of transformants. Higher density of agrobacteria tended to promote higher frequency of transformation. The best co-culture method was dipping the explant in a solution of agrobacteria for 10 minutes, followed by culturing onto co-culture medium without antibiotic for 48 hours. Among the explants used to co- culture with bacteria, half leaf treatment gave the best result for transformation; however, callus proliferation and plantlet regeneration were inferior to whole leaf treatment. Activity of β-Glucuronidase (GUS could not be detected, thus resistance to kanamycin was used for detecting transformability. Shoot primordia could be induced from kanamycin-resistant calli grown in regeneration medium. After maintenance by subculturing to the same medium 2 to 3 times in 2-3 months, the developed shoots turned brown and finally died. Hence, the transformed plant of mangosteen was not obtained from this experiment.

  18. Factors affecting protoplast formation by Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tung-Hsen; Lin, Mei-Ju; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

    2010-02-28

    Novozym 234 was the most frequently used enzyme for production of Rhizoctonia solani protoplasts. Since manufacture of this enzyme was discontinued in the late 1990s, a new procedure was developed by testing lytic enzymes from Sigma and by examining factors affecting protoplast formation. The combination of 20 mg/mL Driselase and 10mg/mL lysing enzyme was effective in releasing protoplasts from R. solani. The optimal condition for enzyme treatment of mycelium was incubation at 37 degrees C for 15 min followed by 34 degrees C for 105 min. The amount of protoplasts produced was positively correlated with growth rate and negatively correlated with mycelial density. Under favorable conditions, R. solani mycelia released 1.68 x 10(6) protoplasts/mL that is comparable with that produced with Novozym 234. Among various media tested, the best solid medium for protoplast regeneration was 1% V-8 juice agar, while the best liquid medium was 10% potato dextrose broth. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students

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    Vivien T. Supangco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality

  20. Do fertility control policies affect health in old age? Evidence from China's one-child experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Asadul; Smyth, Russell

    2015-05-01

    How do fertility control policies contribute to the welfare of women, and their husbands, particularly as they get older? We consider whether the reduction in fertility resulting from population control policies has had any effect on the health of elderly parents in China. In particular, we examine the influence of this fertility decline, experienced due to China's one-child policy, on several measures of the health of parents in middle and old age. Overall, our results suggest that having fewer children has a positive effect on self-reported parental health but generally no effect on other measures of health. The results also suggest that upstream financial transfers have a positive effect on several measures of parental health.

  1. Cadmium but not lead exposure affects Xenopus laevis fertilization and embryo cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Sylvain; Lemière, Sébastien; Hanotel, Julie; Lescuyer, Arlette; Demuynck, Sylvain; Bodart, Jean-François; Leprêtre, Alain; Marin, Matthieu

    2016-08-01

    Among the toxicological and ecotoxicological studies, few have investigated the effects on germ cells, gametes or embryos, while an impact at these stages will result in serious damage at a population level. Thus, it appeared essential to characterize consequences of environmental contaminant exposures at these stages. Therefore, we proposed to assess the effects of exposure to cadmium and lead ions, alone or in a binary mixture, on early stages of Xenopus laevis life cycle. Fertilization and cell division during segmentation were the studied endpoints. Cadmium ion exposures decreased in the fertilization rates in a concentration-dependent manner, targeting mainly the oocytes. Exposure to this metal ions induced also delays or blockages in the embryonic development. For lead ion exposure, no such effect was observed. For the exposure to the mixture of the two metal ions, concerning the fertilization success, we observed results similar to those obtained with the highest cadmium ion concentration.

  2. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

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    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  3. Residues of Eight Antibiotics in Vegetable Soils Affected by Fertilization Methods

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    BAO Chen-yan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Total forty-four representative soil samples were collected from vegetable fields in Hangzhou, Jiaxing, and Shaoxing city of Zhe-jiang Province for measuring concentrations of eight antibiotics, including chloroteracycline, tetracycline, oxytetracyline, enrofloxacin, sulfa-diazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, and tylosin. Effects of four fertilization methods(application of livestock and poultry manure, appli-cation of commercial organic fertilizer, application of biogas residue and application of chemical fertilizeron residues of the antibiotics in the soils were investigated. The results showed that the detection proportions and concentrations of the antibiotics in the soils varied with appli-cation methods of fertilizers and species of antibiotics. The concentration of chloroteracycline in the soils was much higher than those of other antibiotics. Mean percentage proportion of chloroteracycline in total residues of eight antibiotics was 67.03%. The detection proportions and concentrations of the antibiotics decreased in the sequence of chloroteracycline>sulfamethazine>enrofloxacin>tetracycline>sulfamethoxazole, tylosin>oxytetracycline>sulfadiazine. The detection proportion and concentration of the tetracyclines were greater than those of the sulfon-amides. The residues of the antibiotics in the soils applied with livestock and poultry manure were much greater than those of other vegetable soils, and the detection proportions and concentrations of the antibiotics in the soils decreased in the sequence of fields with application of livestock and poultry manure>fields with application of commercial organic fertilizer>fields with application of biogas residue>fields with ap-plication of chemical fertilizer. The results indicate that the livestock and poultry manure is the main source of antibiotics in vegetable soils, and application of commercial organic fertilizer and biogas residue also have certain contribution to antibiotics residues

  4. Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy Home ... Your Pregnancy FAQ027, September 2013 PDF Format The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy Pregnancy ...

  5. Sperm competition and the evolution of precopulatory weapons: Testis size and amplexus position, but not arm strength, affect fertilization success in a chorusing frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzatto, Bruno A; Thyer, Evan M; Roberts, J Dale; Simmons, Leigh W

    2017-02-01

    Trade-offs between pre- and postcopulatory traits influence their evolution, and male expenditure on such traits is predicted to depend on the number of competitors, the benefits from investing in weapons, and the risk and intensity of sperm competition. Males of the chorusing frog Crinia georgiana use their arms as weapons in contest competition. Previously, we showed that increased numbers of rivals elevated the risk and intensity of sperm competition due to multimale amplexus, and caused a reversal in the direction of precopulatory selection on arm girth. Here, we focused on the factors affecting postcopulatory fertilization success during group spawning, using paternity data from natural choruses. Competitive fertilization success depended on the time spent amplexed and amplexus position. Relative testes size but not arm girth, contributed to fertilization success, but the effect of testes size depended on amplexus position. Our findings offer within species empirical support for recent sperm competition models that incorporate precopulatory male-male competition, and show why an understanding of the evolution of animal weapons requires a consideration of both pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection.

  6. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin HK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyekyung Jin,1 Yeonhee Kim,2 Sandy Jeong Rhie1,3 1College of Pharmacy, 2Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, 3Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160 aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15. The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=-0.215, P=0.022, sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=-0.335, P=0.000, education level (β=-0.153, P=0.045, health-related problems (β=-0.239, P=0.004, and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018. Conclusion: In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists

  7. Soil Organic N Forms and N Supply as Affected by Fertilization Under Intensive Rice Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi-Chun; WANG Guang-Huo; XIE Weng-Xia

    2006-01-01

    Changes of soil organic nitrogen forms and soil nitrogen supply under continuous rice cropping system were investigated in a long-term fertilization experiment in Jinhua, Zhejiang Province, China. The fertilizer treatments included combination of P-K, N-K, N-P, and N-P-K as well as the control. After six years of continuous double-rice cropping, total soil N and hydrolysable N contents remained stable in plots with N treatments, while the hydrolysable N contents were substantially reduced in those plots without N application. Compared to the unbalanced fertilization treatments, P and K increased the percentage of hydrolysable ammonium N in the total soil N with the balanced application of N, and also maintained higher rice grain yields and nitrogen uptake. Grain yield was positively correlated with total N uptake (r = 0.875**),hydrolysable N (r = 0.608**), hydrolysable ammonium N (r = 0.560**) and the hydrolysable unknown N (r = 0.417**). Total N uptake was positively correlated with hydrolysable N (r = 0.608**), hydrolysable ammonium N (r = 0.440**)and hydro lysable unknown N (r = 0.431**). Soil nutrient depletion and/or unbalanced fertilization to rice crop reduced N content in soil microbial biomass, and therefore increased C/N ratio, suggesting a negative effect on the total microbial biomass in the soil.

  8. Genome Scan Detects Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Female Fertility Traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Guldbrandtsen, B; Su, G;

    2009-01-01

    Data from the joint Nordic breeding value prediction for Danish and Swedish Holstein grandsire families were used to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for female fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle. Up to 36 Holstein grandsires with over 2,000 sons were genotyped for 416 mic...

  9. Performance of low-input turfgrass species as affected by mowing and nitrogen fertilization in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Minnesota, most lawns and higher cut turfgrass areas consist primarily of species such as Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) that require significant management inputs such as frequent mowing and nitrogen fertility. Several studies have shown that oth...

  10. Maize stover and cob cell wall composition and ethanol potential as affected by nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) stover and cobs are potential feedstock sources for cellulosic ethanol production. Nitrogen (N) fertilization is an important management decision that influences cellulosic biomass and grain production, but its effect on cell wall composition and subsequent cellulosic ethanol pro...

  11. Dryland malt barley yield and quality affected by tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information is needed on the effects of management practices on dryland malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) yields and quality. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland malt barley and pea yields, grain characterist...

  12. Soil carbon and nitrogen affected by perennial grass, cover crop, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil C and N sequestration and the potential for N leaching can be influenced by the type of perennial grass, cover crop, and N fertilization due to differences in crop yields and the amount of residue returned to the soil. We evaluated the effects of the combinations of perennial grasses (energy ca...

  13. Malt barley yield and quality affected by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the comparison of management practices on malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) yield and quality in irrigated and non-irrigated cropping systems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization on malt barley yield and quality in a sandy loam s...

  14. Soil carbon and crop yields affected by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on management practices is needed to increase surface residue and soil C sequestration to obtain farm C credit. The effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization were evaluated on the amount of crop biomass (stems and leaves) returned to the soil, surface residue C...

  15. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-01-01

    .... Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan...

  16. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  17. Factors affecting pelvic rotation in idiopathic scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunfei; Qi, Lin; Yang, Jun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yang, Changwei; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pelvic rotation (PR) is commonly seen in patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS), but factors contributing to this phenomenon and its relationship with the surgical outcome are not well established. This retrospective study included 85 IS patients in 2 groups: thoracic curve dominance group (group A) and lumbar curve dominance group (group B). Pre- and postoperative PR was measured on standing posteroanterior radiographs by the left/right ratio (L/R ratio) of horizontal distance between the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the inferior ilium (SI) at the sacroiliac joint on the same side in both groups. Other radiographic data, age, sex, and Risser sign of each patient were recorded to analyze their correlations with PR before and after operation. The patients ranged in age from 10 to 35 years with a mean of 17.0 ± 5.2 years. The mean L/R ratio of PR before operation was 0.99 (0.73–1.40) versus 0.98 (0.87–1.26) after operation. The L/R ration was beyond the range of 1 ± 0.1 (indicating the presence of PR) in 17 (20%) patients before operation and in 14 (16.5%) patients after operation. There was no significant difference in PR between the 2 groups of patients either before (P = 0.468) or after (P = 0.944) surgery. The preoperative PR showed a very low correlation with Risser sign (r = 0.220, P = 0.043), apex vertebral rotation (AVR) in the proximal thoracic curve (r = 0.242, P = 0.026), and AVR in the lumbar curve (r = 0.213, P = 0.049), while the postoperative PR showed a very low correlation with Risser sign (r = −0.341, P = 0.001) and postoperative trunk shift (TS) (r = −0.282, P = 0.009). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that preoperative PR was affected by proximal thoracic curve AVR and lumbar curve AVR. There was no significant difference between PR before operation and 2 years after operation. Preoperative PR was mainly correlated with Risser sign and the rotation

  18. Archaeal dominated ammonia-oxidizing communities in Icelandic grassland soils are moderately affected by long-term N fertilization and geothermal heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eDaebeler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA, respectively to the net oxidation of ammonia varies greatly between terrestrial environments. To better understand, predict and possibly manage terrestrial nitrogen turnover, we need to develop a conceptual understanding of ammonia oxidation as a function of environmental conditions including the ecophysiology of the associated organisms. We examined the discrete and combined effects of mineral nitrogen deposition and geothermal heating on ammonia-oxidizing communities by sampling soils from a long-term fertilisation site along a temperature gradient in Icelandic grasslands. Microarray, clone library and quantitative PCR analyses of the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene accompanied by physico-chemical measurements of the soil properties were conducted. In contrast to most other terrestrial environments, the ammonia-oxidizing communities consisted almost exclusively of archaea. Their bacterial counterparts proved to be undetectable by quantitative PCR suggesting AOB are only of minor relevance for ammonia oxidation in these soils. Our results show that fertilization and local, geothermal warming affected detectable ammonia-oxidizing communities, but not soil chemistry: only a subset of the detected AOA phylotypes was present in higher temperature soils and AOA abundance was increased in the fertilized soils, while the measured soil physico-chemical properties remained unchanged. Differences in distribution and structure of AOA communities were best explained by soil pH and clay content irrespective of temperature or fertilizer treatment in these grassland soils, suggesting that these factors have a greater potential for ecological niche-differentiation of AOA in soil than temperature and N fertilization.

  19. Identification of Factors Affecting Educational Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified the variables that tend to affect educational performance among ... The population for the study consisted of students of Lagos State University, ... These were: Circumstances, Parental Authority, Socio- Economic Label, Self ...

  20. Foliar Potassium Fertilizer Additives Affect Soybean Response and Weed Control with Glyphosate

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Kelly A.; Peter P. Motavalli; Stevens, William E.; Kendig, John A.; David Dunn; Manjula Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Research in 2004 and 2005 determined the effects of foliar-applied K-fertilizer sources (0-0-62-0 (%N-%P2O5-%K2O-%S), 0-0-25-17, 3-18-18-0, and 5-0-20-13) and additive rates (2.2, 8.8, and 17.6 kg K ha−1) on glyphosate-resistant soybean response and weed control. Field experiments were conducted at Novelty and Portageville with high soil test K and weed populations and at Malden with low soil test K and weed populations. At Novelty, grain yield increased with fertilizer additives at 8.8 kg K ...

  1. Phosphate fertilizer affected rhizospheric soils: speciation of cadmium and phytoremediation by Chlorophytum comosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youbao; Zhu, Chengfeng; Yang, Hongfei; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2017-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of phosphate fertilization on chemical speciation of cadmium (Cd) in the rhizospheric soil of Chlorophytum comosum, a potential cadmium hyperaccumulator. The results revealed that when 200 mg kg(-1) phosphate was applied into the soil, the Cd contents in the exchangeable fraction (EXC), carbonate-binding fraction (CA), and Fe-Mn oxides-binding fraction (Fe-Mn) were the highest, and the Cd content in the residual fraction (RES) was the lowest. Phosphate fertilization could enhance Cd conversion from RES into CA and weak RES, thereby improving the bioavailability of Cd and enhancing Cd enrichment and adsorption by C. comosum. The total Cd content in the soil was reduced by 10.15 mg kg(-1) in the planted group, which was significantly different from the control group (p soil by C. comosum.

  2. Characterizing differences in the phosphorus activation coefficient of three typical cropland soils and the influencing factors under long-term fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihua; Zhang, Shuxiang; Zhu, Ping; Huang, Shaomin; Wang, Boren; Zhao, LinPing; Xu, Minggang

    2017-01-01

    The phosphorus activation coefficient (PAC, the ratio of available P to total P) is an important indicator of soil P availability and the transformation of P fractions. Understanding the details of the PAC is useful to estimate soil available P status and to provide P management guidance. In this research, soils from five long-term (23 years) fertilization treatments in three croplands were selected to examine the relationships between the PAC and P fractions and to analyse the influencing factors. PAC was affected by both soil types and fertilization treatments. Compared to the unfertilized control (CK) treatment, long-term P application significantly increased the PAC, all of the inorganic P (Pi) fractions and most of the organic P (Po) fractions in all the three soils, particularly in chemical fertilizer combined with manure treatment (NPKM). The PAC was significantly correlated to all of the Pi fractions proportions (Pvariance partitioning analysis showed that more variance of PAC is explained by soil factors (29.53%) than by P input (0.19%) and climate (0.25%) factors. Our findings demonstrate that P application increased the PAC by changing the Co content and the proportion of P fractions. Moreover, soil factors were the most important drivers of P transformations, and NPKM was optimal for improving soil fertility in Chinese croplands.

  3. Carbohydrates Concentration in leaves of potato plants affected by nitrogen fertilization rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heder Braun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT At poor conditions of nitrogen (N in the soil, potato plants may accumulate starch in leaves and be indicative of N nutritional stress. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of N rates (0, 50, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 of N on the concentrations of carbohydrates (total soluble sugars-TSS, reducing sugars-RS, non-reducing sugars-NRS and starch in the fourth leaf (FL of two potato cultivars (Asterix and Atlantic and their critical levels (CL associated to the N fertilization rate necessary to obtain the maximum physical (MPE and economic (MEE efficiency of tubers. A randomized block design with four replications was used in both experiments. On day 21 after plant emergence, four FL were collected from four plants. Potatoes plants fertilized with low rates of N accumulated less TSS in leaves than those properly fertilized. The opposite occurred with content of starch. The cultivars showed similar responses to five doses of N in relation to contents of starch and TSS. However, the response to the increase in doses of N for RS, NRS and Starch/NRS is cultivar-specific. The correlations between contents of RS, NRS and Starch/NRS with the starch and TSS were dependent on the potato cultivar.

  4. Fertilizer residence time affects nitrogen uptake efficiency and growth of sweet corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotarelli, L; Scholberg, J M; Dukes, M D; Muñoz-Carpena, R

    2008-01-01

    Understanding plant N uptake dynamics is critical for increasing fertilizer N uptake efficiency (FUE) and minimize the risk of N leaching. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of residence time of N fertilizer on N uptake and FUE of sweet corn. Plants were grown in 25 L columns during the fall and spring to mimic short-term N uptake dynamics. Nitrogen was applied either 1, 3, or 7 d before a weekly leaching event, using KNO3 solution (total of 393 kg N ha(-1)). Residence times (tR) were tR-1, tR-3, and tR-7 d before weekly removal of residual soil N. Plant N uptake was calculated by comparing weekly N recovery from planted with non-planted columns. During the fall, N uptake values at 70 d after emergence were 59, 73, and 126 kg N ha(-1). During the spring, corresponding values were 54, 108, and 159 kg N ha(-1). A linear response of plant growth and yield to the tR was observed under cooler conditions, whereas a quadratic response occurred under warmer conditions. There was correlation between root length density and yield. It is concluded that increasing N fertilizer residence time, which is indicative of better irrigation practices, enhanced overall sweet corn growth, yield, N uptake, and FUE, consequently reduced the risk of N being leached below the root zone before complete N uptake.

  5. Study of psychiatric disorders among fertile and infertile women and some predisposing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Noorbala

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine prevalence and predisposing factors of psychiatric disorders among infertile in comparison to fertile women. Materials and Methods:  By a descriptive- analytic study in Vali-e-asr Reproductive Health Research Center, 300 women entered the research.   Symptom Checklist -90 -Revised (SCL-90-R test and structured researcher questionnaires were applied for all patients. Demographic characteristics and predisposing psychological and personality factors were recorded and psychological symptoms were scaled. For data analysis, SPSS-11-5 software system, chi-square and T-test were used.  P-value <0.05 was considered significant.Results: Results showed that 44% of infertile and 28.7% of fertile women had psychiatric disorders. Using SCL-90-R test, the highest mean scores among infertile women were found for paranoid ideation, depression and interpersonal sensitivity scales and the lowest scores were related to psychoticism and phobic anxiety scales. Interpersonal sensitivity, depression, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideas and psychoticism scales were significantly different between infertile and fertile women (p<0.05. Housewives were at a statistically significant higher risk for psychiatric disorders as compared to working women (p<0.001. Conclusion: The significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders among infertile women mandates a more serious attention from gynecologists, psychiatrists and psychologists regarding to diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

  6. The participation of women in the labour force of Latin America: fertility and other factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizaga, J C

    1974-01-01

    The level of labor force participation among Latin American women, when compared with participation rates for other countries, is the lowest in the world. Only 20% or less of women 10 years of age and older are economically active. This level did not change much between 1950 and 1970. Few women work in agriculture. The following factors are considered for their effect on labor force participation of urban women: marital status, education, income, and the structure and stage of development of the society. Married women have a low participation rate. More highly educated women are more likely to work, but there must be demand for their work services. As the economy of various countries has progressed, female participation in domestic services has decreased, in industry has remained constant between 1960 and 1970, and in social services has expanded. It is concluded that work participation for married women will only increase with the following changes: 1) improved educational opportunities for women; 2) structural change and modernization in the economy; and 3) reduced family fertility. Changes in the first 2 factors are more important than reduced fertility. Since 1960, only Chile and Costa Rica have had a 25% decline in fertility rates.

  7. Ecological factors affecting the distribution of zooplankton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Key words: Massa Lagoon, zooplankton, environmental factors. ... and Lucena, 2001) have also mentioned the influence of .... positive correlation with water temperature (r = 0.41) and .... carnivore species copepod, Acanthocyclops robustus.

  8. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid

  9. Factors affecting the retrieval of famous names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel Pavão; Loureiro, Clara; Rodrigues, Susana; Dias, Beatriz; Slade, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Tests of famous faces are used to study language and memory. Yet, the effect of stimulus properties on performance has not been fully investigated. To identify factors influencing proper name retrieval and to probe stimulus-specific parameters within proper name lexicon, we analysed the results obtained by 300 healthy participants on a test of famous faces that includes 74 personalities. A factor analysis yielded five main factors that were characterized by language (national or foreign names), epoch of peak popularity (current, recent or past) and occupation (politicians, entertainment and sports) of the personalities. Multiple regression analysis showed that participants' education, age and gender accounted for 10-32% of the variance in factor scores. These results indicate that there are variables of the stimulus and participants' that must be taken into account in proper name testing and in designing tests aimed to differentiate age-associated difficulties from cognitive decline.

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTION OF WILD UNGULATES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Wildlife Science - Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas. ... The major factors considered are vegetation, water, fire, cattle grazing, ... reproduction of ungulates on three ranches and then to relate these data to ...

  11. Factors affecting robust retail energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelman, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This paper briefly defines an active retail market, details the factors that influence market activity and their relative importance, compares activity in various retail energy markets to date, and predicts future retail energy market activity. Three primary factors translate into high market activity: supplier margins, translated into potential savings for actively shopping customers; market size; and market barriers. The author surveys activity nationwide and predicts hot spots for the coming year.

  12. Identifying factors affecting optimal management of agricultural water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2015-01-01

    In addition to quantitative methodology such as descriptive statistics and factor analysis a qualitative methodology was employed for dynamic simulation among variables through Vensim software. In this study, the factor analysis technique was used through the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett tests. From the results, four key elements were identified as factors affecting the optimal management of agricultural water in Hamedan area. These factors were institutional and legal factors, technical and knowledge factors, economic factors and social factors.

  13. Development of the knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNees P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Angela Jukkala1, Karen Meneses1, Andres Azuero1, June Cho1, Patrick McNees1,21School of Nursing, 2School of Health Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAObjective: Infertility is a severe and often underestimated consequence of successful treatment for breast cancer. Ensuring young breast cancer survivors receive patient-centered health information on the impact of treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options in a timely manner is a critical component of high quality nursing care. The objective of this manuscript is to report the process used to develop and examine the reliability and validity of an instrument to measure a breast cancer survivor’s self-assessed knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation.Design: A scale development and descriptive study.Setting: Online and global.Participants: Ninety-two young breast cancer survivors (ages 25–45 years.Methods: Participants completed the Knowledge of Fertility and Fertility Preservation (KF Scale as part of their participation in a larger study, the Fertility Cancer Project (FCP.Results: An exploratory factor analysis revealed five domains: normal reproductive function; general information about fertility; cancer treatment factors affecting fertility; infertility information; and alternative parenting options. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the validity of the construct with a demonstrated good fit between the factor structure of the new scale and the observed data. Many participants self-assessed their overall knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation as “a little” and the majority rated their knowledge of infertility information as “a little”.Conclusion: The KF Scale can be used to provide useful information to support health care professionals in the development of patient-centered education that is responsive to the unique needs of each young breast cancer survivor. The initial testing of the KF Scale indicates

  14. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates.

  15. Factors affecting levodopa effects in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogawa N

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Levodopa is the gold standard for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD because of its outstanding clinical efficacy. However, the majority of patients experience various adverse reactions, including the wearing-off phenomenon, the on-off phenomenon, dyskinesia and psychiatric symptoms. The response to levodopa depends not only on the intrinsic responsiveness of the patients, but also on various other important factors including the type of levodopa preparation, its absorption/metabolism, the blood-brain barrier, age at onset of disease and concomitant use of anti-parkinsonian drugs. This review summarizes factors which influence the effects of levodopa in PD. To minimize levodopa-induced adverse reactions and to relieve long-term parkinsonian symptoms, levodopa therapy should be conducted by taking these factors into consideration.

  16. Factors Affecting Postsurgery Hip Fracture Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney Wallace

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After hip fracture surgery, patients seldom return to their prefracture functional state and there is a 43% rate of mortality and institutionalisation of postsurgery hip fracture patients. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify preoperative, perioperative, postoperative, and psychosocial factors that may hinder postsurgery hip fracture patients from returning to previous functionality. Factors that were identified as being associated with postsurgical outcomes were age, muscle strength, prefracture living arrangements, number of daily medications taken, oxygen levels, fracture type and location, haemoglobin (Hb level, wait time prior to surgery, length of hospital stay (LOS, and dementia or depression.

  17. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  18. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    states, are more amenable to analysis. This is exemplified by factors contributing, respectively, to blood oxygen affinity and placental diffusing capacity. Comparative genomics has given fresh insight into the evolution of the beta-globin gene complex. In higher primates, duplication of an embryonic...

  19. How do mineral fertilization and plant growth regulators affect yield and morphology of naked oat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Witkowicz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Oat (Avena sativa var. nuda is of an increasing interest in many parts of the world. This is why plant breeders have developed forms that are morphologically different from the current ones, such as naked, dwarf or with an increased 1000-grain-weight. In three experiments conducted at two sites, the influence of phosphorus (P and potassium (K fertilizers, spray application of urea and spray application of plant growth regulators (PGRs Promalin (gibberellins + cytokinin and Moddus (cimectacarps on the yield and morphological traits of different oat forms were studied. At a better site, only genotype statistically influenced oat grain yield. At a poorer site, apart from genotype there were statistically significant responses to P and K fertilizers and to the application of Moddus (especially in the experiment with a dwarf cultivar. The internode and panicle length were modified mostly by cimectacarps, which shortened specific internodes, but not the panicle. The PGR Promalin had no significant effect on oat stem morphology.

  20. The mustard trypsin inhibitor 2 affects the fertility of Spodoptera littoralis larvae fed on transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, F; Gallerani, R

    2002-05-01

    The effects of mustard trypsin inhibitor MTI-2 expressed at different levels in transgenic tobacco lines have been evaluated by feeding the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis throughout its larval life. Specific conditions were selected to study the long-term effects of feeding larvae on transgenic plants expressing the inhibitor at various levels. The data obtained led to the establishment of three relevant parameters to be considered during the experimentation: (i) the PI content of the plant lines to be used; (ii) the developmental stage of larvae sensitive to that PI content; (iii) the ratio of MTI-2/proteases sufficient to inhibit gut proteases. The experimental data obtained from feeding S. littoralis larvae using these conditions led to two main results. First, when L2 S. littoralis larvae were fed on high MTI-2 expressing tobacco plants, no effects on larval development were detected but there was a significantly reduced fertility. When the same larvae were fed on low expressing MTI-2 tobacco plants, only a less marked lowering of fertility was observed. Second, after the first generation, no differences in protease activity were observed in insects derived from larvae fed on high or low MTI-2 expressing tobacco lines, suggesting that genetic traits observed in previous studies were not inherited.

  1. Factors affecting the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周昌德

    2001-01-01

    @@Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) occurs more frequently in young males than in females. The prevalence of AS in Taiwan, according to our previous study, is about 0.3%.1 AS mainly affects the spine, however, it can also result in peripheral arthritis that occurs in the toes, ankles, knees, hip joints and the tendon and ligaments around those joints.2 In addition, the spine of some AS patients may develop kyphoscoliosis due to late diagnosis or failure to cooperate in following the routine medication and exercises prescribed by their doctors.

  2. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette;

    2008-01-01

    . A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  3. Political and institutional factors affecting systems engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, John F.

    1993-01-01

    External groups have a significant impact on NASA's programs. Ten groups affecting NASA are identified, and examples are given for some of the them. Methods of dealing with these external inputs are discussed, the most important being good and open two way communications and an objective attitude on the part of the NASA participants. The importance of planning ahead, of developing rapport with these groups, and of effective use of NASA contractors is covered. The need for an overall strategic plan for the U.S. space program is stressed.

  4. Internal factors affecting the jury members verdict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of socio-demographic and individual psychological characteristics that influence the verdict of jury. The study involved 38 men and women aged 25 to 64 years. With the help of a questionnaire, developed on the basis of legal development model by J. Tapp and F. Levine, we revealed levels of jury members’ legal conscience, which, together with socio-demographic characteristics and personality characteristics of the subjects, identified by R. Cattell 16PF Questionnaire, were related to the responses on the Questionnaire while returning verdict on specially selected criminal cases with implicit guilt of the defendant. According to the study, it was determined that the socio-demographic characteristics of the jurors did not significantly affect their verdict, and among the psychological characteristics of the jurors the greatest impact on their verdict has the level of legal development. Thus, depending on the nature of the crime (violent, non-violent or committed through negligence, the same level of legal conscience differently affect the decision of jurors.

  5. Factors affecting patient education from cultural perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD REZA HEIDARI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient education is influenced by cultural factors. This study aims to find out the role of culture in patient education. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted on 23 Iranian nurses. Inclusion criteria were minimum 5 years of working experience in clinical nursing. Semistructured face to face interviews were used to collect the data. Interviews were taped, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis method. Results: The main theme of ‘cultural sensitivity’ was extracted from the interviews. Sub-themes were cultural divergence, cultural connection literacybased instruction. Conclusion: A dynamic process of patient education is influenced by various cultural factors. Nurses must be aware of the cultural norms in patient education to meet their expectations in a respectful manner.

  6. Factors that Affect the Lung Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhala, Shweta; Singh, H. S.; Singh, S. K.; Lalwani, Gautam

    The lung is an external organ forming the site of unwanted material or particles. In order to protect it, the airways have to be highly effective filters and if the particle deposit they need to be cleared. Inhaled particles can cause a variety of diseases. There are various factors on which the prediction of depositing particles depends, such as age, particle size, flow rate gender, the physics of the particles, the anatomy of the respiratory tract etc.

  7. Environmental Factors Affecting Avian Reproduction and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Darcy Fay Kato

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate timing of reproduction is crucial to animals’ reproductive success and fitness. Animals living in unpredictable environments do not constrain their breeding to one season, but rather breed any time of the year in which good conditions occur. These animals, termed “opportunistic” breeders, cannot predict when good conditions will occur based on the seasons, and must instead respond quickly to proximate environmental factors to successfully breed and raise young. Animals may resp...

  8. Factors affecting the environmental carrying capacity of a freshwater tropical lake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullakkezhil Reghunathan, Vishnuprasad; Joseph, Sabu; Warrier, C Unnikrishnan; Hameed, A Shahul; Albert Moses, Sheela

    2016-11-01

    Environmental carrying capacity is a measure of competence of a lake to accommodate pollution inputs without degrading water quality. In the research reported here, we identified the factors influencing the environmental carrying capacity of Vellayani Lake or VL (a typical tropical freshwater lake), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala State, India. R-mode factor analysis is used to identify the factors controlling the carrying capacity of the lake, whereas hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) helped to classify the lake. The carrying capacity of the lake is low with respect to alkalinity, due to ion deficiency, and is potentially reactive to sudden changes in pH. Eutrophic condition exists in the entire lake system. Acidic factor, mineralization factor, fertilizer factor (P & K), evaporation factor and organic pollution factor are the controllers of VL water quality during the pre-monsoon period. The same factors (but not evaporation factor) and an additional runoff factor control the water quality during monsoon. In the post-monsoon, the aforesaid factors (other than runoff, alkalinity) and soil erosion factor influence the water quality. Hence, managers of the lake system need to also focus on combating acidic factor during pre- and post-monsoons and runoff during monsoon. Smaller areal extent and shallow depth of VL, reduced outflow from it, less rainfall, presence of lateritic rock and soil and absence of limestone strata in the catchment are the chief elements affecting the acidic factor of Vellayani Lake.

  9. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan FERENCZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  10. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan FERENCZ; František JÚN; Dušan KEVICKÝ

    2008-01-01

    The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  11. Factors affecting anxiety-fear of surgical procedures in dentistry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting anxiety-fear of surgical procedures in dentistry. ... the questions concerning previous dental experience, education level, and previous ... structure and gender are the significantly effective factors on dental anxiety and fear.

  12. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  13. Biofortification and bioavailability of rice grain zinc as affected by different forms of foliar zinc fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn biofortification through foliar Zn application is an attractive strategy to reduce human Zn deficiency. However, little is known about the biofortification efficiency and bioavailability of rice grain from different forms of foliar Zn fertilizers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four different Zn forms were applied as a foliar treatment among three rice cultivars under field trial. Zinc bioavailability was assessed by in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Foliar Zn fertilization was an effective agronomic practice to promote grain Zn concentration and Zn bioavailability among three rice cultivars, especially, in case of Zn-amino acid and ZnSO(4. On average, Zn-amino acid and ZnSO(4 increased Zn concentration in polished rice up to 24.04% and 22.47%, respectively. On average, Zn-amino acid and ZnSO(4 increased Zn bioavailability in polished rice up to 68.37% and 64.43%, respectively. The effectiveness of foliar applied Zn-amino acid and ZnSO(4 were higher than Zn-EDTA and Zn-Citrate on improvement of Zn concentration, and reduction of phytic acid, as a results higher accumulation of bioavailable Zn in polished rice. Moreover, foliar Zn application could maintain grain yield, the protein and minerals (Fe and Ca quality of the polished rice. CONCLUSIONS: Foliar application of Zn in rice offers a practical and useful approach to improve bioavailable Zn in polished rice. According to current study, Zn-amino acid and ZnSO(4 are recommended as excellent foliar Zn forms to ongoing agronomic biofortification.

  14. Asthma affects time to pregnancy and fertility: a register-based twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Elisabeth J; Thomsen, Simon F; Lindenberg, Svend; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Lieberoth, Sofie; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-04-01

    Coexistence of infertility and asthma has been observed clinically. Therefore, we investigated the association between asthma and delayed pregnancy in a nationwide population-based cohort of twins. A cohort of 15 250 twins living in Denmark (aged 12-41 years) participated in a questionnaire study including questions about the presence of asthma and fertility. Differences in time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome were analysed in subjects with asthma, allergy and in healthy individuals using multiple regression analysis. Asthma was associated with an increased time to pregnancy, the percentage of asthmatics with a time to pregnancy >1 year was 27% versus 21.6% for non-asthmatics (OR (95% CI) 1.31 (1.1-1.6); p=0.009). The association remained significant after adjustment for age, age at menarche, body mass index and socioeconomic status (OR (95% CI) 1.25 (1.0-1.6); p=0.05), and was more pronounced in those >30 years of age (32.2% versus 24.9%, OR (95% CI) 1.44 (1.1-1.9); p=0.04). Untreated asthmatics had a significant increased risk of prolonged time to pregnancy compared to healthy individuals (OR (95% CI) 1.79 (1.20-2.66); p=0.004), while asthmatics receiving any kind of treatment for asthma tended to have a shorter time to pregnancy than untreated asthmatics (OR 1.40; p=0.134). Asthma prolongs time to pregnancy. The negative effect of asthma on fertility increases with age and with disease intensity, indicating that a systemic disease characterised by systemic inflammation also can involve reproductive processes.

  15. DOMINANT FACTORS AFFECTING SEAWEED (Gracilaria verrucosa PRODUCTION IN ACID SULFATE SOILS-AFFECTED PONDS OF LUWU REGENCY, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Mustafa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of brackish water ponds used for seaweed (Gracilaria verrucosa culture in Luwu Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia are constructed on acid sulfate soil. Despite this inevitable condition, opportunities remain open to increase the seaweed production. The research was conducted to study the dominant factors that affect the seaweed production in ASS-affected ponds of Luwu Regency. As a dependent variable in this research is seaweed production. Independent variables were grouped into: (a farmer status factor, consisting of 9 variables; (b pond condition factor, consisting of 8 variables; (c pond management factor, consisting of 29 variables; (d soil quality factor, consisting of 17 variables and (e water quality factor, consisting of 11 variables. Multiple regression with dummy variable was used to analyze the data in prediction dependent variable. Results show that the average of seaweed production in ASS-affected pond of Luwu Regency is 11,000 kg dry/ha/year. Seaweed production can be increased through: (a decreasing dosage of urea and KCl and increasing dosage and frequency of fertilizer containing phosphate; (b increasing water depth in the pond and decreasing percentage of water exchange,(c conducting remediation to increase the soil pH and decreasing the concentration of Fe in the water, (d increasing stocking density of milkfish to decrease the epiphyte population and (e increasing the frequency of the farmer to attend trainings.

  16. Factors affecting membership in specialty nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary Joe; Olson, Rhonda S

    2004-01-01

    A discouraging trend in many specialty nursing organizations is the stagnant or declining membership. The research committee of the Southeast Texas Chapter of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN) collected data and studied this trend to determine what changes would be necessary to increase membership. Using Herzberg's motivational theory as a framework, a review of the literature was initiated. There were few current studies on this issue, but relevant information was found about nursing's emerging workforce, as well as implications of the growth of magnet hospitals, which affect whether nurses join specialty nursing organizations. A multifaceted data-collection approach using convenience samples was designed. First, relevant literature was reviewed. Second, a survey was sent by e-mail to other ARN chapters. Third, a telephone survey on other specialty organizations in the geographic region was completed. Finally, members of the local ARN chapter and four other specialty organizations, as well staff nurses in the geographic area, were given questionnaires to complete. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to determine why nurses do and do not join specialty organizations (N = 81). The most frequent reasons for joining an organization were to increase knowledge, benefit professionally, network, and earn continuing education units. Reasons for choosing not to participate were family responsibilities, lack of information about these organizations, and lack of time. Ways to reverse the decline in membership are discussed.

  17. Factors affecting home range of mallard pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechmann, J.H.

    1976-06-01

    Certain habitat and social factors were investigated for their effect on home range size of mallard (Anas platyhynchos) pairs breeding in a forested region of north-central Minnesota during the spring of 1971--72. Data from 31 radio-marked hens and drakes were used, but primary emphasis was placed on 8 pairs (5 with both members of the pair marked). Pairs were radio-tracked on river marsh areas, river channels, and large sand lakes to provide comparative data for evaluating home range size differences. Home ranges varied from an average of 53 ha for pairs using primarily river habitat to 871 ha for pairs using only large sand lakes. River and lake shorelines varied considerably in species and density of vegetation. Interaction between pairs as well as density of flocked males appeared to be influenced by these habitat differences with resultant effects on home range sizes.

  18. Factors affecting frontline workers' satisfaction with supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noelker, Linda S; Ejaz, Farida K; Menne, Heather L; Bagaka's, Joshua G

    2009-02-01

    Objective. This research was guided by a stress and support model to examine the effects of frontline workers' background characteristics, personal stressors, job-related stressors, and workplace support on satisfaction with supervision. Method. Survey data were collected from 644 workers in 49 long-term-care settings that employed them. Regression analysis were used to determine the effects of worker level and then Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and organizational factors on the outcome. Results. Although all four variable categories made significant contributions to explaining satisfaction with supervision, the most powerful were personal stressors and job-related stressors. Results from HLM analysis showed frontline workers in nursing homes and those employed in for-profit organizations had lower levels of satisfaction with supervision. Discussion. Findings suggest organizational interventions to address workers' financial and health issues and management practices such as better training programs and peer mentoring could enhance workers' satisfaction with supervision.

  19. Physical factors affecting chloroquine binding to melanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, R L; Pendleton, P; Gerber, J P

    2015-10-01

    Chloroquine is an antimalarial drug but is also prescribed for conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Long-term users risk toxic side effects, including retinopathy, thought to be caused by chloroquine accumulation on ocular melanin. Although the binding potential of chloroquine to melanin has been investigated previously, our study is the first to demonstrate clear links between chloroquine adsorption by melanin and system factors including temperature, pH, melanin type, and particle size. In the current work, two Sepia melanins were compared with bovine eye as a representative mammalian melanin. Increasing the surface anionic character due to a pH change from 4.7 to 7.4 increased each melanin's affinity for chloroquine. Although the chloroquine isotherms exhibited an apparently strong interaction with each melanin, isosteric heat analysis indicated a competitive interaction. Buffer solution cations competed effectively at low surface coverage; chloroquine adsorption occurs via buffer cation displacement and is promoted by temperature-influenced secondary structure swelling.

  20. Factors affecting calcium balance in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jing; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ailing; Du, Weijing; Wang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaoqi; Ma, Guansheng

    2010-01-01

    Chinese dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for calcium were developed mainly from studies conducted amongst Caucasians, yet a recent review showed that reference calcium intakes for Asians are likely to be different from those of Caucasians (Lee and Jiang, 2008). In order to develop calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents, it is necessary to explore the characteristics and potential influencing factors of calcium metabolic balance in Chinese adolescents. A total of 80 students (15.1+/-0.8 years) were recruited stratified by gender from a 1-year calcium supplementation study. Subjects were randomly designed to four groups and supplemented with calcium carbonate tablets providing elemental calcium at 63, 354, 660, and 966 mg/day, respectively. Subjects consumed food from a 3-day cycle menu prepared by staff for 10 days. Elemental calcium in samples of foods, feces, and urine was determined in duplicates by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The total calcium intake ranged from 352 to 1323 mg/day. The calcium apparent absorption efficiency and retention in boys were significantly higher than that in girls (68.7% vs. 46.4%, 480 mg/day vs. 204 mg/day, PCalcium retention increased with calcium intakes, but did not reach a plateau. Calcium absorption efficiency in boys increased with calcium intake up to 665 mg/day, and decreased after that. In girls, calcium absorption efficiency decreased with calcium intake. Calcium absorption efficiency increased within 1 year after first spermatorrhea in boys, but decreased with pubertal development in girls. Sex, calcium intake, age, and pubertal development were the most important determinants of calcium absorption (R(2)=0.508, Pcalcium intake, age, and pubertal development are important factors for calcium retention and absorption during growth, which should be considered for the development of calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents.

  1. Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Bowman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, market dynamics, and product mixes. Within this vision, diversified farming systems (DFS have emerged as a model that incorporates functional biodiversity at multiple temporal and spatial scales to maintain ecosystem services critical to agricultural production. Our aim is to provide an economists' perspective on the factors which make diversified farming systems (DFS economically attractive, or not-so-attractive, to farmers, and to discuss the potential for and roadblocks to widespread adoption. We focus on how a range of existing and emerging factors drive profitability and adoption of DFS. We believe that, in order for DFS to thrive, a number of structural changes are needed. These include: 1 public and private investment in the development of low-cost, practical technologies that reduce the costs of production in DFS, 2 support for and coordination of evolving markets for ecosystem services and products from DFS and 3 the elimination of subsidies and crop insurance programs that perpetuate the unsustainable production of staple crops. We suggest that subsidies and funding be directed, instead, toward points 1 and 2, as well as toward incentives for consumption of nutritious food.

  2. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsa M.E

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol is one of the major risk factors for individuals’ and society’s health. Alcohol consumption is present since ancient years in Europe, constituting tradition, with Europeans preferring different kinds of alcohol depending on the geographic location of their country. The economic crisis that European citizens are undergoing nowadays, has an impact on their health and more specifically there has been a significant increase in alcohol consumption. Material and Methods: The purpose of this study is to explore the factors which effect the alcohol consumption and consequences of this consumption in Europe. Literature review of relevant articles, published from 2005 to 2013, to these databases: WHO, Google scholar, PubMed. Finally, 42 studies were used to our review. Results: The alcohol consumption is connected with the economic situation of the country, the availability of alcohol, the restrictions and taxes of each country. Alcohol consumption is also related with the gender and age of each individual. In Central-eastern Europe, in contrast to the south Europe, the greatest percentage of mortality caused by the alcohol consumption is found. 35,95% is the mortality rate which is found in Europe. Regarding Greece in recent years, alcohol consumption has declined, while the rates of intoxication have shown as light increase. Conclusions: The lack of legislation, the non-existence of a minimum sale price and the increased availability, can lead to increased incidence of mortality caused by the alcohol consumption. Further research regarding the correlation of economic crisis and alcohol consumption is necessary.

  3. Is the Association Between Education and Fertility Postponement Causal? The Role of Family Background Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropf, Felix C; Mandemakers, Jornt J

    2017-02-01

    A large body of literature has demonstrated a positive relationship between education and age at first birth. However, this relationship may be partly spurious because of family background factors that cannot be controlled for in most research designs. We investigate the extent to which education is causally related to later age at first birth in a large sample of female twins from the United Kingdom (N = 2,752). We present novel estimates using within-identical twin and biometric models. Our findings show that one year of additional schooling is associated with about one-half year later age at first birth in ordinary least squares (OLS) models. This estimate reduced to only a 1.5-month later age at first birth for the within-identical twin model controlling for all shared family background factors (genetic and family environmental). Biometric analyses reveal that it is mainly influences of the family environment-not genetic factors-that cause spurious associations between education and age at first birth. Last, using data from the Office for National Statistics, we demonstrate that only 1.9 months of the 2.74 years of fertility postponement for birth cohorts 1944-1967 could be attributed to educational expansion based on these estimates. We conclude that the rise in educational attainment alone cannot explain differences in fertility timing between cohorts.

  4. DMPP-added nitrogen fertilizer affects soil N2O emission and microbial activity in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Luca; De Marco, Anna; Maglione, Giuseppe; Polimeno, Franca; Di Tommasi, Paul; Magliulo, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    plots, whereas an opposite trend for basal respiration was observed, thus evidencing a stressful condition for nitrifying microbial population. After 57 and 71 DAS, when fertilizer was applied as 30 kg N ha-1, the microbial biomass was similar between C and DMPP plots, whereas basal respiration resulted statistically lower in DMPP plots than C plots. During these periods, average DMPP N2O fluxes were also comparable or lower. In conclusion, our data evidence a stressful condition for soil microbes and in particular for nitrifiers when a higher DMPP quantity is supplied. On the contrary, when lower quantities of DMPP-added fertilizers are supplied (e.s. 30 kg N ha-1) effectiveness of DMPP in reducing soil N2O emission is guaranteed by reducing the nitrifiers activity without negatively affecting their growth.

  5. Factors Affecting Hypertension among the Malaysian Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ataollahi Eshkoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common chronic disease in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, nutritional parameters, and blood elements on the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. This research was conducted on a group of 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of hypertension in respondents. Approximately, 45.61% of subjects had hypertension. The findings indicated that the female gender (Odds ratio (OR = 1.54, an increase in body weight (OR = 1.61, and an increase in the blood levels of albumin (OR = 1.51, glucose (OR = 1.92, and triglycerides (OR = 1.27 significantly increased the risk of hypertension in subjects (p < 0.05. Conversely, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates (OR = 0.74, and blood cholesterol level (OR = 0.42 significantly reduced the risk of hypertension in samples (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that ethnicity was a non-relevant factor to increase the risk of hypertension in subjects. It was concluded that female gender, an increase in body weight, and an increase in the blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, and albumin enhanced the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. In addition, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates and blood cholesterol level decreased hypertension in subjects.

  6. Factors affecting mortality in patients with burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erbiş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increase in life quality and expectancy causes an increase in the elderly population. Improvements in burn treatment resulted in decreased mortality in children and young adults but in elderly patients burns are still an important trauma that should be handed differently than other age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors effecting mortality in patients with burns over 45 years old. Methods: Fifty-eight patients over 45 years of age, who were treated in our burns unit in the last 3 years were included in our study. Their age, burn percentage and depth, coexisting diseases and mortality rates were examined retrospectively. Results: The average age of surviving patients was 57.4 years while it was 70 years for nonsurviving patients (p=0.002. The width of burn area was 21.1 % in surviving and 50 % in nonsurviving patients (p<0.01. The effect of additional coexistent diseases on mortality was significant (p=0.001. The most common reasons of mortality were sepsis and congestive heart failure. Conclusion: We found out that the age, percentage of burns and coexistent diseases had a negative effect on success of treatment and mortality. Mortality rates will decrease in these cases with careful follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 240-243

  7. Factors affecting penetrating captive bolt gun performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session.

  8. Quran Literacy Barriers and Factors Affecting Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Feizi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Holy Quran is the greatest gift of God to mankind and is the most precious legacy of So, in order to govern a society guided by Quran and the teachings of Quran by life style based on it, it is necessary that academic community pays attention to Quran education on their pattern Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate Quran literacy of the academic community. This study is intended to provide information to the student community planning principles for designing and implementing Quran based activities. Material and Methods: This study was a descriptive survey. A researcher-made questionnaire with content validation was used to collect data. The population consisted of 840 students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Descriptive statistics by SPSSS 11 software was used for data analysis. Results: Analysis of the findings indicated that 37.2% of the participants were male and 62.8% were females. Thirty percent were non-native students and 69.6% of them were natives. More than 80% of the participants had Quran literacy. The results  showed no significant relationship between academic major (p>%94, gender( p>%07 and familiarity with Quran and being native or non-native( p>%79  Individuals who had Tajvid voice and tone literacy with 35.5%, common meanings and interpretations with 23.1%, translation with 12.9%, sound and tone with 13.4% and Tajvid with 1.5%, respectively. Determinants affecting on Quran literacy includes father’s job, school education, high interest in Quran education and family members’ familiarity with Quran. The most frequent obstacle include:  educational priorities, lack of time, apathy and no interest in Quran. Conclusion: Since Quran is for everyone and Quran activities are distributed among different academic majors, no significant relationship was found between gender (p>%07, academic major (p>%94 and being native or non-native (p>%79. As a result, paying attention to Quran verses

  9. Factors affecting industrial wood, material production yield in Turkey’s natural beech forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Atik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are to determine the most important factors affecting industrial wood material production yield in natural oriental beech forests in Turkey using a multifaceted approach and to help entrepreneurs consider these factors to develop more sensitive and realistic production plans. In Günye Forest Management in Bartın province of the West Black Sea Region of Turkey, 41 production units were chosen as the study area. The 1277 ha study area was included in the 2007 and 2010 production management plan. The general state of the stand, natural stand structure, and production methods and tools are the factors thought most strongly affect industrial wood material production yield; 26 variables representing these factors were evaluated in the study. Through multidimensional statistical analyses, including main components, factor and regression  analysis, we found that the most important factors affecting production yield were fertility, aspect of land, skidding method, stand structure, skidding distance, growing stock, transportation and harmful abiotic factors. Production units were divided into three groups based on yield rates and the 26 variables, using discriminate analysis. From the results of the study, a sample model can be developed to help forest managers predict and plan annual industrial wood production more sensitively and realistically.

  10. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Baygeldi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients’ age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate, hematocrit (HCT value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation, trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS, and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3% and 28 females (25.7%, and the mean age was 37.6±18.28 (15–78 years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3% traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle, 27 (24.7% falling from a height, 14 (12.9% assaults, 5 (4.5% sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5% gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3% of grade I, 32 (46.4% of grade II, 22 (31.8% of grade III, and 1 (1.5% of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in

  11. Removal of mouse ovary fat pad affects sex hormones, folliculogenesis and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Hui; Cui, Qian; Zhang, Teng; Guo, Lei; Dong, Ming-Zhe; Hou, Yi; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Shen, Wei; Ma, Jun-Yu; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    As a fat storage organ, adipose tissue is distributed widely all over the body and is important for energy supply, body temperature maintenance, organ protection, immune regulation and so on. In humans, both underweight and overweight women find it hard to become pregnant, which suggests that appropriate fat storage can guarantee the female reproductive capacity. In fact, a large mass of adipose tissue distributes around the reproductive system both in the male and female. However, the functions of ovary fat pad (the nearest adipose tissue to ovary) are not known. In our study, we found that the ovary fat pad-removed female mice showed decreased fertility and less ovulated mature eggs. We further identified that only a small proportion of follicles developed to antral follicle, and many follicles were blocked at the secondary follicle stage. The overall secretion levels of estrogen and FSH were lower in the whole estrus cycle (especially at proestrus); however, the LH level was higher in ovary fat pad-removed mice than that in control groups. Moreover, the estrus cycle of ovary fat pad-removed mice showed significant disorder. Besides, the expression of FSH receptor decreased, but the LH receptor increased in ovary fat pad-removed mice. These results suggest that ovary fat pad is important for mouse reproduction. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  12. Soil phosphorus dynamics as affected by Congo grass and P fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some plant species can change soil phosphorus (P availability and this may be an important tool in managing tropical high fixing phosphorus soils. An experiment was conducted to evaluate phosphorus transformations in the soil and phosphatase activity during periods of Congo grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis, Germain et Evrard growth in two tropical soils receiving 20, 40, 80, 160 mg dm-3 of inorganic P. Plants were grown for 84 days in 8-L pots. Acid phosphatase activity, P in the microbial mass, soil organic and inorganic P and P accumulation by Congo grass were evaluated. Phosphorus fertilization increased soil P availability, Congo grass yields and P accumulation in the plant. On average, less labile P forms in the soil were not changed by Congo grass; however, the P in the soil extracted with HCl (P-Ca - non labil form decreased. This decrease may have resulted from the combination of the presence of grass and phosphatase capacity to dissolve less available P in the soil. Thus, soil exploration by Congo grass roots and the subsequent extraction of calcium phosphate may have increased the P concentration in the plant tissue. Despite the decrease in the P extracted from the soil with HCl resulting in increased labile P forms in the soil, the effect of Congo grass on the availability of P depends on the soil type.

  13. DESTAF: A database of text-mined associations for reproductive toxins potentially affecting human fertility

    KAUST Repository

    Dawe, Adam Sean

    2012-01-01

    The Dragon Exploration System for Toxicants and Fertility (DESTAF) is a publicly available resource which enables researchers to efficiently explore both known and potentially novel information and associations in the field of reproductive toxicology. To create DESTAF we used data from the literature (including over 10. 500 PubMed abstracts), several publicly available biomedical repositories, and specialized, curated dictionaries. DESTAF has an interface designed to facilitate rapid assessment of the key associations between relevant concepts, allowing for a more in-depth exploration of information based on different gene/protein-, enzyme/metabolite-, toxin/chemical-, disease- or anatomically centric perspectives. As a special feature, DESTAF allows for the creation and initial testing of potentially new association hypotheses that suggest links between biological entities identified through the database.DESTAF, along with a PDF manual, can be found at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/destaf. It is free to academic and non-commercial users and will be updated quarterly. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  14. 体外受精-胚胎移植术IVF受精失败相关因素研究%Related factors for fertilization failure in vitro fertilization and embryo transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁莹; 亓蓉; 李淑贤; 周莉; 吴晓茜

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)受精失败相关因素.方法:回顾性分析2007~2010年期间接受IVF治疗患者104例,其中IVF正常受精组(NF组)63例和IVF受精失败组(FF组)41例.对两组年龄、不孕年限、获卵数、MⅡ卵子数、绒毛膜促性腺激素(hCG)日雌二醇(E2)水平、黄体生成素(LH)水平、手术日处理后的向前运动精子数、优胚数、原发不孕所占比例、妊娠率进行两组比较,并且应用非条件二分类Logistic多因素回归分析可能影响受精的因素.结果:手术日处理后的向前运动精子数、优胚数、原发不孕所占比例、妊娠率两组比较有统计学差异(P<0.05).患者的年龄、不孕症的年限、MⅡ卵子数与受精障碍无相关性.手术日处理后的向前运动精子数、不孕症的类型(原发,继发)与E2水平与受精障碍有关.手术日处理后的向前运动精子数、继发不孕、E2水平是受精失败的保护因素.结论:体外受精-胚胎移植术IVF受精失败与手术日处理后的向前运动精子数、不孕症的类型(原发,继发)和E2水平相关.%Objective:To explore fertilization failure related factors for in vitro fertilization and embryo transplantation (IVF).Methods:Retrospective analysis of 2007 ~ 2010 during the IVF treatment was executed.104 cases were selected including 63 cases in normal fertilization IVF group (NFH) and 41 cases in normal fertilization IVF group (NFH).Age,duration of infertility,attaining the egg number,M Ⅱ egg number,HCG day estradiol levels,LH levels,surgery,treatment after the forward movement of sperm number,optimal embryo number,proportion of primary infertility,pregnancy rate of two groups were compared.Unconditioned and application binary classification logistic multifactor regressionanalysis was used to explore the possible factors which affected fertilization.Results:Differences in forward movement sperm number after treatment,optimal embryo number

  15. Migrant fertility differentials in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundquist, F; Brown, L A

    1989-01-01

    The effects of migration on fertility in Ecuador were analyzed by subdividing migrant categories into permanent-, return-, circular-, and non-migrants, and context factors into 6 socioeconomic and agrarian variables. The study is introduced with a conceptual framework that explains personal intermediate variables and their influence on fertility in terms of demographic transition theory, and then defines the influences of selection for fertility, disruption of marital unions, and socialization into fertility norms at the origin vs. assimilation of norms at the destination. Migrants are usually better educated, younger and upwardly mobile, all selecting for lower fertility. Migration disrupts formation of marital unions, and causes separation of spouses, lowering fertility. Data for this study were from the 1974 and 1982 Ecuadorian Population Censuses. The contextual variables analyzed were urban/rural; manufacturing/agricultural; mineral extraction/economic recession; long/recent agricultural settlement; domestic/export crop; and large/medium sized farm. The analysis of personal attributes showed that fertility increased over the range on non-migrants through circular-, return- to permanent-migrants, a finding explained by degrees of disruption of unions. Higher fertility was associated with less education, lower economic participation, higher prevalence of marriage, longer residence and older ages. Regression analysis also showed that personal attributes outweighed contextual factors: thus age, marriage rates, residence time, education and economic activity were significant. Contextual factors were important only for non-migrants, except for destination variables which affected return-migrants and origin variables which affected circular-migrants. Low fertility was associated with urbanization, industrialization, mineral extraction, large farms, recent farm settlement and export crops. The results indicate cear influences of modernity and place influences on

  16. Study of Personality Disorders Among Fertile and Infertile Women and Some Predisposing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Noorbala

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine prevalence and predisposing factors of personality disorders among infertile in comparison to fertile women. Materials and Methods:  By a descriptive- analytic study in Vali-e-asr Reproductive Health Research Center, 300 women entered the research.  Eysenck personality (EPQ and structured researcher questionnaires were applied for all patients. Demographic characteristics and predisposing personality factors were recorded and personality symptoms were scaled. For data analysis, SPSS-11-5 software system, chi-square and T-test were used.  P-value <0.05 was considered significant.Results: Based on EPQ, personality instability was significantly more frequent in infertile women in comparison to fertile women (P<0.001. Housewives are at higher risk of developing personality instability as compared to working women. This finding was also statistically significant (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of personality disorders among infertile women, it seems that more serious attention is required from gynecologists, psychiatrists and psychologists for better treatment of these disorders. The use of psychotherapy, especially supportive methods, should be considered as part of the general therapeutic framework of infertility.

  17. Factors affecting on longevity in Northern Khorasan Kordish sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    razieh saghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The longevity is normally defined as the length of its productive life in the flock, which is the amount of time an animal spends producing (1. Longevity reflects the ability of ewe to avoid being culled for low production, low fertility, illness and influences the number and cost of replacements required to maintain the flock size. The benefit of increasing longevity are increased average age of the flock, having more ewes available for sale at the end of their four parity, having more ewe lambs to sell, and higher productivity from a slightly older flock age profile (2. Sheep population of Khorasan province (10. In sheep production, longevity has an important influence on the economic returns. Reliable estimates of non genetic effects of longevity are needed to aid establishing an efficient strategy for improving ewe productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was the factors affecting on longevity in Northern Khorasan Kordish sheep. We want to determine effect of environmental and non-genetic factors on longevity. Material and Methods In order to investigate on factors affecting longevity trait in Northen Khorasan Kordish sheep, records of 7469 sheep (187 sire and 2258 dam between 1990 to 2012 that were collected by breeding station of Hossein Abad in Shirvan (This city is located in the north of Mashhad were used. Flock has been kept under village system. Breeding ewes were identified in the data set as those that lambed at 2 year of age and culled at 6 to 7 year of age duo to oldness. Ram kept until a male offspring was available for replacement. In this study longevity was defined as the age of a ewe (in day when it leaves the flock. Ewes were generally removed from the flock due to poor production, low fertility, death and illness. Ewes were identified as being removed from the flock if a lambing record was present at n year of age but not at n+1 years of age. All females were culled before reaching 7 years of age

  18. Corn Yield and Foliar Diagnosis Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization and Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Shintate Galindo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The biological nitrogen fixation (BNF process in grasses is caused by diazotrophic bacteria, particularly Azospirillum brasilense. However, studies are lacking on BNF efficiency to define how much mineral nitrogen (N can be applied to achieve more sustainable high yields. Furthermore, there should be an analysis of whether urea with the urease enzyme inhibitor NBPT is less harmful, benefiting BNF in grasses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of N sources and N rates associated with inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense regarding foliar diagnosis and leaf chlorophyll index (LCI, agronomic efficiency (AE, and corn grain yield in the Cerrado (Brazilian tropical savanna region. The experiment was conducted in a no-tillage system in a Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico (Oxisol. A randomized block experimental design was used with four replications in a 2 × 5 × 2 factorial arrangement as follows: two N sources - urea and Super N, urea with urease enzyme inhibitor NBPT [N - (n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide]; five N rates (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg ha-1 applied in topdressing; and two seed inoculation treatments, one with and one without A. brasilense. N rate positively influenced the LCI and concentrations of N, S, and Mn in leaves, and may increase the concentrations of P, Cu, and Fe; however, higher N rates can reduce AE. The N sources had similar effects, and therefore urea is recommended for N fertilization. Inoculation with A. brasilense decreased leaf concentration of Fe and increased LCI, leaf concentration of P, AE, and corn grain yield; the use of this diazotrophic bacterium is therefore viable even when high rates of N are applied.

  19. Impact of fertility transmission and other sociodemographic factors on reproductive success and coalescent trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Jean-Tristan; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Toupance, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Summary Fertility transmission (FT) is a phenomenon with a cultural and/or genetic basis, whereby a positive correlation exists between the number of offspring of an individual and that of his/her parents. Theoretical studies using a haploid individual-based model have shown that FT increases the variance and intergenerational correlation in reproductive success and results in an imbalance in the coalescent tree of sampled genes. This phenomenon has been documented in several demographic studies conducted on the correlation in fertility between generations, or through the reconstruction of the genealogical trees of mitochondrial DNA sequences. However, as mtDNA is a single locus, potentially subject to other forces (e.g. natural selection), it is of interest to extend the theory of FT to nuclear loci. We show that because random mating between individuals leads to a mixing of their fertility profiles, FT in these cases will have less influence on the variance and intergenerational correlation of reproductive success. This, in turn, results in less impact on the shape of the coalescent trees. Nevertheless, in the presence of FT, high heterogeneity in reproductive success and homogamy for family size will increase the imbalance in the coalescent tree. Thus, FT should be easier to detect when occurring in conjunction with these other factors. We also show the utility of analysing different kinds of loci (X-linked, Y-linked, mitochondrial and autosomal) to assess whether FT is matrilineal, patrilineal or biparental. Finally, we demonstrate that the shape of the coalescent tree depends upon population size, in contrast to the classical Kingman's model.

  20. Affective, Cognitive and Social Factors in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper examines the role of selected affective, cognitive and social factors in second language acquisition, in an attempt to define a group of factors associated with success in second language learning within the formal educational system. Also examined is the effect of different teaching programs on an optimal group of factors. (CLK)

  1. Motivational Factors Affecting Advanced Literacy Learning of Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Rebecca J.; Dagostino, Lorraine

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors that community college students may bring with them into the classroom. It examines how these motivational factors affect students' learning inside and outside the community college classroom walls. The motivational factors such as mastery, self-determination,…

  2. Factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Jr. Nevel; Robert L. Jr. Nevel

    1973-01-01

    The continued use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation is being threatened. A study of the influences that determine the choice of flooring indicates that economic, physical, or technological factors dominate. Most factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring are related to cost, availability, and compatibility. Of these factors, time and cost of installation...

  3. Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Faculty-Doctoral Student Coauthorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Michelle A.; Timmerman, Briana Crotwell; Feldon, David F.; Strickland, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Using faculty narratives, this study identifies factors affecting the occurrence of faculty-doctoral student coauthorship. Norms of the discipline, resources, faculty goals for students, faculty goals for themselves, and institutional expectations emerged as dominant factors. Each factor is explored separately and as part of an interlocking…

  4. The Application of Affective Factors to English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐倩茹

    2015-01-01

    Education should aim at promoting students’all-round development and unifying cognitive and emotional aspects. However, the reality is that teachers pay too much attention on language cognitive factors and neglect the influence of emotional factors in language learning. This article tries to discuss how to use the affective factors in English teaching so as to enhance students’ comprehensive development.

  5. Affective, Cognitive and Social Factors in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper examines the role of selected affective, cognitive and social factors in second language acquisition, in an attempt to define a group of factors associated with success in second language learning within the formal educational system. Also examined is the effect of different teaching programs on an optimal group of factors. (CLK)

  6. Factors affecting success of embryo collection and transfer in large dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebel, R C; Demétrio, D G B; Metzger, J

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate factors that affected the success of embryo transfer programs in large dairy herds. Non-lactating donor cows produced a larger number of ova/embryos (Pcows. The interaction between season and donor class was correlated with the proportion of ova/embryos classified as fertilized (P=0.03), because lactating donors had fewer fertilized ova in the summer. There was no correlation between 305-day mature equivalent milk yield and response to superstimulation. Although the interval between superstimulation protocols was correlated with the number of ova/embryos (P=0.03), there was no correlation with the number of viable embryos. Pregnancy per embryo transfer (P/ET) in heifer recipients was correlated with embryo quality grade (Pcows tended to have a lower rate of P/ET during the summer (P=0.12 to P=0.08). Synchronization protocols tended to be (P=0.06; Herd 1) or were (P=0.02; Herd 2) correlated with P/ET. Lactating cows receiving vitrified IVF embryos had a lower (P=0.01) P/ET than those receiving fresh IVF embryos, especially in the summer (P=0.09). Milk yield was not correlated with P/ET. The use of heat abatement systems is critical to improve embryo production and P/ET. Synchronization protocols that optimized synchrony of ovulation may increase fertility of recipient cows and eliminate the need for estrous detection.

  7. Aggregate-associated carbon and nitrogen affected by residue placement, crop species, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    High variability in soil and climatic conditions results in limited changes in soil aggregate-21 associated C and N levels as affected by management practices during a crop growing season in 22 the field. We evaluated the effects of crop species (spring wheat [Triticum aestivum L.], pea 23 [Pisum sa...

  8. Nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracae var. capitata seedlings affected by the different nitrogen fertilizer forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Turan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different nitrogen fertilizer (potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, urea and farmyard manure on nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata seedlings were studied. pH of the plant growth niedia was higher in the nitrate fertilizer treatment than the ammonium and other fertilizer forms. NO3--N application increased NRA in plant, but NH4+-N decreased NRA in plant. Harvesting date and different fertilizer doses increased NRA while NH4+-N decreased plant nitrate uptake. There was a significant relationship between NRA and fertilizer types.

  9. Spatial factors affecting wayfinding and orientation in a shopping mall

    OpenAIRE

    Doğu, Güler Ufuk

    1997-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, Bilkent University, 1997. Includes bibliographical refences. The aim of this thesis is to study the main factors which affect the wayfinding and orientation of individuals in a shopping mall and explain how their behaviors are influenced by these factors. The spatial and individual factors and their properties are defined. Among the spatiaf factors, shape and dimensions, light and color, bu...

  10. On the Affective Factors in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程墨芳

    2010-01-01

    The paper talks about the effective factors functioning in the field of education,psychology and foreign language teaching.And it also specifically elaborates the principles of helping language learners overcome negative affections and develop positive ones.

  11. Factors affecting career preferences of medical students at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting career preferences of medical students at the College of ... students, respondents from rural areas and small towns, and whose parents were ... between doctors' career expectations and the country's healthcare needs.

  12. Factors affecting oil palm production in Ondo state of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sola

    Regression analysis showed that only two of the variables; level of education ... were predicted to have significant relationship with the yield of oil palm. ..... Table 5: Multiple Regression analysis of factors affecting oil palm production in.

  13. Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in the Eastern ... and for cash sales (23%), and only 15% kept goats for home meat consumption. ... is likely to increase to the detriment of other ruminant species in the future.

  14. Factors affecting the consumer trust for shopping through electronic media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James Ariel Sánchez Alzate; Luz Alexandra Montoya Restrepo

    2016-01-01

      In this article the main factors affecting consumer trust in online purchases are proposed, it demonstrates how consumers feel less fear and more willingness to purchase through electronic media...

  15. Socio-economic factors affecting the participation of women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the socio-economic factors affecting women's ... About 41% attended up to secondary school level of education while 4% attended tertiary ... would go a long way in removing some of the barriers to effective participation.

  16. Factors Affecting Loan Utilization And Repayment Patterns By Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Loan Utilization And Repayment Patterns By Small Holder Farmers ... 61.3% of the respondents had a minimum of secondary school education. ... Also, it can be inferred that effective utilization of loan is directly influenced by ...

  17. Factors Affecting Students' Performance and Practice on Map ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Students' Performance and Practice on Map Reading Skills: A ... In Ethiopia, the teaching and learning process of map reading skills is based on ... identifying effective study techniques, the students' willingness to do school ...

  18. Assessment Of Factors Affecting Farmers' Adoption And Utilisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment Of Factors Affecting Farmers' Adoption And Utilisation Of Major ... Level of respondents' education, participation in on-farm trials, contact with extension ... The study therefore recommended intensification of adequate and effective ...

  19. Factors Affecting Behaviours that address HIV Risk among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Behaviours that address HIV Risk among Nigerian University Students. ... Design: Cross-sectional survey. ... Main outcome measures: Sexual behavior and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of ...

  20. Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective service to pre ... the objective of achieving sustainable livelihoods for the poor and commonages. ... marketing and management to adequately service the land reform programs.

  1. Pre-Transition Fertility in Asia : A Comparative-historical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Osamu

    2006-01-01

    This paper questions the proposition that fertility was invariably high among populations beforethe fertility transition. By examining factors affecting pre-transition fertility based on the evidence fromJapan and India in the pre-World War II period, together with that from England and Germany in thetraditional period, it suggests that in most historical populations fertility was below the supposed biologicalmaximum, and that there was a pre-transition rising phase in fertility in countries ...

  2. Humanistic Approach and Affective Factors in Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗馨

    2010-01-01

    For a long time,Chinese EFL teaching has been following the teacher-centered model,which emphasizes the cognitive aspect but ignores the affective factors. So "emotional illiteracy" is a common phemenon and harmful to language learning and students' all-round development. This essay lays special stress on humanistic approach and analyzes the influence of some important affective factors on language learning,for the purpose of inviting teachers' attention to students' emotions in fulfilling their teaching task.

  3. Analysis of Affective Factors and Corresponding Solution in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲松

    2009-01-01

    Affect is the related issues that influence the students' learning progress and result, including one's interest, emotion, self-confidence and so on. Affective factors are the motivation for the students' learning. In the past few decades, people have always been pursuing the effective methods of teaching, from the Grammar Translation Method, to Communicative Language Teaching. Now people start to focus on affective teaching and have got some good result.

  4. VOL 6. NO. 1 2015 EXTRINSIC FACTORS THAT AFFECT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frederick Iraki

    The general objective of this study was to identify the extrinsic factors affect employee ... individual mechanisms that directly affect job performance in an organization(Colquitt, ... Benjamin (2010) posits that fringe benefits are significant and positive ... Mouly (2009) asserts that questionnaires add value to research because.

  5. Characterization on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil as affected by different influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, pilot experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of different environmental factors on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. Different plant species (cotton, ryegrass, tall fescue, and alfalfa, addition of fertilizer, different concentration of TPH in soil, bioaugmentation with effective microbial agent (EMA and PGPR, and remediation time were tested as influencing factors during bioremediation process of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH. The result shows that the remediation process can be enhanced by different plants species with the following order: tall fescue > ryegrass > alfalfa > cotton. The degradation rate of TPH increased with increased fertilizer addition and moderate level of 20 g/m2 urea is best for both plant growth and TPH remediation. High TPH content is toxic to plant growth and inhibits the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon with 5% TPH content showing the best degradation result in soil planted with ryegrass. Bioaugmentation with different bacteria and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR showed the following results for TPH degradation: cotton + EMA + PGPR > cotton + EMA > cotton + PGPR > cotton > control. Rapid degradation of TPH was found at the initial period of remediation caused by the activity of microorganisms, continuous increase was found from 30–90 d period and slow increase was found from 90 to 150 d. The result suggests that rhizoremediation can be enhanced with the proper control of different influencing factors that affect both plant growth and microbial activity in the rhizosphere environment.

  6. Characterization on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil as affected by different influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Wang, R.; Niu, X.; Wang, M.; Zhou, Q.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, pilot experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of different environmental factors on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. Different plant species (cotton, ryegrass, tall fescue, and alfalfa), addition of fertilizer, different concentration of TPH in soil, bioaugmentation with effective microbial agent (EMA) and PGPR, and remediation time were tested as influencing factors during bioremediation process of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH). The result shows that the remediation process can be enhanced by different plants species with the following order: tall fescue > ryegrass > alfalfa > cotton. The degradation rate of TPH increased with increased fertilizer addition and moderate level of 20 g/m2 urea is best for both plant growth and TPH remediation. High TPH content is toxic to plant growth and inhibits the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon with 5% TPH content showing the best degradation result in soil planted with ryegrass. Bioaugmentation with different bacteria and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) showed the following results for TPH degradation: cotton + EMA + PGPR > cotton + EMA > cotton + PGPR > cotton > control. Rapid degradation of TPH was found at the initial period of remediation caused by the activity of microorganisms, continuous increase was found from 30-90 d period and slow increase was found from 90 to 150 d. The result suggests that rhizoremediation can be enhanced with the proper control of different influencing factors that affect both plant growth and microbial activity in the rhizosphere environment.

  7. Does hormonal therapy for fertility preservation affect the survival of young women with early-stage endometrial cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Zoë R; Huang, Lina N; Wissing, Michel D; Franco, Eduardo L; Gotlieb, Walter H

    2017-05-01

    The incidence of endometrial cancer among young women is increasing. Some patients with low-grade endometrial cancer receive hormone therapy (HT) before surgery to preserve fertility. It is unclear whether this adversely affects survival. Patients with localized, low-grade endometrial cancer who were aged Cancer-specific and overall survival were measured using Kaplan-Meier methods. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using Cox models adjusted for age, period of diagnosis, marital status, race, tumor grade, morphology, and previous radiotherapy. A total of 6339 women were included in the current study cohort, 161 of whom initially received HT and 6178 of whom received primary surgery. After 15 years of follow-up, all-cause mortality did not differ between the groups (HT group: 14.1% [95% CI, 6.7%-28.4%] and propensity score-matched primary surgery group: 9.3% [95% CI, 4.1%-20.5%]). Cancer-specific mortality appeared higher in patients treated with HT compared with those treated with primary surgery (9.2% [95% CI, 3.4%-24.0%] vs 2.1% [95% CI, 1.5%-2.8%]). However, this difference was driven by 3 late deaths in the HT group. Sensitivity analyses using a broader definition of cancer-specific mortality provided no statistical evidence of a survival difference between the treatment groups. The hazard ratio for the overall risk of death was 1.45 (95% CI, 0.44-4.74). Based on this population-based cohort, young patients with low-grade endometrial cancer appear to have excellent survival, regardless of the primary therapy chosen (HT vs primary surgery). The current selection of patients for HT to preserve fertility, which is managed carefully by experienced clinicians, does not appear to significantly worsen clinical outcomes. Cancer 2017;123:1545-1554. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  8. Factors that predict fertility desires for people living with HIV infection at a support and treatment centre in Kabale, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaye Dan K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies from different contexts worldwide indicate that HIV positive patients manifest high-risk sexual behavior characterized by fertility intentions, multiple sexual partners, non-use of contraceptives and non-disclosure of HIV status to their sex partners. The objective was to analyze fertility desires among persons living with HIV at a treatment centre in Kabale Hospital, Southwestern Uganda. Methods From January to August 2009, we interviewed 400 HIV positive patients seeking care using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. We assessed socio-demographic variables, reproductive history, sexuality and fertility desires. At bivariate and multivariate analysis, characteristics of participants who reported or did not report desire to have a child in the near future were compared. Results Of the 400 respondents, (25.3% were male, 47.3% were aged 25-34 years, over 85% were currently married or had ever been married, and the 62% had primary level of education or less. Over 17% had produced a child since the HIV diagnosis was made, and 28.6% reported that they would like to have a child in the near future. Age of the respondent, being single (versus being ever-married and whether any of the respondents' children had died were inversely associated with fertility intentions. Conclusion Factors inversely associated with fertility intentions were age of the respondent, marital status and whether any of the respondents' children had died. Use of antiretroviral therapy was not associated with fertility intentions.

  9. FACTORS AFFECTING CHINESE POST-GRADUATE EFL LEARNERS’ ORAL PROFICIENCY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The article investigates factors affecting Chinese postgraduate EFL learners’ oral proficiency. Little practice, fear of errors and unscientific classroom management are found to be the major factors. Also an overemphasis on written English instruction seems to be another root cause. After the discussion of the results of this investigation a series of methods are suggested for reference.

  10. Genetic and environmental factors affecting the coumarin anticoagulant level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Visser (Loes)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis introductory chapter has illustrated that various factors, such as genetic factors, drugs, diet and intercurrent diseases may affect anticoagulation levels. Most of the clinical and pharmacological data related to coumarin anticoagulants have so far been obtained from studying warfa

  11. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  12. Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

  13. SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND GROWTH OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. AS AFFECTED BY THE APPLICATION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND INOCULATION WITH ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolino José Nogueira da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic fertilizers and the inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi in the cultivation of oil crops is essential to reduce production costs and minimize negative impacts on natural resources. A field experiment was conducted in an Argissolo Amarelo (Ultisol with the aim of evaluating the effects of fertilizer application and inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth attributes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and on soil chemical properties. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, using a randomized block design with three replicates in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of four treatments in regard to application of organic fertilizer (liquid biofertilizer, cow urine, mineral fertilizer, and unfertilized control and two treatments in regard to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (with and without mycorrhizal fungi. The results showed that the physiological attributes of relative growth rate and leaf weight ratio were positively influenced by fertilization, compared to the control treatment, likely brought about by the supply of nutrients from the fertilizers applied. The growth and productivity attributes were positively affected by mycorrhization.

  14. Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

  15. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  16. Inhibiting sperm pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase affects fertilization in Syrian hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana B Siva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: The importance of sperm capacitation for mammalian fertilization has been confirmed in the present study via sperm metabolism. Involvement of the metabolic enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD in hamster in vitro fertilization (IVF via in vitro sperm capacitation is being proposed through regulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Capacitated hamster spermatozoa were allowed to fertilize hamster oocytes in vitro which were then assessed for fertilization, microscopically. PDHc/DLD was inhibited by the use of the specific DLD-inhibitor, MICA (5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid. Oocytes fertilized with MICA-treated (MT [and thus PDHc/DLD-inhibited] spermatozoa showed defective fertilization where 2nd polar body release and pronuclei formation were not observed. Defective fertilization was attributable to capacitation failure owing to high lactate and low intracellular pH and calcium in MT-spermatozoa during capacitation. Moreover, this defect could be overcome by alkalinizing spermatozoa, before fertilization. Increasing intracellular calcium in spermatozoa pre-IVF and in defectively-fertilized oocytes, post-fertilization rescued the arrest seen, suggesting the role of intracellular calcium from either of the gametes in fertilization. Parallel experiments carried out with control spermatozoa capacitated in medium with low extracellular pH or high lactate substantiated the necessity of optimal sperm intracellular lactate levels, intracellular pH and calcium during sperm capacitation, for proper fertilization. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the importance of pyruvate/lactate metabolism in capacitating spermatozoa for successful fertilization, besides revealing for the first time the importance of sperm PDHc/ DLD in fertilization, via the modulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium during capacitation. In

  17. Inhibiting Sperm Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex and Its E3 Subunit, Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Affects Fertilization in Syrian Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailasree, Purnima; Singh, Durgesh K.; Kameshwari, Duvurri B.; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The importance of sperm capacitation for mammalian fertilization has been confirmed in the present study via sperm metabolism. Involvement of the metabolic enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) in hamster in vitro fertilization (IVF) via in vitro sperm capacitation is being proposed through regulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium. Methodology and Principal Findings Capacitated hamster spermatozoa were allowed to fertilize hamster oocytes in vitro which were then assessed for fertilization, microscopically. PDHc/DLD was inhibited by the use of the specific DLD-inhibitor, MICA (5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid). Oocytes fertilized with MICA-treated (MT) [and thus PDHc/DLD-inhibited] spermatozoa showed defective fertilization where 2nd polar body release and pronuclei formation were not observed. Defective fertilization was attributable to capacitation failure owing to high lactate and low intracellular pH and calcium in MT-spermatozoa during capacitation. Moreover, this defect could be overcome by alkalinizing spermatozoa, before fertilization. Increasing intracellular calcium in spermatozoa pre-IVF and in defectively-fertilized oocytes, post-fertilization rescued the arrest seen, suggesting the role of intracellular calcium from either of the gametes in fertilization. Parallel experiments carried out with control spermatozoa capacitated in medium with low extracellular pH or high lactate substantiated the necessity of optimal sperm intracellular lactate levels, intracellular pH and calcium during sperm capacitation, for proper fertilization. Conclusions This study confirms the importance of pyruvate/lactate metabolism in capacitating spermatozoa for successful fertilization, besides revealing for the first time the importance of sperm PDHc/ DLD in fertilization, via the modulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium during capacitation. In addition, the

  18. Obesity induced by cafeteria diet disrupts fertility in the rat by affecting multiple ovarian targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, M V; Torelli, C; Pustovrh, M C; Paz, D A; Elia, E M

    2015-11-01

    Obesity constitutes a health problem of increasing worldwide prevalence. Among the health detriments caused by obesity, reproduction is disrupted. However, the mechanisms involved in this disruption are not fully understood. Animals fed a cafeteria diet constitute the model for the study of obesity that most closely reflects Western diet habits. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a cafeteria diet affects ovarian function and to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involved. For that purpose, 22-day-old female Wistar rats were fed ad libitum with a standard diet (control group; n = 20) or cafeteria diet (CAF group; n = 20). The cafeteria diet induced obesity and hyperglycaemia, without altering serum triglycerides, cholesterol or C-reactive protein concentrations. This diet also altered ovarian function: the rats showed prolonged dioestrous phases, decreased serum oestradiol concentrations and increased number of antral atretic follicles. Moreover, follicular cysts were detected in the CAF group, concomitantly with a decrease in the number of anti-Müllerian hormone immunoreactive pre-antral follicles and COX-2-positive antral and pre-ovulatory follicles. The authors conclude that a cafeteria diet reduces ovarian reserve, induces the presence of follicular cysts and disturbs the ovulatory process, leading to the delayed pregnancy observed in these animals. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How does pollination mutualism affect the evolution of prior self-fertilization? A model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepers, Clotilde; Dufay, Mathilde; Billiard, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    The mode of pollination is often neglected regarding the evolution of selfing. Yet the distribution of mating systems seems to depend on the mode of pollination, and pollinators are likely to interfere with selfing evolution, since they can cause strong selective pressures on floral traits. Most selfing species reduce their investment in reproduction, and display smaller flowers, with less nectar and scents (referred to as selfing syndrome). We model the evolution of prior selfing when it affects both the demography of plants and pollinators and the investment of plants in pollination. Including the selfing syndrome in the model allows to predict several outcomes: plants can evolve either toward complete outcrossing, complete selfing, or to a stable mixed-mating system, even when inbreeding depression is high. We predict that the evolution to high prior selfing could lead to evolutionary suicides, highlighting the importance of merging demography and evolution in models. The consequence of the selfing syndrome on plant-pollinator interactions could be a widespread mechanism driving the evolution of selfing in animal-pollinated taxa. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Can intracytoplasmic sperm injection prevent total fertilization failure and enhance embryo quality in patients with non-male factor infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Yeong; Kim, Jee Hyun; Jee, Byung Chul; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) could prevent total fertilization failure (TFF) and enhance the embryo quality in patients with non-male factor infertility. A total of 296 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles performed in patients with non-male factor infertility between April 2009 and March 2013 were included in this retrospective study. During the period, ICSI and conventional IVF were performed in 142 and 154 cycles, respectively. The usual indications for ICSI were in the cycles of patients with (1) known low fertilization rate, (2) repetitive implantation failure, (3) advanced maternal age, (4) presence of endometrioma, (5) low oocyte yield (number of oocytes ≤3), or (6) poor quality oocytes. The rate of TFF, normal fertilization, abnormal pronuclei (PN) formation, embryo quality, and pregnancy outcomes between the patients treated with ICSI and conventional IVF cycles were compared. The patients treated with ICSI (ICSI group, n=142) presented fewer number of oocytes than patients treated with conventional IVF cycles (n=154). The TFF rate was not different (4.2% vs. 0.6%, P=0.059), but the ICSI group presented a significantly higher rate of normal fertilization (83.4% vs. 79.1%, P=0.04) and lower rate of abnormal PN formation (3.9% vs. 13.3%, Pfertilization rate and the embryo quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oral contraceptive pills: A risk factor for retinal vascular occlusion in in-vitro fertilization patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohina S Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vascular occlusion is the most common cause of retinopathy leading to severe visual loss in all age groups. Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is usually seen in older age group and is often associated with systemic vascular diseases. Although the exact cause and effect relationship has not been proven, central retinal vein occlusion has been associated with various systemic pathological conditions, hence a direct review of systems toward the various systemic and local factors predisposing the central retinal vein occlusion is advocated. We describe the development of central retinal venous occlusion with associated cystoid macular edema (CME in two healthy infertile women who were recruited for in vitro fertilization cycle for infertility. Predisposing risk factors associated with central retinal vein occlusion are obesity, sedentary life style, smoking, and some systemic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, associated autoimmune disorders e.g., antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, lupus, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, bleeding or clotting disorders, vasculitis, closed-head trauma, alcohol consumption, primary open-angle glaucoma or angle-closure glaucoma.In our patients, they were ruled out afterdoing allpertaining investigations. The cases were managed with further avoidance of oral contraceptives and intra-vitreal injections of Bevacizumab (Avastin, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF drug and Triamcinolone acetonide (a long acting synthetic steroid. Hence, even if no systemic diseases are detected. Physical examinations are recommended periodically for young women on oral contraceptive pills.

  2. Persistent high fertility in Uganda: young people recount obstacles and enabling factors to use of contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalwadda Gorrette

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High fertility among young people aged 15-24 years is a public health concern in Uganda. Unwanted pregnancy, unsafe induced abortions and associated high morbidity and mortality among young women may be attributed to low contraceptive use. This study aims at exploring reasons for low contraceptive use among young people. Methods In 16 focus group discussions, the views of young people about obstacles and enabling factors to contraceptive use in Mityana and Mubende districts, Uganda were explored. The groups were homogeneously composed by married and unmarried men and women, between the ages of 15-24. The data obtained was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Young men and women described multiple obstacles to contraceptive use. The obstacles were categorized as misconceptions and fears related to contraception, gender power relations, socio-cultural expectations and contradictions, short term planning, and health service barriers. Additionally, young people recounted several enabling factors that included female strategies to overcome obstacles, changing perceptions to contraceptive use, and changing attitude towards a small family size. Conclusions Our findings suggest changing perceptions and behavior shift towards contraceptive use and a small family size although obstacles still exist. Personalized strategies to young women and men are needed to motivate and assist young people plan their future families, adopt and sustain use of contraceptives. Reducing obstacles and reinforcing enabling factors through education, culturally sensitive behavior change strategies have the potential to enhance contraceptives use. Alternative models of contraceptive service delivery to young people are proposed.

  3. Design and Factors Affecting State Supervision of the Financial Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Jeżowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to identify the factors that affect the development of the models of financial market state supervision and to identify the factors that have influenced the evolution of the supervision model in Poland. Methodology: critical analysis of literature, legal provisions and documents. Findings: The completely integrated and the fully dispersed model of supervision are located at the opposite ends of the spectrum. A variety of the hybrid models can be identified between them. Factors that affect supervision organization are both economic and non-economic. Factors that have influenced the Polish model of supervision include political aspects, administration costs and, in due course, also the development of the financial market. Research implications: The variety of state supervision structures, combined with the ambiguity and multiplicity of factors that affect their evolution create a new research challenge. Significant problems in accessing documents have been identified. Originality: The author presents an overview of models of state supervision of financial markets and factors affecting the evolution and structure of supervision. Conclusions drawn from the analysis were used to identify factors that influence the evolution and supervision of the Polish financial market.

  4. Factors affecting acceptance of smartphone application for management of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eunjoo; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2015-04-01

    The factors affecting the acceptance of mobile obesity-management applications (apps) by the public were analyzed using a mobile healthcare system (MHS) technology acceptance model (TAM). The subjects who participated in this study were Android smartphone users who had an intent to manage their weight. They used the obesity-management app for two weeks, and then completed an 18-item survey designed to determine the factors influencing the acceptance of the app. Three questions were asked pertaining to each of the following six factors: compatibility, self-efficacy, technical support and training, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavior regarding intention to use. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the reliability of the scales. Pathway analysis was also performed to evaluate the MHS acceptance model. A total of 94 subjects participated in this study. The results indicate that compatibility, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected the behavioral intention to use the mobile obesity-management app. Technical support and training also significantly affected the perceived ease of use; however, the hypotheses that self-efficacy affects perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use were not supported in this study. This is the first attempt to analyze the factors influencing mobile obesity-management app acceptance using a TAM. Further studies should cover not only obesity but also other chronic diseases and should analyze the factors affecting the acceptance of apps among healthcare consumers in general.

  5. A first-order analysis of the potential role of CO2 fertilization to affect the global carbon budget: A comparison of four terrestrial biosphere models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicklighter, D.W.; Bruno, M.; Donges, S.; Esser, G.; Heimann, Martin; Helfrich, J.; Ift, F.; Joos, F.; Kaduk, J.; Kohlmaier, G.H.; McGuire, A.D.; Melillo, J.M.; Meyer, R.; Moore, B.; Nadler, A.; Prentice, I.C.; Sauf, W.; Schloss, A.L.; Sitch, S.; Wittenberg, U.; Wurth, G.

    1999-01-01

    We compared the simulated responses of net primary production, heterotrophic respiration, net ecosystem production and carbon storage in natural terrestrial ecosystems to historical (1765 to 1990) and projected (1990 to 2300) changes of atmospheric CO2 concentration of four terrestrial biosphere models: the Bern model, the Frankfurt Biosphere Model (FBM), the High-Resolution Biosphere Model (HRBM) and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM). The results of the model intercomparison suggest that CO2 fertilization of natural terrestrial vegetation has the potential to account for a large fraction of the so-called 'missing carbon sink' of 2.0 Pg C in 1990. Estimates of this potential are reduced when the models incorporate the concept that CO2 fertilization can be limited by nutrient availability. Although the model estimates differ on the potential size (126 to 461 Pg C) of the future terrestrial sink caused by CO2 fertilization, the results of the four models suggest that natural terrestrial ecosystems will have a limited capacity to act as a sink of atmospheric CO2 in the future as a result of physiological constraints and nutrient constraints on NPP. All the spatially explicit models estimate a carbon sink in both tropical and northern temperate regions, but the strength of these sinks varies over time. Differences in the simulated response of terrestrial ecosystems to CO2 fertilization among the models in this intercomparison study reflect the fact that the models have highlighted different aspects of the effect of CO2 fertilization on carbon dynamics of natural terrestrial ecosystems including feedback mechanisms. As interactions with nitrogen fertilization, climate change and forest regrowth may play an important role in simulating the response of terrestrial ecosystems to CO2 fertilization, these factors should be included in future analyses. Improvements in spatially explicit data sets, whole-ecosystems experiments and the availability of net carbon exchange

  6. Effects of pentoxifylline,platelet activating factor and prostaglandin F 2-alpha on Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) post-thawed sperm in vitro fertilizing capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Is it possible that Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) post-thawed sperm fertilization is improved with pentoxifylline (PF),platelet activated factor (PAF) and prostaglandin F 2-alpha (PGF2α)? In our study Giant Panda post-thawed sperm was incubated in Ham's F-10 medium with different concentration of PF,PAF and PGF2α,under 37℃.The effects of PF,PAF and PGF2α,on Giant Panda post-thawed sperm fertility were evaluated through sperm motility,survival time,sperm membrane integrity,acrosome state and heterospecific egg penetration.The results were that PF,PAF and PGF2α all can affect Giant Panda post-thawed sperm in vitro fertilizing capability.In the experiment:1 mg·Ml-1 PF was most suitable for improving Giant Panda post-thawed sperm in vitro fertilizing capability.In the 1 mg·Ml-1 PF group,sperm survival time was (15.33±4.73) h,the heterospecific egg penetration was 51.44% after incubating for 4 hours,the heterospecific egg penetration was 7.49% after incubating for 6 hours.The results of the 1 mg·Ml-1 PF group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.01).The results were also higher than those of the other treatment groups;Treated Giant Panda post-thawed sperm with 50 ng·Ml-1 PAF had a better effect than 100 ng·Ml-1 PAF,but the sperm fertilizing capability was damaged when incubation time exceeded 2 hours;50 ng·Ml-1PGF2α,had no significant effect on Giant Panda postthawed sperm,but when the PGFzα treated concentration was increased,sperm in vitro fertilizing capability decreased because of the damaged motility and declined acrosomal reaction rate.The conclusions suggest that it is possible to improve post-thawed Giant Panda sperm fertility with 1 mg·Ml-1 PF.

  7. Factors Influencing Access to Integrated Soil Fertility Management Information and Knowledge and Its Uptake among Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwandu, T.; Mtambanengwe, F.; Mapfumo, P.; Mashavave, T. C.; Chikowo, R.; Nezomba, H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study evaluated how farmer acquisition, sharing and use patterns of information and knowledge interact with different socioeconomic factors to influence integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted as part of an evaluation of field-based farmer learning approaches…

  8. Site specific fertilization affects yield, fruit size, quality, and shelf-life of ‘Kent' mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    Site specific fertilization (SSF) defines the type and rate of fertilizer needed for individual orchards. This study presents preliminary results (2010-2011) of a medium term project to quantify the effects of SSF on yield, fruit size, quality, and shelf-life of ‘Kent’ mango. Two orchards are used f...

  9. Factors Affecting Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf

    OpenAIRE

    Luc, J. E.; Crow, W. T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for eit...

  10. Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzke Susan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions, physical activity (eight dimensions, and stress management (eight dimensions. Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American

  11. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Runoff Losses from Orchard Soils in South China as Affected by Fertilization Depths and Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Fertilizers are heavily applied in orchards of the hilly and mountainous topography of South China and may increase nutrient loadings to receiving waters.A simple runoff collecting system was used to measure the effects of different fertilization treatments on total N and P concentrations of surface runoff in a Chinese chestnut(Castanea mollissima Blume)orchard in Dongyuan County,Guangdong Province,China.In such orchards,fertilizer was typically applied in two short furrows or pits on either side of each tree.Treatments included three application depths(surface,10 era and 20 cm),and three application rates(low,median and high).Results showed that 90.5% of the runoff water samples had a total N concentration higher than 0.35 mg L-1 and 54.2% had a total P concentration higher than 0.1 mg L-1.Fertilizer application at all depths and at all but the lowest rate significantly increased total N and P concentrations in runoff water.Fertilization with chemical compound fertilizer at a soil depth of 20 cm prodiuced significantly lower(P<0.05)total N concentration in runoff than both surface and 10-cm depth fertilization,and significantly lower(P<0.05)total P concentration in runoff than surface fertilization.Total N and P concentrations in runoff significantly increased with the application rate of organic fertilizers.With the exception of total P concentrations,which were not significantly different between the control and fertilization at a rate of 119 kg P ha-1 in organic form,all the other fertilization treatments produced significantly higher total N and total P concentrations in runoff than the control.A fertilization depth ≥ 20 cm and an application rate ≤ 72 kg N ha-1 or 119 kg P ha-1 for compound organic fertilizer was suggested to substantially reduce N and P runoff losses from hillslope orchards and to protect receiving waters in South China.

  12. Factors affecting influenza vaccination among pregnant women : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Choi-ching; 方賽貞

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pregnancy has been recognized as a risk factor for severe pandemic influenza illness and this “vulnerable” group is suggested to be heightened alertness to the disease by WHO. This systemic review aims to identify the factors affecting the uptake of influenza vaccination among pregnant women as the immunization uptake among this particular group of population is low or suboptimal worldwide. Methods: Systematic literature reviews were conducted by using MEDLINE and PubMed with th...

  13. Factors Affecting the Value Relevance of Accounting Information

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Dehghan Nayeri; Ali Faal Ghayoumi; Mohammad Ali Bidari

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the factors affecting the value relevance of accounting information for investors in the Tehran Stock Exchange over the period of six years. In this study, the effect of four factors; being profitable or loss generating, company size, earnings stability and company growth on the value relevance of accounting information have been studied. For this purpose Ohlson model and the cumulative regression analysis is used in order to examine the hypotheses and as the basis ...

  14. Phytochemical and Morphological Attributes of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum Affected by Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers; Humic Acid and Potassium Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaleh Sadat KABOLI FARSHCHI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of organic (liquid humic acid and inorganic (potassium sulphate on phytochemical and morphological attributes of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum. Thus, a research was conducted in a factorial experiment (3×3 based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments consisted of potassium sulphate (Kx at three concentrations (0, 60 and 100 Kg/h which were treated before flowering and humic acid (Hx at three concentrations (0, 20 and 40 L/h which were fertigated four times of 15-days intervals. Results showed that the plant stem height, number of flowering stems and number of flowers were significantly affected by simple effect of each fertilizers (p<0.01, while their interaction effect was not significant for the plants height. The highest contents of fresh and dry weight were achieved under the highest amounts of fertilizers (K100 and H40. The highest stem height, number of flowers and number of flowering stems also belonged to these treatments. Increment of applied fertilizers led to increase of obtained essential oils, so that application of these fertilizers simultaneously increased the essential oil content up to 6-fold. Regarding the antioxidant activity, applied fertilizers at their high levels showed significant effects on decrease of EC50, which means the increment of antioxidant activity of H. perforatum.

  15. Phytochemical and Morphological Attributes of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum Affected by Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers; Humic Acid and Potassium Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaleh Sadat KABOLI FARSHCHI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of organic (liquid humic acid and inorganic (potassium sulphate on phytochemical and morphological attributes of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum. Thus, a research was conducted in a factorial experiment (3×3 based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments consisted of potassium sulphate (Kx at three concentrations (0, 60 and 100 Kg/h which were treated before flowering and humic acid (Hx at three concentrations (0, 20 and 40 L/h which were fertigated four times of 15-days intervals. Results showed that the plant stem height, number of flowering stems and number of flowers were significantly affected by simple effect of each fertilizers (p<0.01, while their interaction effect was not significant for the plants height. The highest contents of fresh and dry weight were achieved under the highest amounts of fertilizers (K100 and H40. The highest stem height, number of flowers and number of flowering stems also belonged to these treatments. Increment of applied fertilizers led to increase of obtained essential oils, so that application of these fertilizers simultaneously increased the essential oil content up to 6-fold. Regarding the antioxidant activity, applied fertilizers at their high levels showed significant effects on decrease of EC50, which means the increment of antioxidant activity of H. perforatum.

  16. [Factors affecting the educational environment in undergraduate medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olave P, Guisela; Pérez V, Cristhian; Fasce H, Eduardo; Ortiz M, Liliana; Bastías V, Nancy; Márquez U, Carolina; Parra P, Paula; Ibáñez G, Pilar

    2016-10-01

    Educational environment has an important effect on the quality of learning and student satisfaction in medicine. Most of previous studies have been conducted using questionnaires that assess the phenomenon considering overall dimensions, without paying attention to the specific manifestations of this topic, especially those aspects that are related to the protagonists of the learning process: teachers and students. To describe factors that affect the educational environment in the preclinical Medical formation, according to Medical teachers in Concepción, Chile. Qualitative study, using the Grounded theory method. Semi-structured interviews were performed to 10 medical teachers in Concepcion, Chile. They were selected by theoretical sampling. Data were analyzed using open coding. Four emerging categories about the factors that affect the learning environment were identified: Personal factors of students, academic factors of students, personal factors of teachers and academic factors of teachers. According to interviewed teachers, both personal factors in teachers and students that promote a positive learning environment are related with an attitude oriented towards others and communication skills. Academic factors are related with the responsible exercise of student and teacher roles and with the promotion of participation in the educational process.

  17. Paternal obesity negatively affects male fertility and assisted reproduction outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jared M; Lane, Michelle; Owens, Julie A; Bakos, Hassan W

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review investigated the effect of paternal obesity on reproductive potential. Databases searched were Pubmed, Ovid, Web of Science, Scopus, Cinahl and Embase. Papers were critically appraised by two reviewers, and data were extracted using a standardized tool. Outcomes were: likelihood of infertility, embryo development, clinical pregnancy, live birth, pregnancy viability, infant development, sperm; concentration, morphology, motility, volume, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and seminal plasma factors. Thirty papers were included, with a total participant number of 115,158. Obese men were more likely to experience infertility (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.53-1.79), their rate of live birth per cycle of assisted reproduction technology (ART) was reduced (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.97) and they had a 10% absolute risk increase of pregnancy non-viability. Additionally, obese men had an increased percentage of sperm with low MMP, DNA fragmentation, and abnormal morphology. Clinically significant differences were not found for conventional semen parameters. From these findings it can be concluded that male obesity is associated with reduced reproductive potential. Furthermore, it may be informative to incorporate DNA fragmentation analysis and MMP assessment into semen testing, especially for obese men whose results suggest they should have normal fertility.

  18. Sulfur fertilization and fungal infections affect the exchange of H(2)S and COS from agricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Elke; Haneklaus, Silvia; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Schnug, Ewald

    2012-08-08

    The emission of gaseous sulfur (S) compounds by plants is related to several factors, such as the plant S status or fungal infection. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is either released or taken up by the plant depending on the ambient air concentration and the plant demand for S. On the contrary, carbonyl sulfide (COS) is normally taken up by plants. In a greenhouse experiment, the dependence of H(2)S and COS exchange with ambient air on the S status of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and on fungal infection with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was investigated. Thiol contents were determined to understand their influence on the exchange of gaseous S compounds. The experiment revealed that H(2)S emissions were closely related to pathogen infections as well as to S nutrition. S fertilization caused a change from H(2)S consumption by S-deficient oilseed rape plants to a H(2)S release of 41 pg g(-1) (dw) min(-1) after the addition of 250 mg of S per pot. Fungal infection caused an even stronger increase of H(2)S emissions with a maximum of 1842 pg g(-1) (dw) min(-1) 2 days after infection. Healthy oilseed rape plants acted as a sink for COS. Fungal infection caused a shift from COS uptake to COS releases. The release of S-containing gases thus seems to be part of the response to fungal infection. The roles the S-containing gases may play in this response are discussed.

  19. Motivation factors affecting employees job performance in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2011) > ... companies; and determine motivating factors affecting employees' job performance in selected oil ... promotion ( x = 4.86), random sack of workers ( x = 4.40) and absence of staff training ( x = 4.07).

  20. Factors Affecting Online Groupwork Interest: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the personal and contextual factors that may affect students' online groupwork interest. Using the data obtained from graduate students in an online course, both student- and group-level predictors for online groupwork interest were analyzed within the framework of hierarchical linear modeling…

  1. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  2. Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

  3. Factors affecting GPs workload in the period 1987-2001.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolthof, E.D.; Berg, M.J. van den; Bakker, D.H. de

    2003-01-01

    Background: Like in other countries, Dutch general practitioners (GPs) perceive an increase in workload. Too much work pressure will affect the quality of care and threats the accessibility of health care provided by GPs. Factors on organisational-level, patient-level as well as on GP-level may

  4. Scrutinizing the Factors Affecting Fluency of English among Arab Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghazali, Fawzi

    2017-01-01

    This research study investigates the cognitive, psychological and personal factors affecting the accuracy and fluency of English language usage among Arab learners. Early research led by Chomsky (1965) and Krashen (1981) suggested that an individual's Language Acquisition Device once triggered at the appropriate time and supported with adequate…

  5. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  6. Factors affecting teachers' participation in professional learning activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, C.H.E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes two studies into teacher workplace learning. The first study aimed at developing a definition of teacher learning at the workplace and at exploring factors that may affect teacher learning at the workplace. Based on a conceptualization of teacher workplace learning as

  7. Factors Affecting Entrapment in Escalating Conflicts: The Importance of Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockner, Joel; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Conducted two studies to test the notion that various factors, i.e., situation-personal, may differentially affect degrees of entrapment (amount invested) depending upon the point in time at which they are introduced. The results of both studies suggest amount invested depends upon timing in the entrapment process. (RC)

  8. Perceptions and factors affecting utilization of health services in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions and factors affecting utilization of health services in a rural ... to gender (p=0.889, OR=1.04; 0.55-2.00), educational level (p=0.707, OR=1.16; 0.50-2.79) and ... Identified barriers to access and effective use of qualitative health care ...

  9. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  10. Factors Affecting Academic Achievement of Students in Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The study investigated the factors affecting academic achievement ... The study established the following: Students who have positive attitude, interest and ... OTHER RESOURCES. ... Browse By Country · List All Titles · Open Access Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  11. An Analysis of the Social Distance Factor Affecting Language Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫宇

    2015-01-01

    The social distance is the main social factor that influences language use.This paper explores how the social distance affects language use in different ways based on solidarity,status and formality,in order to achieve a better understanding of language use.

  12. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  13. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…

  14. Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

  15. Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nergis, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

  16. Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  17. An Exploratory Study of Factors Affecting Stress Levels Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current research shows that stress levels among the teaching personnel has ... to determine: (1) factors that affect stress levels of teachers in primary school as a ... and gender of teachers; (2) coping strategies that are used by these teachers ...

  18. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  19. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  20. Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Microforms as a Reading Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Herbert; Reynolds, Linda

    Based on visits to representative microform users and an extensive survey of relevant literature, a study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of factors affecting the acceptability of microforms as reading mediums. The following variables were considered: (1) microform characteristics; (2) equipment design; (3) work station design;…

  1. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

  2. Relevant Affect Factors of Smartphone Mobile Data Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Husnjak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are used to access a wide range of different information and communication services and perform functions based on data transfer. A number of subscription contracts for smartphones is rapidly increasing, and the development of mobile communications network provides higher speed of data transfer. The continuous increase in the average amount of data traffic per one subscriber contract leads to an increase in the total Mobile Data Traffic (MDT, globally. This research represents a summary of factors that affect the amount of smartphone MDT. Previous literature shows only a few of the factors individually that affect the realization of smartphone MDT. The results of the research clarify the ways which influence the amount of MDT generated by a smartphone. This paper increases the awareness of the users of the methods of generating smartphone MDT. The research also allows users to specify parameters that affect the prediction of generated MDT of a smartphone.

  3. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W. [Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Dept 7610, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58103-6050 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  4. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  5. A wheat CCAAT box-binding transcription factor increases the grain yield of wheat with less fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Baoyuan; He, Xue; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yanyan; Teng, Wan; Shao, An; Zhao, Xueqiang; Ma, Wenying; Wang, Junyi; Li, Bin; Li, Zhensheng; Tong, Yiping

    2015-02-01

    Increasing fertilizer consumption has led to low fertilizer use efficiency and environmental problems. Identifying nutrient-efficient genes will facilitate the breeding of crops with improved fertilizer use efficiency. This research performed a genome-wide sequence analysis of the A (NFYA), B (NFYB), and C (NFYC) subunits of Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and further investigated their responses to nitrogen and phosphorus availability in wheat seedlings. Sequence mining together with gene cloning identified 18 NFYAs, 34 NFYBs, and 28 NFYCs. The expression of most NFYAs positively responded to low nitrogen and phosphorus availability. In contrast, microRNA169 negatively responded to low nitrogen and phosphorus availability and degraded NFYAs. Overexpressing TaNFYA-B1, a low-nitrogen- and low-phosphorus-inducible NFYA transcript factor on chromosome 6B, significantly increased both nitrogen and phosphorus uptake and grain yield under differing nitrogen and phosphorus supply levels in a field experiment. The increased nitrogen and phosphorus uptake may have resulted from the fact that that overexpressing TaNFYA-B1 stimulated root development and up-regulated the expression of both nitrate and phosphate transporters in roots. Our results suggest that TaNFYA-B1 plays essential roles in root development and in nitrogen and phosphorus usage in wheat. Furthermore, our results provide new knowledge and valuable gene resources that should be useful in efforts to breed crops targeting high yield with less fertilizer input.

  6. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.;

    2002-01-01

    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg...... and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites......, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were...

  7. Variations in the natural ¹⁵N abundance of Brassica chinensis grown in uncultivated soil affected by different nitrogen fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuwei; Hu, Guixian; Zhao, Ming; Chen, Tianjin; Zhang, Yongzhi; Zhu, Jiahong; Wang, Qiang

    2014-11-26

    To further investigate the method of using δ(15)N as a marker for organic vegetable discrimination, the effects of different fertilizers on the δ(15)N in different growing stages of Brassica chinensis (B. chinensis) grown in uncultivated soil were investigated with a pot experiment. B. chinensis was planted with uncultivated soil and different fertilizer treatments and then harvested three times in three seasons consecutively. For the spring experiments in the years of 2011 and 2012, the δ(15)N value of B. chinensis, which increased due to organic manure application and decreased due to chemical fertilizer application, was significantly different (p fertilizer urea treatment, and from +7.7‰ to +10.9‰ for the compost-chemical fertilizer treatment. However, the δ(15)N values observed in the autumn experiment of 2011 without any fertilizer application increased ranging from +13.4‰ to +15.4‰, + 11.2‰ to +17.7‰, +10.7‰ to +17.1‰, and +10.6‰ to +19.1‰, respectively, for the same treatments mentioned above. This result was not significantly different between manure treatment and chemical treatment. The δ(15)N values of soil obtained in the spring of 2011 during three growing stages were slightly affected by fertilizers and varied in the range of +1.6‰ to +2.5‰ for CK, +4.7‰ to +6.5‰ for compost treatment, +2.1‰ to +2.4‰ for chemical treatment, and +2.7‰ to +4.6‰ for chemical-compost treatment, respectively. High δ(15)N values of B. chinensis were observed in these experiments, which would be useful to supplement a δ(15)N database for discriminating organic vegetables. Although there was a significant difference between manure treatment and chemical treatment, it was still difficult to discriminate whether a labeled organic vegetable was really grown without chemical fertilizer just with a fixed high δ(15)N value, especially for the vegetables planted simultaneously with chemical and compost fertilizer.

  8. Deletion of Mylk1 in oocytes causes delayed morula-to-blastocyst transition and reduced fertility without affecting folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiu-Xia; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Qi, Shu-Tao; Wang, Zhong-Wei; Hu, Meng-Wen; Ma, Xue-Shan; Zhu, Min-Sheng; Schatten, Heide; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    The mammalian oocyte undergoes two rounds of asymmetric cell divisions during meiotic maturation and fertilization. Acentric spindle positioning and cortical polarity are two major factors involved in asymmetric cell division, both of which are thought to depend on the dynamic interaction between myosin II and actin filaments. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), encoded by the Mylk1 gene, could directly phosphorylate and activate myosin II. To determine whether MLCK was required for oocyte asymmetric division, we specifically disrupted the Mylk1 gene in oocytes by Cre-loxP conditional knockout system. We found that Mylk1 mutant female mice showed severe subfertility. Unexpectedly, contrary to previously reported in vitro findings, our data showed that oocyte meiotic maturation including spindle organization, polarity establishment, homologous chromosomes separation, and polar body extrusion were not affected in Mylk1(fl/fl);GCre(+) females. Follicular development, ovulation, and early embryonic development up to compact morula occurred normally in Mylk1(fl/fl);GCre(+) females, but deletion of MLCK caused delayed morula-to-blastocyst transition. More than a third of embryos were at morula stage at 3.5 Days Postcoitum in vivo. The delayed embryos could develop further to early blastocyst stage in vitro on Day 4 when most control embryos reached expanded blastocysts. Our findings provide evidence that MLCK is linked to timely blastocyst formation, though it is dispensable for oocyte meiotic maturation. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  9. Factors Associated with the Success of In Vitro Fertilization in Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Sveta Shah; Pabby, Vikas; Dodge, Laura E.; Hacker, Michele R.; Fox, Janis H.; Moragianni, Vasiliki A.; Correia, Katharine; Missmer, Stacey A.; Ibrahim, Yetunde; Penzias, Alan S.; Burakoff, Robert; Friedman, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether certain factors are associated with the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Aim This study assessed whether certain characteristics are associated with greater success of live birth following IVF. Methods In a cohort study of 8684 women with IBD seen at two tertiary care centers, we identified 121 women with IBD who underwent IVF. We assessed the effect of numerous factors on likelihood of achieving live birth after IVF. Results Seventy-one patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 49 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) were analyzed. Patients with UC who achieved a live birth were younger (p = 0.03), had a shorter duration of disease (p = 0.01), and were more likely to be in remission (p = 0.03) versus those who did not achieve live birth. Patients with CD who achieved live birth were younger (p < 0.001), had lower body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.02), and had lower cycle day 3 follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p = 0.02). There was no difference in likelihood of achieving live birth among patients in remission and those with mild or unknown disease status (p = 0.69), though most CD patients (79.5 %) were in remission. Prior surgery was not associated with live birth in patients with UC (p = 0.31) or CD (p = 0.62). Conclusions As in the general infertility population, younger patients and those with lower BMI were more likely to achieve live birth. History of surgery was not associated with live birth among IBD patients. This is important information for practitioners counseling IBD patients. PMID:26888767

  10. Factors Affecting Adoption of Recommended Cauliflower Production Technology in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Raj Dhital

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Binary logit regression model of econometrics was used to identify the factors affecting adoption of recommended agricultural technology by the commercial farmers of Nepal. A survey was carried out in 2012 in 120 households from Kavre district, Nepal. The objective was to appraise factors affecting adoption of recommended technology of cauliflower, finding out the level of adoption, identifying the constraints of cauliflower cultivation, assessing the perceived level of satisfaction and studying the relationship of certain selected variables on the adoption. Education, Occupation, contact with Personal Localite sources of information, Group membership and Experience were the most influencing factors for adoption of recommended technology. Though, other factors were not strong enough to contribute significantly but indirectly influence the adoption decision of farmers as combined effects. Occupation was found as negatively associated. Landholding size was strongly and positively influencing among the non significant factors. The level of satisfaction and the constraints of cauliflower production were also identified. Transfer of technology will be effective if and only if the client adopts the technology. For an effective transfer of technology, it is better to go for activities for the welfare of the socioeconomic factors of the farmers.

  11. A Review of Affecting Factors on Sexual Satisfaction in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Gardeshi, Zeinab Hamzeh; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Salehi, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sex is a complex, important and sensitive issue in human being and interwoven with the whole of human existence. Given the serious changes in attitude, function and behavior in sex, the need to address sexual function, especially sexual satisfaction, is felt completely. Sexual satisfaction has a very important role in creating marital satisfaction and any defect in sexual satisfaction is significantly associated with risky sexual behaviors, serious mental illness, social crimes and ultimately divorce. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women based on an overview in scientific database. Methods: In this narrative review the researchers searched MEDLINE database, Google Scholar and Science Direct as well as Persian database like Scientific Information Database with search terms of sexual satisfaction and sexual function, restricted to English/ Persian language, during the 20 years ago. Then those articles written by renowned experts were selected. In this regard, 57 articles have been reviewed, which 30 articles related to this research have been extracted. Results: The findings were divided in to four categories including: Demographic factors, Pathophysiological factors, Psychological factors and Sociocultural factors. Conclusions: Sexuality, especially sexual intimacy is sophisticated and yet elegant affair that the other persons has different definitions and different functions. Discrepancies in the results of the studies show that analysis of factors affecting sexual satisfaction regardless of the women’s’ sociocultural context, religious beliefs, and personal attitudes is undoubtedly inefficient, unscientific and irrational. PMID:25685081

  12. Are Affective Factors a Good Predictor of Science Achievement? Examining the Role of Affective Factors Based on PISA 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Murat; Caglak, Serdar; Erdogan, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how affective factors like attitude and motivation contribute to science achievement in PISA 2006 using linear structural modeling. The data set of PISA 2006 collected from 4942 fifteen-year-old Turkish students (2290 females, 2652 males) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 42 selected items on a four point…

  13. Obesity is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation among fertile young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karasoy, Deniz; Jensen, Thomas Bo; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but whether this risk is also prevalent in younger individuals is unknown. We therefore investigated the risk of AF in relation to body mass index (BMI) among young fertile women.......Obesity has been associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but whether this risk is also prevalent in younger individuals is unknown. We therefore investigated the risk of AF in relation to body mass index (BMI) among young fertile women....

  14. Factors Affecting Accuracy of Data Abstracted from Medical Records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith N Zozus

    Full Text Available Medical record abstraction (MRA is often cited as a significant source of error in research data, yet MRA methodology has rarely been the subject of investigation. Lack of a common framework has hindered application of the extant literature in practice, and, until now, there were no evidence-based guidelines for ensuring data quality in MRA. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the accuracy of data abstracted from medical records and to generate a framework for data quality assurance and control in MRA.Candidate factors were identified from published reports of MRA. Content validity of the top candidate factors was assessed via a four-round two-group Delphi process with expert abstractors with experience in clinical research, registries, and quality improvement. The resulting coded factors were categorized into a control theory-based framework of MRA. Coverage of the framework was evaluated using the recent published literature.Analysis of the identified articles yielded 292 unique factors that affect the accuracy of abstracted data. Delphi processes overall refuted three of the top factors identified from the literature based on importance and five based on reliability (six total factors refuted. Four new factors were identified by the Delphi. The generated framework demonstrated comprehensive coverage. Significant underreporting of MRA methodology in recent studies was discovered.The framework generated from this research provides a guide for planning data quality assurance and control for studies using MRA. The large number and variability of factors indicate that while prospective quality assurance likely increases the accuracy of abstracted data, monitoring the accuracy during the abstraction process is also required. Recent studies reporting research results based on MRA rarely reported data quality assurance or control measures, and even less frequently reported data quality metrics with research results. Given the demonstrated

  15. Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahieh Moradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

  16. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  17. Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Quran Firas A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

  18. Nitrate leaching of winter wheat grown in lysimeters as affected by fertilizers and irrigation on the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Li-min; LIU Tie-ning; ZHAO Jun; DONG Shu-ting; LIU Peng; ZHANG Ji-wang; ZHAO Bin

    2015-01-01

    Proper application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers and irrigation management are important production practices that can reduce nitrate leaching into groundwater and improve the N use efifciency (NUE). A lysimeter/rain shelter facility was used to study effects of the rate of N fertilization, type of N fertilizer, and irrigation level on key aspects of winter wheat production over three growing seasons (response variables were nitrate transport, N leaching, and NUE). Results indicated that nitrate concentration in the soil proifle and N leaching increased with the rate of N fertilization. At the end of the third season, nitrate concentration in the top 0–75 cm layer of soil was higher with manure treatment while urea treatments resulted in higher concentrations in the 100–200 cm layer. With normal irrigation, 3.4 to 15.3%of N from applied fertilizer was leached from the soil, yet no leaching occurred under a stress irrigation treatment. The manure treatment experienced less N leaching than the urea treatment in al cases except for the 180 kg N ha-1 rate in 2011–2012 (season 3). In terms of grain yield (GY), dry matter (DM) or NUE parameters, values for the manure treatment were lower than for the urea treatment in 2009–2010 (season 1), yet were otherwise higher for urea treatment in season 3. GY and crop nitrogen uptake (NU) were elevated when the rate of N fertilizer increased, while the NUE decreased;GY, DM, and NU increased with the amount of irrigation. Data indicated that reduced rates of N fertilization combined with increased manure application and proper irrigation management can lower nitrate levels in the subsoil and reduce potential N leaching into groundwater.

  19. Factors affecting functional prognosis of patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M T

    2011-01-01

    . A variety of factors such as age, prefracture function and health status, fracture type, pain, anaemia, muscle strength, and the early mobility level have been shown to influence patient outcome. Thus, the outcome of patients with hip fracture is considered multi-factorial, and can therefore not be related......Having a hip fracture is considered one of the most fatal fractures for elderly people, resulting in impaired function, and increased morbidity and mortality. This challenges clinicians in identifying patients at risk of worse outcome, in order to optimise and intensify treatment in these patients...... to just one or two single factors. The current article reviews important factors affecting the functional prognosis, and clinicians are encouraged to include all factors potentially influencing the outcome of patients with hip fracture in their individualised treatment and rehabilitation plan. Especially...

  20. Factors Affecting Customer Retention in the Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghda Climis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study empirically investigated the factors that affect customer retention in the airline industry in North Cyprus. These factors were service quality attributes, perceived safety, customer satisfaction, loyalty reward program, relationship commitment and customer loyalty. The study also investigated four different groups for purposes of travel (business, education, vacation and family visit in the empirical model. Methodology: A descriptive approach was chosen to conduct this research. A quanhip between customer retention and the related study factors; however, not all of these relations are signifcant. The results also showed that the different purposes of travel had different influences on the variables regarding the positive and signifcant relations between them. Some independent variables had a negative effect on the dependent variables. Conclusions: This research was limited to one group and place: the students of Eastern Mediterranean University in North Cyprus. Originality: This study connected the retention, loyalty, satisfaction and service quality factors as attributes. In addition, this research was the frst to include other independent factors affecting satisfaction and loyalty in a comparison between four different groups regarding the purpose of travel in the airline industry.

  1. Investigating the factors affecting knowledge management application in new ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Shahidifar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is extensively used in large, medium and small firms. However, the larger the scale, the more knowledge management practices might be used in organizations. Unfortunately, application of knowledge management in new ventures is not sufficiently discussed in the extant literature. Thus this paper attempts to concentrate on this issue. Therefore, environmental, organizational and individual factors are enumerated and their effect on application of knowledge management in new ventures is examined. Findings revealed that all these factors significantly affect knowledge management application is new ventures.

  2. Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

  3. Factors Affecting Microbial Contamination of Market Eggs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodová J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.

  4. Operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Chuan-udom

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses,which comprised rotor speed (RS, louver inclination (LI, grain moisture content (MC, feed rate (FR, and grain to materialother than grain ratio (GM. Seventeen Thai corn-shelling threshers were random-sampled during the late rainy season cropof 2008 and ten threshers were sampled in the early rainy season crop of 2009 in Loei province, Northeast of Thailand.The results of this study indicated that LI and MC affected shelling losses whereas RS, FR and GM did not affect losses.Increased LI or decreased MC tended to reduce shelling losses. In operating the Thai threshers for corn shelling, if shellinglosses have to be kept lower that 0.5%, the moisture content should not exceed 20%wb and the louver inclination should notbe less than 85 degrees.

  5. N Mineralization as Affected by Long-Term N Fertilization and Its Relationship with Crop N Uptake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN De-Zhi; WANG De-Jian; SUN Rui-Juan; LIN Jing-Hui

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment established in 1997 was conducted to study the effect of long-term N fertilizer application on N mineralization in a paddy soil determined using a laboratory anaerobic incubation followed with a field incubation and to measure the relationship between in situ N mineralization and crop N uptake. To estimate N mineralization in the laboratory, soil samples were collected from plots with N application at different rates for six years and were incubated.Soils treated with fertilizer N mineralized more N than unfertilized soils and mineralization increased with N application rates. Also, the fraction of total N mineralized increased with increasing N fertilizer application. These findings meant that a substantial portion of previously applied N could be recovered slowly over time in subsequent crops. The field incubation of the plot receiving no fertilizer N showed that the NH4+-N concentration varied greatly during the rice-growing season and seasonal changes of N mineralization were due more to accumulation of NH4+-N than NO3--N. Rice N uptake increased up to a maximum of 82 kg N ha-1 during the season. The close agreement found between in situ N mineralization and rice N uptake suggested that the measurement of in situ N mineralization could provide useful recommendations for adequate fertilizer N application.

  6. The effects of weed-crop competition on nutrient uptake as affected by crop rotation and fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammaddoust-E-Chamanabad, Hamid Reza; Asghari, Ali; Tulikov, Aleksander Mikhailovic

    2007-11-15

    A field study at the Agricultural University of Timiriazev, Moscow, was conducted to determine the effect of crop rotation and Long-term fertilizer application on differences in the competitive ability of spring barley and weeds to nutrient uptake in 2004 and 2005. Spring barley was cultivated in continuous and in crop rotation with winter rye, potato, clover, flax and fallow, with and without NPK application since 1912. Spring barley, especially in no fertilizer plots grown in crop rotation has greater dry mass than spring barley grown in continuous. While dry weed mass markedly decreased in crop rotation. Decrease dry weeds mass was greater when NPK had applied. The statistical analyses show that when spring barley grew in competition with weeds in the no fertilizer plots, crop rotation significantly increased nutrient content in spring barley, but when fertilizer applied the content of N, P2O5 and K2O in barley did not change. Lowest weeds nutrient content observed where soil fertility was increased by crop rotation and NPK application. Crop rotation significantly increased total nutrient uptake of soils by spring barley, but decreased total nutrient uptake by weeds.

  7. Community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in rice field soil as affected by nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Ke, Xiubin; Wu, Liqin; Lu, Yahai

    2009-02-01

    Little information is available on the ecology of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) in flooded rice soils. Consequently, a microcosm experiment was conducted to determine the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the composition of AOB and AOA communities in rice soil by using molecular analyses of ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) fragments. Experimental treatments included three levels of N (urea) fertilizer, i.e. 50, 100 and 150 mgNkg(-1) soil. Soil samples were operationally divided into four fractions: surface soil, bulk soil deep layer, rhizosphere and washed root material. NH(4)(+)-N was the dominant form of N in soil porewater and increased with N fertilization. Cloning and sequencing of amoA gene fragments showed that the AOB community in the rice soil consisted of three major groups, i.e. Nitrosomonas communis cluster, Nitrosospira cluster 3a and cluster 3b. The sequences related to Nitrosomonas were predominant. There was a clear effect of N fertilizer and soil depth on AOB community composition based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting. Nitrosomonas appeared to be more abundant in the potentially oxic or micro-oxic fractions, including surface soil, rhizosphere and washed root material, than the deep layer of anoxic bulk soil. Furthermore, Nitrosomonas increased relatively in the partially oxic fractions and that of Nitrosospira decreased with the increasing application of N fertilizer. However, AOA community composition remained unchanged according to the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses.

  8. Success factors affecting E-business:case Taobao

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    E-business has aroused great concern and become a hot topic in both information technology and business field. With many companies’ success in doing e-business, there are also abundant of failure cases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the success factors that can affect e-business so as to provide beneficial guidance to companies. Virtually, many researchers have also studied e-business relating to its success from different perspectives and in various areas. However, ...

  9. Motivation-One of the Affective Factors and its Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Fang-hua

    2014-01-01

    Affective factors play a positive role in English study and motivation is the most important. Higher motivation predicts better second language acquisition. The types of motivation are mainly divided into two:extrinsic motivation and intrinsic moti-vation. Teachers should study their students as well as the teaching materials and then select scientific methods and make good use of them to reinforce their students' motivation.

  10. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  11. Classification tree analysis of factors affecting parking choices in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Shaaban, K.; Pande, A

    2015-01-01

    Qatar has experienced a significant population growth in the past decade. The growth has been accompanied by an increase in automobile ownership rates leading to parking problems especially in the capital city of Doha. The objective of this study was to find the factors affecting people's choice of parking in this rich developing country when different parking options are available. Two commercial centers located in the city of Doha, Qatar were selected for this study; the City Center mall an...

  12. Factors affecting Culicoides species composition and abundance in avian nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de la Puente, J; Merino, S; Tomás, G; Moreno, J; Morales, J; Lobato, E; Talavera, S; Sarto I Monteys, V

    2009-08-01

    Mechanisms affecting patterns of vector distribution among host individuals may influence the population and evolutionary dynamics of vectors, hosts and the parasites transmitted. We studied the role of different factors affecting the species composition and abundance of Culicoides found in nests of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We identified 1531 females and 2 males of 7 different Culicoides species in nests, with C. simulator being the most abundant species, followed by C. kibunensis, C. festivipennis, C. segnis, C. truncorum, C. pictipennis and C. circumscriptus. We conducted a medicationxfumigation experiment randomly assigning bird's nests to different treatments, thereby generating groups of medicated and control pairs breeding in fumigated and control nests. Medicated pairs were injected with the anti-malarial drug Primaquine diluted in saline solution while control pairs were injected with saline solution. The fumigation treatment was carried out using insecticide solution or water for fumigated and control nests respectively. Brood size was the main factor associated with the abundance of biting midges probably because more nestlings may produce higher quantities of vector attractants. In addition, birds medicated against haemoparasites breeding in non-fumigated nests supported a higher abundance of C. festivipennis than the rest of the groups. Also, we found that the fumigation treatment reduced the abundance of engorged Culicoides in both medicated and control nests, thus indicating a reduction of feeding success produced by the insecticide. These results represent the first evidence for the role of different factors in affecting the Culicoides infracommunity in wild avian nests.

  13. Assessing infertility-related stress: the factor structure of the Fertility Problem Inventory in Italian couples undergoing infertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donarelli, Zaira; Gullo, Salvatore; Lo Coco, Gianluca; Marino, Angelo; Scaglione, Piero; Volpes, Aldo; Allegra, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    The factor structure of the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI) and its invariance across gender were examined in Italian couples undergoing infertility treatment. About 1000 subjects (both partners of 500 couples) completed two questionnaires prior to commencing infertility treatment at a private Clinic in Palermo, Italy. Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that the original factor structure of the FPI was partially confirmed. Two correlated factors (Infertility Life Domains and Importance of Parenthood) were obtained via a post hoc Exploratory Factor Analysis. Finally, the invariance of this factor structure across gender was confirmed. The study supported the relevance of two interrelated factors specific to infertility stress which could help clinicians to focus on the core infertility-related stress domains of infertile couples.

  14. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tatarinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  15. EXPLORING THE FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES’ ADOPTION AND USE OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majharul Talukder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the factors affecting innovation adoption by individual employees within an organization in Australia. Following a qualitative research approach, this paper uses a series of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions involving academic and administrative employees at a tertiary educational institution in Australia. The qualitative approach is adopted to have a deeper insight into the complexities and dynamism associated with the factors influencing innovation adoption process in organizational settings. The findings of this research highlight the need for broadening an understanding of the key factors affecting employee’s decisions to uptake the adoption of innovation. The results provide important clues for comprehending the factors influencing and determining the employee’s adoption and continued use of innovation in the work environment. In the face of the current trend towards end-user applications of technological innovation, the results suggest some guidelines for management toward effective and efficient adoption and use of innovation in organizational settings. This paper has highlighted the above findings and their implications for management practices related to innovation management in an Australian organizational setting. This paper also identifies possible limitations and future research potential in the relevant field.

  16. Factors affecting Thai workers' use of hearing protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantranont, Kunlayanee; Srisuphan, Wichit; Kaewthummanukul, Thanee; Suthakorn, Weeraporn; Jormsri, Pantip; Salazar, Mary K

    2009-11-01

    This study used an ecological model to examine Thai workers' beliefs and attitudes toward using occupational hearing protection. Data collection involved focus group sessions with 28 noise-exposed workers at four factories in Chiang Mai Province and an interview with a safety officer at each organization. Detailed content analysis resulted in the identification of three types of factors influencing the use of hearing protection: intrapersonal, including preventing impaired hearing, noise annoyance, personal discomfort, and interference with communication; interpersonal, including coworker modeling, supervisor support, and supervisor modeling; and organizational, including organizational rules and regulations, provision of hearing protection devices, dissemination of knowledge and information, noise monitoring, and hearing testing. Effective hearing protection programs depend on knowledge of all of these factors. Strategies to promote workers' use of hearing protection should include the complete range of factors having the potential to affect workers' hearing.

  17. Factors affecting enamel and ceramic wear: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won-Suck; Delong, Ralph; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2002-04-01

    Enamel wear by ceramics may adversely affect maintenance of the vertical dimension of occlusion and can increase the potential for thermal sensitivity. In this article, factors related to the abrasion of enamel by dental ceramics are critically reviewed. Concepts of physical, microstructural, chemical, and surface characteristics of dental ceramics on wear are presented based on research published since 1950. A PubMed search for key words (wear of enamel and ceramic) was supplemented with a hand search to identify relevant peer-reviewed articles published in English. Based on the literature, it can be concluded that material factors, their proper handling, and control of the patient's intrinsic risk factors related to wear are critically important to the reduction of enamel wear by dental ceramics.

  18. Factors affecting the long-term renal allograft survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; LI Xiao-bei; YIN Hang; YANG Xiao-yong; LIU Hang; REN Liang; HU Xiao-peng; WANG Yong; ZHANG Xiao-dong

    2011-01-01

    Background In the past decades, the one-year graft survival of cadaveric renal allografts has been markedly improved,but their long-term survival has not kept pace. The attrition rate of renal allografts surviving after one year remains almost unchanged. The causes for late graft loss are multiple. The aim of this study was to analyze the predictive factors that impact long-term survival of grafts after kidney transplantation.Methods We retrospectively analyzed 524 kidney transplantation patients who were treated in our hospital between January 1991 and January 2000, including 254 patients who had lived more than 10 years with normal graft function (long survival group), and 270 cases whose renal graft had survived less than 10 years (control group). Specifically, we analyzed 10 factors that may potentially affect graft survival by both univariate and Logistic model multivariate analyses to pinpoint the independent risk factors.Results Univariate analyses showed that no significant differences existed in the age or gender of recipients, dialysis time, lymphotoxin levels, or cold ischemia time between the two groups. However, the ratio of delayed graft function and acute rejection, and the uric acid levels of patients in the long survival group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P <0.01). Furthermore, we found that the concentration of cyclosporin A at one year after transplantation and the histocompatibility antigen match of donor-recipients for patients within the long survival group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P <0.01 ). Furthermore, multivariate analyses showed that these four factors were independent risk factors that impact patient survival.Conclusions The ratios of delayed graft function and acute rejection, the concentration of cyclosporin A at one year after transplantation, and serum uric acid levels are very important factors that affect the long-term survival of renal grafts.

  19. Survey on Factors Affecting the Recurrence of Multiple sclerosis Attacks

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    Hasanzadeh F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic and progressive disease of the central nervous system. The identification of effective factors and patient education on the prevention of exposure to these factors can be effective in reducing relapses. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the factors that affect recurrence in patients with multiple sclerosis. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 402 MS patients referred to the MS Association of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. The study participants were selected using purposive sampling method. Data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire and a 40-item researcher-made questionnaire concerning factors affecting the recurrence of MS. The 40-item questionnaire consisted of 4 domains personal factors, medical condition, pharmaceutical conditions, and environmental factors. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 21 and Mann Whitney, Pearson correlation, Kruskal Wallis, and chi-square statistical tests. Results: Among the patients, 21/4% were male and 78/6% female. Most patients were 20-29 years old. The highest prevalence of recurrence of MS was observed in the summer (70.8% and in August (50.3%. There was no significant relationship between patient’s gender and their views about the relationship between infections, fatigue, and heat and recurrence of MS. However, a higher rate of women believed stress (P < 0.029 and sexual development (P < 0.001 to be effective on the incidence of MS recurrence, in comparison to men. Conclusion: Most patients with MS are women, and they believe stress to be more effective on the incidence of MS attack recurrence. Therefore, nurses, as the primary care educators, can improve the patients’ capability, disease management, and quality of life through training of stress management techniques.

  20. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success.

  1. Risk factors that influence suicidal behavior in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Albina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known in the literature that the incidence and prevalence of suicide and attempted suicide in psychiatric patients is significantly higher than in the general population. The paper examined risk factors for suicidal behavior in the category of admitted patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of sleep disorders and affective (Unipolar resp. Bipolar depression. Study activated by 80 patients, 40 in both diagnostic groups received treatment at the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Gornja Toponica near Nis. The work methodology used are: psychiatric interview, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, and the C-SSRS (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale- assessment tool that assesses suicidal ideation and behavior. The study results show that there is a relationship between suicidal behavior (suicide attempts and suicidal ideation and the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, positive history of previous suicide attempts, so that these factors are stronger, to the degree of suicidality higher. On this sample, clearly suicidal behavior, with the same purpose, intensity of suicidal thoughts and medical impairment after suicide attempts were significantly more frequent in patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder in the depressive phase of the illness. Patients with a previous suicide attempt, and poor personal and social circumstances had a higher rate of attempted suicide.

  2. An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuremoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

  3. Tomato nitrogen accumulation and fertilizer use efficiency on a sandy soil, as affected by nitrogen rate and irrigation scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Dukes, M.D.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Icerman, J.

    2009-01-01

    Tomato production systems in Florida are typically intensively managed with high inputs of fertilizer and irrigation and on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities; potential nutrient leaching losses undermine the sustainability of such systems. The objectives of this 3

  4. Residue and soil carbon sequestration in relation to crop yield as affected by irrigation, tillage, cropping system and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on management practices is needed to increase surface residue and soil C sequestration to obtain farm C credit. The effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization were evaluated on the amount of crop biomass (stems and leaves) returned to the soil, surface residue C...

  5. Nitrate leaching from cut grassland as affected by the substitution of slurry with nitrogen mineral fertilizer on two soil types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Assinck, F.B.T.; Uenk, D.; Velthof, G.L.

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to find out whether there is any difference in risk of N leaching to groundwater when cattle slurry and/or mineral fertilizer-N was applied to cut grassland. The experiment was carried out over two consecutive years on two sites (one with a relatively wet sandy soil

  6. Zinc Concentration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Grains and Allocation in Plants as Affected by Different Zinc Fertilization Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Hong Juan; Gao, Xiao Peng; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Li, Lu Jiu; Zhang, Fu Suo; Zou, Chun Qin

    2016-01-01

    Concern over the food chain transfer of zinc (Zn) is increasing because of its importance in human health. A field experiment was conducted on a low Zn soil to determine the effect of different Zn fertilization strategies on grain Zn concentration and Zn allocation in different plant tissues of r

  7. Relationship between malt qualities and p-amylase activity and protein content as affected by timing of nitrogen fertilizer application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-xin; DAI Fei; WEI Kang; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2006-01-01

    The effects of different timing of N fertilizer application at the same rate on grain β-amylase activity, protein concentration, weight and malt quality of barley were studied. Grain β-amylase activity and protein concentration were significantly higher in treatments where all top-dressed N fertilizer was applied at booting stage only or equally applied at two-leaf stage and booting stage than in the treatment where all top-dressed N fertilizer was applied at two-leaf age stage only. On the other hand,grain weight and malt extract decreased with increased N application at booting stage. There were obvious differences between barley varieties and experimental years in the grain and malt quality response to the timing of N fertilizer application. It was found that grain protein concentration was significantly and positively correlated with β-amylase activity, but significantly and negatively correlated with malt extract and Kolbach index. The effect of grain protein concentration on malt quality was predominant over the effect of grain β-amylase activity.

  8. [Research advances on controlled-release mechanisms of nutrients in coated fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Wu, Zhijie; Liang, Wenju; Xie, Hongtu

    2003-12-01

    Using encapsulation techniques to coat easily soluble fertilizers is an important way to improve fertilizer use efficiency while reduce environmental hazards. Based on a wide range of literature collection on coated fertilizer research, the theories, processes, and characters of nutrient controlled-release from coated fertilizer were discussed, and the factors affecting nutrient controlled-release and the mathematical simulations on it were reviewed. The main tendencies related to this research in China were also put forward.

  9. Factors potentially affecting the function of kidney grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jun; ZHENG Xin; XIE Ze-lin; SUN Wen; ZHANG Lei; TIAN Ye; GUO Yu-wen

    2013-01-01

    Background Donor and recipient risk factors on graft function have been well characterized.The contribution of demographic factors,such as age,gender,and other potential factors of donor and recipient at the time of transplantation on the function of a graft is much less well understood.In this study,we analyzed the effects of factors such as age,gender,etc.,on the short-term and long-term graft function in kidney transplant recipients from living donor.Methods A total of 335 living donors and their recipients,who had kidney transplantation in our center from May 2004 to December 2009,were included.Serum creatinine level was used as the assessment criterion (serum creatinine level lower than 115 mmol/L is normal).Factors related to graft function such as age,gender,blood relation by consanguinity,human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch,ABO type,etc.,were analyzed separately.Results Donor age is the key factor affecting both the short-term and long-term function of a grafted kidney from a living donor.The group with donors younger than 48 years showed the best kidney function post transplantation.Match of gender and age is another important factor that influences the function of grafted kidney from a living donor.The older donor to younger recipient group had the worst outcome after kidney transplantation.After 36 months post transplantation,female donor to male recipient group had worse kidney function compared to other groups.We also found that calcinerin inhibitor used in the maintenance period may influence the function of a grafted kidney.No significant statistical differences were found in consanguinity,blood type,and mismatch of HLA.Conclusions Donor age is an important factor affecting the function of a grafted kidney from a living donor.We also recommend taking nephron,immunology factor,infection,and demographic information all into consideration when assessing the outcome of kidney transplantation.

  10. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MAIZE (Zea Mays AND DOLECOUS (Lablab Purpureus AS AFFECTED BY PHOSPHOROUS FERTILIZATION AND INTERCROPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. AMASAIB

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the Demonstration Farm of University of Khartoum to determine the effect of phosphorous fertilization and intercropping on the nutritive value of Zea mays and Lablab purpureus. The field experiment was arranged as Split Plot Design with four replications. The main plots were (Lablab purpureus as sole crop, Zea mays as sole crop, Lablab purpureus and Zea mays in the mixture. The sub plot treatments were phosphorous fertilization at the rate of (0, 50 and 75 kg P2O5 / ha which were then referred to as P0, P1 and P2 respectively. The plants measured were Lablab purepureus as pure stand, Lablab purepureus in the mixture, Zea mays as the pure stand and the Zea mays in the mixture. Samples of 45 days cut from sowing were used to assess the ash, crude protein (CP, ether extracts (EE, crude fiber (CF, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and dry matter digestibility. The data were statistically analyzed using complete randomized design. The results revealed that intercropping and phosphorous fertilization caused a significant (P<0.05 increased on the CP content and dry matter digestibility of all forages under estimation. Intercropping and phosphorous fertilization caused slight increase on the Ash content for all crops in this study. Moreover, Intercropping and phosphorous fertilization caused a decrease on the CF and NDF content of all forages under estimation but with no significant difference. However, Intercropping caused non–significant effect (P<0.05 on the EE content of Zea mays while, intercropping had a positive influence (P<0.05 on the EE content of Lablab purpureus. The data obtained indicated that phosphorous fertilization caused non–significant effect on the EE content of all crops in this study (P<0.05 except Lablab purpureus in the mixture with Zea mays which increased significantly (P<0.05 by increasing phosphorous level. It can be concluded that intercropping and phosphorous fertilization improved the

  11. Affects N fertilization intensity and composition of root exudation from two plant species differing in their exploitation strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotas, Petr; Kastovska, Eva

    2017-04-01

    The rhizosphere represents one of the most important hotspots of microbial activity in soil. As such, it controls soil element cycling and significantly contributes to important ecosystem processes like C and N sequestration. The close plant-microbe-soil interactions in the rhizosphere are mediated by the input of labile exudates into the surroundings of plant roots. Thus microbial performance is constrained by the intensity and composition of root exudation. However, it is poorly understood how closely root exudation corresponds with the plant metabolome and how it is related to plant traits and changing environmental conditions. To fill this gap, we determined the composition of the root metabolic pool and root exudates in two plant species differing in their exploitation type (conservative Carex acuta versus competitive Glyceria maxima) grown for two months in controlled conditions and treated weekly by two levels of foliar N fertilization. Based on previous studies, we knew that Glyceria has, compared to Carex, a lower tissue C:N ratio, higher photosynthetic rate, higher allocation belowground and also larger investment to exudation. Prior to extraction, the roots were cleaned by water and immediately frozen in liquid N2. The root exudates were collected from carefully cleaned roots of living plants encased in glass vials with water and subsequently lyophilised. Both sample types were silylated and analysed for their metabolic profiles using GC-MS/MS. Our results revealed that the metabolite content in root tissue (DW basis) of Glyceria was on average lower compared to Carex, but increased with fertilization, while the root tissue of Carex was characterized by significantly higher metabolite content in the low intensity fertilization treatment compared to both the control and high N fertilization intensity. In contrast, the amount of exuded compounds was much higher in Glyceria compared to Carex in the control plants, but decreased for Glyceria and increased

  12. Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Avis J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on FENO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. Results The effect of sex on FENO was both statistically and clinically significant, with FENO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced FENO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the FENO measurement. Atopy increased FENO by 60%. The sex-related differences in FENO remained significant (p ENO. Conclusion Even after adjustment, FENO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.

  13. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Nazarpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental–emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse.

  14. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured questionnaire; study reveals that service innovativeness, service reli- ability, service competitiveness and service consistency have significant influence on making customer satisfied and the operator’s network/signal coverage, pricing, offering, fulfillment of customer demand, value added service, brand value and op - erators contribution for society have insignificant influences on making customer satisfied at five percent level of significant at multiple regression analysis. On the basis of these findings; study concludes that in promoting customer satisfaction mobile service providers should be concerned for factors responsible for insignifi- cant influence on customer satisfaction and care of those factors have significant influence on promoting customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.

  15. Main Factors for Affecting Photonic Bandgap of Photonic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; XUE Wei; JIANG Yu-rong; YU Zhi-nong; WANG Hua-qing

    2007-01-01

    The factors affecting one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PhCs) are systemically analyzed in this paper by numerical simulation.Transfer matrix method (TMM) is employed for 1D PCs, both finite difference time domain method (FDTD) and plane wave expansion method (PWE) are employed for 2D PCs.The result shows that the photonic bandgaps (PBG) are directly affected by crystal type, crystal lattice constant, modulation of refractive index and periodicity, and it is should be useful for design of different type photonic crystals with the required PBG and functional devices.Finally, as an example, a near-IR 1D PCs narrow filter was designed.

  16. Fibroblast growth factor 21 has no direct role in regulating fertility in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Singhal

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: We conclude that FGF21 is not a direct physiological regulator of fertility in mice. The infertility observed in FGF21 overexpressing mice is likely driven by the increased energy expenditure and consequent excess calorie requirements resulting from high FGF21 levels.

  17. Factors influencing fertility outcome after ectopic pregnancy: a descriptive observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena KS

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Subfertility, tubal pathology and age will influence on future fertility outcome following ectopic pregnancy. Radical or conservative surgery does not have influence on future pregnancy outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 820-823

  18. Determination of factors affecting seafood consumption pattern and consumption frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tolga Tolon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Current seafood consumption pattern, consumer profile and factors affecting seafood consumption amount and frequency of the consumers residing in coastal region (İzmir, mixed region (Adana and countryside region (Ankara of Turkey were researched in this study. It is aimed to provide source to researchers and relevant institutions who are willing to guide the future sectoral initiatives and conduct more extensive research on seafood consumer habits. In this context, the research population was determined according to their distance to the sea and their populations by purposive sampling method. 43 % of total 400 survey was conducted in Ankara, 36% in İzmir and 21% in Adana by face to face interviews. According to the survey results, 6% of respondents never consume seafood, 25% once a month, 28% once every two weeks, and 42% consume once and more than once in a week. The most seafood consumption frequency was identified in Izmir. Nearly 90% of consumers in the entire regions prefer to consume seafood in fresh type. According to the answers of all consumers 4 major factors affecting seafood consumption preferences and habits in a negative way were "high price, cannot be easily found in the market, not recognition of seafood varieties and disfavor of the flavor of seafood". The relationship between frequency of seafood consumption and education level of consumer’s variables is determined as linear and strong but the relationship between consumer age and seafood consumption frequency is determined as reverse. On the factors affecting choice of seafood consumption in a positive way, 71% of consumers stated the beneficial to health perception and taste of seafood as the most important reason for their preference. Therefore, the relationship between consumption trend and beneficial to health perception of seafood is determined as linear and strong.

  19. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  20. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  1. Chinese multinationals: how do institutional factors affect their location patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Quer Ramón

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of various host country institutional factors on the location patterns of 29 large Chinese multinationals. From a sample of 127 outward foreign direct investment (FDI decisions made in 52 countries, our findings suggest that a greater difficulty in doing business and a high political risk in the host country do not discourage Chinese multinationals. However, the presence of overseas Chinese in the host country, a larger absolute host market size and a higher volume of Chinese exports to that country affect positively.

  2. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academ...

  3. Contributions of other socio-economic factors to the fertility differentials of women by education: a multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, P

    1984-01-01

    Data derived from the 1970 US Census indicate that fertility declines with increasing education level. In this paper, the author uses a method she developed earlier for decomposing the difference between rates into several components. Specifically, the difference in average number of children between groups dichotomized on the basis of wife's education is decomposed in terms of 6 other socioeconomic factors--husband's education, husband's occupation, wife's age at marriage, race, wife's labor force status, and family income. The fertility of wives who were not high school graduates was compared to that of high school graduates, and then a similar comparison was made between wives with high school education only and those with college education. All 6 factors examined were found to contribute positively to the overall reduction in number of children when wives advanced from non-high school graduate status to high school graduate status. On the other hand, comparisons between wives with 4 years of high school and those with a college education indicates that the .158 difference between their average number of children increases if the averages are controlled for differences in husband's education, race, or family income. For a more meaningful comparison of the effects of the 6 factors, all were considered simultaneously. Together these factors explained 51.3% of the difference in average number of children between those with and without a high school education, with husband's education making the largest (15.1%) contribution. In terms of college educated versus high school educated wives, the 6 factors explained 72.3% of the fertility difference, with wife's age at marriage making the largest (63.9%) contribution.

  4. Econometric Analysis of Factors Affecting Special Purpose Forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lanhui; Cai Fei

    2003-01-01

    The forest estate is one of our most important natural resources. It is also the material foundation for sustainable forestry development in China. It is a timely topic of concern within the forestry community and touches the entire society. From a social economic point of view, the sustainable development has been promoted by the efficient use of the forest resources in a continuing improvement of the environment. The objective of the present analysis is to measure the effect of various factors, such as population, economic development and related policies on the use of the forest resources. The 29 provinces of Mainland China are classified in three regions, based largely on their level of economic development. For each region, the factors which affect the area of special purpose forests (SPF) are analyzed. Some recommendations are made for further improvement.

  5. A review of factors affecting antler composition and mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete-Castillejos, Tomas; Estevez, Jose A; Ceacero, Francisco; Garcia, Andres J; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-06-01

    Antlers constitute the only mammal model for limb regeneration. A number of factors affect antler regeneration. In this review, we examine such factors and the potential consequences for organ regeneration. As body mineral stores are depleted to grow antlers, physiological exhaustion is shown in the mineral composition, mechanical performance and, according to preliminary studies, porosity of the antler bone material. Nutrition plays an important role in antler characteristics. Thus, antler composition can be used as a diagnostic tool to assess mineral deficiencies in deer. Studies on ecological effects of exceptional weather in plants suggest that minor minerals, particularly Mn, may play disproportionately roles in mechanical performance of bone material. This suggests that Mn (and perhaps other minerals) is essential to incorporate Ca and P from resorbed skeleton material in antlers. Apart from implications for game management, some effects may have applications for medicine.

  6. Extrinsic factors affecting accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters for LMFBRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Managan, W.W.

    1976-08-01

    Assuming that ultrasonic flowmeters of suitable intrinsic accuracy are feasible, this report explores factors extrinsic to the flowmeter which affect the accuracy such as asymmetric flow profile, regions of high turbulence and thermal stratification. By integrating isovelocity flow profile maps, the predicted performance of various flowmeter configurations may be compared to experimental data. For the two pipe arrangements analyzed, the single diametral path flowmeter results were within 5 percent of true flow rate. Theoretical correction factors could reduce the error for the straight pipe but increased the error for asymmetrical flow. On the same pipe arrangements a four path ultrasonic flowmeter spaced for Gaussian integration gave less than 1 percent error. For more general conclusions a range of flow profiles produced by typical LMFBR piping arrangements must be analyzed.

  7. Factors of affecting the spring back of compressed Paulownia wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In order to increase its hardness and gravity as well as dimension stability, the technology of hotcompressing on Paulownia wood was studied. The main factors of affecting the spring back of the compressed Paulownia samples were discussed. It was discovered that every factor in the experiment had obvious effects on wood hardness and dimension stability of compressed wood. When the MC (Moisture Content) of experimental specimens was 13.89%, it was useful to spray water on the surface of samples before hot pressing. The best resuit was the recovery of compression set could decrease from 90.69% of untreated wood to 45.51% of soaking specimens into PF (Phenol Formaldehyde) water solution. The hot pressing time was 8 min at 190 ℃.

  8. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities

  9. Factors affecting adult feeding in a Drug rehabilitation Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Troncoso Pantoja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To interpret the perception of the determining factors that influence the diet of a group of intern patients in a drug rehabilitation center in Concepción, Chile, during the year 2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Through a qualitative design with a phenomenological approach, intern patients of a drug rehabilitation facility, who fulfilled the study assigned criteria, were interviewed. The collection of data was conducted through semi structured interviews; which were validated by experts and subject to a pilot test. Nonprobability convenience sampling was performed. The sample size was determined through theoretical saturation, which was completed at the eighth interview. The results were subject to triangulation of informants, and were analyzed using the technique of discourse analysis. RESULTS: The participants identify positive and negative factors that condition their diet. They claim that having a fixed schedule is positive since this helps them to have a more organized diet. However, some stressful situations within the facilities are described as limiting factors in their mood, thus affecting their appetite and reducing their food intake. Additionally, not being with their families, especially at the beginning of the treatment, is considered a negative aspect. The lack of variety in terms of food preparation is also negative since this does not correspond to their food preferences. During the drug withdrawal stage, the intake of food containing carbohydrates of rapid absorption was increased. CONCLUSIONS: It is interpreted that the interviewees at the drug rehabilitation facility identify conditioning factors that influence their diet, which promote or inhibit food intake, and affect the attitude they present towards their diet in the drug withdrawal stage.

  10. Group decision-making: Factors that affect group effectiveness

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    Juliana Osmani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are operating in a dynamic and turbulent environment. In these conditions, they have to make decisions for new problems or situations. Most of decisions are therefore non-programmed and unstructured, accompanied by risk and uncertainty. Moreover, the problems and situations are complex. All organizations are oriented towards group decisionmaking processes, as useful tools to cope with uncertainty and complexity. Apart from the necessity, companies are turning towards participatory processes also to benefit from the important advantages that these processes offer. Organizations have realized the importance of group decision-making processes to contribute to the creation of sustainable competitive advantages. Main objective of this paper is to show that group decision-making processes do not offer guarantee for good decisions, because the effectiveness of group is affected by many factors. So, the first thing done in this paper is discussing about the benefits and limitations that accompany the use of groups with decision-making purpose. Afterwards, we stop on the different factors that influence the group’s ability to make good decisions. The aim is to emphasize that regardless of the many advantages of groups, some factors as group size, type of communication within the group, leadership style, the norms, the differentiation of roles and statuses, cohesion and compliance degree should be the main elements to keep into consideration because they affect the effectiveness of group. In this regard, is discussed how such factors influence the quality of decision and then we try to draw some conclusions that can improve and make better and easier group decision-making processes.

  11. Factor Affecting the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Water

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    Masoud Samian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable management of agricultural water in Hamedan. The study population included all wheat farmers possessing irrigated farms in Hamedan city (N=1800. Of these farmers a sample of 317 people has been selected by using randomized multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire's tool with help of the interview technique. Accuracy of the questions in the questionnaire was face validated by a panel of specialists. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, the questionnaires were first given to 30 farmers and Cronbach's Alpha was calculated (Alpha=0.92 then the questionnaire was finalized. Data analyzing methods such as Multiple Regression and the coefficient of variation (CV= standard deviation /mean were used in this study. To determine the level of sustainability of the farms Bossel method proposed for classification and grading the fields was used. The results showed that variables agronomic factors, policy factors and institutional factors were able to explain 34 percent of the dependent variable's changes (sustainable management of agricultural water. According to the results, 95.3 percent of the farmers were categorized into unsustainable group, 4.1 percent into semi-sustainable and only 0.6 percent in sustainable group.

  12. Factors affecting clinical reasoning of occupational therapists: a qualitative study

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    Shafaroodi, Narges; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; O’Toole, Giyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical reasoning is generally defined as the numerous modes of thinking that guide clinical practice but little is known about the factors affecting how occupational therapists manage the decision-making process. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the factors influencing the clinical reasoning of occupational therapists. Methods: Twelve occupational therapy practitioners working in mental and physical dysfunction fields participated in this study. The sampling method was purposeful and interviews were continued until data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method. Results: There were three main themes. The first theme: socio-cultural conditions included three subthemes: 1- client beliefs; 2- therapist values and beliefs; 3- social attitude to disability. The second theme: individual attributions included two subthemes 1- client attributions; 2- therapist attributions. The final theme was the workplace environment with the three subthemes: 1- knowledge of the managers of rehabilitation services, 2- working in an inter-professional team; 3- limited clinical facilities and resources. Conclusion: In this study, the influence of the attitudes and beliefs of client, therapist and society about illness, abilities and disabilities upon reasoning was different to previous studies. Understanding these factors, especially the socio-cultural beliefs basis can play a significant role in the quality of occupational therapy services. Accurate understanding of these influential factors requires more extensive qualitative and quantitative studies. PMID:25250253

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING DEMAND FOR INTERNET ACCESS IN SAUDI ARABIA

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    Hisham Jameel Bardesi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As internet use in Saudi Arabia are dramatically increasing, a powerful demand is being laid down on internet service purpose where this paper aims at identifying major factors that influence these demand pertaining to internet services. Within a selected theoretical model, such multiple factors are being conceptualized and interrelated. Using time series data, the Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique is employed to analyze the relationships. The results of the model indicated clearly that using the internet in Saudi Arabia is influenced most strongly by the number of educated people, the number of mobile subscribers, income, the number of fixed lines, and employment level. The results also suggest that demographic factors have a significant impact on the demand for internet, specifically, the number of educated people and levels of employment. This paper concludes with a recommendation on increasing the level of understanding of those the factors affecting practitioners who plan and promote new forms of internet services in the current competitive market.

  14. Factor affecting happiness among nursing students in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, W H; Jo, M J

    2016-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Despite the increased interest in nursing students' happiness in South Korea, few studies have attempted to identify factors influencing their happiness. Therefore, nursing educators should consistently investigate the factors influencing happiness and develop strategies to improve happiness among Korean nursing students. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study confirmed that there were positive correlations between grateful disposition, social support and happiness. In addition, grateful disposition and support from intimate people were identified as predictors of happiness in Korean nursing students. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Development of intervention programmes to help nursing students increase grateful disposition and support from intimate people may be helpful for improving happiness. These programmes can include activity, such as writing a gratitude journal, and extracurricular programmes, such as mentoring programmes between seniors and juniors and/or professor and student. Introduction Happiness is very important in the training and development of nursing students as future nurses. However, nursing students experience a high level of stress and low level of happiness in South Korea. Aim This study aimed to investigate factors that affect happiness among nursing students in South Korea. Method Data were collected from a total of 241 nursing enrolled in two 4-year baccalaureate nursing programmes in South Korea, using a self-administrated questionnaire. To identify predictors of happiness, stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Results The results indicated that grateful disposition and support from intimate people significantly predict happiness among Korean nursing students. These two factors accounted for 38.0% of the variance in happiness. Discussion This study indicated grateful disposition and support from intimate people as factors promoting happiness in nursing students. The findings

  15. Factors Affecting Longevity of Tunneled Central Venous Cathe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Won; Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate factors which affect the longevity of tunneled central venous catheters (T-CVCs). A retrospective study was conducted on 363 T-CVCs. We evaluated the relevant factors affecting the longevity of the T-CVCs, such as age, gender, indication for catheterization, site of entry vessel, diameter and type of T-CVC, catheter tip position, and underlying diseases. Of the 363 T-CVCs which had been inserted, 331 (91%) were placed through the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The catheter tip position was the strongest predictor for the longevity of the T-CVC. The short limb of the catheter tip placed either at the cavoatrial junction (CA junction) or below the lower margin of the right main bronchus had a good prognosis. The vessel through which the T-CVC was placed significantly influenced the longevity of the T-CVC; the RIJV was associated with better results than the left internal jugular vein. Also, a split-type catheter was significantly associated with a better result. A two distinct and separate type T-CVC placed through the RIJV in which the short limb catheter tip position was at the level of the CA junction, significantly increased the longevity of T-CVCs.

  16. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

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    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  17. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

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    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.

  18. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.

  19. Identification and assessment of risk factors affecting construction projects

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    Mohamed Sayed Bassiony Ahmed Abd El-Karim

    2017-08-01

    Unexpected increase in cost and delays in construction projects are caused by owner, contractor, environments, etc. in which several types of risk factors may occur concurrently. The effect of cost overrun and schedule overrun do not only influence the construction industry but the overall economy as well. Even though construction project increasing in cost and schedule has received extensive attention of researchers, but because of continuous changes and development in the field, the study considered of added value to the construction industry in Egypt, in addition to risk strategy and plan analysis. In order to meet the deadline of a project and due to the complex nature of construction projects, cost and scheduling should be flexible enough to accommodate changes without negatively affecting the overall project cost and duration. As such, the objectives of the presented research in this paper are to identify, study, and assess the effect of the factors that affect cost and time contingency. Data are collected from sixteen construction companies in Egypt. The collected data, output charts and analyses spreadsheets will be used for the development of computerized model built by the authors with identification abbreviation RIAM.

  20. 11-Year Experience with Gastroschisis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Morbidity

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    Derya Erdoğan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality.Methods: Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively.Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery,operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN related complications.The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined.Findings: Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but notmortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section.Conclusion: In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

  1. Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players

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    Michael D. Cusimano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs. A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM. The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36, as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37. Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players’ willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.

  2. Factors affecting QOL of the home-bound elderly disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemasa, S

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) of the elderly home-bound patients. Data were collected from 56 chronically disabled elderly persons (mean age of 76.7 years) who needed a long-term home-based care. They were assessed on QOL, range of activity, functional capacity, and capacity of family care functioning as well as socio-economic condition. The QOL was evaluated by using Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGC Morale Scale). The activities of daily living (ADL) and handicaps were evaluated by the Barthel index and the ESCROW profile, respectively. The capacity of family care functioning was also recorded according to the "Family Care Scale" developed by Hamamura. As a result, there was a significant difference between PGC Morale Scale score and Barthel index score (P QOL of the home-bound elderly disabled were determined by the motivation, functional capacity, and capacity of family care functioning (P QOL, ADL must be improved, therefore, rehabilitation should be continued to maintain their function after discharging from hospitals and that we should take these factors into consideration, such as living environments and social conditions of the family care. The results also indicate how the patient's independence in the daily life influences social and economic status, and consequently it affects the quality of life.

  3. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  4. Social status and housing factors affect reproductive performance of pregnant sows in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salak-Johnson, Janeen L

    2017-08-01

    Group-housing systems for pregnant sows are considered a welfare-promoting alternative to the individual stall. A major concern associated with pregnant sows housed in group pens is increased aggression at mixing and at feeding, which may cause chronic stress among some of the sows in the group due to low feed intake and social stress. Prolonged activation of the stress axis, based on elevated cortisol levels, may inhibit or impair reproductive success via disruption of the reproductive axis. Mixing sows into groups shortly after insemination evokes a stress response, which may affect fertilization and implantation due to sustained, elevated cortisol levels that disrupt reproductive processes. Yet, most studies reported minimal effects of group housing sows during pregnancy on reproduction or cortisol-related stress response. Differences between housing systems-in terms of group size, floor-space allowance, feeding system, and genetics-could account for these unexpected results. Indeed, interrupted feed intake, especially in early pregnancy, and sustained aggression in late pregnancy are two unfavorable social stresses that deserve special attention in order to achieve good reproductive performance. Unfortunately, most studies do not consider other factors, such as social rank and parity, which may interactively affect reproductive success and aggressive behavior of sows, especially in group-pen systems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

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    Volker Salewski

    Full Text Available Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and

  6. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  7. Fertility intentions and outcomes: Implementing the Theory of Planned Behavior with graphical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarini, Letizia; Vignoli, Daniele; Gottard, Anna

    2015-03-01

    This paper studies fertility intentions and their outcomes, analyzing the complete path leading to fertility behavior according to the social psychological model of Theory Planned Behavior (TPB). We move beyond existing research using graphical models to have a precise understanding, and a formal description, of the developmental fertility decision-making process. Our findings yield new results for the Italian case which are empirically robust and theoretically coherent, adding important insights to the effectiveness of the TPB for fertility research. In line with TPB, all intentions' primary antecedents are found to be determinants of the level of fertility intentions, but do not affect fertility outcomes, being pre-filtered by fertility intentions. Nevertheless, in contrast with TPB, background factors are not fully mediated by intentions' primary antecedents, influencing directly fertility intentions and even fertility behaviors.

  8. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  9. Factors Affecting Exercise Test Performance in Patients After Liver Transplantation

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    Kotarska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. In addition, low physical activity is a risk factor for cardiac and cerebrovascular complications. Objectives This study examined potential relationships between physical activity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an exercise test in liver-graft recipients. Patients and Methods A total of 107 participants (62 men/45 women who had received a liver transplantation (LT at least 6 months previously were evaluated. Physical activity was assessed using three different questionnaires, while HRQoL was assessed using the medical outcomes study short form (SF-36 questionnaire, and health behaviors were evaluated using the health behavior inventory (HBI. The exercise test was performed in a standard manner. Results Seven participants (6.5% had a positive exercise test, and these individuals were older than those who had a negative exercise test (P = 0.04. A significant association between a negative exercise test and a higher level of physical activity was shown by the Seven-day physical activity recall questionnaire. In addition, HRQoL was improved in various domains of the SF-36 in participants who had a negative exercise test. No correlations between physical activity, the exercise test and healthy behaviors, as assessed via the HBI were observed. Conclusions Exercise test performance was affected by lower quality of life and lower physical activity after LT. With the exception of hypertension, well known factors that affect the risk of coronary artery disease had no effect on the exercise test results.

  10. Variability of mineral nitrogen contents in soil as affected by meat and bone meal used as fertilizer

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    Arkadiusz Stępień

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of alternative sources of organic matter have been discovered, such as producís made of waste materials and recycled into composts or as meal of meat and bone. Meat and bone meal, a by-product of the meat industry, is rich in N and P and hence it can be a viable alternative to mineral fertilizers. This study determined the direct effect of different doses of meat and bone meal (MBM used as fertilizer on the content of mineral N in soil. The effect of MBM fertilizer applied at rates of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 t ha-1 was compared with no fertilization. The experiment was conducted in the years 2007-2009 at the research station in Balcyny, Poland. MBM was applied every year for 3 yr, with the following crop sequence: 2007 winter wheat (T. aestivum, 2008 winter rape (Brassica rapa L. subsp. oleífera (DC. Metzg., and 2009 spring wheat. Determination of mineral N (NO3--N and NH4+-N were taken from the 0-30 cm layer, each year, during the full plant vegetation. The study found that changes in the mineral N content in soil depended on the dose of MBM and the crop species in a sequence. Each 0.5 t of MBM above 1.0 t ha-1 increased the mineral N content by an average of 4 mg. MBM applied every year at 2.0 and 2.5 t ha-1 produced a 2.33- and 2.56-fold increase in the mineral N content compared to unfertilized soil. The rate of release of NO3--N was found to be the highest at those sites in all the years of study, while that of NH4+-N was highest during the first 2 yr of study. The levels of NO3--N lay within the range of very low fertility. A strong correlation was found between NO3--N and NH4+-N content in soil and the N content in winter and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grain and in winter rapeseed (Brassica rapa L. subsp. oleífera (DC. Metzg. The NO3--N and NH4+-N compounds released from MBM were a good source of N for the plants.

  11. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  12. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

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    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.

  13. Technological Factors Affecting Biogenic Amine Content in Foods: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Fausto; Özogul, Yesim; Suzzi, Giovanna; Tabanelli, Giulia; Özogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are molecules, which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in foods is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BAs accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting BA content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity, and other BAs), environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, and pH). In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolizing BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances) are addressed. PMID:27570519

  14. Dietary Factors Affecting Thyroid Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Ae; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors are proposed to affect thyroid carcinogenesis, but previous studies have reported inconsistent findings. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis, including 18 eligible studies, to clarify the role of dietary factors in the risk of thyroid cancer. The relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated to assess the association and heterogeneity tests and subgroup and sensitivity analyses, and bias assessments were performed. When the results from all studies were combined, dietary iodine, fish, and cruciferous vegetable intake were not associated with thyroid cancer. However, when the data were divided by geographic location based on iodine availability, a slight increase in the risk of thyroid cancer was observed among those consuming a high total amount of fish in iodine nondeficient areas (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.03-1.35; P for heterogeneity = 0.282). When excluding the studies examining a single food item and hospital-based controls, a high intake of cruciferous vegetables was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer in iodine-deficient areas (RR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.18-1.74; P for heterogeneity = 0.426). This meta-analysis implies that the role of dietary factors, such as fish and cruciferous vegetables, in thyroid cancer risk can differ based on iodine availability.

  15. Factors affecting couples' adjustment to recurrent breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northouse, L L; Dorris, G; Charron-Moore, C

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the adjustment of women and their husbands to recurrent breast cancer and to examine the mutual effect that partners have on one another. An exploratory study was designed to determine the relationship between four predictor variables (support, uncertainty, symptom distress, hopelessness) and women's and husbands' adjustments. The sample consisted of 155 subjects; 81 women, who had a first recurrence of breast cancer, and 74 husbands. Multiple standardized instruments with established reliability and validity were used to measure the study variables. The independent variables were measured with the Social Support Questionnaire, the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale, McCorkle Symptom Distress Scale and the Beck Hopelessness Scale. The dependent variable, psychosocial adjustment, was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale. The results indicated that the independent variables accounted for 43% of the variance in women's distress and 32% of the variance in husbands' distress; they also explained 66% of the variance in women's role adjustment problems and 57% of the variance in husbands' role problems. Symptom distress and hopelessness accounted for the most variance in women's and husbands' levels of adjustment. A significant and positive relationship was found between women's and husbands' adjustment scores, indicating that partners have a mutual influence on one another. The findings suggest that there are multiple factors that influence couples' adjustment to recurrent breast cancer, and that these factors need to be taken into consideration when planning care for women and their partners.

  16. ANALYSIS FACTORS THAT AFFECTING THE WORK COMMITMENT OF TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsofiyati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze the factors that affecting the work commitment of teachers.The research use descriptive quantitative method. The problem are the teachers who work without commitment, just to teach according to what was ordered by the principal. By having a high work commitment that is evident in the behavior of painstaking work, passionate, integrity of the work, responsibility, and maintain morale as educators. The results are: commitment to working both seen from the achievement an average score of 71.61, completion of the task is the highest factor in teachers' work commitment with an average score of 79.67, and development of self-efficacy is the lowest factor in teachers' work commitment with an average score of 73.00.Suggestions are: schools should give rewards to the teachers who complete the task on time and to sanction teachers who did not complete the task on time, provide education and training to the teachers continuously and sustainably as efforts to develop self-efficacy ofteachers, the teacher involvement in school activities further improved, so that the visible concern for the fate of school teachers and Teacher work program should be set up and executed in accordance with a predetermined plan.

  17. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  18. Factors Affecting Mortality After Major Nontraumatic Lower Extremity Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Tolga; Polat Duzgun, Arife; Kayilioglu, Selami Ilgaz; Erdogan, Ahmet; Yavuz, Zeynep; Coskun, Faruk

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the factors affecting the mortality of patients who underwent nontraumatic major lower limb amputation due to ischemic and/or diabetic causes. A total of 100 patients were included in the study. Among these patients, 70 (70%) underwent below-knee amputation, whereas 30 (30%) underwent above-knee amputation. Eleven (15.7%) of the 70 patients who underwent below-knee amputation and 12 (40%) of the 30 patients who underwent above-knee amputation (P = .008) were deceased. After multivariable Poisson regression analysis, female gender (risk ratio [RR] = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.07-3.74) and a neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) less than 6.8 (RR = 5.12, 95% CI = 1.86-14.08) were found to be independent risk factors for mortality. The value of 6.8 was used as a cutoff point for the NLR (area under the curve = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.62-0.85), with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 83%, 66%, 57%, and 92%, respectively. The NLR and female gender were found to be independent factors that are related to increased mortality in patients who underwent lower limb amputation due to diabetic and/or ischemic causes. The coexistence of congestive heart failure and the amputation level (above knee) were found to be predictors of mortality in univariable analysis, but significance could not be demonstrated in multivariable analysis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Risk factors affecting chronic rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Jae Jung

    2014-03-01

    Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We analyzed risk factors causing plantar fascia rupture in the presence of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed 286 patients with plantar fasciitis who were referred from private clinics between March 2004 and February 2008. Patients were divided into those with or without a plantar fascia rupture. There were 35 patients in the rupture group and 251 in the nonrupture group. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for plantar fascia rupture were compared between the 2 groups. We compared age, gender, the affected site, visual analog scale pain score, previous treatment regimen, body mass index, degree of ankle dorsiflexion, the use of steroid injections, the extent of activity, calcaneal pitch angle, the presence of a calcaneal spur, and heel alignment between the 2 groups. Of the assessed risk factors, only steroid injection was associated with the occurrence of a plantar fascia rupture. Among the 35 patients with a rupture, 33 had received steroid injections. The odds ratio of steroid injection was 33. Steroid injections for plantar fasciitis should be cautiously administered because of the higher risk for plantar fascia rupture. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  20. Precalving and early lactation factors that predict milk casein and fertility in the transition dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Rachael M; Hall, Jenianne K; Westwood, Charlotte T; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=82) of either high or low genetic merit (GM) (for milk fat + protein yield) were allocated to 1 of 2 diets in a 2×2 factorial design. Diets differed in the ratio of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) to rumen-degradable protein (37% RUP vs. 15% RUP) and were fed from 21 d precalving to 150 days in milk. This study evaluated the effects of these diets and GM on concentrations of milk casein (CN) variants and aimed to identify precalving and early lactation variables that predict milk CN and protein yield and composition and fertility of dairy cows. It explored the hypothesis that low milk protein content is associated with lower fertility and extended this hypothesis to also evaluate the association of CN contents with fertility. Yields (kg/d) for CN variants were 0.49 and 0.45 of α-CN, 0.38 and 0.34 of β-CN, 0.07 and 0.06 for κ-CN, and 0.10 and 0.09 of γ-CN for high- and low-RUP diets, respectively. Increased RUP increased milk, CN, and milk protein yields. Increased GM increased milk protein and γ-CN yields and tended to increase milk CN yield. The effects of indicator variables on CN variant yields and concentrations were largely consistent, with higher body weight and α-amino nitrogen resulting in higher yields, but lower concentrations. An increase in cholesterol was associated with decreased CN variant concentrations, and disease lowered CN variant yield. A diet high in RUP increased proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy from 41 to 58%. Increased precalving metabolizable protein (MP) balance decreased the proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy when evaluated in a model containing CN percentage, milk protein yield, diet, and GM. This finding suggests that the positive effects of increasing dietary RUP on fertility may be curvilinear because cows with a very positive MP balance before calving were less fertile than those with a lower, but positive, MP balance. Prepartum MP balance was important

  1. Mycorrhizal colonization does not affect tolerance to defoliation of an annual herb in different light availability and soil fertility treatments but increases flower size in light-rich environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Chama, Ana; Guevara, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous distribution of resources in most plant populations results in a mosaic of plant physiological responses tending to maximize plant fitness. This includes plant responses to trophic interactions such as herbivory and mycorrhizal symbiosis which are concurrent in most plants. We explored fitness costs of 50% manual defoliation and mycorrhizal inoculation in Datura stramonium at different light availability and soil fertility environments in a greenhouse experiment. Overall, we showed that non-inoculated and mycorrhiza-inoculated plants did not suffer from 50% manual defoliation in all the tested combinations of light availability and soil fertility treatments, while soil nutrients and light availability predominately affected plant responses to the mycorrhizal inoculation. Fifty percent defoliation had a direct negative effect on reproductive traits whereas mycorrhiza-inoculated plants produced larger flowers than non-inoculated plants when light was not a limiting factor. Although D. stramonium is a facultative selfing species, other investigations had shown clear advantages of cross-pollination in this species; therefore, the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation on flower size observed in this study open new lines of inquiry for our understanding of plant responses to trophic interactions. Also in this study, we detected shifts in the limiting resources affecting plant responses to trophic interactions.

  2. Factors affecting nutrient trends in major rivers of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Langland, M.J.; Yochum, S.E.; Edwards, R.E.; Blomquist, J.D.; Phillips, S.W.; Shenk, G.W.; Preston, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    Trends in nutrient loads and flow-adjusted concentrations in the major rivers entering Chesapeake Bay were computed on the basis of water-quality data collected between 1985 and 1998 at 29 monitoring stations in the Susquehanna, Potomac, James, Rappahannock, York, Patuxent, and Choptank River Basins. Two computer models?the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Model (WSM) and the U.S. Geological Survey?s 'Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes' (SPARROW) Model?were used to help explain the major factors affecting the trends. Results from WSM simulations provided information on temporal changes in contributions from major nutrient sources, and results from SPARROW model simulations provided spatial detail on the distribution of nutrient yields in these basins. Additional data on nutrient sources, basin characteristics, implementation of management practices, and ground-water inputs to surface water were analyzed to help explain the trends. The major factors affecting the trends were changes in nutrient sources and natural variations in streamflow. The dominant source of nitrogen and phosphorus from 1985 to 1998 in six of the seven tributary basins to Chesapeake Bay was determined to be agriculture. Because of the predominance of agricultural inputs, changes in agricultural nutrient sources such as manure and fertilizer, combined with decreases in agricultural acreage and implementation of best management practices (BMPs), had the greatest impact on the trends in flow-adjusted nutrient concentrations. Urban acreage and population, however, were noted to be increasing throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, and as a result, delivered loads of nutrients from urban areas increased during the study period. Overall, agricultural nutrient management, in combination with load decreases from point sources due to facility upgrades and the phosphate detergent ban, led to downward trends in flow-adjusted nutrient concentrations atmany of the monitoring stations in the

  3. Fertility sparing surgery in young women affected by endometrial stromal sarcoma: an oncologic dilemma or a reliable option? review of literature starting from a peculiar case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noventa M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Marco Noventa, Salvatore Gizzo, Lorena Conte, Angela Dalla Toffola, Pietro Litta, Carlo Saccardi Department of Woman and Child Health, University of Padua, Padua, Italy Background: Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS is a term used to define a rare neoplasm that accounts for approximately 0.2%–1% of all uterine malignancies; it is, however, implicated in an estimated 10%–15% of those malignancies with a mesenchymal component. Recent evidence suggests that while the preservation of the ovaries may be considered appropriate in premenopausal women, hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy remains the recommended treatment in postmenopausal women. Currently, only a few case series reporting the treatment of ESS in young women with a desire to preserve fertility and thus subjected to a fertility-sparing surgery are available in the literature. Case presentation: We report a peculiar case of early stage ESS treated by laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery and a strict follow-up program (every 3 months of imaging and clinical evaluation. The patient remained disease free 1 year after primary treatment. Three months after completing oncological follow-up, the patient conceived spontaneously and is, to date, pregnant at 11 weeks of gestation without evidence of recurrent disease or obstetric complications. Conclusion: Based on our case report and in accordance with the data available, we suggest that in young patients affected by early stage ESS who wish to preserve reproductive function, fertility-sparing surgery could represent a valid option, though strict oncological follow-up remains mandatory. Keywords: young women, laparoscopic surgery, pregnancy, neoplasia, surgical management, follow up, disease recurrence

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction

  5. Children Procedures and Treatment (Fertility Issues)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... approach the subject of fertility preservation with their cancer-stricken child? How is the Oncofertility Consortium addressing the fertility preservation needs of children? How do cancer and cancer treatment affect a child's fertility? Why ...

  6. Children Procedures and Treatment (Fertility Issues)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... approach the subject of fertility preservation with their cancer-stricken child? How is the Oncofertility Consortium addressing the fertility preservation needs of children? How do cancer and cancer treatment affect a child's fertility? Why ...

  7. Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Chrenková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the system of care for endangered children has changed from the institutional as well as legislative point of view. In one of the partial areas of ongoing changes, research activities realised within the Students’ Grant Competition called The Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care are being focused. We deal with this topic because various forms of substitute family care are distinguished in the Czech Republic, where children are placed for various reasons, but we do not know the correct context of such placements. The main aim of the realised research was to find out the frequency of choosing a given form of placing children in substitute family care according to followed variables. The research sample of the quantitative research was consisted of children placed in one of the forms of substitute family care in the Moravian-Silesian region.

  8. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2017-06-01

    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  9. Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Dailey, Robert A; Inskeep, E Keith

    2004-08-01

    Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5-9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N = 211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles > or = 5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall pregnancy loss was 11.4%. Cows with two CL did not have greater concentrations of progesterone than cows with one CL and they retained fewer pregnancies (P Embryos that were lost apparently died before CL regression. Retention of pregnancy declined in cows with high body condition and as age of the cow increased. Pregnancy retention was lower in cows bred to one of four frequently-used service sires (P body condition and service sire.

  10. Factors affecting the perceptions of Iranian agricultural researchers towards nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mahmood; Rezaei, Rohollah

    2011-07-01

    This descriptive survey research was undertaken to design appropriate programs for the creation of a positive perception of nanotechnology among their intended beneficiaries. In order to do that, the factors affecting positive perceptions were defined. A stratified random sample of 278 science board members was selected out of 984 researchers who were working in 22 National Agricultural Research Institutions (NARIs). Data were collected by using a mailed questionnaire. The descriptive results revealed that more than half of the respondents had "low" or "very low" familiarity with nanotechnology. Regression analysis indicated that the perceptions of Iranian NARI Science Board Members towards nanotechnology were explained by three variables: the level of their familiarity with emerging applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, the level of their familiarity with nanotechnology and their work experiences. The findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the present situation of the development of nanotechnology and the planning of appropriate programs for creating a positive perception of nanotechnology.

  11. Cultutal Factors Affecting English Proficiency in Rurl Areas

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    Ee Chop Ler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to the rural and the ‘cultural’ and to determine their problems effect on the learning of English. Twenty students from different ethnic backgrounds and English language proficiency in six rural schools in Terengganu, Malaysia were interviewed. In addition the teachers also from different rural schools and ethnic backgrounds responded to a questionnaire. The problems discussed by both the teacher and student respondents arose due to the rural cultural setting. The findings of this study show that 1 five major problem areas exist, namely peer pressure and motivation, attitudes towards English ,teaching methodology, school culture ,influence of Islamic teaching on the learning of English 2 the problems discussed by the teachers and students are similar and 3 most importantly all these identified problems are closely related to the rural setting. Therefore, one can conclude that rural cultural factors adversely affect English Proficiency of the rural students of this study.

  12. An Analysis on the Contextual Factors Affecting Motivation in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>For us Chinese,a foreign language is something to be acquired as a kind of communicative tool,so we can infer that an effective way in SLA(Second Language Acquisition) must be learning the target language in a communicative context.A communicative context certainly concerns not only the interactional classroom activities designed in accordance with some stated curriculum tasks to lead the L2 students to learning swimming by swimming,but also other relevant elements which have a lot to do with all the situational,interactional and cultural contexts.In order to lessen some potential sources of conflict between L2 teacher and L2 learner,this article is an attempt to urge a careful study on the contextual factors affecting motivation in SLA.

  13. Factors affecting cellulose hydrolysis based on inactivation of adsorbed enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhuoliang; Berson, R Eric

    2014-09-01

    The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose reaction is known to decrease significantly as the reaction proceeds. Factors such as reaction temperature, time, and surface area of substrate that affect cellulose conversion were analyzed relative to their role in a mechanistic model based on first order inactivation of adsorbed cellulases. The activation energies for the hydrolytic step and inactivation step were very close in magnitude: 16.3 kcal mol(-1) for hydrolysis and 18.0 kcal mol(-1) for inactivation, respectively. Therefore, increasing reaction temperature would cause a significant increase in the inactivation rate in addition to the catalytic reaction rate. Vmax,app was only 20% or less of the value at 72 h compared to at 2h as a result of inactivation of adsorbed cellulases, suggesting prolonged hydrolysis is not an efficient way to improve cellulose hydrolysis. Hydrolysis rate increased with corresponding increases in available substrate surface binding area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress.

  15. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

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    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  16. Factors Affecting Linear Type Traits of Valdostana Cattle

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    Serena Mazza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Four composite and 22 individual linear type traits, measured between 1997 and 2012 on 33,206 Aosta Red Pied (ARP and 19,551 Aosta Black Pied and Aosta Chestnut (ABP-CN strains of Valdostana cattle, were used to investigate the non-genetic factors affecting morphological evaluation. Average values for type traits ranged from 2.81 (teat placement rear view and foot angle to 3.34 (thinness for ARP, and from 2.48 (teat placement side view to 3.67 (udder depth for ABP-CN. Results from the ANOVA showed significant effect of herd-year-classifier on type traits of both ARPand ABP-CN, and of days in milk and age at calving for almost all traits, with few exceptions. The model used in this study is a useful starting point to calculate genetic parameters for Valdostana cattle.

  17. Factors Affecting Information Security Focused on SME and Agricultural Enterprises

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    V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the field of information and communication technology is a source of advantage that improves quality of business services; increases productivity levels and brings competitive advantage to enterprises and organisations related to agricultural production. However, the use of information and communication technology (ICT is connected with information security risks that threaten business continuity and information assets. The ICT in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME and agricultural enterprises is the source of several advantages as well as the risks resulting from information security violation and security incidents. This paper aims at the current situation of information security in SME and agricultural enterprises. Furthermore, the paper provides results of a survey focusing on identification and evaluation of the effects of internal and external factors affecting existence of risks in information security in Slovak SME and agricultural enterprises. Until now, there had not been a similar survey carried out.

  18. Statistical Analysis of Factors Affecting Child Mortality in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zoya; Kamal, Asifa; Kamal, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Child mortality is a composite indicator reflecting economic, social, environmental, healthcare services, and their delivery situation in a country. Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of fetal, maternal, and child mortality. Factors affecting child mortality in Pakistan are investigated by using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis. Region, education of mother, birth order, preceding birth interval (the period between the previous child birth and the index child birth), size of child at birth, and breastfeeding and family size were found to be significantly important with child mortality in Pakistan. Child mortality decreased as level of mother's education, preceding birth interval, size of child at birth, and family size increased. Child mortality was found to be significantly higher in Balochistan as compared to other regions. Child mortality was low for low birth orders. Child survival was significantly higher for children who were breastfed as compared to those who were not.

  19. Analysis of Factors Affecting Inflation in Indonesia: an Islamic Perspective

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    Elis Ratna Wulan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors affecting inflation. The research is descriptive quantitative in nature. The data used are reported exchange rates, interest rates, money supply and inflation during 2008-2012. The research data was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed in the year 2008-2012 the condition of each variable are (1 the rate of inflation has a negative trend, (2 the interest rate has a negative trend, (3 the money supply has a positive trend, (4 the value of exchange rate has a positive trend. The test results by using multiple linear regression analysis result that variable interest rates, the money supply and the exchange rate of the rupiah significant effect on the rate of inflation.

  20. Factors affecting the predictive validity of the Braden Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, M L; McDonald, D D

    1996-01-01

    This descriptive correlational study explored the predictive validity of the Braden Scale and factors affecting it A Braden score was determined within 4 hours of admission for 50 adult medical/surgical inpatients. Independent skin assessments were made three times a week and at discharge. Fourteen patients (28%) developed pressure ulcers. A Braden score cutoff of 18 or less resulted in a 71% sensitivity, 83% specificity, 63% predictive value of a positive test, and 88% predictive value of a negative test. Three of the four patients incorrectly predicted to be not at risk scored "inadequate" on the nutrition subscale. Two of the four also were underweight. Of the six patients incorrectly predicted at risk for a pressure ulcer, three had been placed on air mattresses and were receiving levothyroxine (Synthroid). This study provides further evidence of the Braden Scale's predictive validity. The results suggest that patients who are underweight or getting inadequate nutrition be considered at increased risk for pressure ulcers.

  1. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    CERN Document Server

    Sohail, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...

  2. Percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation of osteoid osteomas: factors affecting therapeutic outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cribb, G.L.; Goude, W.H.; Cool, P.; Tins, B.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.; Mangham, D.C. [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    To examine factors which affect local recurrence of osteoid osteomas treated with percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation. A prospective study was carried out on 45 patients with osteoid osteoma who underwent percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation with a minimum follow-up of 12 months There were seven local recurrences (16%); all occurred within the first year. Local recurrence was significantly related to a non-diaphyseal location (P<0.01). There was no significant relationship (P=0.05) between local recurrence and age of the patient, duration of symptoms, previous treatment, size of the lesion, positive biopsy, radiofrequency generator used or the number of needle positions. There were no complications. Osteoid osteomas in a non-diaphyseal location are statistically more likely to recur than those in a diaphyseal location when treated with CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation. This relationship between local recurrence and location has not been previously reported. (orig.)

  3. Factors affecting characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1997-11-01

    Three major factors affect the characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors in terms of their levitation properties during interaction with permanent magnets. First, the appropriate parameter for the permanent magnet is internal magnetization, not the value of the magnetic field measured at the magnet`s surface. Second, although levitation force grows with superconductor thickness and surface area, for a given permanent magnet size, comparison of levitation force between samples is meaningful when minimum values are assigned to the superconductor size parameters. Finally, the effect of force creep must be considered when time-averaging the force measurements. In addition to levitational force, the coefficient of friction of a levitated rotating permanent magnet may be used to characterize the superconductor.

  4. Factors affecting the deterioration of concrete pavement slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Morozov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of constructions under actual operating conditions is affected by exposure to the environment. It is important that concrete roads and airport pavings are resistant not only to mechanical damage, but also to the effects of alternate freezing and thawing. The causes of early failure in concrete have been shown using prefabricated road slabs as an example. The causes of loss of performance properties of the roadway have been established, which are primarily dependent on the quality of raw materials in the concrete. It was found that, aside from durability, uniformity and porosity are important factors in determining the frost resistance of concrete roadways. It was shown that high aluminate content in the cement leads to concrete destruction in the first year of structure use. The results may also indirectly indicate a violation of forming technology during slab production.

  5. Discerning environmental factors affecting current tree growth in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, Emil; Russ, Radek; Šantrůčková, Hana; Altman, Jan; Kopáček, Jiří; Hůnová, Iva; Štěpánek, Petr; Oulehle, Filip; Tumajer, Jan; Ståhl, Göran

    2016-12-15

    We examined the effect of individual environmental factors on the current spruce tree growth assessed from a repeated country-level statistical landscape (incl. forest) survey in the Czech Republic. An extensive set of variables related to tree size, competition, site characteristics including soil texture, chemistry, N deposition and climate was tested within a random-effect model to explain growth in the conditions of dominantly managed forest ecosystems. The current spruce basal area increment was assessed from two consecutive landscape surveys conducted in 2008/2009 and six years later in 2014/2015. Tree size, age and competition within forest stands were found to be the dominant explanatory variables, whereas the expression of site characteristics, environmental and climatic drives was weaker. The significant site variables affecting growth included soil C/N ratio and soil exchangeable acidity (pH KCl; positive response) reflecting soil chemistry, long-term N-deposition (averaged since 1975) in combination with soil texture (clay content) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), a drought index expressing moisture conditions. Sensitivity of growth to N-deposition was positive, although weak. SPI was positively related to and significant in explaining tree growth when expressed for the growth season. Except SPI, no significant relation of growth was determined to altitude-related variables (temperature, growth season length). We identified the current spruce growth optimum at elevations about 800ma.s.l. or higher in the conditions of the country. This suggests that at lower elevations, limitation by a more pronounced water deficit dominates, whereas direct temperature limitation may concern the less frequent higher elevations. The mixed linear model of spruce tree growth explained 55 and 65% of the variability with fixed and random effects included, respectively, and provided new insights on the current spruce tree growth and factors affecting it within the

  6. Risk factors that affect metabolic health status in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaogullari, Selin; Demirel, Fatma; Hatipoglu, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    While some obese children are metabolically healthy (MHO), some have additional health problems, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, which increase mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. These children are metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. In this study we assessed the factors that affect metabolic health in obesity and the clinical and laboratory findings that distinguish between MHO and MUO children. In total, 1085 patients aged 6-18 years, with age- and sex-matched BMI exceeding the 95th percentile were included in the study (mean 11.1±2.9 years, 57.6% female, 59.7% pubertal). Patients without dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, or hypertension were considered as MHO. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL, triglyceride over 150 mg/dL, LDL over 130 mg/dL, or HDL under 40 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model of assesment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Hepatosteatosis was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound. Duration of obesity, physical activity and nutritional habits, screen time, and parental obesity were questioned. Thyroid and liver function tests were performed. Six hundred and forty-two cases (59.2%) were MUO. Older age, male sex, increased BMI-SDS, and sedentary lifestyle were associated with MUO. Excessive junk food consumption was associated with MUO particularly among the prepubertal obese patients. Our results revealed that the most important factors that affect metabolic health in obesity are age and BMI. Positive effects of an active lifestyle and healthy eating habits are prominent in the prepubertal period and these habits should be formed earlier in life.

  7. Prevalence of fertility desire and its associated factors among 15- to 49-year-old people living with HIV/AIDS in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilo TM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Takele Menna Adilo,1 Hirut Megerssa Wordofa2 1Department of Public Health, 2School of Nursing, St Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: The magnitude of unprotected sex to satisfy the desire for fertility among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV may rise more due to the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART in most HIV-affected countries. This could, however, have the risk of passing on HIV to sexual partners and children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the magnitude and factors associated with the fertility desire of reproductive-age PLHIV in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, for research-based and timely actions.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from April to June 2016 among 442 randomly selected, reproductive-age PLHIV who had been attending ART clinics in Addis Ababa. Twelve experienced and trained nurses collected the data. The questionnaire was pretested and interviewer-administered, and the interview was executed after obtaining voluntary consent from each study subject. The data were then cleaned and analyzed by using Epi Info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 20.0, respectively. Binary logistic regression was done in order to describe the association of fertility desire with some sociodemographic and sexual behavior-related factors.Results: Among the total 441 respondents, 54.6% reported the desire for fertility, 87% disclosed their HIV status, 24.3% had two or more sexual partners in the earlier year, and only 55.6% used a condom during their last sexual intercourse. In addition, current health status (AOR=2.03; 95% CI: 1.01–4.07 and partner being tested for HIV (AOR=6.31; 95% CI: 1.35–29.64 showed statistically significant associations with fertility desire during multivariate logistic regression analysis.Conclusion: A considerable number of PLHIV in the study area reported a desire for having children. Current health status and partner being tested for HIV were

  8. Factors Affecting on Military Medical Job Satisfaction Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Job satisfaction (JS in the workplace affects absenteeism, turnover and performance. Objectives Considering the importance of JS, this study conducted with aim studying the factors affecting JS in a military hospital. Patients and Methods This descriptive analytical cross sectional study was carried out on 301 workers who worked in a military hospital in year 2009 using of stratified random sampling. In this study JSS questioner was used for measuring JS, ANOVA and Dunnett post hoc and SPSS and Excel software were used for statistical analysis and data analysis respectively. Results In this study, age, work experience, type of job and work position shown relationship with JS but gender, marriage status and education were not shown any statistical significant relationship with JS. In this study technician operating room and anesthesia (TORA had less, physicians and specialist and par clinical jobs had more and handy jobs and administrative jobs had same JS compare with nurses. Conclusions According to results of this study, we propose actions like modified and increased salaries and benefits of employees, making effective communication, improved working conditions, reform official promotion and more attention to TORA and nurses can be useful way for improving JS.

  9. The Study of Internal Factors Affecting Ethnic and National

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolali Lahsaeizadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe present paper aims at studying the internal factors affecting ethnic and national identityamong Arab people of Ahwaz using quantitative method and survey technique. The sample of thisstudy was 384 male and female Arabs aging 18 to 65 years old. In order to have a more precisestudy, a pretest questionnaire was given to 52 Arab people of Ahwaz. The final questionnaire wasgiven to the sample during autumn and winter of 2006. The theoretical framework of this study isbased on modernization, relative deprivation and internal exploitation theories. In this study, theeffect of age, sex, marital status, employment, family income, the rate of family ownership, relativedeprivation feeling in economic dimension, urban residence, neighborhood (Arab dominant ormixed,the rate of ethnic trust, abiding by ethnic norms, education, using media, satisfaction withpolitical system, participation in political issues and relative deprivation feeling in politicaldimension were measured by ethnic identity variable. Finally, the relationship between ethnicidentity variable and national identity variable was tested among samples. The result of bivariateanalysis (T test, variance analysis and simple regression revealed that above mentioned variable -except 3 variables including sex, marital status and urban residence record - were significant. Ethnicidentity and national identity are significant negative relationship. The results of multivariateregression analysis revealed that 11 out of 16 independent variables affected ethnic identity whichfinaly explained 67 percent of ethnic identity variance.

  10. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Informal Payments in the Health Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad MESKARPOUR-AMIRI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Informal payments are a signifi cant source for fi nancing health systems in many developing and transition countries. The aim of our study was the assessment of the infl uence of patients’ socioeconomic status on their informal payment for health care. This article presents a cross-sectional and applied research that was conducted in a general public hospital in Iran during April 2014. The population of the study was all the 1,035 patients discharged during April 2014. Data gathering was done using a questionnaire. An ordered logistic regression model based on a truncated method was estimated to investigate factors affecting informal health payments. About 48% of respondents reported at least one experience of informal payment for health care during the previous year. The results showed that the patients’ socioeconomic status can signifi cantly affect the likelihood and frequency of informal payments for health care. Older people, members of small and wealthier families, employed persons, and those who are under coverage of only basic medical insurance are more at risk of making such payments. Policymakers should pay more attention to such socioeconomic groups in order to improve the effectiveness of policies.

  11. Factors affecting daughter cells' arrangement during the early bacterial divisions.

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    Pin-Tzu Su

    Full Text Available On agar plates, daughter cells of Escherichia coli mutually slide and align side-by-side in parallel during the first round of binary fission. This phenomenon has been previously attributed to an elastic material that restricts apparently separated bacteria from being in string. We hypothesize that the interaction between bacteria and the underneath substratum may affect the arrangement of the daughter bacteria. To test this hypothesis, bacterial division on hyaluronic acid (HA gel, as an alternative substratum, was examined. Consistent with our proposition, the HA gel differs from agar by suppressing the typical side-by-side alignments to a rare population. Examination of bacterial surface molecules that may contribute to the daughter cells' arrangement yielded an observation that, with disrupted lpp, the E. coli daughter cells increasingly formed non-typical patterns, i.e. neither sliding side-by-side in parallel nor forming elongated strings. Therefore, our results suggest strongly that the early cell patterning is affected by multiple interaction factors. With oscillatory optical tweezers, we further demonstrated that the interaction force decreased in bacteria without Lpp, a result substantiating our notion that the side-by-side sliding phenomenon directly reflects the strength of in-situ interaction between bacteria and substratum.

  12. Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Application Timing Affects Wheat and Inter-Seeded Red Clover Yields on Claypan Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly A. Nelson; Motavalli, Peter P.; Manjula Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Controlled-release N fertilizer, such as polymer-coated urea (PCU), may be a fall N management option for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in poorly-drained claypan soils. Field research evaluated (1) urea release from fall-applied PCU in 2006 and 2007; (2) broadcast fall-spring split (25%:75%) of N sources; and (3) a single fall (100%) application of PCU, urea, urea plus NBPT (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide] (U + NBPT), ammonium nitrate (AN), or urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) at 0, 56, ...

  13. Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Application Timing Affects Wheat and Inter-Seeded Red Clover Yields on Claypan Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Kelly A.; Motavalli, Peter P.; Manjula Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Controlled-release N fertilizer, such as polymer-coated urea (PCU), may be a fall N management option for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in poorly-drained claypan soils. Field research evaluated (1) urea release from fall-applied PCU in 2006 and 2007; (2) broadcast fall-spring split (25%:75%) of N sources; and (3) a single fall (100%) application of PCU, urea, urea plus NBPT (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide] (U + NBPT), ammonium nitrate (AN), or urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) at 0, 56, ...

  14. Function and interaction of maturation-promoting factor and mitogen-activated protein kinase during meiotic maturation and fertilization of oocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Lijun; FAN Hengyu; CHEN Dayuan; SUN Qingyuan

    2004-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) cascade and maturation-promoting factor (MPF) play very important roles during meiotic maturation and fertilization of oocyte. Interaction between MAP kinase and MPF influences meiotic maturation and fertilization of oocyte throughout the animal kingdom, including stimulation of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), suppression of DNA replication, control of meiotic chromosome segregation, maintenance of metaphase II arrest, and resumption and completion of second meiosis. This review focuses on the function and interaction of MAP kinase and MPF during meiotic maturation and fertilization of oocyte.

  15. What factors hinder the decision-making process for women with cancer and contemplating fertility preservation treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Georgina; Hughes, Jane; Mahmoodi, Neda; Smith, Emily; Skull, Jonathan; Ledger, William

    2017-07-01

    Although fertility preservation (FP) treatment options have increased, the existing evidence suggests that many women with cancer do not feel well supported in making these decisions, but find them stressful and complex and fail to take up fertility care at this crucial time. Whilst existing reviews have all made important contributions to our understanding of the FP decision-making process, none of them examine solely and specifically these processes for women of reproductive age with a diagnosis of any cancer, leaving a gap in the knowledge base. Given the expectation that care is patient-centred, our review aims to address this gap which may be of help to those managing patients struggling to make difficult decisions in the often brief period before potentially sterilizing cancer treatment is started. Underpinning this narrative review was the question 'What factors hinder the decision-making process for women with any cancer and contemplating FP treatment?' Our objectives were to (i) assess and summarize this existing literature, (ii) identify the factors that hinder this decision-making process, (iii) explore to what extent these factors may differ for women choosing different methods of FP and (iv) make recommendations for service delivery and future research. A systematic search of the medical and social science literature from the 1 January 2005 up to the end of January 2016 was carried out using three electronic databases (Web of Science (PubMed), Ovid SP Medline and CINAHL via Ebsco). Included in the review were quantitative, qualitative and mixed-method studies. Reference lists of relevant papers were also hand searched. From the 983 papers identified, 46 papers were included. Quality assessment was undertaken using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. From the analysis, 6 key themes with 15 sub-themes emerged: (i) fertility information provision (lack of information, timing of the information, patient

  16. MICROECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING BANKS’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUŢU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are important cells in the economy as they have a significant role by maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. They refocus the resources from those who have surplus to those which have a deficit. Therefore, as any other enterprises, performance is highly desirable for banks and, then, it is crucial to discover what the main factors that influence this objective are. So, this paper analyzes the microeconomic factors affecting bank’s financial performance focusing on 11 entities for the period between 2003 and 2013. The performance is measured by return on assets. The independent variables used are bank’s size, financial leverage,loans to assets ratio, deposits to assets ratio, number of employees, liquidity, net result and monetary policy rate. The results show that bank’s size, loans to assets ratio and liquidity have not a significant impact on performance. Financial leverage has a negative impact, meanwhile the number of employees, deposits to assets ratio and net result have a positive effect.

  17. Factors affecting the prevalence of obesity among primary school students

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    Meltem Kürtüncü

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the risk factors affecting obesity in students in the 6-15 years old age group. There were 868 students registered at Bahçelievler Elementary School in Zonguldak and were present for face-to-face meetings on the days the research data was collected. Data was collected using demographic questionary forms and weight-length measurements from March to April in 2010. Results: Difference is found to be statistically meaningful with respect to the relationship between obesity of children and their age, gender, number of siblings, fathers’ jobs, education level of their mothers, fast food consumption and family history of obesity (p<0.05. Conclusions: The study concludes that there are certain ciriteria related to the development of obesity during a specific period of childhood and that taking certain precautions are effective in preventing the development of obesity. Keywords: Body Mass Index; Children; Obesity; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Turkey.

  18. Factors affecting the duration of orthodontic treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavreas, Dimitrios; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the literature for articles referring exclusively to the duration of orthodontic therapy and to explore the various factors that could affect this. A Medline search from 1990 to the first week of March 2005 was conducted, the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews was utilized, five orthodontic journals were hand searched, the abstracts of related articles were reviewed to search for any relevant studies that might have been missed, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles were hand assessed. Eligibility was determined by reading the reports identified by the search. The end result of this search provided 41 articles. Although there is a need for more conclusive research, the present review revealed several conclusions concerning the duration of orthodontic treatment: (1) there are indications that extraction treatment lasts longer than the non-extraction therapy; (2) age does not seem to play a role provided the patients are in the permanent dentition; (3) when Class II division 1 malocclusions are considered, there is evidence that the earlier the orthodontic treatment begins the longer its duration; (4) there is conflicting information regarding treatment duration within public health systems; (5) combined orthodontic-surgical treatment duration is variable and appears to be operator sensitive; (6) various factors, such as the technique employed, the skill and number of operators involved, the compliance of the patients, and the severity of the initial malocclusion, all seem to play a role; and (7) impacted maxillary canines appear to prolong treatment.

  19. Factors affecting production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, R.C., E-mail: reedy@psi.edu

    2015-10-15

    Good production rates are needed for cosmic-ray-produced nuclides to interpret their measurements. Rates depend on many factors, especially the pre-atmospheric object’s size, the location of the sample in that object (such as near surface or deep inside), and the object’s bulk composition. The bulk composition affects rates, especially in objects with very low and very high iron contents. Extraterrestrial materials with high iron contents usually have higher rates for making nuclides made by reactions with energetic particles and lower rates for the capture of thermal neutrons. In small objects and near the surface of objects, the cascade of secondary neutrons is being developed as primary particles are being removed. Deep in large objects, that secondary cascade is fully developed and the fluxes of primary particles are low. Recent work shows that even the shape of an object in space has a small but measureable effect. Work has been done and continues to be done on better understanding those and other factors. More good sets of measurements in meteorites with known exposure geometries in space are needed. With the use of modern Monte Carlo codes for the production and transport of particles, the nature of these effects have been and is being studied. Work needs to be done to improve the results of these calculations, especially the cross sections for making spallogenic nuclides.

  20. MICROECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING BANKS’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUŢU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are important cells in the economy as they have a significant role by maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. They refocus the resources from those who have surplus to those which have a deficit. Therefore, as any other enterprises, performance is highly desirable for banks and, then, it is crucial to discover what the main factors that influence this objective are. So, this paper analyzes the microeconomic factors affecting bank’s financial performance focusing on 11 entities for the period between 2003 and 2013. The performance is measured by return on assets. The independent variables used are bank’s size, financial leverage,loans to assets ratio, deposits to assets ratio, number of employees, liquidity, net result and monetary policy rate. The results show that bank’s size, loans to assets ratio and liquidity have not a significant impact on performance. Financial leverage has a negative impact, meanwhile the number of employees, deposits to assets ratio and net result have a positive effect.

  1. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  2. Litter Quality of Populus Species as Affected by Free-Air CO2 Enrichment and N-Fertilization

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    Esther Vermue

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on the molecular chemistry of litter of three Populus species and associated soil organic matter (SOM was investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results are based on 147 quantified organic compounds in 24 litter samples. Litter of P. euramerica was clearly different from that of P. nigra and P. alba. The latter two had higher contents of proteins, polysaccharides, and cutin/cutan, while the former had higher contents of phenols and benzofurans/pyrans. The difference between replications was at least as large as the effect of treatments, so that no systematic chemical changes were attributable to CO2 effect or N-fertilization effect. The chemistry of SOM under the various species and treatments did not show significant changes either. The low number of available replicates that is two was clearly insufficient to overcome the effect of spatial variation on litter chemistry and detect small differences in molecular litter chemistry.

  3. Grain quality and N uptake of spring cereals as affected by nitrogen fertilization in northern conditions: a meta-analysis

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    Elena Valkama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed quantitatively 40 Finnish field experiments related to the effect of nitrogen (N fertilizer on the main parameters of grain quality and N uptake of spring cereals. The experiments were conducted on a wide range of mineral soils under varying growth conditions from the 1950s to the 1990s. Overall there was no statistically significant effect on 1000 grain weight and a slightly negative effect on grain test weight. Nitrogen fertilizer increased N uptake much more steeply in slightly acidic soils (SA, pH 5.8–6.9, located mostly in South Finland, than in moderately acidic soils (MA, pH 5.0–5.7, located in Central Finland. With increasing N rates, protein content increased to a larger extent in spring barley and oats than in spring wheat. In the light of the current trend to reduce N fertilizerapplication, the obtained regressions between N rates and the parameters of grain quality may be used to maintain yield quality at a desirable level, while optimizing N management.

  4. Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Application Timing Affects Wheat and Inter-Seeded Red Clover Yields on Claypan Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release N fertilizer, such as polymer-coated urea (PCU, may be a fall N management option for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in poorly-drained claypan soils. Field research evaluated (1 urea release from fall-applied PCU in 2006 and 2007; (2 broadcast fall-spring split (25%:75% of N sources; and (3 a single fall (100% application of PCU, urea, urea plus NBPT (N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide] (U + NBPT, ammonium nitrate (AN, or urea ammonium nitrate (UAN at 0, 56, 84, and 112 kg·N·ha−1 on wheat yield, wheat biomass, N uptake by wheat, and frost-seeded red clover (FSC (Trifolium pratense L. forage yield (2004–2007. PCU applied in fall released less than 30% urea by February. Urea released from PCU by harvest was 60% and 85% in 2006 and 2007, respectively. In poorly-drained soils, wheat yields ranked PCU > AN > U + NBPT > urea ≥ UAN over the rates evaluated for fall-only application. PCU was a viable fall-applied N source, with yields similar to or greater than urea or U + NBPT split-applied. Split-N applications of AN, urea, UAN, and U + NBPT generally resulted in greater wheat yields than a fall application. Enhanced efficiency fertilizers provide farmers with flexible options for maintaining high yielding production systems.

  5. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ADOPTION OF INTEGRATED SOIL FERTILITY AND WATER MANAGEMENT PRACTICES BY SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN THE SEMI-ARID AREAS OF EASTERN KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Mutua Mutuku

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs, low adoption of integrated soil fertility and water management (ISFWM technologies has contributed to food and nutrition insecurity. A study was conducted to assess factors influencing smallholder farmers’ adoption decision of ISFWM technologies in Mwala and Yatta Sub-Counties. A questionnaire was administered to 248 respondents in the study region. Selection of household heads was done in ‘Farmer-led adoption approach’ sites otherwise known as Primary and Secondary Participatory Technology Evaluations (PPATEs and SPPATEs and Non-PPATEs/SPATEs sites in both Sub-Counties. Relationships between different variables were determined by the Tobit model. The results revealed that group membership (P<0.016, inaccessible credit services (P<0.017, gender (P<0.025, age and access to agricultural extension services (P<0.027 influenced adoption of ISFWM technology significantly. Cost of inputs and access to radio information (P<0.01, access to appropriate farm machines (p<0.001, cost of labor and farmers’ perception on seasons’ reliability (P<0.004 and out-put markets (P<0.006 were reported to affect adoption of ISFWM practices highly significantly. Descriptive statistic results indicated that majority of the respondents (93.9% in the project areas were adopting a combination of tied ridges, organic fertilizer and improved seed compared to only 6.1% in the non-project area. There was also significantly (P<0.01 higher adoption (76.5% of a combination of tied ridges, both fertilizer and improved seed in the project area in contrast to merely 23.5% in non-project area, as well as those adopting (80% a combination of zai pit, both fertilizer and improved seed compared to only 20% in non-project area. Policy makers should focus on availability of affordable credit facilities and farm machines, ease access to information, labor and input-output markets for enhanced farm productivity and livelihoods of the smallholder

  6. Factors Affecting in-Hospital Mortality of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salarifar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. Considering immense socioeconomic damages of growing AMI in developing countries we estimated prognostic value of major risk factors of AMI to predict probable In-hospital AMI mortality."nMethods: In a cohort survey from June 2004 to March 2006, 1798 patients hospitalized with proven AMI entered into two groups: Survived (patients discharged alive and Expired (patients expired during hospitalization due to AMI. We evaluated relationship of 17 risk factors including age, sex, smoking, opium usage, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM, dyslipidemia, Killip class, existence of Q wave, St segment elevation, bundle branch blocks (BBB, involved surface of heart, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, mitral valve regurgitation (MR, and serum level of Troponin I and CKMB, with patients' survival and expiry by using chi square test, T test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant."nResults: There were 1629 (90.6% survived and 169 (9.4% expired patients. Factors significantly affected in-hospital mortality of AMI include: age (P< 0.001, femaleness (P< 0.001, smoking (P< 0.001, Killip class>II (P< 0.001, hy­per­tension (P= 0.036, DM (P< 0.001, bundle branch block (P< 0.001, Moderate to severe mitral regurgitation (P< 0.001, lower Mean LVEF (P< 0.001, and lower mean serum concentration of CKMB and Troponin I (P< 0.001. Mortality was significantly higher in anterolateral infarction."nConclusion: Mean age> 69.01 yr, femaleness, Killip class III & V, hypertension, DM, moderate to severe MR, anterolateral AMI, bundle branch block and higher serum concentration of CKMB & Troponin I are associated with higher In-hospital post-AMI mortality.

  7. Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

  8. Factors affecting mortality among victims of electrical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiryaki, Çağrı; Haksal, Mustafa Celalettin; Yazıcıoğlu, Murat Burç; Çiftçi, Ali; Esen, Osman; Turgut, Hamdi Taner; Yıldırım, Abdullah; Güven, Murat

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting mortality rate among patients with an electrical burn. A total of 115 patients admitted to the emergency department and hospitalized in the Burn Treatment Center or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) due to the electrical burn, were included in the study. A total of 115 patients (4 female and 111 male) with a mean age of 32.88±12.87 years were included in the study. The mean hospitalization period was 25.03±20.50 days, and the mean total body surface area burned (% TBSA) was 22.83±15.54%. Among those patients, 9 (8.5%) expired, and the remaining 106 were discharged after treatment. In a logistic regression analysis, TBSA >20% (p=0.02, OR: 11.7, CI: 1.38-99.16); ICU requirement (p=0.005, OR: 1.28, CI: 1.08-1.58); erythrocyte transfusion requirement (p=0.02, OR: 12.48, CI: 1.44-107.83); fresh frozen plasma (FFP) requirement (p=0.03, OR: 10.23, CI: 1.18-88.17); albumin requirement (p=0.02, OR: 12.60, CI: 1.44-109.85); admission serum albumin level patients with electrical burns. In clinical practice, defining a mortality risk analyzer using these factors may be helpful in the management of patients with electrical burns. Additional, more comprehensive studies are required to define the risk factors for mortality and long-term morbidities in patients with electrical burns.

  9. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  10. [An analysis of major proximate determinants of our fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W

    1989-01-01

    The sample survey of fertility, in Shanghai city and Shanxi and Hebei provinces of China in 1985, provided plentiful data about fertility, marriage, contraceptive usage and breastfeeding in terms of The World Fertility Survey Model. The data, along with Bongaarts' model, was utilized to analyze the relation between several proximate determinants and fertility changes. When comparing these three geographic areas, the largest difference was breastfeeding and the smallest one was non- contraceptive usage. It was very different from the results of The World Fertility Survey in developing countries in 1977. The difference of marriage indexes among three areas was close to that of breastfeeding; but for the effects on induction of fertility, marriage index surpassed breastfeeding. There were two models showing effective efficacy on fertility decline. One was the Shanghai model, in which much more effect came from marriage delay, accounting for 71%; another was the Hebei model, induction of fertility was caused by contraceptive usage, about 53%. Both indicated that the major factor affecting fertility decline was the family planning program. Otherwise, it seemed to indicate that different factors such as social, economic development indirectly decreased fertility through family planning programs.

  11. Main error factors, affecting inversion of EM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, M. A.; Magomedov, M.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Inversions of EM data are complicated by a number of factors that need to be taken into account. These factors might contribute by tens of percents in data values, concealing responses from target objects, which usually contribute at the level of few percents only. We developed the exact analytical solutions of the EM wave equations that properly incorporate the contributions of the following effects: 1) A finite source size effect, where conventional dipole (zero-size) approximation brings 10-40% error compare to a real size source, needed to provide adequate signal-to-noise ratio. 2) Complex topography. A three-parametrical approach allows to keep the data misfits in 0.5% corridor while topography effect might be up to 40%. 3) Grounding shadow effect, caused by return ground currents, when Tx-line vicinity is horizontally non-uniform. By keeping survey setup within some reasonable geometrical ratios, the shadow effect comes to just one frequency-independent coefficient, which can be excluded from processing by using logarithmical derivatives. 4) Layer's wide spectral range effect. This brings to multi-layer spectral overlapping, so each frequency is affected by many layers; that requires wide spectral range processing, making the typical 'few-frequency data acquisition' non-reliable. 5) Horizontal sensitivity effect. The typical view at the target signal, reflected from a Tx-Rx mid-point is valid only for a ray approximation, reliable in a far-field zone. Unlike this, the real EM surveys usually work in near-field zone. Thus Tx-Rx mid-point does not represent the layer, so a sensitivity distribution function must be computed for each layer for the following 3D-unification process. 6) Wide range Rx-directions from mid-line Tx. Survey terrain often prevents placing Rx perpendicular to Tx-line, and even small deviations without proper corrections cause a significant inaccuracy. A radical simplification of the effect's description becomes possible after applying a

  12. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  13. The Factors Affecting Performance of Nurse at Paniai General Hospital

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    Elias Tatogo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available General hospital of Paniai regency health service institution under Local Government Paniai Regency with amount of nurse resource counted 69 one who have duty to remain to can improve more certifiable service and reached by society, so to be form degree of health which at the farthest, so that nurse performance of vital importance in giving of health service. The goal of research: To knowing of factors affecting performance of nurse at Paniai general hospital. Method: Type research is causal associative by using quantitative approach. Sample is all of nurse as much 69 nurse with date implemented in October 2016. Data obtained used questioner and analyzed by chi square test. Result of research is obtained that factor’s affecting of nurse performance in Paniai General Hospital is motivation (p-value = 0,001; RP = 3,000; CI95%= 1,607 - 5,601, [job/activity] discipline (p-value = 0,043; RP = 2,068; CI95%= 1,150 - 3,719, reward (p- value = 0,001; RP = 5,008; CI95%= 1,656 - 15,142, punishment (p- value = 0,000 ; RP= 16,839; CI95%= ( 4,310 - 65,784 and style leadership [of] director (p- value = 0,000; RP = 3,333; CI95%= 1,742 - 6,380. The factor’s not related of nurse performance at Paniai general hospital is age (p- value = 1,000 ; RP = 0,908; CI95%= 0,456 - 1,806, long working (p- value = 1,000; RP = 0,908; CI95%= 0,456 - 1,806 and job rotation (p- value = 0,843; RP = 1,190; CI95%= 0,603 – 2,348.

  14. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

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    Azin Ayatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients

  15. Factors affecting the depth of burns occurring in medical institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Soon; Choi, Young Hwan; Yoon, Cheonjae; You, Je Sung

    2015-05-01

    Most cases of burns occurring in medical institutions are associated with activities involving heat. It is very difficult to detect these burns. To date, there are few reports on burns occurring in medical institutions. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the etiology of burns occurring in medical institutions and to elucidate the factors affecting burn depth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients who visited our center from April 2008 to February 2013. This study enrolled all patients with burns occurring in the medical institution during or related to treatment. We excluded burn patients whose burns were not related to treatment (for example, we excluded patients with scalding burns that occurred in the hospital cafeteria and pediatric patients with hot water burns from the water purifier). However, patients with burns that occurred in the recovery room after general anesthesia were included. A total of 115 patients were enrolled in this study. The average patient age was 41.5 years, with more women than men (M:F=31:84). There were 29 cases (25.3%) of superficial burns (first-degree and superficial second-degree) and 86 cases (74.7%) of deep burns (deep second-degree and third-degree). Hot packs were the most common cause of burns (27 cases, 23.5%), followed by laser therapy, heating pads, and grounding pads, accounting for 15 cases each. There were 89 cases (77.4%) of contact burns and 26 cases (22.6%) of non-contact burns. The most common site of burns was the lower extremities (41 cases, 35.7%). The burn site and contact burns were both factors affecting burn depth. The rate of deep burns was higher in patients with contact burns than in those with non-contact burns (odds ratio 4.26) and was associated with lower body burns (odds ratio 2.85). In burns occurring in medical institutions, there is a high probability of a deep burn if it is a contact burn or occurs in the lower body. Therefore, safety guidelines are needed

  16. Transition cow: interaction with fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formigoni, A; Trevisi, E

    2003-09-01

    In recent years a progressive worsening of fertility indices in dairy cow herds has been observed. Several factors (genetic, dietary and management) seem to be more related to poor fertility than milk yield level. The degree and the length of the energy deficit during the transition period are inversely related to reproductive indices (e.g. conception rate is fertility in several ways. Excess of rumen degradable proteins, apart from negative energy balance, negatively affects reproductive activity. Conversely, some nutrients (i.e. some polyunsaturated fatty acids or some amino acids) seem to show positive effects on fertility. Finally, the relationship between health status, often compromised during the transition period, and fertility efficiency is discussed. The release of cytokines seems to be related directly and indirectly (mainly by the change in usual hepatic metabolism to the malfunction of reproductive apparatus. Quick recovery of reproductive activity requires the adoption of strategies around calving to cover the higher environmental and nutritive requirements and to prevent disorders of any kind.

  17. Conventional, Partially Converted and Environmentally Friendly Farming in South Korea: Profitability and Factors Affecting Farmers’ Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saem Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While organic farming is well established in Europe a nd USA, it is still catching up in Asian countries. The government of South Korea has implemented environmentally friendly farming that encompasses organic farming. Despite the promotion of environmentally friendly farming, it still has a low share in South Korea and partially converted farming has emerged in some districts of South Korea. However, the partially converted farming has not yet been investigated by the government. Thus, our study implemented a financial analysis to compare the annual costs and net returns of conventional, partially converted and environmentally friendly farming in Gangwon Province. The result showed that environmentally friendly farming was more profitable with respect to farm net returns. To find out the factors affecting the adoption of environmentally friendly farming, multinomial logistic regression was implemented. The findings revealed that education and subsidy positively and significantly influenced the probability of farmers’ choice on partially converted and environmentally friendly farming. Farm size had a negative and significant relationship with only environmentally friendly farming. This study will contribute to future policy establishment for sustainable agriculture as recommended by improving the quality of fertilizers, suggesting the additional investigation associated with partially converted farmers.

  18. Iron concentration, bioavailability, and nutritional quality of polished rice affected by different forms of foliar iron fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wanling; Shohag, M J I; Wei, Yanyan; Feng, Ying; Yang, Xiaoe

    2013-12-15

    The present study compared the effects of four different forms of foliar iron (Fe) fertilizers on Fe concentration, bioavailability and nutritional quality of polished rice. The results showed that foliar fertilisation at the anthesis stage was an effective way to promote Fe concentration and bioavailability of polished rice, especially in case of DTPA-Fe. Compared to the control, foliar application of DTPA-Fe increased sulphur concentration and the nutrition promoter cysteine content, whereas decreased phosphorus concentration and the antinutrient phytic acid content of polished rice, as a result increased 67.2% ferrtin formation in Caco-2 cell. Moreover, foliar DTPA-Fe application could maintain amylase, protein and minerals quality of polished rice. According to the current study, DTPA-Fe is recommended as an excellent foliar Fe form for Fe biofortification program.

  19. Human 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency seems to affect fertility but may not harbor a tumor risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burckhardt, Marie-Anne; Udhane, Sameer S; Marti, Nesa

    2015-01-01

    . RESULTS: A 46,XY boy presented at birth with severe undervirilization of the external genitalia. Steroid profiling showed low steroid production for mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and sex steroids with typical precursor metabolites for HSD3B2 deficiency. The genetic analysis of the HSD3B2 gene...... enlarged breasts through production of estrogens in the periphery. Testis histology in late puberty revealed primarily a Sertoli-cell-only pattern and only few tubules with arrested spermatogenesis, presence of few Leydig cells in stroma, but no neoplastic changes. CONCLUSIONS: The testis with HSD3B2...... deficiency due to the c.687del27 deletion does not express the defective protein. This patient is unlikely to be fertile and his risk for gonadal malignancy is low. Further studies are needed to obtain firm knowledge on malignancy risk for gonads harboring defects of androgen biosynthesis....

  20. Factors affecting recurrence after surgery for Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayuki Yamamoto

    2005-01-01

    Although in Crohn's disease post-operative recurrence is common, the determinants of disease recurrence remain speculative. The aim of this study was to examine factors affecting post-operative recurrence of Crohn's disease. A Medline-based literature review was carried out. The following factors were investigated: age at onset of disease, sex, family history of Crohn's disease,smoking, duration of Crohn's disease before surgery,prophylactic medical treatment (corticosteroids, 5-amino salicylic acid [5-ASA] and immunosuppressants),anatomical site of involvement, indication for surgery (perforating or non-perforating disease), length of resected bowel, anast-omotic technique, presence of granuloma in the specimen, involvement of disease at the resection margin, blood transfusions and postoperative complications. Smoking significantly increases the risk of recurrence (risk is approximately twice as high), especially in women and heavy smokers. Quitting smoking reduces the post-operative recurrence rate. A number of studies have shown a higher risk when the duration of the disease before surgery was short. There were, however, different definitions of 'short' among the studies. Prophylactic cortic-osteroids therapy is not effective in reducing the post-operative recurrence. A number of randomized controlled trials offered evidence of the efficacy of 5-ASA (mesalazine) in reducing post-operative recurrence. Recently, the thera-peutic efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs (azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine) in the prevention of post-operative recurrence has been investigated and several studies have reported that these drugs might help prevent the recurrence. Further clinical trials would be necessary to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of immunosuppressants.Several studies showed a higher recurrence rate in patients with perforating disease than in those with non-perforating disease. However, evidence for differing recurrence rates in perforating and non