Sample records for factors affecting co2

  1. Determining residential energy consumption-based CO2 emissions and examining the factors affecting the variation in Ankara, Turkey (United States)

    Kus, Melike; Akan, Perihan; Aydinalp Koksal, Merih; Gullu, Gulen


    Energy demand of Turkey has been showing a remarkable increase in the last two decades due to rapid increase in population and changes in consumption trends. In parallel to the increase in energy demand, the CO2 emissions in Turkey are also increasing dramatically due to high usage of fossil fuels. CO2 emissions from the residential sector covers almost one fourth of the total sectoral emissions. In this study, CO2 emissions from the residential sector are estimated, and the factors affecting the emission levels are determined for the residential sector in Ankara, Turkey. In this study, detailed surveys are conducted to more than 400 households in Ankara. Using the information gathered from the surveys, the CO2 emissions associated with energy consumption of the households are calculated using the methodology outlined at IPCC. The statistical analyses are carried out using household income, dwelling characteristics, and household economic and demographic data to determine the factors causing the variation in emission levels among the households. The results of the study present that the main factors impacting the amount of total energy consumption and associated CO2 emissions are household income, dwelling construction year, age, education level of the household, and net footage of the dwelling.

  2. Factors affecting CO2 emission from the power sector of selected countries in Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Anandarajah, Gabrial; Liyanage, Migara H.


    This study analyzes the key factors behind the CO 2 emissions from the power sector in fifteen selected countries in Asia and the Pacific using the Log-Mean Divisia Index method of decomposition. The roles of changes in economic output, electricity intensity of the economy, fuel intensity of power generation and generation structure are examined in the evolution of CO 2 emission from the power sector of the selected countries during 1980-2004. The study shows that the economic growth was the dominant factor behind the increase in CO 2 emission in ten of the selected countries (i.e., Australia, China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam, while the increasing electricity intensity of the economy was the main factor in three countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia and Philippines). Structural changes in power generation were found to be the main contributor to changes in the CO 2 emission in the case of Sri Lanka and New Zealand.

  3. Panel estimation for transport sector CO2 emissions and its affecting factors: A regional analysis in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chuanguo; Nian, Jiang


    With rapid economic growth, the transport sector plays an important role in China′s CO 2 emissions. The existing research is extensively concerned with transport sector CO 2 emissions in recent years, but little attention has been paid to regional differences. This paper investigates CO 2 emissions in the transport sector at the national and regional levels using the STIRPAT model and provincial panel data from 1995 to 2010 in China. The results showed that passenger transport dominates CO 2 emissions in the transport sector, but its influence varies across regions. Electrification has significant potential to lower CO 2 emissions because of resulting higher fuel efficiency and reduced pollution. Energy efficiency improvement is effective but limited in reducing emissions due to increasing demand from economic development and population growth. These results not only contribute to advancing the existing literature, but also merit particular attention from policy makers in China. - Highlights: • We investigate China′s CO 2 emissions in the transport sector. • Passenger transport dominates CO 2 emissions in the transport sector. • The effects of passenger transport on CO 2 emissions vary across regions. • Energy efficiency improvement is effective but limited in reducing emissions

  4. The Impact of Factors Affecting Environmental Pollution with Emphasis on Trade Openness in Different Countries (Case study CO2 emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein mohammadi


    Full Text Available Urbanization, population growth and moving from traditional manufacturing industry to accelerate the process of economic development and parallel, significant environmental impacts are left. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of different variables such as trade openness, comparative advantage, production levels and other important variables affecting the emission of carbon dioxide gas in various countries of the world. Stata11 software was used to estimate the panel data model of 77 countries over the years 2010-1980. The results indicate that propagation environment, and in particular CO2, in all four groups of countries are associated with prior emission, with a per capita income direct link but with the square of it correlates inversely and have direct link with the ratio of capital to labor and with the square of it correlates inversely and trade openness in high-income countries and moderate negative effect in low-income and middle-income countries is directly related to the bottom.

  5. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko


    Full Text Available Emission factors are used in greenhouse gas inventories to estimate emissions from coal combustion. In the absence of direct measures, emissions factors are frequently used as a quick, low cost way to estimate emissions values. Coal combustion has been a major contributor to the CO2 flux into the atmosphere. Nearly all of the fuel carbon (99 % in coal is converted to CO2 during the combustion process. The carbon content is the most important coal parameter which is the measure of the degree of coalification (coal rank. Coalification is the alteration of vegetation to form peat, succeeded by the transformation of peat through lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous to anthracite coal. During the geochemical or metamorphic stage, the progressive changes that occur within the coal are an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen and oxygen content resulting in a loss of volatiles. Heterogeneous composition of coal causes variation in CO2 emission from different coals. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has produced guidelines on how to produce emission inventories which includes emission factors. Although 2006 IPCC Guidelines provided the default values specified according to the rank of the coal, the application of country-specific emission factors was recommended when estimating the national greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the differences between country-specific emission factors and default IPCC CO2 emission factors, EF(CO2, for coals. Also, this study estimated EF(CO2 for two different types of coals and peat from B&H, on the basis fuel analyses. Carbon emission factors for coal mainly depend on the carbon content of the fuel and vary with both rank and geographic origin, which supports the idea of provincial variation of carbon emission factors. Also, various other factors, such as content of sulphur, minerals and macerals play an important role and influence EF(CO2 from coal. Carbonate minerals

  6. Factors affecting CO_2 emissions in China’s agriculture sector: Evidence from geographically weighted regression model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bin; Lin, Boqiang


    China is currently the world's largest emitter of carbon dioxide. Considered as a large agricultural country, carbon emission in China’s agriculture sector keeps on growing rapidly. It is, therefore, of great importance to investigate the driving forces of carbon dioxide emissions in this sector. The traditional regression estimation can only get “average” and “global” parameter estimates; it excludes the “local” parameter estimates which vary across space in some spatial systems. Geographically weighted regression embeds the latitude and longitude of the sample data into the regression parameters, and uses the local weighted least squares method to estimate the parameters point–by–point. To reveal the nonstationary spatial effects of driving forces, geographically weighted regression model is employed in this paper. The results show that economic growth is positively correlated with emissions, with the impact in the western region being less than that in the central and eastern regions. Urbanization is positively related to emissions but produces opposite effects pattern. Energy intensity is also correlated with emissions, with a decreasing trend from the eastern region to the central and western regions. Therefore, policymakers should take full account of the spatial nonstationarity of driving forces in designing emission reduction policies. - Highlights: • We explore the driving forces of CO_2 emissions in the agriculture sector. • Urbanization is positively related to emissions but produces opposite effect pattern. • The effect of energy intensity declines from the eastern region to western region.

  7. The interaction of biotic and abiotic factors at multiple spatial scales affects the variability of CO2 fluxes in polar environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cannone, N.; Augusti, A.; Malfasi, F.; Pallozi, E.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Brugnoli, E.


    Roč. 39, č. 9 (2016), s. 1581-1596 ISSN 0722-4060 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Arctic ecosystems * CO2 fluxes * Speciesspecific photosynthetic capacity * Soil temperature * Carbon isotope composition * Climate warming Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.949, year: 2016

  8. Evaluation of factors affecting accurate measurements of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 by wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (United States)

    Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H.; Tohjima, Y.; Mukai, H.; Nojiri, Y.; Katsumata, K.; Rella, C.


    We examined potential interferences from water vapor and atmospheric background gases (N2, O2, and Ar), and biases by isotopologues of target species, on accurate measurement of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 by means of wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS). Variations in the composition of the background gas substantially impacted the CO2 and CH4 measurements: the measured amounts of CO2 and CH4 decreased with increasing N2 mole fraction, but increased with increasing O2 and Ar, suggesting that the pressure-broadening effects (PBEs) increased as Ar < O2 < N2. Using these experimental results, we inferred PBEs for the measurement of synthetic standard gases. The PBEs were negligible (up to 0.05 ppm for CO2 and 0.01 ppb for CH4) for gas standards balanced with purified air, although the PBEs were substantial (up to 0.87 ppm for CO2 and 1.4 ppb for CH4) for standards balanced with synthetic air. For isotopic biases on CO2 measurements, we compared experimental results and theoretical calculations, which showed excellent agreement within their uncertainty. We derived empirical correction functions for water vapor for three WS-CRDS instruments (Picarro EnviroSense 3000i, G-1301, and G-2301). Although the transferability of the functions was not clear, no significant difference was found in the water vapor correction values among these instruments within the typical analytical precision at sufficiently low water concentrations (< 0.3%V for CO2 and < 0.4%V for CH4). For accurate measurements of CO2 and CH4 in ambient air, we concluded that WS-CRDS measurements should be performed under complete dehumidification of air samples, or moderate dehumidification followed by application of a water vapor correction function, along with calibration by natural air-based standard gases or purified air-balanced synthetic standard gases with isotopic correction.

  9. Does elevated pCO2 affect reef octocorals? (United States)

    Gabay, Yasmin; Benayahu, Yehuda; Fine, Maoz


    Increasing anthropogenic pCO2 alters seawater chemistry, with potentially severe consequences for coral reef growth and health. Octocorals are the second most important faunistic component in many reefs, often occupying 50% or more of the available substrate. Three species of octocorals from two families were studied in Eilat (Gulf of Aqaba), comprising the zooxanthellate Ovabunda macrospiculata and Heteroxenia fuscescens (family Xeniidae), and Sarcophyton sp. (family Alcyoniidae). They were maintained under normal (8.2) and reduced (7.6 and 7.3) pH conditions for up to 5 months. Their biolological features, including protein concentration, polyp weight, density of zooxanthellae, and their chlorophyll concentration per cell, as well as polyp pulsation rate, were examined under conditions more acidic than normal, in order to test the hypothesis that rising pCO2 would affect octocorals. The results indicate no statistically significant difference between the octocorals exposed to reduced pH values compared to the control. It is therefore suggested that the octocorals' tissue may act as a protective barrier against adverse pH conditions, thus maintaining them unharmed at high levels of pCO2.

  10. Empirical Study of Decomposition of CO2 Emission Factors in China

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    Yadong Ning


    Full Text Available China’s CO2 emissions increase has attracted world’s attention. It is of great importance to analyze China’s CO2 emission factors to restrain the CO2 rapid growing. The CO2 emissions of industrial and residential consumption sectors in China during 1980–2010 were calculated in this paper. The expanded decomposition model of CO2 emissions was set up by adopting factor-separating method based on the basic principle of the Kaya identities. The results showed that CO2 emissions of industrial and residential consumption sectors increase year after year, and the scale effect of GDP is the most important factor affecting CO2 emissions of industrial sector. Decreasing the specific gravity of secondary industry and energy intensity is more effective than decreasing the primary industry and tertiary industry. The emissions reduction effect of structure factor is better than the efficiency factor. For residential consumption sector, CO2 emissions increase rapidly year after year, and the economy factor (the increase of wealthy degree or income is the most important factor. In order to slow down the growth of CO2 emissions, it is an important way to change the economic growth mode, and the structure factor will become a crucial factor.

  11. CO2-induced ocean acidification does not affect individual or group behaviour in a temperate damselfish. (United States)

    Kwan, Garfield Tsz; Hamilton, Trevor James; Tresguerres, Martin


    Open ocean surface CO 2 levels are projected to reach approximately 800 µatm, and ocean pH to decrease by approximately 0.3 units by the year 2100 due to anthropogenic CO 2 emissions and the subsequent process of ocean acidification (OA). When exposed to these CO 2 /pH values, several fish species display abnormal behaviour in laboratory tests, an effect proposed to be linked to altered neuronal GABA A- receptor function. Juvenile blacksmith ( Chromis punctipinnis ) are social fish that regularly experience CO 2 /pH fluctuations through kelp forest diurnal primary production and upwelling events, so we hypothesized that they might be resilient to OA. Blacksmiths were exposed to control conditions (pH ∼ 7.92; p CO 2  ∼ 540 µatm), constant acidification (pH ∼ 7.71; p CO 2  ∼ 921 µatm) and oscillating acidification (pH ∼ 7.91, p CO 2  ∼ 560 µatm (day), pH ∼ 7.70, p CO 2  ∼ 955 µatm (night)), and caught and tested in two seasons of the year when the ocean temperature was different: winter (16.5 ± 0.1°C) and summer (23.1 ± 0.1°C). Neither constant nor oscillating CO 2 -induced acidification affected blacksmith individual light/dark preference, inter-individual distance in a shoal or the shoal's response to a novel object, suggesting that blacksmiths are tolerant to projected future OA conditions. However, blacksmiths tested during the winter demonstrated significantly higher dark preference in the individual light/dark preference test, thus confirming season and/or water temperature as relevant factors to consider in behavioural tests.

  12. CO2-Water-Rock Wettability: Variability, Influencing Factors, and Implications for CO2 Geostorage. (United States)

    Iglauer, Stefan


    Carbon geosequestration (CGS) has been identified as a key technology to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and thus significantly mitigate climate change. In CGS, CO 2 is captured from large point-source emitters (e.g., coal fired power stations), purified, and injected deep underground into geological formations for disposal. However, the CO 2 has a lower density than the resident formation brine and thus migrates upward due to buoyancy forces. To prevent the CO 2 from leaking back to the surface, four trapping mechanisms are used: (1) structural trapping (where a tight caprock acts as a seal barrier through which the CO 2 cannot percolate), (2) residual trapping (where the CO 2 plume is split into many micrometer-sized bubbles, which are immobilized by capillary forces in the pore network of the rock), (3) dissolution trapping (where CO 2 dissolves in the formation brine and sinks deep into the reservoir due to a slight increase in brine density), and (4) mineral trapping (where the CO 2 introduced into the subsurface chemically reacts with the formation brine or reservoir rock or both to form solid precipitates). The efficiency of these trapping mechanisms and the movement of CO 2 through the rock are strongly influenced by the CO 2 -brine-rock wettability (mainly due to the small capillary-like pores in the rock which form a complex network), and it is thus of key importance to rigorously understand CO 2 -wettability. In this context, a substantial number of experiments have been conducted from which several conclusions can be drawn: of prime importance is the rock surface chemistry, and hydrophilic surfaces are water-wet while hydrophobic surfaces are CO 2 -wet. Note that CO 2 -wet surfaces dramatically reduce CO 2 storage capacities. Furthermore, increasing pressure, salinity, or dissolved ion valency increases CO 2 -wettability, while the effect of temperature is not well understood. Indeed theoretical understanding of CO 2 -wettability and the

  13. Ecosystem Warming Affects CO2 Flux in an Agricultural Soil (United States)

    Global warming seems likely based on present-day climate predictions. Our objective was to characterize and quantify the interactive effects of ecosystem warming (i.e., canopy temperature, TS), soil moisture content ('S) and microbial biomass (BM: bacteria, fungi) on the intra-row soil CO2 flux (FS)...

  14. Does Silicate Weathering of Loess Affect Atmospheric CO2? (United States)

    Anderson, S. P.


    Weathering of glacial loess may be a significant, yet unrecognized, component of the carbon cycle. Glaciers produce fine-grained sediment, exposing vast amounts of mineral surface area to weathering processes, yet silicate mineral weathering rates at glacier beds and of glacial till are not high. Thus, despite the tremendous potential for glaciers to influence global weathering rates and atmospheric CO2 levels, this effect has not been demonstrated. Loess, comprised of silt-clay sizes, may be the key glacial deposit in which silicate weathering rates are high. Loess is transported by wind off braid plains of rivers, and deposited broadly (order 100 km from the source) in vegetated areas. Both the fine grain size, and hence large mineral surface area, and presence of vegetation should render loess deposits highly susceptible to silicate weathering. These deposits effectively extend the geochemical impact of glaciation in time and space, and bring rock flour into conditions conducive to chemical weathering. A simple 1-d model of silicate weathering fluxes from a soil profile demonstrates the potential of loess deposition to enhance CO2 consumption. At each time step, computed mineral dissolution (using anorthite and field-based rate constants) modifies the size of mineral grains within the soil. In the case of a stable soil surface, this results in a gradual decline in weathering fluxes and CO2 consumption through time, as finer grain sizes dissolve away. Computed weathering fluxes for a typical loess, with an initial mean grain size of 25 μm, are an order of magnitude greater than fluxes from a non-loess soil that differs only in having a mean grain size of 320 μm. High weathering fluxes are maintained through time if loess is continually deposited. Deposition rates as low as 0.01 mm/yr (one loess grain thickness per year) can lead to a doubling of CO2 consumption rates within 5 ka. These results suggest that even modest loess deposition rates can significantly

  15. Mixing ratio and species affect the use of substrate-derived CO2 by Sphagnum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Tomassen, H.B.M.


    Question: Can mixing ratio and species affect the use of substrate-derived CO2 by Sphagnum? Location: Poor fen in south Sweden and greenhouse in Wageningen, The Netherlands. Methods: Two mixing ratios of Sphagnum cuspidatum and S. magellanicum were exposed to two levels of CO2 by pumping CO2

  16. The influencing factors of CO2 emission intensity of Chinese agriculture from 1997 to 2014. (United States)

    Long, Xingle; Luo, Yusen; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Jijian


    In China, agriculture produces the greatest chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions in wastewater and the most methane (CH 4 ) emissions. It is imperative that agricultural pollution in China be reduced. This study investigated the influencing factors of the CO 2 emission intensity of Chinese agriculture from 1997 to 2014. We analyzed the influencing factors of the CO 2 emission intensity through the first-stage least-square regression. We also analyzed determinants of innovation through the second-stage least-square regression. We found that innovation negatively affected the CO 2 emission intensity in the model of the nation. FDI positively affected innovation in China. It is important to enhance indigenous innovation for green agriculture through labor training and collaboration between agriculture and academia.

  17. CO2-induced seawater acidification affects physiological performance of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

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    U. Riebesell


    Full Text Available CO2/pH perturbation experiments were carried out under two different pCO2 levels (39.3 and 101.3 Pa to evaluate effects of CO2-induced ocean acidification on the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. After acclimation (>20 generations to ambient and elevated CO2 conditions (with corresponding pH values of 8.15 and 7.80, respectively, growth and photosynthetic carbon fixation rates of high CO2 grown cells were enhanced by 5% and 12%, respectively, and dark respiration stimulated by 34% compared to cells grown at ambient CO2. The half saturation constant (Km for carbon fixation (dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC increased by 20% under the low pH and high CO2 condition, reflecting a decreased affinity for HCO3– or/and CO2 and down-regulated carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM. In the high CO2 grown cells, the electron transport rate from photosystem II (PSII was photoinhibited to a greater extent at high levels of photosynthetically active radiation, while non-photochemical quenching was reduced compared to low CO2 grown cells. This was probably due to the down-regulation of CCM, which serves as a sink for excessive energy. The balance between these positive and negative effects on diatom productivity will be a key factor in determining the net effect of rising atmospheric CO2 on ocean primary production.

  18. Stem girdling affects the quantity of CO2 transported in xylem as well as CO2 efflux from soil. (United States)

    Bloemen, Jasper; Agneessens, Laura; Van Meulebroek, Lieven; Aubrey, Doug P; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy


    There is recent clear evidence that an important fraction of root-respired CO2 is transported upward in the transpiration stream in tree stems rather than fluxing to the soil. In this study, we aimed to quantify the contribution of root-respired CO2 to both soil CO2 efflux and xylem CO2 transport by manipulating the autotrophic component of belowground respiration. We compared soil CO2 efflux and the flux of root-respired CO2 transported in the transpiration stream in girdled and nongirdled 9-yr-old oak trees (Quercus robur) to assess the impact of a change in the autotrophic component of belowground respiration on both CO2 fluxes. Stem girdling decreased xylem CO2 concentration, indicating that belowground respiration contributes to the aboveground transport of internal CO2 . Girdling also decreased soil CO2 efflux. These results confirmed that root respiration contributes to xylem CO2 transport and that failure to account for this flux results in inaccurate estimates of belowground respiration when efflux-based methods are used. This research adds to the growing body of evidence that efflux-based measurements of belowground respiration underestimate autotrophic contributions. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Soil CO2 dynamics and fluxes as affected by tree harvest in an experimental sand ecosystem. (United States)

    C.K. Keller; T.M. White; R. O' Brien; J.L. Smith


    Soil CO2 production is a key process in ecosystem C exchange, and global change predictions require understanding of how ecosystem disturbance affects this process. We monitored CO2 levels in soil gas and as bicarbonate in drainage from an experimental red pine ecosystem, for 1 year before and 3 years after its aboveground...

  20. Growth and Wood/Bark Properties of Abies faxoniana Seedlings as Affected by Elevated CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Zhou Qiao; Yuan-Bin Zhang; Kai-Yun Wang; Qian Wang; Qi-Zhuo Tian


    Growth and wood and bark properties of Abies faxoniana seedlings after one year's exposure to elevated CO2 concentration (ambient + 350 (=1= 25) μmol/mol) under two planting densities (28 or 84 plants/mz) were investigated in closed-top chambers. Tree height, stem diameter and cross-sectional area, and total biomass were enhanced under elevated CO2 concentration, and reduced under high planting density. Most traits of stem bark were improved under elevated CO2 concentration and reduced under high planting density. Stem wood production was significantly increased in volume under elevated CO2 concentration under both densities, and the stem wood density decreased under elevated CO2 concentration and increased under high planting density. These results suggest that the response of stem wood and bark to elevated CO2 concentration is density dependent. This may be of great importance in a future CO2 enriched world in natural forests where plant density varies considerably. The results also show that the bark/wood ratio in diameter, stem cross-sectional area and dry weight are not proportionally affected by elevated CO2 concentration under the two contrasting planting densities. This indicates that the response magnitude of stem bark and stem wood to elevated CO2 concentration are different but their response directions are the same.

  1. Does a decade of elevated [CO2] affect a desert perennial plant community? (United States)

    Newingham, Beth A; Vanier, Cheryl H; Kelly, Lauren J; Charlet, Therese N; Smith, Stanley D


    Understanding the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on plant community structure is crucial to predicting ecosystem responses to global change. Early predictions suggested that productivity in deserts would increase via enhanced water-use efficiency under elevated [CO2], but the response of intact arid plant communities to elevated [CO2 ] is largely unknown. We measured changes in perennial plant community characteristics (cover, species richness and diversity) after 10 yr of elevated [CO2] exposure in an intact Mojave Desert community at the Nevada Desert Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Facility. Contrary to expectations, total cover, species richness, and diversity were not affected by elevated [CO2]. Over the course of the experiment, elevated [CO2] had no effect on changes in cover of the evergreen C3 shrub, Larrea tridentata; alleviated decreases in cover of the C4 bunchgrass, Pleuraphis rigida; and slightly reduced the cover of C3 drought-deciduous shrubs. Thus, we generally found no effect of elevated [CO2] on plant communities in this arid ecosystem. Extended drought, slow plant growth rates, and highly episodic germination and recruitment of new individuals explain the lack of strong perennial plant community shifts after a decade of elevated [CO2]. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Loblolly pine grown under elevated CO2 affects early instar pine sawfly performance. (United States)

    Williams, R S; Lincoln, D E; Thomas, R B


    Seedlings of loblolly pine Pinus taeda (L.), were grown in open-topped field chambers under three CO 2 regimes: ambient, 150 μl l -1 CO 2 above ambient, and 300 μl l -1 CO 2 above ambient. A fourth, non-chambered ambient treatment was included to assess chamber effects. Needles were used in 96 h feeding trials to determine the performance of young, second instar larvae of loblolly pine's principal leaf herbivore, red-headed pine sawfly, Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch). The relative consumption rate of larvae significantly increased on plants grown under elevated CO 2 , and needles grown in the highest CO 2 regime were consumed 21% more rapidly than needles grown in ambient CO 2 . Both the significant decline in leaf nitrogen content and the substantial increase in leaf starch content contributed to a significant increase in the starch:nitrogen ratio in plants grown in elevated CO 2 . Insect consumption rate was negatively related to leaf nitrogen content and positively related to the starch:nitrogen ratio. Of the four volatile leaf monoterpenes measured, only β-pinene exhibited a significant CO 2 effect and declined in plants grown in elevated CO 2 . Although consumption changed, the relative growth rates of larvae were not different among CO 2 treatments. Despite lower nitrogen consumption rates by larvae feeding on the plants grown in elevated CO 2 , nitrogen accumulation rates were the same for all treatments due to a significant increase in nitrogen utilization efficiency. The ability of this insect to respond at an early, potentially susceptible larval stage to poorer food quality and declining levels of a leaf monoterpene suggest that changes in needle quality within pines in future elevated-CO 2 atmospheres may not especially affect young insects and that tree-feeding sawflies may respond in a manner similar to herb-feeding lepidopterans.

  3. CO2 removals and CO2 and non-CO2 trace gas emissions affected by human activity in the forests in the Republic of macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupche, Ljupcho; Lozanovski, Risto; Markovska, Natasha


    During 2000 and 2001 inventories of CO 2 removals and emissions caused by changes in forest and other woody biomass stocks, as well as the inventories of CO 2 and non-CO 2 trace gas emissions caused by forest conversions (accidental burning) were carried out. According to the forest area in ha, and depending on the differences between the annual biomass increment and annual biomass consumption, about 30-50% of total annual carbon uptake increment is released through the biomass consumption from stocks. 50-70% of the net annual carbon uptake converted to CO 2 identify the annual removals of this gas, which is on average 1805 Gg/yr, ranging between 1485 and 2243 Gg/yr. From 1990 to 1998 on average 4700 ha forest area (min. 110 ha in 1991, max. 14420 ha in 1993) was burned. Proportionally to the burned area, there was a release on average of 18.62 kt C annually (min. 0.42 kt C, max. 57.11 kt), related to 136.07 kt CO 2 on average (min. 1.5 kt CO 2 , max. 209.22 kt CO 2 ). (Original)

  4. Factors influencing the amount of CO2 sorbed on coal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přibyl, Oldřich; Weishauptová, Zuzana; Kolář, František


    Roč. 22, - (2009), s. 52-57 ISSN 1210-9606. [Coal Geology Conference. Praha, 26.05.2008-30.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/1146 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : sorption of CO2 * carbon dioxide * coal sorption capacity Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  5. Forecasting Energy-Related CO2 Emissions Employing a Novel SSA-LSSVM Model: Considering Structural Factors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao


    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions forecasting is becoming more important due to increasing climatic problems, which contributes to developing scientific climate policies and making reasonable energy plans. Considering that the influential factors of CO2 emissions are multiplex and the relationships between factors and CO2 emissions are complex and non-linear, a novel CO2 forecasting model called SSA-LSSVM, which utilizes the Salp Swarm Algorithm (SSA to optimize the two parameters of the least squares support sector machine (LSSVM model, is proposed in this paper. The influential factors of CO2 emissions, including the gross domestic product (GDP, population, energy consumption, economic structure, energy structure, urbanization rate, and energy intensity, are regarded as the input variables of the SSA-LSSVM model. The proposed model is verified to show a better forecasting performance compared with the selected models, including the single LSSVM model, the LSSVM model optimized by the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO-LSSVM, and the back propagation (BP neural network model, on CO2 emissions in China from 2014 to 2016. The comparative analysis indicates the SSA-LSSVM model is greatly superior and has the potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of CO2 emissions forecasting. CO2 emissions in China from 2017 to 2020 are forecast combined with the 13th Five-Year Plan for social, economic and energy development. The comparison of CO2 emissions of China in 2020 shows that structural factors significantly affect CO2 emission forecasting results. The average annual growth of CO2 emissions slows down significantly due to a series of policies and actions taken by the Chinese government, which means China can keep the promise that greenhouse gas emissions will start to drop after 2030.

  6. Nanoscale Chemical Processes Affecting Storage Capacities and Seals during Geologic CO2 Sequestration. (United States)

    Jun, Young-Shin; Zhang, Lijie; Min, Yujia; Li, Qingyun


    Geologic CO 2 sequestration (GCS) is a promising strategy to mitigate anthropogenic CO 2 emission to the atmosphere. Suitable geologic storage sites should have a porous reservoir rock zone where injected CO 2 can displace brine and be stored in pores, and an impermeable zone on top of reservoir rocks to hinder upward movement of buoyant CO 2 . The injection wells (steel casings encased in concrete) pass through these geologic zones and lead CO 2 to the desired zones. In subsurface environments, CO 2 is reactive as both a supercritical (sc) phase and aqueous (aq) species. Its nanoscale chemical reactions with geomedia and wellbores are closely related to the safety and efficiency of CO 2 storage. For example, the injection pressure is determined by the wettability and permeability of geomedia, which can be sensitive to nanoscale mineral-fluid interactions; the sealing safety of the injection sites is affected by the opening and closing of fractures in caprocks and the alteration of wellbore integrity caused by nanoscale chemical reactions; and the time scale for CO 2 mineralization is also largely dependent on the chemical reactivities of the reservoir rocks. Therefore, nanoscale chemical processes can influence the hydrogeological and mechanical properties of geomedia, such as their wettability, permeability, mechanical strength, and fracturing. This Account reviews our group's work on nanoscale chemical reactions and their qualitative impacts on seal integrity and storage capacity at GCS sites from four points of view. First, studies on dissolution of feldspar, an important reservoir rock constituent, and subsequent secondary mineral precipitation are discussed, focusing on the effects of feldspar crystallography, cations, and sulfate anions. Second, interfacial reactions between caprock and brine are introduced using model clay minerals, with focuses on the effects of water chemistries (salinity and organic ligands) and water content on mineral dissolution and

  7. Energy efficiency and CO2: is electricity the key factor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Y.


    Europe must face soon to the depletion of fossil energy resources. Efficiency in end energy uses is a key to prepare this challenge. First, the report shows that significant energy efficiency capacities remain in the main economy sectors in France and Europe: buildings, industry, transportation. The key technologies, mainly electricity-driven, are briefly presented, together with the related main tracks for R and D: heat pumps, thermal insulation, induction and mechanical vapour compression for industry, plugged hybrid vehicle, LED sources for lighting. Their ability to decrease CO2 emissions is shown. Control equipment and users behaviour are pointed out, mainly with the key role of price energy with recent French experience : load shifting, peak shaving. Finally, the report shows that a firm policy, based on high performance equipments, could lead to a significant decrease of energy needs in France around 2030.

  8. Elevated-CO2 Response of Stomata and Its Dependence on Environmental Factors (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Jiang, Yanling; Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng


    Stomata control the flow of gases between plants and the atmosphere. This review is centered on stomatal responses to elevated CO2 concentration and considers other key environmental factors and underlying mechanisms at multiple levels. First, an outline of general responses in stomatal conductance under elevated CO2 is presented. Second, stomatal density response, its development, and the trade-off with leaf growth under elevated CO2 conditions are depicted. Third, the molecular mechanism regulating guard cell movement at elevated CO2 is suggested. Finally, the interactive effects of elevated CO2 with other factors critical to stomatal behavior are reviewed. It may be useful to better understand how stomata respond to elevated CO2 levels while considering other key environmental factors and mechanisms, including molecular mechanism, biochemical processes, and ecophysiological regulation. This understanding may provide profound new insights into how plants cope with climate change. PMID:27242858

  9. The spatial distribution of commuting CO2 emissions and the influential factors: A case study in Xi'an, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Liu


    Full Text Available As the transport sector is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, the effect of urbanization on transport CO2 emissions in developing cities has become a key issue under global climate change. Examining the case of Xi'an, this paper aims to explore the spatial distribution of commuting CO2 emissions and influencing factors in the new, urban industry zones and city centers considering Xi'an's transition from a monocentric to a polycentric city in the process of urbanization. Based on household survey data from 1501 respondents, there are obvious differences in commuting CO2 emissions between new industry zones and city centers: City centers feature lower household emissions of 2.86 kg CO2 per week, whereas new industry zones generally have higher household emissions of 3.20 kg CO2 per week. Contrary to previous research results, not all new industry zones have high levels of CO2 emissions; with the rapid development of various types of industries, even a minimum level of household emissions of 2.53 kg CO2 per week is possible. The uneven distribution of commuting CO2 emissions is not uniformly affected by spatial parameters such as job–housing balance, residential density, employment density, and land use diversity. Optimum combination of the spatial parameters and travel pattern along with corresponding transport infrastructure construction may be an appropriate path to reduction and control of emissions from commuting.

  10. Pontellid copepods, Labidocera spp., affected by ocean acidification: A field study at natural CO2 seeps. (United States)

    Smith, Joy N; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E; Cornils, Astrid


    CO2 seeps in coral reefs were used as natural laboratories to study the impacts of ocean acidification on the pontellid copepod, Labidocera spp. Pontellid abundances were reduced by ∼70% under high-CO2 conditions. Biological parameters and substratum preferences of the copepods were explored to determine the underlying causes of such reduced abundances. Stage- and sex-specific copepod lengths, feeding ability, and egg development were unaffected by ocean acidification, thus changes in these physiological parameters were not the driving factor for reduced abundances under high-CO2 exposure. Labidocera spp. are demersal copepods, hence they live amongst reef substrata during the day and emerge into the water column at night. Deployments of emergence traps showed that their preferred reef substrata at control sites were coral rubble, macro algae, and turf algae. However, under high-CO2 conditions they no longer had an association with any specific substrata. Results from this study indicate that even though the biology of a copepod might be unaffected by high-CO2, Labidocera spp. are highly vulnerable to ocean acidification.

  11. Pontellid copepods, Labidocera spp., affected by ocean acidification: A field study at natural CO2 seeps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy N Smith

    Full Text Available CO2 seeps in coral reefs were used as natural laboratories to study the impacts of ocean acidification on the pontellid copepod, Labidocera spp. Pontellid abundances were reduced by ∼70% under high-CO2 conditions. Biological parameters and substratum preferences of the copepods were explored to determine the underlying causes of such reduced abundances. Stage- and sex-specific copepod lengths, feeding ability, and egg development were unaffected by ocean acidification, thus changes in these physiological parameters were not the driving factor for reduced abundances under high-CO2 exposure. Labidocera spp. are demersal copepods, hence they live amongst reef substrata during the day and emerge into the water column at night. Deployments of emergence traps showed that their preferred reef substrata at control sites were coral rubble, macro algae, and turf algae. However, under high-CO2 conditions they no longer had an association with any specific substrata. Results from this study indicate that even though the biology of a copepod might be unaffected by high-CO2, Labidocera spp. are highly vulnerable to ocean acidification.

  12. Neither elevated nor reduced CO2 affects the photophysiological performance of the marine Antarctic diatom Chaetoceros brevis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Peter; de Poll, Willem H. van; van der Strate, Han J.; Neven, Ika A.; Beardall, John; Buma, Anita G. J.


    Enhanced or reduced pCO(2) (partial pressure of CO2) may affect the photosynthetic performance of marine microalgae since changes in pCO(2) can influence the activity of carbon concentrating mechanisms, modulate cellular RuBisCO levels or alter carbon uptake efficiency. In the present study we

  13. Identifying key factors and strategies for reducing industrial CO2 emissions from a non-Kyoto protocol member's (Taiwan) perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Sue J.; Lu, I.J.; Lewis, Charles


    In this study we use Divisia index approach to identify key factors affecting CO 2 emission changes of industrial sectors in Taiwan. The changes of CO 2 emission are decomposed into emission coefficient, energy intensity, industrial structure and economic growth. Furthermore, comparisons with USA, Japan, Germany, the Netherlands and South Korea are made to have a better understanding of emission tendency in these countries and to help formulate our CO 2 reduction strategies for responding to the international calls for CO 2 cuts. The results show that economic growth and high energy intensity were two key factors for the rapid increase of industrial CO 2 emission in Taiwan, while adjustment of industrial structure was the main component for the decrease. Although economic development is important, Taiwan must keep pace with the international trends for CO 2 reduction. Among the most important strategies are continuous efforts to improve energy intensity, fuel mix toward lower carbon, setting targets for industrial CO 2 cuts, and advancing green technology through technology transfer. Also, the clean development mechanism (CDM) is expected to play an important role in the future

  14. Young Daughter Cladodes Affect CO2 Uptake by Mother Cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (United States)



    • Background and Aims Drought damages cultivated C3, C4 and CAM plants in the semi-arid lands of central Mexico. Drought damage to Opuntia is common when mother cladodes, planted during the dry spring season, develop young daughter cladodes that behave like C3 plants, with daytime stomatal opening and water loss. In contrast, wild Opuntia are less affected because daughter cladodes do not develop on them under extreme drought conditions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the number of daughter cladodes on gas exchange parameters of mother cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica exposed to varying soil water contents. • Methods Rates of net CO2 uptake, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, chlorophyll content and relative water content were measured in mature mother cladodes with a variable number of daughter cladodes growing in spring under dry and wet conditions. • Key Results Daily carbon gain by mother cladodes was reduced as the number of daughter cladodes increased to eight, especially during drought. This was accompanied by decreased mother cladode relative water content, suggesting movement of water from mother to daughter cladodes. CO2 assimilation was most affected in phase IV of CAM (late afternoon net CO2 uptake) by the combined effects of daughter cladodes and drought. Rainfall raised the soil water content, decreasing the effects of daughter cladodes on net CO2 uptake by mother cladodes. • Conclusions Daughter cladodes significantly hasten the effects of drought on mother cladodes by competition for the water supply and thus decrease daily carbon gain by mother cladodes, mainly by inhibiting phase IV of CAM. PMID:15567805

  15. Seasonal Variations of Atmospheric CO2 over Fire Affected Regions Based on GOSAT Observations (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Matsunaga, T.


    Abstract: The carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions released from biomass burning significantly affect the temporal variations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Based on a long-term (July 2009-June 2015) retrieved datasets by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), the seasonal cycle and interannual variations of column-averaged volume mixing ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2) in four fire affected continental regions were investigated. The results showed Northern Africa had the largest seasonal variations after removing its regional long-term trend of XCO2 with peak-to-peak amplitude of 6.2 ppm within the year, higher than central South America (2.4 ppm), Southern Africa (3.8 ppm) and Australia (1.7 ppm). The detrended regional XCO2 was found to be positively correlated with the fire CO2 emissions during fire activity period and negatively correlated with vegetation photosynthesis activity with different seasonal variabilities. Northern Africa recorded the largest change of seasonal variations of detrended XCO2 with a total of 12.8 ppm during fire seasons, higher than central South America, Southern Africa and Australia with 5.4 ppm, 6.7 ppm and 2.2 ppm, respectively. During fire episode, the positive detrended XCO2 was noticed during June-November in central South America, December-June in Northern Africa, May-November in Southern Africa. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the variations of detrended XCO2 and fire CO2 emissions from GFED4 (Global Fire Emissions Database v4) achieved best correlations in Southern Africa (R=0.77, p<0.05). Meanwhile, Southern Africa also experienced a significant negative relationship between the variations of detrended XCO2 and vegetation activity (R=-0.84, p<0.05). This study revealed that fire CO2 emissions and vegetation activity contributed greatly to the seasonal variations of GOSAT XCO2 dataset.

  16. Does trade openness affect CO2 emissions: evidence from ten newly industrialized countries? (United States)

    Zhang, Shun; Liu, Xuyi; Bae, Junghan


    This paper examines whether the hypothetical environmental Kuznet curve (EKC) exists or not and investigates how trade openness affects CO 2 emissions, together with real GDP and total primary energy consumption. The study sample comprises ten newly industrialized countries (NICs-10) from 1971 to 2013. The results support the existence of hypothetical EKC and indicate that trade openness negatively and significantly affects emissions, while real GDP and energy do positive effects of emissions. Moreover, the empirical results of short-run causalities indicate feedback hypothetical linkage of real GDP and trade, unidirectional linkages from energy to emissions, and from trade to energy. The error correction terms (ECTs) reveal in the long run, feedback linkages of emissions, real GDP, and trade openness, while energy Granger causes emissions, real GDP, and trade, respectively. The study recommendations are that our policymakers should encourage and expand the trade openness in these countries, not only to restrain CO 2 emissions but also to boost their growth.

  17. CO2, Temperature, and Soil Moisture Interactions Affect NDVI and Reproductive Phenology in Old-Field Plant Communities (United States)

    Engel, C.; Weltzin, J.; Norby, R.


    Plant community composition and ecosystem function may be altered by global atmospheric and climate change, including increased atmospheric [CO2], temperature, and varying precipitation regimes. We are conducting an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) utilizing open-top chambers to administer experimental treatments of elevated CO2 (+300 ppm), warming (+ 3 degrees Celsius), and varying soil moisture availability to experimental plant communities constructed of seven common old-field species, including C3 and C4 grasses, forbs, and legumes. During 2004 we monitored plant community phenology (NDVI) and plant reproductive phenology. Early in the year, NDVI was greater in wet treatment plots, and was unaffected by main effects of temperature or CO2. This result suggests that early in the season warming is insufficient to affect early canopy development. Differences in soil moisture sustained throughout the winter and into early spring may constitute an important control on early canopy greenup. Elevated CO2 alleviated detrimental effects of warming on NDVI, but only early in the season. As ambient temperatures increased, elevated temperatures negatively impacted NDVI only in the dry plots. Wetter conditions ameliorate the effects of warming on canopy greenness during the warmer seasons of the year. Warming increased rates of bolting, number of inflorescences, and time to reproductive maturity for Andropogon virginicus (a C4 bunchgrass). Solidago Canadensis (a C3 late-season forb) also produced flowers earlier in elevated temperatures. Conversely, none of the C3 grasses and forbs that bolt or flower in late spring or early summer responded to temperature or CO2. Results indicate that warming and drought may impact plant community phenology, and plant species reproductive phenology. Clearly community phenology is driven by complex interactions among temperature, water, and CO2 that change throughout the season. Our data stresses the importance of

  18. A single gene target of an ETS-family transcription factor determines neuronal CO2-chemosensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Julia P; Aziz-Zaman, Sonya; Juozaityte, Vaida


    . We report here a mechanism that endows C. elegans neurons with the ability to detect CO(2). The ETS-5 transcription factor is necessary for the specification of CO(2)-sensing BAG neurons. Expression of a single ETS-5 target gene, gcy-9, which encodes a receptor-type guanylate cyclase, is sufficient...

  19. Factors influencing CO2 emissions in China's power industry: Co-integration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Ma, Qian; Yang, Rui


    More than 40% of China's total CO 2 emissions originate from the power industry. The realization of energy saving and emission reduction within China's power industry is therefore crucial in order to achieve CO 2 emissions reduction in this country. This paper applies the autoregressive-distributed lag (ARDL) co-integration model to study the major factors which have influenced CO 2 emissions within China's power industry from 1980 to 2010. Results have shown that CO 2 emissions from China's power industry have been increasing rapidly. From 1980 to 2010, the average annual growth rate was 8.5%, and the average growth rate since 2002 has amounted to 10.5%. Secondly, the equipment utilization hour (as an indicator of the power demand) has the greatest influence on CO 2 emissions within China's power industry. In addition, the impact of the industrial added value of the power sector on CO 2 emissions is also positive from a short-term perspective. Thirdly, the Granger causality results imply that one of the important motivators behind China's technological progress, within the power industry, originates from the pressures created by a desire for CO 2 emissions reduction. Finally, this paper provides policy recommendations for energy saving and emission reduction for China's power industry. - Highlights: ► We study the major factors influencing China's power industry CO 2 emissions. ► The average annual growth rate of CO 2 emission from power industry is calculated. ► Installed capacity has the greatest influence on power industry CO 2 emission. ► The Granger causality between CO 2 emission and its effecting factors is analyzed

  20. Analysis on influence factors of China's CO2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huanan; Mu Hailin; Zhang Ming; Li Nan


    With the intensification of global warming and continued growth in energy consumption, China is facing increasing pressure to cut its CO 2 (carbon dioxide) emissions down. This paper discusses the driving forces influencing China's CO 2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model-a method combining Path analysis with STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The analysis shows that GDP per capita (A), industrial structure (IS), population (P), urbanization level (R) and technology level (T) are the main factors influencing China's CO 2 emissions, which exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. The sequence of the size of factors' direct influence on China's CO 2 emission is A>T>P>R>IS, while that of factors' total influence is A>R>P>T>IS. One percent increase in A, IS, P, R and T leads to 0.44, 1.58, 1.31, 1.12 and -1.09 percentage change in CO 2 emission totally, where their direct contribution is 0.45, 0.07, 0.63, 0.08, 0.92, respectively. Improving T is the most important way for CO 2 reduction in China. - Highlights: → We analyze the driving forces influencing China's CO 2 emissions. → Five macro factors like per capita GDP are the main influencing factors. → These factors exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. → Different factors' direct and total influence on China's CO 2 emission is different. → Improving technology level is the most important way for CO 2 reduction in China.

  1. Controls of evapotranspiration and CO2 fluxes from scots pine by surface conductance and abiotic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianshan Zha

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (E and CO2 flux (Fc in the growing season of an unusual dry year were measured continuously over a Scots pine forest in eastern Finland, by eddy covariance techniques. The aims were to gain an understanding of their biological and environmental control processes. As a result, there were obvious diurnal and seasonal changes in E, Fc , surface conductance (gc , and decoupling coefficient (Ω, showing similar trends to those in radiation (PAR and vapour pressure deficit (δ. The maximum mean daily values (24-h average for E, Fc , gc , and Ω were 1.78 mmol m(-2 s(-1, -11.18 µmol m(-2 s(-1, 6.27 mm s(-1, and 0.31, respectively, with seasonal averages of 0.71 mmol m(-2 s(-1, -4.61 µmol m(-2 s(-1, 3.3 mm s(-1, and 0.16. E and Fc were controlled by combined biological and environmental variables. There was curvilinear dependence of E on gc and Fc on gc . Among the environmental variables, PAR was the most important factor having a positive linear relationship to E and curvilinear relationship to Fc , while vapour pressure deficit was the most important environmental factor affecting gc . Water use efficiency was slightly higher in the dry season, with mean monthly values ranging from 6.67 to 7.48 μmol CO2 (mmol H2O(-1 and a seasonal average of 7.06 μmol CO2 (μmol H2O(-1. Low Ω and its close positive relationship with gc indicate that evapotranspiration was sensitive to surface conductance. Mid summer drought reduced surface conductance and decoupling coefficient, suggesting a more biotic control of evapotranspiration and a physiological acclimation to dry air. Surface conductance remained low and constant under dry condition, supporting that a constant value of surface constant can be used for modelling transpiration under drought condition.

  2. Changes in the salinity tolerance of sweet pepper plants as affected by nitrogen form and high CO2 concentration. (United States)

    Piñero, María C; Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; López-Marín, Josefa; Del Amor, Francisco M


    The assimilation and availability of nitrogen in its different forms can significantly affect the response of primary productivity under the current atmospheric alteration and soil degradation. An elevated CO2 concentration (e[CO2]) triggers changes in the efficiency and efficacy of photosynthetic processes, water use and product yield, the plant response to stress being altered with respect to ambient CO2 conditions (a[CO2]). Additionally, NH4(+) has been related to improved plant responses to stress, considering both energy efficiency in N-assimilation and the overcoming of the inhibition of photorespiration at e[CO2]. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the response of sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) receiving an additional supply of NH4(+) (90/10 NO3(-)/NH4(+)) to salinity stress (60mM NaCl) under a[CO2] (400μmolmol(-1)) or e[CO2] (800μmolmol(-1)). Salt-stressed plants grown at e[CO2] showed DW accumulation similar to that of the non-stressed plants at a[CO2]. The supply of NH4(+) reduced growth at e[CO2] when salinity was imposed. Moreover, NH4(+) differentially affected the stomatal conductance and water use efficiency and the leaf Cl(-), K(+), and Na(+) concentrations, but the extent of the effects was influenced by the [CO2]. An antioxidant-related response was prompted by salinity, the total phenolics and proline concentrations being reduced by NH4(+) at e[CO2]. Our results show that the effect of NH4(+) on plant salinity tolerance should be globally re-evaluated as e[CO2] can significantly alter the response, when compared with previous studies at a[CO2]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Soil CO2 concentration does not affect growth or root respiration in bean or citrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Nielsen, K.F.; Eissenstat, D.M.; Lynch, J.P.


    Contrasting effects of soil CO2 concentration on root respiration rates during short-term CO2 exposure, and on plant growth during long-term CO2 exposure, have been reported, Here we examine the effects of both short-and long-term exposure to soil CO2 on the root respiration of intact plants and on

  4. Factor Decomposition Analysis of Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang


    Full Text Available Tianjin is the largest coastal city in northern China with rapid economic development and urbanization. Energy-related CO2 emissions from Tianjin’s production and household sectors during 1995–2012 were calculated according to the default carbon-emission coefficients provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We decomposed the changes in CO2 emissions resulting from 12 causal factors based on the method of Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index. The examined factors were divided into four types of effects: energy intensity effect, structure effect, activity intensity effect, scale effect and the various influencing factors imposed differential impacts on CO2 emissions. The decomposition outcomes indicate that per capita GDP and population scale are the dominant positive driving factors behind the growth in CO2 emissions for all sectors, while the energy intensity of the production sector is the main contributor to dampen the CO2 emissions increment, and the contributions from industry structure and energy structure need further enhancement. The analysis results reveal the reasons for CO2 emission changes in Tianjin and provide a solid basis upon which policy makers may propose emission reduction measures and approaches for the implementation of sustainable development strategies.

  5. CO2 enrichment affects eco-physiological growth of maize and alfalfa under different water stress regimes in the UAE. (United States)

    Ksiksi, Taoufik Saleh; Ppoyil, Shaijal Babu Thru; Palakkott, Abdul Rasheed


    Water stress has been reported to alter morphology and physiology of plants affecting chlorophyll content, stomatal size and density. In this study, drought stress mitigating effects of CO 2 enrichment was assessed in greenhouse conditions in the hot climate of UAE. Commercially purchased maize ( Zea mays L.) and alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) were seeded in three different custom-built cage structures, inside a greenhouse. One cage was kept at 1000 ppm CO 2 , the second at 700 ppm CO 2 , and the third at ambient greenhouse CO 2 environment (i.e. 435 ppm). Three water stress treatments HWS (200 ml per week), MWS (400 ml per week), and CWS (600 ml per week) were given to each cage so that five maize pots and five alfalfa pots in each cage received same water stress treatments. In maize, total chlorophyll content was similar or higher in water stress treatments compared to control for all CO 2 concentrations. Stomatal lengths were higher in enriched CO 2 environments under water stress. At 700 ppm CO 2 , stomatal widths decreased as water stress increased from MWS to HWS. At both enriched CO 2 environments, stomatal densities decreased compared to ambient CO 2 environment. In alfalfa, there was no significant increase in total chlorophyll content under enriched CO 2 environments, even though a slight increase was noticed.

  6. Warming, CO2, and nitrogen deposition interactively affect a plant-pollinator mutualism. (United States)

    Hoover, Shelley E R; Ladley, Jenny J; Shchepetkina, Anastasia A; Tisch, Maggie; Gieseg, Steven P; Tylianakis, Jason M


    Environmental changes threaten plant-pollinator mutualisms and their critical ecosystem service. Drivers such as land use, invasions and climate change can affect pollinator diversity or species encounter rates. However, nitrogen deposition, climate warming and CO(2) enrichment could interact to disrupt this crucial mutualism by altering plant chemistry in ways that alter floral attractiveness or even nutritional rewards for pollinators. Using a pumpkin model system, we show that these drivers non-additively affect flower morphology, phenology, flower sex ratios and nectar chemistry (sugar and amino acids), thereby altering the attractiveness of nectar to bumble bee pollinators and reducing worker longevity. Alarmingly, bees were attracted to, and consumed more, nectar from a treatment that reduced their survival by 22%. Thus, three of the five major drivers of global environmental change have previously unknown interactive effects on plant-pollinator mutualisms that could not be predicted from studies of individual drivers in isolation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  7. Analyzing impact factors of CO2 emissions using the STIRPAT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Ying; Liu Lancui; Wu Gang; Wei Yiming


    Using the STIRPAT model, this paper analyzes the impact of population, affluence and technology on the total CO 2 emissions of countries at different income levels over the period 1975-2000. Our main results show at the global level that economic growth has the greatest impact on CO 2 emissions, and the proportion of the population between ages 15 and 64 has the least impact. The proportion of the population between 15 and 64 has a negative impact on the total CO 2 emissions of countries at the high income level, but the impact is positive at other income levels. This may illustrate the importance of the 'B' in the 'I = PABT'; that is to say that different behavior fashions can greatly influence environmental change. For low-income countries, the impact of GDP per capita on total CO 2 emissions is very great, and the impact of energy intensity in upper-middle income countries is very great. The impact of these factors on the total CO 2 emissions of countries at the high income level is relatively great. Therefore, these empirical results indicate that the impact of population, affluence and technology on CO 2 emissions varies at different levels of development. Thus, policy-makers should consider these matters fully when they construct their long-term strategies for CO 2 abatement

  8. Analysis of the heat affected zone in CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madić Miloš J.


    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the effect of the laser cutting parameters on the heat affected zone in CO2 laser cutting of AISI 304 stainless steel. The mathematical model for the heat affected zone was expressed as a function of the laser cutting parameters such as the laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure and focus position using the artificial neural network. To obtain experimental database for the artificial neural network training, laser cutting experiment was planned as per Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array with three levels for each of the cutting parameter. Using the 27 experimental data sets, the artificial neural network was trained with gradient descent with momentum algorithm and the average absolute percentage error was 2.33%. The testing accuracy was then verified with 6 extra experimental data sets and the average predicting error was 6.46%. Statistically assessed as adequate, the artificial neural network model was then used to investigate the effect of the laser cutting parameters on the heat affected zone. To analyze the main and interaction effect of the laser cutting parameters on the heat affected zone, 2-D and 3-D plots were generated. The analysis revealed that the cutting speed had maximum influence on the heat affected zone followed by the laser power, focus position and assist gas pressure. Finally, using the Monte Carlo method the optimal laser cutting parameter values that minimize the heat affected zone were identified.

  9. Variables affecting energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siitonen, Sari; Tuomaala, Mari; Ahtila, Pekka


    Specific energy consumption (SEC) is an energy efficiency indicator widely used in industry for measuring the energy efficiency of different processes. In this paper, the development of energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions of steelmaking is studied by analysing the energy data from a case mill. First, the specific energy consumption figures were calculated using different system boundaries, such as the process level, mill level and mill site level. Then, an energy efficiency index was developed to evaluate the development of the energy efficiency at the mill site. The effects of different production conditions on specific energy consumption and specific CO 2 emissions were studied by PLS analysis. As theory expects, the production rate of crude steel and the utilisation of recycled steel were shown to affect the development of energy efficiency at the mill site. This study shows that clearly defined system boundaries help to clarify the role of on-site energy conversion and make a difference between the final energy consumption and primary energy consumption of an industrial plant with its own energy production.

  10. Investigation of the Parameters affecting CO2 —assisted Polyaniline Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noby H.


    Full Text Available Specific Polyaniline (PANI morphologies such as nanotubes and nanofiber are required for enhancing its performance in the various applications. CO2 —assisted Polyaniline polymerization is a method recently used to produce these anticipated morphologies. In this study, polyaniline nanotube was prepared successfully in the presence of compressed CO2 utilizing Aniline as a monomer and Ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS as an oxidizing agent. The effect of both reaction temperature and the oxidizing agent feed rate on the morphology and surface area of the produced PANI was investigated. The synthesized PANI was examined by FT-IR, XRD, and BET surface area analysis. Furthermore, SEM was carried out to figure out the morphology of the prepared PANI. It was indicated that Polyaniline nanotubes PANNTs size and homogeneity were affected by the reaction temperature. The averages of the outer and inner diameters of the PANNTs at 25 °C, 45 °C, 65 °C were found to be about (120, 60 nm, (140, 65 nm, and (175, 75 nm respectively. Also, the produced surface area was slightly augmented with the increase of the temperature. In addition, it was observed that increasing the feeding rate of the APS was associated with the reduction of the size and the surface area of the produced PANI nanotubes.

  11. Amelioration of boron toxicity in sweet pepper as affected by calcium management under an elevated CO2 concentration. (United States)

    Piñero, María Carmen; Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; López-Marín, Josefa; Del Amor, Francisco M


    We investigated B tolerance in sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuun L.) under an elevated CO 2 concentration, combined with the application of calcium as a nutrient management amelioration technique. The data show that high B affected the roots more than the aerial parts, since there was an increase in the shoot/root ratio, when plants were grown with high B levels; however, the impact was lessened when the plants were grown at elevated CO 2 , since the root FW reduction caused by excess B was less marked at the high CO 2 concentration (30.9% less). Additionally, the high B concentration affected the membrane permeability of roots, which increased from 39 to 54% at ambient CO 2 concentration, and from 38 to 51% at elevated CO 2 concentration, producing a cation imbalance in plants, which was differentially affected by the CO 2 supply. The Ca surplus in the nutrient solution reduced the nutritional imbalance in sweet pepper plants produced by the high B concentration, at both CO 2 concentrations. The medium B concentration treatment (toxic according to the literature) did not result in any toxic effect. Hence, there is a need to review the literature on critical and toxic B levels taking into account increases in atmospheric CO 2 .

  12. Transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shrestha, Ashish


    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO 2 emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO 2 emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO 2 emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO 2 emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO 2 emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.

  13. Using CO2 Prophet to estimate recovery factors for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (United States)

    Attanasi, Emil D.


    -specific data that can be assembled and simplifying assumptions that allow assignment of default values for some reservoir parameters. These issues are discussed in the context of the CO2 Prophet EOR model, and their resolution is demonstrated with the computation of recovery-factor estimates for CO2-EOR of 143 reservoirs in the Powder River Basin Province in southeastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming.

  14. Starch and sucrose synthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris as affected by light, CO2, and abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkey, T.D.; Berry, J.A.; Raschke, K.


    Phaseolus vulgaris L. leaves were subjected to various light, CO 2 , and O 2 levels and abscisic acid, then given a 10 minute pulse of 14 CO 2 followed by a 5 minute chase with unlabeled CO 2 . After the chase period, very little label remained in the ionic fractions except at low CO 2 partial pressure. Most label was found in the neutral, alcohol soluble fraction or in the insoluble fraction digestable by amyloglucosidase. Sucrose formation was linearly related to assimilation rate. Starch formation increased linearly with assimilation rate, but did not occur if the assimilation rate was below 4 micromoles per square meter per second. Neither abscisic acid, nor high CO 2 in combination with low O 2 caused significant perturbations of the sucrose/starch formation ratio. These studies indicate that the pathways for starch and sucrose synthesis both are controlled by the rate of net CO 2 assimilation, with sucrose the preferred product at very low assimilation rates

  15. Relation between separation factor of carbon isotope and chemical reaction of CO2 with amine in nonaqueous solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Kenji; Kitamoto, Asashi


    The separation factor for carbon isotope exchange reaction between CO 2 and amine in nonaqueous solvent was related to absorption reaction of CO 2 in a solution. The test solutions were mixtures of primary amine (such as butylamine and tert-butylamine) or secondary amine (such as diethylamine, dipropylamine and dibutylamine) diluted with nonpolar solvent (octane or triethyalmine) or polar solvent (methanol), respectively. The isotope exchange reaction consists of three steps related to chemical reaction of CO 2 in amine and nonaqueous solvent mixture, namely the reaction between CO 2 and carbamic acid, that between CO 2 and amine carbamate, and that between CO 2 and carbamic ion. Above all, the isotope separation factor between CO 2 and carbamic acid had the highest value. The overall separation factor can be higher in amine-nonaqueous solvent mixture where the concentration of carbamic acid becomes higher. (author)

  16. Elevated CO2 concentration affects vertical distribution of photosynthetic activity in Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klem, Karel; Holub, Petr; Urban, Otmar


    Roč. 10, 1-2 (2017), s. 67-74 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : chlorophyll * CO2 assimilation * elevated CO2 * concentration * transpiration * vertical gradient * water-use efficiency Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  17. International inequalities in per capita CO2 emissions: a decomposition methodology by Kaya factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duro, J.A.; Universitat de Barcelona; Padilla, E.


    In this paper, we provide a methodology for decomposing international inequalities in per capita CO 2 emissions into Kaya (multiplicative) factors and two interaction terms. We use the Theil index of inequality and show that this decomposition methodology can be extended for analyzing between- and within-group inequality components. We can thus analyze the factors behind inequalities in per capita CO 2 emissions across countries, between groups of countries and within groups of countries. The empirical illustration for international data suggests some points. Firstly, international inequality in per capita CO 2 emissions is mainly attributable to inequalities in per capita income levels, which helps to explain its recent reduction, while differences in carbon intensity of energy and energy intensity have made a less significant contribution. This result is strongly influenced by the performance of China and India. Secondly, the between-group inequality component, which is the biggest component, is also largely explained by the income factor. Thirdly, the within-group inequality component increased slightly during the period, something mainly due to the change in the income factor and the interaction terms in a few regions. (author)

  18. Ocean acidification affects fish spawning but not paternity at CO2 seeps. (United States)

    Milazzo, Marco; Cattano, Carlo; Alonzo, Suzanne H; Foggo, Andrew; Gristina, Michele; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Sinopoli, Mauro; Spatafora, Davide; Stiver, Kelly A; Hall-Spencer, Jason M


    Fish exhibit impaired sensory function and altered behaviour at levels of ocean acidification expected to occur owing to anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions during this century. We provide the first evidence of the effects of ocean acidification on reproductive behaviour of fish in the wild. Satellite and sneaker male ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus) compete to fertilize eggs guarded by dominant nesting males. Key mating behaviours such as dominant male courtship and nest defence did not differ between sites with ambient versus elevated CO2 concentrations. Dominant males did, however, experience significantly lower rates of pair spawning at elevated CO2 levels. Despite the higher risk of sperm competition found at elevated CO2, we also found a trend of lower satellite and sneaker male paternity at elevated CO2 Given the importance of fish for food security and ecosystem stability, this study highlights the need for targeted research into the effects of rising CO2 levels on patterns of reproduction in wild fish. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the dynamics of CO2 emissions from chernozems soil (United States)

    Syabruk, Olesia


    Twentieth century marked a significant expansion of agricultural production. Soil erosion caused by human activity, conversion of forests and grasslands to cropland, desertification, burning nutrient residues, drainage, excessive cultivation led to intense oxidation of soil carbon to the atmosphere and allocation of additional amounts of CO2. According to the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, agriculture is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere. The thesis reveals main patterns of the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on CO2 emissions in the chernozems typical and podzolized in a Left-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, seasonal and annual dynamics. New provisions for conducting monitoring CO2 emissions from soil were developed by combining observations in natural and controlled conditions, which allows isolating the impact of hydrological, thermal and trophic factors. During the research, the methods for operational monitoring of emission of carbon losses were improved, using a portable infrared gas analyzer, which allows receiving information directly in the field. It was determined that the volumes of emission losses of carbon chernozems typical and podzolized Left-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine during the growing season are 480-910 kg/ha and can vary depending on the soil treatment ±( 4,0 - 6,0) % and fertilizer systems ± (3,8 - 7,1) %. The significant impact of long application of various fertilizer systems and soil treatment on the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions was investigated. It was found that most emission occurs in organic- mineral fertilizers systems with direct seeding. The seasonal dynamics of the potential capacity of the soil to produce CO2 were researched. Under identical conditions of humidity and temperature it has maximum in June and July and the gradual extinction of the autumn. It was determined that the intensity of the CO2 emission from the surface of chernozem fluctuates daily from

  20. Spatial Outlier Detection of CO2 Monitoring Data Based on Spatial Local Outlier Factor


    Liu Xin; Zhang Shaoliang; Zheng Pulin


    Spatial local outlier factor (SLOF) algorithm was adopted in this study for spatial outlier detection because of the limitations of the traditional static threshold detection. Based on the spatial characteristics of CO2 monitoring data obtained in the carbon capture and storage (CCS) project, the K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) graph was constructed using the latitude and longitude information of the monitoring points to identify the spatial neighbourhood of the monitoring points. Then ...

  1. Environmental factors influencing the relationship between stem CO2 efflux and sap flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bužková, Romana; Acosta, Manuel; Dařenová, Eva; Pokorný, Radek; Pavelka, Marian


    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2015), s. 333-343 ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : stem CO2 efflux * transpiration * Norway spruce * stem temperature * precipitation * volumetric soil water content Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.706, year: 2015

  2. Explanatory factors of CO2 per capita emission inequality in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, Emilio; Duro, Juan Antonio


    The design of European mitigation policies requires a detailed examination of the factors explaining the unequal emissions in the different countries. This research analyzes the evolution of inequality in CO 2 emissions per capita in the European Union (EU-27) in the period 1990–2009 and its explanatory factors. For this purpose, we decompose the Theil index of inequality into the contributions of the different Kaya factors. The decomposition is also applied to the inequality between and within groups of countries (North Europe, South Europe, and East Europe). The analysis shows an important reduction in inequality, to a large extent due to the smaller differences between groups and because of the lower contribution of the energy intensity factor. The importance of the GDP per capita factor increases and becomes the main explanatory factor. However, within the different groups of countries the carbonization index appears to be the most relevant factor in explaining inequalities. The policy implications of the results are discussed. - Highlights: • CO 2 inequality in EU-27 (Theil index) is decomposed into explanatory (Kaya) factors. • It decreases more between than within regions (North, South, East). • Energy intensity contribution falls and turns negative. GDP pc becomes main factor. • Carbonization makes most relevant contribution to inequality within groups. • Policy implications on feasibility of agreements and mitigation policy are discussed

  3. CO2 emission factors for waste incineration: Influence from source separation of recyclable materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Astrup, Thomas


    variations between emission factors for different incinerators, but the background for these variations has not been thoroughly examined. One important reason may be variations in collection of recyclable materials as source separation alters the composition of the residual waste incinerated. The objective...... routed to incineration. Emission factors ranged from 27 to 40kg CO2/GJ. The results appeared most sensitive towards variations in waste composition and water content. Recycling rates and lower heating values could not be used as simple indicators of the resulting emission factors for residual household...... different studies and when using the values for environmental assessment purposes....

  4. Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Drought Affect Soil Microbial Community and Functional Diversity Associated with Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Wang


    Full Text Available Abstract Under the background of climate change, the increase of atmospheric CO2 and drought frequency have been considered as significant influencers on the soil microbial communities and the yield and quality of crop. In this study, impacts of increased ambient CO2 and drought on soil microbial structure and functional diversity of a Stagnic Anthrosol were investigated in phytotron growth chambers, by testing two representative CO2 levels, three soil moisture levels, and two soil cover types (with or without Glycine max. The 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA fragments were amplified to analyze the functional diversity of fungi and bacteria. Results showed that rhizosphere microbial biomass and community structure were significantly affected by drought, but effects differed between fungi and bacteria. Drought adaptation of fungi was found to be easier than that of bacteria. The diversity of fungi was less affected by drought than that of bacteria, evidenced by their higher diversity. Severe drought reduced soil microbial functional diversity and restrained the metabolic activity. Elevated CO2 alone, in the absence of crops (bare soil, did not enhance the metabolic activity of soil microorganisms. Generally, due to the co-functioning of plant and soil microorganisms in water and nutrient use, plants have major impacts on the soil microbial community, leading to atmospheric CO2 enrichment, but cannot significantly reduce the impacts of drought on soil microorganisms.

  5. What affects CH4/CO2 ratio in cow’s breath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Madsen, Jørgen


    under farm management control. CO2 is released largely from microbial decay or burning of plant litter and soil organic matter. CH4 is produced when organic materials decompose under anoxic conditions, notably from fermentative digestion by ruminant livestock, stored manures, wetlands and rice grown...

  6. Litter Quality of Populus Species as Affected by Free-Air CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermue, E.; Buurman, P.; Hoosbeek, M.R.


    The effect of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on the molecular chemistry of litter of three Populus species and associated soil organic matter (SOM) was investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results are based on 147 quantified organic compounds in 24 litter

  7. Nitrogen and Carbon Cycling in a Grassland Community Ecosystem as Affected by Elevated Atmospheric CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Torbert


    Full Text Available Increasing global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration has led to concerns regarding its potential effects on terrestrial ecosystems and the long-term storage of carbon (C and nitrogen (N in soil. This study examined responses to elevated CO2 in a grass ecosystem invaded with a leguminous shrub Acacia farnesiana (L. Willd (Huisache. Seedlings of Acacia along with grass species were grown for 13 months at CO2 concentrations of 385 (ambient, 690, and 980 μmol mol−1. Elevated CO2 increased both C and N inputs from plant growth which would result in higher soil C from litter fall, root turnover, and excretions. Results from the incubation indicated an initial (20 days decrease in N mineralization which resulted in no change in C mineralization. However, after 40 and 60 days, an increase in both C and N mineralization was observed. These increases would indicate that increases in soil C storage may not occur in grass ecosystems that are invaded with Acacia over the long term.

  8. Competition between Sphagnum magellanicum and Eriophorum angustifolium as affected by raised CO2 and increased N deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Klees, H.; Berendse, F.


    The competition between peat mosses (Sphagnum) and vascular plants as affected by raised CO2 and increased N deposition was studied in a glasshouse experiment by exposing peat monoliths with monocultures and mixtures of Sphagnummagellanicum and Eriophorumangustifolium to ambient (350 ppmv) or raised

  9. CO2 and temperature effects on morphological and physiological traits affecting risk of drought-induced mortality. (United States)

    Duan, Honglang; Chaszar, Brian; Lewis, James D; Smith, Renee A; Huxman, Travis E; Tissue, David T


    Despite a wealth of eco-physiological assessments of plant response to extreme drought, few studies have addressed the interactive effects of global change factors on traits driving mortality. To understand the interaction between hydraulic and carbon metabolic traits influencing tree mortality, which may be independently influenced by atmospheric [CO2] and temperature, we grew Eucalyptus sideroxylon A. Cunn. ex Woolls from seed in a full-factorial [CO2] (280, 400 and 640 μmol mol-1, Cp, Ca and Ce, respectively) and temperature (ambient and ambient +4 °C, Ta and Te, respectively) experiment. Prior to drought, growth across treatment combinations resulted in significant variation in physiological and morphological traits, including photosynthesis (Asat), respiration (Rd), stomatal conductance, carbohydrate storage, biomass and leaf area (LA). Ce increased Asat, LA and leaf carbohydrate concentration compared with Ca, while Cp generated the opposite response; Te reduced Rd. However, upon imposition of drought, Te hastened mortality (9 days sooner compared with Ta), while Ce significantly exacerbated drought stress when combined with Te. Across treatments, earlier time-to-mortality was mainly associated with lower (more negative) leaf water potential (Ψl) during the initial drought phase, along with higher water loss across the first 3 weeks of water limitation. Among many variables, Ψl was more important than carbon status in predicting time-to-mortality across treatments, yet leaf starch was associated with residual variation within treatments. These results highlight the need to carefully consider the integration, interaction and hierarchy of traits contributing to mortality, along with their responses to environmental drivers. Both morphological traits, which influence soil resource extraction, and physiological traits, which affect water-for-carbon exchange to the atmosphere, must be considered to adequately predict plant response to drought. Researchers have

  10. Analysis of regional difference on impact factors of China’s energy – Related CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huanan; Mu, Hailin; Zhang, Ming; Gui, Shusen


    With the intensification of global warming, the issue of carbon emissions causes more and more attention in recent years. In this paper, China’s 30 provincial-level administrative units are divided into five emission regions according to the annual average value of provincial CO 2 emissions per capita during 1990 and 2010. The regional differences in impact factors on CO 2 emissions are discussed using STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology) model. The results indicate that although GDP (Gross domestic product) per capita, industrial structure, population, urbanization and technology level have different impacts on CO 2 emissions in different emission regions, they are almost always the main factors in all emission regions. In most emission regions, urbanization and GDP per capita has a bigger impact on CO 2 emissions than other factors. Improving technology level produces a small reduction in CO 2 emissions in most emission regions, but it is still a primary way for CO 2 reduction in China. It’s noteworthy that industrial structure isn’t the main factor and improving technology level increases CO 2 emissions in high emission region. Different measures should be adopted for CO 2 reductions according to local conditions in different regions. -- Highlights: ► Regional differences of the impact factors on China’s CO 2 emissions are analyzed. ► Five macro factors like GDP per capita are almost always main influence factors in all regions. ► The impacts of different factors are different. ► Improving technology has no significant reduction on CO 2 emission in most regions. ► Policy on CO 2 reduction should be adapted to local conditions.

  11. An equivalence factor between CO2 avoided emissions and sequestration. Description and applications in forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, P.M.; Wilson, C.


    Concern about the issue of permanence and reversibility of the effects of carbon sequestration has led to the need to devise accounting methods that quantify the temporal value of storing carbon that has been actively sequestered or removed from the atmosphere, as compared to carbon stored as a result of activities taken to avoid emissions. This paper describes a method for accounting for the atmospheric effects of sequestration-based land-use projects in relation to the duration of carbon storage. Firstly, the time period over which sequestered carbon should be stored in order to counteract the radiative forcing effect of carbon emissions was calculated, based on the residence time and decay pattern of atmospheric CO2, its Absolute Global Warming Potential. This time period was called the equivalence time, and was calculated to be approximately 55 years. From this equivalence time, the effect of storage of 1 t CO2 for 1 year was derived, and found to be similar to preventing the effect of the emission of 0.0182 t CO2. Potential applications of this tonne.year figure, here called the equivalence factor, are then discussed in relation to the estimation of atmospheric benefits over time of sequestration-based land use projects. 15 refs

  12. Growth under elevated CO2 concentration affects the temperature response of photosynthetic rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holišová, Petra; Šigut, Ladislav; Klem, Karel; Urban, Otmar


    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2013), s. 43-52 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0340; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA ČR GA13-28093S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : CO2 assimilation rate * Fagus sylvatica * chlorophyll fluorescence * Picea abies * Rubisco Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  13. Litter Quality of Populus Species as Affected by Free-Air CO2


    Vermue, E.; Buurman, P.; Hoosbeek, M.R.


    The effect of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on the molecular chemistry of litter of three Populus species and associated soil organic matter (SOM) was investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results are based on 147 quantified organic compounds in 24 litter samples. Litter of P. euramerica was clearly different from that of P. nigra and P. alba. The latter two had higher contents of proteins, polysaccharides, and cutin/cutan, while the former had higher c...

  14. Effects of climate factors and vegetation on the CO2 fluxes and δ13C from re-established grassland (United States)

    Bezyk, Yaroslav; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Sówka, Izabela


    The relationship between stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C -CO2) of soil CO2 flux, vegetation cover and weather conditions was investigated in a short-term campaign at a temperate re-established grassland in Germany. During August-September 2016, we measured surface CO2 flux with a closed-chamber method at high and low soil moisture content (`wet', `dry'), with and without above ground vegetation (`planted', `clear-cut') and estimated the effects of treatments on respective δ13C -CO2 values. The concentration and stable carbon isotope composition of CO2 were determined using the gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses. The δ13C -CO2 of the soil fluxes decreased over sampling time for the `dry-warm' conditions and canopy manipulation. The ecosystem-derived δ13C -CO2 values (corrected for the atmospheric δ13C -CO2) which included predominately soil-and rhizosphere respiration were -26.2 ± 0.8‰ for the `dry-warm' conditions and decreased down to -28.1 ± 1.4‰ over a period of 28 days from late August to the end of September. The decrease coincided with the lowering of CO2 flux and could be attributed to changes in plant physiological processes at the end of the vegetation season. Though the removal of shoots did not significantly affect the δ13C -CO2 values as compared with the control, the pattern of further δ13C -CO2 decrease (down to -28.8 ± 0.8‰) supported the role of living vegetation in a contribution of 13C-enriched CO2 to the ecosystem respiration.

  15. Kinetics of metabolism of glucose, propionate and CO2 in steers as affected by injecting phlorizin and feeding propionate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veenhuizen, J.J.; Russell, R.W.; Young, J.W.


    Effects of injecting phlorizin subcutaneously and/or feeding propionate on metabolism of glucose, propionate and CO2 were determined for four steers used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Isotope dilution techniques were used to determine a four-pool kinetic solution for the flux of carbon among plasma glucose, rumen propionate, blood CO2 and rumen CO2. Injecting 1 g of phlorizin twice daily for 19 d resulted in 7.1 mol glucose C/d being excreted in urine. The basal glucose production of 13.4 mol C/d was increased to 17.9 mol C/d with phlorizin. There was no change in glucose oxidation or propionate production. The percentage of plasma glucose derived from propionate was unaffected by phlorizin, but 54 +/- 0.4% of total propionate was converted to plasma glucose during phlorizin treatment versus 40 +/- 0.6% during the basal treatment. When propionate was fed (18.3 mol C/d) glucose production increased to 21.2 mol C/d from the basal value of 13.4 mol C/d, and propionate oxidation to CO2 increased to 14.9 mol C/d from the basal value of 4.1 mol C/d. Glucose derived from propionate was 43 +/- 5% for the basal treatment and 67 +/- 3% during propionate feeding. The percentage of propionate converted to plasma glucose and blood and rumen CO2 was not affected by feeding propionate. An increased need for glucose, because of glucose excretion during phlorizin treatment, caused an increased utilization of propionate for gluconeogenesis, but an increased availability of propionate caused an increase in glucose production without affecting the relative distribution of carbon from propionate

  16. Seasonal changes of Rubisco content and activity in Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies affected by elevated CO2 concentration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrstka, M.; Urban, Otmar; Babák, L.


    Roč. 66, č. 9 (2012), s. 836-841 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600870701; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Rubisco content * Rubisco activity * seasonal changes * elevated CO2 concentrations * Fagus sylvatica * Picea abies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2012

  17. Ocean-Atmosphere CO2 Fluxes in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre: Association with Biochemical and Physical Factors during Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Burgos


    Full Text Available Sea surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 was measured continuously in a transect of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre between Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (18.1° N, 68.5° W and Vigo, Spain (41.9° N, 11.8° W during spring 2011. Additional biogeochemical and physical variables measured to identify factors controlling the surface pCO2 were analyzed in discrete samples collected at 16 sites along the transect at the surface and to a depth of 200 m. Sea surface pCO2 varied between 309 and 662 μatm, and showed differences between the western and eastern subtropical gyre. The subtropical gyre acted as a net CO2 sink, with a mean flux of −5.5 ± 2.2 mmol m−2 day−1. The eastern part of the transect, close to the North Atlantic Iberian upwelling off the Galician coast, was a CO2 source with an average flux of 33.5 ± 9.0 mmol m−2 day−1. Our results highlight the importance of making more surface pCO2 observations in the area located east of the Azores Islands since air-sea CO2 fluxes there are poorly studied.

  18. Exploring driving factors of energy-related CO2 emissions in Chinese provinces: A case of Liaoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Yong; Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Zhu; Xue, Bing; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Xi, Fengming


    In order to uncover driving forces for provincial CO 2 emission in China, a case study was undertaken to shed light on the CO 2 emission growth in such a region. Liaoning province was selected due to its typical features as one industrial province. The environmental input–output analysis and structure decomposing analysis have been conducted in order to provide a holistic picture on Liaoning's CO 2 emissions during 1997–2007. Research outcomes indicate that rapid increase of per capita consumption activities is the main driver for Liaoning to have a significant CO 2 emission growth, followed by consumption structure, production structure and population size. Energy intensity and energy structure partly offset the CO 2 emission increase. Electricity power and heat supply and construction sectors caused the most CO 2 emission, indicating that more specific mitigation policies for these two sectors should be prepared. From final demand point of view, it is clear that trade plays a leading role in regional CO 2 emission, followed by fixed capital investment and urban household consumption which become increasingly important over time. Consequently, in order to realize low carbon development, local governments should consider all these factors so that appropriate mitigation policies can be raised by considering the local realities. - Highlights: • Driving forces for Liaoning's CO 2 emission have been uncovered through the use of IO-SDA model. • Construction and electricity power/heat supply sectors have the highest embodied emissions. • Trade plays a key role on regional CO 2 emission in Chinese old industrial base. • Fixed capital investment and urban households generated more CO 2 emissions

  19. Factors affecting nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.


    Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos

  20. Stem CO2 efflux in six co-occurring tree species: underlying factors and ecological implications. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesús; López, Rosana; Salomón, Roberto; Gordaliza, Guillermo G; Valbuena-Carabaña, María; Oleksyn, Jacek; Gil, Luis


    Stem respiration plays a role in species coexistence and forest dynamics. Here we examined the intra- and inter-specific variability of stem CO2 efflux (E) in dominant and suppressed trees of six deciduous species in a mixed forest stand: Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea [Matt.] Liebl, Quercus pyrenaica Willd., Prunus avium L., Sorbus aucuparia L. and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. We conducted measurements in late autumn. Within species, dominants had higher E per unit stem surface area (Es ) mainly because sapwood depth was higher than in suppressed trees. Across species, however, differences in Es corresponded with differences in the proportion of living parenchyma in sapwood and concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). Across species, Es was strongly and NSC marginally positively related with an index of drought tolerance, suggesting that slow growth of drought-tolerant trees is related to higher NSC concentration and Es . We conclude that, during the leafless period, E is indicative of maintenance respiration and is related with some ecological characteristics of the species, such as drought resistance; that sapwood depth is the main factor explaining variability in Es within species; and that the proportion of NSC in the sapwood is the main factor behind variability in Es among species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Affects Ectomycorrhizal Species Abundance and Increases Sporocarp Production under Field Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Godbold, Douglas; Vašutová, Martina; Wilkinson, A. J.; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda; Bambrick, M.; Smith, A.; Pavelka, Marian; Cudlín, Pavel


    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2015), s. 1256-1273 ISSN 1999-4907 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : face * community structure * root tips * forest * hyphae * rhizomorph * morphotype * internal transcribed spacer (ITS) * sequence Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.583, year: 2015

  2. Factors Affecting Wound Healing


    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.


    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  3. Spatial Outlier Detection of CO2 Monitoring Data Based on Spatial Local Outlier Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin


    Full Text Available Spatial local outlier factor (SLOF algorithm was adopted in this study for spatial outlier detection because of the limitations of the traditional static threshold detection. Based on the spatial characteristics of CO2 monitoring data obtained in the carbon capture and storage (CCS project, the K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN graph was constructed using the latitude and longitude information of the monitoring points to identify the spatial neighbourhood of the monitoring points. Then SLOF was adopted to calculate the outlier degrees of the monitoring points and the 3σ rule was employed to identify the spatial outlier. Finally, the selection of K value was analysed and the optimal one was selected. The results show that, compared with the static threshold method, the proposed algorithm has a higher detection precision. It can overcome the shortcomings of the static threshold method and improve the accuracy and diversity of local outlier detection, which provides a reliable reference for the safety assessment and warning of CCS monitoring.

  4. An empirical research on the influencing factors of regional CO2 emissions: Evidence from Beijing city, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaohua; Yin, Fangchao; Zhang, Yixiang; Zhang, Xian


    Highlights: ► We adapt STIRPAT model to regional context and conduct PLS regress analysis. ► Energy technology related patent is innovatively used to measure technical factors. ► Urbanization level has the greatest interpretative ability for CO 2 emissions. ► We do not find evidence of Environmental Kuznets Curve in Beijing. ► Beijing should focus more on tertiary industry and residential energy consumption. -- Abstract: In order to further study the realization of carbon intensity target, find the key influencing factors of CO 2 emissions, and explore the path of developing low-carbon economy, this paper empirically studied the influences of urbanization level, economic level, industry proportion, tertiary industry proportion, energy intensity and R and D output on CO 2 emissions in Beijing using improved STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The model is examined using partial least square regression. Results show that urbanization level, economic level and industry proportion positively influence the CO 2 emissions, while tertiary industry proportion, energy intensity and R and D output negatively do. Urbanization level is the main driving factor of CO 2 emissions, and tertiary industry proportion is the main inhibiting factor. In addition, along with the growth of per capita GDP, the increase of CO 2 emissions does not follow the Environmental Kuznets Curve model. Based on these empirical findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, we provide some policy recommendations on how to reduce carbon intensity. Beijing should pay more attention to tertiary industry and residential energy consumption for carbon emission reduction. It is necessary to establish a comprehensive evaluation index of social development. Investing more capital on carbon emission reduction science and technology, and promoting R and D output is also an efficient way to reduce CO 2 emissions.

  5. The numerical simulation on swelling factor and extraction rate of a tight crude oil and SC-CO2 system (United States)

    Zou, Hongjun; Gong, Houjian; Li, Yajun; Dong, Mingzhe


    A method was established to study swelling and extraction between CO2 and crude oil, and the influences of pressure, temperature and molecular weight were investigated. Firstly, laboratory analysis was conducted to determine the pseudo-component and other parameters of the crude oil. Then swelling and extraction of the crude oil and SC-CO2 system were calculated by computer simulation. The results show that the pressure and temperature have little influence on the swelling and extraction between CO2 and crude oil when the mole fraction of CO2 is lower. A higher pressure and temperature is more beneficial to the interaction of CO2 and crude oil, while the swelling and extraction will not be obvious when the system is miscible. And the smaller the molecular weight of the oil is, the larger the maximum value of the swelling factor of CO2 and crude oil changes. The study of swelling and extraction plays an important role in the oilfield stimulation.

  6. Practical enhancement factor model based on GM for multiple parallel reactions: Piperazine (PZ) CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup


    Reactive absorption is a key process for gas separation and purification and it is the main technology for CO2 capture. Thus, reliable and simple mathematical models for mass transfer rate calculation are essential. Models which apply to parallel interacting and non-interacting reactions, for all......, desorption and pinch conditions.In this work, we apply the GM model to multiple parallel reactions. We deduce the model for piperazine (PZ) CO2 capture and we validate it against wetted-wall column measurements using 2, 5 and 8 molal PZ for temperatures between 40 °C and 100 °C and CO2 loadings between 0.......23 and 0.41 mol CO2/2 mol PZ. We show that overall second order kinetics describes well the reaction between CO2 and PZ accounting for the carbamate and bicarbamate reactions. Here we prove the GM model for piperazine and MEA but we expect that this practical approach is applicable for various amines...

  7. Factors Affecting Wound Healing (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.


    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  8. Dynamic changes of canopy-scale mesophyll conductance to CO(2) diffusion of sunflower as affected by CO(2) concentration and abscisic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schaufele, R.; Šantrůček, Jiří; Schnyder, H.


    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2011), s. 127-136 ISSN 0140-7791 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0787 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carbon isotope discrimination * water-stress * in-vivo Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.215, year: 2011

  9. Elevated CO2 levels affects the concentrations of copper and cadmium in crops grown in soil contaminated with heavy metals under fully open-air field conditions. (United States)

    Guo, Hongyan; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Pei, Daping; Ji, Rong; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Xiaorong


    Elevated CO(2) levels and the increase in heavy metals in soils through pollution are serious problems worldwide. Whether elevated CO(2) levels will affect plants grown in heavy-metal-polluted soil and thereby influence food quality and safety is not clear. Using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) system, we investigated the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on the concentrations of copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd) in rice and wheat grown in soil with different concentrations of the metals in the soil. In the two-year study, elevated CO(2) levels led to lower Cu concentrations and higher Cd concentrations in shoots and grain of both rice and wheat grown in the respective contaminated soil. Elevated CO(2) levels slightly but significantly lowered the pH of the soil and led to changes in Cu and Cd fractionation in the soil. Our study indicates that elevated CO(2) alters the distribution of contaminant elements in soil and plants, thereby probably affecting food quality and safety.

  10. Atmospheric CO2 Alters Resistance of Arabidopsis to Pseudomonas syringae by Affecting Abscisic Acid Accumulation and Stomatal Responsiveness to Coronatine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Vroegop-Vos, I.; Schuurink, R.C.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Van Wees, S.C.M.

    Atmospheric CO2 influences plant growth and stomatal aperture. Effects of high or low CO2 levels on plant disease resistance are less well understood. Here, resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana against the foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) was investigated at three different

  11. Elevated CO2 and O3t concentrations differentially affect selected groups of the fauna in temperate forest soils (United States)

    Gladys I. Loranger; Kurt S. Pregitzer; John S. King


    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations may change soil fauna abundance. How increase of tropospheric ozone (O3t) concentration will modify these responses is still unknown. We have assessed independent and interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and [O3t] on selected groups of soil...

  12. Soil Conditions Rather Than Long-Term Exposure to Elevated CO2 Affect Soil Microbial Communities Associated with N-Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristof Brenzinger


    Full Text Available Continuously rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations may lead to an increased transfer of organic C from plants to the soil through rhizodeposition and may affect the interaction between the C- and N-cycle. For instance, fumigation of soils with elevated CO2 (eCO2 concentrations (20% higher compared to current atmospheric concentrations at the Giessen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (GiFACE sites resulted in a more than 2-fold increase of long-term N2O emissions and an increase in dissimilatory reduction of nitrate compared to ambient CO2 (aCO2. We hypothesized that the observed differences in soil functioning were based on differences in the abundance and composition of microbial communities in general and especially of those which are responsible for N-transformations in soil. We also expected eCO2 effects on soil parameters, such as on nitrate as previously reported. To explore the impact of long-term eCO2 on soil microbial communities, we applied a molecular approach (qPCR, T-RFLP, and 454 pyrosequencing. Microbial groups were analyzed in soil of three sets of two FACE plots (three replicate samples from each plot, which were fumigated with eCO2 and aCO2, respectively. N-fixers, denitrifiers, archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers, and dissimilatory nitrate reducers producing ammonia were targeted by analysis of functional marker genes, and the overall archaeal community by 16S rRNA genes. Remarkably, soil parameters as well as the abundance and composition of microbial communities in the top soil under eCO2 differed only slightly from soil under aCO2. Wherever differences in microbial community abundance and composition were detected, they were not linked to CO2 level but rather determined by differences in soil parameters (e.g., soil moisture content due to the localization of the GiFACE sets in the experimental field. We concluded that +20% eCO2 had little to no effect on the overall microbial community involved in N-cycling in the

  13. Soil Conditions Rather Than Long-Term Exposure to Elevated CO2 Affect Soil Microbial Communities Associated with N-Cycling. (United States)

    Brenzinger, Kristof; Kujala, Katharina; Horn, Marcus A; Moser, Gerald; Guillet, Cécile; Kammann, Claudia; Müller, Christoph; Braker, Gesche


    Continuously rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations may lead to an increased transfer of organic C from plants to the soil through rhizodeposition and may affect the interaction between the C- and N-cycle. For instance, fumigation of soils with elevated CO 2 ( e CO 2 ) concentrations (20% higher compared to current atmospheric concentrations) at the Giessen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (GiFACE) sites resulted in a more than 2-fold increase of long-term N 2 O emissions and an increase in dissimilatory reduction of nitrate compared to ambient CO 2 ( a CO 2 ). We hypothesized that the observed differences in soil functioning were based on differences in the abundance and composition of microbial communities in general and especially of those which are responsible for N-transformations in soil. We also expected e CO 2 effects on soil parameters, such as on nitrate as previously reported. To explore the impact of long-term e CO 2 on soil microbial communities, we applied a molecular approach (qPCR, T-RFLP, and 454 pyrosequencing). Microbial groups were analyzed in soil of three sets of two FACE plots (three replicate samples from each plot), which were fumigated with e CO 2 and a CO 2 , respectively. N-fixers, denitrifiers, archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers, and dissimilatory nitrate reducers producing ammonia were targeted by analysis of functional marker genes, and the overall archaeal community by 16S rRNA genes. Remarkably, soil parameters as well as the abundance and composition of microbial communities in the top soil under e CO 2 differed only slightly from soil under a CO 2 . Wherever differences in microbial community abundance and composition were detected, they were not linked to CO 2 level but rather determined by differences in soil parameters (e.g., soil moisture content) due to the localization of the GiFACE sets in the experimental field. We concluded that +20% e CO 2 had little to no effect on the overall microbial community involved in N

  14. Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment increased above ground biomass but did not affect symbiotic N2-fixation and soil carbon dynamics in a mixed deciduous stand in Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Smith


    Full Text Available Through increases in net primary production (NPP, elevated CO2 is hypothesized to increase the amount of plant litter entering the soil. The fate of this extra carbon on the forest floor or in mineral soil is currently not clear. Moreover, increased rates of NPP can be maintained only if forests can escape nitrogen limitation. In a Free atmospheric CO2 Enrichment (FACE experiment near Bangor, Wales, 4 ambient and 4 elevated [CO2] plots were planted with patches of Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa and Fagus sylvatica on a former arable field. After 4 years, biomass averaged for the 3 species was 5497 (se 270 g m−2 in ambient and 6450 (se 130 g m−2 in elevated [CO2] plots, a significant increase of 17% (P = 0.018. During that time, only a shallow L forest floor litter layer had formed due to intensive bioturbation. Total soil C and N contents increased irrespective of treatment and species as a result of afforestation. We could not detect an additional C sink in the soil, nor were soil C stabilization processes affected by elevated [CO2]. We observed a decrease of leaf N content in Betula and Alnus under elevated [CO2], while the soil C/N ratio decreased regardless of CO2 treatment. The ratio of N taken up from the soil and by N2-fixation in Alnus was not affected by elevated [CO2]. We infer that increased nitrogen use efficiency is the mechanism by which increased NPP is sustained under elevated [CO2] at this site.

  15. Effects of CO2 on the tolerance of photosynthesis to heat stress can be affected by photosynthetic pathway and nitrogen. (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Heckathorn, Scott A; Hamilton, E William; Frantz, Jonathan


    Determining effects of elevated CO2 and N on photosynthetic thermotolerance is critical for predicting plant responses to global warming. We grew Hordeum vulgare (barley, C3) and Zea mays (corn, C4) at current or elevated CO2 (370, 700 ppm) and limiting or optimal soil N (0.5, 7.5 mmol/L). We assessed thermotolerance of net photosynthesis (Pn), photosystem II efficiency in the light (Fv'/Fm'), photochemical quenching (qp), carboxylation efficiency (CE), and content of rubisco activase and major heat-shock proteins (HSPs). For barley, elevated CO2 had no effect on Pn, qp, and CE at both high and low N and only a positive effect on Fv'/Fm' at high N. However, for corn, Pn, Fv'/Fm', qp, and CE were decreased substantially by elevated CO2 under high and low N, with greater decreases at high N for all but qp. The negative effects of high CO2 during heat stress on photosynthesis were correlated with rubisco activase and HSPs content, which decreased with heat stress, especially for low-N corn. These results indicate that stimulatory effects of elevated CO2 at normal temperatures on photosynthesis and growth (only found for high-N barley) may be partly offset by neutral or negative effects during heat stress, especially for C4 species. Thus, CO2 and N effects on photosynthetic thermotolerance may contribute to changes in plant productivity, distribution, and diversity in future.

  16. Root dynamics in an artificially constructed regenerating longleaf pine ecosystem are affected by atmospheric CO(2) enrichment. (United States)

    Pritchard, S G.; Davis, M A.; Mitchell, R J.; Prior, S A.; Boykin, D L.; Rogers, H H.; Runion, G B.


    Differential responses to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration exhibited by different plant functional types may alter competition for above- and belowground resources in a higher CO(2) world. Because C allocation to roots is often favored over C allocation to shoots in plants grown with CO(2) enrichment, belowground function of forest ecosystems may change significantly. We established an outdoor facility to examine the effects of elevated CO(2) on root dynamics in artificially constructed communities of five early successional forest species: (1) a C(3) evergreen conifer (longleaf pine, Pinus palustris Mill.); (2) a C(4) monocotyledonous bunch grass (wiregrass, Aristida stricta Michx.); (3) a C(3) broadleaf tree (sand post oak, Quercus margaretta); (4) a C(3) perennial herbaceous legume (rattlebox, Crotalaria rotundifolia Walt. ex Gemel); and (5) an herbaceous C(3) dicotyledonous perennial (butterfly weed, Asclepias tuberosa L.). These species are common associates in early successional longleaf pine savannahs throughout the southeastern USA and represent species that differ in life-form, growth habit, physiology, and symbiotic relationships. A combination of minirhizotrons and soil coring was used to examine temporal and spatial rooting dynamics from October 1998 to October 1999. CO(2)-enriched plots exhibited 35% higher standing root crop length, 37% greater root length production per day, and 47% greater root length mortality per day. These variables, however, were enhanced by CO(2) enrichment only at the 10-30 cm depth. Relative root turnover (flux/standing crop) was unchanged by elevated CO(2). Sixteen months after planting, root biomass of pine was 62% higher in elevated compared to ambient CO(2) plots. Conversely, the combined biomass of rattlebox, wiregrass, and butterfly weed was 28% greater in ambient compared to high CO(2) plots. There was no difference in root biomass of oaks after 16 months of exposure to elevated CO(2). Using root and shoot

  17. CO2 leakage from carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) systems affects organic matter cycling in surface marine sediments. (United States)

    Rastelli, Eugenio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Amaro, Teresa; Greco, Silvestro; Lo Martire, Marco; Carugati, Laura; Queirós, Ana M; Widdicombe, Stephen; Danovaro, Roberto


    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), involving the injection of CO 2 into the sub-seabed, is being promoted worldwide as a feasible option for reducing the anthropogenic CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere. However, the effects on the marine ecosystems of potential CO 2 leakages originating from these storage sites have only recently received scientific attention, and little information is available on the possible impacts of the resulting CO 2 -enriched seawater plumes on the surrounding benthic ecosystem. In the present study, we conducted a 20-weeks mesocosm experiment exposing coastal sediments to CO 2 -enriched seawater (at 5000 or 20,000 ppm), to test the effects on the microbial enzymatic activities responsible for the decomposition and turnover of the sedimentary organic matter in surface sediments down to 15 cm depth. Our results indicate that the exposure to high-CO 2 concentrations reduced significantly the enzymatic activities in the top 5 cm of sediments, but had no effects on subsurface sediment horizons (from 5 to 15 cm depth). In the surface sediments, both 5000 and 20,000 ppm CO 2 treatments determined a progressive decrease over time in the protein degradation (up to 80%). Conversely, the degradation rates of carbohydrates and organic phosphorous remained unaltered in the first 2 weeks, but decreased significantly (up to 50%) in the longer term when exposed at 20,000 ppm of CO 2 . Such effects were associated with a significant change in the composition of the biopolymeric carbon (due to the accumulation of proteins over time in sediments exposed to high-pCO 2 treatments), and a significant decrease (∼20-50% at 5000 and 20,000 ppm respectively) in nitrogen regeneration. We conclude that in areas immediately surrounding an active and long-lasting leak of CO 2 from CCS reservoirs, organic matter cycling would be significantly impacted in the surface sediment layers. The evidence of negligible impacts on the deeper sediments should be

  18. [Double-ambient CO2 concentration affects the growth, development and sucking behavior of non-target brown plant hopper Nilaparvata lugens fed on transgenic Bt rice. (United States)

    Lu, Yong Qing; Dai, Yang; Yu, Xiu Ying; Yu, Fu-Lan; Jiang, Shou Lin; Zhou, Zong Yuan; Chen, Fa Jun


    In recent years, the two issues of climate change including elevated CO 2 etc., and resistance of transgenic Bt crops against non-target insect pests have received widespread attention. Elevated CO 2 can affect the herbivorous insects. To date, there is no consensus about the effect of elevated CO 2 on the suck-feeding insect pests (non-target insect pests of transgenic Bt crops). Its effects on the suck-feeding behavior have rarely been reported. In this study, CO 2 levels were set up in artificial climate chamber to examined the effects of ambient (400 μL·L -1 ) and double-ambient (800 μL·L -1 ) CO 2 levels on the suck-feeding behavior, growth, development, and reproduction of the non-target insect pest of transgenic Bt rice, brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. The results showed that CO 2 level significantly affected the egg and nymph duration, longevity and body mass of adults, and feeding behavior of the 4th and 5th instar nymphs, while had no effect on the fecundity of N. lugens. The duration of eggs and nymphs, and the longevity of female adults were significantly shortened by 4.0%, 4.2% and 6.6% respectively, the proportion of the macropterous adults was significantly increased by 11.6%, and the body mass of newly hatched female adults was significantly decreased by 2.2% by elevated CO 2 . In addition, elevated CO 2 significantly enhanced the stylet puncturing efficiency of the 4th and 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens. The duration ofphloem ingestion of the N4b waveform was significantly prolonged by 60.0% and 50.1%, and the frequency significantly was increased by 230.0% and 155.9% for the 4th and 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens by elevated CO 2 , respectively. It was concluded that double-ambient CO 2 could promote the growth and development of N. lugens through enhancing its suck-feeding, shorten the generation life-span and increase the macropertous adults' proportion of N. lugens. Thus, it could result in the occurrence of non-target rice

  19. Elevated atmospheric CO2 affected photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium stress. (United States)

    Jia, Xia; Liu, Tuo; Zhao, Yonghua; He, Yunhua; Yang, Mingyan


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 (700 ± 23 μmol mol(-1)) on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated CO2 was associated with decreased quantities of reducing sugars, starch, and soluble amino acids, and with increased quantities of soluble sugars, total sugars, and soluble proteins in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. The contents of total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, total soluble phenolic acids, and total organic acids in the rhizosphere soil under Cd stress were improved by elevated CO2. Compared to Cd stress alone, the activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, urease, L-asparaginase, β-glucosidase, neutral phosphatase, and fluorescein diacetate increased under elevated CO2 in combination with Cd stress; only cellulase activity decreased. Bacterial abundance in rhizosphere soil was stimulated by elevated CO2 at low Cd concentrations (1.31-5.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil). Actinomycetes, total microbial abundance, and fungi decreased under the combined conditions at 5.31-10.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil. In conclusion, increased production of soluble sugars, total sugars, and proteins in wheat seedlings under elevated CO2 + Cd stress led to greater quantities of organic compounds in the rhizosphere soil relative to seedlings grown under Cd stress only. Elevated CO2 concentrations could moderate the effects of heavy metal pollution on enzyme activity and microorganism abundance in rhizosphere soils, thus improving soil fertility and the microecological rhizosphere environment of wheat under Cd stress.

  20. Net Fluxes of CO2, but not N20 or CH4, are Affected Following Agronomic-Scale Additions of Urea to Prairie and Arable Soils (United States)

    Microbial production of carbon dioxide (CO2) increased with nitrogen (N) application rate for both arable and prairie soils incubated at 21 °C. Rate of N applied as urea (0, 11, 56, 112 kg N ha-1) did not affect soil methane consumption and nitrous oxide production for soil collected from either ec...

  1. Correlation of foliage and litter chemistry of sugar maple, Acer saccharum, as affected by elevated CO2 and varying N availability, and effects on decomposition (United States)

    J. S. King; K. S. Pregitzer; D. R. Zak; M. E. Kubiske; W. E. Holmes


    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide has the potential to alter leaf litter chemistry, potentially affecting decomposition and rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling in forest ecosystems. This study was conducted to determine whether growth under elevated atmospheric CO2 altered the quality and microbial decomposition of leaf litter of a widely...

  2. Enhancing hair growth in male androgenetic alopecia by a combination of fractional CO2 laser therapy and hair growth factors. (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Zhuo, Fenglin; Li, Linfeng


    Laser therapy and growth factors have been used as alternative treatments for male androgenetic alopecia (MAA). The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of hair growth factors alone or combined with ablative carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) fractional laser therapy in MAA. Twenty-eight men were enrolled in this randomized half-split study based on a left-head to right-head pattern. Fractional CO 2 laser treatment was unilaterally performed; hair growth factors were bilaterally applied. Six sessions with 2-week intervals were performed. Global photographs and dermoscopy assessments were performed at the baseline and 4 months after first treatment. Global photographs underwent blinded review by three independent dermatologists. Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare changes in hair-follicle phase and hair-shaft diameter. Twenty-seven participants completed the 4-month treatment schedule. One patient was lost. Mean hair density increased from 114 ± 27 to 143 ± 25/cm 2 (P laser combined with hair growth factors may serve as an alternative treatment for MAA in individuals unwilling/unable to undergo medical or surgical treatment.

  3. Increase in the activity of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in cytosol affects sugar partitioning and increases the lateral shoots in tobacco plants at elevated CO2 levels. (United States)

    Tamoi, Masahiro; Hiramatsu, Yoshie; Nedachi, Shigeki; Otori, Kumi; Tanabe, Noriaki; Maruta, Takanori; Shigeoka, Shigeru


    We generated transgenic tobacco plants with high levels of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase expressing cyanobacterialfructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase in the cytosol. At ambient CO(2) levels (360 ppm), growth, photosynthetic activity, and fresh weight were unchanged but the sucrose/hexose/starch ratio was slightly altered in the transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. At elevated CO(2) levels (1200 ppm), lateral shoot, leaf number, and fresh weight were significantly increased in the transgenic plants. Photosynthetic activity was also increased. Hexose accumulated in the upper leaves in the wild-type plants, while sucrose and starch accumulated in the lower leaves and lateral shoots in the transgenic plants. These findings suggest that cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase contributes to the efficient conversion of hexose into sucrose, and that the change in carbon partitioning affects photosynthetic capacity and morphogenesis at elevated CO(2) levels.

  4. Factors affecting mining costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.


    The subject is discussed under the following headings: investment decision-making, unit cost factors (declining ore grade, low-price contracts, ore grade/output relationship, above average cost increases). Economic, environmental, sociological and political aspects are considered. (U.K.)

  5. Effect of nonequilibrium degree on separation factor in carbon isotope separation by CO2 microwave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaaki Suzuki; Shinsuke Mori; Noritaka Matsumoto; Hiroshi Akatsuka


    The local separation factor and the local nonequilibrium degree just behind the plasma region were obtained. The plasma gas compositions measured by the enthalpy probe system were substantially thermodynamic nonequilibrium conditions, when the input energy was 4 J/cm 3 . The measured maximum value of the separation factor was 1.01, although it changed locally. The measured separation factor and its nonequilibrium condition were discussed. Anyway, the only small value obtained in this experiments is similar to the recent data obtained by Kurchatov group and is less than published data, which is measured spectroscopically [ru

  6. On-road assessment of light duty vehicles in Delhi city: Emission factors of CO, CO2 and NOX (United States)

    Jaiprakash; Habib, Gazala


    This study presents the technology based emission factors of gaseous pollutants (CO, CO2, and NOX) measured during on-road operation of nine passenger cars of diesel, gasoline, and compressed natural gas (CNG). The emissions from two 3-wheelers, and three 2-wheelers were measured by putting the vehicles on jacks and operating them according to Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) at no load condition. The emission factors observed in the present work were significantly higher than values reported from dynamometer study by Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI). Low CO (0.34 ± 0.08 g km-1) and high NOX (1.0 ± 0.4 g km-1) emission factors were observed for diesel passenger cars, oppositely high CO (2.2 ± 2.6 g km-1) and low NOX (1.0 ± 1.6 g km-1) emission factors were seen for gasoline powered cars. The after-treatment technology in diesel vehicles was effective in CO reduction. While the use of turbocharger in diesel vehicles to generate high combustion temperature and pressure produces more NOx, probably which may not be effectively controlled by after-treatment device. The after-treatment devices in gasoline powered Post-2010, Post-2005 vehicles can be acclaimed for reduced CO emissions compared to Post-2000 vehicles. This work presents a limited data set of emission factors from on-road operations of light duty vehicles, this limitation can be improved by further measurements of emissions from similar vehicles.

  7. Treatment outcome and prognostic factor of CO2 laser cordectomy for early glottic cancer (United States)

    Chung, Phil-Sang; Lee, Sang Joon


    Objectives: Laser cordectomy is very popular nowadays and become one of the treatments of choice for early glottis carcinoma. Transoral laser microsurgery has many advantages comparing conventional open surgery or radiation therapy. In this study, we examined the oncologic results of laser cordectomy for early glottic cancer and analyzed the prognostic impact on the survival of the several tumor-related and treatment-related factors. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed as early glottic squamous cell carcinoma, treated by laser cordectomy with curative intent were analyzed. Patients with preivous radiation therapy were included. From June 1988 to March 2005, 202 patients from five hospitals were analyzed (174 T1, 28 T2). Results: Five-year overall survival and disease-free survival were 98.4% and 84.9%. Twenty two patients developed local recurrence. Total laryngectomy was done in 6 patients and laryngeal preservation rate was 97%. Recurrence was higher in the patients with anterior commissure involvement (9/39) than without anterior commissure involvement (13/163). Recurrence was higher in T1b (4/15) than T1a (13/159). Previous radiation was also highly related to the recurrence (7/20 vs 15/182). Twenty patients with local recurrence after radiation therapy were treated by salvage laser cordectomy. Of them, 7 patients developed local recurrence and 5 year disease-free survival was 57%. Complication was rare with one case of hemorrhage. Tracheotomy was not necessary in all patients. Conclusions: Laser cordectomy for early glottic carcinoma showed high survival, laryngeal preservation rate and low complication rate. The prognostic factors were anterior commissure involvement, both vocal fold involvement and previous radiotherapy.

  8. Light intensity as major factor to maximize biomass and lipid productivity of Ettlia sp. in CO2-controlled photoautotrophic chemostat. (United States)

    Seo, Seong-Hyun; Ha, Ji-San; Yoo, Chan; Srivastava, Ankita; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Cho, Dae-Hyun; La, Hyun-Joon; Han, Myung-Soo; Oh, Hee-Mock


    The optimal culture conditions are critical factors for high microalgal biomass and lipid productivity. To optimize the photoautotrophic culture conditions, combination of the pH (regulated by CO 2 supply), dilution rate, and light intensity was systematically investigated for Ettlia sp. YC001 cultivation in a chemostat during 143days. The biomass productivity increased with the increase in dilution rate and light intensity, but decreased with increasing pH. The average lipid content was 19.8% and statistically non-variable among the tested conditions. The highest biomass and lipid productivities were 1.48gL -1 d -1 and 291.4mgL -1 d -1 with a pH of 6.5, dilution rate of 0.78d -1 , and light intensity of 1500μmolphotonsm -2 s -1 . With a sufficient supply of CO 2 and nutrients, the light intensity was the main determinant of the photosynthetic rate. Therefore, the surface-to-volume ratio of a photobioreactor should enable efficient light distribution to enhance microalgal growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Litter Quality of Populus Species as Affected by Free-Air CO2 Enrichment and N-Fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermue, E.; Buurman, P.; Hoosbeek, M.R.


    The effect of elevated CO 2 and nitrogen fertilization on the molecular chemistry of litter of three Populus species and associated soil organic matter (SOM) was investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results are based on 147 quantified organic compounds in 24 litter samples. Litter of P. euramerica was clearly different from that of P. nigra and P. alba. The latter two had higher contents of proteins, polysaccharides, and cutin/cutan, while the former had higher contents of phenols and benzofurans/pyrans. The difference between replications was at least as large as the effect of treatments, so that no systematic chemical changes were attributable to CO 2 effect or N-fertilization effect. The chemistry of SOM under the various species and treatments did not show significant changes either. The low number of available replicates that is two was clearly insufficient to overcome the effect of spatial variation on litter chemistry and detect small differences in molecular litter chemistry.

  10. Litter Quality of Populus Species as Affected by Free-Air CO2 Enrichment and N-Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Vermue


    Full Text Available The effect of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on the molecular chemistry of litter of three Populus species and associated soil organic matter (SOM was investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results are based on 147 quantified organic compounds in 24 litter samples. Litter of P. euramerica was clearly different from that of P. nigra and P. alba. The latter two had higher contents of proteins, polysaccharides, and cutin/cutan, while the former had higher contents of phenols and benzofurans/pyrans. The difference between replications was at least as large as the effect of treatments, so that no systematic chemical changes were attributable to CO2 effect or N-fertilization effect. The chemistry of SOM under the various species and treatments did not show significant changes either. The low number of available replicates that is two was clearly insufficient to overcome the effect of spatial variation on litter chemistry and detect small differences in molecular litter chemistry.

  11. Feasibility of office CO2 laser surgery in patients affected by benign pathologies and congenital malformations of female lower genital tract. (United States)

    Frega, A; Verrone, A; Schimberni, M; Manzara, F; Ralli, E; Catalano, A; Schimberni, M; Torcia, F; Cozza, G; Bianchi, P; Marziani, R; Lukic, A


    Traditional surgery presents some disadvantages, such as the necessity for general anesthesia, hemorrhage, recurrence of pathology, and the possible onset of dyspareunia due to an excessive scarring. CO2 laser surgery might resolve these problems and might be employed in a wider range of clinical indications than usual. We examined the results of CO2 laser surgery in patients affected by benign pathologies and congenital malformations of the female lower genital tract. In this observational study, we enrolled 49 women who underwent CO2 laser surgery for the following indications: Bartholin's gland cyst, imperforate hymen, vaginal septum, Nabothian cyst, and vaginal polyps. Feasibility, cost-effectiveness, complication rate, recurrence rate, short- and long-term outcomes were assessed. All procedures were carried out in a short operative time, without any intraoperative complications. Only 1 (2.0%) out of 49 patients required a hemostatic suture for bleeding. Postoperative period was uneventful in all patients, except 6 (12.2%) out of 49 patients who reported pain one day after surgery, successfully treated with paracetamol. Healing was rapid and excellent in all cases; no wound infection, scarring or stenosis were noticed. Preoperative symptoms reduced or disappeared in all cases. No recurrence was observed and no re-intervention was needed. CO2 laser surgery provides several advantages over traditional surgery, as its systematic use in treating pre-invasive, benign, and congenital pathologies of the female lower genital tract reduces patient discomfort, improves short- and long-term outcomes, and optimizes cost-effectiveness.

  12. A biophysical approach using water deficit factor for daily estimations of evapotranspiration and CO2 uptake in Mediterranean environments (United States)

    Helman, David; Lensky, Itamar M.; Osem, Yagil; Rohatyn, Shani; Rotenberg, Eyal; Yakir, Dan


    Estimations of ecosystem-level evapotranspiration (ET) and CO2 uptake in water-limited environments are scarce and scaling up ground-level measurements is not straightforward. A biophysical approach using remote sensing (RS) and meteorological data (RS-Met) is adjusted to extreme high-energy water-limited Mediterranean ecosystems that suffer from continuous stress conditions to provide daily estimations of ET and CO2 uptake (measured as gross primary production, GPP) at a spatial resolution of 250 m. The RS-Met was adjusted using a seasonal water deficit factor (fWD) based on daily rainfall, temperature and radiation data. We validated our adjusted RS-Met with eddy covariance flux measurements using a newly developed mobile lab system and the single active FLUXNET station operating in this region (Yatir pine forest station) at a total of seven forest and non-forest sites across a climatic transect in Israel (280-770 mm yr-1). RS-Met was also compared to the satellite-borne MODIS-based ET and GPP products (MOD16 and MOD17, respectively) at these sites.Results show that the inclusion of the fWD significantly improved the model, with R = 0.64-0.91 for the ET-adjusted model (compared to 0.05-0.80 for the unadjusted model) and R = 0.72-0.92 for the adjusted GPP model (compared to R = 0.56-0.90 of the non-adjusted model). The RS-Met (with the fWD) successfully tracked observed changes in ET and GPP between dry and wet seasons across the sites. ET and GPP estimates from the adjusted RS-Met also agreed well with eddy covariance estimates on an annual timescale at the FLUXNET station of Yatir (266 ± 61 vs. 257 ± 58 mm yr-1 and 765 ± 112 vs. 748 ± 124 gC m-2 yr-1 for ET and GPP, respectively). Comparison with MODIS products showed consistently lower estimates from the MODIS-based models, particularly at the forest sites. Using the adjusted RS-Met, we show that afforestation significantly increased the water use efficiency (the ratio of carbon uptake to ET) in this region

  13. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality. (United States)

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad


    A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality.

  14. Will increasing temperature and CO2 affect pumpkin early development in Brazilian semi-arid? | O aumento da temperatura e do CO2 afetará o desenvolvimento precoce da abóbora no semi-árido brasileiro?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara França Dantas


    Full Text Available With rising levels of CO2 in atmosphere, understanding possible impacts on development and growth of plants becomes increasingly important. The aim of this study was to evaluate interaction between different temperatures and CO2 levels in germination and early development of seedlings of different species of pumpkin. Seeds of Cucurbita pepo cultivars ‘Caserta’ and ‘Redonda’, and Cucurbita maxima ‘Coroa’ were sown in trays of 36 cells and held in growth chambers with different combinations of levels of CO2 and day/night temperatures. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 X 3 factorial scheme with two levels of CO2 concentration (360 and 550ppm and three day/night temperatures (26/20, 29/26 and 32/26°C, with four replicates of 18 seedlings for each treatment. CO2 levels used caused different effects among cultivars for most variables, but a significant change in physiological behavior of seedlings with increasing CO2 concentration was not observed. Increase in temperature led to physiological changes in both seeds and seedlings. The predicted conditions of increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2 and temperature are damaging to production of pumpkin seedlings

  15. Land and Water Use, CO2 Emissions, and Worker Radiological Exposure Factors for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W Carlsen; Brent W Dixon; Urairisa Pathanapirom; Eric Schneider; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. AUlt; Allen G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn


    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies program is preparing to evaluate several proposed nuclear fuel cycle options to help guide and prioritize Fuel Cycle Technology research and development. Metrics are being developed to assess performance against nine evaluation criteria that will be used to assess relevant impacts resulting from all phases of the fuel cycle. This report focuses on four specific environmental metrics. • land use • water use • CO2 emissions • radiological Dose to workers Impacts associated with the processes in the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, mining through enrichment and deconversion of DUF6 are summarized from FCRD-FCO-2012-000124, Revision 1. Impact estimates are developed within this report for the remaining phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. These phases include fuel fabrication, reactor construction and operations, fuel reprocessing, and storage, transport, and disposal of associated used fuel and radioactive wastes. Impact estimates for each of the phases of the nuclear fuel cycle are given as impact factors normalized per unit process throughput or output. These impact factors can then be re-scaled against the appropriate mass flows to provide estimates for a wide range of potential fuel cycles. A companion report, FCRD-FCO-2013-000213, applies the impact factors to estimate and provide a comparative evaluation of 40 fuel cycles under consideration relative to these four environmental metrics.

  16. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2


    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.


    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine formations or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2 capture and related p...

  17. Analysis and study on the membrane method of CO2 removal of coal-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fangqin, Li; Henan, Li; Jianxing, Ren; Jiang, Wu; Zhongzhu, Qiu


    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is one kind of harmful substances from the burning process of fossil fuel. CO 2 emissions cause serious pollution on atmospheric environment, especially greenhouse effect. In this paper, CO 2 formation mechanism and control methods were researched. Membrane technology was studied to control CO 2 emissions from coal-fired boilers. The relationship between CO 2 removal efficiency and parameters of membrane contactor was analyzed. Through analysis and study, factors affecting on CO 2 removal efficiency were gotten. How to choose the best parameters was known. This would provide theoretical basis for coal-fired utility boilers choosing effective way of CO 2 removal. (author)


    We investigated the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and air temperature on C cycling in trees and associated soil system, focusing on canopy CO2 assimilation (Asys) and system CO2 loss through respiration (Rsys). We hypothesized that both elevated CO2 and elevated temperature...

  19. A biophysical approach using water deficit factor for daily estimations of evapotranspiration and CO2 uptake in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Helman


    Full Text Available Estimations of ecosystem-level evapotranspiration (ET and CO2 uptake in water-limited environments are scarce and scaling up ground-level measurements is not straightforward. A biophysical approach using remote sensing (RS and meteorological data (RS–Met is adjusted to extreme high-energy water-limited Mediterranean ecosystems that suffer from continuous stress conditions to provide daily estimations of ET and CO2 uptake (measured as gross primary production, GPP at a spatial resolution of 250 m. The RS–Met was adjusted using a seasonal water deficit factor (fWD based on daily rainfall, temperature and radiation data. We validated our adjusted RS–Met with eddy covariance flux measurements using a newly developed mobile lab system and the single active FLUXNET station operating in this region (Yatir pine forest station at a total of seven forest and non-forest sites across a climatic transect in Israel (280–770 mm yr−1. RS–Met was also compared to the satellite-borne MODIS-based ET and GPP products (MOD16 and MOD17, respectively at these sites.Results show that the inclusion of the fWD significantly improved the model, with R =  0.64–0.91 for the ET-adjusted model (compared to 0.05–0.80 for the unadjusted model and R =  0.72–0.92 for the adjusted GPP model (compared to R =  0.56–0.90 of the non-adjusted model. The RS–Met (with the fWD successfully tracked observed changes in ET and GPP between dry and wet seasons across the sites. ET and GPP estimates from the adjusted RS–Met also agreed well with eddy covariance estimates on an annual timescale at the FLUXNET station of Yatir (266 ± 61 vs. 257 ± 58 mm yr−1 and 765 ± 112 vs. 748 ± 124 gC m−2 yr−1 for ET and GPP, respectively. Comparison with MODIS products showed consistently lower estimates from the MODIS-based models, particularly at the forest sites. Using the adjusted RS–Met, we show that afforestation

  20. Soil CO2 emission of sugarcane fields as affected by topography Emissão de CO2 do solo sob cultivo de cana-de-açúcar em função da topografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane de Figueiredo Brito


    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variation of soil CO2 emission is influenced by several soil attributes related to CO2 production and its diffusion in the soil. However, few studies aiming to understand the effect of topography on the variability of CO2 emissions exist, especially for cropping areas of tropical regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal changes of soil CO2 emission and its relation to soil attributes in an area currently cropped with sugarcane under different relief forms and slope positions. Mean CO2 emissions in the studied period (seven months varied between 0.23 and 0.71, 0.27 and 0.90, and 0.31 and 0.80 g m-2 h-1 of CO2 for concave (Conc, backslope (BackS and footslope (FootS positions, respectively. The temporal variability of CO2 emissions in each area was explained by an exponential relation between the CO2 emission and soil temperature and a linear relation between CO2 emission and soil water content. The Q10 values were 1.98 (± 0.34, 1.81 (± 0.49 and 1.71 (± 0.31 for Conc, BackS and FootS, respectively. Bulk density, macroporosity, penetration resistance, aggregation and oxidizable organic carbon content explain the changes in soil CO2 emission observed, especially when the Conc position was compared to BackS. The effect of relief form and topographic position on soil CO2 emission variation was dependent on the time of measurement.A variação temporal e espacial da emissão de CO2 solo-atmosfera é influenciada por inúmeros atributos do solo relacionados à produção de CO2 e à difusão do gás no solo. Ainda são escassos, entretanto, estudos visando compreender o efeito da topografia na variação da emissão deste gás, especialmente em áreas agrícolas da região tropical. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a variação temporal e espacial da emissão de CO2 solo-atmosfera e sua relação com atributos do solo em área de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar sob diferentes formas de

  1. Factors affecting construction performance: exploratory factor analysis (United States)

    Soewin, E.; Chinda, T.


    The present work attempts to develop a multidimensional performance evaluation framework for a construction company by considering all relevant measures of performance. Based on the previous studies, this study hypothesizes nine key factors, with a total of 57 associated items. The hypothesized factors, with their associated items, are then used to develop questionnaire survey to gather data. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to the collected data which gave rise 10 factors with 57 items affecting construction performance. The findings further reveal that the items constituting ten key performance factors (KPIs) namely; 1) Time, 2) Cost, 3) Quality, 4) Safety & Health, 5) Internal Stakeholder, 6) External Stakeholder, 7) Client Satisfaction, 8) Financial Performance, 9) Environment, and 10) Information, Technology & Innovation. The analysis helps to develop multi-dimensional performance evaluation framework for an effective measurement of the construction performance. The 10 key performance factors can be broadly categorized into economic aspect, social aspect, environmental aspect, and technology aspects. It is important to understand a multi-dimension performance evaluation framework by including all key factors affecting the construction performance of a company, so that the management level can effectively plan to implement an effective performance development plan to match with the mission and vision of the company.

  2. Natural variations in snow cover do not affect the annual soil CO2 efflux from a mid-elevation temperate forest. (United States)

    Schindlbacher, Andreas; Jandl, Robert; Schindlbacher, Sabine


    Climate change might alter annual snowfall patterns and modify the duration and magnitude of snow cover in temperate regions with resultant impacts on soil microclimate and soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil ). We used a 5-year time series of Fsoil measurements from a mid-elevation forest to assess the effects of naturally changing snow cover. Snow cover varied considerably in duration (105-154 days) and depth (mean snow depth 19-59 cm). Periodically shallow snow cover (soil freezing or increased variation in soil temperature. This was mostly not reflected in Fsoil which tended to decrease gradually throughout winter. Progressively decreasing C substrate availability (identified by substrate induced respiration) likely over-rid the effects of slowly changing soil temperatures and determined the overall course of Fsoil . Cumulative CO2 efflux from beneath snow cover varied between 0.46 and 0.95 t C ha(-1)  yr(-1) and amounted to between 6 and 12% of the annual efflux. When compared over a fixed interval (the longest period of snow cover during the 5 years), the cumulative CO2 efflux ranged between 0.77 and 1.18 t C ha(-1) or between 11 and 15% of the annual soil CO2 efflux. The relative contribution (15%) was highest during the year with the shortest winter. Variations in snow cover were not reflected in the annual CO2 efflux (7.44-8.41 t C ha(-1) ) which did not differ significantly between years and did not correlate with any snow parameter. Regional climate at our site was characterized by relatively high amounts of precipitation. Therefore, snow did not play a role in terms of water supply during the warm season and primarily affected cold season processes. The role of changing snow cover therefore seems rather marginal when compared to potential climate change effects on Fsoil during the warm season. © 2013 The Authors. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Does Short-term Litter Input Manipulation Affect Soil Respiration and the Carbon-isotopic Signature of Soil Respired CO2 (United States)

    Cheng, X.; Wu, J.


    Global change greatly alters the quality and quantity of plant litter inputs to soils, and further impacts soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics and soil respiration. However, the process-based understanding of how soil respiration may change with future shift in litter input is not fully understood. The Detritus Input and Removal Treatment (DIRT) experiment was conducted in coniferous forest (Platycladus orientalis (Linn.) Franco) ecosystem of central China to investigate the impact of above- and belowground litter input on soil respiration and the carbon-isotopic signature of soil respired CO2. Short-term (1-2 years) litter input manipulation significantly affected soil respiration, based on annual flux values, soil respiration was 31.9%, 20.5% and 37.2% lower in no litter (NL), no root (NR) and no input (NRNL), respectively, compared to control (CK). Whereas double litter (DL) treatment increased soil respiration by 9.1% compared to CK. The recalcitrance index of carbon (RIC) and the relative abundance of fungi increased under litter removal or root exclusion treatment (NL, NR and NRNL) compared to CK. Basal soil respiration was positively related to liable C and microbial biomass and negatively related to RIC and fungi to bacteria (F: B) ratio. The carbon-isotopic signature of soil respired CO2 enriched under litter removal and no input treatment, and slightly depleted under litter addition treatment compared to CK. Our results suggest that short-term litter input manipulation can affect the soil respiration by altering substrate availability and microbial community structure, and also impact the carbon-isotopic signature of soil respired CO2 possibly duo to change in the component of soil respiration and soil microclimate.

  4. Essential Oils from Seeds: Solubility of Limonene in Supercritical CO2 and How It Is Affected by Fatty Oil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Stateva, R. P.; Galushko, A. A.


    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2001), s. 113-129 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/1445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : vapour-liquid equilibria * limonene * supercritical carbon dioxide Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.975, year: 2001

  5. Impacts of land surface properties and atmospheric CO2 on the Last Glacial Maximum climate: a factor separation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Munhoven


    Full Text Available Many sensitivity studies have been carried out, using climate models of different degrees of complexity to test the climate response to Last Glacial Maximum boundary conditions. Here, instead of adding the forcings successively as in most previous studies, we applied the separation method of U. Stein et P. Alpert 1993, in order to determine rigorously the different contributions of the boundary condition modifications, and isolate the pure contributions from the interactions among the forcings. We carried out a series of sensitivity experiments with the model of intermediate complexity Planet Simulator, investigating the contributions of the ice sheet expansion and elevation, the lowering of the atmospheric CO2 and of the vegetation cover change on the LGM climate. The separation of the ice cover and orographic contributions shows that the ice albedo effect is the main contributor to the cooling of the Northern Hemisphere, whereas orography has only a local cooling impact over the ice sheets. The expansion of ice cover in the Northern Hemisphere causes a disruption of the tropical precipitation, and a southward shift of the ITCZ. The orographic forcing mainly contributes to the disruption of the atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere, leading to a redistribution of the precipitation, but weakly impacts the tropics. The isolated vegetation contribution also induces strong cooling over the continents of the Northern Hemisphere that further affects the tropical precipitation and reinforce the southward shift of the ITCZ, when combined with the ice forcing. The combinations of the forcings generate many non-linear interactions that reinforce or weaken the pure contributions, depending on the climatic mechanism involved, but they are generally weaker than the pure contributions. Finally, the comparison between the LGM simulated climate and climatic reconstructions over Eurasia suggests that our results reproduce well the south-west to

  6. Gas stunning with CO2 affected meat color, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and gene expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases, glutathione S-transferases, and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase in the skeletal muscles of broilers. (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Zhang, Haijun; Yue, Hongyuan; Wu, Shugeng; Yang, Haiming; Wang, Zhiyue; Qi, Guanghai


    Meat color and lipid peroxidation are important traits related to meat quality. CO 2 concentration is a critical factor that can affect meat quality in the commercial use of gas stunning (GS). However, the effect and mechanism of CO 2 stunning on meat color and lipid peroxidation during long-term storage remain poorly studied. We aimed to study the effects of GS methods, especially CO 2 concentration, on meat color and meat lipid peroxidation in broilers during long-term storage at 4 °C and to explore the potential mechanism of meat color change via lipid peroxidation and the inner lipid peroxide scavenging system. Eighteen broilers were sacrificed after exposure to one of the following gas mixtures for 90 s: 40% CO 2  + 21% O 2  + 39% N 2 (G40%), 79% CO 2  + 21% O 2 (G79%), or no stunning (0% CO 2 , control). Meat color, serum variables, enzyme activities, and the gene expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK ), nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 ( Nrf2 ), glutathione S-transferase ( GST ) and superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) were determined. The concentrations of serum triiodothyronine (T3, P  = 0.03) and the ratio of serum free triiodothyronine/free thyroxine (FT3/FT4, P  meat and the TBARS 3 d in thigh meat ( P  meat ( r  = - 0.63, P  meat and in the thigh meat ( r  = - 0.57, P  = 0.01; and r  = - 0.53, P  = 0.03 respectively). Compared with the control group, Lightness (L*) 1 d ( P =  0.03) and L* 9 d ( P meat of both the G40% and G79% groups. The values of yellowness (b*) 3 d ( P =  0.01), b* 6 d ( P meat were lower in both the G40% and G79% groups than in the control group. In the breast muscle, the mRNA levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 ( JNK2, P  = 0.03), GSTT1 ( P  = 0.04), and SOD1 ( P  = 0.05) were decreased, and the mRNA levels of JNK1 ( P  = 0.07), Nrf2 ( P  = 0.09), and GSTA3 ( P  = 0.06) were slightly lower in both the G40% and G79% groups

  7. Modeling the key factors that could influence the diffusion of CO2 from a wellbore blowout in the Ordos Basin, China. (United States)

    Li, Qi; Shi, Hui; Yang, Duoxing; Wei, Xiaochen


    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) blowout from a wellbore is regarded as a potential environment risk of a CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) project. In this paper, an assumed blowout of a wellbore was examined for China's Shenhua CCS demonstration project. The significant factors that influenced the diffusion of CO 2 were identified by using a response surface method with the Box-Behnken experiment design. The numerical simulations showed that the mass emission rate of CO 2 from the source and the ambient wind speed have significant influence on the area of interest (the area of high CO 2 concentration above 30,000 ppm). There is a strong positive correlation between the mass emission rate and the area of interest, but there is a strong negative correlation between the ambient wind speed and the area of interest. Several other variables have very little influence on the area of interest, e.g., the temperature of CO 2 , ambient temperature, relative humidity, and stability class values. Due to the weather conditions at the Shenhua CCS demonstration site at the time of the modeled CO 2 blowout, the largest diffusion distance of CO 2 in the downwind direction did not exceed 200 m along the centerline. When the ambient wind speed is in the range of 0.1-2.0 m/s and the mass emission rate is in the range of 60-120 kg/s, the range of the diffusion of CO 2 is at the most dangerous level (i.e., almost all Grade Four marks in the risk matrix). Therefore, if the injection of CO 2 takes place in a region that has relatively low perennial wind speed, special attention should be paid to the formulation of pre-planned, emergency measures in case there is a leakage accident. The proposed risk matrix that classifies and grades blowout risks can be used as a reference for the development of appropriate regulations. This work may offer some indicators in developing risk profiles and emergency responses for CO 2 blowouts.

  8. A decomposition analysis of the driving factors of CO_2 (Carbon dioxide) emissions from the power sector in the European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmellos, M.; Kopidou, D.; Diakoulaki, D.


    The scope of this paper is to investigate the driving factors of CO_2 emissions from electricity generation in all European Union countries (EU-28) during the period 2000–2012. Particular emphasis is placed on the assessment of any potential association between the examined driving factors and major climate and energy policies implemented during the examined period. In addition, the analysis distinguishes two subperiods, namely 2000–2007 and 2007–2012 in order to detect the impact of the economic crisis on each distinct driving factor and, consequently, on the total level of CO_2 emissions from the power sector. The model developed to analyse the changes in CO_2 emissions from the power sector across EU-28, is based on LMDI-I method and takes into account five driving factors: level of activity, electricity intensity, electricity trade, efficiency of electricity generation and fuel mix. The obtained results show that in times of economic growth the main factor counterbalancing the activity effect was in most countries the decreasing electricity intensity, while the contribution of all other factors becomes apparent later, despite the economic crisis and in view of the Kyoto targets. - Highlights: • LMDI is used to identify driving forces of CO_2 emissions from EU's power sector. • Declining electricity intensity was the main restrictive factor before 2007. • Fuel shifts contributed to emissions fall mostly after 2007, despite the crisis. • Trade effect is notable and indicates growing carbon leakage in the power sector.

  9. Dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen mineralization strongly affect co2 emissions following lime application to acidic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, M.; Peng, Q.; Lin, S.; Wu, Y.


    Emission of greenhouse gases from agricultural soils has main contribution to the climatic change and global warming. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen mineralization can affect CO/sub 2/ emission from soils. Influence of DOC and nitrogen mineralization on CO/sub 2/ emissions following lime application to acidic soil was investigated in current study. Laboratory experiment was conducted under aerobic conditions with 25% moisture contents (66% water-filled pore space) at 25 degree C in the dark conditions. Different treatments of lime were applied to acidic soil as follows: CK (control), L (low rate of lime: 0.2g lime / 100 g soil) and H (high rate of lime: 0.5g lime /100g soil). CO/sub 2/ emissions were measured by gas chromatography and dissolved organic carbon, NH4 +-N, NO/sub 3/ --N and soil pH were measured during incubation study. Addition of lime to acidic soil significantly increased the concentration of DOC and N mineralization rate. Higher concentrations of DOC and N mineralization, consequently, increased the CO/sub 2/ emissions from lime treated soils. Cumulative CO/sub 2/ emission was 75% and 71% higher from L and H treatments as compared to CK. The results of current study suggest that DOC and N mineralization are critical in controlling gaseous emissions of CO/sub 2/ from acidic soils following lime application. (author)

  10. Alterations in seawater pH and CO 2 affect calcification and photosynthesis in the tropical coralline alga, Hydrolithon sp. (Rhodophyta) (United States)

    Semesi, I. Sware; Kangwe, Juma; Björk, Mats


    Calcification in the marine environment is the basis for the accretion of carbonate in structures such as coral reefs, algal ridges and carbonate sands. Among the organisms responsible for such calcification are the Corallinaceae (Rhodophyta), recognised as major contributors to the process world-wide. Hydrolithon sp. is a coralline alga that often forms rhodoliths in the Western Indian Ocean. In Zanzibar, it is commonly found in shallow lagoons, where it often grows within seagrass beds and/or surrounded by green algae such as Ulva sp. Since seagrasses in Zanzibar have recently been shown to raise the pH of the surrounding seawater during the day, and since calcification rates are sensitive to pH, which changes the saturation state of calcium carbonate, we measured the effects of pH on photosynthetic and calcification rates of this alga. It was found that pH had significant effects on both calcification and photosynthesis. While increased pH enhanced calcification rates both in the light and in the dark at pH >8.6, photosynthetic rates decreased. On the other hand, an increase in dissolved CO 2 concentration to ˜26 μmol kg -1 (by bubbling with air containing 0.9 mbar CO 2) caused a decrease in seawater pH which resulted in 20% less calcification after 5 days of exposure, while enhancing photosynthetic rates by 13%. The ecological implications of these findings is that photosynthetically driven changes in water chemistry by surrounding plants can affect calcification rates of coralline algae, as may future ocean acidification resulting from elevated atmospheric CO 2.

  11. Elevated CO2 and Tree Species Affect Microbial  Activity and Associated Aggregate Stability in Soil  Amended with Litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwan M. J. Al‐Maliki


    Full Text Available (1 Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2 may affect organic inputs to woodland soils with potential consequences for C dynamics and associated aggregation; (2 The Bangor Free Air Concentration Enrichment experiment compared ambient (330 ppmv and elevated (550 ppmv CO2 regimes over four growing seasons (2005–2008 under Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica. Litter from the experiment (autumn 2008 and Lumbricus terrestris were added to mesocosm soils. Microbial properties and aggregate stability were investigated in soil and earthworm casts. Soils taken from the field experiment in spring 2009 were also investigated; (3 eCO2 litter had lower N and higher C:N ratios. F. sylvatica and B. pendula litter had lower N and P than A. glutinosa; F. sylvatica had higher cellulose. In mesocosms, eCO2 litter decreased respiration, mineralization constant (respired C:total organic C and soluble carbon in soil but not earthworm casts; microbial‐C and fungal hyphal length differed by species (A. glutinosa = B. pendula > F. sylvatica not CO2 regime. eCO2 increased respiration in field aggregates but increased stability only under F. sylvatica; (4 Lower litter quality under eCO2 may restrict its initial decomposition, affecting C stabilization in aggregates. Later resistant materials may support microbial activity and increase aggregate stability. In woodland, C and soil aggregation dynamics may alter under eCO2, but outcomes may be influenced by tree species and earthworm activity.

  12. Psychological factors affecting equine performance


    McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S


    Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of af...

  13. Early growth interactions between a mangrove and an herbaceous salt marsh species are not affected by elevated CO2 or drought (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Stagg, Camille L.; Utomo, Herry S.


    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are likely to influence future distributions of plants and plant community structure in many regions of the world through effects on photosynthetic rates. In recent decades the encroachment of woody mangrove species into herbaceous marshes has been documented along the U.S. northern Gulf of Mexico coast. These species shifts have been attributed primarily to rising sea levels and warming winter temperatures, but the role of elevated CO2 and water availability may become more prominent drivers of species interactions under future climate conditions. Drought has been implicated as a major factor contributing to salt marsh vegetation dieback in this region. In this greenhouse study we examined the effects of CO2 concentration (∼380 ppm, ∼700 ppm) and water regime (drought, saturated, flooded) on early growth of Avicennia germinans, a C3 mangrove species, and Spartina alterniflora, a C4 grass. Plants were grown in monocultures and in a mixed-species assemblage. We found that neither species responded to elevated CO2 over the 10-month duration of the experiment, and there were few interactions between experimental factors. Two effects of water regime were documented: lower A. germinanspneumatophore biomass under drought conditions, and lower belowground biomass under flooded conditions regardless of planting assemblage. Evidence of interspecific interactions was noted. Competition for aboveground resources (e.g., light) was indicated by lower S. alterniflora stem biomass in mixed-species assemblage compared to biomass in S. alterniflora monocultures. Pneumatophore biomass of A. germinans was reduced when grown in monoculture compared to the mixed-species assemblage, indicating competition for belowground resources. These interactions provide insight into how these species may respond following major disturbance events that lead to vegetation dieback. Site variation in propagule availability

  14. Growth of mature boreal Norway spruce was not affected by elevated [CO(2)] and/or air temperature unless nutrient availability was improved. (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Bjarni D; Medhurst, Jane L; Wallin, Göran; Eggertsson, Olafur; Linder, Sune


    The growth responses of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees exposed to elevated [CO(2)] (CE; 670-700 ppm) and long-term optimized nutrient availability or elevated air temperature (TE; ±3.9 °C) were studied in situ in northern Sweden in two 3 year field experiments using 12 whole-tree chambers in ca. 40-year-old forest. The first experiment (Exp. I) studied the interactions between CE and nutrient availability and the second (Exp. II) between CE and TE. It should be noted that only air temperature was elevated in Exp. II, while soil temperature was maintained close to ambient. In Exp. I, CE significantly increased the mean annual height increment, stem volume and biomass increment during the treatment period (25, 28, and 22%, respectively) when nutrients were supplied. There was, however, no significant positive CE effect found at the low natural nutrient availability. In Exp. II, which was conducted at the natural site fertility, neither CE nor TE significantly affected height or stem increment. It is concluded that the low nutrient availability (mainly nitrogen) in the boreal forests is likely to restrict their response to the continuous rise in [CO(2)] and/or TE.

  15. Seasonal dynamics of CO2 efflux in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems in a semi-arid agroecosystem (United States)

    García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro; López-de-Sa, Esther G.; Polo, Alfredo


    In semi-arid agricultural soils, seasonal dynamic of soil CO2 efflux (SCE) is highly variable. Based on soil respiration measurements the effects of different management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) was investigated in a long-term field experiment (28 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station 'La Higueruela' (40o 03'N, 4o 24'W). Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 Mg ha-1 prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. SCE was moderate in late spring (2.2-11.8 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) when amendments were applied and tillage was performed, markedly decreased in summer (0.4-3.2 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1), following a moderate increase in autumn (3.4-14.1 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1), rising sharply in October (5.6-39.8 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 ). In winter, SCE was low (0.6-6.5 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). In general, SCE was greater in chisel and moldboard tilled soils, and in CS and particularly TSS-amended soils, due to the addition of labile C with these amendments, meanwhile no-tillage soils exhibited smaller increases in C efflux throughout the seasons. Soil temperature controlled the seasonal variations of SCE. In summer, when drought occurs, a general decrease of SCE was observed due to a deficit in soil water content. After drought period SCE jumped to high values in response to rain events ('Birch effect') that changed soil moisture conditions. Soil drying in summer and rewetting in autumn may promotes some changes on the structure of soil microbial community, affecting associated metabolic processes, and enhancing a rapid mineralization of water-soluble organic C compounds and/or dead microbial biomass that acts as an energy source for soil microorganisms. To assess the effects of tillage and amendments on SCE, Q10 values were calculated. Data were grouped into three groups according to soil moisture (0

  16. Carbon allocation and decomposition of root-derived organic matter in a plant-soil system of Calluna vulgaris as affected by elevated CO2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.S.J.; Gorissenand, A.; Arp, W.J.


    The effect of elevated CO2 on C allocation in plant and soil was assessed using soil cores planted with 1-y-old heather (Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull). Plants were pulse-labeled with 14CO2 at ambient and elevated CO2 and two nitrogen regimes (low and high). After harvesting the plants, the soil was

  17. CO2 blood test (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum; Acidosis - CO2; Alkalosis - CO2 ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  18. A general enhancement factor model for absorption and desorption systems: A CO2 capture case-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup


    kinetics and applied for the CO2-MEA-H2O second order reversible system. The results show that the GM predicts the two-film theory within 2% accuracy and the surface renewal model within 10% accuracy, both at absorber and desorber conditions and for high driving force and pinch conditions. GM is compared...

  19. Emission factors and their uncertainty for the exchange of CO2, CH4 and N2O in Finnish managed peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, J.; Shurpali, N. J.; Minkkinen, K.


    This paper summarises the results of several research groups participating in the research programme 'Greenhouse Impacts of the use of Peat and Peatlands in Finland', and presents emission factors for peat-atmosphere fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O, filling gaps in knowledge concerning the afforestation of organic croplands and cutaways, and improves the emission assessment of peatlands drained for forestry. Forest drainage may result in net binding of soil carbon or net release, depending on site characteristics and the tree stand. Use of peatlands for agriculture (48-4821 g CO 2 -eq. m -2 a -1 ), even after the cultivation has ceased, or for milled peat harvesting (1948-2478 g CO 2 -eq. m -2 a -1 ) can cause the highest overall emissions. Extremely high CO 2 emissions are possible from peat harvesting areas during wet and warm summers. Afforestation of those peatlands abandoned from cultivation or peat harvesting can reduce the warming impact at least during the first tree generation. Heterotrophic soil respiration may have a systematic south-north difference in temperature response. More data must be collected before the information on peatland forest soil CO 2 emissions can be adapted for different climatic regions in Finland. A test of the model DNDC against measured data showed that DNDC has to be developed further before it can be used in estimating N 2 O emissions from boreal peatlands. (orig.)

  20. CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, E.; Jammes, L.; Guyot, F.; Prinzhofer, A.; Le Thiez, P.


    This document presents the summary of a conference-debate held at the Academie des Sciences (Paris, France) on the topic of CO 2 sequestration. Five papers are reviewed: problems and solutions for the CO 2 sequestration; observation and surveillance of reservoirs; genesis of carbonates and geological storage of CO 2 ; CO 2 sequestration in volcanic and ultra-basic rocks; CO 2 sequestration, transport and geological storage: scientific and economical perspectives

  1. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D


    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  2. Regulation of senescence under elevated atmospheric CO2 via ubiquitin modification


    Aoyama, Shoki; Lu, Yu; Yamaguchi, Junji; Sato, Takeo


    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration is a serious global environmental problem. Elevated CO2 affects plant growth by changing primary metabolism, closely related to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) availability. Under sufficient N conditions, plant growth is dramatically promoted by elevated CO2. When N availability is limited, however, elevated CO2 disrupts the balance between cellular C and N (C/N). Disruption of the C/N balance is regarded as an important factor in plant growth defects. Here ...

  3. Crop responses to CO2 enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, H.H.; Dahlman, R.C.


    Carbon dioxide is rising in the global atmosphere, and this increase can be expected to continue into the foreseeable future. This compound is an essential input to plant life. Crop function is affected across all scales from biochemical to agroecosystem. An array of methods (leaf cuvettes, field chambers, free-air release systems) are available for experimental studies of CO 2 effects. Carbon dioxide enrichment of the air in which crops grow usually stimulates their growth and yield. Plant structure and physiology are markedly altered. Interactions between CO 2 and environmental factors that influence plants are known to occur. Implications for crop growth and yield are enormous. Strategies designed to assure future global food security must include a consideration of crop responses to elevated atmospheric CO 2 . 137 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Increasing CO2 differentially affects essential and non-essential amino acid concentration of rice grains grown in cadmium-contaminated soils. (United States)

    Wu, Huibin; Song, Zhengguo; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Zhongqi; Tang, Shirong


    Environmental pollution by both ambient CO2 and heavy metals has been steadily increasing, but we do not know how fluctuating CO2 concentrations influence plant nutrients under high Cd pollution, especially in crops. Here, we studied the effects of elevated CO2 and Cd accumulation on proteins and amino acids in rice under Cd stress. In this pot experiment, we analyzed the amino-acid profile of 20 rice cultivars that accumulate Cd differently; the plants were grown in Cd-containing soils under ambient conditions and elevated CO2 levels. We found that although Cd concentrations appeared to be higher in most cultivars under elevated CO2 than under ambient CO2, the effect was significant only in seven cultivars. Combined exposure to Cd and elevated CO2 strongly decreased rice protein and amino acid profiles, including essential and non-essential amino acids. Under elevated CO2, the ratios of specific amino acids were either higher or lower than the optimal ratios provided by FAO/WHO, suggesting that CO2 may flatten the overall amino-acid profile, leading to an excess in some amino acids and deficiencies in others when the rice is consumed. Thus, Cd-tainted rice limits the concentration of essential amino acids in rice-based diets, and the combination with elevated CO2 further exacerbates the problem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors affecting dental service quality. (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Baldacchino, Donia


    Measuring dental clinic service quality is the first and most important factor in improving care. The quality provided plays an important role in patient satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting dental service quality from the patients' viewpoint. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in a dental clinic in Tehran between January and June 2014. A sample of 385 patients was selected from two work shifts using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The data were collected, a self-administered questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study, based on the Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model of service quality which consisted of two parts: the patients' demographic characteristics and a 30-item questionnaire to measure the five dimensions of the service quality. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 18.0 through some descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, as well as analytical methods, including confirmatory factor. Results showed that the correlation coefficients for all dimensions were higher than 0.5. In this model, assurance (regression weight=0.99) and tangibility (regression weight=0.86) had, respectively, the highest and lowest effects on dental service quality. The Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model is suitable to measure quality in dental services. The variables related to dental services quality have been made according to the model. This is a pioneering study that uses Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model and CFA in a dental setting. This study provides useful insights and guidance for dental service quality assurance.

  6. Transgenic tobacco plants with improved cyanobacterial Rubisco expression but no extra assembly factors grow at near wild-type rates if provided with elevated CO2. (United States)

    Occhialini, Alessandro; Lin, Myat T; Andralojc, P John; Hanson, Maureen R; Parry, Martin A J


    Introducing a carbon-concentrating mechanism and a faster Rubisco enzyme from cyanobacteria into higher plant chloroplasts may improve photosynthetic performance by increasing the rate of CO2 fixation while decreasing losses caused by photorespiration. We previously demonstrated that tobacco plants grow photoautotrophically using Rubisco from Synechococcus elongatus, although the plants exhibited considerably slower growth than wild-type and required supplementary CO2 . Because of concerns that vascular plant assembly factors may not be adequate for assembly of a cyanobacterial Rubisco, prior transgenic plants included the cyanobacterial chaperone RbcX or the carboxysomal protein CcmM35. Here we show that neither RbcX nor CcmM35 is needed for assembly of active cyanobacterial Rubisco. Furthermore, by altering the gene regulatory sequences on the Rubisco transgenes, cyanobacterial Rubisco expression was enhanced and the transgenic plants grew at near wild-type growth rates, although still requiring elevated CO2 . We performed detailed kinetic characterization of the enzymes produced with and without the RbcX and CcmM35 cyanobacterial proteins. These transgenic plants exhibit photosynthetic characteristics that confirm the predicted benefits of introduction of non-native forms of Rubisco with higher carboxylation rate constants in vascular plants and the potential nitrogen-use efficiency that may be achieved provided that adequate CO2 is available near the enzyme. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Termites as a factor of spatial differentiation of CO2 fluxes from the soils of monsoon tropical forests in Southern Vietnam (United States)

    Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Anichkin, Alexander


    wet season, the CO2 emission rate was considerably higher and reached 266±40 and 520 ± 39 mg C/m2/h in SurAr and TerPl, respectively. The highest rates of CO2 fluxes (730-880 mg C/m2/h) were observed in the wet season in some of the chambers installed on TerPl. In the tropical forest, termites are the factor of the significant spatial variability in the CO2 fluxes from the soils. On the plots populated by termites, the coefficient of variation of CO2 emission rates reached 79%, while it rarely exceeded 45% on the surrounding area. The termite mounds occupy about 4% of the area of tropical forest ecosystems. However, the overall effect of termites on the carbon budget was more significant and, according to our estimates, it reached up to 10% of the total annual CO2 flux from the soils. Thus, underestimation of the influence of termites may lead to significant errors in the assessment of the organic carbon budget in the semi-deciduous tropical forests.

  8. Carbon dioxide diffusion across stomata and mesophyll and photo-biochemical processes as affected by growth CO2 and phosphorus nutrition in cotton. (United States)

    Singh, Shardendu K; Badgujar, Girish; Reddy, Vangimalla R; Fleisher, David H; Bunce, James A


    Nutrients such as phosphorus may exert a major control over plant response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (CO2), which is projected to double by the end of the 21st century. Elevated CO2 may overcome the diffusional limitations to photosynthesis posed by stomata and mesophyll and alter the photo-biochemical limitations resulting from phosphorus deficiency. To evaluate these ideas, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) was grown in controlled environment growth chambers with three levels of phosphate (Pi) supply (0.2, 0.05 and 0.01mM) and two levels of CO2 concentration (ambient 400 and elevated 800μmolmol(-1)) under optimum temperature and irrigation. Phosphate deficiency drastically inhibited photosynthetic characteristics and decreased cotton growth for both CO2 treatments. Under Pi stress, an apparent limitation to the photosynthetic potential was evident by CO2 diffusion through stomata and mesophyll, impairment of photosystem functioning and inhibition of biochemical process including the carboxylation efficiency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxyganase and the rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration. The diffusional limitation posed by mesophyll was up to 58% greater than the limitation due to stomatal conductance (gs) under Pi stress. As expected, elevated CO2 reduced these diffusional limitations to photosynthesis across Pi levels; however, it failed to reduce the photo-biochemical limitations to photosynthesis in phosphorus deficient plants. Acclimation/down regulation of photosynthetic capacity was evident under elevated CO2 across Pi treatments. Despite a decrease in phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations in leaf tissue and reduced stomatal conductance at elevated CO2, the rate of photosynthesis per unit leaf area when measured at the growth CO2 concentration tended to be higher for all except the lowest Pi treatment. Nevertheless, plant biomass increased at elevated CO2 across Pi nutrition with taller plants

  9. Public acceptance of CO2 capture and storage technology : a survey of public opinion to explore influential factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itaoka, K.; Saito, A.; Akai, M.


    A potentially effective tool in managing carbon emissions is carbon capture and storage technology (CCS). However, its effectiveness depends on its acceptability by the public, and very little is known about how willing the general public will accept various options of CCS. This paper presented the results of a study that assessed general perceptions of various forms of CCS and identified various factors that influence public acceptance of CCS. Two versions of a survey were administered and conducted in Tokyo and Sapporo, Japan in December 2003. The paper discussed the design of the questionnaire as well as the administration of the survey. One version of the survey provided limited education about CCS, while another version, provided more extensive information about CCS. The data analysis methodology was also described with reference to factor analysis, comparisons of means and rank order distributions, and multiple regression. Last, the study findings and results were presented. The findings suggest that the general public was supportive of CCS as part of a larger national climate policy, although it was opposed to the implementation of specific CCS options involving deep-sea dilution option of ocean storage, lake type option of ocean storage, onshore option of geological storage, and offshore option of geological storage. In addition, it was found that education about CCS affected public acceptance. The more information respondents obtained about CCS, the more likely they were to be supportive of those storage options, except for onshore option of geological storage. 4 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.


    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  11. Plastic-film mulching and urea types affect soil CO2 emissions and grain yield in spring maize on the Loess Plateau, China. (United States)

    Liu, Qiaofei; Chen, Yu; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Yang; Han, Juan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liao, Yuncheng


    A 2-year field experiment was conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) to explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emissions and increase grain yield. Treatments established were: (1) no mulching with urea, (2) no mulching with controlled release fertiliser (CRF), (3) transparent plastic-film mulching (PMt) with urea, (4) PMt with CRF, (5) black plastic-film mulching (PMb) with urea, and (6) PMb with CRF. During the early growth stages, soil CO2 emissions were noted as PMt > PMb > no mulching, and this order was reversed in the late growth stages. This trend was the result of topsoil temperature dynamics. There were no significant correlations noted between soil CO2 emissions and soil temperature and moisture. Cumulative soil CO2 emissions were higher for the PMt than for the PMb, and grain yield was higher for the PMb treatments than for the PMt or no mulching treatments. The CRF produced higher grain yield and inhibited soil CO2 emissions. Soil CO2 emissions per unit grain yield were lower for the BC treatment than for the other treatments. In conclusion, the use of black plastic-film mulching and controlled release fertiliser not only increased maize yield, but also reduced soil CO2 emissions.

  12. CO2 emissions from land-use change affected more by nitrogen cycle, than by the choice of land-cover data. (United States)

    Jain, Atul K; Meiyappan, Prasanth; Song, Yang; House, Joanna I


    The high uncertainty in land-based CO2 fluxes estimates is thought to be mainly due to uncertainty in not only quantifying historical changes among forests, croplands, and grassland, but also due to different processes included in calculation methods. Inclusion of a nitrogen (N) cycle in models is fairly recent and strongly affects carbon (C) fluxes. In this study, for the first time, we use a model with C and N dynamics with three distinct historical reconstructions of land-use and land-use change (LULUC) to quantify LULUC emissions and uncertainty that includes the integrated effects of not only climate and CO2 but also N. The modeled global average emissions including N dynamics for the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000-2005 were 1.8 ± 0.2, 1.7 ± 0.2, and 1.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr(-1) , respectively, (mean and range across LULUC data sets). The emissions from tropics were 0.8 ± 0.2, 0.8 ± 0.2, and 0.7 ± 0.3 GtC yr(-1) , and the non tropics were 1.1 ± 0.5, 0.9 ± 0.2, and 0.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr(-1) . Compared to previous studies that did not include N dynamics, modeled net LULUC emissions were higher, particularly in the non tropics. In the model, N limitation reduces regrowth rates of vegetation in temperate areas resulting in higher net emissions. Our results indicate that exclusion of N dynamics leads to an underestimation of LULUC emissions by around 70% in the non tropics, 10% in the tropics, and 40% globally in the 1990s. The differences due to inclusion/exclusion of the N cycle of 0.1 GtC yr(-1) in the tropics, 0.6 GtC yr(-1) in the non tropics, and 0.7 GtC yr(-1) globally (mean across land-cover data sets) in the 1990s were greater than differences due to the land-cover data in the non tropics and globally (0.2 GtC yr(-1) ). While land-cover information is improving with satellite and inventory data, this study indicates the importance of accounting for different processes, in particular the N cycle. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. CO2 efflux from subterranean nests of ant communities in a seasonal tropical forest, Thailand. (United States)

    Hasin, Sasitorn; Ohashi, Mizue; Yamada, Akinori; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Tasen, Wattanachai; Kume, Tomonori; Yamane, Seiki


    Many ant species construct subterranean nests. The presence of their nests may explain soil respiration "hot spots", an important factor in the high CO2 efflux from tropical forests. However, no studies have directly measured CO2 efflux from ant nests. We established 61 experimental plots containing 13 subterranean ant species to evaluate the CO2 efflux from subterranean ant nests in a tropical seasonal forest, Thailand. We examined differences in nest CO2 efflux among ant species. We determined the effects of environmental factors on nest CO2 efflux and calculated an index of nest structure. The mean CO2 efflux from nests was significantly higher than those from the surrounding soil in the wet and dry seasons. The CO2 efflux was species-specific, showing significant differences among the 13 ant species. The soil moisture content significantly affected nest CO2 efflux, but there was no clear relationship between nest CO2 efflux and nest soil temperature. The diameter of the nest entrance hole affected CO2 efflux. However, there was no significant difference in CO2 efflux rates between single-hole and multiple-hole nests. Our results suggest that in a tropical forest ecosystem the increase in CO2 efflux from subterranean ant nests is caused by species-specific activity of ants, the nest soil environment, and nest structure.

  14. Positive feedback between increasing atmospheric CO2 and ecosystem productivity (United States)

    Gelfand, I.; Hamilton, S. K.; Robertson, G. P.


    Increasing atmospheric CO2 will likely affect both the hydrologic cycle and ecosystem productivity. Current assumptions that increasing CO2 will lead to increased ecosystem productivity and plant water use efficiency (WUE) are driving optimistic predictions of higher crop yields as well as greater availability of freshwater resources due to a decrease in evapotranspiration. The plant physiological response that drives these effects is believed to be an increase in carbon uptake either by (a) stronger CO2 gradient between the stomata and the atmosphere, or by (b) reduced CO2 limitation of enzymatic carboxylation within the leaf. The (a) scenario will lead to increased water use efficiency (WUE) in plants. However, evidence for increased WUE is mostly based on modeling studies, and experiments producing a short duration or step-wise increase in CO2 concentration (e.g. free-air CO2 enrichment). We hypothesize that the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration is having a positive effect on ecosystem productivity and WUE. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed meteorological, ANPP, and soil CO2 flux datasets together with carbon isotopic ratio (13C/12C) of archived plant samples from the long term ecological research (LTER) program at Kellogg Biological Station. The datasets were collected between 1989 and 2007 (corresponding to an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration of ~33 ppmv at Mauna Loa). Wheat (Triticum aestivum) samples taken from 1989 and 2007 show a significant decrease in the C isotope discrimination factor (Δ) over time. Stomatal conductance is directly related to Δ, and thus Δ is inversely related to plant intrinsic WUE (iWUE). Historical changes in the 13C/12C ratio (δ13C) in samples of a perennial forb, Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), taken from adjacent successional fields, indicate changes in Δ upon uptake of CO2 as well. These temporal trends in Δ suggest a positive feedback between the increasing CO2 concentration in the

  15. CO2NNIE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin


    We propose a system for calculating the personalized annual fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from transportation. The system, named CO2NNIE, estimates the fuel consumption on the fastest route between the frequent destinations of the user. The travel time and fuel consumption estimated are based......% of the actual fuel consumption (4.6% deviation on average). We conclude, that the system provides new detailed information on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption for any make and model....

  16. Incorporation of digestate selectively affects physical, chemical and biochemical properties along with CO2 emissions in two contrasting agricultural soils in the Mediterranean area. (United States)

    Badagliacca, Giuseppe; Petrovičová, Beatrix; Zumbo, Antonino; Romeo, Maurizio; Gullì, Tommaso; Martire, Luigi; Monti, Michele; Gelsomino, Antonio


    Soil incorporation of digestate represents a common practice to dispose the solid residues from biogas producing plants. Although the digestate constitutes a residual biomass rich in partially decomposed organic matter and nutrients, whose content is often highly variable and unbalanced, its potential fertilizer value can vary considerably depending on the recipient soil properties. The aim of the work was to assess short-term changes in the fertility status of two contrasting agricultural soils in Southern Italy (Calabria), olive grove on a clay acid soil (Typic Hapludalfs) and citrus grove on a sandy loam slightly calcareous soil (Typic Xerofluvents), respectively located along the Tyrrhenian or the Ionian coast. An amount of 30 t ha-1 digestate was incorporated into the soil by ploughing. Unamended tilled soil was used as control. The following soil physical, chemical and biochemical variables were monitored during the experimental period: aggregate stability, pH, electrical conductivity, organic C, total N, Olsen-P, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and the mineralization quotient (qM). Moreover, in the olive grove soil CO2 emissions have been continuously measured at field scale for 5 months after digestate incorporation. Digestate application in both site exerted a significant positive effect on soil aggregate stability with a greater increase in clay than in sandy loam soil. Over the experimental period, digestate considerably affected the nutrient availability, namely Olsen-P, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, along with the electrical conductivity. The soil type increased significantly the soil N-NH4+ content, which was always higher in the olive than in citrus grove soil. N-NO3- content was markedly increased soon after the organic amendment, followed by a seasonal decline more evident in the sandy loam soil. Moreover, soil properties as CaCO3 content and the pH selectively affected the Olsen-P dynamics. No appreciable

  17. Application of rank annihilation factor analysis to the spectrophotometric determination of the formation constant of complex of a new synthesized tripodal ligand with Co2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Golbedaghi


    Full Text Available The complex formation between a new synthesized tripodal ligand (L22py and the cation Co2+ in water was studied spectrophotometrically using rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA. According to molar ratio data the stoichiometry of complexation between the ligand and the cation Co2+ was 1:1. Formation constant of this complex was derived using RAFA on spectrophotometric data. In this process the contribution of ligand is removed from the absorbance data matrix when the complex stability constant acts as an optimizing object and simply combined with the pure spectrum of ligand, the rank of original data matrix can be reduced by one by annihilating the information of the ligand from the original data matrix. The effect of ethanol, dimethylformamide (DMF and acetonitrile (AN was investigated on the formation constant of the Co2+ complex. Complex formation constant in water was estimated as log Kf = 5.09 ± 0.02. In mixtures of solvents of water and DMF and water and AN, the formation constant of the complex was increased because of lowering donor number of the solvent and in mixture of water and ethanol, the complex formation constant was decreased because of lowering of dielectric constant of the solvent.

  18. CO2-laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, E.E. Jr.


    The basic concept of laser fusion is described, with a set of requirements on the laser system. Systems and applications concepts are presented and discussed. The CO 2 laser's characteristics and advantages for laser fusion are described. Finally, technological issues in the development of CO 2 laser systems for fusion applications are discussed

  19. Calcification rates of the Caribbean reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea adversely affected by both seawater warming and CO2-induced ocean acidification (United States)

    Horvath, K. M.; Connolly, B. D.; Westfield, I. T.; Chow, E.; Castillo, K. D.; Ries, J. B.


    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that atmospheric pCO2 will increase to ca. 550-950 ppm by the end of the century, primarily due to the anthropogenic combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation, and cement production. This is predicted to cause SST to increase by 1-3 °C and seawater pH to decrease by 0.1-0.3 units. Laboratory studies have shown that warming depresses calcification rates of scleractinian corals and that acidification yields mixed effects on coral calcification. With both warming and ocean acidification predicted for the next century, we must constrain the interactive effects of these two CO2-induced stressors on scleractinian coral calcification. Here, we present the results of experiments designed to assess the response of the scleractinian coral Siderastrea siderea to both ocean warming and acidification. Coral fragments (12/tank) were reared for 60 days under three temperatures (25.1± 0.02 °C, 28.0± 0.02 °C, 31.8± 0.02 °C) at near modern pCO2 (436 ± 7) and near the highest IPCC estimate for atmospheric pCO2 for the year 2100 AD (883 ± 16). Each temperature and pCO2 treatment was executed in triplicate and contained similarly sized S. Siderea fragments obtained from the same suite of coral colonies equitably distributed amongst the nearshore, backreef, and forereef zones of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System off the coast of southern Belize. Individual coral fragments were hand fed Artemia sp. to satiation twice weekly. Weekly seawater samples (250 ml) were collected and analyzed for dissolved inorganic carbon via coulometry and total alkalinity via closed-cell potentiometric titration. Seawater pCO2, pH, carbonate ion concentration, bicarbonate ion concentration, aqueous CO2, and aragonite saturation state (ΩA) were calculated with the program CO2SYS. Under near-modern atmospheric pCO2 of ca. 436 ± 7 ppm, seawater warming from 25 to 28 to 32°C caused coral calcification rates (estimated from change in

  20. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.


    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  1. Elevated CO2, warmer temperatures and soil water deficit affect plant growth, physiology and water use of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (United States)

    Changes in temperature, atmospheric [CO2] and precipitation under the scenarios of projected climate change present a challenge to crop production, and may have significant impacts on the physiology, growth and yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). A glasshouse experiment explored the early growt...

  2. Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels this century will significantly deplete the nutritional quality of rice affecting the health of rice-dependent populations (United States)

    Globally, rice is the primary food crop and caloric source for the least economically developed countries, especially in Asia. Although studies have explored the impacts of increased carbon dioxide concentration, [CO2] and climate change on rice production, there is limited quantification of the di...

  3. Contingent factors affecting network learning


    Peters, Linda D.; Pressey, Andrew D.; Johnston, Wesley J.


    To increase understanding of the impact of individuals on organizational learning processes, this paper explores the impact of individual cognition and action on the absorptive capacity process of the wider network. In particular this study shows how contingent factors such as social integration mechanisms and power relationships influence how network members engage in, and benefit from, learning. The use of cognitive consistency and sensemaking theory enables examination of how these conting...

  4. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks


    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  5. Effects of tillage practice and atmospheric CO2 level on soil CO2 efflux (United States)

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) affects both the quantity and quality of plant tissues, which impacts the cycling and storage of carbon (C) within plant/soil systems and thus the rate of CO2 release back to the atmosphere. Research to accurately quantify the effects of elevated CO2 and as...

  6. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design


    Kim, Yongi-Mi; University of Oklahoma


    Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR); yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider univers...

  7. Enhanced simulations of CH4 and CO2 production in permafrost-affected soils address soil moisture controls on anaerobic decomposition (United States)

    Graham, D. E.; Zheng, J.; Moon, J. W.; Painter, S. L.; Thornton, P. E.; Gu, B.; Wullschleger, S. D.


    Rapid warming of Arctic ecosystems exposes soil organic carbon (SOC) to accelerated microbial decomposition, leading to increased emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) that have a positive feedback on global warming. The magnitude, timing, and form of carbon release will depend not only on changes in temperature, but also on biogeochemical and hydrological properties of soils. In this synthesis study, we assessed the decomposability of thawed organic carbon from active layer soils and permafrost from the Barrow Environmental Observatory across different microtopographic positions under anoxic conditions. The main objectives of this study were to (i) examine environmental conditions and soil properties that control anaerobic carbon decomposition and carbon release (as both CO2 and CH4); (ii) develop a common set of parameters to simulate anaerobic CO2 and CH4 production; and (iii) evaluate uncertainties generated from representations of pH and temperature effects in the current model framework. A newly developed anaerobic carbon decomposition framework simulated incubation experiment results across a range of soil water contents. Anaerobic CO2 and CH4 production have different temperature and pH sensitivities, which are not well represented in current biogeochemical models. Distinct dynamics of CH4 production at -2° C suggest methanogen biomass and growth rate limit activity in these near-frozen soils, compared to warmer temperatures. Anaerobic CO2 production is well constrained by the model using data-informed labile carbon pool and fermentation rate initialization to accurately simulate its temperature sensitivity. On the other hand, CH4 production is controlled by water content, methanogenesis biomass, and the presence of alternative electron acceptors, producing a high temperature sensitivity with large uncertainties for methanogenesis. This set of environmental constraints to methanogenesis is likely to undergo drastic changes due to permafrost

  8. Air-ice CO2 fluxes and pCO2 dynamics in the Arctic coastal area (Amundsen Gulf, Canada) (United States)

    Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Tison, Jean Louis; Carnat, Gauthier; Else, Brent; Borges, Alberto V.; Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth; Delille, Bruno


    driven by the air-ice pCO2 gradient. Hence, while the temperature is a leading factor in controlling magnitude of air-ice CO2 fluxes, pCO2 of the ice controls both magnitude and direction of fluxes. However, pCO2 in Arctic is significantly higher than in Antarctica. This difference could be due to a higher level of organic matter in Arctic. The degradation of this organic matter fuel CO2 efflux from the ice to the atmosphere in early spring. We observed evidence of CaCO3 precipitation, but only at the top of the ice. Implications in term of air-ice CO2 transfer of such CaCO3 precipitation will be discussed. In addition, salt-rich snow appears to strongly affect air-ice CO2 fluxes in the arctic. Borges, A. V., et al. (2006), Carbon dioxide in European coastal waters, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 70(3), 375-387.

  9. Factors That Affect Software Testability (United States)

    Voas, Jeffrey M.


    Software faults that infrequently affect software's output are dangerous. When a software fault causes frequent software failures, testing is likely to reveal the fault before the software is releases; when the fault remains undetected during testing, it can cause disaster after the software is installed. A technique for predicting whether a particular piece of software is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is found in [Voas91b]. A piece of software that is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have high testability. A piece of software that is not likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have low testability. It is preferable to design software with higher testabilities from the outset, i.e., create software with as high of a degree of testability as possible to avoid the problems of having undetected faults that are associated with low testability. Information loss is a phenomenon that occurs during program execution that increases the likelihood that a fault will remain undetected. In this paper, I identify two brad classes of information loss, define them, and suggest ways of predicting the potential for information loss to occur. We do this in order to decrease the likelihood that faults will remain undetected during testing.

  10. The effects of environmental physical factors on the microbial communities and the distribution of different CO2 fixation pathways in a limestone landscape (United States)

    Wun, S. R.; Huang, T. Y.; Hsu, B. M.; Fan, C. W.


    We aimed to study the effects of physical factors on the relative abundance of bacteria and their preferential admissions of autotrophic CO2 fixation pathways after subjected to environmental long-term influence. The Narrow-Sky located in upper part of Takangshan is a small gulch of Pleistocene coralline limestone formation in southern Taiwan. The physical parameters such as illumination, humidity, and temperature were varied largely in habitats around the gulch, namely on the limestone wall at the opening of gulch, on the coordinate ground soil, on the wall inside the gulch, and the water drip from limestone wall. The total organic carbon was measured in solid samples to evaluate the biomass of the habitats. A metagenomic approach was carried out to reveal their microbial community structure. After the metagenomic library of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was constructed, a BLAST search by "nomenclature of bacteria" instead of sequences between the OTU libraries and KEGG database was carried out to generate libraries of "model microbial communities", which the complete genomes of the entire bacterial populations were available. Our results showed the biomass of habitats in the opening of gulch was twice higher than the inside, suggesting the illumination played an important role in biosynthesis. In quantitative comparison in key enzymes of CO2 fixation pathways by model communities, 70% to 90% of bacteria possessed key enzymes of Fuchs-Holo cycle, while only 5% to 20% of bacteria contained key enzymes of Calvin-Benson cycle. The key enzymes for hydroxypropionate/ hydroxybutyrate and dicarboxylate/ 4-hydroxybutyrate cycles were not found in this study. In the water sample, approximate 10% of bacteria consisted of the key enzyme for Arnon-Buchanan cycle. Less than 2% of bacteria in all habitats take the reductive acetyl-CoA cycle for CO2 fixation. This study provides a novel method to study biosynthetic process of microbial communities in natural habitats.

  11. Correlation between plant physiology and CO2 removable (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Shamsuri, Mohd Mahathir Suhaimi; Hariri, Azian; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Idris, Ahmad Fu'ad; Afandi, Azizi


    Certain plants that are able to live in the building are known as indoor plants. Plants have tolerance with indoor environment in order to survive. Usually these plants are able to improve indoor air quality (IAQ). Absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) by plants is one of the indicators that plants are still alive during photosynthesis process. The possibility of plants structure (plant physiology) to affect CO2 absorption had been the concerns of former researchers. This research intends to study the significant of plant structure (leaf area, fresh weight, and dry weight) that leads to reducing the concentration of CO2 by seven plant species (Anthurium, Dumb Cane, Golden Pothos, Kadaka Fern, Prayer Plants, Spider Plants, and Syngonium). The data of CO2 reduction by plants has been obtained from previous studies. Based on results show that, the leaf area is the most contributing the significant effect to the plant absorb CO2 compare to fresh weight and dry weight. It can be prove by Pearson Correlation, where only the value of leaf area is more than 0.5 for every four conditions. This study can be conclude that the leaf area is quite plays an important role to the plant treat air from CO2, while concentration of light and CO2 will become catalytic factor for the plants improve their photosynthesis process.

  12. Second law analysis of the transcritical CO2 refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fartaj, Amir; Ting, David S.-K.; Yang, Wendy W.


    Because of the global warming impact of HFCs, the use of natural refrigerants has received worldwide attention. Efficient use of refrigerants is of pressing concern to the present automotive and HVAC industries. The natural refrigerant, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), exhibits promise for use in automotive air conditioning systems, in particular the transcritical CO 2 refrigeration cycle. The objective of this work is to identify the main factors that affect CO 2 system performance. A second law of thermodynamic analysis on the entire CO 2 refrigeration cycle is conducted so that the effectiveness of the components of the system can be deduced and ranked, allowing future efforts to focus on improving the components that have the highest potential for advancement. The analysis reveals that the compressor and the gas cooler exhibit the largest non-idealities within the system, and hence, efforts should be focused on improving these components

  13. CO2 storage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, Clas; Andersson, Annika; Kling, Aasa; Bernstone, Christian; Carlsson, Anders; Liljemark, Stefan; Wall, Caroline; Erstedt, Thomas; Lindroth, Maria; Tengborg, Per; Edstroem, Mikael


    with the expansions of natural gas networks for Sweden should be looked for. Issues that need more deep studies are how the injection infrastructures for aquifers need to be modified compared to those used for oil fields, successively improved validation of CO 2 handling costs for Europe and Sweden, regarding i.a. ship transport and industrial compression and cooling of large CO 2 flows in connection to CO 2 capture. It is likely that the local environment would be affected by a possible leakage. Many organisms and ecosystems are sensitive to small changes in the CO 2 concentration. Knowledge exists on how humans, animals and plants would be affected by enhanced contents of carbon dioxide in their immediate surroundings, and on how the physical part of soils and water would be influenced by higher CO 2 concentrations. How individual ecosystems would be affected will have to be assessed based on the conditions in each specific system. Further studies are needed on consequences for ecosystems, especially for ecosystems in the ground, particularly those deep in the ground. Severe environmental damages (large short-term emissions that would damage the surrounding environment, i.e. concentrations around 25 % CO 2 ) would be limited to a few tens of meters from the plant and will therefore not need to be considered. No calculations have been performed for any transport means besides pipelines. Two parallels to CO 2 transport and storage are geothermic projects and natural gas pipelines. For geothermic projects there is a basic positive attitude already before the project start and the operations take place deep in the ground, i.e. at a safe distance from those concerned, and no threatening picture has been felt. No overall legal framework applicable to CO 2 transport and storage exist today, neither within the national Swedish law nor within international/European law. There are however adjacent legal frameworks mainly regarding transport. Providing that the construction of

  14. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit latrines in slums areas of Uganda fill up faster than might be expected from some estimates owing to inappropriate use and failure to consider critical factors affecting sludge accumulation rates at the planning, design and construction stages. This study sought to investigate factors affecting filling rates of lined pit latrines ...

  15. Factors affecting endoglucanase production by Trichoderma reesei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 22, 2011 ... from the ANOVA analysis have a significant value of Pmodel>F= 0.0008 and R2 .... there are various environmental and nutritional factors ... reported to affect cellulase production from wheat straw ... many factors affecting simultaneously the fermentation ..... and control its stability (Kalra and Sandhu, 1986).

  16. CO2 chemical valorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerlero De Rosbo, Guillaume; Rakotojaona, Loic; Bucy, Jacques de; Clodic, Denis; Roger, Anne-Cecile; El Khamlichi, Aicha; Thybaud, Nathalie; Oeser, Christian; Forti, Laurent; Gimenez, Michel; Savary, David; Amouroux, Jacques


    Facing global warming, different technological solutions exist to tackle carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Some inevitable short term emissions can be captured so as to avoid direct emissions into the atmosphere. This CO 2 must then be managed and geological storage seems to currently be the only way of dealing with the large volumes involved. However, this solution faces major economic profitability and societal acceptance challenges. In this context, alternative pathways consisting in using CO 2 instead of storing it do exist and are generating growing interest. This study ordered by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), aims at taking stock of the different technologies used for the chemical conversion of CO 2 in order to have a better understanding of their development potential by 2030, of the conditions in which they could be competitive and of the main actions to be implemented in France to foster their emergence. To do this, the study was broken down into two main areas of focus: The review and characterization of the main CO 2 chemical conversion routes for the synthesis of basic chemical products, energy products and inert materials. This review includes a presentation of the main principles underpinning the studied routes, a preliminary assessment of their performances, advantages and drawbacks, a list of the main R and D projects underway, a focus on emblematic projects as well as a brief analysis of the markets for the main products produced. Based on these elements, 3 routes were selected from among the most promising by 2030 for an in-depth modelling and assessment of their energy, environmental and economic performances. The study shows that the processes modelled do have favorable CO 2 balances (from 1 to 4 t-CO 2 /t-product) and effectively constitute solutions to reduce CO 2 emissions, despite limited volumes of CO 2 in question. Moreover, the profitability of certain solutions will remain difficult to reach, even with an

  17. CO2 cycle (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Byrne, Shane; Colaprete, Anthony; Forget, Francois; Michaels, Timothy I.; Prettyman, Thomas H.


    This chapter discusses the use of models, observations, and laboratory experiments to understand the cycling of CO2 between the atmosphere and seasonal Martian polar caps. This cycle is primarily controlled by the polar heat budget, and thus the emphasis here is on its components, including solar and infrared radiation, the effect of clouds (water- and CO2-ice), atmospheric transport, and subsurface heat conduction. There is a discussion about cap properties including growth and regression rates, albedos and emissivities, grain sizes and dust and/or water-ice contamination, and curious features like cold gas jets and araneiform (spider-shaped) terrain. The nature of the residual south polar cap is discussed as well as its long-term stability and ability to buffer atmospheric pressures. There is also a discussion of the consequences of the CO2 cycle as revealed by the non-condensable gas enrichment observed by Odyssey and modeled by various groups.

  18. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Ahmet INAN


    Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.

  19. How organizational and global factors condition the effects of energy efficiency on CO_2 emission rebounds among the world's power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Don; Jorgenson, Andrew K.; Longhofer, Wesley


    The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the International Energy Agency (IEA), and several nations suggest that energy efficiency is an effective strategy for reducing energy consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions. Skeptics contend that because efficiency lowers the price of energy and energy services, it may actually increase demand for them, causing total emissions to rise. While both sides of this debate have researched the magnitude of these so-called rebound effects among end-use consumers, researchers have paid less attention to the conditions under which direct rebounds cause CO_2 emissions to rise among industrial producers. In particular, researchers have yet to explore how organizational and global factors might condition the effects of efficiency on emissions among power plants, the world's most concentrated sources of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Here we use a unique dataset containing nearly every fossil-fuel power plant in the world to determine whether the impact of efficiency on emissions varies by plants' age, size, and location in global economic and normative systems. Findings reveal that each of these factors has a significant interaction with efficiency and thus shapes environmentally destructive rebound effects. - Highlights: •Skeptics charge that energy efficiency may actually cause CO_2 emissions to rise. •Few have examined whether such rebound effects occur among power plants. •Little also known about whether plants' organizational and global characteristics condition rebounds. •Conduct first analysis of rebound effects among the world's power plants. •Rebounds found to depend on plants' age, size, and location in international economic and normative systems.

  20. CO2-strategier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard


    I 2007 henvendte Lyngby-Taarbæk kommunens Agenda 21 koordinator sig til Videnskabsbutikken og spurgte om der var interesse for at samarbejde om CO2-strategier. Da Videnskabsbutikken DTU er en åben dør til DTU for borgerne og deres organisationer, foreslog Videnskabsbutikken DTU at Danmarks...

  1. CO2-neutral fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goede A. P. H.


    Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel

  2. Factors Affecting Tocopherol Concentrations in Soybean Seeds. (United States)

    Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe


    Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 1, 2013 ... factors affecting sorghum production and the sorghum farming ... The informal seed system includes methods such as retaining seed on-farm from ..... Jaetzold R and H Schmidt Farm Management Handbook of Kenya, Ministry.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Research Organisation scientists working directly with apple farmers ... be productive up to 40 years, it was more realistic to consider .... to determine the factors that affect apple production. ..... profit maximising model using flexible production ...

  5. Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on soil CO2 efflux in a young longleaf pine system (United States)

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) can affect the quantity and quality of plant tissues which will impact carbon (C) cycling and storage in plant/soil systems and the release of CO2 back to the atmosphere. Research is needed to quantify the effects of elevated CO2 on soil CO2 efflux to predi...

  6. Explaining CO2 fluctuations observed in snowpacks (United States)

    Graham, Laura; Risk, David


    Winter soil carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration is a significant and understudied component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Winter soil CO2 fluxes can be surprisingly variable, owing to physical factors such as snowpack properties and wind. This study aimed to quantify the effects of advective transport of CO2 in soil-snow systems on the subdiurnal to diurnal (hours to days) timescale, use an enhanced diffusion model to replicate the effects of CO2 concentration depletions from persistent winds, and use a model-measure pairing to effectively explore what is happening in the field. We took continuous measurements of CO2 concentration gradients and meteorological data at a site in the Cape Breton Highlands of Nova Scotia, Canada, to determine the relationship between wind speeds and CO2 levels in snowpacks. We adapted a soil CO2 diffusion model for the soil-snow system and simulated stepwise changes in transport rate over a broad range of plausible synthetic cases. The goal was to mimic the changes we observed in CO2 snowpack concentration to help elucidate the mechanisms (diffusion, advection) responsible for observed variations. On subdiurnal to diurnal timescales with varying winds and constant snow levels, a strong negative relationship between wind speed and CO2 concentration within the snowpack was often identified. Modelling clearly demonstrated that diffusion alone was unable to replicate the high-frequency CO2 fluctuations, but simulations using above-atmospheric snowpack diffusivities (simulating advective transport within the snowpack) reproduced snow CO2 changes of the observed magnitude and speed. This confirmed that wind-induced ventilation contributed to episodic pulsed emissions from the snow surface and to suppressed snowpack concentrations. This study improves our understanding of winter CO2 dynamics to aid in continued quantification of the annual global C cycle and demonstrates a preference for continuous wintertime CO2 flux measurement systems.

  7. Factor affecting Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato is a very important food crop and is adversely affected by fungus. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation can play an important role in the improvement of potato. The present study was conducted to optimize the different factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chitinase gene. Nodes were used as ...

  8. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) (United States)

    Mason, Larry W.; Way, J. Douglas; Vlasse, Marcus


    The objective of CAM is to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications that will operate in extraterrestrial environments and support future unmanned and human space missions. A primary application is the Sabatier Electrolysis process that uses Mars atmosphere CO2 as raw material for producing water, oxygen, and methane for rocket fuel and habitat support. Other applications include use as an inlet filter to collect and concentrate Mars atmospheric argon and nitrogen gases for habitat pressurization, and to remove CO2 from breathing gases in Closed Environment Life Support Systems (CELSS). CAM membrane materials include crystalline faujasite (FAU) zeolite and rubbery polymers such as silicone rubber (PDMS) that have been shown in the literature and via molecular simulation to favor adsorption and permeation of CO2 over nitrogen and argon. Pure gas permeation tests using commercial PDMS membranes have shown that both CO2 permeance and the separation factor relative to other gases increase as the temperature decreases, and low (Delta)P(Sub CO2) favors higher separation factors. The ideal CO2/N2 separation factor increases from 7.5 to 17.5 as temperature decreases from 22 C to -30 C. For gas mixtures containing CO2, N2, and Ar, plasticization decreased the separation factors from 4.5 to 6 over the same temperature range. We currently synthesize and test our own Na(+) FAU zeolite membranes using standard formulations and secondary growth methods on porous alumina. Preliminary tests with a Na(+) FAU membrane at 22 C show a He/SF6 ideal separation factor of 62, exceeding the Knudsen diffusion selectivity by an order of magnitude. This shows that the membrane is relatively free from large defects and associated non-selective (viscous flow) transport

  9. Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education. (United States)

    Torbert, Brison

    This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…

  10. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence (United States)

    Jabnoun, Naceur


    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  11. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis


    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  12. CO2 flowrate calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carossi, Jean-Claude


    A CO 2 flowrate calculator has been designed for measuring and recording the gas flow in the loops of Pegase reactor. The analog calculator applies, at every moment, Bernoulli's formula to the values that characterize the carbon dioxide flow through a nozzle. The calculator electronics is described (it includes a sampling calculator and a two-variable function generator), with its amplifiers, triggers, interpolator, multiplier, etc. Calculator operation and setting are presented

  13. Impact of short-lived non-CO2 mitigation on carbon budgets for stabilizing global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Riahi, Keywan; Meinshausen, Malte; Schaeffer, Michiel; Knutti, Reto


    Limiting global warming to any level requires limiting the total amount of CO 2 emissions, or staying within a CO 2 budget. Here we assess how emissions from short-lived non-CO 2 species like methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), black-carbon, and sulphates influence these CO 2 budgets. Our default case, which assumes mitigation in all sectors and of all gases, results in a CO 2 budget between 2011–2100 of 340 PgC for a >66% chance of staying below 2°C, consistent with the assessment of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Extreme variations of air-pollutant emissions from black-carbon and sulphates influence this budget by about ±5%. In the hypothetical case of no methane or HFCs mitigation—which is unlikely when CO 2 is stringently reduced—the budgets would be much smaller (40% or up to 60%, respectively). However, assuming very stringent CH 4 mitigation as a sensitivity case, CO 2 budgets could be 25% higher. A limit on cumulative CO 2 emissions remains critical for temperature targets. Even a 25% higher CO 2 budget still means peaking global emissions in the next two decades, and achieving net zero CO 2 emissions during the third quarter of the 21st century. The leverage we have to affect the CO 2 budget by targeting non-CO 2 diminishes strongly along with CO 2 mitigation, because these are partly linked through economic and technological factors. (letter)

  14. On the potential for a CO2 fertilization effect in forest trees: An assessment of 58 controlled-exposure studies and estimates of the biotic growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wullschleger, S.D.; Post, W.M.; King, A.W.


    Characterizing the response of terrestrial ecosystems to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 and estimating their biological capacity to either moderate or accelerate predicted changes in the earth's climate, continues to present a formidable challenge to experimentalist and modelers alike. Nevertheless, it is generally recognized that the carbon dynamics of terrestrial vegetation represent an important biospheric feedback to increasing CO 2 concentrations, and hence to global warming, and as such there exists little debate that ecosystems occupy a.potentially pivotal role in determining both the direction and rate of future changes in atmospheric CO 2 concentration. What is currently the subject of much debate, however, is whether terrestrial ecosystems will contribute to global warming by releasing additional CO 2 the atmosphere as a result of increasing respiration and/or decomposition in a warming climate, or whether they will instead sequester additional carbon in response to the enhancing effects of atmospheric CO 2 on plant growth. This latter response, the so-called CO 2 fertilization effect, has been hypothesized as an important negative feedback to global warming, offering the potential to constrain future increases in atmospheric CO 2 concentration, and has often been invoked to either partially or wholly account for the estimated 1.6 Gt C/year imbalance or ''missing sink'' in calculations of the global carbon budget

  15. Do foreign direct investment and renewable energy consumption affect the CO2 emissions? New evidence from a panel ARDL approach to Kyoto Annex countries. (United States)

    Mert, Mehmet; Bölük, Gülden


    This study examines the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) and the potential of renewable energy consumption on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in 21 Kyoto countries using an unbalanced panel data. For this purpose, Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis was tested using panel cointegration analysis. Panel causality tests show that there are significant long-run causalities from the variables to carbon emissions, renewable energy consumption, fossil fuel energy consumption and inflow foreign direct investments. The results of our model support the pollution haloes hypothesis which states that FDI brings in clean technology and improves the environmental standards. However, an inverted U-shaped relationship (EKC) was not supported by the estimated model for the 21 Kyoto countries. This means that economic growth cannot ensure environmental protection itself or environmental goals cannot await economic growth. Another important finding is that renewable energy consumption decreases carbon emissions. Based on the empirical results, some important policy implications emerge. Kyoto countries should stimulate the FDI inflows and usage of renewable energy consumption to mitigate the air pollution and meet the emission targets. This paper provides new insights into environment and energy policies through FDI inclusion.

  16. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongi-Mi Kim


    Full Text Available Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR; yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider university guidelines, review other websites, and consult with experts and other divisions within the library; however, resources and training for the design process are lacking. While website designers assess their websites as highly successful, user evaluations are somewhat lower. Accordingly, use is low, and users rely heavily on commercial websites. Suggestions for enhancing the usage of ULWR are provided.

  17. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship and Business Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tur-Porcar


    Full Text Available Sustainability is becoming increasingly important for society, and the creation of business ventures is one area where sustainability is critical. We examined the factors affecting actions that are designed to foster business sustainability. These factors are related to the environment, behavior, human relations, and business activity. Based on questionnaire responses from experts, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method was used to rank sustainable business criteria according to their importance for entrepreneurs starting sustainable businesses. The results indicate that the most important drivers of sustainable entrepreneurship are behavioral factors and business factors. Ethical principles and values, together with competitive intelligence, are crucial for undertaking actions that lead to sustainability.

  18. [Dynamic observation, simulation and application of soil CO2 concentration: a review]. (United States)

    Sheng, Hao; Luo, Sha; Zhou, Ping; Li, Teng-Yi; Wang, Juan; Li, Jie


    Soil CO2 concentration is the consequences of biological activities in above- and below-ground, and its fluctuation may significantly affect the future atmospheric CO2 concentration and the projected climate change. This paper reviewed the methodologies for measuring the soil CO2 concentration in situ as well as their advantages and disadvantages, analyzed the variation patterns and controlling factors of soil CO2 concentration across the temporal (diurnal, several days, seasonal and inter-annual) and spatial (soil profile, site and landscape) scales, introduced the primary empirical and mechanical models for estimating and predicting soil CO2 concentration, and summarized the applications and constraints of soil CO2 concentration gradient in determining soil respiration. Four research priorities were proposed, i. e., to develop new techniques for collecting and determining the soil CO2 in severe soil conditions (e. g., flooding, lithoso and others), to approach the responses of soil CO2 concentration to weather change and related regulation mechanisms, to strengthen the researches on the spatial heterogeneity of soil CO2 concentration, and to expand the applications of soil CO2 concentration gradient in the measurement of tropical-subtropical soil respiration.

  19. Partitioning of organics between ionic liquids and supercritical CO2: Limiting K-factors in [bmim][N(CN)2]–scCO2 system and generalized correlation with cation- and anion-specific LSERs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Planeta, Josef; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal


    Roč. 102, JUL (2015), s. 133-139 ISSN 0896-8446 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : ionic liquids * supercritical fluid chromatography * partition coefficient Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2015


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN


    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  1. Factors Affecting the Productivity of Government Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. Haenisch


    Full Text Available While there have been a variety of studies concerning government worker motivation and productivity, few, if any, studies have focused specifically on state government workers’ perceptions about what factors affect their productivity. With more than 5 million workers employed by state governments in the United States, any improvement in state workplace productivity could have significant financial and service impact for society. In this study, state government workers identified those factors perceived as most affecting their workplace productivity. Data were collected through a survey offered to state government workers in the state of Wyoming. Factor analysis was used to derive key productivity factors from survey responses. The results indicate that state government workers appreciate having freedom and autonomy, like their jobs and the sense of achievement, and welcome teamwork, but feel limited by poor supervision and management, poor communications, and insufficient budgets and staffing. To improve productivity, the workers would eliminate bureaucracy, supervise better, and improve communication.

  2. Analysis of Economic Factors Affecting Stock Market


    Xie, Linyin


    This dissertation concentrates on analysis of economic factors affecting Chinese stock market through examining relationship between stock market index and economic factors. Six economic variables are examined: industrial production, money supply 1, money supply 2, exchange rate, long-term government bond yield and real estate total value. Stock market comprises fixed interest stocks and equities shares. In this dissertation, stock market is restricted to equity market. The stock price in thi...

  3. Factors affecting the effects of diuresis renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Deshan


    Diuresis renography is one of the classic methods for diagnosing upper urinary tract obstruction in both children and adults. However, in clinical practice, the results of diuresis renography were often influenced by many factors including diuretics, timing of diuretics injection, the status of renal function and hydration, the volume and compliance of collecting system, bladder fullness and so on. It is important to consider all the factors affecting diuresis renography during performing and interpreting diuresis renography. (authors)

  4. CO2 laser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The research and development programs on high-energy, short-pulse CO 2 lasers were begun at LASL in 1969. Three large systems are now either operating or are being installed. The Single-Beam System (SBS), a four-stage prototype, was designed in 1971 and has been in operation since 1973 with an output energy of 250 J in a 1-ns pulse with an on-target intensity of 3.5 x 10 14 W/cm 2 . The Dual-Beam System (DBS), now in the final stages of electrical and optical checkout, will provide about ten times more power for two-beam target irradiation experiments. Four such dual-beam modules are being installed in the Laser-Fusion Laboratory to provide an Eight-Beam System (EBS) scheduled for operation at the 5- to 10-TW level in 1977. A fourth system, a 100- to 200-TW CO 2 laser, is being designed for the High-Energy Gas Laser Facility (HEGLF) program

  5. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability (United States)

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.


    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Factors affecting career preferences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    College of Medicine prefer to work as doctors, and (ii) what factors may affect their long-term retention in their home country? Methods. We designed ... from rural areas and small towns, and whose parents were 'non- professionals', were .... needs – 5; city life can be difficult – 3; one is closer to family – 2; there is a sense of ...

  7. Workplace, Biographical and Motivation Factors Affecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the findings of a survey on how workplace, biographical and motivational factors affect the organisational commitment of records officers in federal universities in Nigeria. Single stage random sampling, with equal allocation method, was used to administer questionnaire on 300 sampled participants from ...

  8. Factors affecting IUCD discontinuation in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Subash; Paudel, Ishwari Sharma; Bhattarai, Sailesh


    Information related to contraception discontinuation, especially in the context of Nepal is very limited. A nested case-control study was carried out to determine the factors affecting discontinuation of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). A total of 115 cases (IUCD discontinuers) and 115...




  10. Personal factors affecting organizational commitment of records ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated personal factors affecting organizational commitment among records management personnel in the state universities in Nigeria. Simple cluster sampling with equal allocation method was used to select 180 records management personnel from the study population. A five item organizational ...

  11. CO2 Laser Market (United States)

    Simonsson, Samuel


    It gives me a great deal of pleasure to introduce our final speaker of this morning's session for two reasons: First of all, his company has been very much in the news not only in our own community but in the pages of Wall Street Journal and in the world economic press. And, secondly, we would like to welcome him to our shores. He is a temporary resident of the United States, for a few months, forsaking his home in Germany to come here and help with the start up of a new company which we believe, probably, ranks #1 as the world supplier of CO2 lasers now, through the combination of former Spectra Physics Industrial Laser Division and Rofin-Sinar GMBH. Samuel Simonsson is the Chairman of the Board of Rofin-Sinar, Inc., here in the U.S. and managing director of Rofin-Sinar GMBH. It is a pleasure to welcome him.

  12. Identification of factors affecting individual industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadat Mirzadeh


    Full Text Available High knowledge and technology are rapidly becoming a competitive advantage in today’s world. Individual industries are considered one of the key sectors in the country’s industry. Ranking the factors that affect these industries makes us more familiar with their effectiveness and helps us take actions to improve such factors in knowledge-based companies. Consequently, based on previous research studies on Individual Industries, field observations, and a questionnaire prepared by the researchers, the current study explores and classifies the factors affecting the establishment of these industries. Regarding its purpose, this is an applied research, and regarding data collection, it is a descriptive survey. Using purposive sampling, 60 questionnaires were collected and effective factors were classified applying the SPSS software and the TOPSIS technique. This study suggests that content factors are ranked first place, while contextual and structural factors are ranked second and third, respectively. Therefore, executives and managers in single industries are recommended to strengthen joint enterprise norms and dominant values and beliefs in knowledge-based companies in order to help the growth and development of single industries.

  13. Vertical variations in wood CO2 efflux for live emergent trees in a Bornean tropical rainforest. (United States)

    Katayama, Ayumi; Kume, Tomonori; Komatsu, Hikaru; Ohashi, Mizue; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Otsuki, Kyoichi


    Difficult access to 40-m-tall emergent trees in tropical rainforests has resulted in a lack of data related to vertical variations in wood CO2 efflux, even though significant variations in wood CO2 efflux are an important source of errors when estimating whole-tree total wood CO2 efflux. This study aimed to clarify vertical variations in wood CO2 efflux for emergent trees and to document the impact of the variations on the whole-tree estimates of stem and branch CO2 efflux. First, we measured wood CO2 efflux and factors related to tree morphology and environment for seven live emergent trees of two dipterocarp species at four to seven heights of up to ∼ 40 m for each tree using ladders and a crane. No systematic tendencies in vertical variations were observed for all the trees. Wood CO2 efflux was not affected by stem and air temperature, stem diameter, stem height or stem growth. The ratios of wood CO2 efflux at the treetop to that at breast height were larger in emergent trees with relatively smaller diameters at breast height. Second, we compared whole-tree stem CO2 efflux estimates using vertical measurements with those based on solely breast height measurements. We found similar whole-tree stem CO2 efflux estimates regardless of the patterns of vertical variations in CO2 efflux because the surface area in the canopy, where wood CO2 efflux often differed from that at breast height, was very small compared with that at low stem heights, resulting in little effect of the vertical variations on the estimate. Additionally, whole-tree branch CO2 efflux estimates using measured wood CO2 efflux in the canopy were considerably different from those measured using only breast height measurements. Uncertainties in wood CO2 efflux in the canopy did not cause any bias in stem CO2 efflux scaling, but affected branch CO2 efflux. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors affecting patient dose in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, J.L.


    The report, Factors Affecting Patient Dose in Diagnostic Radiology is divided into three main sections. Part one is introductory and covers the basic principles of x-ray production and image formation. It includes discussion of x-ray generators and x-ray tubes, radiation properties and units, specification and measurement of x-ray beams, methods of patient dose measurement, radiation effects, radiation protection philosophy and finally the essentials of imaging systems. Part two examines factors affecting the x-ray output of x-ray machines and the characteristics of x-ray beams. These include the influence of heat ratings, kVp, waveform, exposure timer, filtration, focus-film distance, beam intensity distribution, x-ray tube age and focal spot size. Part three examines x-ray machine, equipment and patient factors which affect the dose received by individual patients. The factors considered include justification of examinations, choice of examination method, film/screen combinations, kVp, mAs, focus-film distance, collimation and field size, exposure time, projection, scatter, generator calibration errors, waveform, filtration, film processing and patient size. The patient dose implications of fluoroscopy systems, CT scanners, special procedures and mammography are also discussed. The report concludes with a brief discussion of patient dose levels in New Zealand and dose optimisation. 104 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs

  15. Soil CO 2 fluxes from direct seeding rice fields under two tillage practices in central China (United States)

    Li, Cheng-fang; Kou, Zhi-kui; Yang, Jin-hua; Cai, Ming-li; Wang, Jin-ping; Cao, Cou-gui


    Agricultural practices affect the production and emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2) from paddy soils. It is crucial to understand the effects of tillage and N fertilization on soil CO 2 flux and its influencing factors for a better comprehension of carbon dynamics in subtropical paddy ecosystems. A 2-yr field study was conducted to assess the effects of tillage (conventional tillage [CT] and no-tillage [NT]) and N fertilization (0 and 210 kg N ha -1) on soil CO 2 fluxes during the 2008 and 2009 rice growing seasons in central China. Treatments were established following a split-plot design of a randomized complete block with tillage practices as the main plot and N fertilizer level as the split-plot treatment. The soil CO 2 fluxes were measured 24 times in 2008 and 17 times in 2009. N fertilization did not affect soil CO 2 emissions while tillage affected soil CO 2 emissions, where NT had similar soil CO 2 emissions to CT in 2008, but in 2009, NT significantly increased soil CO 2 emissions. Cumulative CO 2 emissions were 2079-2245 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from NT treatments, and 2084-2141 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from CT treatments in 2008, and were 1257-1401 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from NT treatments, and 1003-1034 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from CT treatments in 2009, respectively. Cumulative CO 2 emissions were significantly related to aboveground biomass and soil organic C. Before drainage of paddy fields, soil CO 2 fluxes were significantly related to soil temperature with correlation coefficients ( R) of 0.67-0.87 in 2008 and 0.69-0.85 in 2009; moreover, the Q 10 values ranged from 1.28 to 1.55 and from 2.10 to 5.21 in 2009, respectively. Our results suggested that NT rice production system appeared to be ineffective in decreasing carbon emission, which suggested that CO 2 emissions from integrated rice-based system should be taken into account to assess effects of tillage.

  16. Current Travertines Precipitation from CO2-rich Groundwaters as an alert of CO2 Leakages from a Natural CO2 Storage at Ganuelas-Mazarron Tertiary Basin (Murcia, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo-Naharro, J.; Delgado, A.; Herrero, M. J.; Granados, A.; Perez del Villar, L.


    Carbon capture and storage technologies represent the most suitable solutions related to the high anthropogenic CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere. As a consequence, monitoring of the possible CO 2 leakages from an artificial deep geological CO 2 storage is indispensable to guarantee its safety. Fast surficial travertine precipitation related to these CO 2 leakages can be used as an alert for these escapes. Since few studies exist focusing on the long-term behaviour of an artificial CO 2 DGS, natural CO 2 storage affected by natural or artificial escapes must be studied as natural analogues for predicting the long-term behaviour of an artificial CO 2 storage. In this context, a natural CO 2 reservoir affected by artificial CO 2 escapes has been studied in this work. This study has mainly focused on the current travertines precipitation associated with the upwelling CO 2 -rich waters from several hydrogeological wells drilled in the Ganuelas-Mazarron Tertiary basin (SE Spain), and consists of a comprehensive characterisation of parent-waters and their associated carbonates, including elemental and isotopic geochemistry, mineralogy and petrography. Geochemical characterisation of groundwaters has led to recognise 4 hydrofacies from 3 different aquifers. These groundwaters have very high salinity and electrical conductivity; are slightly acid; present high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and free CO 2 ; are oversaturated in both aragonite and calcite; and dissolve, mobilize and transport low quantities of heavy and/or toxic elements. Isotopic values indicate that: i) the origin of parent-waters is related to rainfalls from clouds originated in the Mediterranean Sea or continental areas; ii) the origin of C is mainly inorganic; and iii) sulphate anions come mainly from the dissolution of the Messinian gypsum from the Tertiary Basin sediments. Current travertines precipitation seems to be controlled by a combination of several factors, such as: i) a fast decrease of the

  17. Silvering substrates after CO2 snow cleaning (United States)

    Zito, Richard R.


    There have been some questions in the astronomical community concerning the quality of silver coatings deposited on substrates that have been cleaned with carbon dioxide snow. These questions center around the possible existence of carbonate ions left behind on the substrate by CO2. Such carbonate ions could react with deposited silver to produce insoluble silver carbonate, thereby reducing film adhesion and reflectivity. Carbonate ions could be produced from CO2 via the following mechanism. First, during CO2 snow cleaning, a small amount of moisture can condense on a surface. This is especially true if the jet of CO2 is allowed to dwell on one spot. CO2 gas can dissolve in this moisture, producing carbonic acid, which can undergo two acid dissociations to form carbonate ions. In reality, it is highly unlikely that charged carbonate ions will remain stable on a substrate for very long. As condensed water evaporates, Le Chatelier's principle will shift the equilibrium of the chain of reactions that produced carbonate back to CO2 gas. Furthermore, the hydration of CO2 reaction of CO2 with H20) is an extremely slow process, and the total dehydrogenation of carbonic acid is not favored. Living tissues that must carry out the equilibration of carbonic acid and CO2 use the enzyme carbonic anhydrase to speed up the reaction by a factor of one million. But no such enzymatic action is present on a clean mirror substrate. In short, the worst case analysis presented below shows that the ratio of silver atoms to carbonate radicals must be at least 500 million to one. The results of chemical tests presented here support this view. Furthermore, film lift-off tests, also presented in this report, show that silver film adhesion to fused silica substrates is actually enhanced by CO2 snow cleaning.

  18. Edaphic factors controlling summer (rainy season) greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 and CH4) from semiarid mangrove soils (NE-Brazil). (United States)

    Nóbrega, Gabriel N; Ferreira, Tiago O; Siqueira Neto, M; Queiroz, Hermano M; Artur, Adriana G; Mendonça, Eduardo De S; Silva, Ebenezer De O; Otero, Xosé L


    The soil attributes controlling the CO2, and CH4 emissions were assessed in semiarid mangrove soils (NE-Brazil) under different anthropogenic activities. Soil samples were collected from different mangroves under different anthropogenic impacts, e.g., shrimp farming (Jaguaribe River); urban wastes (Cocó River) and a control site (Timonha River). The sites were characterized according to the sand content; physicochemical parameters (Eh and pH); total organic C; soil C stock (SCS) and equivalent SCS (SCSEQV); total P and N; dissolved organic C (DOC); and the degree of pyritization (DOP). The CO2 and CH4 fluxes from the soils were assessed using static closed chambers. Higher DOC and SCS and the lowest DOP promote greater CO2 emission. The CH4 flux was only observed at Jaguaribe which presented higher DOP, compared to that found in mangroves from humid tropical climates. Semiarid mangrove soils cannot be characterized as important greenhouse gas sources, compared to humid tropical mangroves.

  19. Factors affecting the rural domestic waste generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Darban Astane


    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to evaluate the quantity and quality of rural domestic waste generation and to identify the factors affecting it in rural areas of Khodabandeh county in Zanjan Province, Iran. Waste samplings consisted of 318 rural households in 11 villages. In order to evaluate the quality and quantity of the rural domestic waste, waste production was classified into 12 groups and 2 main groups of organic waste and solid waste. Moreover, kriging interpolation technique in ARC-GIS software was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the generated domestic waste and ultimately multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors affecting the generation of domestic waste. The results of this study showed that the average waste generated by each person was 0.588 kilograms per day. with the share of organic waste generated by each person being 0.409 kilograms per day and the share of solid waste generated by each person being 0.179 kilograms per day. The results from spatial distribution of waste generation showed a certain pattern in three groups and a higher rate of waste generation in the northern and northwestern parts, especially in the subdistrict. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the households’ income, assets, age, and personal attitude are respectively the most important variables affecting waste generation. The housholds’ attitude and indigenous knowledge on efficient use of materials are also the key factors which can help reducing waste generation.

  20. Carbon Dioxide (CO2 Sequestration In Bio-Concrete, An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Alshalif A.


    Full Text Available The emission of CO2 into atmosphere which has increased rapidly in the last years has led to global warming. Therefore, in order to overcome the negative impacts on human and environment, the researchers focused mainly on the reduction and stabilization of CO2 which represent the main contributor in the increasing global warming. The natural capturing and conversion of CO2 from atmosphere is taken place by biological, chemical and physical processes. However, these processes need long time to cause a significant reduction in CO2. Recently, scientists shifted to use green technologies that aimed to produce concrete with high potential to adsorb CO2 in order to accelerate the reduction of CO2. In the present review the potential of bio-concrete to sequestrate CO2 based on carbonation process and as a function of carbonic anhydrase (CA is highlighted. The factors affecting CO2 sequestration in concrete and bacterial species are discussed. It is evident from the literatures, that the new trends to use bio-concrete might contribute in the reduction of CO2 and enhance the strength of non-reinforced concrete.

  1. Field demonstration of CO2 leakage detection in potable aquifers with a pulselike CO2-release test. (United States)

    Yang, Changbing; Hovorka, Susan D; Delgado-Alonso, Jesus; Mickler, Patrick J; Treviño, Ramón H; Phillips, Straun


    This study presents two field pulselike CO2-release tests to demonstrate CO2 leakage detection in a shallow aquifer by monitoring groundwater pH, alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) using the periodic groundwater sampling method and a fiber-optic CO2 sensor for real-time in situ monitoring of dissolved CO2 in groundwater. Measurements of groundwater pH, alkalinity, DIC, and dissolved CO2 clearly deviated from their background values, showing responses to CO2 leakage. Dissolved CO2 observed in the tests was highly sensitive in comparison to groundwater pH, DIC, and alkalinity. Comparison of the pulselike CO2-release tests to other field tests suggests that pulselike CO2-release tests can provide reliable assessment of geochemical parameters indicative of CO2 leakage. Measurements by the fiber-optic CO2 sensor, showing obvious leakage signals, demonstrated the potential of real-time in situ monitoring of dissolved CO2 for leakage detection at a geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) site. Results of a two-dimensional reactive transport model reproduced the geochemical measurements and confirmed that the decrease in groundwater pH and the increases in DIC and dissolved CO2 observed in the pulselike CO2-release tests were caused by dissolution of CO2 whereas alkalinity was likely affected by carbonate dissolution.

  2. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria


    of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level....../distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined...

  3. Edaphic factors controlling summer (rainy season) greenhouse gas emissions (CO_2 and CH_4) from semiarid mangrove soils (NE-Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nóbrega, Gabriel N.; Ferreira, Tiago O.; Siqueira Neto, M.; Queiroz, Hermano M.; Artur, Adriana G.; Mendonça, Eduardo De S.; Silva, Ebenezer De O.


    The soil attributes controlling the CO_2, and CH_4 emissions were assessed in semiarid mangrove soils (NE-Brazil) under different anthropogenic activities. Soil samples were collected from different mangroves under different anthropogenic impacts, e.g., shrimp farming (Jaguaribe River); urban wastes (Cocó River) and a control site (Timonha River). The sites were characterized according to the sand content; physicochemical parameters (Eh and pH); total organic C; soil C stock (SCS) and equivalent SCS (SCS_E_Q_V); total P and N; dissolved organic C (DOC); and the degree of pyritization (DOP). The CO_2 and CH_4 fluxes from the soils were assessed using static closed chambers. Higher DOC and SCS and the lowest DOP promote greater CO_2 emission. The CH_4 flux was only observed at Jaguaribe which presented higher DOP, compared to that found in mangroves from humid tropical climates. Semiarid mangrove soils cannot be characterized as important greenhouse gas sources, compared to humid tropical mangroves. - Highlights: • GHG emission was associated with different soil characteristics. • Highest CO_2 emissions were found in mangroves with larger dissolved C and lower DOP. • Less CH_4 flux was due to low DOP in semiarid mangrove soils.

  4. Carbonation and CO2 uptake of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Seo, Eun-A; Tae, Sung-Ho


    This study developed a reliable procedure to assess the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) uptake of concrete by carbonation during the service life of a structure and by the recycling of concrete after demolition. To generalize the amount of absorbable CO 2 per unit volume of concrete, the molar concentration of carbonatable constituents in hardened cement paste was simplified as a function of the unit content of cement, and the degree of hydration of the cement paste was formulated as a function of the water-to-cement ratio. The contribution of the relative humidity, type of finishing material for the concrete surface, and the substitution level of supplementary cementitious materials to the CO 2 diffusion coefficient in concrete was reflected using various correction factors. The following parameters varying with the recycling scenario were also considered: the carbonatable surface area of concrete crusher-runs and underground phenomena of the decreased CO 2 diffusion coefficient and increased CO 2 concentration. Based on the developed procedure, a case study was conducted for an apartment building with a principal wall system and an office building with a Rahmen system, with the aim of examining the CO 2 uptake of each structural element under different exposure environments during the service life and recycling of the building. As input data necessary for the case study, data collected from actual surveys conducted in 2012 in South Korea were used, which included data on the surrounding environments, lifecycle inventory database, life expectancy of structures, and recycling activity scenario. Ultimately, the CO 2 uptake of concrete during a 100-year lifecycle (life expectancy of 40 years and recycling span of 60 years) was estimated to be 15.5%–17% of the CO 2 emissions from concrete production, which roughly corresponds to 18%–21% of the CO 2 emissions from the production of ordinary Portland cement. - Highlights: • CO 2 uptake assessment approach owing to the

  5. Potential and economics of CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph.; Ciais, Ph.; Orr, J.


    Increasing atmospheric level of greenhouse gases are causing global warming and putting at risk the global climate system. The main anthropogenic greenhouse gas is CO 2 . Some techniques could be used to reduced CO 2 emission and stabilize atmospheric CO 2 concentration, including i) energy savings and energy efficiency, ii) switch to lower carbon content fuels (natural gas) and use energy sources with zero CO 2 emissions such as renewable or nuclear energy, iii) capture and store CO 2 from fossil fuels combustion, and enhance the natural sinks for CO 2 (forests, soils, ocean...). The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the technology and cost for capture and storage of CO 2 and to review the various options for CO 2 sequestration by enhancing natural carbon sinks. Some of the factors which will influence application, including environmental impact, cost and efficiency, are discussed. Capturing CO 2 and storing it in underground geological reservoirs appears as the best environmentally acceptable option. It can be done with existing technology, however, substantial R and D is needed to improve available technology and to lower the cost. Applicable to large CO 2 emitting industrial facilities such as power plants, cement factories, steel industry, etc., which amount to about 30% of the global anthropic CO 2 emission, it represents a valuable tool in the baffle against global warming. About 50% of the anthropic CO 2 is being naturally absorbed by the biosphere and the ocean. The 'natural assistance' provided by these two large carbon reservoirs to the mitigation of climate change is substantial. The existing natural sinks could be enhanced by deliberate action. Given the known and likely environmental consequences, which could be very damaging indeed, enhancing ocean sinks does not appears as a satisfactory option. In contrast, the promotion of land sinks through demonstrated carbon-storing approach to agriculture, forests and land management could

  6. [Differences and sources of CO2 concentration, carbon and oxygen stable isotope composition between inside and outside of a green space system and influencing factors in an urban area]. (United States)

    Sun, Shou-jia; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin-song; Shu, Jian-hua; Zheng, Ning


    The off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique was used to measure air CO2 concentration, stable carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18C) isotope ratios on the Fourth Ring Road (FRR) and in the green space system of Beijing Institute of Landscape Architecture (BILA) in summer and winter seasons. The variations of CO2 concentration, δ13C value, δ18C value and the differences of them between the FRR and the BILA, which were correlated with traffic volume and meteorological factors, were analyzed at half-hour timescale. The results showed that traffic volume on the FRR was large both in summer and winter with obvious morning and evening rush hours, and more than 150 thousands vehicles were observed everyday during the observation periods. Diurnal variation of the CO2 concentration showed a two-peak curve both on the FRR and in the green space system of the BILA. In contrast, diurnal variation of δ13C value was a two-trough curve while diurnal variation of δ18O value was a single-trough curve. The differences of CO2 concentration, δ13C value and δ18O value between the FRR and the green space system of BILA in summer were greater than those in winter. The carbon isotope partitioning results showed that in summer vehicle exhaust contributed 64.9% to total atmospheric CO2 of the FRR during measurement time, while heterotrophic respiration contributed 56.3% to total atmospheric CO2 of the green space system in BILA. However, in winter atmospheric CO2 from both the FRR and green space system mostly came from vehicle exhaust. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that differences of CO2 concentration between the FRR and green space system were significantly related to vehicle volume and solar radiation at half-hour timescale, while solar radiation and relative humidity were the main meteorological factors causing δ13 and δ18O differences between the FRR and green space system. Plants in the green space system strongly assimilated CO2 from fossil fuel burning

  7. CO2 adsorption using TiO2 composite polymeric membranes: A kinetic study. (United States)

    Hafeez, Sarah; Fan, X; Hussain, Arshad; Martín, C F


    CO2 is the main greenhouse gas which causes global climatic changes on larger scale. Many techniques have been utilised to capture CO2. Membrane gas separation is a fast growing CO2 capture technique, particularly gas separation by composite membranes. The separation of CO2 by a membrane is not just a process to physically sieve out of CO2 through the controlled membrane pore size. It mainly depends upon diffusion and solubility of gases, particularly for composite dense membranes. The blended components in composite membranes have a high capability to adsorb CO2. The adsorption kinetics of the gases may directly affect diffusion and solubility. In this study, we have investigated the adsorption behaviour of CO2 in pure and composite membranes to explore the complete understanding of diffusion and solubility of CO2 through membranes. Pure cellulose acetate (CA) and cellulose acetate-titania nanoparticle (CA-TiO2) composite membranes were fabricated and characterised using SEM and FTIR analysis. The results indicated that the blended CA-TiO2 membrane adsorbed more quantity of CO2 gas as compared to pure CA membrane. The high CO2 adsorption capacity may enhance the diffusion and solubility of CO2 in the CA-TiO2 composite membrane, which results in a better CO2 separation. The experimental data was modelled by Pseudo first-order, pseudo second order and intra particle diffusion models. According to correlation factor R(2), the Pseudo second order model was fitted well with experimental data. The intra particle diffusion model revealed that adsorption in dense membranes was not solely consisting of intra particle diffusion. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Hyperspectral detection of a subsurface CO2 leak in the presence of water stressed vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel J Bellante

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of vegetation stress has been posed as a possible large area monitoring tool for surface CO2 leakage from geologic carbon sequestration (GCS sites since vegetation is adversely affected by elevated CO2 levels in soil. However, the extent to which remote sensing could be used for CO2 leak detection depends on the spectral separability of the plant stress signal caused by various factors, including elevated soil CO2 and water stress. This distinction is crucial to determining the seasonality and appropriateness of remote GCS site monitoring. A greenhouse experiment tested the degree to which plants stressed by elevated soil CO2 could be distinguished from plants that were water stressed. A randomized block design assigned Alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa to one of four possible treatment groups: 1 a CO2 injection group; 2 a water stress group; 3 an interaction group that was subjected to both water stress and CO2 injection; or 4 a group that received adequate water and no CO2 injection. Single date classification trees were developed to identify individual spectral bands that were significant in distinguishing between CO2 and water stress agents, in addition to a random forest classifier that was used to further understand and validate predictive accuracies. Overall peak classification accuracy was 90% (Kappa of 0.87 for the classification tree analysis and 83% (Kappa of 0.77 for the random forest classifier, demonstrating that vegetation stressed from an underground CO2 leak could be accurately discerned from healthy vegetation and areas of co-occurring water stressed vegetation at certain times. Plants appear to hit a stress threshold, however, that would render detection of a CO2 leak unlikely during severe drought conditions. Our findings suggest that early detection of a CO2 leak with an aerial or ground-based hyperspectral imaging system is possible and could be an important GCS monitoring tool.

  9. Hyperspectral detection of a subsurface CO2 leak in the presence of water stressed vegetation. (United States)

    Bellante, Gabriel J; Powell, Scott L; Lawrence, Rick L; Repasky, Kevin S; Dougher, Tracy


    Remote sensing of vegetation stress has been posed as a possible large area monitoring tool for surface CO2 leakage from geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites since vegetation is adversely affected by elevated CO2 levels in soil. However, the extent to which remote sensing could be used for CO2 leak detection depends on the spectral separability of the plant stress signal caused by various factors, including elevated soil CO2 and water stress. This distinction is crucial to determining the seasonality and appropriateness of remote GCS site monitoring. A greenhouse experiment tested the degree to which plants stressed by elevated soil CO2 could be distinguished from plants that were water stressed. A randomized block design assigned Alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa) to one of four possible treatment groups: 1) a CO2 injection group; 2) a water stress group; 3) an interaction group that was subjected to both water stress and CO2 injection; or 4) a group that received adequate water and no CO2 injection. Single date classification trees were developed to identify individual spectral bands that were significant in distinguishing between CO2 and water stress agents, in addition to a random forest classifier that was used to further understand and validate predictive accuracies. Overall peak classification accuracy was 90% (Kappa of 0.87) for the classification tree analysis and 83% (Kappa of 0.77) for the random forest classifier, demonstrating that vegetation stressed from an underground CO2 leak could be accurately discerned from healthy vegetation and areas of co-occurring water stressed vegetation at certain times. Plants appear to hit a stress threshold, however, that would render detection of a CO2 leak unlikely during severe drought conditions. Our findings suggest that early detection of a CO2 leak with an aerial or ground-based hyperspectral imaging system is possible and could be an important GCS monitoring tool.

  10. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2011: Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Durban, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: - estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2009; - selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; - CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information. These estimates have been calculated using the IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

  11. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2011: Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Durban, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: - estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2009; - selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; - CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information. These estimates have been calculated using the IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

  12. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusti-Panareda, A.; Massart, S.; Boussetta, S.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Engelen, R.; Jones, L.; Peuch, V.H.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Paris, J.D.; Sherlock, V.


    A new global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) real-time forecast is now available as part of the preoperational Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation (MACC-II) service using the infrastructure of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). One of the strengths of the CO 2 forecasting system is that the land surface, including vegetation CO 2 fluxes, is modelled online within the IFS. Other CO 2 fluxes are prescribed from inventories and from off-line statistical and physical models. The CO 2 forecast also benefits from the transport modelling from a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) system initialized daily with a wealth of meteorological observations. This paper describes the capability of the forecast in modelling the variability of CO 2 on different temporal and spatial scales compared to observations. The modulation of the amplitude of the CO 2 diurnal cycle by near-surface winds and boundary layer height is generally well represented in the forecast. The CO 2 forecast also has high skill in simulating day-to-day synoptic variability. In the atmospheric boundary layer, this skill is significantly enhanced by modelling the day-to-day variability of the CO 2 fluxes from vegetation compared to using equivalent monthly mean fluxes with a diurnal cycle. However, biases in the modelled CO 2 fluxes also lead to accumulating errors in the CO 2 forecast. These biases vary with season with an underestimation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle both for the CO 2 fluxes compared to total optimized fluxes and the atmospheric CO 2 compared to observations. The largest biases in the atmospheric CO 2 forecast are found in spring, corresponding to the onset of the growing season in the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, the forecast will be re-initialized regularly with atmospheric CO 2 analyses based on the assimilation of CO 2 products retrieved from satellite

  13. Manipulative lowering of the water table during summer does not affect CO2 emissions and uptake in a fen in Germany. (United States)

    Muhr, Jan; Höhle, Juliane; Otieno, Dennis O; Borken, Werner


    We simulated the effect of prolonged dry summer periods by lowering the water table on three manipulation plots (D(1-3)) in a minerotrophic fen in southeastern Germany in three years (2006-2008). The water table at this site was lowered by drainage and by excluding precipitation; three nonmanipulated control plots (C(1-3)) served as a reference. We found no significant differences in soil respiration (R(Soil)), gross primary production (GPP), or aboveground respiration (R(AG)) between the C(1-3) and D(1-3) plots in any of the measurement years. The water table on the control plots was naturally low, with a median water table (2006-2008) of 8 cm below the surface, and even lower during summer when respiratory activity was highest, with median values (C(1-3)) between 11 and 19 cm below the surface. If it is assumed that oxygen availability in the uppermost 10 cm was not limited by the location of the water table, manipulative lowering of the water table most likely increased oxygen availability only in deeper peat layers where we expect R(Soil) to be limited by poor substrate quality rather than anoxia. This could explain the lack of a manipulation effect. In a second approach, we estimated the influence of the water table on R(Soil) irrespective of treatment. The results showed a significant correlation between R(Soil) and water table, but with R(Soil) decreasing at lower water tables rather than increasing. We thus conclude that decomposition in the litter layer is not limited by waterlogging in summer, and deeper peat layers bear no significant decomposition potential due to poor substrate quality. Consequently, we do not expect enhanced C losses from this site due to increasing frequency of dry summers. Assimilation and respiration of aboveground vegetation were not affected by water table fluctuations between 10 and >60 cm depth, indicating the lack of stress resulting from either anoxia (high water table) or drought (low water table).

  14. Tuning of Preparational Factors Affecting the Morphological Structure and Gas Separation Property of Asymmetric Polysulfone Membranes (United States)

    Yuenyao, C.; Ruangdit, S.; Chittrakarn, T.


    The aim of this work was to study the effect of preparational factors such as solvent type, evaporation time (ET) and non-solvent additive, on the morphological structure, physical and gas separation properties of the prepared membrane samples by tuning of these parameters. Flat sheet asymmetric polysulfone (PSF) membranes were prepared by the dry/wet phase inversion process combined with the double coagulation bath method. The alteration of the prepared membranes were analyzed through scientific techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA). Furthermore, gas separation performance of membrane samples was measured in term of gas permeation and ideal selectivity of CO2/CH4. Experimental results showed that the change of preparational factors affected to the gas permeation of asymmetric PSF membranes. For example, the selective layer thickness increased with increasing of ET. This lead to increase significantly of ideal selectivity of CO2/CH4. The CO2/CH4 ideal selectivity was also increased with increase of ethanol (non-solvent additive) concentration in casting solution. In summary, the tuning of preparational factors affected to morphological structure, physical and gas separation properties of PSF membranes.

  15. Capture and geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Capture and geological storage of CO 2 could be a contribution to reduce CO 2 emissions, and also a way to meet the factor 4 objective of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This publication briefly presents the capture and storage definitions and principles, and comments some key data related to CO 2 emissions, and their natural trapping by oceans, soils and forests. It discusses strengths (a massive and perennial reduction of CO 2 emissions, a well defined regulatory framework) and weaknesses (high costs and uncertain cost reduction perspectives, a technology which still consumes a lot of energy, geological storage capacities still to be determined, health environmental impacts and risks to be controlled, a necessary consultation of population for planned projects) of this option. Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed

  16. 14CO2 fixation pattern of cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, N.; Schiewer, U.


    The 14 CO 2 fixation pattern of three cyanobacteria in the light and dark were studied. Two different chromatographic methods widely used for separating labelled photosynthetic intermediates were compared. After ethanolic extraction, a rather uniform fixation pattern reflecting mainly the β-carboxylation pathway is obtained for all 3 species. Of the intermediates, glucosylglycerol is specific and high citrulline and low malate contents are fairly specific to cyanobacteria. The composition of the 14 CO 2 fixation pattern is hardly affected by changes in temperature or light intensity, but it is severely affected by changes in the water potential of the medium. (author)

  17. Residual and Solubility trapping during Geological CO2 storage : Numerical and Experimental studies


    Rasmusson, Maria


    Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep saline aquifers mitigates atmospheric release of greenhouse gases. To estimate storage capacity and evaluate storage safety, knowledge of the trapping mechanisms that retain CO2 within geological formations, and the factors affecting these is fundamental. The objective of this thesis is to study residual and solubility trapping mechanisms (the latter enhanced by density-driven convective mixing), specifically in regard to their dependency on ...

  18. Factors affecting academic leadership in dermatology. (United States)

    Martires, Kathryn J; Aquino, Lisa L; Wu, Jashin J


    Although prior studies have examined methods by which to recruit and retain academic dermatologists, few have examined factors that are important for developing academic leaders in dermatology. This study sought to examine characteristics of dermatology residency programs that affect the odds of producing department or division chairs/chiefs and program directors (PDs). Data regarding program size, faculty, grants, alumni residency program attended, lectures, and publications for all accredited US dermatology residency programs were collected. Of the 103 programs examined, 46% had graduated at least 1 chair/chief, and 53% had graduated at least 1 PD. Results emphasize that faculty guidance and research may represent modifiable factors by which a dermatology residency program can increase its graduation of academic leaders.

  19. Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos (United States)

    Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.


    Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

  20. Factors Affecting Gastrointestinal Microbiome Development in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Yieh Lin Chong


    Full Text Available The gut microbiome is established in the newborn period and is recognised to interact with the host to influence metabolism. Different environmental factors that are encountered during this critical period may influence the gut microbial composition, potentially impacting upon later disease risk, such as asthma, metabolic disorder, and inflammatory bowel disease. The sterility dogma of the foetus in utero is challenged by studies that identified bacteria, bacterial DNA, or bacterial products in meconium, amniotic fluid, and the placenta; indicating the initiation of maternal-to-offspring microbial colonisation in utero. This narrative review aims to provide a better understanding of factors that affect the development of the gastrointestinal (GI microbiome during prenatal, perinatal to postnatal life, and their reciprocal relationship with GI tract development in neonates.

  1. Dynamics of soil CO2 efflux under varying atmospheric CO2 concentrations reveal dominance of slow processes. (United States)

    Kim, Dohyoung; Oren, Ram; Clark, James S; Palmroth, Sari; Oishi, A Christopher; McCarthy, Heather R; Maier, Chris A; Johnsen, Kurt


    We evaluated the effect on soil CO 2 efflux (F CO 2 ) of sudden changes in photosynthetic rates by altering CO 2 concentration in plots subjected to +200 ppmv for 15 years. Five-day intervals of exposure to elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) ranging 1.0-1.8 times ambient did not affect F CO 2 . F CO 2 did not decrease until 4 months after termination of the long-term eCO 2 treatment, longer than the 10 days observed for decrease of F CO 2 after experimental blocking of C flow to belowground, but shorter than the ~13 months it took for increase of F CO 2 following the initiation of eCO 2 . The reduction of F CO 2 upon termination of enrichment (~35%) cannot be explained by the reduction of leaf area (~15%) and associated carbohydrate production and allocation, suggesting a disproportionate contraction of the belowground ecosystem components; this was consistent with the reductions in base respiration and F CO 2 -temperature sensitivity. These asymmetric responses pose a tractable challenge to process-based models attempting to isolate the effect of individual processes on F CO2 . © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Factors affecting outcome in ocular myasthenia gravis. (United States)

    Mazzoli, Marco; Ariatti, Alessandra; Valzania, Franco; Kaleci, Shaniko; Tondelli, Manuela; Nichelli, Paolo F; Galassi, Giuliana


    50%-60% of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) progress to generalized myasthenia gravis (GMG) within two years. The aim of our study was to explore factors affecting prognosis of OMG and to test the predictive role of several independent clinical variables. We reviewed a cohort of 168 Caucasian patients followed from September 2000 to January 2016. Several independent variables were considered as prognostic factors: gender, age of onset, results on electrophysiological tests, presence and level of antibodies against acetylcholine receptors (AChR Abs), treatments, thymic abnormalities. The primary outcome was the progression to GMG and/or the presence of bulbar symptoms. Secondary outcomes were either achievement of sustained minimal manifestation status or worsening in ocular quantitative MG subscore (O-QMGS) or worsening in total QMG score (T-QMGS), assessed by Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) quantitative scores. Changes in mental and physical subscores of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed with SF-36 questionnaire. Variance analysis was used to interpret the differences between AChR Ab titers at different times of follow up among the generalized and non-generalized patients. Conversion to GMG occurred in 18.4% of patients; it was significantly associated with sex, later onset of disease and anti-AChR Ab positivity. Antibody titer above the mean value of 25.8 pmol/mL showed no significant effect on generalization. Sex and late onset of disease significantly affected T-QMGS worsening. None of the other independent variables significantly affected O-QMGS and HRQoL. Sex, later onset and anti-AChR Ab positivity were significantly associated with clinical worsening.

  3. CO2 as a refrigerant

    CERN Document Server


    A first edition, the IIR guide “CO2 as a Refrigerant” highlights the application of carbon dioxide in supermarkets, industrial freezers, refrigerated transport, and cold stores as well as ice rinks, chillers, air conditioning systems, data centers and heat pumps. This guide is for design and development engineers needing instruction and inspiration as well as non-technical experts seeking background information on a specific topic. Written by Dr A.B. Pearson, a well-known expert in the field who has considerable experience in the use of CO2 as a refrigerant. Main topics: Thermophysical properties of CO2 – Exposure to CO2, safety precautions – CO2 Plant Design – CO2 applications – Future prospects – Standards and regulations – Bibliography.

  4. Factors affecting scholastic performances of adolescents. (United States)

    Shashidhar, Saraswati; Rao, Chandrika; Hegde, Radhakrishna


    The present study aims at recognizing the social influence, study habits and health factors affecting scholastic performances of adolescents and to compare these factors among the adolescents between two categories of school. A total of 1230 adolescents (13-18 yrs) were screened. Data was collected by personal interview, using the teenage screening questionnaire, Trivandrum, between May 2004 and November 2005. A total 615 students from corporation and private schools were studied. 39.76% (489) were high achievers, 13.5% (166) were low achievers with p poor study habits and social factors were increased in low achievers of corporation schools. On multivariate analysis, the predictor variables for poor scholastic performance were adolescent having refractory error, not having help for study at home, not doing home work regularly, not solving question bank papers and reading only before examinations. It is feasible and worthwhile to identify the determinants of scholastic performance and plan intervention strategies at each school. The results of this study highlight the importance of implementing newer strategies, focusing on strict study patterns and creating the conducive school and home environment for study, so as to achieve better scholastic performances.

  5. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk. (United States)

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I


    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Soil Microbial Responses to Elevated CO2 and O3 in a Nitrogen-Aggrading Agroecosystem (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Booker, Fitzgerald L.; Burkey, Kent O.; Tu, Cong; Shew, H. David; Rufty, Thomas W.; Fiscus, Edwin L.; Deforest, Jared L.; Hu, Shuijin


    Climate change factors such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) can exert significant impacts on soil microbes and the ecosystem level processes they mediate. However, the underlying mechanisms by which soil microbes respond to these environmental changes remain poorly understood. The prevailing hypothesis, which states that CO2- or O3-induced changes in carbon (C) availability dominate microbial responses, is primarily based on results from nitrogen (N)-limiting forests and grasslands. It remains largely unexplored how soil microbes respond to elevated CO2 and O3 in N-rich or N-aggrading systems, which severely hinders our ability to predict the long-term soil C dynamics in agroecosystems. Using a long-term field study conducted in a no-till wheat-soybean rotation system with open-top chambers, we showed that elevated CO2 but not O3 had a potent influence on soil microbes. Elevated CO2 (1.5×ambient) significantly increased, while O3 (1.4×ambient) reduced, aboveground (and presumably belowground) plant residue C and N inputs to soil. However, only elevated CO2 significantly affected soil microbial biomass, activities (namely heterotrophic respiration) and community composition. The enhancement of microbial biomass and activities by elevated CO2 largely occurred in the third and fourth years of the experiment and coincided with increased soil N availability, likely due to CO2-stimulation of symbiotic N2 fixation in soybean. Fungal biomass and the fungi∶bacteria ratio decreased under both ambient and elevated CO2 by the third year and also coincided with increased soil N availability; but they were significantly higher under elevated than ambient CO2. These results suggest that more attention should be directed towards assessing the impact of N availability on microbial activities and decomposition in projections of soil organic C balance in N-rich systems under future CO2 scenarios. PMID:21731722


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Slameto


    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to measure the success rate achieved by the alumni of Open/Distance Learning (O/DL, the Bachelor Education In-service Teachers Program (BEITP, Staya Jacana Christian University(SWCU, Salatiga in their critical thinking habit that lead to their success, and to find factors which determined their critical thinking habit. The factors concerned were student factor (learning motivation, alumni’s readiness to enter ICT community, prerequisite or teacher factor (teacher’s ability in creating and using a new instructional context. This quantitative research belongs to the causality ex-post facto research. The data source was one class of O/ DL, the BEITP, SWCUstudents, who were chosen out of four classes, as many as 32 alumni in the academic year 2015/2016. Data were screened using a self-rating scale, which consisted of 40 items tested valid and reliable, and then reduced to 5 variablas. The BEITP, SWCU Salatiga had graduated most of its alumni who owned critical thinking habit at a high rate. The critical thinking habit was affected by the instructional contexts which enabled a new situation (Model 1, alumni’s readiness to enter the ICT community (Model 2, pre-requisite, i.e., mastery of previous lecture materials (Model 3, and student’s learning motivation (Model 4 to reach 81%. The alumni’s critical thinking habit of 51.20% was determined by the teacher’s role in developing instructional contexts which made a new situation possible. This finding was useful for educational quality management for the effectiveness and productivity of higher education, which should have been focused on the teacher in developing an instructional strategy based on context, alumni readiness to enter the ICT community, prerequisite, and student’s learning motivation.

  8. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette


    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  9. Factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sanaa Abd El Azim


    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, on 207 student nurses from four different grades. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, consisted of 30 items, was used to measure the students' assertiveness level and a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer was used to measure students' psychological empowerment. The study results showed that 60.4% of the students were assertive, while about half of the students were empowered. A positive relation between student assertiveness and psychological empowerment was detected. Moreover, positive relations regarding family income and students' assertiveness and psychological empowerment were determined. The study recommended introduction of specific courses aiming at enhancing the acquisition of assertiveness skills, in addition, nurse educators must motivate their students to express their opinion and personal rights and also they must pay attention for students' empowerment and enhance students' autonomy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors Affecting Fertility Desires in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa C. David


    Full Text Available Factors affecting fertility desires in the Philippines were examined using data from a national survey and from individual and group qualitative interviews involving 143 respondents. Fertility goals usually range from two to three children, but evidence suggests that they are dynamic and may change over a person’s lifetime. Qualitative interviews reveal that when negotiating about family size, it is the partner who wants more children that will be followed. A strong demand for gender balance among offspring creates a willingness to have more children than originally desired. Fertility goals increase over time among women. While those who start childbirth at a very young age successfully space their children, they tend to want larger families than those who start late. Initial fertility goals among women are generally low but may increase because of higher fertility desires among men, a demand for gender balance in children, and the desire for babies once their children have grown.

  11. Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Tomohiro; Kahn, B.


    In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

  12. Numerical simulation of CO2 disposal by mineral trapping in deep aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Tianfu; Apps, John A.; Pruess, Karsten


    Carbon dioxide disposal into deep aquifers is a potential means whereby atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases may be reduced. However, our knowledge of the geohydrology, geochemistry, geophysics, and geomechanics of CO 2 disposal must be refined if this technology is to be implemented safely, efficiently, and predictably. As a prelude to a fully coupled treatment of physical and chemical effects of CO 2 injection, the authors have analyzed the impact of CO 2 immobilization through carbonate mineral precipitation. Batch reaction modeling of the geochemical evolution of 3 different aquifer mineral compositions in the presence of CO 2 at high pressure were performed. The modeling considered the following important factors affecting CO 2 sequestration: (1) the kinetics of chemical interactions between the host rock minerals and the aqueous phase, (2) CO 2 solubility dependence on pressure, temperature and salinity of the system, and (3) redox processes that could be important in deep subsurface environments. The geochemical evolution under CO 2 injection conditions was evaluated. In addition, changes in porosity were monitored during the simulations. Results indicate that CO 2 sequestration by matrix minerals varies considerably with rock type. Under favorable conditions the amount of CO 2 that may be sequestered by precipitation of secondary carbonates is comparable with and can be larger than the effect of CO 2 dissolution in pore waters. The precipitation of ankerite and siderite is sensitive to the rate of reduction of Fe(III) mineral precursors such as goethite or glauconite. The accumulation of carbonates in the rock matrix leads to a considerable decrease in porosity. This in turn adversely affects permeability and fluid flow in the aquifer. The numerical experiments described here provide useful insight into sequestration mechanisms, and their controlling geochemical conditions and parameters

  13. Measuring the CO2 shadow price for wastewater treatment: A directional distance function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Hanley, Nick; Sala-Garrido, Ramón


    Highlights: • The shadow price of CO 2 informs about the marginal abatement cost of this pollutant. • It is estimated the shadow price of CO 2 for wastewater treatment plants. • The shadow prices depend on the setting of the directional vectors of the distance function. • Sewage sludge treatment technology affects the CO 2 shadow price. - Abstract: The estimation of the value of carbon emissions has become a major research and policy topic since the establishment of the Kyoto Protocol. The shadow price of CO 2 provides information about the marginal abatement cost of this pollutant. It is an essential element in guiding environmental policy issues, since the CO 2 shadow price can be used when fixing carbon tax rates, in environmental cost-benefit analysis and in ascertaining an initial market price for a trading system. The water industry could play an important role in the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper estimates the shadow price of CO 2 for a sample of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), using a parametric quadratic directional distance function. Following this, in a sensitivity analysis, the paper evaluates the impact of different settings of directional vectors on the shadow prices. Applying the Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis non-parametric tests, factors affecting CO 2 prices are investigated. The variation of CO 2 shadow prices across the WWTPs evaluated argues in favour of a market-based approach to CO 2 mitigation as opposed to command-and-control regulation. The paper argues that the estimation of the shadow price of CO 2 for non-power enterprises can provide incentives for reducing GHG emissions

  14. Emergency Nurses' Perspectives: Factors Affecting Caring. (United States)

    Enns, Carol L; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V


    Caring is a universal phenomenon. However, as a result of higher patient acuity and staff shortages within the chaotic ED environment, caring behaviors may be in peril. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the meaning of caring from the perspective of emergency nurses. Exploring nurses' perspectives of caring is central to improving staffing and retention issues in this unique work environment. As part of a larger study, a subsample of emergency nurses who work in public hospitals in Manitoba, Canada (n = 17) were interviewed. A qualitative descriptive design was used to gain insight into the caring perspectives of nurses by asking them, "What does caring meaning to you?" and "What affects caring in your practice in the emergency department?" Emerging themes were extracted through analysis of audio tapes and transcripts. Advocacy and holistic care emerged as major themes in the meaning of caring for emergency nurses. Caring was affected by a number of factors, including workload, lack of time, staffing issues, shift work, and lack of self-care. However, lack of management support was the most consistent hindrance to caring identified by study participants. Caring continues to be a unifying concept in nursing; however, influencing factors continue to undermine caring for emergency nurses. Caring is not subsidiary to nursing; it is the central core of nursing. Therefore, fostering a caring working environment is essential for nurses to practice holistic nursing care. It is also imperative to job satisfaction and the retention of emergency nurses. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors affecting medication-order processing time. (United States)

    Beaman, M A; Kotzan, J A


    The factors affecting medication-order processing time at one hospital were studied. The order processing time was determined by directly observing the time to process randomly selected new drug orders on all three work shifts during two one-week periods. An order could list more than one drug for an individual patient. The observer recorded the nature, location, and cost of the drugs ordered, as well as the time to process the order. The time and type of interruptions also were noted. The time to process a drug order was classified as six dependent variables: (1) total time, (2) work time, (3) check time, (4) waiting time I--time from arrival on the dumbwaiter until work was initiated, (5) waiting time II--time between completion of the work and initiation of checking, and (6) waiting time III--time after the check was completed until the order left on the dumbwaiter. The significant predictors of each of the six dependent variables were determined using stepwise multiple regression. The total time to process a prescription order was 58.33 +/- 48.72 minutes; the urgency status of the order was the only significant determinant of total time. Urgency status also significantly predicted the three waiting-time variables. Interruptions and the number of drugs on the order were significant determinants of work time and check time. Each telephone interruption increased the work time by 1.72 minutes. While the results of this study cannot be generalized to other institutions, pharmacy managers can use the method of determining factors that affect medication-order processing time to identify problem areas in their institutions.

  16. Factors affecting hydrocarbon removal by air stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, W.E.


    This paper includes an overview of the theory of air stripping design considerations and the factors affecting stripper performance. Effects of temperature, contaminant characteristics, stripping tower geometry and air/water ratios on removal performance are discussed. The discussion includes treatment of groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents such as TCE and PCE. Control of VOC emissions from air strippers has become a major concern in recent years, due to more stringent restrictions on air quality in many areas. This paper includes an overview of available technology to control air emissions (including activated carbon adsorption, catalytic oxidation and steam stripping) and the effects of air emission control on overall efficiency of the treatment process. The paper includes an overview of the relative performance of various packing materials for air strippers and explains the relative advantages and disadvantages of comparative packing materials. Field conditions affecting selection of packing materials are also discussed. Practical guidelines for the design of air stripping systems are presented, as well as actual case studies of full-scale air stripping projects

  17. Factors Affecting the Underperformance of Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeeka Amarasinghe


    Full Text Available BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama is the largest factory of Brandix Group of Companies catering to VS Pink. It has a labour force of 1250 employees including a direct labour force of 659. Production capabilities have been extended to in-house printing and embroidery sections in addition to cutting and shipping facilities. Like other apparel manufacturers in the industry, BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama also faces much competition and problems in its day to day business operations. One of the major issues so faced is On-Time-Delivery due to underperformance of the employees. Therefore, with the objectives of studying factors affecting the underperformance of the employees of the production department, analysing and identifying such factors, and providing recommendations, a few variables i.e. machines and methods, skill level, financial incentives, leadership practices and working conditions were identified as having a potential impact over the performance of the production employees. Stratified random sampling method was used to select 64 team members from the 32 production modules, and research work continued to collate primary data through administrating a structured questionnaire among selected associates. Null and alternative hypotheses were tested using correlations, and the data is presented as graphical pictures, tables, and in narrative form. However, there were a few limitations such as management influence, sample basis selection, service period, level of understating, time availability and commitment, time availability for the study etc. which may have had an impact over the research findings.

  18. Factors affecting seismic response of submarine slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biscontin


    Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.

  19. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir


    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  20. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilijus Sakalauskas


    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  1. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Liutvinavičius


    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient  attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  2. Ranking agility factors affecting hospitals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdi Talarposht


    Full Text Available Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were selected hospitals. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from the health centers. The construct validity of the questionnaire was approved by confirmatory factor analysis test and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α=0.97. All data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Friedman tests. Findings: The development of staff skills, the use of information technology, the integration of processes, appropriate planning, and customer satisfaction and product quality had a significant impact on the agility of public hospitals of Iran (P<0.001. New product introductions had earned the highest ranking and the development of staff skills earned the lowest ranking. Conclusion: The new product introduction, market responsiveness and sensitivity, reduce costs, and the integration of organizational processes, ratings better to have acquired agility hospitals in Iran. Therefore, planners and officials of hospitals have to, through the promotion quality and variety of services customer-oriented, providing a basis for investing in the hospital and etc to apply for agility supply chain public hospitals of Iran.

  3. Environmental Factors Affecting Where People Geocache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Golbeck


    Full Text Available Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.

  4. Variation of NEE and its affecting factors in a vineyard of arid region of northwest China (United States)

    Guo, W. H.; Kang, S. Z.; Li, F. S.; Li, S. E.


    To understand the variation of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) in orchard ecosystem and it's affecting factors, carbon flux was measured using eddy covariance system in a wine vineyard in arid northwest China during 2008-2010. Results show that vineyard NEE was positive value at the early growth stage, higher negative value at the mid-growth stage, and lower negative value at the later growth stage. Diurnal variation of NEE was "W" shaped curve in sunny day, but "U" shaped curve in cloudy day. Irrigation and pruning did not affect diurnal variation shape of NEE, however, irrigation reduced the difference between maximal and minimal value of NEE and pruning reduced the carbon sink capacity. The main factors affecting hourly NEE were canopy conductance (gc) and net radiation (Rn). The hourly NEE increased with the increase of gc or Rn when gc was less than 0.02 m·s-1 or Rn was between 0 and 200 W·m-2. The main factors affecting both daily and seasonal NEE were gc, air temperature (Ta), atmospheric CO2 density, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and soil moisture content.

  5. The sequestration of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Thiez, P.


    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO 2 , represents a major technological and societal challenge in the fight against climate change. Among the measures likely to reduce anthropic CO 2 emissions, capture and geological storage holds out promise for the future. (author)

  6. CO2 in Alberta - a vision of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, K.


    The potential to develop a province-wide infrastructure for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) collection and transmission was discussed. The petroleum industry's original interest in CO 2 was its potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) for Alberta's depleted oil fields. However, new interest has stemmed from its perceived role in global climate change and the potentially negative business and economic implications of emitting CO 2 into the atmosphere. It was suggested that the development of a province wide infrastructure to collect CO 2 would address both interests. A simple screening of the reservoirs was carried out to determine if Alberta has the right oil reservoirs and sufficient CO 2 supplies to support a large-scale CO 2 infrastructure. The proposed infrastructure would consist of CO 2 supplies from electrical power generation plants, CO 2 trunklines, feeder pipelines to deliver CO 2 from the trunklines to the field and the oil reservoirs where the CO 2 would be injected. Such infrastructures already exist in Texas and Mexico where more than 1 billion scf per day of CO 2 is used for EOR. This study compared the factors leading to a large-scale CO 2 industry with factors in place during the 1970s and 1980s, when most of the hydrocarbon miscible floods were initiated in Alberta. It was concluded that the preliminary economics suggest that the concept has merit. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  7. CO2 Sequestration short course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Cole, David R [The Ohio State University; Navrotsky, Alexandra [University of California-Davis; Bourg, Ian C [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  8. Enzymes in CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gladis, Arne; Thomsen, Kaj

    The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) can accelerate the absorption rate of CO2 into aqueous solutions by several-fold. It exist in almost all living organisms and catalyses different important processes like CO2 transport, respiration and the acid-base balances. A new technology in the field...... of carbon capture is the application of enzymes for acceleration of typically slow ternary amines or inorganic carbonates. There is a hidden potential to revive currently infeasible amines which have an interesting low energy consumption for regeneration but too slow kinetics for viable CO2 capture. The aim...... of this work is to discuss the measurements of kinetic properties for CA promoted CO2 capture solvent systems. The development of a rate-based model for enzymes will be discussed showing the principles of implementation and the results on using a well-known ternary amine for CO2 capture. Conclusions...

  9. Inter-genotypic differences in drought tolerance of maritime pine are modified by elevated [CO2]. (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, David; Mancha, José A; Cervera, M Teresa; Aranda, Ismael


    Despite the importance of growth [CO 2 ] and water availability for tree growth and survival, little information is available on how the interplay of these two factors can shape intraspecific patterns of functional variation in tree species, particularly for conifers. The main objective of the study was to test whether the range of realized drought tolerance within the species can be affected by elevated [CO 2 ]. Intraspecific variability in leaf gas exchange, growth rate and other leaf functional traits were studied in clones of maritime pine. A factorial experiment including water availability, growth [CO 2 ] and four different genotypes was conducted in growth rooms. A 'water deficit' treatment was imposed by applying a cycle of progressive soil water depletion and recovery at two levels of growth [CO 2 ]: 'ambient [CO 2 ]' (aCO 2 400 μmol mol -1 ) and 'elevated [CO 2 ]' (eCO 2 800 μmol mol -1 ). eCO2 had a neutral effect on the impact of drought on growth and leaf gas exchange of the most drought-sensitive genotypes while it aggravated the impact of drought on the most drought-tolerant genotypes at aCO2. Thus, eCO2 attenuated genotypic differences in drought tolerance as compared with those observed at aCO2. Genotypic variation at both levels of growth [CO2] was found in specific leaf area and leaf nitrogen content but not in other physiological leaf traits such as intrinsic water use efficiency and leaf osmotic potential. eCO2 increased Δ 13 C but had no significant effect on δ 18 O. This effect did not interact with the impact of drought, which increased δ 18 O and decreased Δ 13 C. Nevertheless, correlations between Δ 13 C and δ 18 O indicated the non-stomatal component of water use efficiency in this species can be particularly sensitive to drought. Evidence from this study suggests elevated [CO 2 ] can modify current ranges of drought tolerance within tree species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals

  10. Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Pınar


    Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Başkent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

  11. Sustained effects of atmospheric [CO2] and nitrogen availability on forest soil CO2 efflux. (United States)

    Oishi, A Christopher; Palmroth, Sari; Johnsen, Kurt H; McCarthy, Heather R; Oren, Ram


    Soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil ) is the largest source of carbon from forests and reflects primary productivity as well as how carbon is allocated within forest ecosystems. Through early stages of stand development, both elevated [CO2] and availability of soil nitrogen (N; sum of mineralization, deposition, and fixation) have been shown to increase gross primary productivity, but the long-term effects of these factors on Fsoil are less clear. Expanding on previous studies at the Duke Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site, we quantified the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil using daily measurements from automated chambers over 10 years. Consistent with previous results, compared to ambient unfertilized plots, annual Fsoil increased under elevated [CO2] (ca. 17%) and decreased with N (ca. 21%). N fertilization under elevated [CO2] reduced Fsoil to values similar to untreated plots. Over the study period, base respiration rates increased with leaf productivity, but declined after productivity saturated. Despite treatment-induced differences in aboveground biomass, soil temperature and water content were similar among treatments. Interannually, low soil water content decreased annual Fsoil from potential values - estimated based on temperature alone assuming nonlimiting soil water content - by ca. 0.7% per 1.0% reduction in relative extractable water. This effect was only slightly ameliorated by elevated [CO2]. Variability in soil N availability among plots accounted for the spatial variability in Fsoil , showing a decrease of ca. 114 g C m(-2) yr(-1) per 1 g m(-2) increase in soil N availability, with consistently higher Fsoil in elevated [CO2] plots ca. 127 g C per 100 ppm [CO2] over the +200 ppm enrichment. Altogether, reflecting increased belowground carbon partitioning in response to greater plant nutritional needs, the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil in this stand are sustained beyond the early stages of stand development and

  12. Dynamics of soil CO 2 efflux under varying atmospheric CO 2 concentrations reveal dominance of slow processes (United States)

    Dohyoung Kim; Ram Oren; James S. Clark; Sari Palmroth; A. Christopher Oishi; Heather R. McCarthy; Chris A. Maier; Kurt Johnsen


    We evaluated the effect on soil CO2 efflux (FCO2) of sudden changes in photosynthetic rates by altering CO2 concentration in plots subjected to +200 ppmv for 15 years. Five-day intervals of exposure to elevated CO2 (eCO2) ranging 1.0–1.8 times ambient did not affect FCO2. FCO2 did not decrease until 4 months after termination of the long-term eCO2 treatment, longer...

  13. Decoupling of CO2 emissions and GDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Rocha de Salles Lima


    Full Text Available The objetive of this work is to analyze the variation of CO2 emissions and GDP per capita throughout the years and identify the possible interaction between them. For this purpose, data from the International Energy Agency was collected on two countries, Brazil and the one with the highest GDP worldwide, the United States. Thus, the results showed that CO2 emissions have been following the country’s economic growth for many years. However, these two indicators have started to decouple in the US in 2007 while in Brazil the same happened in 2011. Furthermore, projections for CO2 emissions are made until 2040, considering 6 probable scenarios. These projections showed that even if the oil price decreases, the emissions will not be significantly affected as long as the economic growth does not decelerate.

  14. Factors Affecting Internationalization of Indonesia Franchise Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Halim


    Full Text Available Franchise is one of successful business strategies in business expansion. Franchise format has been already adopted in all countries. The success is proven in the world and also in Indonesia. Franchise system can be implemented not only in franchisor country but also in other countries. The spirit of internalization is not only because of market saturated, but also to increase reputation of franchise companies and to follow competitors or customers. Important thing discussed in this research is the franchise life-cycle, franchise growth model, and franchise companies’ profile.  It is found that the Indonesia franchise companies are in the introduction stage. The stage in life-cycle shows its reputation. This study used literature review as methodology, and the purpose of this study is to give a big picture for Indonesia franchise companies to make internationalization. There are some Indonesia franchise business profiles in the discussion part. The factors affecting franchise internationalization were analyzed by PESTEL analysis. Some strategies should be prepared in making decision to go international.  At the end, there are some recommendations and future research relating to internationalize franchise business.

  15. Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien T. Supangco


    Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality

  16. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi


    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  17. CO2 pellet blasting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, K.E.


    Initial tests with CO 2 pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO 2 pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO 2 blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report

  18. Heterotrophic fixation of CO2 in soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantrůčková, Hana; Bird, M. I.; Elhottová, Dana; Novák, Jaroslav; Picek, T.; Šimek, Miloslav; Tykva, Richard


    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2005), s. 218-225 ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/1036; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6066901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : heterotrophic fixation * CO2 * soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.674, year: 2005

  19. Effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition on ecosystem carbon fluxes on the Sanjiang plain wetland in Northeast China. (United States)

    Wang, Jianbo; Zhu, Tingcheng; Ni, Hongwei; Zhong, Haixiu; Fu, Xiaoling; Wang, Jifeng


    Increasing atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen (N) deposition across the globe may affect ecosystem CO2 exchanges and ecosystem carbon cycles. Additionally, it remains unknown how increased N deposition and N addition will alter the effects of elevated CO2 on wetland ecosystem carbon fluxes. Beginning in 2010, a paired, nested manipulative experimental design was used in a temperate wetland of northeastern China. The primary factor was elevated CO2, accomplished using Open Top Chambers, and N supplied as NH4NO3 was the secondary factor. Gross primary productivity (GPP) was higher than ecosystem respiration (ER), leading to net carbon uptake (measured by net ecosystem CO2 exchange, or NEE) in all four treatments over the growing season. However, their magnitude had interannual variations, which coincided with air temperature in the early growing season, with the soil temperature and with the vegetation cover. Elevated CO2 significantly enhanced GPP and ER but overall reduced NEE because the stimulation caused by the elevated CO2 had a greater impact on ER than on GPP. The addition of N stimulated ecosystem C fluxes in both years and ameliorated the negative impact of elevated CO2 on NEE. In this ecosystem, future elevated CO2 may favor carbon sequestration when coupled with increasing nitrogen deposition.

  20. Effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition on ecosystem carbon fluxes on the Sanjiang plain wetland in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen (N deposition across the globe may affect ecosystem CO2 exchanges and ecosystem carbon cycles. Additionally, it remains unknown how increased N deposition and N addition will alter the effects of elevated CO2 on wetland ecosystem carbon fluxes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Beginning in 2010, a paired, nested manipulative experimental design was used in a temperate wetland of northeastern China. The primary factor was elevated CO2, accomplished using Open Top Chambers, and N supplied as NH4NO3 was the secondary factor. Gross primary productivity (GPP was higher than ecosystem respiration (ER, leading to net carbon uptake (measured by net ecosystem CO2 exchange, or NEE in all four treatments over the growing season. However, their magnitude had interannual variations, which coincided with air temperature in the early growing season, with the soil temperature and with the vegetation cover. Elevated CO2 significantly enhanced GPP and ER but overall reduced NEE because the stimulation caused by the elevated CO2 had a greater impact on ER than on GPP. The addition of N stimulated ecosystem C fluxes in both years and ameliorated the negative impact of elevated CO2 on NEE. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In this ecosystem, future elevated CO2 may favor carbon sequestration when coupled with increasing nitrogen deposition.

  1. System-level modeling for economic evaluation of geological CO2 storage in gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.


    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine aquifers or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO 2 storage (such as storage performance, storage capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues) as well as to lower the cost of CO 2 capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis to date on system-level analyses of geological CO 2 storage that consider geological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailed process models to representations of engineering components and associated economic models. The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model for geological CO 2 storage, including CO 2 capture and separation, compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO 2 injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailed reservoir simulations of CO 2 injection into a gas reservoir and related enhanced production of methane. Potential leakage and associated environmental impacts are also considered. The platform for the system-level model is GoldSim [GoldSim User's Guide. GoldSim Technology Group; 2006,]. The application of the system model focuses on evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoir simulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator, EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO 2 . Using a system-level modeling approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gas recovery can be directly weighed against the costs and benefits of CO 2 injection

  2. The direct and indirect CO_2 rebound effect for private cars in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Liu, Zhao; Qin, Chang-Xiong; Tan, Tai-De


    The quantity of China's private cars has increased dramatically in the past decade, which has become one of the key sources of carbon emission and air pollution in the cities of China. In theory, to improve energy efficiency can reduce carbon emission significantly, but the result may be affected by the rebound effect. This paper utilizes a two-stage Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model to estimate the total CO_2 rebound effect for China's private cars during 2001–2012 at the provincial level, then uses a panel data model to analyze its impact factors. The results suggest that, first of all, the CO_2 emissions of private cars have the super conservation effect, partial rebound effect and backfire effect among provinces in China. And the direct CO_2 rebound effect plays a dominant role in the total CO_2 rebound effect in most provinces. Second, the total CO_2 rebound effect of private cars among China's provinces presents an overall convergence trend over time. Finally, the household expenditure and the population density have a negative and positive influence on the total CO_2 rebound effect for China's private cars, respectively. - Highlights: • Private cars have become the key source of carbon emission in China. • This paper employs a two-stage Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model • The direct and indirect CO_2 rebound effects for China's private cars are estimated. • The direct CO_2 rebound effect plays a dominant role in the total CO_2 rebound effect in most provinces. • The total CO_2 rebound effect among China's provinces has a convergence over time.

  3. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin HK


    Full Text Available Hyekyung Jin,1 Yeonhee Kim,2 Sandy Jeong Rhie1,3 1College of Pharmacy, 2Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, 3Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160 aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15. The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=-0.215, P=0.022, sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=-0.335, P=0.000, education level (β=-0.153, P=0.045, health-related problems (β=-0.239, P=0.004, and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018. Conclusion: In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists

  4. CO2: a worldwide myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerondeau, Ch.


    In this book, the author demonstrates the paradox that reducing CO 2 emissions leads to no CO 2 abatement at all. This assertion is based on an obvious statement. Everybody knows that oil resources are going to be exhausted in few decades. The oil that industrialized countries will not use will be consumed by emerging countries and the CO 2 emissions will remain the same. Who would believe that the oil, gas or coal still available will remain unused? The Kyoto protocol, the national policies, the European agreements of emissions abatement, the carbon taxes, the emissions abatement requests sent to the rest of the world, all these actions cost a lot and are useless. CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere will inescapably double during the 21. century but, according to the author, without any catastrophic consequence for the Earth. (J.S.)

  5. Connecting CO2. Feasibility study CO2 network Southwest Netherlands; Connecting CO2. Haalbaarheidsstudie CO2-netwerk Zuidwest-Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, M.


    An overview is given of supply and demand of CO2 in the region Southwest Netherlands and the regions Antwerp and Gent in Belgium. Also attention is paid to possible connections between these regions [Dutch] Een inventarisatie wordt gegeven van vraag en aanbod van CO2 in de regio Zuidwest- Nederland en de regios Antwerpen en Gent in Belgie. Ook worden mogelijke koppelingen tussen de regios besproken.

  6. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / ... to learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. ...

  7. Essays on the Determinants of Energy Related CO2 Emissions = (United States)

    Moutinho, Victor Manuel Ferreira

    Overall, amongst the most mentioned factors for Greenhouse Gases (GHG) growth are the economic growth and the energy demand growth. To assess the determinants GHG emissions, this thesis proposed and developed a new analysis which links the emissions intensity to its main driving factors. In the first essay, we used the 'complete decomposition' technique to examine CO2 emissions intensity and its components, considering 36 economic sectors and the 1996-2009 periods in Portugal. The industry (in particular 5 industrial sectors) is contributing largely to the effects of variation of CO2 emissions intensity. We concluded, among others, the emissions intensity reacts more significantly to shocks in the weight of fossil fuels in total energy consumption compared to shocks in other variables. In the second essay, we conducted an analysis for 16 industrial sectors (Group A) and for the group of the 5 most polluting manufacturing sectors (Group B) based on the convergence examination for emissions intensity and its main drivers, as well as on an econometric analysis. We concluded that there is sigma convergence for all the effects with exception to the fossil fuel intensity, while gamma convergence was verified for all the effects, with exception of CO2 emissions by fossil fuel and fossil fuel intensity in Group B. From the econometric approach we concluded that the considered variables have a significant importance in explaining CO2 emissions and CO2 emissions intensity. In the third essay, the Tourism Industry in Portugal over 1996-2009 period was examined, specifically two groups of subsectors that affect the impacts on CO2 emissions intensity. The generalized variance decomposition and the impulse response functions pointed to sectors that affect tourism more directly, i. e. a bidirectional causality between the intensity of emissions and energy intensity. The effect of intensity of emissions is positive on energy intensity, and the effect of energy intensity on

  8. Uncertainties in relation to CO2 capture and sequestration. Preliminary results. Working Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielen, D.


    This paper has been presented at an expert meeting on CO2 capture technology learning at the IEA headquarters, January 24th, 2003. The electricity sector is a key source of CO2 emissions and a strong increase of emissions is forecast in a business-as-usual scenario. A range of strategies have been proposed to reduce these emissions. This paper focuses on one of the promising strategies, CO2 capture and storage. The future role of CO2 capture in the electricity sector has been assessed, using the Energy Technology Perspectives model (ETP). Technology data have been collected and reviewed in cooperation with the IEA Greenhouse Gas R and D implementing agreement and other expert groups. CO2 capture and sequestration is based on relatively new technology. Therefore, its characteristics and its future role in the energy system is subject to uncertainties, as for any new technology. The analysis suggests that the choice of a reference electricity production technology and the characteristics of the CO2 storage option constitute the two main uncertainties, apart from a large number of other factors of lesser importance. Based on the choices made cost estimates can range from less than zero USD for coal fired power plants to more than 150 USD per ton of CO2 for gas fired power plants. The results suggest that learning effects are important, but they do not affect the CO2 capture costs significantly, other uncertainties dominate the cost estimates. The ETP model analysis, where choices are based on the ideal market hypothesis and rational price based decision making, suggest up to 18% of total global electricity production will be equipped with CO2 capture by 2040, in case of a penalty of 50 US$ per ton of CO2. However this high penetration is only achieved in case coal fired IGCC-SOFC power plants are developed successfully. Without such technology only a limited amount of CO2 is captured from gas fired power plants. Higher penalties may result in a higher share of CO2

  9. Foraminiferal calcification and CO2 (United States)

    Nooijer, L. D.; Toyofuku, T.; Reichart, G. J.


    Ongoing burning of fossil fuels increases atmospheric CO2, elevates marine dissolved CO2 and decreases pH and the saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate. Intuitively this should decrease the ability of CaCO3-producing organisms to build their skeletons and shells. Whereas on geological time scales weathering and carbonate deposition removes carbon from the geo-biosphere, on time scales up to thousands of years, carbonate precipitation increases pCO2 because of the associated shift in seawater carbon speciation. Hence reduced calcification provides a potentially important negative feedback on increased pCO2 levels. Here we show that foraminifera form their calcium carbonate by active proton pumping. This elevates the internal pH and acidifies the direct foraminiferal surrounding. This also creates a strong pCO2 gradient and facilitates the uptake of DIC in the form of carbon dioxide. This finding uncouples saturation state from calcification and predicts that the added carbon due to ocean acidification will promote calcification by these organisms. This unknown effect could add substantially to atmospheric pCO2 levels, and might need to be accounted for in future mitigation strategies.

  10. Atmospheric CO2 fertilization effects on biomass yields of 10 crops in northern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan F. Degener


    Full Text Available The quality and quantity of the influence that atmospheric CO2 has on cropgrowth is still a matter of debate. This study's aim is to estimate if CO2 will have an effect on biomass yields at all, to quantify and spatially locate the effects and to explore if an elevated photosynthesis rate or water-use-efficiency is predominantly responsible. This study uses a numerical carbon based crop model (BioSTAR to estimate biomass yields within theadministrative boundaries of Niedersachsen in Northern Germany. 10 crops are included (winter grains: wheat, barley,rye, triticale - early, medium, late maize variety - sunflower, sorghum, spring wheat, modeled annuallyfor the entire 21st century on 91,014 separate sites. Modeling was conducted twice, once with an annually adaptedCO2 concentration according to the SRES-A1B scenario and once with a fixed concentration of 390 ppm to separate the influence of CO2 from that of the other input variables.Rising CO2 concentrations will play a central role in keeping future yields of all crops above or aroundtoday's level. Differences in yields between modeling with fixed or adapted CO2 can be as high as60 % towards the century's end. Generally yields will increase when CO2 rises and decline whenit is kept constant. As C4-crops are equivalently affected it is presumed that anelevated efficiency in water use is the main responsible factor for all plants.

  11. An analysis of the driving forces of CO2 emissions embodied in Japan-China trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yanli; Ishikawa, Masanobu; Liu Xianbing; Wang Can


    By using the latest China-Japan input-output data sets and the index decomposition analysis (IDA) approach, this article analyzes the driving forces of CO 2 emissions embodied in trade between the two countries during 1990-2000. We found that the growth of trade volume had a large influence on the increase of CO 2 emissions embodiments in bilateral trade. The dramatic decline in carbon intensity of the Chinese economy is a primary cause in offsetting CO 2 emissions exported from China to Japan over 1995-2000. We argue that a better understanding of the factors affecting CO 2 emissions embodied in international trade will assist in seeking more effective climate policies with wider participation in the post-Kyoto regime.

  12. CO2 Capture and Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thambimuthu, K.; Gupta, M.; Davison, J.


    CO2 capture and storage including its utilization or reuse presents an opportunity to achieve deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil energy use. The development and deployment of this option could significantly assist in meeting a future goal of achieving stabilization of the presently rising atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. CO2 capture from process streams is an established concept that has achieved industrial practice. Examples of current applications include the use of primarily, solvent based capture technologies for the recovery of pure CO2 streams for chemical synthesis, for utilization as a food additive, for use as a miscible agent in enhanced oil recovery operations and removal of CO2 as an undesired contaminant from gaseous process streams for the production of fuel gases such as hydrogen and methane. In these applications, the technologies deployed for CO2 capture have focused on gas separation from high purity, high pressure streams and in reducing (or oxygen deficient) environments, where the energy penalties and cost for capture are moderately low. However, application of the same capture technologies for large scale abatement of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel use poses significant challenges in achieving (at comparably low energy penalty and cost) gas separation in large volume, dilute concentration and/or low pressure flue gas streams. This paper will focus on a review of existing commercial methods of CO2 capture and the technology stretch, process integration and energy system pathways needed for their large scale deployment in fossil fueled processes. The assessment of potential capture technologies for the latter purpose will also be based on published literature data that are both 'transparent' and 'systematic' in their evaluation of the overall cost and energy penalties of CO2 capture. In view of the of the fact that many of the existing commercial processes for CO2 capture have seen applications in

  13. Critical factors affecting the integration of biomass gasification and syngas fermentation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan D. Ramachandriya


    Full Text Available Gasification-fermentation is a thermochemical-biological platform for the production of fuels and chemicals. Biomass is gasified at high temperatures to make syngas, a gas composed of CO, CO2, H2, N2 and other minor components. Syngas is then fed to anaerobic microorganisms that convert CO, CO2 and H2 to alcohols by fermentation. This platform offers numerous advantages such as flexibility of feedstock and syngas composition and lower operating temperature and pressure compared to other catalytic syngas conversion processes. In comparison to hydrolysis-fermentation, gasification-fermentation has a major advantage of utilizing all organic components of biomass, including lignin, to yield higher fuel production. Furthermore, syngas fermentation microorganisms do not require strict CO:H2:CO2 ratios, hence gas reforming is not required. However, several issues must be addressed for successful deployment of gasification-fermentation, particularly those that involve the integration of gasification and fermentation. Most previous reviews have focused only on either biomass gasification or syngas fermentation. In this review, the critical factors that affect the integration of biomass gasification with syngas fermentation, such as carbon conversion efficiency, effect of trace gaseous species, H2 to CO ratio requirements, and microbial preference of carbon substrate, are thoroughly discussed.

  14. Elevated CO2 impacts bell pepper growth with consequences to Myzus persicae life history, feeding behaviour and virus transmission ability. (United States)

    Dáder, Beatriz; Fereres, Alberto; Moreno, Aránzazu; Trębicki, Piotr


    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) impacts plant growth and metabolism. Indirectly, the performance and feeding of insects is affected by plant nutritional quality and resistance traits. Life history and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae were studied on pepper plants under ambient (aCO2, 400 ppm) or elevated CO2 (eCO2, 650 ppm), as well as the direct impact on plant growth and leaf chemistry. Plant parameters were significantly altered by eCO2 with a negative impact on aphid's life history. Their pre-reproductive period was 11% longer and fecundity decreased by 37%. Peppers fixed significantly less nitrogen, which explains the poor aphid performance. Plants were taller and had higher biomass and canopy temperature. There was decreased aphid salivation into sieve elements, but no differences in phloem ingestion, indicating that the diminished fitness could be due to poorer tissue quality and unfavourable C:N balance, and that eCO2 was not a factor impeding feeding. Aphid ability to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was studied by exposing source and receptor plants to ambient (427 ppm) or elevated (612 ppm) CO2 before or after virus inoculation. A two-fold decrease on transmission was observed when receptor plants were exposed to eCO2 before aphid inoculation when compared to aCO2.

  15. Sectoral analysis of energy consumption and energy related CO2 emissions in Finland 1990-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirjavainen, M.; Tamminen, E.


    This study describes the development of energy consumption and energy related CO 2 emissions in Finland between 1990-1999. For better understanding of the factors behind the development in main sectors, special indicators are calculated to evaluate how the overall development of the sector is affected by the general activity of the sector, changes in sectoral structure and changes in end-use intensities within the sector. The specific energy consumption of space heating reduced especially during the first half of the decade. Also the total CO 2 emissions caused by space heating reduced, in spite of the increase in the building stock. The main reason for this has been the reduction in specific CO 2 emissions in production of district heat. Regardless of the increased traffic and slightly increased use of passenger cars over public transport, the total energy consumption as well as total CO 2 emissions in passenger transport reduced during the decade. The main reason for this is that the specific fuel consumption of passenger cars has reduced significantly. Volumes in freight traffic increased rapidly after the recession, and as no significant changes have occurred in either specific consumptions or in shares of different transport modes, the total energy use as well as total CO 2 emissions of freight transport have increased. The major factors affecting the energy use and CO 2 emissions of the manufacturing sector have been changes in production volumes. After the recession, growth has been rapid and that has resulted in increased total energy use and CO 2 emissions. Anyway, the especially rapid growth of the less energy intensive electronics industry has resulted in downward overall energy intensity within manufacturing sector. Major factors affecting the specific CO 2 emissions in energy production have been changes in the primary energy supply mix. In electricity production, the major factors have been the increase in nuclear capacity and the variation in net

  16. Experimental study on concrete cutting by CO2 laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsumizu, Akira; Tomura, Hidemasa; Wakizaka, Tatsuya; Hishikawa, Kyoichi; Moriya, Masahiro


    Methods for dismantling nuclear reactor facilities must meet particularly exacting requirements imposed by heavily reinforced and radioactivated reactor shield walls. Conventional methods do not meet all such requirements, however. Intrigued by excellent characteristics of the laser cutting method relative to nuclear facility demolition, we carried out an experimental study to make a comprehensive evaluation of its characteristics, especially for deep cutting, with success in identifying main factors affecting the cutting depth of a laser and characterizing its cutting behavior. The study results indicate that a 50 kW class CO 2 laser has a potential to provide a practicable cutting speed and depth. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Dhawan


    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide is considered as one of the major contenders when the question of greenhouse effect arises. So for any industry or power plant it is of utmost importance to follow certain increasingly stringent environment protection rules and laws. So it is significant to keep eye on any possible methods to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in an efficient way. This paper reviews the available literature so as to try to provide an insight of the possibility of using Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs as the carbon capturing and segregating devices and the various factors that affect the performance of MCFCs during the process of CO2 capture.

  18. CO2 leakage-induced vegetation decline is primarily driven by decreased soil O2. (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyan; Ma, Xin; Zhao, Zhi; Wu, Yang; Li, Yue


    To assess the potential risks of carbon capture and storage (CCS), studies have focused on vegetation decline caused by leaking CO2. Excess soil CO2 caused by leakage can affect soil O2 concentrations and soil pH, but how these two factors affect plant development remains poorly understood. This hinders the selection of appropriate species to mitigate potential negative consequences of CCS. Through pot experiments, we simulated CO2 leakage to examine its effects on soil pH and soil O2 concentrations. We subsequently assessed how maize growth responded to these changes in soil pH and O2. Decreased soil O2 concentrations significantly reduced maize biomass, and explained 69% of the biomass variation under CO2 leakage conditions. In contrast, although leaked CO2 changed soil pH significantly (from 7.32 to 6.75), it remained within the optimum soil pH range for maize growth. This suggests that soil O2 concentration, not soil pH, influences plant growth in these conditions. Therefore, in case of potential CO2 leakage risks, hypoxia-tolerant species should be chosen to improve plant survival, growth, and yield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors Affecting Turkish Students' Achievement in Mathematics (United States)

    Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil; Depren, Ozer


    Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…

  20. Factors Affecting Success of Training Companies (United States)

    Rogala, Piotr; Batko, Roman; Wawak, Slawomir


    This study aims to identify the key factors which influence the functioning quality and success of training companies. Based on an analysis of the requirements included in the quality management system standards for providers of education and training services, a set of twenty factors has been developed. This was followed by a survey for…

  1. O3, CO2 and chemical fractionation in ponderosa pine saplings (United States)

    Environmental factors can affect plant tissue quality which is important for quality of organic matter inputs into soil food webs and decomposition of soil organic matter. Thus the effects of increases in CO2 and O3 and their interactions were determined for various chemical fra...

  2. CO2 absorption/emission and aerodynamic effects of trees on the concentrations in a street canyon in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jian-Feng; Zhan, Jie-Min; Li, Y.S.; Wai, Onyx W.H.


    In this paper, the effects of trees on CO 2 concentrations in a street canyon in Guangzhou, China are examined by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of the concentration distribution, taking into account both the CO 2 absorption/emission and aerodynamic effects of trees. Simulation results show that, under a 2 m/s southerly prevailing wind condition, CO 2 absorption by trees will reduce the CO 2 concentration by around 2.5% in the daytime and at the same time the trees' resistance will increase the difference of CO 2 concentrations in the street and at the inflow by 43%. As the traffic density increases to 50 vehicles/min, the effect of trees on the ambient CO 2 concentration will change from positive to negative. At night, trees have a negative effect on the concentration in the street canyon mainly because of their resistance to airflow. When environmental wind changes, the effect of trees will be different. -- Highlights: ► The trees affect CO 2 concentrations in a street canyon. ► Both the CO 2 absorption and flow resistance of trees are significant factors by day. ► As the emissions of CO 2 increase, the effect of trees will become negative. ► At night, trees have a negative effect on CO 2 concentration due to the resistance. -- The effects of trees on CO 2 concentrations in a street canyon are examined by CFD simulations, taking into account both the CO 2 absorption/emission and aerodynamic effects of trees

  3. Quantitative analysis of an engineered CO2-fixing Escherichia coli reveals great potential of heterotrophic CO2 fixation. (United States)

    Gong, Fuyu; Liu, Guoxia; Zhai, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Jie; Cai, Zhen; Li, Yin


    Production of fuels from the abundant and wasteful CO2 is a promising approach to reduce carbon emission and consumption of fossil fuels. Autotrophic microbes naturally assimilate CO2 using energy from light, hydrogen, and/or sulfur. However, their slow growth rates call for investigation of the possibility of heterotrophic CO2 fixation. Although preliminary research has suggested that CO2 fixation in heterotrophic microbes is feasible after incorporation of a CO2-fixing bypass into the central carbon metabolic pathway, it remains unclear how much and how efficient that CO2 can be fixed by a heterotrophic microbe. A simple metabolic flux index was developed to indicate the relative strength of the CO2-fixation flux. When two sequential enzymes of the cyanobacterial Calvin cycle were incorporated into an E. coli strain, the flux of the CO2-fixing bypass pathway accounts for 13 % of that of the central carbon metabolic pathway. The value was increased to 17 % when the carbonic anhydrase involved in the cyanobacterial carbon concentrating mechanism was introduced, indicating that low intracellular CO2 concentration is one limiting factor for CO2 fixation in E. coli. The engineered CO2-fixing E. coli with carbonic anhydrase was able to fix CO2 at a rate of 19.6 mg CO2 L(-1) h(-1) or the specific rate of 22.5 mg CO2 g DCW(-1) h(-1). This CO2-fixation rate is comparable with the reported rates of 14 autotrophic cyanobacteria and algae (10.5-147.0 mg CO2 L(-1) h(-1) or the specific rates of 3.5-23.7 mg CO2 g DCW(-1) h(-1)). The ability of CO2 fixation was created and improved in E. coli by incorporating partial cyanobacterial Calvin cycle and carbon concentrating mechanism, respectively. Quantitative analysis revealed that the CO2-fixation rate of this strain is comparable with that of the autotrophic cyanobacteria and algae, demonstrating great potential of heterotrophic CO2 fixation.

  4. Soil CO2 flux from three ecosystems in tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melling, Lulie; Hatano, Ryusuke


    Soil CO 2 flux was measured monthly over a year from tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia using a closed-chamber technique. The soil CO 2 flux ranged from 100 to 533 mg C/m 2 /h for the forest ecosystem, 63 to 245 mg C/m 2 /h for the sago and 46 to 335 mg C/m 2 /h for the oil palm. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), the environmental variables over all sites could be classified into three components, namely, climate, soil moisture and soil bulk density, which accounted for 86% of the seasonal variability. A regression tree approach showed that CO 2 flux in each ecosystem was related to different underlying environmental factors. They were relative humidity for forest, soil temperature at 5 cm for sago and water-filled pore space for oil palm. On an annual basis, the soil CO 2 flux was highest in the forest ecosystem with an estimated production of 2.1 kg C/m 2 /yr followed by oil palm at 1.5 kg C/m 2 /yr and sago at 1.1 kg C/m 2 /yr. The different dominant controlling factors in CO 2 flux among the studied ecosystems suggested that land use affected the exchange of CO 2 between tropical peatland and the atmosphere

  5. The CO2nnect activities (United States)

    Eugenia, Marcu


    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges we face today. A first step is the understanding the problem, more exactly what is the challenge and the differences people can make. Pupils need a wide competencies to meet the challenges of sustainable development - including climate change. The CO2nnect activities are designed to support learning which can provide pupils the abilities, skills, attitudes and awareness as well as knowledge and understanding of the issues. The project "Together for a clean and healthy world" is part of "The Global Educational Campaign CO2nnect- CO2 on the way to school" and it was held in our school in the period between February and October 2009. It contained a variety of curricular and extra-curricular activities, adapted to students aged from 11 to 15. These activities aimed to develop in students the necessary skills to understanding man's active role in improving the quality of the environment, putting an end to its degrading process and to reducing the effects of climate changes caused by the human intervention in nature, including transport- a source of CO2 pollution. The activity which I propose can be easily adapted to a wide range of age groups and linked to the curricula of many subjects: - Investigate CO2 emissions from travel to school -Share the findings using an international database -Compare and discuss CO2 emissions -Submit questions to a climate- and transport expert -Partner with other schools -Meet with people in your community to discuss emissions from transport Intended learning outcomes for pupils who participate in the CO2nnect campaign are: Understanding of the interconnected mobility- and climate change issue climate change, its causes and consequences greenhouse-gas emissions from transport and mobility the interlinking of social, environmental, cultural and economic aspects of the local transport system how individual choices and participation can contribute to creating a more sustainable development

  6. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.


    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid

  7. Factors affecting endoglucanase production by Trichoderma reesei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors involved in the screening process were peptone concentration, urea ... ammonium sulfate concentration, calcium nitrate concentration, yeast extract ... pH, incubation time, initial moisture content, inoculum size and substrate amount.

  8. The Factors affect equity investors in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Niavand


    Full Text Available Financial specialist conduct is a focal idea in the behavioral fund which breaks down the impact of different factors on singular value speculator basic leadership. The nature and centrality of these factors on financial specialist basic leadership can be unique and intriguing in different nations. This investigation, thusly, looks at the impact of financial, and behavioral, factors in molding the venture conduct of value speculators in India. The factor incorporates advocate suggestion, unbiased data, individual back requirements, bookkeeping data, established riches expansion and mental self-view/firm-picture incident. The examination found the solid impact of mental self-portrait/firm-picture occurrence, unbiased data, and supporter suggestion on value speculator basic leadership. While, no impacts of variables like great riches amplification, bookkeeping data, and individual budgetary needs are found on value financial specialist's basic leadership with regards to India.

  9. External risk factors affecting construction costs (United States)

    Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia


    Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.

  10. Financial development and sectoral CO2 emissions in Malaysia. (United States)

    Maji, Ibrahim Kabiru; Habibullah, Muzafar Shah; Saari, Mohd Yusof


    The paper examines the impacts of financial development on sectoral carbon emissions (CO 2 ) for environmental quality in Malaysia. Since the financial sector is considered as one of the sectors that will contribute to Malaysian economy to become a developed country by 2020, we utilize a cointegration method to investigate how financial development affects sectoral CO 2 emissions. The long-run results reveal that financial development increases CO 2 emissions from the transportation and oil and gas sector and reduces CO 2 emissions from manufacturing and construction sectors. However, the elasticity of financial development is not significant in explaining CO 2 emissions from the agricultural sector. The results for short-run elasticities were also consistent with the long-run results. We conclude that generally, financial development increases CO 2 emissions and reduces environmental quality in Malaysia.

  11. Recent enlightening strategies for co2 capture: a review (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Qiu, Ziyang; Liu, Jia


    The global climate change has seriously affected the survival and prosperity of mankind, where greenhouse effect owing to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment is a great cause. Accordingly, a series of down-to-earth measures need to be implemented urgently to control the output of CO2. As CO2 capture appears as a core issue in developing low-carbon economy, this review provides a comprehensive introduction of recent CO2 capture technologies used in power plants or other industries. Strategies for CO2 capture, e.g. pre-combustion, post-combustion and oxyfuel combustion, are covered in this article. Another enlightening technology for CO2 capture based on fluidized beds is intensively discussed.

  12. Factors Affecting Organizational Commitment in Navy Corpsmen. (United States)

    Booth-Kewley, Stephanie; Dell'Acqua, Renée G; Thomsen, Cynthia J


    Organizational commitment is a psychological state that has a strong impact on the likelihood that employees will remain with an organization. Among military personnel, organizational commitment is predictive of a number of important outcomes, including reenlistment intentions, job performance, morale, and perceived readiness. Because of the unique challenges and experiences associated with military service, it may be that organizational commitment is even more critical in the military than in civilian populations. Despite the essential role that they play in protecting the health of other service members, little is known about the factors that influence Navy Corpsmen's organizational commitment. This study investigated demographic and psychosocial factors that may be associated with organizational commitment among Corpsmen. Surveys of organizational commitment and possible demographic and psychosocial correlates of organizational commitment were completed by 1,597 male, active duty Navy Corpsmen attending Field Medical Training Battalion-West, Camp Pendleton, California. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors of organizational commitment. Of the 12 demographic and psychosocial factors examined, 6 factors emerged as significant predictors of organizational commitment in the final model: preservice motivation to be a Corpsman, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, confidence regarding promotions, occupational self-efficacy, social support for a Corpsman career, and lower depression. Importantly, a number of the factors that emerged as significant correlates of organizational commitment in this study are potentially modifiable. These factors include confidence regarding promotions, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, and occupational self-efficacy. It is recommended that military leaders and policy-makers take concrete steps to address these factors, thereby strengthening

  13. Identifying factors affecting optimal management of agricultural water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian


    In addition to quantitative methodology such as descriptive statistics and factor analysis a qualitative methodology was employed for dynamic simulation among variables through Vensim software. In this study, the factor analysis technique was used through the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett tests. From the results, four key elements were identified as factors affecting the optimal management of agricultural water in Hamedan area. These factors were institutional and legal factors, technical and knowledge factors, economic factors and social factors.

  14. Impact of Three-Phase Relative Permeability and Hysteresis Models on Forecasts of Storage Associated With CO2-EOR (United States)

    Jia, Wei; McPherson, Brian; Pan, Feng; Dai, Zhenxue; Moodie, Nathan; Xiao, Ting


    Geological CO2 sequestration in conjunction with enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) includes complex multiphase flow processes compared to CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers. Two of the most important factors affecting multiphase flow in CO2-EOR are three-phase relative permeability and associated hysteresis, both of which are difficult to measure and are usually represented by numerical interpolation models. The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of (1) the relative impacts of different three-phase relative permeability models and hysteresis models on CO2 trapping mechanisms, and (2) uncertainty associated with these two factors. Four different three-phase relative permeability models and three hysteresis models were applied to simulations of an active CO2-EOR site, the SACROC unit located in western Texas. To eliminate possible bias of deterministic parameters, we utilized a sequential Gaussian simulation technique to generate 50 realizations to describe heterogeneity of porosity and permeability, based on data obtained from well logs and seismic survey. Simulation results of forecasted CO2 storage suggested that (1) the choice of three-phase relative permeability model and hysteresis model led to noticeable impacts on forecasted CO2 sequestration capacity; (2) impacts of three-phase relative permeability models and hysteresis models on CO2 trapping are small during the CO2-EOR injection period, and increase during the post-EOR CO2 injection period; (3) the specific choice of hysteresis model is more important relative to the choice of three-phase relative permeability model; and (4) using the recommended three-phase WAG (Water-Alternating-Gas) hysteresis model may increase the impact of three-phase relative permeability models and uncertainty due to heterogeneity.

  15. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy


    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  16. Genotypes of Brassica rapa respond differently to plant-induced variation in air CO2 concentration in growth chambers with standard and enhanced venting. (United States)

    Edwards, Christine E; Haselhorst, Monia S H; McKnite, Autumn M; Ewers, Brent E; Williams, David G; Weinig, Cynthia


    Growth chambers allow measurement of phenotypic differences among genotypes under controlled environment conditions. However, unintended variation in growth chamber air CO2 concentration ([CO2]) may affect the expression of diverse phenotypic traits, and genotypes may differ in their response to variation in [CO2]. We monitored [CO2] and quantified phenotypic responses of 22 Brassica rapa genotypes in growth chambers with either standard or enhanced venting. [CO2] in chambers with standard venting dropped to 280 micromol mol(-1) during the period of maximum canopy development, approximately 80 micromol mol(-1) lower than in chambers with enhanced venting. The stable carbon isotope ratio of CO2 in chamber air (delta13C(air)) was negatively correlated with [CO2], suggesting that photosynthesis caused observed [CO2] decreases. Significant genotype x chamber-venting interactions were detected for 12 of 20 traits, likely due to differences in the extent to which [CO2] changed in relation to genotypes' phenology or differential sensitivity of genotypes to low [CO2]. One trait, 13C discrimination (delta13C), was particularly influenced by unaccounted-for fluctuations in delta13C(air) and [CO2]. Observed responses to [CO2] suggest that genetic variance components estimated in poorly vented growth chambers may be influenced by the expression of genes involved in CO2 stress responses; genotypic values estimated in these chambers may likewise be misleading such that some mapped quantitative trait loci may regulate responses to CO2 stress rather than a response to the environmental factor of interest. These results underscore the importance of monitoring, and where possible, controlling [CO2].

  17. On a CO2 ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, P.


    In 2 years all the large energy companies in the European Union will have a CO2 ration, including a system to trade a shortage or surplus of emission rights. A cost effective system to reduce emission, provided that the government does not auction the emission rights [nl

  18. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.


    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  19. Some factors affecting the distribution of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grainger, C.R.


    The importance of the distribution of radon in the natural background radiation exposures for man is stressed. Factors which effect the distribution include the origin of the rocks, the permeability of the rocks, fractures in the rocks and ground water flow. (U.K.)

  20. Factors Affecting the Internal Audit Effectiveness


    Mustika, Adhista Cahya


    This study tests the factors that influence the internal audit effectiveness, including internal auditor competencies, internal auditor independence, auditee support to internal audit activity, and the internal and external auditor relationship. Using the internal auditor inspectorate in Java Province, Indonesia, we found that the internal audit effectiveness can be attained through increase internal audit competence, independence and strong relationship between internal and external auditor....

  1. Using hyperspectral plant signatures for CO2 leak detection during the 2008 ZERT CO2 sequestration field experiment in Bozeman, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Male, E.J.; Pickles, W.L.; Silver, E.A.; Hoffmann, G.D.; Lewicki, J.; Apple, M.; Repasky, K.; Burton, E.A.


    Hyperspectral plant signatures can be used as a short-term, as well as long-term (100-yr timescale) monitoring technique to verify that CO2 sequestration fields have not been compromised. An influx of CO2 gas into the soil can stress vegetation, which causes changes in the visible to nearinfrared reflectance spectral signature of the vegetation. For 29 days, beginning on July 9th, 2008, pure carbon dioxide gas was released through a 100-meter long horizontal injection well, at a flow rate of 300 kg/day. Spectral signatures were recorded almost daily from an unmown patch of plants over the injection with a ''FieldSpec Pro'' spectrometer by Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc. Measurements were taken both inside and outside of the CO2 leak zone to normalize observations for other environmental factors affecting the plants.

  2. Review: Factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Bertelsen, Maja; Pedersen, Lene Juul


    and pigs’ earlier experience. Further, these primary factors are affected by secondary factors such as the shape of the pen, the weight of the pigs and especially the heat balance of the pigs, which is affected by several tertiary factors including, for example, temperature, humidity and draught. Results...

  3. Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian University system. ... which mostly affect women‟s job performance in the Nigerian university system. ... are essential in building a gender-friendly university work environment.

  4. Factors Affecting the Thickness of Thermal Aureoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Annen


    Full Text Available Intrusions of magma induce thermal aureoles in the country rock. Analytical solutions predict that the thickness of an aureole is proportional to the thickness of the intrusion. However, in the field, thermal aureoles are often significantly thinner or wider than predicted by simple thermal models. Numerical models show that thermal aureoles are wider if the heat transfer in the magma is faster than in the country rock due to contrasts in thermal diffusivities or the effect of magma convection. Large thermal aureoles can also be caused by repeated injection close to the contact. Aureoles are thin when heat transfer in the country rock is faster than heat transfer within the magma or in case of incrementally, slowly emplaced magma. Absorption of latent heat due to metamorphic reactions or water volatilization also affects thermal aureoles but to a lesser extent. The way these parameters affect the thickness of a thermal aureole depends on the isotherm under consideration, hence on which metamorphic phase is used to draw the limit of the aureole. Thermal aureoles provide insight on the dynamics of intrusions emplacement. Although available examples are limited, asymmetric aureoles point to magma emplacement by over-accretion for mafic cases and by under-accretion for felsic cases, consistent with geochronological data.

  5. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows. (United States)

    Coleman, D A; Thayne, W V; Dailey, R A


    We conducted two studies to determine how herd management practices and traits of individual cows affect performance of the herd and of the cow within a herd. Management practices, reproductive performance of the herd, and relationships between management and reproductive performance were characterized on 83 dairy farms with 7596 cows. Data included 21 management variables (e.g., facilities, herd health program, estrous detection program) and 8 performance variables obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement or unofficial records (e.g., size of herd, production, days open). Although varying among herds, annual average herd incidences of reproductive disorders and reproductive performance were similar to those reported. Managerial practices influenced incidences of retained placenta and uterine infection, days open of cows not bred and of all cows, services per conception, and percentages of herd open more than 100 days and culled for low production. Veterinarian was the most consistent variable influencing herd reproductive performance. Data also were collected from production and lifetime records of 2532 cows in 19 herds. Reproductive performance was affected by season of calving, production, maturity, and reproductive disorders. Several cows with extremely poor reproductive records were maintained.

  6. City density and CO_2 efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudipudi, Ramana; Fluschnik, Till; Ros, Anselmo García Cantú; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.


    Cities play a vital role in the global climate change mitigation agenda. City population density is one of the key factors that influence urban energy consumption and the subsequent GHG emissions. However, previous research on the relationship between population density and GHG emissions led to contradictory results due to urban/rural definition conundrum and the varying methodologies for estimating GHG emissions. This work addresses these ambiguities by employing the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) and utilizing the gridded CO_2 emissions data. Our results, derived from the analysis of all inhabited areas in the US, show a sub-linear relationship between population density and the total emissions (i.e. the sum of on-road and building emissions) on a per capita basis. Accordingly, we find that doubling the population density would entail a reduction in the total CO_2 emissions in buildings and on-road sectors typically by at least 42%. Moreover, we find that population density exerts a higher influence on on-road emissions than buildings emissions. From an energy consumption point of view, our results suggest that on-going urban sprawl will lead to an increase in on-road energy consumption in cities and therefore stresses the importance of developing adequate local policy measures to limit urban sprawl. - Highlights: •We use gridded population, land use and CO_2 emissions data. •We attribute building and on-road sectoral emissions to populated settlements. •We apply CCA to identify unique city extents and population densities. •Doubling the population density increases CO_2 efficiency typically by 42%. •Population density has more influence on-road CO_2 efficiency than buildings sector.

  7. Factors Affecting Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the factors influencing labour productivity in the manufacturing business sector in 20042008. Labour productivity was analyzed in the context of the assets productivity, technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, wages, value added and depreciation costs, and using linear stepwise regression. The study shows that despite significant progress, the level of labour productivity in domestic manufacturing significantly lower than the average in the European Union. Lower than in Poland, the level of labour productivity gain only companies in Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Estimated parameters of the regression function showed that the most important determinants of labour productivity in manufacturing are technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, assets productivity, level of added value in relation to revenues. These factors explain the variability of labour productivity in 20042008 in a high degree.

  8. Trust Factors Affecting Cooperation in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev; Haugbølle, Kim; Bejder, Erik


    advisor was carried out. The analysis showed that the ability to be trustful can be developed through the experience of different factors (e.g. control mechanisms, mutual respect, repeated cooperation, shared understanding and communication). Furthermore, the ability to trust other parties depends...... on knowledge of others' skillsets. Interdisciplinary collaboration through education would limit the formation of negative stereotypes and the overall trust level increases, due to more and better knowledge of other disciplines....

  9. Assessing the factors behind CO2 emissions changes over the phases 1 and 2 of the EU ETS: an econometric analysis. CDC Climat Research - Working Paper No. 2013-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloaguen, Olivier; Alberola, Emilie


    It has been repeatedly said that the economic slowdown that began in 2008 largely explains the fall in carbon emissions recorded in Europe since the introduction of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). In fact, the European Union stated this very clearly in its initial report on the operation of the EU ETS in November 2012. Using an econometric analysis based on a business-as-usual scenario, it is shown that reductions of around 1.1 GtCO 2 are likely to have been achieved within the scope of the 11.000 installations covered by the EU ETS. Of those reductions, between 600 and 700 million tonnes are said to have resulted from the two policies in the 2020 Climate and Energy Package, which aims to achieve a 20% renewable energy target (a decrease of around 500 million tonnes) and a 20% improvement in energy intensity (a decrease of between 100 and 200 million tonnes). The economic downturn also played a significant, although not dominant role in the decrease in CO 2 emissions, the impact of which was estimated at 300 million tonnes. Price substitution effects induced by coal and gas prices also seem to have affected emissions, within an order of magnitude of around 200 million tonnes. The study does not enable any impact created by the carbon price to be identified. It is important. However, to emphasize that the economic downturn and the development of RE were responsible for the decrease of the carbon price, and specifically marginalised its influence in terms of CO 2 emission reductions at the installations covered within the EU. (authors)

  10. Experimental Studies of CO2 Capturing from the Flue Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Rahmandoost


    Full Text Available CO2 emissions from combustion flue gases have turned into a major factor in global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture (PCC from industrial utility flue gases by reactive absorption can substantially reduce the emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2. To test a new solvent (AIT600 for this purpose, a small pilot plant was used. This paper presents the results of studies on chemical methods of absorbing CO2 from flue gases with the new solvent, and evaluates the effects of operating conditions on CO2 absorption efficiency. CO2 removal rate of the AIT600 solvent was higher in comparison to the conventional monoethanolamine (MEA solvent. The optimized temperature of the absorber column was 60 °C for CO2 absorption in this pilot plant. The overall absorption rate (Φ and the volumetric overall mass transfer coefficient (KGaV were also investigated.

  11. Economic evaluation of CO2 pipeline transport in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongjie; Wang Zhe; Sun Jining; Zhang Lili; Li Zheng


    Highlights: ► We build a static hydrodynamic model of CO 2 pipeline for CCS application. ► We study the impact on pressure drop of pipeline by viscosity, density and elevation. ► We point out that density has a bigger impact on pressure drop than viscosity. ► We suggest dense phase transport is preferred than supercritical state. ► We present cost-optimal pipeline diameters for different flowrates and distances. - Abstract: Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an important option for CO 2 mitigation and an optimized CO 2 pipeline transport system is necessary for large scale CCS implementation. In the present work, a hydrodynamic model for CO 2 pipeline transport was built up and the hydrodynamic performances of CO 2 pipeline as well as the impacts of multiple factors on pressure drop behavior along the pipeline were studied. Based on the model, an economic model was established to optimize the CO 2 pipeline transport system economically and to evaluate the unit transport cost of CO 2 pipeline in China. The hydrodynamic model results show that pipe diameter, soil temperature, and pipeline elevation change have significant influence on the pressure drop behavior of CO 2 in the pipeline. The design of pipeline system, including pipeline diameter and number of boosters etc., was optimized to achieve a lowest unit CO 2 transport cost. In regarding to the unit cost, when the transport flow rate and distance are between 1–5 MtCO 2 /year and 100–500 km, respectively, the unit CO 2 transport cost mainly lies between 0.1–0.6 RMB/(tCO 2 km) and electricity consumption cost of the pipeline inlet compressor was found to take more than 60% of the total cost. The present work provides reference for CO 2 transport pipeline design and for feasibility evaluation of potential CCS projects in China.

  12. Overview of factors affecting the leachability of nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.


    An overview of various factors that affect the leachability of nuclear waste forms is presented. The factors affect primarily the leaching system (temperature, for example), the leachant (pH, for example), or the solid being leached (surface condition, for example). A qualitative understanding exists of the major factors affecting leaching, but further studies are needed to establish leaching mechanisms and develop predictive models. 67 refs

  13. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Emma; Sadler, Jon P.; Telfer, Mark


    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

  14. Light availability and temperature, not increased CO2, will structure future meadows of Posidonia oceanica

    KAUST Repository

    Hendriks, Iris E.


    We evaluated the photosynthetic performance of Posidonia oceanica during short-term laboratory exposures to ambient and elevated temperatures (24–25°C and 29–30°C) warming and pCO2 (380, 750 and 1000ppm pCO2) under normal and low light conditions (200 and 40μmol photons m−2s−1 respectively). Plant growth was measured at the low light regime and showed a negative response to warming. Light was a critical factor for photosynthetic performance, although we found no evidence of compensation of photosynthetic quantum efficiency in high light. Relative Electron Rate Transport (rETRmax) was higher in plants incubated in high light, but not affected by pCO2 or temperature. The saturation irradiance (Ik) was negatively affected by temperature. We conclude that elevated CO2 does not enhance photosynthetic activity and growth, in the short term for P. oceanica, while temperature has a direct negative effect on growth. Low light availability also negatively affected photosynthetic performance during the short experimental period examined here. Therefore increasing concentrations of CO2 may not compensate for predicted future conditions of warmer water and higher turbidity for seagrass meadows.

  15. Light availability and temperature, not increased CO2, will structure future meadows of Posidonia oceanica

    KAUST Repository

    Hendriks, Iris E.; Olsen, Ylva S.; Duarte, Carlos M.


    We evaluated the photosynthetic performance of Posidonia oceanica during short-term laboratory exposures to ambient and elevated temperatures (24–25°C and 29–30°C) warming and pCO2 (380, 750 and 1000ppm pCO2) under normal and low light conditions (200 and 40μmol photons m−2s−1 respectively). Plant growth was measured at the low light regime and showed a negative response to warming. Light was a critical factor for photosynthetic performance, although we found no evidence of compensation of photosynthetic quantum efficiency in high light. Relative Electron Rate Transport (rETRmax) was higher in plants incubated in high light, but not affected by pCO2 or temperature. The saturation irradiance (Ik) was negatively affected by temperature. We conclude that elevated CO2 does not enhance photosynthetic activity and growth, in the short term for P. oceanica, while temperature has a direct negative effect on growth. Low light availability also negatively affected photosynthetic performance during the short experimental period examined here. Therefore increasing concentrations of CO2 may not compensate for predicted future conditions of warmer water and higher turbidity for seagrass meadows.

  16. The bZIP Transcription Factor Rca1p Is a Central Regulator of a Novel CO2 Sensing Pathway in Yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cottier, F.; Raymond, M.; Kurzai, O.; Bolstad, M.; Leewattanapasuk, W.; Jiménez-López, M.; Lorenz, M. C.; Sanglard, D.; Váchová, Libuše; Pavelka, N.; Palková, Z.; Mühlschlegel, F. A.


    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2012), e1002485 ISSN 1553-7366 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : CARBONIC-ANHYDRASE CAN2 * CANDIDA -ALBICANS * SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.127, year: 2011

  17. Factors affecting accelerated testing of polymer photostability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Jan; Pilař, Jan; Billingham, N. C.; Marek, Antonín; Horák, Zdeněk; Nešpůrek, Stanislav


    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2006), s. 417-422 ISSN 0141-3910. [International Conference on Modification, Degradation, Stabilization Conference /3./. Lyon, 29.08.2004-02.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/1243; GA ČR GA202/01/0518; GA MŠk ME 543 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : photodegradation * photostabilization * testing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2006

  18. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M


    A review is given of the factors determining placental oxygen transfer and the oxygen supply to the fetus. In the case of continuous variables, such as the rate of placental blood flow, it is not possible to trace evolutionary trends. Discontinuous variables, for which we can define character sta......, where fetal and adult haemoglobin are not different, developmental regulation of 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate ensures the high oxygen affinity of fetal blood. Oxygen diffusing capacity is dependent on diffusion distance, which may vary with the type of interhaemal barrier. It has been shown...

  19. Biofiksasi CO2 Oleh Mikroalga Chlamydomonas sp dalam Photobioreaktor Tubular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto Hadiyanto


    Full Text Available Mikroalga memiliki potensi dalam membiofiksasi CO2 dan dapat dimanfaatkan untuk mengurangi kadar CO2 dalam gas pencemar. Pertumbuhan mikroalga sangat dipengaruhi oleh konsentrasi gas CO2 di dalam gas pencemar. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengeetahui kemampuan mikroalga Chlamydomonas sp yang dikultivasi dalam photobioreaktor tubular dalam penyerapan gas CO2 serta untuk mengetahui konsentrasi maksimum gas CO2 dalam umpan untuk memproduksi biomasa mikroalga yang optimal. Percobaan dilakukan dnegan memvariasi laju alir dari 0.03 -0.071 L/menit dan konsentrasi CO2 dalam umpan 10-30%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa biomasa mikroalga dapat diproduksi dengan maksimal dengan konsentrasi gas CO2 20% dengan laju alir 0.07 L/min. Semakin tinggi laju alir maka produksi biomasa alga semakin besar. Kecepatan pertumbuhan alga maksimum terjadi pada 0.31 /hari. Pada konsentrasi gas CO2 30%, terjadi substrate inhibition yang disebabkan carbon dalam bentuk ion bicarbonate tidak dapat dikonsumsi lagi di dalam kultur alga. Kata kunci : Mikroalga, chlamydomonas sp, biofiksasi CO2, biogas Abstract Microalgae have a potential for CO2 biofixation and therefore can be used to reduce the CO2 concentration in the gas pollutants. Moreover, microalgae growth is strongly affected by the concentration of CO2 in the exhaust gas pollutants. The objective of this research was to investigate the ability of microalgae Chlamydomonas sp which was cultivated in a tubular photobioreactor for CO2 absorption as well as to determine the maximum concentration of CO2 in the feed gas to obtain optimum microalgae biomass. The experiments were performed by varying the gas flow rate of 0.03 -0.071 L / min and the concentration of CO2 in the feed of 10-30%. The results showed that the maximum biomass of microalgae can be produced with CO2 concentration of 20% vol with a flow rate of 0.07 L / min. The result also showed that increasing the gas flow rate, the greater of the production of

  20. Factors affecting membership in specialty nursing organizations. (United States)

    White, Mary Joe; Olson, Rhonda S


    A discouraging trend in many specialty nursing organizations is the stagnant or declining membership. The research committee of the Southeast Texas Chapter of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN) collected data and studied this trend to determine what changes would be necessary to increase membership. Using Herzberg's motivational theory as a framework, a review of the literature was initiated. There were few current studies on this issue, but relevant information was found about nursing's emerging workforce, as well as implications of the growth of magnet hospitals, which affect whether nurses join specialty nursing organizations. A multifaceted data-collection approach using convenience samples was designed. First, relevant literature was reviewed. Second, a survey was sent by e-mail to other ARN chapters. Third, a telephone survey on other specialty organizations in the geographic region was completed. Finally, members of the local ARN chapter and four other specialty organizations, as well staff nurses in the geographic area, were given questionnaires to complete. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to determine why nurses do and do not join specialty organizations (N = 81). The most frequent reasons for joining an organization were to increase knowledge, benefit professionally, network, and earn continuing education units. Reasons for choosing not to participate were family responsibilities, lack of information about these organizations, and lack of time. Ways to reverse the decline in membership are discussed.

  1. Accumulation and localization of secondary metabolites with protective function in grain crops growing under elevated CO2 concentration and selected stress factors of climate change.


    Mastiláková, Monika


    An ongoing climate change exposes plants to a whole range of environmental factors contributing to ever-increasing stressful conditions. The stress response of plants can reduce the yield of cereals, which make up a large part of food, thus increasing a threat to food security. It is therefore important to cultivate stress-resistant plants to ensure food security. The ability to cultivate resistant plants requires to understand their defensive mechanisms. Non-specific stress indicators with a...

  2. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan FERENCZ


    Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  3. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin . Methods: ... methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were ... The high performance liquid chromatography ..... Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Investigate Regional.

  4. Ranking and evaluating the factors affecting the success of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ranking and evaluating the factors affecting the success of management team in construction projects. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home ... The project management team is one of these important factors.

  5. Factors affecting the organization and management of emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting the organization and management of emergency mass casualty ... service all under a unified command of leadership with a specified job description. Factors identified were: Political will, human resource planning, appropriate ...

  6. Factors affecting radiocaesium transfer to ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Howard, B.J.; Vandecasteele, C.; Mayes, R.W.; Belli, M.; Sansone, U.; Stakelum, G.; Colgan, P.A.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Crout, N.M.J.; Jones, B.E.V., Hove, K.; ITE, Merlewood; CEN, Mol; MLURI, Aberdeen; ENEA-DISP, Rome; MPRC, Fermoy; RPII, Dublin; Ioannina Univ., Nuclear Physics; Nottingham Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala; Agricultural Univ., Aas


    The studies performed in the 2 year CEG/DG XII Radiation Protection Programme described here have tried to identify and quantify some of the most important factors influencing the radiocaesium levels in animal food products. The programme involved 9 laboratories in 6 countries: Belgium, Ireland, Greece, Italy, Sweden and the UK. Scientists from Norway and Germany also participated on an informal basis and are formally involved in a subsequent project. Experimental studies have largely been conducted using sheep, although some comparative studies have been performed with dairy cattle. In parallel to the experimental studies, a number of research models have been developed by participants in Greece and the UK to be interactively used with a number of different aspects in the programme. This presentation gives a short overview and discussion of the main findings of this project. (orig./DG)

  7. Experimental Study of Factors Affecting Soil Erodibility (United States)

    Larionov, G. A.; Bushueva, O. G.; Gorobets, A. V.; Dobrovolskaya, N. G.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Litvin, L. F.; Maksimova, I. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.


    The effect of different factors and preparation conditions of monofraction samples from the arable horizon of leached chernozem on soil erodibility and its relationship with soil tensile strength (STS) has been studied. The exposure of samples at 38°C reduces their erodibility by two orders of magnitude. The drying of samples, on the contrary, increases their erodibility. It has been shown that erodibility decreases during the experiment. It has been found that the inoculation of soil with yeast cultures ( Naganishia albida, Lipomyces tetrasporus) reliably increases the STS value in 1.5-1.9 times. The sterile soil is eroded more intensively than the unsterile soil: at 4.9 and 0.3 g/(m2 s), respectively. The drying of soil followed by wetting to the initial water content (30%) has no significant effect on the STS value in almost all experimental treatments.

  8. Purine alkaloid formation and CO2 gas exchange in dependence of development and of environmental factors in leaves of Coffea arabica L. (United States)

    Frischknecht, P M; Eller, B M; Baumann, T W


    In the leaves of Coffea arabica L., purine alkaloid formation was estimated by analyzing the theobromine and caffeine content and by measuring the methylation rate of [2-(14)C]theobromine to [2-(14)C]caffeine in short-term experiments (6-24 h). At the same time, growth (in terms of dry weight and area), net photosynthesis (NPS), and dark respiration were determined. During leaf development, which was considered to be terminated when NPS was at a maximum (60-80 μmol g(-1) s(-1)) and dark respiration at a minimum (5-7.5 μmol g(-1) s(-1)), the content of theobromine and the velocity of caffeine formation were both found to decrease by a factor of more than 100. The close correlation between the theobromine content and the methylation rate is suspended when purine alkaloid formation is influenced by factors other than leaf development. Among these factors, temperature is the most effective: the velocity of caffeine biosynthesis is increased by raising the temperature and vice versa. Although the plants were well irrigated, a drastic decrease of NPS in the afternoon was observed under all environmental conditions tested. Light saturation was reached between 170-360 μmol m(-2) s(-1). The temperature optimum of NPS was shown to be very broad (24-33°C)m provided the adaptation time was sufficiently long.

  9. Implications of overestimated anthropogenic CO2 emissions on East Asian and global land CO2 flux inversion (United States)

    Saeki, Tazu; Patra, Prabir K.


    Measurement and modelling of regional or country-level carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes are becoming critical for verification of the greenhouse gases emission control. One of the commonly adopted approaches is inverse modelling, where CO2 fluxes (emission: positive flux, sink: negative flux) from the terrestrial ecosystems are estimated by combining atmospheric CO2 measurements with atmospheric transport models. The inverse models assume anthropogenic emissions are known, and thus the uncertainties in the emissions introduce systematic bias in estimation of the terrestrial (residual) fluxes by inverse modelling. Here we show that the CO2 sink increase, estimated by the inverse model, over East Asia (China, Japan, Korea and Mongolia), by about 0.26 PgC year-1 (1 Pg = 1012 g) during 2001-2010, is likely to be an artifact of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions increasing too quickly in China by 1.41 PgC year-1. Independent results from methane (CH4) inversion suggested about 41% lower rate of East Asian CH4 emission increase during 2002-2012. We apply a scaling factor of 0.59, based on CH4 inversion, to the rate of anthropogenic CO2 emission increase since the anthropogenic emissions of both CO2 and CH4 increase linearly in the emission inventory. We find no systematic increase in land CO2 uptake over East Asia during 1993-2010 or 2000-2009 when scaled anthropogenic CO2 emissions are used, and that there is a need of higher emission increase rate for 2010-2012 compared to those calculated by the inventory methods. High bias in anthropogenic CO2 emissions leads to stronger land sinks in global land-ocean flux partitioning in our inverse model. The corrected anthropogenic CO2 emissions also produce measurable reductions in the rate of global land CO2 sink increase post-2002, leading to a better agreement with the terrestrial biospheric model simulations that include CO2-fertilization and climate effects.

  10. Global energy / CO2 projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyak, Y.


    Section headings are: (1) Social and economic problems of the 21 st century and the role of energy supply systems (2) Energy-environment interactions as a central point of energy research activities (3) New ways of technological progress and its impacts on energy demand and supply (4) Long-term global energy projections (5) Comparative analysis of global long-term energy / CO 2 studies (6) Conclusions. The author shows that, in order to alleviate the negative impacts of energy systems on the climate, it will be necessary to undertake tremendous efforts to improve the energy use efficiency, to drastically change the primary energy mix, and, at the same time, to take action to reduce greenhouse emissions from other sources and increase the CO 2 sink through enhanced reforestation. (Quittner)

  11. Fang CO2 med Aminosyrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai


    Med såkaldte “carbon capture-teknikker” er det muligt at rense røgen fra kulfyrede kraftværker, således at den er næsten helt fri for drivhusgassen CO2. Kunsten er at gøre processen tilstrækkeligt billig. Et lovende fangstredskab i denne proces er aminosyrer.......Med såkaldte “carbon capture-teknikker” er det muligt at rense røgen fra kulfyrede kraftværker, således at den er næsten helt fri for drivhusgassen CO2. Kunsten er at gøre processen tilstrækkeligt billig. Et lovende fangstredskab i denne proces er aminosyrer....

  12. Emission of Methane From Enteric Fermentation: National Contribution and Factors Affecting it in Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto


    Full Text Available Changing in atmosphere condition is affected by the quantity of gases produced from all activities on the earth. Gases that have effects on global warming are CO2, N2O, H2O, and CH4 (methane. Among other sources of methane are enteric fermentation of organic material from ruminants and feces decomposition. Methane production from ruminants is affected by several factors such as breed/type of animal, feed quality, environmental temperature and physiological status of the animal. Energy as methane in ruminants may reach 2 to 15% of the total energy consumption. To reduce the emission of methane from ruminants, it is necessary to apply a strategic feeding system for more efficient utilization of feed.

  13. Distinct responses of soil microbial communities to elevated CO2 and O3 in a soybean agro-ecosystem. (United States)

    He, Zhili; Xiong, Jinbo; Kent, Angela D; Deng, Ye; Xue, Kai; Wang, Gejiao; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong


    The concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) have been rising due to human activities. However, little is known about how such increases influence soil microbial communities. We hypothesized that elevated CO2 (eCO2) and elevated O3 (eO3) would significantly affect the functional composition, structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities, and that various functional groups would respond to such atmospheric changes differentially. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed 96 soil samples from a soybean free-air CO2 enrichment (SoyFACE) experimental site using a comprehensive functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0). The results showed the overall functional composition and structure of soil microbial communities shifted under eCO2, eO3 or eCO2+eO3. Key functional genes involved in carbon fixation and degradation, nitrogen fixation, denitrification and methane metabolism were stimulated under eCO2, whereas those involved in N fixation, denitrification and N mineralization were suppressed under eO3, resulting in the fact that the abundance of some eO3-supressed genes was promoted to ambient, or eCO2-induced levels by the interaction of eCO2+eO3. Such effects appeared distinct for each treatment and significantly correlated with soil properties and soybean yield. Overall, our analysis suggests possible mechanisms of microbial responses to global atmospheric change factors through the stimulation of C and N cycling by eCO2, the inhibition of N functional processes by eO3 and the interaction by eCO2 and eO3. This study provides new insights into our understanding of microbial functional processes in response to global atmospheric change in soybean agro-ecosystems.

  14. The effects of environmental regulation and technical progress on CO2 Kuznets curve: An evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Jianhua; Zheng, Mingzheng; Chen, Jian


    Based on environmental Kuznets curve theory, a panel data model which takes environmental regulation and technical progress as its moderating factors was developed to analyse the institutional and technical factors that affect the path of low-carbon economic development. The results indicated that there was a CO 2 emission Kuznets curve seen in China. Environmental regulation had a significant moderating effect on the curve, and the inflection of CO 2 emissions could come substantially earlier under stricter environmental regulation. Meanwhile, the impact of technical progress on the low-carbon economic development path had a longer hysteresis effect but restrained CO 2 emission during its increasing stage and accelerated its downward trend during the decreasing stage which was conducive to emission reduction. Strict environmental regulation could force the high-carbon emitting industries to transfer from the eastern regions to the central or the western regions of China, which would make the CO 2 Kuznets curve higher in its increasing stage and lower in its decreasing stage than that under looser regulation. Furthermore, energy efficiency, energy structure, and industrial structure exerted a significant direct impact on CO 2 emissions; we should consider the above factors as essential in the quest for low-carbon economic development. - Highlights: • Estimate moderating effect of environmental regulation and technical progress on EKC. • There was a CO 2 emission Kuznets curve in effect in China. • Environmental regulation presents significant moderating effect on EKC. • Technical progress moderates the relationship between income and CO 2 emissions

  15. CO2 reduction by dematerialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkert, M.P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Current policy for the reduction of greenhouse gases is mainly concerned with a number of types of solutions: energy saving, shifting to the use of low-carbon fuels and the implementation of sustainable energy technologies. Recent research has shown that a strategy directed at a more efficient use of materials could make a considerable contribution to reducing CO2 emissions. Moreover, the costs to society as a whole of such a measure appear to be very low.

  16. Factors Affecting Hypertension among the Malaysian Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ataollahi Eshkoor


    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common chronic disease in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, nutritional parameters, and blood elements on the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. This research was conducted on a group of 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of hypertension in respondents. Approximately, 45.61% of subjects had hypertension. The findings indicated that the female gender (Odds ratio (OR = 1.54, an increase in body weight (OR = 1.61, and an increase in the blood levels of albumin (OR = 1.51, glucose (OR = 1.92, and triglycerides (OR = 1.27 significantly increased the risk of hypertension in subjects (p < 0.05. Conversely, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates (OR = 0.74, and blood cholesterol level (OR = 0.42 significantly reduced the risk of hypertension in samples (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that ethnicity was a non-relevant factor to increase the risk of hypertension in subjects. It was concluded that female gender, an increase in body weight, and an increase in the blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, and albumin enhanced the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. In addition, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates and blood cholesterol level decreased hypertension in subjects.

  17. Factors Affecting Patient Satisfaction During Endoscopic Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M. O.; Shafqat, F.; Ahmed, S.; Niazi, T. K.; Khokhar, N. K.


    Objective: To assess the quality and patient satisfaction in Endoscopy Unit of Shifa International Hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Division of Gastroenterology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Quality and patient satisfaction after the endoscopic procedure was assessed using a modified GHAA-9 questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 1028 patients were included with a mean age of 45 A+- 14.21 years. Out of all the procedures, 670 (65.17%) were gastroscopies, 181 (17.60%) were flexible sigmoidoscopies and 177 (17.21%) were colonoscopies. The maximum unsatisfactory responses were on the waiting time before the procedure (13.13 %), followed by unsatisfactory explanation of the procedure and answers to questions (7.58%). Overall, unsatisfied impression was 4.86%. The problem rate was 6.22%. Conclusion: The quality of procedures and level of satisfaction of patients undergoing a gastroscopy or colonoscopy was generally good. The factors that influence the satisfaction of these patients are related to communication between doctor and patient, doctor's manner and waiting time for the procedure. Feedback information in an endoscopy unit may be useful in improving standards, including the performance of endoscopists. (author)

  18. Mesoscale modelling of atmospheric CO2 across Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansø, Anne Sofie


    of the simulated atmospheric CO2 across Denmark was, in particular, affected by the Danish terrestrial surface exchanges and its temporal variability. This study urges all future modelling studies of air–sea CO2 to include short-term variability in pCO2. To capture the full heterogeneity of the surface exchanges......It is scientifically well-established that the increase of atmospheric CO2 affects the entire globe and will lead to higher surface temperatures. Although anthropogenic CO2is emitted straight into the atmosphere, it does not all contribute to the existing atmospheric CO2 reservoir. Approximately 29......% is taken up by the global oceans, due to under-saturation of CO2 in the surface waters, while another 33 % is taken up by the terrestrial biosphere, via photosynthesis. In order to estimate the effects of increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO2 more accurately in the future, it is essential to understand...

  19. Outsourcing CO2 within China. (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus


    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country's borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world's largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China's emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low-value-added but high-carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China.

  20. Factors affecting mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. (United States)

    Janczak, Andrew M; Ranheim, Birgit; Fosse, Torunn K; Hild, Sophie; Nordgreen, Janicke; Moe, Randi O; Zanella, Adroaldo J


    To evaluate the stability and repeatability of measures of mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets and to examine potentially confounding factors when using a hand held algometer. Descriptive, prospective cohort. Forty-four piglets from four litters, weighing 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) at 2 weeks of age. Mechanical thresholds were measured twice on each of 2 days during the first and second week of life. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design to test the effects of behavior prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, and repetition within day. The effect of body weight and the interaction between piglet weight and behaviour were also tested. Piglet was entered into the model as a random effect as an additional test of repeatability. The effect of repeated testing was used to test the stability of measures. Pearson correlations between repeated measures were used to test the repeatability of measures. Variance component analysis was used to describe the variability in the data. Variance component analysis indicated that piglet explained only 17% of the variance in the data. All variables in the model (behaviour prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, repetition within day, body weight, the interaction between body weight and behaviour, piglet identity) except sex had a significant effect (p testing and measures changed with repeated testing and increased with increasing piglet weight, indicating that time (age) and animal body weight should be taken into account when measuring mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. Mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds can be used both for testing the efficacy of anaesthetics and analgesics, and for assessing hyperalgesia in chronic pain states in research and clinical settings. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  1. Simulasi Numeris Karakteristik Pembakaran CH4/CO2/Udara dan CH4/CO2/O2 pada Counterflow Premixed Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangga Wicaksono


    Full Text Available The high amount of CO2 produced in a conventional biogas reactor needs to be considered. A further analysis is needed in order to investigate the effect of CO2 addition especially in thermal and chemical kinetics aspect. This numerical study has been held to analyze the effect of CO2 in CH4/CO2/O­2 and CH4/CO2/Air premixed combustion. In this study one dimensional analisys in a counterflow burner has been performed. The volume fraction of CO2 used in this study was 0%-40% from CH4’s volume fraction, according to the amount of CO2 in general phenomenon. Based on the flammability limits data, the volume fraction of CH4 used was 5-61% in O2 environment and 5-15% in air environment. The results showed a decreasing temperature along with the increasing percentage of CO2 in each mixtures, but the effect was quite smaller especially in stoichiometric and lean mixture. CO2 could affects thermally (by absorbing heat due to its high Cp and also made the production of unburnt fuel species such as CO relatively higher.

  2. Reducing CO2 emissions on the electric grid through a carbon disincentive policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chiao-Ting; Peng, Huei; Sun, Jing


    This paper studies the operation of an electric grid with renewable wind generation and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). In particular, PEVs will be the controllable demand that can mitigate the intermittency in wind generation and improve the capacity factors of the non-renewable generation assets on the grid. Optimization problems are formulated to minimize the costs of electricity generation, and two approaches are proposed to address the grid CO 2 emission in the optimization. The first approach directly penalizes CO 2 in the objective function, and the second approach adopts a carbon disincentive policy to alter the dispatch order of power plants, so that expensive low-CO 2 plants can replace cheap high-CO 2 plants. These two approaches result in very different outcomes: the first approach affects only the PEV charging demand on the grid and does not result in significant CO 2 reduction, whereas the second approach controls both the generation and load, and CO 2 can be reduced substantially. In addition, the carbon disincentive policy, unlike a carbon tax, does not collect any revenue; therefore, the increase in electricity cost is minimal. The effect of the proposed algorithms on the grid electricity cost and carbon emission is analyzed in details and reported. - Highlights: • We study the tradeoff between CO 2 emissions and generation cost on an electric grid. • The tradeoff was shown by Pareto fronts obtained from optimizations. • Pareto fronts shows that a carbon disincentive is effective in reducing emissions. • Controlling both supply and demand on the grid is necessary to reduce CO 2 and costs

  3. Impact of CO_2-enriched combustion air on micro-gas turbine performance for carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, Thom; Finney, Karen N.; Ingham, Derek B.; Pourkashanian, Mohamed


    Power generation is one of the largest anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission sources; although it is now reducing in carbon intensity due to switching from coal to gas, this is only part of a bridging solution that will require the utilization of carbon capture technologies. Gas turbines, such as those at the UK Carbon Capture Storage Research Centre's Pilot-scale Advanced CO_2 Capture Technology (UKCCSRC PACT) National Core Facility, have high exhaust gas mass flow rates with relatively low CO_2 concentrations; therefore solvent-based post-combustion capture is energy intensive. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can increase CO_2 levels, reducing the capture energy penalty. The aim of this paper is to simulate EGR through enrichment of the combustion air with CO_2 to assess changes to turbine performance and potential impacts on complete generation and capture systems. The oxidising air was enhanced with CO_2, up to 6.29%vol dry, impacting mechanical performance, reducing both engine speed by over 400 revolutions per minute and compression temperatures. Furthermore, it affected complete combustion, seen in changes to CO and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. This impacted on turbine efficiency, which increased specific fuel consumption (by 2.9%). CO_2 enhancement could therefore result in significant efficiency gains for the capture plant. - Highlights: • Experimental investigation of the impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on GT performance. • Combustion air was enhanced with CO_2 to simulate EGR. • EGR impact was ascertained by CO and unburned hydrocarbon changes. • Primary factor influencing performance was found to be oxidiser temperature. • Impact of CO_2 enhancement on post-combustion capture efficiency.

  4. CO2 Emissions From Fuel Combustion. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Warsaw, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process, the IEA is making available for free download the ''Highlights'' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion now for sale on IEA Bookshop. This annual publication contains, for more than 140 countries and regions: estimates of CO2 emissions from 1971 to 2011; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; a decomposition of CO2 emissions into driving factors; and CO2emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, key sources, and other relevant information. The nineteenth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention (COP-19), in conjunction with the ninth meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 9), met in Warsaw, Poland from 11 to 22 November 2013. This volume of ''Highlights'', drawn from the full-scale study, was specially designed for delegations and observers of the meeting in Warsaw.

  5. Perceived Factors Affecting Performance Of Extension Workers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on perceived factors affecting performance of extension workers in Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected from 83 Extension agents from the Imo State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). Results of the study revealed that the organizational factors that affect performance are ...

  6. Factors affecting the runoff response of watersheds to precipitation


    DROZDOVÁ, Martina


    This bachelor thesis is focused on the factors that affect the drainage basin of the response. It contains a literature review, which deals with the hydrological cycle characteristics of precipitation, surface runoff and flood and erosion protection. The aim of the work is to evaluate the factors that adversely affect the runoff from the catchment.

  7. Factors Affecting Prenatal Care Utilization in East Wollega Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to identify factors affecting utilization of prenatal care and skilled birth attendant in East Wollega zone. Prenatal care and skilled birth attendant are crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn and help the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, ...

  8. The relationship between affective factors and the academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between affective factors and the academic achievement of students at the University of Venda. To this end, self-concept, motivation and attitude are the affective factors selected for the study. The general aim of the study is to determine the role of self-concept, ...

  9. Pore-scale imaging of capillary trapped supercritical CO2 as controlled by water-wet vs. CO2-wet media and grain shapes (United States)

    Chaudhary, K.; Cardenas, M.; Wolfe, W. W.; Maisano, J. A.; Ketcham, R. A.; Bennett, P.


    The capillary trapping of supercritical CO2 (s-CO2) is postulated to comprise up to 90% of permanently trapped CO2 injected during geologic sequestration. Successive s-CO2/brine flooding experiments under reservoir conditions showed that water-wet rounded beads trapped 15% of injected s-CO2 both as clusters and as individual ganglia, whereas CO2¬-wet beads trapped only 2% of the injected s-CO2 as minute pockets in pore constrictions. Angular water-wet grains trapped 20% of the CO2 but flow was affected by preferential flow. Thus, capillary trapping is a viable mechanism for the permanent CO2 storage, but its success is constrained by the media wettability.

  10. Interactions between CO2, saline water and minerals during geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellevang, Helge


    The topic of this thesis is to gain a better understanding of interactions between injected CO 2 , aqueous solutions and formation mineralogies. The main focus is concerned with the potential role mineral reactions play in safe long term storage of CO 2 . The work is divided into an experimental part concentrated on the potential of dawsonite (NaAl(OH) 2 CO 3 ) as a permanent storage host of CO 2 , and the development of a new geochemical code ACCRETE that is coupled with the ATHENA multiphase flow simulator. The thesis is composed of two parts: (I) the first part introducing CO 2 storage, geochemical interactions and related work; and (II) the second part that consists of the papers. Part I is composed as follows: Chapter 2 gives a short introduction to geochemical reactions considered important during CO 2 storage, including a thermodynamic framework. Chapter 3 presents objectives of numerical work related to CO 2 -water-rock interactions including a discussion of factors that influence the outcome of numerical simulations. Chapter 4 presents the main results from paper A to E. Chapter 5 give some details about further research that we propose based on the present work and related work in the project. Several new activities have emerged from research on CO 2 -water-rock interaction during the project. Several of the proposed activities are already initiated. Papers A to F are then listed in Part II of the thesis after the citation list. The thesis presents the first data on the reaction kinetics of dawsonite at different pH (Paper A), and comprehensive numerical simulations, both batch- and large scale 3D reactive transport, that illustrate the role different carbonates have for safe storage of CO 2 in geological formations (Papers C to F). The role of dawsonite in CO 2 storage settings is treated throughout the study (Papers A to E) After the main part of the thesis (Part I and II), two appendices are included: Appendix A lists reactions that are included in the

  11. Capture, transport and storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, B.


    The emission of greenhouse gas CO2 in industrial processes and electricity production can be reduced on a large scale. Available techniques include post-combustion, pre-combustion, the oxy-fuel process, CO2 fixation in industrial processes and CO2 mineralization. In the Netherlands, plans for CO2 capture are not developing rapidly (CCS - carbon capture and storage). [mk] [nl

  12. Plasma-assisted CO2 conversion: optimizing performance via microwave power modulation (United States)

    Britun, Nikolay; Silva, Tiago; Chen, Guoxing; Godfroid, Thomas; van der Mullen, Joost; Snyders, Rony


    Significant improvement in the energy efficiency of plasma-assisted CO2 conversion is achieved with applied power modulation in a surfaguide microwave discharge. The obtained values of CO2 conversion and energy efficiency are, respectively, 0.23 and 0.33 for a 0.95 CO2  +  0.05 N2 gas mixture. Analysis of the energy relaxation mechanisms shows that power modulation can potentially affect the vibrational-translational energy exchange in plasma. In our case, however, this mechanism does not play a major role, likely due to the low degree of plasma non-equilibrium in the considered pressure range. Instead, the gas residence time in the discharge active zone together with plasma pulse duration are found to be the main factors affecting the CO2 conversion efficiency at low plasma pulse repetition rates. This effect is confirmed experimentally by the in situ time-resolved two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence measurements of CO molecular density produced in the discharge as a result of CO2 decomposition.

  13. Fracture Initiation of an Inhomogeneous Shale Rock under a Pressurized Supercritical CO2 Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hu


    Full Text Available Due to the advantages of good fracture performance and the application of carbon capture and storage (CCS, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 is considered a promising alternative for hydraulic fracturing. However, the fracture initiation mechanism and its propagation under pressurized SC-CO2 jet are still unknown. To address these problems, a fluid–structure interaction (FSI-based numerical simulation model along with a user-defined code was used to investigate the fracture initiation in an inhomogeneous shale rock. The mechanism of fracturing under the effect of SC-CO2 jet was explored, and the effects of various influencing factors were analyzed and discussed. The results indicated that higher velocity jets of SC-CO2 not only caused hydraulic-fracturing ring, but also resulted in the increase of stress in the shale rock. It was found that, with the increase of perforation pressure, more cracks initiated at the tip. In contrast, the length of cracks at the root decreased. The length-to-diameter ratio and the aperture ratio distinctly affected the pressurization of SC-CO2 jet, and contributed to the non-linear distribution and various maximum values of the stress in shale rock. The results proved that Weibull probability distribution was appropriate for analysis of the fracture initiation. The studied parameters explain the distribution of weak elements, and they affect the stress field in shale rock.

  14. Leakage and Seepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.


    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO 2 may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO 2 leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO 2 overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO 2 bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s -1 at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s -1 . Liquid CO 2 bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO 2 bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO 2 and CH 4 at three different seepage rates reveals that

  15. Multivariate regulation of soil CO2 and N2 O pulse emissions from agricultural soils. (United States)

    Liang, Liyin L; Grantz, David A; Jenerette, G Darrel


    Climate and land-use models project increasing occurrence of high temperature and water deficit in both agricultural production systems and terrestrial ecosystems. Episodic soil wetting and subsequent drying may increase the occurrence and magnitude of pulsed biogeochemical activity, affecting carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and influencing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, we provide the first data to explore the responses of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) fluxes to (i) temperature, (ii) soil water content as percent water holding capacity (%WHC), (iii) substrate availability throughout, and (iv) multiple soil drying and rewetting (DW) events. Each of these factors and their interactions exerted effects on GHG emissions over a range of four (CO2 ) and six (N2 O) orders of magnitude. Maximal CO2 and N2 O fluxes were observed in environments combining intermediate %WHC, elevated temperature, and sufficient substrate availability. Amendments of C and N and their interactions significantly affected CO2 and N2 O fluxes and altered their temperature sensitivities (Q10 ) over successive DW cycles. C amendments significantly enhanced CO2 flux, reduced N2 O flux, and decreased the Q10 of both. N amendments had no effect on CO2 flux and increased N2 O flux, while significantly depressing the Q10 for CO2 , and having no effect on the Q10 for N2 O. The dynamics across DW cycles could be attributed to changes in soil microbial communities as the different responses to wetting events in specific group of microorganisms, to the altered substrate availabilities, or to both. The complex interactions among parameters influencing trace gas fluxes should be incorporated into next generation earth system models to improve estimation of GHG emissions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Factors affecting the precipitation of pure calcium carbonate during the direct aqueous carbonation of flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyungsun; Jang, Young-Nam; Kim, Wonbaek; Lee, Myung Gyu; Shin, Dongbok; Bang, Jun-Hwan; Jeon, Chi Wan; Chae, Soo Chun


    The mineral carbonation of FGD (flue gas desulfurization) gypsum was carried out through CO 2 sorption into ammonia solution containing FGD gypsum. High-purity calcium carbonate was precipitated from DCC (dissolved calcium carbonate) solution which was extracted during the induction period. The factors affecting the preparation of pure calcium carbonate were examined under the following conditions: CO 2 flow rate (1–3 L/min), ammonia content (4–12%), and S/L (solid-to-liquid) ratio (5–300 g/L). X-Ray diffraction study revealed that the PCC (precipitated calcium carbonate) was round-shaped vaterite. The induction time for PCC decreased as the CO 2 flow rate increased. The maximum formation efficiency for pure PCC was seen to increase linearly with the ammonia content. The formation efficiency for pure PCC was the highest (90%) for S/L ratio of 5 g/L but it decreased as S/L ratio increased. On the other hand, S/L ratio didn't affect the maximum solubility limit of DCC. It is believed that the pure PCC would add an economic value to the FGD gypsum carbonation for industrial CO 2 sequestration. - Highlights: • Pure and white CaCO 3 was synthesized using induction period during direct carbonation of FGD gypsum. • Its formation efficiency was increased with ammonia content but decreased with solid-to-liquid ratio. • This method is expected to extend to other industrial CO 2 sequestration for the enhanced economic value of precipitated CaCO 3

  17. Atmospheric and geogenic CO2 within the crown and root of spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) growing in a mofette area (United States)

    Vodnik, D.; Thomalla, A.; Ferlan, M.; Levanič, T.; Eler, K.; Ogrinc, N.; Wittmann, C.; Pfanz, H.


    Mofettes are often investigated in ecology, either as extreme sites, natural analogues to future conditions under climate change, or model ecosystems for environmental impact assessments of carbon capture and storage systems. Much of this research, however, inadequately addresses the complexity of the gas environment at these sites, mainly focusing on aboveground CO2-enrichment. In the current research, the gaseous environment of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst.) trees growing at the Stavešinske slepice mofette (NE Slovenia) were studied by measuring both soil ([CO2]soil) and atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]air). Within the studied site (800 m2), soil CO2 enrichment was spatially heterogeneous; about 25% of the area was characterized by very high [CO2]soil (>40%) and hypoxic conditions. Aboveground gas measurements along vertical profiles not only revealed substantially elevated [CO2]air close to the ground (height up to 1.5 m), but also in the upper heights (20-25 m; crown layer). On the basis δ13C of CO2, it was shown that elevated CO2 relates to a geogenic source. Trees grown in high [CO2]soil were characterized by decreased radial growth; the δ13C of their wood was less negative than in trees growing in normal soil. Unfavorable gaseous soil conditions should generally be accepted as being by far the most important factor affecting (i.e. disturbing) the growth of mofette trees.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia LUBAŃSKA

    Full Text Available Z pojęciem ochrony środowiska wiąże się bardzo szeroko w ostatnim czasie omawiane zagadnienie dotyczące ograniczenia emisji CO2. Konsekwencją globalnych zmian klimatu wywołanego przez ludzi jest wzrost stężenia atmosferycznego gazów cieplarnianych, które powodują nasilający się efekt cieplarniany. Wzrasta na świecie liczba ludności, a co za tym idzie wzrasta konsumpcja na jednego mieszkańca, szczególnie w krajach szeroko rozwiniętych gospodarczo. Protokół z Kioto ściśle określa działania jakie należy podjąć w celu zmniejszenia stężenia dwutlenku węgla w atmosferze. Pomimo maksymalnej optymalizacji procesu spalania paliw kopalnianych wykorzystywanych do produkcji energii, zastosowania odnawialnych źródeł energii zmiana klimatu jest nieunikniona i konsekwentnie będzie postępować przez kolejne dekady. Prognozuje się, że duże znaczenie odegra nowoczesna technologia, która ma za zadanie wychwycenie CO2 a następnie składowanie go w odpowiednio wybranych formacjach geologicznych (CCS- Carbon Capture and Storage. Eksperci są zgodni, że ta technologia w niedalekiej przyszłości stanie się rozwiązaniem pozwalającym ograniczyć ogromną ilość emisji CO2 pochodzącą z procesów wytwarzania energii z paliw kopalnych. Z analiz Raportu IPCC wynika, iż technologia CSS może się przyczynić do ok. 20% redukcji emisji dwutlenku węgla przewidzianej do 2050 roku [3]. Zastosowanie jej napotyka na wiele barier, nie tylko technologicznych i ekonomicznych, ale także społecznych. Inną metodą dającą ujemne źródło emisji CO2 jest możliwość wykorzystania obszarów leśnych o odpowiedniej strukturze drzewostanu. Środkiem do tego celu, oprócz ograniczenia zużycia emisjogennych paliw kopalnych (przy zachowaniu zasad zrównoważonego rozwoju może być intensyfikacja zalesień. Zwiększanie lesistości i prawidłowa gospodarka leśna należy do najbardziej efektywnych sposobów kompensowania

  19. Dolomite decomposition under CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerfa, F.; Bensouici, F.; Barama, S.E.; Harabi, A.; Achour, S.


    Full text.Dolomite (MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 is one of the most abundant mineral species on the surface of the planet, it occurs in sedimentary rocks. MgO, CaO and Doloma (Phase mixture of MgO and CaO, obtained from the mineral dolomite) based materials are attractive steel-making refractories because of their potential cost effectiveness and world wide abundance more recently, MgO is also used as protective layers in plasma screen manufacture ceel. The crystal structure of dolomite was determined as rhombohedral carbonates, they are layers of Mg +2 and layers of Ca +2 ions. It dissociates depending on the temperature variations according to the following reactions: MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 → MgO + CaO + 2CO 2 .....MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 → MgO + Ca + CaCO 3 + CO 2 .....This latter reaction may be considered as a first step for MgO production. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) are used to control dolomite decomposition and the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) was used to elucidate thermal decomposition of dolomite according to the reaction. That required samples were heated to specific temperature and holding times. The average particle size of used dolomite powders is 0.3 mm, as where, the heating temperature was 700 degree celsius, using various holding times (90 and 120 minutes). Under CO 2 dolomite decomposed directly to CaCO 3 accompanied by the formation of MgO, no evidence was offered for the MgO formation of either CaO or MgCO 3 , under air, simultaneous formation of CaCO 3 , CaO and accompanied dolomite decomposition

  20. Outsourcing CO2 within China (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J.; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus


    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country’s borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world’s largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China’s emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low–value-added but high–carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China. PMID:23754377

  1. Experimental analysis of CO2 emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buragienė, Sidona; Šarauskis, Egidijus; Romaneckas, Kęstutis; Sasnauskienė, Jurgita; Masilionytė, Laura; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita


    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO 2 emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230–250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120–150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250–270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120–150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO 2 emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO 2 emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO 2 emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO 2 emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO 2 emissions from soils during the

  2. Trading CO2 emission; Verhandelbaarheid van CO2-emissies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, J.F.; Looijenga, A.; Moor, R.; Wissema, E.W.J. [Afdeling Energie, Ministerie van VROM, The Hague (Netherlands)


    Systems for CO2-emission trading can take many shapes as developments in Europe show. European developments for emission trading tend to comprehend cap and-trade systems for large emission sources. In the Netherlands a different policy is in preparation. A trading system for sheltered sectors with an option to buy reductions from exposed sectors will be further developed by a Commission, appointed by the minister of environment. Exposed sectors are committed to belong to the top of the world on the area of energy-efficiency. The authors point out that a cap on the distribution of energy carriers natural gas, electricity and fuel seems to be an interesting option to shape the trade scheme. A cap on the distribution of electricity is desirable, but not easy to implement. The possible success of the system depends partly on an experiment with emission reductions. 10 refs.

  3. Geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.


    The industrial storage of CO 2 is comprised of three steps: - capture of CO 2 where it is produced (power plants, cement plants, etc.); - transport (pipe lines or boats); - storage, mainly underground, called geological sequestration... Three types of reservoirs are considered: - salted deep aquifers - they offer the biggest storage capacity; - exhausted oil and gas fields; - non-exploited deep coal mine streams. The two latter storage types may allow the recovery of sellable products, which partially or totally offsets the storage costs. This process is largely used in the petroleum industry to improve the productivity of an oil field, and is called FOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery). A similar process is applied in the coal mining industry to recover the imprisoned gas, and is called ECBM (Enhanced Coal Bed methane). Two storage operations have been initiated in Norway and in Canada, as well as research programmes in Europe, North America, Australia and Japan. International organisations to stimulate this technology have been created such as the 'Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum' and 'the Intergovernmental Group for Climate Change'. This technology will be taken into account in the instruments provided by the Tokyo Protocol. (author)

  4. The Influence of Various Operation Modes on Diesel Passenger Cars CO2 Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoițescu


    Full Text Available The amount of emissions released into the atmosphere by polluting sources was significantly reduced due to the limitations introduced by the EU. Since one of the main sources affecting air quality is the car, researches regarding the influence of various factors on exhaust emissions are carried out. As CO2 is the main pollutant responsible for the greenhouse effect, the article treats the influence of vehicle load and traffic levels, running modes, the electric consumer’s utilization, and driving style on CO2 emissions for cars equipped with diesel engine. The results from the conducted study can contribute to adopt solutions in order to decrease the concentration of CO2 emissions from cars equipped with diesel engines.

  5. Modeling of CO2 absorber using an AMP solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jostein; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    Abstract: An explicit model for carbon dioxide (CO2) solubility in an aqueous solution of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) has been proposed and an expression for the heat of absorption of CO2 has been developed as a function of loading and temperature. A rate-based steady-state model for CO2...... to absorption of CO2 into an AMP solution in a packed tower and validated against pilot-plant data from the literature. (c) 2006 American Institute of Chemical Engineers....... absorption into an AMP solution has been proposed, using both the proposed expression for the CO2 solubility and the expression for the heat of absorption along with an expression for the enhancement factor and physicochemical data from the literature. The proposed model has successfully been applied...

  6. Role of Biotic and Abiotic Processes on Soil CO2 Dynamics in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica (United States)

    Risk, D. A.; Macintyre, C. M.; Lee, C.; Cary, C.; Shanhun, F.; Almond, P. C.


    In the harsh conditions of the Antarctic Dry Valleys, microbial activity has been recorded via measurements of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and surface efflux. However, high temporal resolution studies in the Dry Valleys have also shown that abiotic solubility-driven processes can strongly influence (and perhaps even dominate) the CO2 dynamics in these low flux environments and suggests that biological activity may be lower than previously thought. In this study, we aim to improve our understanding of CO2 dynamics (biotic and abiotic) in Antarctic Dry Valley soils using long-term automated measurements of soil CO2 surface flux and soil profile concentration at several sites, often at sub-diel frequency. We hypothesize that soil CO2 variations are driven primarily by environmental factors affecting CO2 solubility in soil solution, mainly temperature, and that these processes may even overprint biologic production in representative Dry Valley soils. Monitoring of all sites revealed only one likely biotic CO2 production event, lasting three weeks during the Austral summer and reaching fluxes of 0.4 µmol/m2/s. Under more typical low flux conditions (sampling campaigns. Subsurface CO2 monitoring and a lab-controlled Antarctic soil simulation experiment confirmed that abiotic processes are capable of dominating soil CO2 variability. Diel temperature cycles crossing the freezing boundary revealed a dual abiotic cycle of solubility cycling and gas exclusion from ice formation observed only by high temporal frequency measurements (30 min). This work demonstrates a need for a numerical model to partition the dynamic abiotic processes underlying any biotic CO2 production in order to understand potential climate-change induced increases in microbial productivity in terrestrial Antarctica.

  7. Multiscale observations of CO2, 13CO2, and pollutants at Four Corners for emission verification and attribution (United States)

    Lindenmaier, Rodica; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Butterfield, Zachary T.; Herman, Jay R.; Rahn, Thom; Lee, Sang-Hyun


    There is a pressing need to verify air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic fossil energy sources to enforce current and future regulations. We demonstrate the feasibility of using simultaneous remote sensing observations of column abundances of CO2, CO, and NO2 to inform and verify emission inventories. We report, to our knowledge, the first ever simultaneous column enhancements in CO2 (3–10 ppm) and NO2 (1–3 Dobson Units), and evidence of δ13CO2 depletion in an urban region with two large coal-fired power plants with distinct scrubbing technologies that have resulted in ∆NOx/∆CO2 emission ratios that differ by a factor of two. Ground-based total atmospheric column trace gas abundances change synchronously and correlate well with simultaneous in situ point measurements during plume interceptions. Emission ratios of ∆NOx/∆CO2 and ∆SO2/∆CO2 derived from in situ atmospheric observations agree with those reported by in-stack monitors. Forward simulations using in-stack emissions agree with remote column CO2 and NO2 plume observations after fine scale adjustments. Both observed and simulated column ∆NO2/∆CO2 ratios indicate that a large fraction (70–75%) of the region is polluted. We demonstrate that the column emission ratios of ∆NO2/∆CO2 can resolve changes from day-to-day variation in sources with distinct emission factors (clean and dirty power plants, urban, and fires). We apportion these sources by using NO2, SO2, and CO as signatures. Our high-frequency remote sensing observations of CO2 and coemitted pollutants offer promise for the verification of power plant emission factors and abatement technologies from ground and space. PMID:24843169


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizka Permatayakti Rasyidta Nur


    Full Text Available Most of the urban pollution is the result of carbon dioxide (CO2 emission from human activities. This research identified CO2 emission and absorption in Bogor, and also the alternatives to solve the emission problem by system model and simulation. CO2 emission and absorption system model was created using software Stella 9.0.2 based on loss-gain emission concept for 30 years prediction. Human activities that contribute to CO2 emission are transportation, industries, energy consumption such as fuel or electricity, house hold waste, and farms, while the decrease factor is green open spaces as CO2 sequester. The alternatives to solve emission problem in Bogor is created based on green city concept by including the environmental aspects in every urban activity. The result of this research, the CO2 emission of Bogor reached 20.027.878 tons and the absorption reached 93.843 tons in 2042. Combined mitigation alternatives in several sectors could reduce CO2 emission by 2.797.667 tons in 2042 and CO2 emission could be neutralized by reforestation in 2036.

  9. CO2 Abatement In The Iron And Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The iron and steel industry is the largest industrial source of CO2 emissions due to the energy intensity of steel production, its reliance on carbon-based fuels and reductants, and the large volume of steel produced -- over 1414 Mt in 2010. With the growing concern over climate change, steel makers are faced with the challenge of finding ways of lowering CO2 emissions without seriously undermining process efficiency or considerably adding to costs. This report examines ways of abating CO2 emissions from raw materials preparation (coking, sintering and pelletising plants) through to the production of liquid steel in basic oxygen furnaces and electric arc furnaces. Direct reduction and smelting reduction processes are covered, as well as iron making in a blast furnace. A range of technologies and measures exist for lowering CO2 emissions including minimising energy consumption and improving energy efficiency, changing to a fuel and/or reducing agent with a lower CO2 emission factor (such as wood charcoal), and capturing the CO2 and storing it underground. Significant CO2 reductions can be achieved by combining a number of the available technologies. If carbon capture and storage is fitted than steel plants could become near zero emitters of CO2.

  10. Alberta industrial synergy CO2 programs initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, E.


    The various industrial sectors within Alberta produce about 350,000 tonnes of CO 2 per day. This presentation was concerned with how this large volume and high concentration of CO 2 can be used in industrial and agricultural applications, because every tonne of CO 2 used for such purposes is a tonne that does not end up in the atmosphere. There is a good potential for an industrial synergy between the producers and users of CO 2 . The Alberta Industrial Synergy CO 2 Programs Initiative was established to ultimately achieve a balance between the producers of CO 2 and the users of CO 2 by creating ways to use the massive quantities of CO 2 produced by Alberta's hydrocarbon-based economy. The Alberta CO 2 Research Steering Committee was created to initiate and support CO 2 programs such as: (1) CO 2 use in enhanced oil recovery, (2) creation of a CO 2 production inventory, (3) survey of CO 2 users and potential users, (4) investigation of process issues such as power generation, oil sands and cement manufacturing, and (5) biofixation by plants, (6) other disposal options (e.g. in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, in aquifers, in tailings ponds, in coal beds). The single most important challenge was identified as 'rationalizing the formation of the necessary infrastructure'. Failing to do that will greatly impede efforts directed towards CO 2 utilization

  11. Changes in CO2 emission intensities in the Mexican industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Domingo; Martínez, Manuel


    A CO 2 emission intensity analysis in the Mexican industry from 1965 to 2010 is carried out by taking into consideration four stages: 1965–1982, 1982–1994, 1994–2003, and 2004–2010. Based on the LMDI decomposition methodology, three influencing factors are analyzed: energy intensity, CO 2 coefficient, and structure in terms of their contributions of each individual attributes to the overall percent change of them as it was proposed in Choi and Ang (2011). The energy intensity effect was the driving factor behind the main decreases of CO 2 intensity, the CO 2 coefficient effect contributed to less extent to mitigate it, and the structure effect tended to increased it. It is observed that CO 2 intensity declined by 26.2% from 1965 to 2003, but it increased by 10.1% from 2004 to 2010. In addition, the move of Mexico from an economic model based on import-substitution to an export-oriented economy brought more importance to the Mexican industry intended to export, thus maintaining high levels of activity of industries such as cement, iron and steel, chemical, and petrochemical, while industries such as automotive, and ‘other’ industries grown significantly not only as far their energy consumptions and related CO 2 emissions but they also increased their contributions to the national economy. - Highlights: ► Industrial CO 2 emission intensity was reduced by 26.2% from 1965 to 2003. ► Industrial CO 2 emission intensity was increased by 10.1% from 2003 to 2010. ► 1965–2003: Intensity effect took down CO 2 emission intensity. ► 2003–2010: Export-oriented industries raised CO 2 emission intensity.

  12. CO2 Losses from Terrestrial Organic Matter through Photodegradation (United States)

    Rutledge, S.; Campbell, D. I.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Schipper, L. A.


    Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is the sum of CO2 uptake by plants and CO2 losses from both living plants and dead organic matter. In all but a few ecosystem scale studies on terrestrial carbon cycling, losses of CO2 from dead organic matter are assumed to be the result of microbial respiration alone. Here we provide evidence for an alternative, previously largely underestimated mechanism for ecosystem-scale CO2 emissions. The process of photodegradation, the direct breakdown of organic matter by solar radiation, was found to contribute substantially to the ecosystem scale CO2 losses at both a bare peatland in New Zealand, and a summer-dead grassland in California. Comparisons of daytime eddy covariance (EC) data with data collected at the same time using an opaque chamber and the CO2 soil gradient technique, or with night-time EC data collected during similar moisture and temperature conditions were used to quantify the direct effect of exposure of organic matter to solar radiation. At a daily scale, photodegradation contributed up to 62% and 92% of summer mid-day CO2 fluxes at the de-vegetated peatland and at the grassland during the dry season, respectively. Irradiance-induced CO2 losses were estimated to be 19% of the total annual CO2 loss at the peatland, and almost 60% of the dry season CO2 loss at the grassland. Small-scale measurements using a transparent chamber confirmed that CO2 emissions from air-dried peat and grass occurred within seconds of exposure to light when microbial activity was inhibited. Our findings imply that photodegradation could be important for many ecosystems with exposed soil organic matter, litter and/or standing dead material. Potentially affected ecosystems include sparsely vegetated arid and semi-arid ecosystems (e.g. shrublands, savannahs and other grasslands), bare burnt areas, agricultural sites after harvest or cultivation (especially if crop residues are left on the surface), deciduous forests after leaf fall, or ecosystems

  13. Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ( Coffea robusta ... of coffee in the study area was poor pricing and marketing systems; this is as a ... of quality control and relevant information on improved coffee technologies.

  14. Factors Affecting Behaviours that address HIV Risk among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction ... Main outcome measures: Sexual behavior and condom use, knowledge about ... attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS ...

  15. Motivation factors affecting employees job performance in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivation can be intrinsic, such as satisfaction and feelings of achievement; or extrinsic, such as rewards, punishment, and goal obtainment. The study assessed the motivating factors affecting the job performance of two oil palm companies' ...

  16. Factors that affect South African Reading Literacy Achievement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that affect South African Reading Literacy Achievement: evidence from prePIRLS 2011. ... achievement among Grade 4 learners in South Africa by utilising aspects of Carroll's model of school learning. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Multiple factors affecting South African anchovy recruitment in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple factors affecting South African anchovy recruitment in the spawning, transport and nursery. ... and are inversely linked to high rates of gonad atresia in anchovy and reduced subsequent recruitment. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. Identifying factors affecting destination choice of medical tourists: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical tourism”, has emerged as a new source of competitive advantage all over the world. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect destination choice of medical tourists. Methods: We systematically searched relevant databases ...

  19. Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective service to pre and ... Small, micro and medium entrepreneurs play an important role in economic ... such as production, marketing and management to adequately service the ...

  20. Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts in Merinos divergently selected for reproduction. ... The fixed effect of birth year x sex interaction was significant, with rams showing higher mean values for FWEC than ewes ...

  1. Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of Smallholders ... socio-economic characteristics which influence technical efficiency in maize production. ... Ministry of Agriculture and livestock, records, books, reports and internet.

  2. Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to antihypertensive medications and blood pressure control among patients attending the family practice clinic in a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria.

  3. An Initial Investigation of Factors Affecting Multi-Task Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Branscome, Tersa A; Swoboda, Jennifer C; Fatkin, Linda T


    This report presents the results of the first in a series of investigations designed to increase fundamental knowledge and understanding of the factors affecting multi-task performance in a military environment...

  4. Factors Affecting Community Participation in O and OD Planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Community Participation in O and OD Planning and ... great success at start but later dropped in number of cattle taken for dipping. ... and to establish the measures taken by the district leadership in addressing the problems.

  5. Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. ... Two hundred maize marketers were selected from Vandeikya Local Area (LGA) of ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  6. Factors affecting the adoption and diffusion of Internet in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa ... Factors affecting the adoption and diffusion of Internet in higher educational institutions in Kenya ... communication Technologies (ICTs) such as the Internet, Learning ...

  7. factors affecting antenatal care service utilization in yem special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    assess antenatal care utilization and factors that affect it in Yem Special Woreda, South Western Ethiopia. METHODS: A ... A pre-tested structured questionnaire consisting of information on socio- ..... model and access to medical care: does it.

  8. Determining the Factors Affecting Labor Productivity of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdanur Dikmen


    Results: It was found that the 45.5% of nurses participated in the study were in the 23-53 age group, 79.5% were women, 76.9% married, 41.1% associate degree graduates. 42.3% of nurses' durations of professional experience were 0-5 years, 22.4% of nurses were clinical chief, 69.2% were working as shifts. Participants believe that the factors affecting the labor productivity were respectively organizational factors, ergonomic factors and personal factors. When organizational factors was examined; nurses stated that the lack of working personnel in the section, the low wages and unequal wages for the same work, the long working hours and the system which based on personal relations instead of merit were affecting productivity. The factors affecting labor productivity of nurses were not different according to age, gender, education level and marital status (p>0.05, but different according to mode of operation and years of experience (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to this study, it was found that there are many factors that affect the efficiency of the nurses. The most important factors affecting nurses' efficiency were determined as wage and working conditions. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(4.000: 334-342

  9. Alteration of bentonite when contacted with supercritical CO2 (United States)

    Jinseok, K.; Jo, H. Y.; Yun, S. T.


    Deep saline formations overlaid by impermeable caprocks with a high sealing capacity are attractive CO2 storage reservoirs. Shales, which consist of mainly clay minerals, are potential caprocks for the CO2 storage reservoirs. The properties of clay minerals in shales may affect the sealing capacity of shales. In this study, changes in clay minerals' properties when contacted with supercritical (SC) CO2 at various conditions were investigated. Bentonite, whichis composed of primarily montmorillonite, was used as the clay material in this study. Batch reactor tests on wet bentonite samples in the presence of SC CO2 with or without aqueous phases were conducted at high pressure (12 MPa) and moderate temperature (50 oC) conditions for a week. Results show that the bentonite samples obtained from the tests with SC CO2 had less change in porosity than those obtained from the tests without SC CO2 (vacuum-drying) at a given reaction time, indicating that the bentonite samples dried in the presence of SC CO2 maintained their structure. These results suggest that CO2 molecules can diffuse into interlayer of montmorillonite, which is a primary mineral of bentonite, and form a single CO2 molecule layer or double CO2 molecule layers. The CO2 molecules can displace water molecules in the interlayer, resulting in maintaining the interlayer spacing when dehydration occurs. Noticeable changes in reacted bentonite samples obtained from the tests with an aqueous phase (NaCl, CaCl2, or sea water) are decreases in the fraction of plagioclase and pyrite and formation of carbonate minerals (i.e., calcite and dolomite) and halite. In addition, no significant exchanges of Na or Ca on the exchangeable complex of the montmorillonite in the presence of SC CO2 occurred, resulting in no significant changes in the swelling capacity of bentonite samples after reacting with SC CO2 in the presence of aqueous phases. These results might be attributed by the CO2 molecule layer, which prevents

  10. The quantum walk search algorithm: Factors affecting efficiency


    Lovett, Neil B.; Everitt, Matthew; Heath, Robert M.; Kendon, Viv


    We numerically study the quantum walk search algorithm of Shenvi, Kempe and Whaley [PRA \\textbf{67} 052307] and the factors which affect its efficiency in finding an individual state from an unsorted set. Previous work has focused purely on the effects of the dimensionality of the dataset to be searched. Here, we consider the effects of interpolating between dimensions, connectivity of the dataset, and the possibility of disorder in the underlying substrate: all these factors affect the effic...

  11. Determining the Factors Affecting Labor Productivity of Nurses


    Yurdanur Dikmen; Dilek Kara Yilmaz; Handenur Basaran; Nasibe Yagmur Filiz


    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the factors affecting the labor productivity of nurses. Material and Methods: The study which was planned as descriptive and analytical was carried out with 156 nurses who volunteered to participate in the study in a public hospital in the northwest of Turkey. Data was collected with the and ldquo;Participant Presentation Form and rdquo; and the questionnaire including the factors affecting labor productivity which was developed by Ozkoc (2005). ...

  12. European CO2 emission trends: A decomposition analysis for water and aviation transport sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoni, V.; Galmarini, S.


    A decomposition analysis is used to investigate the main factors influencing the CO 2 emissions of European transport activities for the period 2001–2008. The decomposition method developed by Sun has been used to investigate the carbon dioxide emissions intensity, the energy intensity, the structural changes and the economy activity growth effects for the water and the aviation transport sectors. The analysis is based on Eurostat data and results are presented for 14 Member States, Norway and EU27. Results indicate that economic growth has been the main factor behind the carbon dioxide emissions increase in EU27 both for water and aviation transport activities. -- Highlights: ► Decomposition analysis is used to investigate factors that influenced the energy-related CO 2 emissions of European transport. ► Economic growth has been the main factor affecting the energy-related CO 2 emissions increases. ► Investigating the CO 2 emissions drivers is the first step to define energy efficiency policies and emission reduction strategies.

  13. Interannual variability in the atmospheric CO2 rectification over a boreal forest region (United States)

    Chen, Baozhang; Chen, Jing M.; Worthy, Douglas E. J.


    Ecosystem CO2 exchange with the atmosphere and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics are correlated diurnally and seasonally. The strength of this kind of covariation is quantified as the rectifier effect, and it affects the vertical gradient of CO2 and thus the global CO2 distribution pattern. An 11-year (1990-1996, 1999-2002), continuous CO2 record from Fraserdale, Ontario (49°52'29.9″N, 81°34'12.3″W), along with a coupled vertical diffusion scheme (VDS) and ecosystem model named Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), are used to investigate the interannual variability of the rectifier effect over a boreal forest region. The coupled model performed well (r2 = 0.70 and 0.87, at 40 m at hourly and daily time steps, respectively) in simulating CO2 vertical diffusion processes. The simulated annual atmospheric rectifier effect varies from 3.99 to 5.52 ppm, while the diurnal rectifying effect accounted for about a quarter of the annual total (22.8˜28.9%).The atmospheric rectification of CO2 is not simply influenced by terrestrial source and sink strengths, but by seasonal and diurnal variations in the land CO2 flux and their interaction with PBL dynamics. Air temperature and moisture are found to be the dominant climatic factors controlling the rectifier effect. The annual rectifier effect is highly correlated with annual mean temperature (r2 = 0.84), while annual mean air relative humidity can explain 51% of the interannual variation in rectification. Seasonal rectifier effect is also found to be more sensitive to climate variability than diurnal rectifier effect.

  14. Effects of increased CO2 on fish gill and plasma proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Bresolin de Souza

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification and warming are both primarily caused by increased levels of atmospheric CO2, and marine organisms are exposed to these two stressors simultaneously. Although the effects of temperature on fish have been investigated over the last century, the long-term effects of moderate CO2 exposure and the combination of both stressors are almost entirely unknown. A proteomics approach was used to assess the adverse physiological and biochemical changes that may occur from the exposure to these two environmental stressors. We analysed gills and blood plasma of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus exposed to temperatures of 12 °C (control and 18 °C (impaired growth in combination with control (400 µatm or high-CO2 water (1000 µatm for 14 weeks. The proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE followed by Nanoflow LC-MS/MS using a LTQ-Orbitrap. The high-CO2 treatment induced the up-regulation of immune system-related proteins, as indicated by the up-regulation of the plasma proteins complement component C3 and fibrinogen β chain precursor in both temperature treatments. Changes in gill proteome in the high-CO2 (18 °C group were mostly related to increased energy metabolism proteins (ATP synthase, malate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase thermostable, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, possibly coupled to a higher energy demand. Gills from fish exposed to high-CO2 at both temperature treatments showed changes in proteins associated with increased cellular turnover and apoptosis signalling (annexin 5, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1γ, receptor for protein kinase C, and putative ribosomal protein S27. This study indicates that moderate CO2-driven acidification, alone and combined with high temperature, can elicit biochemical changes that may affect fish health.

  15. Pore-scale observation and 3D simulation of wettability effects on supercritical CO2 - brine immiscible displacement in drainage (United States)

    Hu, R.; Wan, J.; Chen, Y.


    Wettability is a factor controlling the fluid-fluid displacement pattern in porous media and significantly affects the flow and transport of supercritical (sc) CO2 in geologic carbon sequestration. Using a high-pressure micromodel-microscopy system, we performed drainage experiments of scCO2 invasion into brine-saturated water-wet and intermediate-wet micromodels; we visualized the scCO2 invasion morphology at pore-scale under reservoir conditions. We also performed pore-scale numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations to obtain 3D details of fluid-fluid displacement processes. Simulation results are qualitatively consistent with the experiments, showing wider scCO2 fingering, higher percentage of scCO2 and more compact displacement pattern in intermediate-wet micromodel. Through quantitative analysis based on pore-scale simulation, we found that the reduced wettability reduces the displacement front velocity, promotes the pore-filling events in the longitudinal direction, delays the breakthrough time of invading fluid, and then increases the displacement efficiency. Simulated results also show that the fluid-fluid interface area follows a unified power-law relation with scCO2 saturation, and show smaller interface area in intermediate-wet case which suppresses the mass transfer between the phases. These pore-scale results provide insights for the wettability effects on CO2 - brine immiscible displacement in geologic carbon sequestration.

  16. Factors affecting dignity of patients with multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Sharifi, Simin; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas


    MS is one of the most common chronic diseases of the nervous system. Apart from disease progression, other complications such as unemployment, separation and divorce could potentially threat patients' dignity. Most of the previous studies have been done of maintaining patients' dignity in interaction with healthcare team, but studies on affecting factors of dignity in chronic patients in the society and in interaction with usual people are scarce. We aimed to investigate factors affecting dignity of Iranian patients with MS in daily living and in interaction of them with the society. In this qualitative study, 13 patients with multiple sclerosis were chosen by purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews were conducted until data saturation. The study was done in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Factors affecting dignity were classified as 'personal factors' and 'social factors'. Personal factors consist of the following subcategories: patients' communication with self, patients' knowledge, patients' values and beliefs and patients' resources. Social factors include others' communication with patients, social knowledge, social values and beliefs and social resources. Multiple personal and social factors interfere in perceived patient dignity. In fact, interaction between personal and social factors can be influential in final perceived dignity. By focusing on whole aspects of the patients' lives, we can identify dignity-promoting or dignity-threatening factors and help patients maintain their dignity by taking appropriate measures for moderating threatening factors and improving dignity enhancing ones. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  17. Effect of Mineral Dissolution/Precipitation and CO2 Exsolution on CO2 transport in Geological Carbon Storage. (United States)

    Xu, Ruina; Li, Rong; Ma, Jin; He, Di; Jiang, Peixue


    Geological carbon sequestration (GCS) in deep saline aquifers is an effective means for storing carbon dioxide to address global climate change. As the time after injection increases, the safety of storage increases as the CO 2 transforms from a separate phase to CO 2 (aq) and HCO 3 - by dissolution and then to carbonates by mineral dissolution. However, subsequent depressurization could lead to dissolved CO 2 (aq) escaping from the formation water and creating a new separate phase which may reduce the GCS system safety. The mineral dissolution and the CO 2 exsolution and mineral precipitation during depressurization change the morphology, porosity, and permeability of the porous rock medium, which then affects the two-phase flow of the CO 2 and formation water. A better understanding of these effects on the CO 2 -water two-phase flow will improve predictions of the long-term CO 2 storage reliability, especially the impact of depressurization on the long-term stability. In this Account, we summarize our recent work on the effect of CO 2 exsolution and mineral dissolution/precipitation on CO 2 transport in GCS reservoirs. We place emphasis on understanding the behavior and transformation of the carbon components in the reservoir, including CO 2 (sc/g), CO 2 (aq), HCO 3 - , and carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite), highlight their transport and mobility by coupled geochemical and two-phase flow processes, and consider the implications of these transport mechanisms on estimates of the long-term safety of GCS. We describe experimental and numerical pore- and core-scale methods used in our lab in conjunction with industrial and international partners to investigate these effects. Experimental results show how mineral dissolution affects permeability, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, which are important phenomena affecting the input parameters for reservoir flow modeling. The porosity and the absolute permeability increase when CO 2 dissolved water is

  18. Interactive effects of elevated CO2, warming, and drought on photosynthesis of Deschampsia flexuosa in a temperate heath ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Ro-Poulsen, H.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard


    Global change factors affect plant carbon uptake in concert. In order to investigate the response directions and potential interactive effects, and to understand the underlying mechanisms, multifactor experiments are needed. The focus of this study was on the photosynthetic response to elevated CO2...... not decrease gs, but stimulated Pn via increased Ci. The T×CO2 synergistically increased plant carbon uptake via photosynthetic capacity up-regulation in early season and by better access to water after rewetting. The effects of the combination of drought and elevated CO2 depended on soil water availability......, with additive effects when the soil water content was low and D×CO2 synergistic stimulation of Pn after rewetting. The photosynthetic responses appeared to be highly influenced by growth pattern. The grass has opportunistic water consumption, and a biphasic growth pattern allowing for leaf dieback at low soil...

  19. The possible evolution and future of CO2-concentrating mechanisms. (United States)

    Raven, John A; Beardall, John; Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia


    CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs), based either on active transport of inorganic carbon (biophysical CCMs) or on biochemistry involving supplementary carbon fixation into C4 acids (C4 and CAM), play a major role in global primary productivity. However, the ubiquitous CO2-fixing enzyme in autotrophs, Rubisco, evolved at a time when atmospheric CO2 levels were very much higher than today and O2 was very low and, as CO2 and O2 approached (by no means monotonically), today's levels, at some time subsequently many organisms evolved a CCM that increased the supply of CO2 and decreased Rubisco oxygenase activity. Given that CO2 levels and other environmental factors have altered considerably between when autotrophs evolved and the present day, and are predicted to continue to change into the future, we here examine the drivers for, and possible timing of, evolution of CCMs. CCMs probably evolved when CO2 fell to 2-16 times the present atmospheric level, depending on Rubisco kinetics. We also assess the effects of other key environmental factors such as temperature and nutrient levels on CCM activity and examine the evidence for evolutionary changes in CCM activity and related cellular processes as well as limitations on continuity of CCMs through environmental variations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  20. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.


    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  1. Personality factors and adult attachment affecting job mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, A.E.M.; Feij, J.A.; Krausz, M.; Taris, R.


    Past research has revealed that individuals' job mobility is affected by factors such as job satisfaction, specific career enhancing attributes and job availability. This study examined personality factors predicting voluntary internal and external job mobility. Three types of voluntary job mobility

  2. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin. Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...

  3. Factors Affecting Utilization of Skilled Birth Attendants by Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This underscores the need to investigate factors responsible for low use of skilled attendants at birth. The main purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting utilization of skilled attendants at birth by pregnant women in Kasama district in order to help contribute to the reduction of maternal and child complications.

  4. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin . Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...

  5. Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)


    In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

  6. ISLSCP II Globalview: Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GlobalView Carbon Dioxide (CO2) data product contains synchronized and smoothed time series of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at selected sites that were created...

  7. CO2 - The Canary in the Energy Efficiency Coal Mine (United States)

    Somssich, Peter


    While much of the discussion surrounding CO2 is focused on its role as a GHG (green house gas) and its affect on Climate Change, CO2 can also be viewed as an indicator for reductions in fossil fuel use and increased energy efficiency. Much as the canary in a mine was used to warn miners of unsafe health conditions in a mine, CO2 can be seen as allowing us to effectively track progress towards energy efficiency and sustainability. Such an effort can best be achieved by either a Carbon Tax or a Cap and Trade system which was highly effective as part of the 1992 Clean Air Act, contributing to a significant reduction of SO2 and acid rain. A similar attempt has been made using the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to reduce carbon emissions. The mechanisms of how this treaty was intended to work will be explained, and examples will be given, both in the USA and Europe, of how the protocol was used to reduce energy consumption and energy dependence, while also reducing CO2 emissions. Regardless of how strong an impact CO2 reduction may have for Climate Change issues, a reduction of CO2 is guaranteed to produce energy benefits, monetary benefits and can even enhance national security. For all of these reasons, we need the CO2 canary.

  8. Electricity system planning under the CO2 emission restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chae Young; Lee, Man Ki; Roh, Jae Hyung; Kim, Eun Hwan


    Objective of this study is to analyze how the restriction of CO 2 emission from power generation will affect the national electricity supply system. The role of nuclear power is investigated under the restriction of CO 2 emission in Korea. A simplified electricity system was modeled for the analysis. To analyze the impact of CO 2 emission restriction, 2 different scenarios were established and compared with the base scenario. The first scenario was 'CO 2 emission restriction with new nuclear power installation'. In this scenario, a CO 2 emission restriction of 0.11kg-C/kWh was imposed and there was no restriction on the nuclear power construction. While, in the second scenario, 'CO 2 emission restriction without new nuclear power installation' the same amount of CO 2 restriction was imposed with no consideration of nuclear power installation. It is found out that the current national emission target(0.11kg- C/kWh) in the electricity sector can not be achieved without nuclear and renewable(wind power) options considered

  9. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran


    Azimi, Farideh; Kamali, Mohammad Bagher


    This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural development in Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have a better insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as a learning forum for bringing about changes for all participants, they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciative inquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting the facilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors...

  10. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases


    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia. Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  11. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad


    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  12. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Yan, Ng Sze; Zakuan, Norhayati; Bahari, Ahamad Zaidi; Jusoh, Ahmad


    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  13. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh


    Md. Rahman


    Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured ques...

  14. Comparison of CO2 Laser Cutting with Different Laser Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketting, Hans-Ole; Olsen, Flemmming Ove


    This paper contains CO2 laser cutting results in mild and stainless steel with different laser sources. The main factors which affect the cutting speed and quality are the power, the cutting gas and focal point conditions. Keeping the power and cutting gas constant, the focal point conditions have...... size,for the maximum cutting speed. One of the 7 laser sources with different focal length and thus different minimum spot size, was then used to investigate more in details the importance of the focal spot size cutting stainless steel with high pressure nitrogen. It looks as if there is a strong...... connection between the smallest avail-able spot size and cutting speed in mild steel, whereas the conditions in stainless steel, depends strongly on the flow conditions in the cut kerf, and not only on the focal spot size....

  15. Bioelectrochemical conversion of CO2 to chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, Suman; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Pant, Deepak


    The recent concept of microbial electrosynthesis (MES) has evolved as an electricity-driven production technology for chemicals from low-value carbon dioxide (CO2) using micro-organisms as biocatalysts. MES from CO2 comprises bioelectrochemical reduction of CO2 to multi-carbon organic compounds

  16. Annual CO2 budget and seasonal CO2 exchange signals at a High Arctic permafrost site on Spitsbergen, Svalbard archipelago (United States)

    Lüers, J.; Westermann, S.; Piel, K.; Boike, J.


    The annual variability of CO2 exchange in most ecosystems is primarily driven by the activities of plants and soil microorganisms. However, little is known about the carbon balance and its controlling factors outside the growing season in arctic regions dominated by soil freeze/thaw-processes, long-lasting snow cover, and several months of darkness. This study presents a complete annual cycle of the CO2 net ecosystem exchange (NEE) dynamics for a High Arctic tundra area on the west coast of Svalbard based on eddy-covariance flux measurements. The annual cumulative CO2 budget is close to zero grams carbon per square meter per year, but shows a very strong seasonal variability. Four major CO2 exchange seasons have been identified. (1) During summer (ground snow-free), the CO2 exchange occurs mainly as a result of biological activity, with a predominance of strong CO2 assimilation by the ecosystem. (2) The autumn (ground snow-free or partly snow-covered) is dominated by CO2 respiration as a result of biological activity. (3) In winter and spring (ground snow-covered), low but persistent CO2 release occur, overlain by considerable CO2 exchange events in both directions associated with changes of air masses and air and atmospheric CO2 pressure. (4) The snow melt season (pattern of snow-free and snow-covered areas), where both, meteorological and biological forcing, resulting in a visible carbon uptake by the high arctic ecosystem. Data related to this article are archived under:

  17. Social Learning and the Mitigation of Transport CO2 Emissions


    Maha Al Sabbagh


    Social learning, a key factor in fostering behavioural change and improving decision making, is considered necessary for achieving substantial CO2 emission reductions. However, no empirical evidence exists on how it contributes to mitigation of transport CO2 emissions, or the extent of its influence on decision making. This paper presents evidence addressing these knowledge gaps. Social learning-oriented workshops were conducted to gather the views and preferences of participants from the gen...

  18. Does Elevated CO2 Alter Silica Uptake in Trees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson W. Fulweiler


    Full Text Available Human activities have greatly altered global carbon (C and N (N cycling. In fact, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 have increased 40% over the last century and the amount of N cycling in the biosphere has more than doubled. In an effort to understand how plants will respond to continued global carbon dioxide fertilization, long-term free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiments have been conducted at sites around the globe. Here we examine how atmospheric CO2 enrichment and N fertilization affects the uptake of silicon (Si in the Duke Forest, North Carolina, a stand dominated by Pinus taeda (loblolly pine, and five hardwood species. Specifically, we measured foliar biogenic silica (BSi concentrations in five deciduous and one coniferous species across three treatments: CO2 enrichment, N enrichment, and N and CO2 enrichment. We found no consistent trends in foliar Si concentration under elevated CO2, N fertilization, or combined elevated CO2 and N fertilization. However, two-thirds of the tree species studied here have Si foliar concentrations greater than well-known Si accumulators, such as grasses. Based on net primary production values and aboveground Si concentrations in these trees, we calculated forest Si uptake rates under control and elevated CO2 concentrations. Due largely to increased primary production, elevated CO2 enhanced the magnitude of Si uptake between 20% and 26%, likely intensifying the terrestrial silica pump. This uptake of Si by forests has important implications for Si export from terrestrial systems, with the potential to impact C sequestration and higher trophic levels in downstream ecosystems.

  19. The impact of CO2-costs on biogas usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida Græsted; Nielsen, Lise Skovsgaard


    The Danish government has set a target of being fossil fuel independent by 2050 implying that a high degree of inflexible renewable energy will be included in the energy system; biogas can add flexibility and potentially has a negative CO2-emission. In this paper, we investigate the socioeconomic...... system costs of reaching a Danish biogas target of 3.8 PJ in the energy system, and how CO2 costs affect the system costs and biogas usage. We perform our analysis using the energy systems model, Balmorel, and expand the model with a common target for raw biogas and upgraded biogas (biomethane). Raw...... biogas can be used directly in heat and power production, while biomethane has the same properties as natural gas. Balmorel is altered such that natural gas and biomethane can be used in the same technologies. Several CO2-cost estimates are investigated; hereunder a high estimate for the expected CO2...

  20. Soil carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) efflux of two shrubs in response to plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although plant density should affect soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux and carbon cycling in semi-arid regions, the effects of plant density on soil CO2 efflux are not well known. This study was performed to investigate the responses of soil CO2 efflux of two dominant shrubs (Caragana korshinkii and Salix psammophila) to ...

  1. Concurrent CO2 and COS fluxes across major biomes in Europe (United States)

    Spielmann, Felix M.; Kitz, Florian; Hammerle, Albin; Gerdel, Katharina; Ibrom, Andreas; Kolle, Olaf; Migliavacca, Mirco; Moreno, Gerardo; Noe, Steffen M.; Wohlfahrt, Georg


    The trace gas carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been proposed as a tracer for canopy gross primary production (GPP), canopy transpiration and stomatal conductance of plant canopies in the last few years. COS enters the plant leaf through the stomata and diffuses through the intercellular space, the cell wall, the plasma membrane and the cytosol like carbon dioxide (CO2). It is then catalyzed by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in a one-way reaction to hydrogen sulfide and CO2. This one-way flux into the leaf makes COS a promising tracer for the GPP. However, this approach assumes that the ratio of the deposition velocities between COS and CO2 is constant, which must be determined in field experiments covering a wide variety of ecosystems. The overarching objective of this study was to quantify the relationship between the ecosystem-scale exchange of COS and CO2 and thus, to test for the potential of COS to be used as a universal tracer for the plant canopy CO2 exchange. Between spring 2015 and summer 2016 we set up our quantum cascade laser at different field sites across Europe. These sites included a managed temperate mountain grassland (AUT), a savanna (ESP), a temperate beech forest (DEN) and a hemiboreal forest (EST). On each of these sites, we conducted ecosystem scale eddy covariance and soil chamber measurements. Since the soil COS flux contribution, especially in grass dominated ecosystems, could not be neglected, we had to derive the actual canopy COS fluxes for all the measurement sites. Using these fluxes we compared the ecosystem relative uptake (ERU) of the sites and searched for factors affecting its variability. We then used the influential factors to scale the ERU to be comparable under different field sites and conditions. Furthermore we also calculated the GPP using conventional CO2 flux partitioning and compared the results with the approach of using the leaf relative uptake.

  2. Factors Affecting Green Residential Building Development: Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang


    Full Text Available Green residential buildings (GRBs are one of the effective practices of energy saving and emission reduction in the construction industry. However, many real estate developers in China are less willing to develop GRBs, because of the factors affecting green residential building development (GRBD. In order to promote the sustainable development of GRBs in China, this paper, based on the perspective of real estate developers, identifies the influential and critical factors affecting GRBD, using the method of social network analysis (SNA. Firstly, 14 factors affecting GRBD are determined from 64 preliminary factors of three main elements, and the framework is established. Secondly, the relationships between the 14 factors are analyzed by SNA. Finally, four critical factors for GRBD, which are on the local economy development level, development strategy and innovation orientation, developer’s acknowledgement and positioning for GRBD, and experience and ability for GRBD, are identified by the social network centrality test. The findings illustrate the key issues that affect the development of GRBs, and provide references for policy making by the government and strategy formulation by real estate developers.

  3. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function. (United States)

    Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Scott, Tammy; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara


    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis. Conversely, many dietary components such as curcumin, resveratrol, blueberry polyphenols, sulforaphane, salvionic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and diets enriched with polyphenols and PUFAs, as well as caloric restriction, physical exercise, and learning, have been shown to induce neurogenesis in adult brains. Although many of the underlying mechanisms by which nutrients and dietary factors affect adult neurogenesis have yet to be determined, nutritional approaches provide promising prospects to stimulate adult neurogenesis and combat neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the role of nutritional factors in modifying adult neurogenesis and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Factors affecting strategic plan implementation using interpretive structural modeling (ISM). (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Tajik, Hamidreza; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba


    Purpose Strategic planning is the best tool for managers seeking an informed presence and participation in the market without surrendering to changes. Strategic planning enables managers to achieve their organizational goals and objectives. Hospital goals, such as improving service quality and increasing patient satisfaction cannot be achieved if agreed strategies are not implemented. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting strategic plan implementation in one teaching hospital using interpretive structural modeling (ISM). Design/methodology/approach The authors used a descriptive study involving experts and senior managers; 16 were selected as the study sample using a purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a questionnaire designed and prepared based on previous studies. Data were analyzed using ISM. Findings Five main factors affected strategic plan implementation. Although all five variables and factors are top level, "senior manager awareness and participation in the strategic planning process" and "creating and maintaining team participation in the strategic planning process" had maximum drive power. "Organizational structure effects on the strategic planning process" and "Organizational culture effects on the strategic planning process" had maximum dependence power. Practical implications Identifying factors affecting strategic plan implementation is a basis for healthcare quality improvement by analyzing the relationship among factors and overcoming the barriers. Originality/value The authors used ISM to analyze the relationship between factors affecting strategic plan implementation.

  5. Forest succession at elevated CO2; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.


    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response

  6. Empirical Analysis on Factors Affecting User Behavior in Social Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiayi


    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] This paper aims to discover the factors affecting user behavior in the derivative situation of e-commerce, social commerce, and explore the sustainable development and related marketing advice of it. [Method/process]This paper put forward a theoretical model of factors affecting user behavior in social commerce by integrating emotional state impact into the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R framework. 277 valid samples were collected by questionnaires and PLS. [Result/conclusion]The results show that information quality and tie strength significantly affect user emotional states, while emotional states positively affect user behavior. In addition, graphic features of business information have indirect effects on user emotional states, while it has direct effect on purchase intention.

  7. Global CO2 emissions from cement production (United States)

    Andrew, Robbie M.


    The global production of cement has grown very rapidly in recent years, and after fossil fuels and land-use change, it is the third-largest source of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. The required data for estimating emissions from global cement production are poor, and it has been recognised that some global estimates are significantly inflated. Here we assemble a large variety of available datasets and prioritise official data and emission factors, including estimates submitted to the UNFCCC plus new estimates for China and India, to present a new analysis of global process emissions from cement production. We show that global process emissions in 2016 were 1.45±0.20 Gt CO2, equivalent to about 4 % of emissions from fossil fuels. Cumulative emissions from 1928 to 2016 were 39.3±2.4 Gt CO2, 66 % of which have occurred since 1990. Emissions in 2015 were 30 % lower than those recently reported by the Global Carbon Project. The data associated with this article can be found at

  8. Residual CO2 trapping in Indiana limestone. (United States)

    El-Maghraby, Rehab M; Blunt, Martin J


    We performed core flooding experiments on Indiana limestone using the porous plate method to measure the amount of trapped CO(2) at a temperature of 50 °C and two pressures: 4.2 and 9 MPa. Brine was mixed with CO(2) for equilibration, then the mixture was circulated through a sacrificial core. Porosity and permeability tests conducted before and after 884 h of continuous core flooding confirmed negligible dissolution. A trapping curve for supercritical (sc)CO(2) in Indiana showing the relationship between the initial and residual CO(2) saturations was measured and compared with that of gaseous CO(2). The results were also compared with scCO(2) trapping in Berea sandstone at the same conditions. A scCO(2) residual trapping end point of 23.7% was observed, indicating slightly less trapping of scCO(2) in Indiana carbonates than in Berea sandstone. There is less trapping for gaseous CO(2) (end point of 18.8%). The system appears to be more water-wet under scCO(2) conditions, which is different from the trend observed in Berea; we hypothesize that this is due to the greater concentration of Ca(2+) in brine at higher pressure. Our work indicates that capillary trapping could contribute to the immobilization of CO(2) in carbonate aquifers.

  9. Factors Affecting Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf


    Luc, J. E.; Crow, W. T.


    Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for eit...

  10. Various factors affecting /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy of liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoki, T; Morinari, H; Oono, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine


    Various factors affecting /sup 67/Ga accumulation in liver cancer were studied in 38 patients with liver cancer (19 with hepatocellular carcinoma and 19 with metastatic liver cancer) who had received /sup 67/Ga-scintigraphy and liver scintigraphy. Besides histological types, the size, necrosis, vascularity and treatments of liver cancer, concentrations of transferrin (/sup 67/Ga binding protein) and iron in blood probably affected /sup 67/Ga accumulation in liver cancer.

  11. CO2 clearance by membrane lungs. (United States)

    Sun, Liqun; Kaesler, Andreas; Fernando, Piyumindri; Thompson, Alex J; Toomasian, John M; Bartlett, Robert H


    Commercial membrane lungs are designed to transfer a specific amount of oxygen per unit of venous blood flow. Membrane lungs are much more efficient at removing CO 2 than adding oxygen, but the range of CO 2 transfer is rarely reported. Commercial membrane lungs were studied with the goal of evaluating CO 2 removal capacity. CO 2 removal was measured in 4 commercial membrane lungs under standardized conditions. CO 2 clearance can be greater than 4 times that of oxygen at a given blood flow when the gas to blood flow ratio is elevated to 4:1 or 8:1. The CO 2 clearance was less dependent on surface area and configuration than oxygen transfer. Any ECMO system can be used for selective CO 2 removal.

  12. Extraction of stevia glycosides with CO2 + water, CO2 + ethanol, and CO2 + water + ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pasquel


    Full Text Available Stevia leaves are an important source of natural sugar substitute. There are some restrictions on the use of stevia extract because of its distinctive aftertaste. Some authors attribute this to soluble material other than the stevia glycosides, even though it is well known that stevia glycosides have to some extent a bitter taste. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop a process to obtain stevia extract of a better quality. The proposed process includes two steps: i Pretreatment of the leaves by SCFE; ii Extraction of the stevia glycosides by SCFE using CO2 as solvent and water and/or ethanol as cosolvent. The mean total yield for SCFE pretreatment was 3.0%. The yields for SCFE with cosolvent of stevia glycosides were below 0.50%, except at 120 bar, 16°C, and 9.5% (molar of water. Under this condition, total yield was 3.4%. The quality of the glycosidic fraction with respect to its capacity as sweetener was better for the SCFE extract as compared to extract obtained by the conventional process. The overall extraction curves were well described by the Lack extended model.

  13. Soot and NOx simultaneous reduction by use of CO2 mixed fuel; Ekika CO2 yokai nenryo ni yoru diesel kikan no susu, NOx no doji teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senda, J; Yokoyama, T; Ikeda, M; Fujimoto, H [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Ifuku, Y [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)


    We propose the new fuel injection system by use of diesel fuel dissolved with CO2 to reduce both soot and NOx simultaneously. In this paper spray combustion characteristics of CO2 mixed fuel is reported. It is revealed that flame temperature and KL factor at the CO2 mixed fuel combustion are lower than at the only n-tridecane combustion due to separation or partly flashing of CO2component. And the result of exhaust gas measurement shows the capability that CO2 mixed fuel is able to reduce both soot and NOx simultaneously. 12 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The 'compensation effect' in the graphite/CO2 reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, W.J.


    The compensation effect is the often observed linear relationship between the activation energy and pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius equations of a series of related reactions. Previously reported studies of the graphite/CO 2 reaction at different total pressures and CO 2 /CO ratios are used as an example of the compensation effect. The effect is shown in general to be an artefact produced by a strong correlation between the parameter estimates in the conventional Arrhenius plot. A transformation of the Arrhenius plot to minimise the overall correlation between estimates and thus enable detection of a true compensation effect is presented. The results of this transformation on the kinetic data for the graphite/CO 2 reaction are consistent with previous analyses of the reaction system. They show that there is only a limited compensation effect within this study and demonstrate the influence of the approach to equilibrium of the graphite/CO 2 reaction. (author)

  15. Households' direct CO-2 emissions according to location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavailhes, Jean; Hilal, Mohamed; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia


    Limiting direct emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) by households is an important factor for achieving reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in compliance with the Kyoto Protocol and European policy. The two main sources of emissions are, in descending order, housing and commuting between home and the workplace or place of study. Average housing-related emissions are 3, 150 kg of CO 2 per year, reaching 4, 200 kg of CO 2 per year in mountain and semi-continental climates. Individual houses in urban centres, often old and with fuel-oil heating, emit more CO 2 than peri-urban dwellings, which are more recent and often have 100% electric heating. Conversely, emissions from commuting are higher in peri-urban areas, where the needs for transport are greater but less transport services are on offer. (authors)

  16. Seasonal dynamics of soil CO2 emission in the boreal forests in Central Siberia (United States)

    Makhnykina, A. V.; Prokishkin, A. S.; Zyryanov, V.; Verkhovets, S. V.


    A large amount of carbon in soil is released to the atmosphere through soil respiration, which is the main pathway of transferring carbon from terrestrial ecosystems (Comstedt et al., 2011). Considering that boreal forests is a large terrestrial sink (Tans et al., 1990) and represent approximately 11 % of the Earth's total land area (Gower et al., 2001), even a small change in soil respiration could significantly intensify - or mitigate - current atmospheric increases of CO2, with potential feedbacks to climate change. The objectives of the present study are: (a) to study the dynamic of CO2emission from the soil surface during summer season (from May to October); (b) to identify the reaction of soil respiration to different amount of precipitation as the main limiting factor in the region. The research was carried out in the pine forests in Central Siberia (60°N, 90°E), Russia. Sample plots were represented by the lichen pine forest, moss pine forest, mixed forest and anthropogenic destroyed area. We used the automated soil CO2 flux system based on the infrared gas analyzer LI-8100 for measuring the soil efflux. Soil temperature was measured with Soil Temperature Probe Type E in three depths 5, 10, 15 cm. Volumetric soil moisture was measured with Theta Probe Model ML2. The presence and type of ground cover substantially affects the value of soil respiration fluxes. The carbon dioxide emission from the soil surface averaged was 5.4 ±2.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. The destroyed area without plant cover demonstrated the lowest soil respiration (0.1-5.6 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). The lowest soil respiration among forested areas was observed in the feathermoss pine forest. The lichen pine forest soil respiration was characterized by averages values. The maximum soil respiration values and seasonal fluctuations were obtained in the mixed forest (2.3-29.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). The analysis of relation between soil CO2 efflux and amount of precipitation showed that the site without any

  17. Investigating the factors affecting the investment decision in residential development.


    Narang, Somil


    The purpose of this project is to provide a rare insight into the motivation behind residential property investors when looking to purchase an apartment. The factors driving demand preferences for housing are constantly changing, difficult to measure, and often deemed to be a complex bundle of attributes. The project attempts to answer the following questions: What are the factors affecting the investment decision in a Residential Development? To identify the significance and weight of su...

  18. Factors Which Affect Academic Achievement of University Students


    RENÇBER, Bahman Alp


    The purpose of this study is to investigate by analysing factors affecting academic achievement of university students. Also effects of these factors are studied. For this purpose, the students attending “Statistics and Transport Technology” course at Gazi University, Industrial Arts Education and Arts Faculty, Industrial Technology Education Department, in the 2008-2009 academic year have been identified as the study universe. Analysis has been done by taking examples for this universe. The ...

  19. Absorption of CO2 laser light by a dense, high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, N.J.; Forrest, M.J.; Morgan, P.D.; Offenberger, A.A.


    The interaction between a pulsed, CO 2 laser beam and the plasma produced in a plasma focus device is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The CO 2 laser radiation, directed orthogonal to the pinch axis and along the density gradient only weakly perturbs the focus since the radiation density of 30 J cm -3 (allowing for the Airy enhancement factor near the critical layer), is still less than the plasma thermal energy >=1 kJ cm -3 . On the contrary, the CO 2 laser beam is grossly affected by the plasma and absorption during the compressed pinch phase when the plasma frequency is much more complete than can be predicted by classical resistivity. Density fluctuations at the Langmuir frequency are measured directly for forward scattering from a probe, ruby laser beam. Since the wave numbers correspond to approximately 0.1 the Langmuir waves should appear as electron 'lines' in the scattered spectrum shifted by 427 A from the ruby laser wavelength. At low CO 2 laser pump intensity the electron wave intensity is close to the thermal level. As the pump is increased beyond a threshold of approximately 3x10 9 W/cm -2 (in vacuo) enhanced scattering is observed, reaching a factor of 30 above thermal. A WKB treatment of the electron-ion decay instability which takes into account the linear growth of waves at equal electron and ion temperatures and their convection in an inhomogeneous plasma is reasonably consistent with the observations

  20. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Iran, 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Bekri, Mahmoud


    Climate change and global warming as the key human societies' threats are essentially associated with energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. A system dynamic model was developed in this study to model the energy consumption and CO 2 emission trends for Iran over 2000–2025. Energy policy factors are considered in analyzing the impact of different energy consumption factors on environmental quality. The simulation results show that the total energy consumption is predicted to reach 2150 by 2025, while that value in 2010 is 1910, which increased by 4.3% yearly. Accordingly, the total CO 2 emissions in 2025 will reach 985 million tonnes, which shows about 5% increase yearly. Furthermore, we constructed policy scenarios based on energy intensity reduction. The analysis show that CO 2 emissions will decrease by 12.14% in 2025 compared to 2010 in the scenario of 5% energy intensity reduction, and 17.8% in the 10% energy intensity reduction scenario. The results obtained in this study provide substantial awareness regarding Irans future energy and CO 2 emission outlines. - Highlights: • Creation of an energy consumption model using system dynamics. • The effect of different policies on energy consumption and emission reductions. • An ascending trend for the environmental costs caused by CO 2 emissions is observed. • An urgent need for energy saving and emission reductions in Iran.

  1. Variability in soil CO2 production and surface CO2 efflux across riparian-hillslope transitions (United States)

    Vincent Jerald. Pacific


    The spatial and temporal controls on soil CO2 production and surface CO2 efflux have been identified as an outstanding gap in our understanding of carbon cycling. I investigated both the spatial and temporal variability of soil CO2 concentrations and surface CO2 efflux across eight topographically distinct riparian-hillslope transitions in the ~300 ha subalpine upper-...

  2. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism. (United States)

    Queißer, M; Burton, M R; Arzilli, F; Chiarugi, A; Marliyani, G I; Anggara, F; Harijoko, A


    Studying the quantity and origin of CO 2 emitted by back-arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid-dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO 2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO 2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %. A lower limit CO 2 flux of 1.4 kg s -1 (117 t d -1 ) was determined, in line with the CO 2 flux from the Javanese mud volcano LUSI. Extrapolating these results to mud volcanism from the whole of Java suggests an order of magnitude total CO 2 flux of 3 kt d -1 , comparable with the expected back-arc efflux of magmatic CO 2 . After discussing geochemical, geological, and geophysical evidence we conclude that the source of CO 2 observed at Bledug Kuwu is likely a mixture of thermogenic, biogenic, and magmatic CO 2 , with faulting controlling potential pathways for magmatic fluids. This study further demonstrates the merit of man-portable active remote sensing instruments for probing natural gas releases, enabling bottom-up quantification of CO 2 fluxes.

  3. Modeling of CO2 storage in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savioli, Gabriela B; Santos, Juan E


    Storage of CO 2 in geological formations is a means of mitigating the greenhouse effect. Saline aquifers are a good alternative as storage sites due to their large volume and their common occurrence in nature. The first commercial CO 2 injection project is that of the Sleipner field in the Utsira Sand aquifer (North Sea). Nevertheless, very little was known about the effectiveness of CO 2 sequestration over very long periods of time. In this way, numerical modeling of CO 2 injection and seismic monitoring is an important tool to understand the behavior of CO 2 after injection and to make long term predictions in order to prevent CO 2 leaks from the storage into the atmosphere. The description of CO 2 injection into subsurface formations requires an accurate fluid-flow model. To simulate the simultaneous flow of brine and CO 2 we apply the Black-Oil formulation for two phase flow in porous media, which uses the PVT data as a simplified thermodynamic model. Seismic monitoring is modeled using Biot's equations of motion describing wave propagation in fluid-saturated poroviscoelastic solids. Numerical examples of CO 2 injection and time-lapse seismics using data of the Utsira formation show the capability of this methodology to monitor the migration and dispersal of CO 2 after injection.

  4. Shifting terrestrial feedbacks from CO2 fertilization to global warming (United States)

    Peñuelas, Josep; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan; Canadell, Josep; Obersteiner, Michael; Piao, Shilong; Vautard, Robert; Sardans Jordi Sardans, Jordi


    Humans are increasingly fertilizing the planet. Our activities are increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, nitrogen inputs to ecosystems and global temperatures. Individually and combined, they lead to biospheric availability of carbon and nitrogen, enhanced metabolic activity, and longer growing seasons. Plants can consequently grow more and take up more carbon that can be stored in ecosystem carbon pools, thus enhancing carbon sinks for atmospheric CO2. Data on the increased strength of carbon sinks are, however, inconclusive: Some data (eddy covariance, short-term experiments on elevated CO2 and nutrient fertilization) suggest that biospheric carbon uptake is already effectively increasing but some other data suggest it is not, or are not general and conclusive (tree-ring, forest inventory). The combined land-ocean CO2 sink flux per unit of excess atmospheric CO2 above preindustrial levels declined over 1959-2012 by a factor of about 1/3, implying that CO2 sinks increased more slowly than excess CO2. We will discuss the available data, and the discussion will drive us to revisit our projections for enhanced carbon sinks. We will reconsider the performance of the modulators of increased carbon uptake in a CO2 fertilized and warmed world: nutrients, climate, land use and pollution. Nutrient availability in particular plays a crucial role. A simple mass-balance approach indicates that limited phosphorus availability and the corresponding N:P imbalances can jointly reduce the projected future carbon storage by natural ecosystems during this century. We then present a new paradigm: we are shifting from a fertilization to a warming era. Compared to the historical period, future impacts of warming will be larger than the benefits of CO2 fertilization given nutrient limitations, management and disturbance (which reduces C stocks and thus sequestration potential) and because CO2 will decrease by 2050 in RCP2.6, meaning loss of CO2 fertilization, and CO2

  5. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been regarded as the major greenhouse gas, which leads to numerous negative effects on global environment. The capture and separation of CO2 by selective adsorption using porous materials proves to be an effective way to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs with high CO2 adsorption capacities and CO2/N2 selectivities for post-combustion effluent (e.g. flue gas) treatment. We will also exploit the correlation between the CO2 capture performance of POPs and their textual properties/functionalities. Chapters Two focuses on the study of a group of porous phenolic-aldehyde polymers (PPAPs) synthesized by a catalyst-free method, the CO2 capture capacities of these PPAPs exceed 2.0 mmol/g at 298 K and 1 bar, while keeping CO2/N2 selectivity of more than 30 at the same time. Chapter Three reports the gas adsorption results of different hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs), which indicate that heterocyclo aromatic monomers can greatly enhance polymers’ CO2/N2 selectivities, and the N-H bond is proved to the active CO2 adsorption center in the N-contained (e.g. pyrrole) HCPs, which possess the highest selectivities of more than 40 at 273 K when compared with other HCPs. Chapter Four emphasizes on the chemical modification of a new designed polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with high CO2/N2 selectivity (50 at 273 K), whose experimental repeatability and chemical stability prove excellent. In Chapter Five, we demonstrate an improvement of both CO2 capture capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity by doping alkali metal ions into azo-polymers, which leads a promising method to the design of new porous organic polymers.

  6. Elevated CO2 increases Cs uptake and alters microbial communities and biomass in the rhizosphere of Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth) grown on soils spiked with various levels of Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ningning; Zhang, Ximei; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong


    General concern about increasing global atmospheric CO 2 levels owing to the ongoing fossil fuel combustion and elevated levels of radionuclides in the environment, has led to growing interest in the responses of plants to interactive effects of elevated CO 2 and radionuclides in terms of phytoremediation and food safety. To assess the combined effects of elevated CO 2 and cesium contamination on plant biomass, microbial activities in the rhizosphere soil and Cs uptake, Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed, C3 specie) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth, C4 specie) were grown in pots of soils containing five levels of cesium (0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg −1 ) under two levels of CO 2 (360 and 860 μL L −1 , respectively). Shoot and root biomass of P. americana and Amaranthus crentus was generally higher under elevated CO 2 than under ambient CO 2 for all treatments. Both plant species exhibited higher Cs concentration in the shoots and roots under elevated CO 2 than ambient CO 2 . For P. americana grown at 0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg −1 , the increase magnitude of Cs concentration due to elevated CO 2 was 140, 18, 11, 34 and 15% in the shoots, and 150, 20, 14, 15 and 19% in the roots, respectively. For A. cruentus, the corresponding value was 118, 28, 21, 14 and 17% in the shoots, and 126, 6, 11, 17 and 22% in the roots, respectively. Higher bioaccumulation factors were noted for both species grown under elevated CO 2 than ambient CO 2 . The populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and the microbial C and N in the rhizosphere soils of both species were higher at elevated CO 2 than at ambient CO 2 with the same concentration of Cs. The results suggested that elevated CO 2 significantly affected plant biomass, Cs uptake, soil C and N concentrations, and community composition of soil microbes associated with P. americana and A. cruentus roots. The knowledge gained from this investigation constitutes an important advancement in

  7. Formal Classroom Observations: Factors That Affect Their Success (United States)

    Zaidi, Zeba


    Formal class room observation is a very delicate topic in any educational institution. It involves a series of emotions and sentiments that come with the package. In this paper, the researcher will attempt to analyze the factors that affect the process in a relatively significant manner and thereby contribute greatly to the success or failure of…

  8. Factors Affecting School Choice: What Do Malaysian Chinese Parents Want? (United States)

    Siah, Poh Chua; Christina Ong, Sook Beng; Tan, Swee Mee; Sim, Chzia Poaw; Xian Thoo, Raphael Yi


    Aiming to explore factors affecting Malaysian Chinese parents in sending their children to either national secondary schools or Chinese independent schools, 494 parents were surveyed using a questionnaire. Results showed that parents who sent their children to Chinese independent schools have different priorities compared to those who sent theirs…

  9. Factors Affecting Oil Palm Production in Ondo State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discovery of crude oil and the civil war adversely affected oil palm production in Nigeria. This has resulted in scarcity and high cost of palm products and palm oil. The study therefore investigated the factors influencing oil palm production in Ondo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty respondents were selected from ...

  10. Factors Affecting the Formation of Food Preferences in Preschool Children. (United States)

    Alles-White, Monica L.; Welch, Patricia


    Identifies and discusses factors that affect the development of food preferences in preschool children, including familiarity, age, parents, peers, teachers, and programs designed to influence food habits. Makes recommendations to preschool and day care programs for creating an atmosphere conducive to trying new foods. (Author/DST)

  11. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics (United States)

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas


    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  12. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function (United States)

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plas...

  13. Factors affecting sustainable animal trypanosomosis control in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors affecting sustainable trypanosomiasis control in parts of Kaduna State within the sub-humid savannah ecological zone of Nigeria. Focus group discussions were ... More awareness and preference for pour-on and aerial spraying were higher than the use of traps, target or screens. Rearing of ...

  14. Factors affecting disclosure of serostatus to children attending Jinja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting disclosure of serostatus to children attending Jinja Hospital ... twenty children and all (ten) health workers at Jinja Hospital paediatric HIV clinic. ... and child attending psychosocial support group (OR 7.4 CI 3.6-15.3 p < 0.001).

  15. Factors Affecting Online Groupwork Interest: A Multilevel Analysis (United States)

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao


    The purpose of the present study is to examine the personal and contextual factors that may affect students' online groupwork interest. Using the data obtained from graduate students in an online course, both student- and group-level predictors for online groupwork interest were analyzed within the framework of hierarchical linear modeling…

  16. Factors Affecting the Effectiveness and Use of Moodle: Students' Perception (United States)

    Damnjanovic, Vesna; Jednak, Sandra; Mijatovic, Ivana


    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the factors affecting the effectiveness of Moodle from the students' perspective. The research hypotheses derived from the suggested extended Seddon model have been empirically validated using the responses to a survey on e-learning usage among 255 users. We tested the model across higher education…

  17. Identifying factors affecting about outsourcing in paraclinical services

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Outsourcing refers to the transfer of services or functions to an outsider supplier, which controls them through a contract or cooperative. The main problem of senior managers in health organizations is determining the services which should be outsourced. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect ...

  18. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather


    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…

  19. Factors Affecting Loan Utilization And Repayment Patterns By Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified factors affecting loan utilization and repayment patterns by small holder farmers of the Nigerian Agricultural Co-operative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) Osogbo branch in Osun State. Two Local Government Areas with large number of loan beneficiaries from 2003 to 2008 in NACRDB were ...

  20. Unemployment in Kenya: Some economic factors affecting wage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the economic factors affecting wage employment in Kenya, where open unemployment fell from 15 per cent in 1998/1999 to 13 per cent in 2005/2006. As of 2005/2006, wage employment constituted 13 per cent of the total working population, which implies that doubling wage employment will absorb ...

  1. Examining the factors affecting willingness to use electronic banking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining the factors affecting willingness to use electronic banking: the ... which information technologies are accepted are of the research studies. ... Customers' understanding of the ease of use of e-banking systems has a significant impact on perceived usefulness and their attitude had. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Factors affecting mortality and epidemiological data in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Burns continue to be responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In this study we aimed to determine the factors affecting mortality and epidemiological data by examining the records of burned patients. Method. The hospital records of 980 patients who were hospitalised in the ...

  3. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming (United States)

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.


    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  4. Factors Affecting Quality of Audit; Empirical Evidence from Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines factors affecting quality of audit using empirical evidence from Iran Quality of audit was seen as the degree to which an audit report is free from deficiencies and distortions which show up later on. The quality of an audit was measured in terms of an auditor's ability to report financial distortions willingly ...

  5. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Improved Rice Varieties in Borno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The study investigated the factors that affect adoption of improved rice varieties in the ... give a good results and also a threat to food security. Keywords: ..... decision of the farmers, however, inappropriate chain of supply/distributing the input or ...

  6. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller therapy in chest clinics in a sub-Saharan African setting: a cross-sectional study. ... Background: Adherence to controller therapy in asthma is a major concern during the management of the disease. Objective: To determine the adherence rate and identify the ...

  7. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David


    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  8. Factors Affecting Utilization of Cooking Banana among Households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated factors affecting utilization of cooking banana among households in Oguta area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 84 randomly selected respondents from six communities in the study area who were administered with structured questionnaire. Data analysis was by use of descriptive ...

  9. Factors affecting farmers' participation in irrigation schemes of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... those factors affecting farmers' participation in irrigated agriculture at the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority (LNRBDA) in Kwara State, Nigeria. One hundred and sixty (160) respondents were selected from communities around LNRBDA site at Oke Oyi for this study through a two-stage sampling procedures.

  10. Factors Affecting Academic Achievement of Students in Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors affecting academic achievement ofstudents in Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) in ChristianReligious Knowledge. A total of three hundred students in SS III from five secondary schools were randomly selected and used as sample for the study. Five hypotheses were tested, ...

  11. Teachers' Perception of the Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    perception of salary as a factor affecting job satisfaction. Also, there .... Thus workers now have higher purchasing power, are given opportunity to use their .... Z-Cal. Z-Crit Significant. Level decision. Female. 70 12.73 3.23. Teachers. 0.32. 1.96.

  12. Factors affecting sports participation among female students at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this study was to examine factors affecting sport participation among resident and non- resident female students at Tshwane University of Technology (TUT), Pretoria, South Africa. The study targeted all students participating in 12 registered sports but due to the fact that only a limited number of the total ...

  13. Scrutinizing the Factors Affecting Fluency of English among Arab Learners (United States)

    Al Ghazali, Fawzi


    This research study investigates the cognitive, psychological and personal factors affecting the accuracy and fluency of English language usage among Arab learners. Early research led by Chomsky (1965) and Krashen (1981) suggested that an individual's Language Acquisition Device once triggered at the appropriate time and supported with adequate…

  14. factors affecting particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we report a range of factors which affect the retention of colloidal particles in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These results are observed among different sizes of polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in both aqueous and nonaqueous liquid carriers and very low density lipoproteins in a phosphate ...

  15. Motivation and Factors Affecting It among Health Professionals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Motivation is an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. This study assessed motivational status and factors affecting it among health professionals in public hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region. METHOD: Facility based cross-sectional survey ...

  16. Factors affecting guidance and counseling programme in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to establish the factors that affect guidance and counseling in primary schools. Guidance and counseling seems not to be adequately helping pupils with physical and psychological problems in Nairobi province of Kenya. Many primary schools are faced with indiscipline and poor performance ...

  17. Factors affecting mortality of critical care trauma patients | Hefny ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common mechanism of injury was road traffic collisions (72.3 %). The overall mortality was 13.9%. A direct logistic regression model has shown that factors that affected mortality were decreased GCS (p < 0.0001), mechanism of injury (p = 0.004) with burns having the highest mortality, increased age (p = 0.004), ...