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Sample records for factors affecting bone

  1. Nutritional factors affecting poultry bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Robert H

    2008-05-01

    Outlined are two main current research concerns relating to skeletal disorders in poultry: (a) osteoporosis in egg-laying hens; (b) leg problems caused by rapid bone growth in broiler chickens. Surveys indicate that 30% of caged laying hens suffer at least one lifetime fracture (a severe welfare issue). Modern hybrids produce one egg per d for 50 weeks. For this period 'normal' bone turnover ceases; only medullary bone (MB) is formed, a woven bone type of limited structural value. MB is resorbed for eggshell formation alongside structural bone, leading to increased fracture risk. Avian osteoporosis is reduced by activity and genetic selection but nutrition is also important. Fluoride and vitamin K are beneficial but the timing of nutritional intervention is important. Ca, inorganic P and vitamin D must be adequate and the form of Ca is critical. Limestone fed as particulates benefits skeletal and eggshell quality. In hens fed particulate limestone compared with flour-fed hens the tibiotarsus breaking strength and radiographic density are increased at 56 weeks of age (Pbroiler (meat) chickens selection for rapid growth from approximately 50 g to 3 kg in 42 d has inadvertently produced skeletal disorders such as tibial dyschondroplasia, rickets and associated valgus-varus deformities leading to lameness. The beneficial skeletal effects during growth of increased dietary n-3 PUFA:n-6 PUFA (utilising salmon oil) have been demonstrated. Experiments simulating daylight UVB levels have produced beneficial skeletal effects in Ca- and vitamin D-deficient chicks.

  2. Reproductive factors affecting the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ferda; Demirbag, Derya; Rodoplu, Meliha

    2005-03-01

    Osteoporosis has been defined as a metabolic bone disease characterized by a loss of bone mineral density (BMD) greater than 2.5 standard deviations below young adult peak bone mass or the presence of fracture. By considering that some factors related to female reproductive system might influence the ultimate risk of osteoporosis, we aimed to investigate if a relationship exists between the present BMD of postmenopausal women with their past and present reproductive characteristics. The present study focused on how BMD could be affected by the following factors in postmenopausal women, such as age at menarche, age at first pregnancy, the number of pregnancies and total breast-feeding time. We reviewed detailed demographic history of 303 postmenopausal women. According to the results of the present study, a negative correlation was found between the number of parities and BMD. The BMD values decreased as the number of pregnancies increased. When the BMD values for lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle were investigated, it was observed that a significant difference exists between the women with no child birth and those with more than five parities. There was a significant relationship between age at first pregnancy and BMD values at the lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle. Women who had five or more abortions were found to have significantly lower spine BMD values compared to women who had no abortions or women who had one or two abortions. These findings indicate that the increased risk of osteoporosis is associated with the increased number of pregnancies and abortions and higher age at first pregnancy.

  3. Factors affecting bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi, Azin; Mohajeri-Tehrani, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD). Methods 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years) participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patient's quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29). Results Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs) pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001), but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL), disease duration and BMD of both site. Conclusion As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols

  4. [Factors affecting bone regeneration in Ilizarov callus distraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, B; Krieger, M; Schneider, T; Menkhaus, S; Fischer, J; Rüther, W

    1995-12-01

    We evaluated the X-rays of 36 patients who underwent 50 callus distractions. With the aid of a computerized digitalisation system for analogue films, the relative X-ray density of the distraction area was calculated for each X-ray. These relative X-ray densities were figured graphically for the duration of treatment for each patient. In the consolidation phase, the graph of each patient had a logarithmic relationship. The gradients of the logarithmic density curves were considered an indicator of the quantity of new bone formation. These gradients were correlated to the following clinical parameters: age of the patient, beginning of distraction after corticotomy, average speed of distraction, average weight bearing during the distraction and consolidation phase, location of corticotomy (distal femur versus proximal tibia) and diclofenac medication. Except for the location of the corticotomy and diclofenac, all parameters had an influence on osteoneogenesis by callus distraction. The parameters affecting new bone formation the most were the age of the patient and weight bearing. Patients aged under 18 years (p = 0.005), beginning of distraction later than 8 days (p = 0.109), an average distraction speed below 1 mm/day (p = 0.079), and average weight bearing of more than 30 kg (p = 0.068 for the distraction phase and p = 0.089 for the consolidation phase) showed a quantitatively higher rate of new bone formation by callus distraction than the patients in the other groups. Patients with a shorter leg due to poliomyelitis and one patient with an amniotic leg tie showed a slower increase in X-ray density graphs than the other patients.

  5. Factors affecting the precision of bone mineral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormack, J.; Evil, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses some statistical aspects of absorptiometric bone mineral measurements. In particular, the contribution of photon counting statistics to overall precision is estimated, and methods available for carrying out statistical comparisons of bone loss and determining their precision are reviewed. The use of replicate measurements as a means of improving measurement precision is also discussed. 11 refs

  6. Clinical factors affecting pathological fracture and healing of unicameral bone cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Hiroshi; Tsukushi, Satoshi; Hosono, Kozo; Sugiura, Hideshi; Yamada, Kenji; Yamada, Yoshihisa; Kozawa, Eiji; Arai, Eisuke; Futamura, Naohisa; Ishiguro, Naoki; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2014-05-17

    Unicameral bone cyst (UBC) is the most common benign lytic bone lesion seen in children. The aim of this study is to investigate clinical factors affecting pathological fracture and healing of UBC. We retrospectively reviewed 155 UBC patients who consulted Nagoya musculoskeletal oncology group hospitals in Japan. Sixty of the 155 patients had pathological fracture at presentation. Of 141 patients with follow-up periods exceeding 6 months, 77 were followed conservatively and 64 treated by surgery. The fracture risk was significantly higher in the humerus than other bones. In multivariate analysis, ballooning of bone, cyst in long bone, male sex, thin cortical thickness and multilocular cyst were significant adverse prognostic factors for pathological fractures at presentation. The healing rates were 30% and 83% with observation and surgery, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that fracture at presentation and history of biopsy were good prognostic factors for healing of UBC in patients under observation. The present results suggest that mechanical disruption of UBC such as fracture and biopsy promotes healing, and thus watchful waiting is indicated in these patients, whereas patients with poor prognostic factors for fractures should be considered for surgery.

  7. Factors Affecting Detection Of Irradiated Bone Meat By Using Electron Spine Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARAG, S.A.; ATIA, A.I.; HASSAN, G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Different types of bone meats were purchased locally such as camel, cow and sheep. The bones were removed, cleaned and irradiated with gamma rays at different doses (5, 10 and 20 kGy). The bone samples were stored in a refrigerator for five months for studying their stability of radiation-induced free radicals using electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The effect of thermal treatment at 50 o C at intervals was studied besides effect of storage period and re-irradiation process on ESR signal intensity. The ESR spectrum for radical species in irradiated samples was characterized by signal with spectroscopic splitting factor (g factor) of g1=2.0025 and g2=1.9973 for camel, cow and sheep bones, respectively. The signal at g = 2.0025 was ascribed to free radical rotation CO -2 that was derived from radiation-induced hydroxyapatite. Generally, the results proved that all above mentioned factors under investigation can affect ESR signal intensity but not prevent the recognize of irradiated bones, therefore, it must be taken in mind when calculating the absorbed dose.

  8. Factors affecting directional migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to the injured spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Peng; Pan, Su; Cheng, Jieping; Yang, Maoguang; Qi, Zhiping; Hou, Tingting; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein 1B plays an important role in axon guidance and neuronal migration. In the present study, we sought to discover the mechanisms underlying microtubule-associated protein 1B mediation of axon guidance and neuronal migration. We exposed bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to okadaic acid or N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (an inhibitor and stimulator, respectively, of protein phosphatase 2A) for 24 hours. The expression of the phosphorylated form of type I microtubule-associated protein 1B in the cells was greater after exposure to okadaic acid and lower after N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine. We then injected the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through the ear vein into rabbit models of spinal cord contusion. The migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells towards the injured spinal cord was poorer in cells exposed to okadaic acid- and N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine than in non-treated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, we blocked phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways in rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells using the inhibitors LY294002 and U0126, respectively. LY294002 resulted in an elevated expression of phosphorylated type I microtubule-associated protein 1B, whereas U0126 caused a reduction in expression. The present data indicate that PI3K and ERK1/2 in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells modulate the phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein 1B via a cross-signaling network, and affect the migratory efficiency of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells towards injured spinal cord. PMID:25374590

  9. Factors affecting bone mineral mass loss after lower-limb fractures in a pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceroni, Dimitri; Martin, Xavier; Kherad, Omar; Salvo, Davide; Dubois-Ferrière, Victor

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the durations of cast immobilization and non-weight-bearing periods, and decreases in vigorous physical activity (VPA) on bone mineral parameters in a pediatric population treated for a lower-limb fracture. Fifty children and teenagers who had undergone a cast-mediated immobilization for a leg or ankle fracture were prospectively recruited. The durations of cast immobilization and non-weight-bearing periods were recorded for each participant. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at the time of fracture treatment (baseline) and at cast removal. Physical activity during cast immobilization was assessed using accelerometers. A strong negative correlation was found between the total duration of cast immobilization and decreases in both calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD) (r=-0.497) and total lower-limb bone mineral content (BMC) (r=-0.405). A strong negative correlation was also noted between the durations of the non-weight-bearing periods and alterations in calcaneal BMD (r=-0.420). No apparent correlations were found between lower BMD and BMC and decreased VPA. Bone mineral loss was correlated to the total duration of cast immobilization for all measurement sites on the affected leg, whereas it was only correlated to the durations of non-weight-bearing periods for calcaneal BMD and total lower-limb BMC. However, no correlations were noted between bone mineral loss and decreased VPA.

  10. Factors that affect postnatal bone growth retardation in the twitcher murine model of Krabbe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Miguel Agustin; Ries, William Louis; Shanmugarajan, Srinivasan; Arboleda, Gonzalo; Singh, Inderjit; Singh, Avtar Kaur

    2010-01-01

    Krabbe disease is an inherited lysosomal disorder in which galactosylsphingosine (psychosine) accumulates mainly in the central nervous system. To gain insight into the possible mechanism(s) that may be participating in the inhibition of the postnatal somatic growth described in the animal model of this disease (twitcher mouse, twi), we studied their femora. This study reports that twi femora are smaller than of those of wild type (wt), and present with abnormality of marrow cellularity, bone deposition (osteoblastic function), and osteoclastic activity. Furthermore, lipidomic analysis indicates altered sphingolipid homeostasis, but without significant changes in the levels of sphingolipid-derived intermediates of cell death (ceramide) or the levels of the osteoclast-osteoblast coupling factor (sphingosine-1-phosphate). However, there was significant accumulation of psychosine in the femora of adult twi animals as compared to wt, without induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interleukin-6. Analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plasma levels, a liver secreted hormone known to play a role in bone growth, indicated a drastic reduction in twi animals when compared to wt. To identify the cause of the decrease, we examined the IGF-1 mRNA expression and protein levels in the liver. The results indicated a significant reduction of IGF-1 mRNA as well as protein levels in the liver from twi as compared to wt littermates. Our data suggest that a combination of endogenous (psychosine) and endocrine (IGF-1) factors play a role in the inhibition of postnatal bone growth in twi mice; and further suggest that derangements of liver function may be contributing, at least in part, to this alteration. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Extrinsic Factors as Component Positions to Bone and Intrinsic Factors Affecting Postoperative Rotational Limb Alignment in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Tomoharu; Sato, Takashi; Tanifuji, Osamu; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Koichi; Endo, Naoto

    2018-02-13

    This study aimed to identify the factors affecting postoperative rotational limb alignment of the tibia relative to the femur. We hypothesized that not only component positions but also several intrinsic factors were associated with postoperative rotational limb alignment. This study included 99 knees (90 women and 9 men) with a mean age of 77 ± 6 years. A three-dimensional (3D) assessment system was applied under weight-bearing conditions to biplanar long-leg radiographs using 3D-to-2D image registration technique. The evaluation parameters were (1) component position; (2) preoperative and postoperative coronal, sagittal, and rotational limb alignment; (3) preoperative bony deformity, including femoral torsion, condylar twist angle, and tibial torsion; and (4) preoperative and postoperative range of motion (ROM). In multiple linear regression analysis using a stepwise procedure, postoperative rotational limb alignment was associated with the following: (1) rotation of the component position (tibia: β = 0.371, P intrinsic factors, such as preoperative rotational limb alignment, ROM, and tibial torsion, affected postoperative rotational limb alignment. On a premise of correct component positions, the intrinsic factors that can be controlled by surgeons should be taken care. In particular, ROM is necessary to be improved within the possible range to acquire better postoperative rotational limb alignment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10 mg/kg METH groups (n = 6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5 mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10 mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5 mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10 mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5 mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10 mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that

  13. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2014-05-07

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10mg/kg METH groups (n=6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that METH might

  14. Factors affecting the possibility to detect buccal bone condition around dental implants using cone beam computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedke, Gabriela S; Spin-Neto, Rubens; da Silveira, Heloisa E D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate factors with impact on the conspicuity (possibility to detect) of the buccal bone condition around dental implants in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Titanium (Ti) or zirconia (Zr) implants and abutments were inserted into 40 bone blocks...... in a way to obtain variable buccal bone thicknesses. Three combinations regarding the implant-abutment metal (TiTi, TiZr, or ZrZr) and the number of implants (one, two, or three) were assessed. Two CBCT units (Scanora 3D - Sc and Cranex 3D - Cr) and two voxel resolutions (0.2 and 0.13 mm) were used...... variable. Odds ratio (OR) were calculated separately for each CBCT unit. RESULTS: Implant-abutment combination (ZrZr) (OR Sc = 19.18, OR Cr = 11.89) and number of implants (3) (OR Sc = 12.10, OR Cr = 4.25) had major impact on buccal bone conspicuity. The thinner the buccal bone, the higher the risk...

  15. Clinical relevance of the apparent diffusion coefficient value of metastatic bone tumours on diffusion-weighted MRI images: differences according to the types of primary tumour, the affected bones, and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, M J; Yoon, Y C

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of metastatic bone tumours on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images differs according to the type of primary cancer, the affected bone, and clinical factors. For this retrospective study, two radiologists reviewed MRI images, including ADC maps, of 67 patients (M:F=38:29; median age, 48 years) who were diagnosed with bone metastasis by means of histological or clinical confirmation. The primary tumours included 29 lung adenocarcinomas, 15 invasive ductal adenocarcinomas of the breast, 13 hepatocellular carcinomas, six prostatic carcinomas, and four renal cell carcinomas. ADC values of the metastatic tumour were compared according to the type of primary malignancy, the affected bone, and the age and sex of the patient using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests with Bonferroni correction. In addition, pre-contrast CT images were available in 38 of 67 patients; a subanalysis of the CT radiodensity and ADC values were performed with Spearman correlation. The mean, standard deviation, and minimum and maximum values of the ADC of metastatic bone tumours did not differ significantly according to type of primary malignancy, the affected bone, or clinical variables (p>0.1). The ADC value was not significantly correlated with CT radiodensity (p=0.24). Intra- and interobserver agreements for the mean ADC values were excellent (intra-observer: p=0.98; interobserver: p=0.98). Assessment of the ADC value of metastatic bone tumours is not reliable for differentiation of the type of primary cancer. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Selected factors affecting bone mass in students with diagnosed obesity, aged 7–10 years, from Łódź

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łupińska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity may be a risk factor for mineralisation and bone structure disorders, contrary to a common belief in its protective effects on bone tissue. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between selected risk factors and obesity indicators and bone mass in obese children. Material and methods: The study included 80 children aged between 7 and 10 years with excessive body weight (60 obese and 20 overweight; the reference group included 37 children with body weight appropriate for height. All patients underwent physical examination with anthropometric measurements. Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire. The average daily intake of selected nutrients was analysed using Dieta 2 software package. Densitometry (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, DXA was performed in all children to evaluate bone mass. Results: Obese and overweight children had statistically significantly higher total body BMD and total body BMD Z-score compared to control group. Most DXA parameters (except from volumetric bone mineral density were positively correlated with body weight, height and waist circumference. A significant positive correlation was found between physical activity and total body BMD. There was a negative correlation between the average daily intake of proteins, carbohydrates, magnesium and phosphorus in obese children and most DXA parameters (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Bone mass in obese children is positively affected by somatic features (body weight, height, waist circumference and body composition and physical activity, and negatively affected by increased intake of proteins, carbohydrates, phosphorus and magnesium. The calculated volumetric mineral bone density may reflect the actual bone mineral density and prevent DXA overestimation in obese children.

  17. Factors Affecting the Recurrence of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone After Surgery: A Clinicopathological Study of 80 Cases from a Single Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-dong Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This aim of the present study was to identify specific markers determining the recurrence of the giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB. Methods: This study involved the clinicopathological analysis of 80 cases. All of the clinical features, pathological fracture, Campanacci grade, histological features and surgical methods were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Ki-67, CD147, mutant p53 and p63 in GCTB. Comparisons between different groups were performed using the Chi-square test. The risk factors affecting recurrence were analyzed using a binary logistic model. Kaplan-Meier analysis was employed for the survival analysis between the groups. Cell proliferation assays, migration and invasion assays were used to detect the function of CD147 on GCTB in vitro. Results: The univariate analysis showed that Ki-67 and CD147 expression, pathological fracture, Campanacci grade and surgical method were associated with recurrence. The multivariate analysis revealed that CD147 expression, Campanacci grade and surgical method were the factors affecting GCTB recurrence. In addition, the Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that these factors affected tumor-free survival time. In vitro study revealed that the CD147 knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA technique dramatically reduced the proliferation, migration and invasion of GCTB. Conclusion: Our results suggest that CD147 may serve as an adequate marker for GCTB recurrence. Campanacci grade is a risk factor for GCTB recurrence, which is also affected by the surgical method used.

  18. Maxillary sinus lift with solely autogenous bone compared to a combination of autogenous bone and growth factors or (solely) bone substitutes. A systematic review : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rickert, D.; Slater, J. J. R. Huddleston; Meijer, H. J. A.; Vissink, A.; Raghoebar, G. M.

    Literature regarding the outcome of maxillary sinus floor elevation to create sufficient bone fraction to enable implant placement was systematically reviewed. Bone fraction and implant survival rate were assessed to determine whether grafting material or applied growth factor affected bone

  19. Factors affecting nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.

    1995-01-01

    Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos

  20. Cytokines and growth factors which regulate bone cell function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Yoshiki

    Everybody knows that growth factors are most important in making bone. Hormones enhance bone formation from a long distance. Growth factors promote bone formation as an autocrine or paracrine factor in nearby bone. BMP-2 through BMP-8 are in the TGF-β family. BMP makes bone by enchondral ossification. In bone, IGF-II is most abundant, second, TGF-β, and third IGF-I. TGF-β enhances bone formation mainly by intramembranous ossification in vivo. TGF-β affects both cell proliferation and differentiation, however, TGF-β mainly enhances bone formation by intramembranous ossification. Interestingly, TGF-β is increased by estrogen(E 2), androgen, vitamin D, TGF-β and FGF. IGF-I and IGF-II also enhance bone formation. At present it remains unclear why IGF-I is more active in bone formation than IGF-II, although IGF-II is more abundant in bone compared to IGF-I. However, if only type I receptor signal transduction promotes bone formation, the strong activity of IGF-I in bone formation is understandable. GH, PTH and E 2 promotes IGF-I production. Recent data suggest that hormones containing vitamin D or E 2 enhance bone formation through growth factors. Therefore, growth factors are the key to clarifying the mechanism of bone formation.

  1. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  2. Factors influencing bone scan quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.G.; Shirley, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)

  3. Heavy metals accumulation affects bone microarchitecture in osteoporotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Manuel; Feola, Maurizio; Romano, Lorenzo; Rao, Cecilia; Gasbarra, Elena; Bonanno, Elena; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Tarantino, Umberto

    2017-04-01

    Bone metabolism is affected by mechanical, genetic, and environmental factors and plays a major role in osteoporosis. Nevertheless, the influence of environmental pollution on the occurrence of osteoporosis is still unclear and controversial. In this context, heavy metals are the most important pollutants capable to affect bone mass. The aim of this study was to investigate whether heavy metals accumulation in bone tissues could be related to the altered bone metabolism and architecture of osteoporotic patients. To this end, we analyzed 25 bone head biopsies osteoporotic patients and 25 bone head biopsies of osteoarthritic patients. Moreover we enrolled 15 patients underwent hip arthroplasty for high-energy hip fracture or osteonecrosis of the femoral head as a control group. Bone head biopsies were studied by BioQuant-osteo software, scanning electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis. We found a prevalence of lead, cadmium and chromium accumulation in osteoporotic patients. Noteworthy, high levels of sclerostin, detected by immunohistochemistry, correlate with the accumulation of heavy metal found in the bone of osteoporotic patients, suggesting a molecular link between heavy metal accumulation and bone metabolism impairment. In conclusion, the presence of heavy metals into bone shed new light on the comprehension of the pathogenesis of osteoporosis since these elements could play a non redundant role in the development of osteoporosis at cellular/molecular and epigenetic level. Nevertheless, in vivo and in vitro studies need to better elucidate the molecular mechanism in which heavy metals can participate to osteoporosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1333-1342, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  5. A proteome study of secreted prostatic factors affecting osteoblastic activity: galectin-1 is involved in differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Jensen, Ole N; Moiseeva, Elena P

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer cells metastasize to bone causing a predominantly osteosclerotic response. It has been shown that cells from the human prostate cancer cell line PC3 secrete factors that influence the behavior of osteoblast-like cells. Some of these factors with mitogenic activity have been found...... to be proteins with molecular weights between 20 and 30 kDa, but the identity of the osteoblastic mitogenic factor or factors produced by prostate cancer cells is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the protein profile of conditioned medium (CM) from PC3 cells in the molecular......BMS) cells. Furthermore, we tested whether adhesion of PC3 cells to plastic, laminin, fibronectin, and collagen type I was influenced by lactose, which inhibits galectin-1. Galectin-1 (1000 ng/ml) inhibited the proliferation of hBMS cells up to 70 +/- 12% (treated/control) of control in contrast to PC3 CM...

  6. Factors affecting mining costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: investment decision-making, unit cost factors (declining ore grade, low-price contracts, ore grade/output relationship, above average cost increases). Economic, environmental, sociological and political aspects are considered. (U.K.)

  7. Local induction of inflammation affects bone formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, M; Kruyt, M C; Loozen, L; Kragten, A H; Yuan, H; Dhert, W J; Öner, F C; Alblas, J

    2017-01-01

    To explore the influence of inflammatory processes on bone formation, we applied a new in vivo screening model. Confined biological pockets were first created in rabbits as a response to implanted bone cement discs. These biomembrane pockets were subsequently used to study the effects of

  8. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality.

  9. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Factors for Bone Loss Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Like muscle, bone ... complications of pregnancy; and those who are experiencing immobilization of some part of the body because of ...

  10. Factors affecting construction performance: exploratory factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soewin, E.; Chinda, T.

    2018-04-01

    The present work attempts to develop a multidimensional performance evaluation framework for a construction company by considering all relevant measures of performance. Based on the previous studies, this study hypothesizes nine key factors, with a total of 57 associated items. The hypothesized factors, with their associated items, are then used to develop questionnaire survey to gather data. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to the collected data which gave rise 10 factors with 57 items affecting construction performance. The findings further reveal that the items constituting ten key performance factors (KPIs) namely; 1) Time, 2) Cost, 3) Quality, 4) Safety & Health, 5) Internal Stakeholder, 6) External Stakeholder, 7) Client Satisfaction, 8) Financial Performance, 9) Environment, and 10) Information, Technology & Innovation. The analysis helps to develop multi-dimensional performance evaluation framework for an effective measurement of the construction performance. The 10 key performance factors can be broadly categorized into economic aspect, social aspect, environmental aspect, and technology aspects. It is important to understand a multi-dimension performance evaluation framework by including all key factors affecting the construction performance of a company, so that the management level can effectively plan to implement an effective performance development plan to match with the mission and vision of the company.

  11. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of af...

  12. Biology of Bone Tissue: Structure, Function, and Factors That Influence Bone Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo Florencio-Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can result in bone diseases including osteoporosis. Recently, it has been recognized that, during bone remodeling, there are an intricate communication among bone cells. For instance, the coupling from bone resorption to bone formation is achieved by interaction between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Moreover, osteocytes produce factors that influence osteoblast and osteoclast activities, whereas osteocyte apoptosis is followed by osteoclastic bone resorption. The increasing knowledge about the structure and functions of bone cells contributed to a better understanding of bone biology. It has been suggested that there is a complex communication between bone cells and other organs, indicating the dynamic nature of bone tissue. In this review, we discuss the current data about the structure and functions of bone cells and the factors that influence bone remodeling.

  13. Biology of Bone Tissue: Structure, Function, and Factors That Influence Bone Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva; Sasso-Cerri, Estela; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines) and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens) factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can result in bone diseases including osteoporosis. Recently, it has been recognized that, during bone remodeling, there are an intricate communication among bone cells. For instance, the coupling from bone resorption to bone formation is achieved by interaction between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Moreover, osteocytes produce factors that influence osteoblast and osteoclast activities, whereas osteocyte apoptosis is followed by osteoclastic bone resorption. The increasing knowledge about the structure and functions of bone cells contributed to a better understanding of bone biology. It has been suggested that there is a complex communication between bone cells and other organs, indicating the dynamic nature of bone tissue. In this review, we discuss the current data about the structure and functions of bone cells and the factors that influence bone remodeling.

  14. Acute hypothalamic suppression significantly affects trabecular bone but not cortical bone following recovery and ovariectomy surgery in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa R. Yingling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoporosis is “a pediatric disease with geriatric consequences.” Bone morphology and tissue quality co-adapt during ontogeny for sufficient bone stiffness. Altered bone morphology from hypothalamic amenorrhea, a risk factor for low bone mass in women, may affect bone strength later in life. Our purpose was to determine if altered morphology following hypothalamic suppression during development affects cortical bone strength and trabecular bone volume (BV/TV at maturity.Methods. Female rats (25 days old were assigned to a control (C group (n = 45 that received saline injections (.2 cc or an experimental group (GnRH-a (n = 45 that received gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist injections (.24 mg per dose for 25 days. Fifteen animals from each group were sacrificed immediately after the injection protocol at Day 50 (C, GnRH-a. The remaining animals recovered for 135 days and a subset of each group was sacrificed at Day 185 ((C-R (n = 15 and (G-R (n = 15. The remaining animals had an ovariectomy surgery (OVX at 185 days of age and were sacrificed 40 days later (C-OVX (n = 15 and (G-OVX (n = 15. After sacrifice femurs were mechanically tested and scanned using micro CT. Serum C-terminal telopeptides (CTX and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 were measured. Two-way ANOVA (2 groups (GnRH-a and Control X 3 time points (Injection Protocol, Recovery, post-OVX was computed.Results. GnRH-a injections suppressed uterine weights (72% and increased CTX levels by 59%. Bone stiffness was greater in the GnRH-a groups compared to C. Ash content and cortical bone area were similar between groups at all time points. Polar moment of inertia, a measure of bone architecture, was 15% larger in the GnRH-a group and remained larger than C (19% following recovery. Both the polar moment of inertia and cortical area increased linearly with the increases in body weight. Following the injection protocol, trabecular BV/TV was 31% lower in the Gn

  15. Perioperative factors affecting the occurrence of acute complex regional pain syndrome following limb bone fracture surgery: data from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitani, Masahiko; Yasunaga, Hideo; Uchida, Kanji; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Nakamura, Masaya; Ohe, Kazuhiko; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Matsuda, Shinya; Yamada, Yoshitsugu

    2014-07-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) describes a broad spectrum of symptoms that predominantly localize to the extremities. Although limb fracture is one of the most frequently reported triggering events, few large-scale studies have shown the occurrence of and factors associated with CRPS following limb fracture. This study aimed to show the occurrence and identify of those factors. Using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database, we identified 39 patients diagnosed with CRPS immediately after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for limb fracture from a cohort of 185 378 inpatients treated with ORIF between 1 July and 31 December of each year between 2007 and 2010. Patient and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, fracture site, duration of anaesthesia and use of regional anaesthesia were investigated by logistic regression analyses to examine associations between these factors and the in-hospital occurrence of CRPS after ORIF. The occurrence of CRPS was relatively high in fractures of the distal forearm, but low in fractures of the lower limb and in patients with multiple fractures. Generally females are considered to be at high risk of CRPS; however, we found a comparable number of male and female patients suffering from CRPS after ORIF for limb fracture. In terms of perioperative factors, a longer duration of anaesthesia, but not regional anaesthesia, was significantly associated with a higher incidence of CRPS. Although a limited number of CRPS patients were analysed in this study, reduced operative time might help to prevent the development of acute CRPS following limb fracture. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Methionine restriction alters bone morphology and affects osteoblast differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou Ouattara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Methionine restriction (MR extends the lifespan of a wide variety of species, including rodents, drosophila, nematodes, and yeasts. MR has also been demonstrated to affect the overall growth of mice and rats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of MR on bone structure in young and aged male and female C57BL/6J mice. This study indicated that MR affected the growth rates of males and young females, but not aged females. MR reduced volumetric bone mass density (vBMD and bone mineral content (BMC, while bone microarchitecture parameters were decreased in males and young females, but not in aged females compared to control-fed (CF mice. However, when adjusted for bodyweight, the effect of MR in reducing vBMD, BMC and microarchitecture measurements was either attenuated or reversed suggesting that the smaller bones in MR mice is appropriate for its body size. In addition, CF and MR mice had similar intrinsic strength properties as measured by nanoindentation. Plasma biomarkers suggested that the low bone mass in MR mice could be due to increased collagen degradation, which may be influenced by leptin, IGF-1, adiponectin and FGF21 hormone levels. Mouse preosteoblast cell line cultured under low sulfur amino acid growth media attenuated gene expression levels of Col1al, Runx2, Bglap, Alpl and Spp1 suggesting delayed collagen formation and bone differentiation. Collectively, our studies revealed that MR altered bone morphology which could be mediated by delays in osteoblast differentiation. Keywords: Methionine restriction, Aged mice, Micro-computed tomography, Nanoindentation, MC3T3-E1 subclone 4

  17. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  18. Factors affecting dental service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Baldacchino, Donia

    2015-01-01

    Measuring dental clinic service quality is the first and most important factor in improving care. The quality provided plays an important role in patient satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting dental service quality from the patients' viewpoint. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in a dental clinic in Tehran between January and June 2014. A sample of 385 patients was selected from two work shifts using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The data were collected, a self-administered questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study, based on the Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model of service quality which consisted of two parts: the patients' demographic characteristics and a 30-item questionnaire to measure the five dimensions of the service quality. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 18.0 through some descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, as well as analytical methods, including confirmatory factor. Results showed that the correlation coefficients for all dimensions were higher than 0.5. In this model, assurance (regression weight=0.99) and tangibility (regression weight=0.86) had, respectively, the highest and lowest effects on dental service quality. The Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model is suitable to measure quality in dental services. The variables related to dental services quality have been made according to the model. This is a pioneering study that uses Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model and CFA in a dental setting. This study provides useful insights and guidance for dental service quality assurance.

  19. STEM CELL ORIGIN DIFFERENTLY AFFECTS BONE TISSUE ENGINEERING STRATEGIES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eMattioli-Belmonte

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering is a promising research area for the improvement of traditional bone grafting procedure drawbacks. Thanks to the capability of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation, stem cells are one of the major actors in tissue engineering approaches, and adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are considered to be appropriate for regenerative medicine strategies. Bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs are the earliest- discovered and well-known stem cell population used in bone tissue engineering. However, several factors hamper BM-MSC clinical application and subsequently, new stem cell sources have been investigated for these purposes. The successful identification and combination of tissue engineering, scaffold, progenitor cells, and physiologic signalling molecules enabled the surgeon to design, recreate the missing tissue in its near natural form. On the basis of these considerations, we analysed the capability of two different scaffolds, planned for osteochondral tissue regeneration, to modulate differentiation of adult stem cells of dissimilar local sources (i.e. periodontal ligament, maxillary periosteum as well as adipose-derived stem cells, in view of possible craniofacial tissue engineering strategies. We demonstrated that cells are differently committed toward the osteoblastic phenotype and therefore, considering their peculiar features, they may alternatively represent interesting cell sources in different stem cell-based bone/periodontal tissue regeneration approaches.

  20. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  1. Physiological role of growth factors and bone morphogenetic proteins in osteogenesis and bone fracture healing: а review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sagalovsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The repair of large bone defects remains a major clinical orthopedic challenge. Bone regeneration and fracture healing is a complex physiological mechanisms regulated by a large number of biologically active molecules. Multiple factors regulate this cascade of molecular events, which affects different stages in the osteoblast and chondroblast lineage during such processes as migration, proliferation, chemotaxis, differentiation, inhibition, and extracellular protein synthesis. A recent review has focused on the mechanisms by which growth and differentiation factors regulate the fracture healing process. Rapid progress in skeletal cellular and molecular biology has led to identification of many signaling molecules associated with formation of skeletal tissues, including a large family of growth factors (transforming growth factor-β and bone morphogenetic proteins, fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, cytokines and interleukins. There is increasing evidence indicating that they are critical regulators of cellular proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix biosynthesis and bone mineralization. A clear understanding of cellular and molecular pathways involved in fracture healing is not only critical for improvement of fracture treatments, but it may also enhance further our knowledge of mechanisms involved in skeletal growth and repair, as well as mechanisms of aging. This suggests that, in the future, they may play a major role in the treatment of bone disease and fracture repair.

  2. Contingent factors affecting network learning

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Linda D.; Pressey, Andrew D.; Johnston, Wesley J.

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding of the impact of individuals on organizational learning processes, this paper explores the impact of individual cognition and action on the absorptive capacity process of the wider network. In particular this study shows how contingent factors such as social integration mechanisms and power relationships influence how network members engage in, and benefit from, learning. The use of cognitive consistency and sensemaking theory enables examination of how these conting...

  3. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  4. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yongi-Mi; University of Oklahoma

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR); yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider univers...

  5. Factors That Affect Software Testability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, Jeffrey M.

    1991-01-01

    Software faults that infrequently affect software's output are dangerous. When a software fault causes frequent software failures, testing is likely to reveal the fault before the software is releases; when the fault remains undetected during testing, it can cause disaster after the software is installed. A technique for predicting whether a particular piece of software is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is found in [Voas91b]. A piece of software that is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have high testability. A piece of software that is not likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have low testability. It is preferable to design software with higher testabilities from the outset, i.e., create software with as high of a degree of testability as possible to avoid the problems of having undetected faults that are associated with low testability. Information loss is a phenomenon that occurs during program execution that increases the likelihood that a fault will remain undetected. In this paper, I identify two brad classes of information loss, define them, and suggest ways of predicting the potential for information loss to occur. We do this in order to decrease the likelihood that faults will remain undetected during testing.

  6. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit latrines in slums areas of Uganda fill up faster than might be expected from some estimates owing to inappropriate use and failure to consider critical factors affecting sludge accumulation rates at the planning, design and construction stages. This study sought to investigate factors affecting filling rates of lined pit latrines ...

  7. Factors affecting endoglucanase production by Trichoderma reesei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... from the ANOVA analysis have a significant value of Pmodel>F= 0.0008 and R2 .... there are various environmental and nutritional factors ... reported to affect cellulase production from wheat straw ... many factors affecting simultaneously the fermentation ..... and control its stability (Kalra and Sandhu, 1986).

  8. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Ahmet INAN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.

  9. Vulnerary Factors to Improve Bone Healing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hollinger, Jeffrey O

    2007-01-01

    The objective for the work was to process rabbit bone specimens from the Institute of Surgical Research, foliwed by sectioning and staining of the samples No patents application were filed The rabbit...

  10. Factors Affecting Tocopherol Concentrations in Soybean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe

    2016-12-21

    Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.

  11. 7339 BASELINE SURVEY ON FACTORS AFFECTING SORGHUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muuicathy

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... factors affecting sorghum production and the sorghum farming ... The informal seed system includes methods such as retaining seed on-farm from ..... Jaetzold R and H Schmidt Farm Management Handbook of Kenya, Ministry.

  12. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING APPLE PRODUCTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Research Organisation scientists working directly with apple farmers ... be productive up to 40 years, it was more realistic to consider .... to determine the factors that affect apple production. ..... profit maximising model using flexible production ...

  13. Risk factors and characteristics of prostate cancer bone metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ming LIN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the risk factors and characteristics of bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer. Methods Patients who were diagnosed as prostate cancer by biopsy and histopathologic analysis between June 2006 and June 2016 were included in this study. The clinical data of the patients were reviewed, and the demographic data, laboratory examination results and Gleason score were recorded. The correlations between clinical factors and bone metastasis were analyzed, and the risk factors of bone metastasis were identified. Results A total of 585 patients were recruited in this study, including 228 with bone metastasis and 357 without bone metastasis. Of the patients with bone metastasis, the incidence of pelvic metastasis was the highest, accounting for 81.58%, followed by spin (63.16% and rib (58.33%, and the incidence of clavicle metastasis was the lowest (14.47%. Logistic regression analysis showed that age 85.5U/L, prostate-specific antigen >79.88μg/L and Gleason score >7.5 were the risk factors of bone metastasis in prostate cancer. ROC curve analysis showed that the sensitivity of diagnosing bone metastasis was 56.1%, 66.7%, 68.4% and 56.1%, and the specificity was 56.6%, 81.8%, 70.0% and 65.3%, respectively for above 4 factors. Conclusions The most common site of bone metastasis in patients with prostate cancer is pelvis. Patients' age, concentrations of plasma ALP and PSA, and Gleason score are the risk factors for bone metastasis in patients with prostate cancer. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.08.09

  14. Factor affecting Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato is a very important food crop and is adversely affected by fungus. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation can play an important role in the improvement of potato. The present study was conducted to optimize the different factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chitinase gene. Nodes were used as ...

  15. The loss of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) reduces bone toughness and fracture toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Alexander J; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Wadeer, Sandra A; Whitehead, Jack M; Rowland, Barbara J; Granke, Mathilde; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Yang, Xiangli; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2014-05-01

    Even though age-related changes to bone tissue affecting fracture risk are well characterized, only a few matrix-related factors have been identified as important to maintaining fracture resistance. As a gene critical to osteoblast differentiation, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is possibly one of these important factors. To test the hypothesis that the loss of ATF4 affects the fracture resistance of bone beyond bone mass and structure, we harvested bones from Atf4+/+ and Atf4-/- littermates at 8 and 20 weeks of age (n≥9 per group) for bone assessment across several length scales. From whole bone mechanical tests in bending, femurs from Atf4-/- mice were found to be brittle with reduced toughness and fracture toughness compared to femurs from Atf4+/+ mice. However, there were no differences in material strength and in tissue hardness, as determined by nanoindentation, between the genotypes, irrespective of age. Tissue mineral density of the cortex at the point of loading as determined by micro-computed tomography was also not significantly different. However, by analyzing local composition by Raman Spectroscopy (RS), bone tissue of Atf4-/- mice was found to have higher mineral to collagen ratio compared to wild-type tissue, primarily at 20 weeks of age. From RS analysis of intact femurs at 2 orthogonal orientations relative to the polarization axis of the laser, we also found that the organizational-sensitive peak ratio, ν1Phosphate per Amide I, changed to a greater extent upon bone rotation for Atf4-deficient tissue, implying bone matrix organization may contribute to the brittleness phenotype. Target genes of ATF4 activity are not only important to osteoblast differentiation but also in maintaining bone toughness and fracture toughness. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The Loss of Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4) Reduces Bone Toughness and Fracture Toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Alexander J.; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Waader, Sandra A.; Whitehead, Jack M.; Rowland, Barbara J.; Granke, Mathilde; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Yang, Xiangli; Nyman, Jeffry S.

    2014-01-01

    Even though age-related changes to bone tissue affecting fracture risk are well characterized, only a few matrix-related factors have been identified as important to maintaining fracture resistance. As a gene critical to osteoblast differentiation, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is possibly one of the seimportant factors. To test the hypothesis that the loss of ATF4 affects the fracture resistance of bone beyond bone mass and structure, we harvested bones from Atf4+/+ and Atf4−/− littermates at 8 and 20 weeks of age (n≥9 per group) for bone assessment across several length scales. From whole bone mechanical tests in bending, femurs from Atf4−/− mice were found to be brittle with reduced toughness and fracture toughness compared to femurs from Atf4+/+ mice. However, there were no differences in material strength and in tissue hardness, as determined by nanoindentation, between the genotypes, irrespective age. Tissue mineral density of the cortex at the point of loading as determined by micro-computed tomography was also not significantly different. However, by analyzing local composition by Raman Spectroscopy (RS), bone tissue of Atf4−/− mice was found to have higher mineral to collagen ratio compared to wild-type tissue, primarily at 20 weeks of age. From RS analysis of intact femurs at 2 orthogonal orientations relative to the polarization axis of the laser, we also found that the organizational-sensitive peak ratio, ν1 Phosphate per Amide I, changed to a greater extent upon bone rotation for Atf4-deficient tissue, implying bone matrix organization may contribute to the brittleness phenotype. Target genes of ATF4 activity are not only important to osteoblast differentiation but also maintaining bone toughness and fracture toughness. PMID:24509412

  17. Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, Brison

    This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…

  18. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  19. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  20. Strategies for Controlled Delivery of Growth Factors and Cells for Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Tiffany N.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2012-01-01

    The controlled delivery of growth factors and cells within biomaterial carriers can enhance and accelerate functional bone formation. The carrier system can be designed with preprogrammed release kinetics to deliver bioactive molecules in a localized, spatiotemporal manner most similar to the natural wound healing process. The carrier can also act as an extracellular matrix-mimicking substrate for promoting osteoprogenitor cellular infiltration and proliferation for integrative tissue repair. This review discusses the role of various regenerative factors involved in bone healing and their appropriate combinations with different delivery systems for augmenting bone regeneration. The general requirements of protein, cell and gene therapy are described, with elaboration on how the selection of materials, configurations and processing affects growth factor and cell delivery and regenerative efficacy in both in vitro and in vivo applications for bone tissue engineering. PMID:22342771

  1. Radiological study of two disseminated maligant non-Hodgkin lymphomas affecting only the bones in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanel, D; Rebibo, G.; Tamman, S.; Bayle, C.; Hartmann, O.

    1982-01-01

    Malignant non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a neoplastic proliferation of lymphoid cells whose clinical manifestations are extremely variable. All tissues can be affected. There may be localization in lymphoid organs (Waldeyer's ring, spleen, digestive tract), other localizations (lungs, pleura, liver, bone marrow, central nervous system) and unusual localizations. Although bone marrow is often affected, bone involvement is very rare in the early stages of the disease. This report concerns the radiological study of two disseminated malignant non-Hodgkin lymphomas affecting only the bone in children. (orig.)

  2. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongi-Mi Kim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR; yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider university guidelines, review other websites, and consult with experts and other divisions within the library; however, resources and training for the design process are lacking. While website designers assess their websites as highly successful, user evaluations are somewhat lower. Accordingly, use is low, and users rely heavily on commercial websites. Suggestions for enhancing the usage of ULWR are provided.

  3. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship and Business Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tur-Porcar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is becoming increasingly important for society, and the creation of business ventures is one area where sustainability is critical. We examined the factors affecting actions that are designed to foster business sustainability. These factors are related to the environment, behavior, human relations, and business activity. Based on questionnaire responses from experts, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method was used to rank sustainable business criteria according to their importance for entrepreneurs starting sustainable businesses. The results indicate that the most important drivers of sustainable entrepreneurship are behavioral factors and business factors. Ethical principles and values, together with competitive intelligence, are crucial for undertaking actions that lead to sustainability.

  4. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  5. Factors Affecting the Productivity of Government Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. Haenisch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While there have been a variety of studies concerning government worker motivation and productivity, few, if any, studies have focused specifically on state government workers’ perceptions about what factors affect their productivity. With more than 5 million workers employed by state governments in the United States, any improvement in state workplace productivity could have significant financial and service impact for society. In this study, state government workers identified those factors perceived as most affecting their workplace productivity. Data were collected through a survey offered to state government workers in the state of Wyoming. Factor analysis was used to derive key productivity factors from survey responses. The results indicate that state government workers appreciate having freedom and autonomy, like their jobs and the sense of achievement, and welcome teamwork, but feel limited by poor supervision and management, poor communications, and insufficient budgets and staffing. To improve productivity, the workers would eliminate bureaucracy, supervise better, and improve communication.

  6. Analysis of Economic Factors Affecting Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Linyin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation concentrates on analysis of economic factors affecting Chinese stock market through examining relationship between stock market index and economic factors. Six economic variables are examined: industrial production, money supply 1, money supply 2, exchange rate, long-term government bond yield and real estate total value. Stock market comprises fixed interest stocks and equities shares. In this dissertation, stock market is restricted to equity market. The stock price in thi...

  7. Factors affecting the effects of diuresis renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Deshan

    2006-01-01

    Diuresis renography is one of the classic methods for diagnosing upper urinary tract obstruction in both children and adults. However, in clinical practice, the results of diuresis renography were often influenced by many factors including diuretics, timing of diuretics injection, the status of renal function and hydration, the volume and compliance of collecting system, bladder fullness and so on. It is important to consider all the factors affecting diuresis renography during performing and interpreting diuresis renography. (authors)

  8. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Factors affecting career preferences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    College of Medicine prefer to work as doctors, and (ii) what factors may affect their long-term retention in their home country? Methods. We designed ... from rural areas and small towns, and whose parents were 'non- professionals', were .... needs – 5; city life can be difficult – 3; one is closer to family – 2; there is a sense of ...

  10. Workplace, Biographical and Motivation Factors Affecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the findings of a survey on how workplace, biographical and motivational factors affect the organisational commitment of records officers in federal universities in Nigeria. Single stage random sampling, with equal allocation method, was used to administer questionnaire on 300 sampled participants from ...

  11. Factors affecting IUCD discontinuation in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Subash; Paudel, Ishwari Sharma; Bhattarai, Sailesh

    2015-01-01

    Information related to contraception discontinuation, especially in the context of Nepal is very limited. A nested case-control study was carried out to determine the factors affecting discontinuation of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). A total of 115 cases (IUCD discontinuers) and 115...

  12. INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN FACTORS AFFECTING LABOUR MOBILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SELLIER, F.; ZARKA, C.

    THE GEOGRAPHICAL, OCCUPATIONAL, AND INTERFIRM MOBILITY, AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING THESE MOVEMENTS FOR WORKERS IN FRANCE, ITALY, GERMANY, AND SWEDEN IN THE PERIOD SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR ARE STUDIED. DATA OBTAINED FROM INDUSTRIAL SURVEYS AND GENERAL CENSUSES WERE USED TO COMPARE THE FOUR COUNTRIES WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH THE UNITED STATES.…

  13. Personal factors affecting organizational commitment of records ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated personal factors affecting organizational commitment among records management personnel in the state universities in Nigeria. Simple cluster sampling with equal allocation method was used to select 180 records management personnel from the study population. A five item organizational ...

  14. Interaction betwen Lead and Bone Protein to Affect Bone Calcium Level Using UV-Vis Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Z.; Azharuddin, A.; Aflanie, I.; Kania, N.; Suhartono, E.

    2018-05-01

    This present study aim to evaluate the interactions between lead (Pb) and with bone protein by UV-Vis approach. In addition, this prsent study also aim to investigate the effect of Pb on bone calcium (Ca) level. The present study was a true experimental study design to examine the impact of Pb exposure in bone of male rats (Rattus novergicus). The study involved 5 groups, P1 was the control group, while the other (P2-P5) were the case group with exposure of Pb in different concentration within 4 weeks. At the end of the exposure, the interaction between Pb and protein was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometric method, and the Ca level was determined using permanganometric method. The results shows that that there is an interaction between Pb and bone protein. The result also shows that the value of the binding constant of Protein-Pb is 32.71. It means Pb have an high affinity to bind with bone protein, which promote a further reaction to induced the release of bone Ca from the bone protein. In conclusion, this present study found an obvious relationship between Pb and bone protein which promote a further reaction to increase the releasing of bone calcium.

  15. Does vitamin D supplementation of healthy Danish Caucasian girls affect bone turnover and bone mineralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molgaard, C.; Larnkjaer, A.; Cashman, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: A high peak bone mass may be essential for reducing the risk of osteoporosis later in life and a sufficient vitamin D level during puberty may be necessary for optimal bone accretion and obtaining a high peak bone mass. Dietary intake and synthesis during winter of vitamin D might...... be limited but the effect of vitamin D supplementation in adolescence on bone mass is not well established. Objective: To investigate the effect of supplementation with 5 and 10 mu g/day vitamin D-3 for 12 months in 11- to 12-year-old girls on bone mass and bone turnover as well as the possible influence....../l) vitamin D-3 for 12 months compared to placebo (-3.1 +/- 9.8 nmol/l, baseline 43.4 +/- 17.1 nmol/l). There was no effect of vitamin D-supplementation on biomarkers for bone turnover or on whole body or spine bone mineral augmentation. However, vitamin D supplementation increased whole body bone mineral...

  16. Ionizing Radiation Affects Gene Expression in Mouse Skin and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masahiro; Tahimic, Candice; Sowa, Marianne B.; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Alwood, Joshua; Globus, Ruth K.

    2017-01-01

    Future long-duration space exploration beyond low earth orbit will increase human exposure to space radiation and microgravity conditions as well as associated risks to skeletal health. In animal studies, radiation exposure (greater than 1 Gy) is associated with pathological changes in bone structure, enhanced bone resorption, reduced bone formation and decreased bone mineral density, which can lead to skeletal fragility. Definitive measurements and detection of bone loss typically require large and specialized equipment which can make their application to long duration space missions logistically challenging. Towards the goal of developing non-invasive and less complicated monitoring methods to predict astronauts' health during spaceflight, we examined whether radiation induced gene expression changes in skin may be predictive of the responses of skeletal tissue to radiation exposure. We examined oxidative stress and growth arrest pathways in mouse skin and long bones by measuring gene expression levels via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after exposure to total body irradiation (IR). To investigate the effects of irradiation on gene expression, we used skin and femora (cortical shaft) from the following treatment groups: control (normally loaded, sham-irradiated), and IR (0.5 Gy 56Fe 600 MeV/n and 0.5 Gy 1H 150 MeV/n), euthanized at one and 11 days post-irradiation (IR). To determine the extent of bone loss, tibiae were harvested and cancellous microarchitecture in the proximal tibia quantified ex vivo using microcomputed tomography (microCT). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test. At one day post-IR, expression of FGF18 in skin was significantly greater (3.8X) than sham-irradiated controls, but did not differ at 11 days post IR. Expression levels of other genes associated with antioxidant response (Nfe2l2, FoxO3 and Sod1) and the cell cycle (Trp53, Cdkn1a, Gadd45g) did not significantly differ between the control and IR groups

  17. Identification of factors affecting individual industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadat Mirzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High knowledge and technology are rapidly becoming a competitive advantage in today’s world. Individual industries are considered one of the key sectors in the country’s industry. Ranking the factors that affect these industries makes us more familiar with their effectiveness and helps us take actions to improve such factors in knowledge-based companies. Consequently, based on previous research studies on Individual Industries, field observations, and a questionnaire prepared by the researchers, the current study explores and classifies the factors affecting the establishment of these industries. Regarding its purpose, this is an applied research, and regarding data collection, it is a descriptive survey. Using purposive sampling, 60 questionnaires were collected and effective factors were classified applying the SPSS software and the TOPSIS technique. This study suggests that content factors are ranked first place, while contextual and structural factors are ranked second and third, respectively. Therefore, executives and managers in single industries are recommended to strengthen joint enterprise norms and dominant values and beliefs in knowledge-based companies in order to help the growth and development of single industries.

  18. Does aspiration of bones and joints affect results of later bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canale, S.T.; Harkness, R.M.; Thomas, P.A.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the effect, if any, of needle aspiration on /sup 99m/Tc bone scanning, three different areas of 15 dogs were first aspirated and then imaged with technetium bone scintigraphy. The hip joint was aspirated, the distal femoral metaphysis was drilled and aspirated, and the tibial periosteum was scraped with an 18- or 20-gauge needle. Varying amounts of trauma were inflicted to simulate varying difficulties at aspiration. /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were obtained from 5 h to 10 days later. There was no evidence of focal technetium uptake after any hip joint aspiration. This was consistent regardless of the amount of trauma inflicted or the time from aspiration to bone scanning. Metaphyseal cortical drilling and tibial periosteal scraping occasionally caused some focal uptake when scanning was delayed greater than 2 days. When osteomyelitis or pyarthrosis is clinically suspected, joint aspiration can be performed without fear of producing a false- positive bone scan

  19. Factors affecting patient dose in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, J.L.

    1994-03-01

    The report, Factors Affecting Patient Dose in Diagnostic Radiology is divided into three main sections. Part one is introductory and covers the basic principles of x-ray production and image formation. It includes discussion of x-ray generators and x-ray tubes, radiation properties and units, specification and measurement of x-ray beams, methods of patient dose measurement, radiation effects, radiation protection philosophy and finally the essentials of imaging systems. Part two examines factors affecting the x-ray output of x-ray machines and the characteristics of x-ray beams. These include the influence of heat ratings, kVp, waveform, exposure timer, filtration, focus-film distance, beam intensity distribution, x-ray tube age and focal spot size. Part three examines x-ray machine, equipment and patient factors which affect the dose received by individual patients. The factors considered include justification of examinations, choice of examination method, film/screen combinations, kVp, mAs, focus-film distance, collimation and field size, exposure time, projection, scatter, generator calibration errors, waveform, filtration, film processing and patient size. The patient dose implications of fluoroscopy systems, CT scanners, special procedures and mammography are also discussed. The report concludes with a brief discussion of patient dose levels in New Zealand and dose optimisation. 104 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs

  20. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2000-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  1. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1999-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  2. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2001-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  3. Effect of trehalose coating on basic fibroblast growth factor release from tailor-made bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungjin; Lee, Jongil; Igawa, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Shigeki; Mochizuki, Manabu; Nishimura, Ryohei; Chung, Ung-il; Sasaki, Nobuo

    2011-12-01

    Artificial bone implants are often incorporated with osteoinductive factors to facilitate early bone regeneration. Calcium phosphate, the main component in artificial bone implants, strongly binds these factors, and in a few cases, the incorporated proteins are not released from the implant under conditions of physiological pH, thereby leading to reduction in their osteoinductivity. In this study, we coated tailor-made bone implants with trehalose to facilitate the release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). In an in vitro study, mouse osteoblastic cells were separately cultured for 48 hr in a medium with a untreated implant (T-), trehalose-coated implant (T+), bFGF-incorporated implant (FT-), and bFGF-incorporated implant with trehalose coating (FT+). In the FT+ group, cell viability was significantly higher than that in the other groups (Pbone implant without affecting the crystallinity or the mechanical strength of the artificial bone implant. These results suggest that coating artificial bone implants with trehalose could limit the binding of bFGF to calcium phosphate.

  4. Advances in the biology of bone metastasis: how the skeleton affects tumor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Julie A; Edwards, James R; Martin, T John; Mundy, Gregory R

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly evident that the microenvironment of bone can influence the cancer phenotype in many ways that favor growth in bone. The ability of cancer cells to adhere to bone matrix and to promote osteoclast formation are key requirements for the establishment and growth of bone metastases. Several cytokine products of breast cancers (e.g. PTHrP, IL-11, IL-8) have been shown to act upon host cells of the bone microenvironment to promote osteoclast formation, allowing for excessive bone resorption. The increased release of matrix-derived growth factors, especially TGF-β, acts back upon the tumor to facilitate further tumor expansion and enhance cytokine production, and also upon osteoblasts to suppress bone formation. This provides a self-perpetuating cycle of bone loss and tumor growth within the skeleton. Other contributing factors favoring tumor metastasis and colonization in bone include the unique structure and stiffness of skeletal tissue, along with the diverse cellular composition of the marrow environment (e.g. bone cells, stromal fibroblasts, immune cells), any of which can contribute to the phenotypic changes that can take place in metastatic deposits that favor their survival. Additionally, it is also apparent that breast cancer cells begin to express different bone specific proteins as well as proteins important for normal breast development and lactation that allow them to grow in bone and stimulate bone destruction. Taken together, these continually emerging areas of study suggest new potential pathways important in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis and potential areas for targeting therapeutics. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Factors affecting the rural domestic waste generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Darban Astane

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to evaluate the quantity and quality of rural domestic waste generation and to identify the factors affecting it in rural areas of Khodabandeh county in Zanjan Province, Iran. Waste samplings consisted of 318 rural households in 11 villages. In order to evaluate the quality and quantity of the rural domestic waste, waste production was classified into 12 groups and 2 main groups of organic waste and solid waste. Moreover, kriging interpolation technique in ARC-GIS software was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the generated domestic waste and ultimately multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors affecting the generation of domestic waste. The results of this study showed that the average waste generated by each person was 0.588 kilograms per day. with the share of organic waste generated by each person being 0.409 kilograms per day and the share of solid waste generated by each person being 0.179 kilograms per day. The results from spatial distribution of waste generation showed a certain pattern in three groups and a higher rate of waste generation in the northern and northwestern parts, especially in the subdistrict. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the households’ income, assets, age, and personal attitude are respectively the most important variables affecting waste generation. The housholds’ attitude and indigenous knowledge on efficient use of materials are also the key factors which can help reducing waste generation.

  6. The mechanical properties of broiler chicken bones affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first group (Zn50) was fed commercial basal diet with no Zn additives (zinc content- 50 mg/kg feed). The second group ... In group Zn100, significantly increased values of bone cross-section area (Ar) were observed on days 14 and 35 and moment of inertia (I) on days 14, 21 and 35 (P<0.05). Results suggested that the ...

  7. Hydroxychloroquine affects bone resorption both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Tim; Zillikens, M Carola; Schreuders-Koedam, Marijke; Vis, Marijn; Lam, Wai-Kwan; Weel, Angelique E A M; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; van Hagen, P Martin; van der Eerden, Bram C J; van Daele, Paul L A

    2018-02-01

    We recently showed that patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) have significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) compared to healthy controls. The majority of those patients (69%) was using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which may have favorable effects on BMD. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether HCQ modulates osteoclast function. Osteoclasts were cultured from PBMC-sorted monocytes for 14 days and treated with different HCQ doses (controls 1 and 5 μg/ml). TRAP staining and resorption assays were performed to evaluate osteoclast differentiation and activity, respectively. Staining with an acidification marker (acridine orange) was performed to evaluate intracellular pH at multiple timepoints. Additionally, a fluorescent cholesterol uptake assay was performed to evaluate cholesterol trafficking. Serum bone resorption marker β-CTx was evaluated in rheumatoid arthritis patients. HCQ inhibits the formation of multinuclear osteoclasts and leads to decreased bone resorption. Continuous HCQ treatment significantly decreases intracellular pH and significantly enhanced cholesterol uptake in mature osteoclasts along with increased expression of the lowdensity lipoprotein receptor. Serum β-CTx was significantly decreased after 6 months of HCQ treatment. In agreement with our clinical data, we demonstrate that HCQ suppresses bone resorption in vitro and decreases the resorption marker β-CTx in vivo. We also showed that HCQ decreases the intracellular pH in mature osteoclasts and stimulates cholesterol uptake, suggesting that HCQ induces osteoclastic lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) leading to decreased resorption without changes in apoptosis. We hypothesize that skeletal health of patients with increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures may benefit from HCQ by preventing BMD loss. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level....../distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined...

  9. Functional Diversity of Fibroblast Growth Factors in Bone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Takei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The functional significance of fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling in bone formation has been demonstrated through genetic loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches. FGFs, comprising 22 family members, are classified into three subfamilies: canonical, hormone-like, and intracellular. The former two subfamilies activate their signaling pathways through FGF receptors (FGFRs. Currently, intracellular FGFs appear to be primarily involved in the nervous system. Canonical FGFs such as FGF2 play significant roles in bone formation, and precise spatiotemporal control of FGFs and FGFRs at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels may allow for the functional diversity of FGFs during bone formation. Recently, several research groups, including ours, have shown that FGF23, a member of the hormone-like FGF subfamily, is primarily expressed in osteocytes/osteoblasts. This polypeptide decreases serum phosphate levels by inhibiting renal phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D3 activation, resulting in mineralization defects in the bone. Thus, FGFs are involved in the positive and negative regulation of bone formation. In this review, we focus on the reciprocal roles of FGFs in bone formation in relation to their local versus systemic effects.

  10. Factors affecting academic leadership in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martires, Kathryn J; Aquino, Lisa L; Wu, Jashin J

    2015-02-01

    Although prior studies have examined methods by which to recruit and retain academic dermatologists, few have examined factors that are important for developing academic leaders in dermatology. This study sought to examine characteristics of dermatology residency programs that affect the odds of producing department or division chairs/chiefs and program directors (PDs). Data regarding program size, faculty, grants, alumni residency program attended, lectures, and publications for all accredited US dermatology residency programs were collected. Of the 103 programs examined, 46% had graduated at least 1 chair/chief, and 53% had graduated at least 1 PD. Results emphasize that faculty guidance and research may represent modifiable factors by which a dermatology residency program can increase its graduation of academic leaders.

  11. Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

  12. Factors Affecting Gastrointestinal Microbiome Development in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Yieh Lin Chong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiome is established in the newborn period and is recognised to interact with the host to influence metabolism. Different environmental factors that are encountered during this critical period may influence the gut microbial composition, potentially impacting upon later disease risk, such as asthma, metabolic disorder, and inflammatory bowel disease. The sterility dogma of the foetus in utero is challenged by studies that identified bacteria, bacterial DNA, or bacterial products in meconium, amniotic fluid, and the placenta; indicating the initiation of maternal-to-offspring microbial colonisation in utero. This narrative review aims to provide a better understanding of factors that affect the development of the gastrointestinal (GI microbiome during prenatal, perinatal to postnatal life, and their reciprocal relationship with GI tract development in neonates.

  13. The influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpalski, Caroline; Sagebin, Fabio; Barbaro, Marissa; Warren, Stephen M

    2013-05-01

    Bone repair and regeneration are dynamic processes that involve a complex interplay between the substrate, local and systemic cells, and the milieu. Although each constituent plays an integral role in faithfully recreating the skeleton, investigators have long focused their efforts on scaffold materials and design, cytokine and hormone administration, and cell-based therapies. Only recently have the intangible aspects of the milieu received their due attention. In this review, we highlight the important influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Factors affecting outcome in ocular myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, Marco; Ariatti, Alessandra; Valzania, Franco; Kaleci, Shaniko; Tondelli, Manuela; Nichelli, Paolo F; Galassi, Giuliana

    2018-01-01

    50%-60% of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) progress to generalized myasthenia gravis (GMG) within two years. The aim of our study was to explore factors affecting prognosis of OMG and to test the predictive role of several independent clinical variables. We reviewed a cohort of 168 Caucasian patients followed from September 2000 to January 2016. Several independent variables were considered as prognostic factors: gender, age of onset, results on electrophysiological tests, presence and level of antibodies against acetylcholine receptors (AChR Abs), treatments, thymic abnormalities. The primary outcome was the progression to GMG and/or the presence of bulbar symptoms. Secondary outcomes were either achievement of sustained minimal manifestation status or worsening in ocular quantitative MG subscore (O-QMGS) or worsening in total QMG score (T-QMGS), assessed by Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) quantitative scores. Changes in mental and physical subscores of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed with SF-36 questionnaire. Variance analysis was used to interpret the differences between AChR Ab titers at different times of follow up among the generalized and non-generalized patients. Conversion to GMG occurred in 18.4% of patients; it was significantly associated with sex, later onset of disease and anti-AChR Ab positivity. Antibody titer above the mean value of 25.8 pmol/mL showed no significant effect on generalization. Sex and late onset of disease significantly affected T-QMGS worsening. None of the other independent variables significantly affected O-QMGS and HRQoL. Sex, later onset and anti-AChR Ab positivity were significantly associated with clinical worsening.

  15. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Şahin Onat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T scores were recorded. Relationships between lumbar vertebra and femur neck T scores and risk factors were statistically studied. Results: Advanced age, low physical activity status, inadequte dietary calcium intake and vertebral compression fractures were found to be associated with low bone mineral density results in postmenopausal osteoporotic women whereas marital status, occupation, education level and familial fracture history were not. Furthermore early menopause was found to be associated with low femoral T scores and smoking with low lumbar T scores. Tendency to fall and number of chronic diseases were irrelevant to bone mineral density. Conclusions: Risk factor assesment is still important for osteoporosis prevention. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19:74-80

  16. Factors affecting scholastic performances of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashidhar, Saraswati; Rao, Chandrika; Hegde, Radhakrishna

    2009-05-01

    The present study aims at recognizing the social influence, study habits and health factors affecting scholastic performances of adolescents and to compare these factors among the adolescents between two categories of school. A total of 1230 adolescents (13-18 yrs) were screened. Data was collected by personal interview, using the teenage screening questionnaire, Trivandrum, between May 2004 and November 2005. A total 615 students from corporation and private schools were studied. 39.76% (489) were high achievers, 13.5% (166) were low achievers with p poor study habits and social factors were increased in low achievers of corporation schools. On multivariate analysis, the predictor variables for poor scholastic performance were adolescent having refractory error, not having help for study at home, not doing home work regularly, not solving question bank papers and reading only before examinations. It is feasible and worthwhile to identify the determinants of scholastic performance and plan intervention strategies at each school. The results of this study highlight the importance of implementing newer strategies, focusing on strict study patterns and creating the conducive school and home environment for study, so as to achieve better scholastic performances.

  17. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  18. The effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone formation and growth factors in adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Mølgaard, C.; Gyldenløve, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    NTRODUCTION: Animal studies indicate that n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) increase bone formation. To our knowledge, no studies have examined this in growing humans. This study investigated whether bone mass and markers of bone formation and growth were (i) associated...... with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status and (ii) affected by fish oil supplementation, in adolescent boys. METHODS: Seventy-eight healthy, slightly overweight 13- to 15-y-old boys were randomly assigned to breads with DHA-rich fish oil (1.1 g/d n-3 LCPUFA) or control for 16 wk. Whole-body bone mineral content (BMC......), bone area (BA), bone mineral density (BMD), plasma osteocalcin, and growth factors were measured at wk 0 and wk 16, as well as diet, physical activity, and n-3 LCPUFA status in erythrocytes. RESULTS: Fish oil strongly increased DHA status (P = 0.0001). No associations were found between DHA status...

  19. Cytokines and T-lymphocyte subsets in healthy post-menopausal women: estrogen retards bone loss without affecting the release of IL-1 or IL-1ra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Bendtzen, Klaus; Beck-Nielsen, H

    1997-01-01

    resorptive cytokines and have also been linked with bone metabolism and the development of osteoporosis. Cytokine secretion from whole blood cell cultures was compared between two randomized groups of healthy early post-menopausal women (mean age 52.5 yrs, N = 91) and lymphocyte subsets were quantitated....... There was no association between cytokine release and bone mass or loss assessed over 2 yrs. The only exception was a weak estrogen-independent correlation between basal IL-1ra secretion and bone loss (r = -0.21, p loss...... cells may be important in the pathophysiology of post-menopausal bone loss. The possibility that IL-1ra acts as an independent bone-sparing factor unrelated to estrogen withdrawal warrants further investigation. In conclusion, ERT maintains bone without affecting the release of the IL-1 family...

  20. Interleukin-3 Does Not Affect the Differentiation of Mast Cells Derived from Human Bone Marrow Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuji; Matsumoto, Kenji; Okayama, Yoshimichi; Kentaro, Sakai; Maeno, Toshitaka; Suga, Tatsuo; Miura, Toru; Takai, Shinji; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Saito, Hirohisa

    2008-01-01

    Although IL-3 is commonly used for culture of human progenitor-derived mast cells together with Stem cell factor (SCF) and IL-6, the effect of IL-3 on human mast cell differentiation has not been well elucidated. Human bone marrow CD34+ progenitors were cultured for up to 12 weeks in the presence of rhSCF and rhIL-6 either with rhIL-3 (IL-3 (+)) or without rhIL-3 (IL-3 (−)) for the initial 1-week of culture. Total cell number increased at 2 weeks in IL-3 (+), as compared to IL-3 (−), but changes in the appearance of mast cells were delayed. When IL-3 was present for the initial 1-week culture, granules looked more mature with IL-3 than without IL-3. However, tryptase and chymase contents, and surface antigen expression (CD18, CD51, CD54, and CD117) were not altered by IL-3. Surface expression and mRNA level of FcεRIα and histamine release by crosslinking of FcεRIα did not differ from one preparation to the next. GeneChip analysis revealed that no significant differences were observed between IL-3 (+) and IL-3 (−) cells either when inactivated or activated by aggregation of FcεRIα. These findings indicate that initial incubation of human bone marrow CD34+ progenitors with IL-3 does not affect the differentiation of mast cells. PMID:18214796

  1. CRITICAL THINKING AND ITS AFFECTING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Slameto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to measure the success rate achieved by the alumni of Open/Distance Learning (O/DL, the Bachelor Education In-service Teachers Program (BEITP, Staya Jacana Christian University(SWCU, Salatiga in their critical thinking habit that lead to their success, and to find factors which determined their critical thinking habit. The factors concerned were student factor (learning motivation, alumni’s readiness to enter ICT community, prerequisite or teacher factor (teacher’s ability in creating and using a new instructional context. This quantitative research belongs to the causality ex-post facto research. The data source was one class of O/ DL, the BEITP, SWCUstudents, who were chosen out of four classes, as many as 32 alumni in the academic year 2015/2016. Data were screened using a self-rating scale, which consisted of 40 items tested valid and reliable, and then reduced to 5 variablas. The BEITP, SWCU Salatiga had graduated most of its alumni who owned critical thinking habit at a high rate. The critical thinking habit was affected by the instructional contexts which enabled a new situation (Model 1, alumni’s readiness to enter the ICT community (Model 2, pre-requisite, i.e., mastery of previous lecture materials (Model 3, and student’s learning motivation (Model 4 to reach 81%. The alumni’s critical thinking habit of 51.20% was determined by the teacher’s role in developing instructional contexts which made a new situation possible. This finding was useful for educational quality management for the effectiveness and productivity of higher education, which should have been focused on the teacher in developing an instructional strategy based on context, alumni readiness to enter the ICT community, prerequisite, and student’s learning motivation.

  2. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  3. Factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sanaa Abd El Azim

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, on 207 student nurses from four different grades. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, consisted of 30 items, was used to measure the students' assertiveness level and a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer was used to measure students' psychological empowerment. The study results showed that 60.4% of the students were assertive, while about half of the students were empowered. A positive relation between student assertiveness and psychological empowerment was detected. Moreover, positive relations regarding family income and students' assertiveness and psychological empowerment were determined. The study recommended introduction of specific courses aiming at enhancing the acquisition of assertiveness skills, in addition, nurse educators must motivate their students to express their opinion and personal rights and also they must pay attention for students' empowerment and enhance students' autonomy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors Affecting Fertility Desires in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa C. David

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting fertility desires in the Philippines were examined using data from a national survey and from individual and group qualitative interviews involving 143 respondents. Fertility goals usually range from two to three children, but evidence suggests that they are dynamic and may change over a person’s lifetime. Qualitative interviews reveal that when negotiating about family size, it is the partner who wants more children that will be followed. A strong demand for gender balance among offspring creates a willingness to have more children than originally desired. Fertility goals increase over time among women. While those who start childbirth at a very young age successfully space their children, they tend to want larger families than those who start late. Initial fertility goals among women are generally low but may increase because of higher fertility desires among men, a demand for gender balance in children, and the desire for babies once their children have grown.

  5. Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Tomohiro; Kahn, B.

    1989-09-01

    In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

  6. Emergency Nurses' Perspectives: Factors Affecting Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Carol L; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V

    2016-05-01

    Caring is a universal phenomenon. However, as a result of higher patient acuity and staff shortages within the chaotic ED environment, caring behaviors may be in peril. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the meaning of caring from the perspective of emergency nurses. Exploring nurses' perspectives of caring is central to improving staffing and retention issues in this unique work environment. As part of a larger study, a subsample of emergency nurses who work in public hospitals in Manitoba, Canada (n = 17) were interviewed. A qualitative descriptive design was used to gain insight into the caring perspectives of nurses by asking them, "What does caring meaning to you?" and "What affects caring in your practice in the emergency department?" Emerging themes were extracted through analysis of audio tapes and transcripts. Advocacy and holistic care emerged as major themes in the meaning of caring for emergency nurses. Caring was affected by a number of factors, including workload, lack of time, staffing issues, shift work, and lack of self-care. However, lack of management support was the most consistent hindrance to caring identified by study participants. Caring continues to be a unifying concept in nursing; however, influencing factors continue to undermine caring for emergency nurses. Caring is not subsidiary to nursing; it is the central core of nursing. Therefore, fostering a caring working environment is essential for nurses to practice holistic nursing care. It is also imperative to job satisfaction and the retention of emergency nurses. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors affecting medication-order processing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, M A; Kotzan, J A

    1982-11-01

    The factors affecting medication-order processing time at one hospital were studied. The order processing time was determined by directly observing the time to process randomly selected new drug orders on all three work shifts during two one-week periods. An order could list more than one drug for an individual patient. The observer recorded the nature, location, and cost of the drugs ordered, as well as the time to process the order. The time and type of interruptions also were noted. The time to process a drug order was classified as six dependent variables: (1) total time, (2) work time, (3) check time, (4) waiting time I--time from arrival on the dumbwaiter until work was initiated, (5) waiting time II--time between completion of the work and initiation of checking, and (6) waiting time III--time after the check was completed until the order left on the dumbwaiter. The significant predictors of each of the six dependent variables were determined using stepwise multiple regression. The total time to process a prescription order was 58.33 +/- 48.72 minutes; the urgency status of the order was the only significant determinant of total time. Urgency status also significantly predicted the three waiting-time variables. Interruptions and the number of drugs on the order were significant determinants of work time and check time. Each telephone interruption increased the work time by 1.72 minutes. While the results of this study cannot be generalized to other institutions, pharmacy managers can use the method of determining factors that affect medication-order processing time to identify problem areas in their institutions.

  8. Factors affecting hydrocarbon removal by air stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper includes an overview of the theory of air stripping design considerations and the factors affecting stripper performance. Effects of temperature, contaminant characteristics, stripping tower geometry and air/water ratios on removal performance are discussed. The discussion includes treatment of groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents such as TCE and PCE. Control of VOC emissions from air strippers has become a major concern in recent years, due to more stringent restrictions on air quality in many areas. This paper includes an overview of available technology to control air emissions (including activated carbon adsorption, catalytic oxidation and steam stripping) and the effects of air emission control on overall efficiency of the treatment process. The paper includes an overview of the relative performance of various packing materials for air strippers and explains the relative advantages and disadvantages of comparative packing materials. Field conditions affecting selection of packing materials are also discussed. Practical guidelines for the design of air stripping systems are presented, as well as actual case studies of full-scale air stripping projects

  9. Evaluation of bone microstructure in CRPS-affected upper limbs by HR-pQCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussawy, Haider; Schmidt, Tobias; Rolvien, Tim; Rüther, Wolfgang; Amling, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a major complication after trauma, surgery, and/or immobilization of an extremity. The disease often starts with clinical signs of local inflammation and develops into a prolonged phase that is characterized by trophic changes and local osteoporosis and sometimes results in functional impairment of the affected limb. While the pathophysiology of CRPS remains poorly understood, increased local bone resorption plays an undisputed pivotal role. The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to assess the bone microstructure in patients with CRPS. Patients with CRPS type I of the upper limb whose affected and unaffected distal radii were analyzed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) were identified retrospectively. The osteology laboratory data and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images of the left femoral neck and lumbar spine, which were obtained on the same day as HR-pQCT, were extracted from the medical records. Five patients were identified. The CRPS-affected upper limbs had significantly lower trabecular numbers and higher trabecular thicknesses than the unaffected upper limbs. However, the trabecular bone volume to total bone volume and cortical thickness values of the affected and unaffected sides were similar. Trabecular thickness tended to increase with time since disease diagnosis. CRPS associated with significant alterations in the bone microstructure of the affected upper limb that may amplify as the duration of disease increases.

  10. Factors Affecting the Underperformance of Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeeka Amarasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama is the largest factory of Brandix Group of Companies catering to VS Pink. It has a labour force of 1250 employees including a direct labour force of 659. Production capabilities have been extended to in-house printing and embroidery sections in addition to cutting and shipping facilities. Like other apparel manufacturers in the industry, BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama also faces much competition and problems in its day to day business operations. One of the major issues so faced is On-Time-Delivery due to underperformance of the employees. Therefore, with the objectives of studying factors affecting the underperformance of the employees of the production department, analysing and identifying such factors, and providing recommendations, a few variables i.e. machines and methods, skill level, financial incentives, leadership practices and working conditions were identified as having a potential impact over the performance of the production employees. Stratified random sampling method was used to select 64 team members from the 32 production modules, and research work continued to collate primary data through administrating a structured questionnaire among selected associates. Null and alternative hypotheses were tested using correlations, and the data is presented as graphical pictures, tables, and in narrative form. However, there were a few limitations such as management influence, sample basis selection, service period, level of understating, time availability and commitment, time availability for the study etc. which may have had an impact over the research findings.

  11. Factors affecting seismic response of submarine slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biscontin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.

  12. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  13. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilijus Sakalauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  14. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Liutvinavičius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient  attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  15. Ranking agility factors affecting hospitals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdi Talarposht

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were selected hospitals. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from the health centers. The construct validity of the questionnaire was approved by confirmatory factor analysis test and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α=0.97. All data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Friedman tests. Findings: The development of staff skills, the use of information technology, the integration of processes, appropriate planning, and customer satisfaction and product quality had a significant impact on the agility of public hospitals of Iran (P<0.001. New product introductions had earned the highest ranking and the development of staff skills earned the lowest ranking. Conclusion: The new product introduction, market responsiveness and sensitivity, reduce costs, and the integration of organizational processes, ratings better to have acquired agility hospitals in Iran. Therefore, planners and officials of hospitals have to, through the promotion quality and variety of services customer-oriented, providing a basis for investing in the hospital and etc to apply for agility supply chain public hospitals of Iran.

  16. Environmental Factors Affecting Where People Geocache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Golbeck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from OpenCaching.com and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.

  17. Normal epidermal growth factor receptor signaling is dispensable for bone anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Marlon R; Dahlhoff, Maik; Andrukhova, Olena; Grill, Jessica; Glösmann, Martin; Schüler, Christiane; Weber, Karin; Wolf, Eckhard; Erben, Reinhold G

    2012-01-01

    Although the bone anabolic properties of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) have long been employed in the treatment of osteoporosis, the molecular mechanisms behind this action remain largely unknown. Previous studies showed that PTH increases the expression and the activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in osteoblasts, and activation of ERK1/2 by PTH in osteoblasts was demonstrated to induce the proteolytical release of EGFR ligands and EGFR transactivation. However, conclusive evidence for an important role of the EGFR system in mediating the anabolic actions of intermittent PTH on bone in vivo is lacking. Here, we evaluated the effects of intermittent PTH on bone in Waved-5 (Wa5) mice which carry an antimorphic Egfr allele whose product acts as a dominant negative receptor. Heterozygous Wa5 females and control littermates received a subcutaneous injection of PTH (80 μg/kg) or buffer on 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Wa5 mice had slightly lower total bone mineral density (BMD), but normal cancellous bone volume and turnover in the distal femoral metaphysis. The presence of the antimorphic Egfr allele neither influenced the PTH-induced increase in serum osteocalcin nor the increases in distal femoral BMD, cortical thickness, cancellous bone volume, and cancellous bone formation rate. Similarly, the PTH-induced rise in lumbar vertebral BMD was unchanged in Wa5 relative to wild-type mice. Wa5-derived osteoblasts showed considerably lower basal extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation as compared to control osteoblasts. Whereas activation of ERK1/2 by the EGFR ligand amphiregulin was largely blocked in Wa5 osteoblasts, treatment with PTH induced ERK1/2 activation comparable to that observed in control osteoblasts, relative to baseline levels. Our data indicate that impairment of EGFR signaling does not affect the anabolic action of intermittent PTH on cancellous and cortical bone. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Factors affecting rotator cuff healing after arthroscopic repair: osteoporosis as one of the independent risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seok Won; Oh, Joo Han; Gong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Joon Yub; Kim, Sae Hoon

    2011-10-01

    The prognostic factors associated with structural outcome after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair have not yet been fully determined. The hypothesis of this study was that bone mineral density (BMD) is an important prognostic factor affecting rotator cuff healing after arthroscopic cuff repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Among 408 patients who underwent arthroscopic repair for full-thickness rotator cuff tear between January 2004 and July 2008, 272 patients were included whose postoperative cuff integrity was verified by computed tomography arthrography (CTA) or ultrasonography (USG) and simultaneously who were evaluated by various functional outcome instruments. The mean age at the time of operation was 59.5 ± 7.9 years. Postoperative CTA or USG was performed at a mean 13.0 ± 5.1 months after surgery, and the mean follow-up period was 37.2 ± 10.0 months (range, 24-65 months). The clinical, structural, and surgery-related factors affecting cuff integrity including BMD were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate analysis. Evaluation of postoperative cuff integrity was performed by musculoskeletal radiologists who were unaware of the present study. The failure rate of rotator cuff healing was 22.8% (62 of 272). The failure rate was significantly higher in patients with lower BMD (P cuff healing failure following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Bone mineral density, as well as FI of the infraspinatus and amount of retraction, was an independent determining factor affecting postoperative rotator cuff healing. Further studies with prospective, randomized, and controlled design are needed to confirm the relationship between BMD and postoperative rotator cuff healing.

  19. Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Pınar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Başkent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

  20. Risk factors for low bone density in pediatric nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Disturbances in bone mineral metabolism and side effects of corticosteroid treatment may cause decreased bone density in patients v.ith nephrotic syndrome (NS. Objectives To compare the prevalence oflow bone mineral density (BMD in children with and 'Without NS and to assess the effect of corticosteroid treatment on bone density in NS patients.  Methods We conducted a retrospective, cohort study in children aged 5-18 years diagnosed 'With NS for more than 2 months prior to data collection, and in children v.ithout NS as a control. BMD was assessed on calcaneal bone wlith ultrasound bone densitometry. Serum calcium, albumin, creatinine and phosphate levels were also assessed. Results The prevalence of low BMD was significantly higher in NS patients than nonNS subjects, 73.3% (22 in 30 vs. 33% (11 in 33, respectively. The prevalence ratio was 6.3 (95% CI 2.1 to 18.9. NS patients had lower serum calcium levels, With mean difference of -0.17 (95% CI -0.27 to -0.07 mMollL, P<0.009, and lower serum albumin, with mean difference of  -0.88 (95% CI -1.27 to -0.49 gIL; Pfactors, we found NS to be an independent risk factor for low BMD. Steroid-resistant and steroid-dependent patients had lower BMD than steroid-sensitive subjects (P=0.02. There was also a significant correlation between the onset of corticosteroid treatment and BMD (r=O.3; P=0.02. Conclusions NS patients had higher risk for low BMD compared to normal subjects. Response to steroid treatment influences the severity of impaired bone density.

  1. Identification of Chloride Intracellular Channel Protein 3 as a Novel Gene Affecting Human Bone Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brum, A M; Leije, M; J, Schreuders-Koedam

    2017-01-01

    is diminished and more adipocytes are seen in the bone marrow, suggesting a shift in MSC lineage commitment. Identification of specific factors that stimulate osteoblast differentiation from human MSCs may deliver therapeutic targets to treat osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to identify novel genes...... an in vivo human bone formation model in which hMSCs lentivirally transduced with the CLIC3 overexpression construct were loaded onto a scaffold (hydroxyapatite-tricalcium-phosphate), implanted under the skin of NOD-SCID mice, and analyzed for bone formation 8 weeks later. CLIC3 overexpression led to a 15...

  2. Factors Affecting Internationalization of Indonesia Franchise Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Halim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Franchise is one of successful business strategies in business expansion. Franchise format has been already adopted in all countries. The success is proven in the world and also in Indonesia. Franchise system can be implemented not only in franchisor country but also in other countries. The spirit of internalization is not only because of market saturated, but also to increase reputation of franchise companies and to follow competitors or customers. Important thing discussed in this research is the franchise life-cycle, franchise growth model, and franchise companies’ profile.  It is found that the Indonesia franchise companies are in the introduction stage. The stage in life-cycle shows its reputation. This study used literature review as methodology, and the purpose of this study is to give a big picture for Indonesia franchise companies to make internationalization. There are some Indonesia franchise business profiles in the discussion part. The factors affecting franchise internationalization were analyzed by PESTEL analysis. Some strategies should be prepared in making decision to go international.  At the end, there are some recommendations and future research relating to internationalize franchise business.

  3. Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien T. Supangco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality

  4. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  5. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin HK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyekyung Jin,1 Yeonhee Kim,2 Sandy Jeong Rhie1,3 1College of Pharmacy, 2Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, 3Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160 aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15. The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=-0.215, P=0.022, sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=-0.335, P=0.000, education level (β=-0.153, P=0.045, health-related problems (β=-0.239, P=0.004, and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018. Conclusion: In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists

  6. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / ... to learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. ...

  7. The effects of improved metabolic risk factors on bone turnover markers after 12 weeks of simvastatin treatment with or without exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Boyle, Leryn J; Mikus, Catherine R; Oberlin, Douglas J; Fletcher, Justin A; Thyfault, John P; Hinton, Pamela S

    2014-11-01

    Emerging evidence supports an association between metabolic risk factors and bone turnover. Statins and exercise independently improve metabolic risk factors; however whether improvements in metabolic risk factor affects bone turnover is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to: 1) evaluate the relationship between metabolic risk factors and bone turnover; and 2) determine if improvements in metabolic risk factors after 12 weeks of statin treatment, exercise or the combination affect bone turnover. Fifty participants with ≥2 metabolic syndrome defining characteristics were randomly assigned to one of three groups: statin (STAT: simvastatin, 40 mg/day), exercise (EX: brisk walking and/or slow jogging, 45 minutes/day, 5 days/week), or the combination (STAT+EX). Body composition and whole body bone mineral density were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum markers of bone formation (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, BAP; osteocalcin, OC), resorption (C-terminal peptide of type I collagen, CTX) and metabolic risk factors were determined. Two-factor (time, group) repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to examine changes of metabolic risk factors and bone turnover. General linear models were used to determine the effect of pre-treatment metabolic risk factors on post-treatment bone turnover marker outcomes. Participants with ≥4 metabolic syndrome defining characteristics had lower pre-treatment OC than those with 3 or fewer. OC was negatively correlated with glucose, and CTX was positively correlated with cholesterol. STAT or STAT+EX lowered total and LDL cholesterol. The OC to CTX ratio decreased in all groups with no other significant changes in bone turnover. Higher pre-treatment insulin or body fat predicted a greater CTX reduction and a greater BAP/CTX increase. Metabolic risk factors were negatively associated with bone turnover markers. Short-term statin treatment with or without exercise lowered cholesterol and all treatments had a small

  8. A composite demineralized bone matrix--self assembling peptide scaffold for enhancing cell and growth factor activity in bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tianyong; Li, Zhiqiang; Luo, Fei; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Xuehui; Xing, Junchao; Dong, Shiwu; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-07-01

    The need for suitable bone grafts is high; however, there are limitations to all current graft sources, such as limited availability, the invasive harvest procedure, insufficient osteoinductive properties, poor biocompatibility, ethical problems, and degradation properties. The lack of osteoinductive properties is a common problem. As an allogenic bone graft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) can overcome issues such as limited sources and comorbidities caused by invasive harvest; however, DBM is not sufficiently osteoinductive. Bone marrow has been known to magnify osteoinductive components for bone reconstruction because it contains osteogenic cells and factors. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow are the gold standard for cell seeding in tissue-engineered biomaterials for bone repair, and these cells have demonstrated beneficial effects. However, the associated high cost and the complicated procedures limit the use of tissue-engineered bone constructs. To easily enrich more osteogenic cells and factors to DBM by selective cell retention technology, DBM is modified by a nanoscale self-assembling peptide (SAP) to form a composite DBM/SAP scaffold. By decreasing the pore size and increasing the charge interaction, DBM/SAP scaffolds possess a much higher enriching yield for osteogenic cells and factors compared with DBM alone scaffolds. At the same time, SAP can build a cellular microenvironment for cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation that promotes bone reconstruction. As a result, a suitable bone graft fabricated by DBM/SAP scaffolds and bone marrow represents a new strategy and product for bone transplantation in the clinic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vascularized bone transplant chimerism mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Wouter F; Larsen, Mikko; Friedrich, Patricia F; Bishop, Allen T

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces angiogenesis and osteogenesis in bone allotransplants. We aim to determine whether bone remodeling in VEGF-treated bone allotransplants results from repopulation with circulation-derived autogenous cells or survival of allogenic transplant-derived cells. Vascularized femoral bone transplants were transplanted from female Dark Agouti rats (DA;RT1(a) ) to male Piebald Viral Glaxo (PVG;RT1(c) ). Arteriovenous bundle implantation and short-term immunosuppression were used to maintain cellular viability. VEGF was encapsulated in biodegradable microspheres and delivered intramedullary in the experimental group (n = 22). In the control group (n = 22), no VEGF was delivered. Rats were sacrificed at 4 or 18 weeks. Laser capture microdissection of bone remodeling areas was performed at the inner and outer cortex. Sex-mismatched genes were quantified with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to determine the amount of male cells to total cells, defined as the relative expression ratio (rER). At 4 weeks, rER was significantly higher at the inner cortex in VEGF-treated transplants as compared to untreated transplants (0.622 ± 0.225 vs. 0.362 ± 0.081, P = 0.043). At 4 weeks, the outer cortex in the control group had a significantly higher rER (P = 0.038), whereas in the VEGF group, the inner cortex had a higher rER (P = 0.015). Over time, in the outer cortex the rER significantly increased to 0.634 ± 0.106 at 18 weeks in VEGF-treated rats (P = 0.049). At 18 weeks, the rER was >0.5 at all cortical areas in both groups. These in vivo findings suggest a chemotactic effect of intramedullary applied VEGF on recipient-derived bone and could imply that more rapid angiogenesis of vascularized allotransplants can be established with microencapsulated VEGF. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Prognostic factors for survival among patients with primary bone sarcomas of small bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z

    2018-05-01

    predictors of CSS. However, no significant differences were observed in OS and CSS among patients with different primary tumor locations and tumor subtypes. Additionally, the most significant prognostic factor was whether metastasis had occurred at the time of initial diagnosis. Conclusion: Among patients with primary bone sarcomas of the hands or feet, younger age (<40 years, localized stage, low grade, surgical treatment, and first primary tumor are favorable factors for prolonging survival. Keywords: chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, short bone, prognosis

  11. Second hand tobacco smoke adversely affects the bone of immature rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo César Rosa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of secondhand cigarette smoke exposure on longitudinal growth of the tibia of growing rats and some parameters of bone quality. METHODS: Forty female rats were randomly divided into four groups: control: rats were sham exposed; 30 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 30 days; 45 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 45 days; and 60 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 60 days. Blood samples were collected to evaluate the levels of cotinine and alkaline phosphatase. Both tibias were dissected and weighed; the lengths were measured, and the bones were then stored in a freezer for analysis of bone mineral content and mechanical resistance (maximal load and stiffness. RESULTS: Exposure of rats to tobacco smoke significantly compromised bone health, suggesting that the harmful effects may be time dependent. Harmful effects on bone growth were detected and were more pronounced at 60-day follow-ups with a 41.8% reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels (p<0.01 and a decrease of 11.25% in tibia length (p<0.001. Furthermore, a 41.5% decrease in bone mineral density was observed (p<0.001, leading to a 42.8% reduction in maximum strength (p<0.001 and a 56.7% reduction in stiffness (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Second hand cigarette smoke exposure in rats affected bones that were weaker, deforming them and making them osteopenic. Additionally, the long bone was shorter, suggesting interference with growth. Such events seem to be related to time of exposure.

  12. Bone metastases in breast cancer and its risk factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shigeko; Matsumura, Yasumasa; Tanaka, Masahiro

    1991-01-01

    Breast cancer is considered to often involve bone metastasis. Early detection and treatment of bone metastasis are essential in improving the prognosis of this disease. In 47 patients with bone metastasis confirmed with bone scintigraphy, we examined the appearance time of bone metastasis; bone metastasis was frequently observed with the progress of stage, but no association with the appearance time was found. Age was not associated with the incidence of bone metastasis but was found to be closely related to its appearance time. That is to say, patients with breast cancer below 40 years of age showed relatively early bone metastasis. Bone scintigraphy is required every 6 months at least for 3 years after the operation. In patients over 40 years of age, on the other hand, bone scintigraphy is required only once a year but has to be continued for 5 years or more, because they often show relatively late bone metastasis. (author)

  13. Factors controlling the engraftment of transplanted dog bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Klapwyk, W.M.; Heidt, P.J.; Hogeweg, B.; Zurcher, C.; Bekkum, D.W. van

    1982-01-01

    The LD50 of total body irradiation (TBI) for the bone marrow (BM) syndrome and the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrme was determined in dogs as 3.7 Gy, and 8.5 Gy respectively. Five Gy TBI was adequate conditioning for BM cells of littermate donors identical for the major histocompatibility comples (MHC). The maximum tolerated TBI (about 7.5 Gy) caused more side effects than 5.0 Gy TBI and was insufficient for engraftment of realistic numbers of BM cells of MHC mismatched donors. In autologous and MHC matched transplants, the rateof hemopoietic recovery correlated with the number of BM cells given. Approximtely 2 x 10 7 autologous and 1 x 10 8 MHC identical BM cells.kg -1 were needed for radiation protection. Platelet recovery was significantly more rapid in allogeneic combinations in comparison to autologous transplants. Low numbers of autologous cryopreserved bone marrow cells were as effective as fresh bone marrow cells in rescuing animals after lethal TBI. Other factors that influence BM cell engraftment were confirmed (prior sensitization of the recipient, donor selection) or identified (purification of BM cells on density gradient and selective gastrointestinal decontamination of the recipient). Consistent engraftment of gradient separated, MHC identical, BM cells was found after conditioning with two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI, separated by 72 h. One MHC haplotype mismatched marrow did engraft after two TBI fractions of 6.0 Gy. Engraftment no longer occurred with gradient purified bone marrow cells from this type of donor. Late effects of TBI were early greying in all animals, and secondary uterine inertia in female dogs after 7.5 GY TBI. Fertility in males or females was not changed by radiation. An increase of pancreas fibrosis was noted in dogs receiving fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI. (author)

  14. Factors Affecting Turkish Students' Achievement in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil; Depren, Ozer

    2009-01-01

    Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…

  15. Factors Affecting Success of Training Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogala, Piotr; Batko, Roman; Wawak, Slawomir

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the key factors which influence the functioning quality and success of training companies. Based on an analysis of the requirements included in the quality management system standards for providers of education and training services, a set of twenty factors has been developed. This was followed by a survey for…

  16. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid

  17. Factors affecting endoglucanase production by Trichoderma reesei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors involved in the screening process were peptone concentration, urea ... ammonium sulfate concentration, calcium nitrate concentration, yeast extract ... pH, incubation time, initial moisture content, inoculum size and substrate amount.

  18. The Factors affect equity investors in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Niavand

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial specialist conduct is a focal idea in the behavioral fund which breaks down the impact of different factors on singular value speculator basic leadership. The nature and centrality of these factors on financial specialist basic leadership can be unique and intriguing in different nations. This investigation, thusly, looks at the impact of financial, and behavioral, factors in molding the venture conduct of value speculators in India. The factor incorporates advocate suggestion, unbiased data, individual back requirements, bookkeeping data, established riches expansion and mental self-view/firm-picture incident. The examination found the solid impact of mental self-portrait/firm-picture occurrence, unbiased data, and supporter suggestion on value speculator basic leadership. While, no impacts of variables like great riches amplification, bookkeeping data, and individual budgetary needs are found on value financial specialist's basic leadership with regards to India.

  19. Palliation of bone cancer pain by antagonists of platelet-activating factor receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Morita

    Full Text Available Bone cancer pain is the most severe among cancer pain and is often resistant to current analgesics. Thus, the development of novel analgesics effective at treating bone cancer pain are desired. Platelet-activating factor (PAF receptor antagonists were recently demonstrated to have effective pain relieving effects on neuropathic pain in several animal models. The present study examined the pain relieving effect of PAF receptor antagonists on bone cancer pain using the femur bone cancer (FBC model in mice. Animals were injected with osteolytic NCTC2472 cells into the tibia, and subsequently the effects of PAF receptor antagonists on pain behaviors were evaluated. Chemical structurally different type of antagonists, TCV-309, BN 50739 and WEB 2086 ameliorated the allodynia and improved pain behaviors such as guarding behavior and limb-use abnormalities in FBC model mice. The pain relieving effects of these antagonists were achieved with low doses and were long lasting. Blockade of spinal PAF receptors by intrathecal injection of TCV-309 and WEB 2086 or knockdown of the expression of spinal PAF receptor protein by intrathecal transfer of PAF receptor siRNA also produced a pain relieving effect. The amount of an inducible PAF synthesis enzyme, lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2 (LPCAT2 protein significantly increased in the spinal cord after transplantation of NCTC 2472 tumor cells into mouse tibia. The combination of morphine with PAF receptor antagonists develops marked enhancement of the analgesic effect against bone cancer pain without affecting morphine-induced constipation. Repeated administration of TCV-309 suppressed the appearance of pain behaviors and prolonged survival of FBC mice. The present results suggest that PAF receptor antagonists in combination with, or without, opioids may represent a new strategy for the treatment of persistent bone cancer pain and improve the quality of life of patients.

  20. External risk factors affecting construction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia

    2017-11-01

    Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.

  1. Factors Affecting Organizational Commitment in Navy Corpsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Kewley, Stephanie; Dell'Acqua, Renée G; Thomsen, Cynthia J

    2017-07-01

    Organizational commitment is a psychological state that has a strong impact on the likelihood that employees will remain with an organization. Among military personnel, organizational commitment is predictive of a number of important outcomes, including reenlistment intentions, job performance, morale, and perceived readiness. Because of the unique challenges and experiences associated with military service, it may be that organizational commitment is even more critical in the military than in civilian populations. Despite the essential role that they play in protecting the health of other service members, little is known about the factors that influence Navy Corpsmen's organizational commitment. This study investigated demographic and psychosocial factors that may be associated with organizational commitment among Corpsmen. Surveys of organizational commitment and possible demographic and psychosocial correlates of organizational commitment were completed by 1,597 male, active duty Navy Corpsmen attending Field Medical Training Battalion-West, Camp Pendleton, California. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors of organizational commitment. Of the 12 demographic and psychosocial factors examined, 6 factors emerged as significant predictors of organizational commitment in the final model: preservice motivation to be a Corpsman, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, confidence regarding promotions, occupational self-efficacy, social support for a Corpsman career, and lower depression. Importantly, a number of the factors that emerged as significant correlates of organizational commitment in this study are potentially modifiable. These factors include confidence regarding promotions, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, and occupational self-efficacy. It is recommended that military leaders and policy-makers take concrete steps to address these factors, thereby strengthening

  2. Changes of bone mineral density, bone metabolism indices and cell factors in patients with hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the changes of bone mineral density, bone metabolism indices and cell factor in patients with hyperthyroidism Methods: A total of 116 cases of hyperthyroidism patients from June 2015 to June 2016 in our hospital were selected. as the object of observation group. Then, 120 cases of healthy people were selected as the object of control group. Thyroid function indexes (TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4, TSH, bone mineral density (BMD, bone metabolism indexes (PTH, BGP, PINP and cell factors (IL-2, IL-6 in both groups were detected and compared. Results: TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4, TSH in control group were (1.40±0.81 nmol/ L, (94.36±32.10 nmol/L, (5.04±1.18 pmol/L, (15.37±4.60 pmol/L, (2.55±1.21 mU/L. TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4, TSH in observation group were (5.48±2.36 nmol/L, (405.55±71.48 nmol/L, (16.27±5.14 pmol/L, (46.83±12.66 pmol/L, (0.04±0.01 mU/L. TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4 in the observation group were higher than that in control group obviously. TSH in the observation group was lower than that in observation group obviously. The difference between two groups was considered statistically significant. BMD, PTH in observation group were (0.62±0.08 g/m2, (26.25±9.16 pg/mL, which were obviously lower than BMD (1.23±0.11 g/m2, PTH (37.13±8.05 pg/mL in control group. The difference between two groups was considered statistically significant. BGP, PINP in observation group were (14.51±6.25 ng/ mL, (223.63±10.38 μg/L, which were obviously higher than BGP (5.97±1.98 ng/mL, PINP (33.18±6.15 μg/L in control group. The difference between two groups was considered statistically significant. IL-2 in observation group was (1.60±0.51 ng/L, which was obviously lower than IL-2 (4.72±1.29 ng/L, in control group. IL-6 in observation group was (1.98±0.34 pg/L, which was obviously higher than IL-6, (1.50±0.23 pg/L, in control group. The difference between two groups was considered statistically significant. Conclusion: Bone mineral density in patients

  3. Identifying factors affecting optimal management of agricultural water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2015-01-01

    In addition to quantitative methodology such as descriptive statistics and factor analysis a qualitative methodology was employed for dynamic simulation among variables through Vensim software. In this study, the factor analysis technique was used through the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett tests. From the results, four key elements were identified as factors affecting the optimal management of agricultural water in Hamedan area. These factors were institutional and legal factors, technical and knowledge factors, economic factors and social factors.

  4. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  5. Some factors affecting the distribution of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grainger, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The importance of the distribution of radon in the natural background radiation exposures for man is stressed. Factors which effect the distribution include the origin of the rocks, the permeability of the rocks, fractures in the rocks and ground water flow. (U.K.)

  6. Factors Affecting the Internal Audit Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mustika, Adhista Cahya

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the factors that influence the internal audit effectiveness, including internal auditor competencies, internal auditor independence, auditee support to internal audit activity, and the internal and external auditor relationship. Using the internal auditor inspectorate in Java Province, Indonesia, we found that the internal audit effectiveness can be attained through increase internal audit competence, independence and strong relationship between internal and external auditor....

  7. Review: Factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Bertelsen, Maja; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    and pigs’ earlier experience. Further, these primary factors are affected by secondary factors such as the shape of the pen, the weight of the pigs and especially the heat balance of the pigs, which is affected by several tertiary factors including, for example, temperature, humidity and draught. Results...

  8. The affect of bone marrow cell biomechanical characteristics to 6 Gy γ irradiation-injured mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Xiaoyun; Chen Xiaoli; Pan Jing; Li Zhaoquan; Deng Jun; Huang Hui; Ye Yong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the change of bone marrow cell biomechanical characteristics in radiation-injured mice and the influencing factors. Methods: Male Kunming mice were exposed to total body irradiation of 6 Gy γ-rays from a 60 Co source. Electrophoresis, DPH probe-micropore filter, and adhesion rate methods were used to detect cell surface charge, membrane microviscosity, cell deformability, and cell adhesion, respectively. Results: The deformability, adhesiveness and cell surface charges of bone marrow cells (including hematopoietic cells and stromal cells) were dramatically decreased, but membrane microviscosity was obviously increased after irradiation on 1 d, 3 d and 7 d. Conclusion: The biomechanical characteristics of bone marrow cells are obviously changed after radiation injury. It might be one of the reasons of hematopoietic failure after irradiation. (authors)

  9. Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian University system. ... which mostly affect women‟s job performance in the Nigerian university system. ... are essential in building a gender-friendly university work environment.

  10. Effects of Antiseptic Solutions Commonly Used in Dentistry on Bone Viability, Bone Morphology, and Release of Growth Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kosaku; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Schaller, Benoit; Miron, Richard J

    2016-02-01

    Antiseptic solutions are commonly used in dentistry for a number of sterilization procedures, including harvesting of bone chips, irrigation of extraction sockets, and sterilization of osteonecrotic bone. Despite its widespread use, little information is available regarding the effects of various antiseptic solutions on bone cell viability, morphology, and the release of growth factors. The antiseptic solutions included 1) 0.5% povidone iodine (PI), 2) 0.2% chlorhexidine diguluconate (CHX), 3) 1% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 4) 0.25% sodium hypochlorite (HYP). Bone samples collected from porcine mandibular cortical bone were rinsed in the antiseptic solutions for 10 minutes and assessed for cell viability using an MTS assay and protein release of transforming growth factor (TGF-β1), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-1β, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 15 minutes and 4 hours after rinsing. After antiseptic rinsing, changes to the surface protein content showed marked alterations, with an abundant protein layer remaining on CHX-rinsed bone samples. The amount of surface protein content gradually decreased in the following order: CHX, H2O2, PI, and HYP. A similar trend was also observed for the relative cell viability from within bone samples after rinsing, with up to 6 times more viable cells found in the CHX-rinsed bone samples than in the HYP- and PI-rinsed samples. An analysis of the growth factors found that both HYP and PI had significantly lower VEGF and TGF-β1 protein release from bone samples at 15 minutes and 4 hours after rinsing compared with CHX and H2O2. A similar trend was observed for RANKL and IL-1β protein release, although no change was observed for BMP2. The results from the present study have demonstrated that antiseptic solutions present with very different effects on bone samples after 10 minutes of

  11. Factors Affecting the Thickness of Thermal Aureoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Annen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Intrusions of magma induce thermal aureoles in the country rock. Analytical solutions predict that the thickness of an aureole is proportional to the thickness of the intrusion. However, in the field, thermal aureoles are often significantly thinner or wider than predicted by simple thermal models. Numerical models show that thermal aureoles are wider if the heat transfer in the magma is faster than in the country rock due to contrasts in thermal diffusivities or the effect of magma convection. Large thermal aureoles can also be caused by repeated injection close to the contact. Aureoles are thin when heat transfer in the country rock is faster than heat transfer within the magma or in case of incrementally, slowly emplaced magma. Absorption of latent heat due to metamorphic reactions or water volatilization also affects thermal aureoles but to a lesser extent. The way these parameters affect the thickness of a thermal aureole depends on the isotherm under consideration, hence on which metamorphic phase is used to draw the limit of the aureole. Thermal aureoles provide insight on the dynamics of intrusions emplacement. Although available examples are limited, asymmetric aureoles point to magma emplacement by over-accretion for mafic cases and by under-accretion for felsic cases, consistent with geochronological data.

  12. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D A; Thayne, W V; Dailey, R A

    1985-07-01

    We conducted two studies to determine how herd management practices and traits of individual cows affect performance of the herd and of the cow within a herd. Management practices, reproductive performance of the herd, and relationships between management and reproductive performance were characterized on 83 dairy farms with 7596 cows. Data included 21 management variables (e.g., facilities, herd health program, estrous detection program) and 8 performance variables obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement or unofficial records (e.g., size of herd, production, days open). Although varying among herds, annual average herd incidences of reproductive disorders and reproductive performance were similar to those reported. Managerial practices influenced incidences of retained placenta and uterine infection, days open of cows not bred and of all cows, services per conception, and percentages of herd open more than 100 days and culled for low production. Veterinarian was the most consistent variable influencing herd reproductive performance. Data also were collected from production and lifetime records of 2532 cows in 19 herds. Reproductive performance was affected by season of calving, production, maturity, and reproductive disorders. Several cows with extremely poor reproductive records were maintained.

  13. Bone mineral density before and after OLT: long-term follow-up and predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichelaar, Maureen M J; Kendall, Rebecca; Malinchoc, Michael; Hay, J Eileen

    2006-09-01

    Fracturing after liver transplantation (OLT) occurs due to the combination of preexisting low bone mineral density (BMD) and early posttransplant bone loss, the risk factors for which are poorly defined. The prevalence and predictive factors for hepatic osteopenia and osteoporosis, posttransplant bone loss, and subsequent bone gain were studied by the long-term posttransplant follow-up of 360 consecutive adult patients with end-stage primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Only 20% of patients with advanced PBC or PSC have normal bone mass. Risk factors for low spinal BMD are low body mass index, older age, postmenopausal status, muscle wasting, high alkaline phosphatase and low serum albumin. A high rate of spinal bone loss occurred in the first 4 posttransplant months (annual rate of 16%) especially in those with younger age, PSC, higher pretransplant bone density, no inflammatory bowel disease, shorter duration of liver disease, current smoking, and ongoing cholestasis at 4 months. Factors favoring spinal bone gain from 4 to 24 months after transplantation were lower baseline and/or 4-month bone density, premenopausal status, lower cumulative glucocorticoids, no ongoing cholestasis, and higher levels of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone. Bone mass therefore improves most in patients with lowest pretransplant BMD who undergo successful transplantation with normal hepatic function and improved gonadal and nutritional status. Patients transplanted most recently have improved bone mass before OLT, and although bone loss still occurs early after OLT, these patients also have a greater recovery in BMD over the years following OLT.

  14. Factors Affecting Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the factors influencing labour productivity in the manufacturing business sector in 20042008. Labour productivity was analyzed in the context of the assets productivity, technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, wages, value added and depreciation costs, and using linear stepwise regression. The study shows that despite significant progress, the level of labour productivity in domestic manufacturing significantly lower than the average in the European Union. Lower than in Poland, the level of labour productivity gain only companies in Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Estimated parameters of the regression function showed that the most important determinants of labour productivity in manufacturing are technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, assets productivity, level of added value in relation to revenues. These factors explain the variability of labour productivity in 20042008 in a high degree.

  15. Trust Factors Affecting Cooperation in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev; Haugbølle, Kim; Bejder, Erik

    2013-01-01

    advisor was carried out. The analysis showed that the ability to be trustful can be developed through the experience of different factors (e.g. control mechanisms, mutual respect, repeated cooperation, shared understanding and communication). Furthermore, the ability to trust other parties depends...... on knowledge of others' skillsets. Interdisciplinary collaboration through education would limit the formation of negative stereotypes and the overall trust level increases, due to more and better knowledge of other disciplines....

  16. Does Cu supplementation affect the mechanical and structural properties and mineral content of red deer antler bone tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambín, P; Serrano, M P; Gallego, L; García, A; Cappelli, J; Ceacero, F; Landete-Castillejos, T

    2017-08-01

    The main factors affecting the mechanical (and other) properties of bone, including antler, are the proportions of ash (especially Ca and P) and collagen content. However, some trace minerals may also play more important roles than would be expected, given their low levels in bone and antler. One such trace mineral is Cu. Here, we studied the effects of Cu supplementation on the mechanical and structural characteristics, and mineral content of antlers from yearling and adult (4 years of age) red deer fed a balanced diet. Deer (n=35) of different ages (21 yearlings and 14 adults) were studied. A total of 18 stags (11 yearlings and 7 adults) were injected with Cu (0.83 mg Cu/kg BW) every 42 days, whereas the remaining 17 (10 yearlings and 7 adults) were injected with physiological saline solution (control group). The Cu content of serum was analysed at the beginning of the trial and 84 days after the first injection to assess whether the injected Cu was mobilized in blood. Also, the mechanical and structural properties of antlers and the mineral content in their cortical walls were examined at three (yearlings) or four (adults) points along the antler beam. The effect of Cu supplementation was different in yearlings and adults. In yearlings, supplementation increased the Cu content of serum by 28%, but did not affect antler properties. However, in adults, Cu supplementation increased the Cu content of serum by 38% and tended to increase the cortical thickness of antlers (P=0.06). Therefore, we conclude that, even in animals receiving balanced diets, supplementation with Cu could increase antler cortical thickness in adult deer, although not in yearlings. This may improve the trophy value of antlers, as well as having potential implications for bones in elderly humans, should Cu supplementation have similar effects on bones as those observed in antlers.

  17. Overview of factors affecting the leachability of nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of various factors that affect the leachability of nuclear waste forms is presented. The factors affect primarily the leaching system (temperature, for example), the leachant (pH, for example), or the solid being leached (surface condition, for example). A qualitative understanding exists of the major factors affecting leaching, but further studies are needed to establish leaching mechanisms and develop predictive models. 67 refs

  18. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Emma; Sadler, Jon P.; Telfer, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

  19. Factors affecting accelerated testing of polymer photostability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Jan; Pilař, Jan; Billingham, N. C.; Marek, Antonín; Horák, Zdeněk; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2006), s. 417-422 ISSN 0141-3910. [International Conference on Modification, Degradation, Stabilization Conference /3./. Lyon, 29.08.2004-02.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/1243; GA ČR GA202/01/0518; GA MŠk ME 543 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : photodegradation * photostabilization * testing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2006

  20. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    A review is given of the factors determining placental oxygen transfer and the oxygen supply to the fetus. In the case of continuous variables, such as the rate of placental blood flow, it is not possible to trace evolutionary trends. Discontinuous variables, for which we can define character sta......, where fetal and adult haemoglobin are not different, developmental regulation of 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate ensures the high oxygen affinity of fetal blood. Oxygen diffusing capacity is dependent on diffusion distance, which may vary with the type of interhaemal barrier. It has been shown...

  1. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with fibroblast growth factor accelerate proliferation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells and bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Eri; Takita, Hiroko; Watari, Fumio; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Venturelli, Enrica; Bianco, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and the advantages of their use as scaffolds for bone augmentation were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The activity of FGF was assessed by measuring the effect on the proliferation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (RBMSCs). The presence of FGF enhanced the proliferation of RBMSCs and the FGF covalently conjugated to the nanotubes (FGF–CNT) showed the same effect as FGF alone. In addition, FGF–CNT coated sponges were implanted between the parietal bone and the periosteum of rats and the formation of new bone was investigated. At day 14 after implantation, a larger amount of newly formed bone was clearly observed in most pores of FGF–CNT coated sponges. These findings indicated that MWCNTs accelerated new bone formation in response to FGF, as well as the integration of particles into new bone during its formation. Scaffolds coated with FGF–CNT could be considered as promising novel substituting materials for bone regeneration in future tissue engineering applications. (paper)

  2. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with fibroblast growth factor accelerate proliferation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells and bone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Eri; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Venturelli, Enrica; Takita, Hiroko; Watari, Fumio; Bianco, Alberto; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2013-11-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and the advantages of their use as scaffolds for bone augmentation were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The activity of FGF was assessed by measuring the effect on the proliferation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (RBMSCs). The presence of FGF enhanced the proliferation of RBMSCs and the FGF covalently conjugated to the nanotubes (FGF-CNT) showed the same effect as FGF alone. In addition, FGF-CNT coated sponges were implanted between the parietal bone and the periosteum of rats and the formation of new bone was investigated. At day 14 after implantation, a larger amount of newly formed bone was clearly observed in most pores of FGF-CNT coated sponges. These findings indicated that MWCNTs accelerated new bone formation in response to FGF, as well as the integration of particles into new bone during its formation. Scaffolds coated with FGF-CNT could be considered as promising novel substituting materials for bone regeneration in future tissue engineering applications.

  3. Factors affecting membership in specialty nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary Joe; Olson, Rhonda S

    2004-01-01

    A discouraging trend in many specialty nursing organizations is the stagnant or declining membership. The research committee of the Southeast Texas Chapter of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN) collected data and studied this trend to determine what changes would be necessary to increase membership. Using Herzberg's motivational theory as a framework, a review of the literature was initiated. There were few current studies on this issue, but relevant information was found about nursing's emerging workforce, as well as implications of the growth of magnet hospitals, which affect whether nurses join specialty nursing organizations. A multifaceted data-collection approach using convenience samples was designed. First, relevant literature was reviewed. Second, a survey was sent by e-mail to other ARN chapters. Third, a telephone survey on other specialty organizations in the geographic region was completed. Finally, members of the local ARN chapter and four other specialty organizations, as well staff nurses in the geographic area, were given questionnaires to complete. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to determine why nurses do and do not join specialty organizations (N = 81). The most frequent reasons for joining an organization were to increase knowledge, benefit professionally, network, and earn continuing education units. Reasons for choosing not to participate were family responsibilities, lack of information about these organizations, and lack of time. Ways to reverse the decline in membership are discussed.

  4. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan FERENCZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  5. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin . Methods: ... methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were ... The high performance liquid chromatography ..... Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Investigate Regional.

  6. Ranking and evaluating the factors affecting the success of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ranking and evaluating the factors affecting the success of management team in construction projects. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home ... The project management team is one of these important factors.

  7. Factors affecting the organization and management of emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting the organization and management of emergency mass casualty ... service all under a unified command of leadership with a specified job description. Factors identified were: Political will, human resource planning, appropriate ...

  8. Factors affecting radiocaesium transfer to ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Howard, B.J.; Vandecasteele, C.; Mayes, R.W.; Belli, M.; Sansone, U.; Stakelum, G.; Colgan, P.A.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Crout, N.M.J.; Jones, B.E.V., Hove, K.; ITE, Merlewood; CEN, Mol; MLURI, Aberdeen; ENEA-DISP, Rome; MPRC, Fermoy; RPII, Dublin; Ioannina Univ., Nuclear Physics; Nottingham Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala; Agricultural Univ., Aas

    1993-01-01

    The studies performed in the 2 year CEG/DG XII Radiation Protection Programme described here have tried to identify and quantify some of the most important factors influencing the radiocaesium levels in animal food products. The programme involved 9 laboratories in 6 countries: Belgium, Ireland, Greece, Italy, Sweden and the UK. Scientists from Norway and Germany also participated on an informal basis and are formally involved in a subsequent project. Experimental studies have largely been conducted using sheep, although some comparative studies have been performed with dairy cattle. In parallel to the experimental studies, a number of research models have been developed by participants in Greece and the UK to be interactively used with a number of different aspects in the programme. This presentation gives a short overview and discussion of the main findings of this project. (orig./DG)

  9. Experimental Study of Factors Affecting Soil Erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, G. A.; Bushueva, O. G.; Gorobets, A. V.; Dobrovolskaya, N. G.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Litvin, L. F.; Maksimova, I. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of different factors and preparation conditions of monofraction samples from the arable horizon of leached chernozem on soil erodibility and its relationship with soil tensile strength (STS) has been studied. The exposure of samples at 38°C reduces their erodibility by two orders of magnitude. The drying of samples, on the contrary, increases their erodibility. It has been shown that erodibility decreases during the experiment. It has been found that the inoculation of soil with yeast cultures ( Naganishia albida, Lipomyces tetrasporus) reliably increases the STS value in 1.5-1.9 times. The sterile soil is eroded more intensively than the unsterile soil: at 4.9 and 0.3 g/(m2 s), respectively. The drying of soil followed by wetting to the initial water content (30%) has no significant effect on the STS value in almost all experimental treatments.

  10. [The concentration of growth factors in patients with inherent and acquired shortenings of limbs bones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strogov, M V; Luneva, S N; Novikov, K I

    2013-04-01

    The article deals with the results of study of level of growth factors in blood serum of patients with inherent and post-traumatic shortenings of limbs' bones. The detection in blood serum the level of epidermal growth factor insulin-like growth factor I and angiopoetins is proposed to monitor in given patients the reparative bone formation.

  11. Evaluation of the parameters affecting bone temperature during drilling using a three-dimensional dynamic elastoplastic finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chuan; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Zhuang, Jun-Yan; Tsai, Yi-Jung; Yen, Cheng-Yo; Hsiao, Chih-Kun

    2017-11-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic elastoplastic finite element model was constructed and experimentally validated and was used to investigate the parameters which influence bone temperature during drilling, including the drill speed, feeding force, drill bit diameter, and bone density. Results showed the proposed three-dimensional dynamic elastoplastic finite element model can effectively simulate the temperature elevation during bone drilling. The bone temperature rise decreased with an increase in feeding force and drill speed, however, increased with the diameter of drill bit or bone density. The temperature distribution is significantly affected by the drilling duration; a lower drilling speed reduced the exposure duration, decreases the region of the thermally affected zone. The constructed model could be applied for analyzing the influence parameters during bone drilling to reduce the risk of thermal necrosis. It may provide important information for the design of drill bits and surgical drilling powers.

  12. [Multiple linear regression and ROC curve analysis of the factors of lumbar spine bone mineral density].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yinxia; Hu, Shaoyong; Hao, Shuai; Yan, Jiewen; Zhang, Lingyan; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shaolin

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the correlation between the lumbar vertebra bone mineral density (BMD) and age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, waistline, hipline, bone marrow and abdomen fat, and to explore the key factor affecting the BMD. A total of 72 cases were randomly recruited. All the subjects underwent a spectroscopic examination of the third lumber vertebra with single-voxel method in 1.5T MR. Lipid fractions (FF%) were measured. Quantitative CT were also performed to get the BMD of L3 and the corresponding abdomen subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). The statistical analysis were performed by SPSS 19.0. Multiple linear regression showed except the age and FF% showed significant difference (P0.05). The correlation of age and FF% with BMD was statistically negatively significant (r=-0.830, -0.521, P<0.05). The ROC curve analysis showed that the sensitivety and specificity of predicting osteoporosis were 81.8% and 86.9%, with a threshold of 58.5 years old. And it showed that the sensitivety and specificity of predicting osteoporosis were 90.9% and 55.7%, with a threshold of 52.8% for FF%. The lumbar vertebra BMD was significantly and negatively correlated with age and bone marrow FF%, but it was not significantly correlated with gender, height, weight, BMI, waistline, hipline, SAT and VAT. And age was the critical factor.

  13. Factors Affecting Hypertension among the Malaysian Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ataollahi Eshkoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common chronic disease in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, nutritional parameters, and blood elements on the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. This research was conducted on a group of 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of hypertension in respondents. Approximately, 45.61% of subjects had hypertension. The findings indicated that the female gender (Odds ratio (OR = 1.54, an increase in body weight (OR = 1.61, and an increase in the blood levels of albumin (OR = 1.51, glucose (OR = 1.92, and triglycerides (OR = 1.27 significantly increased the risk of hypertension in subjects (p < 0.05. Conversely, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates (OR = 0.74, and blood cholesterol level (OR = 0.42 significantly reduced the risk of hypertension in samples (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that ethnicity was a non-relevant factor to increase the risk of hypertension in subjects. It was concluded that female gender, an increase in body weight, and an increase in the blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, and albumin enhanced the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. In addition, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates and blood cholesterol level decreased hypertension in subjects.

  14. Factors Affecting Patient Satisfaction During Endoscopic Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M. O.; Shafqat, F.; Ahmed, S.; Niazi, T. K.; Khokhar, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality and patient satisfaction in Endoscopy Unit of Shifa International Hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Division of Gastroenterology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Quality and patient satisfaction after the endoscopic procedure was assessed using a modified GHAA-9 questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 1028 patients were included with a mean age of 45 A+- 14.21 years. Out of all the procedures, 670 (65.17%) were gastroscopies, 181 (17.60%) were flexible sigmoidoscopies and 177 (17.21%) were colonoscopies. The maximum unsatisfactory responses were on the waiting time before the procedure (13.13 %), followed by unsatisfactory explanation of the procedure and answers to questions (7.58%). Overall, unsatisfied impression was 4.86%. The problem rate was 6.22%. Conclusion: The quality of procedures and level of satisfaction of patients undergoing a gastroscopy or colonoscopy was generally good. The factors that influence the satisfaction of these patients are related to communication between doctor and patient, doctor's manner and waiting time for the procedure. Feedback information in an endoscopy unit may be useful in improving standards, including the performance of endoscopists. (author)

  15. Bone mineralization is regulated by signaling cross talk between molecular factors of local and systemic origin: the role of fibroblast growth factor 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir-Koren, Rony; Livshits, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Body phosphate homeostasis is regulated by a hormonal counter-balanced intestine-bone-kidney axis. The major systemic hormones involved in this axis are parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). FGF23, produced almost exclusively by the osteocytes, is a phosphaturic hormone that plays a major role in regulation of the bone remodeling process. Remodeling composite components, bone mineralization and resorption cycles create a continuous influx-efflux loop of the inorganic phosphate (Pi) through the skeleton. This "bone Pi loop," which is formed, is controlled by local and systemic factors according to phosphate homeostasis demands. Although FGF23 systemic actions in the kidney, and for the production of PTH and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D are well established, its direct involvement in bone metabolism is currently poorly understood. This review presents the latest available evidence suggesting two aspects of FGF23 bone local activity: (a) Regulation of FGF23 production by both local and systemic factors. The suggested local factors include extracellular levels of Pi and pyrophosphate (PPi), (the Pi/PPi ratio), and another osteocyte-derived protein, sclerostin. In addition, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D, synthesized locally by bone cells, may contribute to regulation of FGF23 production. The systemic control is achieved via PTH and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D endocrine functions. (b) FGF23 acts as a local agent, directly affecting bone mineralization. We support the assumption that under balanced physiological conditions, sclerostin, by para- autocrine signaling, upregulates FGF23 production by the osteocyte. FGF23, in turn, acts as a mineralization inhibitor, by stimulating the generation of the major mineralization antagonist-PPi. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Various bio-mechanical factors affecting heat generation during osteotomy preparation: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Chirag J; Shah, Darshana N; Sutaria, Foram B

    2018-01-01

    As implant site preparation and bone are critical precursors to primary healing, thermal and mechanical damage to the bone must be minimized during the preparation of the implant site. Moreover, excessively traumatic surgery can adversely affect the maturation of bone tissue at the bone/implant interface and consequently diminish the predictability of osseointegration. So, this study was carried out to evaluate the various biological and mechanical factors responsible for heat generation during osteotomy site preparation to reduce the same for successful osseointegration of dental implants. A broad search of the dental literature in PubMed added by manual search was performed for articles published between 1992 and December 2015. Various bio-mechanical factors related to dental implant osteotomy preparation such as dental implant drill designs/material/wear, drilling methods, type of irrigation, and bone quality were reviewed. Titles and abstracts were screened and articles which fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected for a full-text reading. The initial database search yielded 123 titles, of which 59 titles were discarded after reading the titles and abstracts, 30 articles were again excluded based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and finally 34 articles were selected for data extraction. Many biological and mechanical factors responsible for heat generation were found. Literatures of this review study have indicated that there are various bio-mechanical reasons, which affect the temperature rise during osteotomy and suggest that the amount of heat generation is a multifactorial in nature and it should be minimized for better primary healing of the implant site.

  17. Effects of spaceflight and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 on rat bone properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, T.A.; Ayers, R.A.; Spetzler, M.L.; Simske, S.J. [BioServe Space Technologies University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado80309-0429 (United States); Zimmerman, R.J. [Chiron Corporation 4560 Horton Street Emeryville, California94608-2916 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Spaceflight induces bone degradation which is analogous to an accelerated onset of osteoporosis in humans (Tilton {ital et al.}, 1980). In rats, decreased bone formation is indicative of reduced osteoblast activity (Morey and Baylink, 1978). Chiron Corporation (Emeryville, CA) is interested in using the microgravity environment of low-Earth-orbit to test its therapeutic drug, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). This pharmaceutic is known to promote osteoblast activity (Schmid {ital et al.}, 1984) and therefore may encourage bone growth in rats. Chiron sponsored the Immune.3 payload on STS-73 (May 19{endash}29, 1996) through its Center for Space Commercialization (CSC) partner BioServe Space Technologies (University of Colorado and Kansas State University) to investigate the effects of IGF-1 on mitigating the skeletal degradation that affects rats and humans during spaceflight. Twelve rats were flown for 10 days using two Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMs) provided by NASA Ames Research Center. Of the twelve, six received 1.4 mg/day of IGF-1; the other six saline. Sixteen vivarium ground controls received the same treatment on a one day delay. Rat femora and tibiae were examined for bone mineral density via DXA scan. Femora and humeri were measured for physical and compositional properties, as well as mechanically tested in three point flexure. Quantitative histomorphometric examination of tibiae, humeri, fibulae, ribs and cranial bone; and microhardness testing on tibiae and humeri are currently in progress. Flight humeri and vivarium femora were significantly larger than their counterparts; however, significant differences in mechanical properties and mineral density were not concurrent to these mass changes. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Factors affecting mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczak, Andrew M; Ranheim, Birgit; Fosse, Torunn K; Hild, Sophie; Nordgreen, Janicke; Moe, Randi O; Zanella, Adroaldo J

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the stability and repeatability of measures of mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets and to examine potentially confounding factors when using a hand held algometer. Descriptive, prospective cohort. Forty-four piglets from four litters, weighing 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) at 2 weeks of age. Mechanical thresholds were measured twice on each of 2 days during the first and second week of life. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design to test the effects of behavior prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, and repetition within day. The effect of body weight and the interaction between piglet weight and behaviour were also tested. Piglet was entered into the model as a random effect as an additional test of repeatability. The effect of repeated testing was used to test the stability of measures. Pearson correlations between repeated measures were used to test the repeatability of measures. Variance component analysis was used to describe the variability in the data. Variance component analysis indicated that piglet explained only 17% of the variance in the data. All variables in the model (behaviour prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, repetition within day, body weight, the interaction between body weight and behaviour, piglet identity) except sex had a significant effect (p testing and measures changed with repeated testing and increased with increasing piglet weight, indicating that time (age) and animal body weight should be taken into account when measuring mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. Mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds can be used both for testing the efficacy of anaesthetics and analgesics, and for assessing hyperalgesia in chronic pain states in research and clinical settings. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  19. Perceived Factors Affecting Performance Of Extension Workers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on perceived factors affecting performance of extension workers in Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected from 83 Extension agents from the Imo State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). Results of the study revealed that the organizational factors that affect performance are ...

  20. Factors affecting the runoff response of watersheds to precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    DROZDOVÁ, Martina

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the factors that affect the drainage basin of the response. It contains a literature review, which deals with the hydrological cycle characteristics of precipitation, surface runoff and flood and erosion protection. The aim of the work is to evaluate the factors that adversely affect the runoff from the catchment.

  1. Factors Affecting Prenatal Care Utilization in East Wollega Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to identify factors affecting utilization of prenatal care and skilled birth attendant in East Wollega zone. Prenatal care and skilled birth attendant are crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn and help the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, ...

  2. The relationship between affective factors and the academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between affective factors and the academic achievement of students at the University of Venda. To this end, self-concept, motivation and attitude are the affective factors selected for the study. The general aim of the study is to determine the role of self-concept, ...

  3. Bone density and anisotropy affect periprosthetic cement and bone stresses after anatomical glenoid replacement: A micro finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Yan; Santos, Inês; Müller, Peter E; Pietschmann, Matthias F

    2016-06-14

    Glenoid loosening is still a main complication for shoulder arthroplasty. We hypothesize that cement and bone stresses potentially leading to fixation failure are related not only to glenohumeral conformity, fixation design or eccentric loading, but also to bone volume fraction, cortical thickness and degree of anisotropy in the glenoid. In this study, periprosthetic bone and cement stresses were computed with micro finite element models of the replaced glenoid depicting realistic bone microstructure. These models were used to quantify potential effects of bone microstructural parameters under loading conditions simulating different levels of glenohumeral conformity and eccentric loading simulating glenohumeral instability. Results show that peak cement stresses were achieved near the cement-bone interface in all loading schemes. Higher stresses within trabecular bone tissue and cement mantle were obtained within specimens of lower bone volume fraction and in regions of low anisotropy, increasing with decreasing glenohumeral conformity and reaching their maxima below the keeled design when the load is shifted superiorly. Our analyses confirm the combined influences of eccentric load shifts with reduced bone volume fraction and anisotropy on increasing periprosthetic stresses. They finally suggest that improving fixation of glenoid replacements must reduce internal cement and bone tissue stresses, in particular in glenoids of low bone density and heterogeneity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Zebrafish Bone and General Physiology Are Differently Affected by Hormones or Changes in Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Jessica; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Marée, Raphael; Dardenne, Nadia; Jeanray, Nathalie; Wehenkel, Louis; Aleström, Peter; van Loon, Jack J W A; Muller, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Teleost fish such as zebrafish (Danio rerio) are increasingly used for physiological, genetic and developmental studies. Our understanding of the physiological consequences of altered gravity in an entire organism is still incomplete. We used altered gravity and drug treatment experiments to evaluate their effects specifically on bone formation and more generally on whole genome gene expression. By combining morphometric tools with an objective scoring system for the state of development for each element in the head skeleton and specific gene expression analysis, we confirmed and characterized in detail the decrease or increase of bone formation caused by a 5 day treatment (from 5dpf to 10 dpf) of, respectively parathyroid hormone (PTH) or vitamin D3 (VitD3). Microarray transcriptome analysis after 24 hours treatment reveals a general effect on physiology upon VitD3 treatment, while PTH causes more specifically developmental effects. Hypergravity (3g from 5dpf to 9 dpf) exposure results in a significantly larger head and a significant increase in bone formation for a subset of the cranial bones. Gene expression analysis after 24 hrs at 3g revealed differential expression of genes involved in the development and function of the skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine and cardiovascular systems. Finally, we propose a novel type of experimental approach, the "Reduced Gravity Paradigm", by keeping the developing larvae at 3g hypergravity for the first 5 days before returning them to 1g for one additional day. 5 days exposure to 3g during these early stages also caused increased bone formation, while gene expression analysis revealed a central network of regulatory genes (hes5, sox10, lgals3bp, egr1, edn1, fos, fosb, klf2, gadd45ba and socs3a) whose expression was consistently affected by the transition from hyper- to normal gravity.

  5. Zebrafish Bone and General Physiology Are Differently Affected by Hormones or Changes in Gravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Aceto

    Full Text Available Teleost fish such as zebrafish (Danio rerio are increasingly used for physiological, genetic and developmental studies. Our understanding of the physiological consequences of altered gravity in an entire organism is still incomplete. We used altered gravity and drug treatment experiments to evaluate their effects specifically on bone formation and more generally on whole genome gene expression. By combining morphometric tools with an objective scoring system for the state of development for each element in the head skeleton and specific gene expression analysis, we confirmed and characterized in detail the decrease or increase of bone formation caused by a 5 day treatment (from 5dpf to 10 dpf of, respectively parathyroid hormone (PTH or vitamin D3 (VitD3. Microarray transcriptome analysis after 24 hours treatment reveals a general effect on physiology upon VitD3 treatment, while PTH causes more specifically developmental effects. Hypergravity (3g from 5dpf to 9 dpf exposure results in a significantly larger head and a significant increase in bone formation for a subset of the cranial bones. Gene expression analysis after 24 hrs at 3g revealed differential expression of genes involved in the development and function of the skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine and cardiovascular systems. Finally, we propose a novel type of experimental approach, the "Reduced Gravity Paradigm", by keeping the developing larvae at 3g hypergravity for the first 5 days before returning them to 1g for one additional day. 5 days exposure to 3g during these early stages also caused increased bone formation, while gene expression analysis revealed a central network of regulatory genes (hes5, sox10, lgals3bp, egr1, edn1, fos, fosb, klf2, gadd45ba and socs3a whose expression was consistently affected by the transition from hyper- to normal gravity.

  6. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor affects bone homeostasis by regulating osteoblast and osteoclast function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlan, Federico; Galbiati, Clara; Jørgensen, Niklas R

    2007-01-01

    PAR and produce urokinase (uPA). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of uPAR in bone remodeling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo studies were performed in uPAR knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) mice on a C57Bl6/SV129 (75:25) background. Bone mass was analyzed by pQCT. Excised tibias were subjected......The uPAR and its ligand uPA are expressed by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Their function in bone remodeling is unknown. We report that uPAR-lacking mice display increased BMD, increased osteogenic potential of osteoblasts, decreased osteoclasts formation, and altered cytoskeletal...... of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and RANKL. Phalloidin staining in osteoclasts served to study actin ring and podosome formation. RESULTS: pQCT revealed increased bone mass in uPAR-null mice. Mechanical tests showed reduced load-sustaining capability in uPAR KO tibias. uPAR KO osteoblasts showed...

  7. Subchondral bone in osteoarthritis: insight into risk factors and microstructural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyi; Yin, Jimin; Gao, Junjie; Cheng, Tak S; Pavlos, Nathan J; Zhang, Changqing; Zheng, Ming H

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of disability in the adult population. As a progressive degenerative joint disorder, OA is characterized by cartilage damage, changes in the subchondral bone, osteophyte formation, muscle weakness, and inflammation of the synovium tissue and tendon. Although OA has long been viewed as a primary disorder of articular cartilage, subchondral bone is attracting increasing attention. It is commonly reported to play a vital role in the pathogenesis of OA. Subchondral bone sclerosis, together with progressive cartilage degradation, is widely considered as a hallmark of OA. Despite the increase in bone volume fraction, subchondral bone is hypomineralized, due to abnormal bone remodeling. Some histopathological changes in the subchondral bone have also been detected, including microdamage, bone marrow edema-like lesions and bone cysts. This review summarizes basic features of the osteochondral junction, which comprises subchondral bone and articular cartilage. Importantly, we discuss risk factors influencing subchondral bone integrity. We also focus on the microarchitectural and histopathological changes of subchondral bone in OA, and provide an overview of their potential contribution to the progression of OA. A hypothetical model for the pathogenesis of OA is proposed.

  8. Impact of skeletal unloading on bone formation: Role of systemic and local factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Halloran, Bernard P.; Morey-Holton, Emily

    We have developed a model of skeletal unloading using growing rats whose hindlimbs are unweighted by tail suspension. The bones in the hindlimbs undergo a transient cessation of bone growth; when reloaded bone formation is accelerated until bone mass is restored. These changes do not occur in the normally loaded bones of the forelimbs. Associated with the fall in bone formation is a fall in 1,25(OH) 2D 3 production and osteocalcin levels. In contrast, no changes in parathyroid hormone, calcium, or corticosterone levels are seen. To examine the role of locally produced growth factors, we have measured the mRNA and protein levels of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in bone during tail suspension. Surprisingly, both the mRNA and protein levels of IGF-1 increase during tail suspension as bone formation is reduced. Furthermore, the bones in the hindlimbs of the suspended animals develop a resistance to the growth promoting effects of both growth hormone and IGF-1 when given parenterally. Thus, the cessation of bone growth with skeletal unloading is apparently associated with a resistance to rather than failure to produce local growth factors. The cause of this resistance remains under active investigation.

  9. Loss of lean body mass affects low bone mineral density in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - results from the TOMORROW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Tadashi; Inui, Kentaro; Tada, Masahiro; Sugioka, Yuko; Mamoto, Kenji; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Koike, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-11-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the complications for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Rheumatoid cachexia, the loss of lean body mass, is another. However, the relationship between decreased lean body mass and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with RA has not been well studied. This study included 413 participants, comprising 208 patients with RA and 205 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Clinical data, BMD, bone metabolic markers (BMM) and body composition, such as lean body mass and percent fat, were collected. Risk factors for osteoporosis in patients with RA including the relationship BMD and body composition were analyzed. Patients with RA showed low BMD and high BMM compared with controls. Moreover, lean body mass was lower and percent fat was higher in patients with RA. Lean body mass correlated positively and percent fat negatively with BMD. Lean body mass was a positive and disease duration was a negative independent factor for BMD in multivariate statistical analysis. BMD and lean body mass were significantly lower in patients with RA compared to healthy controls. Lean body mass correlated positively with BMD and decreased lean body mass and disease duration affected low BMD in patients with RA. [UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ , UMIN000003876].

  10. Influence of pregnancy on bone density: a risk factor for osteoporosis? Measurements of the calcaneus by ultrasonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Bernhard; Schneider, Silke; Rothmund, Ralf; Fehm, Tanja; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Solomayer, Erich-Franz

    2012-04-01

    There are conflicting opinions in the literature about whether pregnancy influences maternal bone density or osteoporosis development. The study aim was to investigate whether there is a significant alteration in maternal bone density during normal pregnancy. Bone mass of 200 pregnant women aged 22-42 years was measured twice with quantitative ultrasonometry (QUS) of the heel (Os calcaneum). The first measurement was performed between the 10th and 22nd week of pregnancy, follow-up of 149 women took place 0-9 days postpartum. A questionnaire focusing on data affecting bone metabolism and bone turnover was handed out at the first visit. Median reduction in speed of sound (SOS) was 11 m/s at follow-up indicating a decline of the stiffness during pregnancy. No significant correlation was found between lactation period and the obtained values for stiffness, SOS, T score and Z score. For broadband ultrasonographic attenuation, there was a statistically significant difference (p osteoporosis (n = 30) compared to patients without did not reveal statistical significance during pregnancy. Glucocorticoid therapy, nicotine consumption, physical exercise and nutrition was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). SOS value of women with a twin pregnancy was different over the study period (p pregnancy. Routine evaluation of the bone density in all pregnant women does not seem to be justified; however, it is reasonable in women who present with risk factors. These women could be screened with QUS.

  11. Troglitazone treatment increases bone marrow adipose tissue volume but does not affect trabecular bone volume in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Mosekilde, Leif; Justesen, J

    2001-01-01

    proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). Histomorphometric analysis of proximal tibia was performed in order to quantitate the amount of trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV %), adipose tissue volume per total volume (AV/TV %), and hematopoietic marrow volume per total volume (HV......Aging is associated with decreased trabecular bone mass and increased adipocyte formation in bone marrow. As osteoblasts and adipocytes share common precursor cells present in the bone marrow stroma, it has been proposed that an inverse relationship exists between adipocyte and osteoblast....../TV %) using the point-counting technique. Bone size did not differ between the two groups. In troglitazone-treated mice, AV/TV was significantly higher than in control mice (4.7+/-2.1% vs. 0.2+/-0.3%, respectively, mean +/- SD, P

  12. Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ( Coffea robusta ... of coffee in the study area was poor pricing and marketing systems; this is as a ... of quality control and relevant information on improved coffee technologies.

  13. Factors Affecting Behaviours that address HIV Risk among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction ... Main outcome measures: Sexual behavior and condom use, knowledge about ... attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS ...

  14. Motivation factors affecting employees job performance in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivation can be intrinsic, such as satisfaction and feelings of achievement; or extrinsic, such as rewards, punishment, and goal obtainment. The study assessed the motivating factors affecting the job performance of two oil palm companies' ...

  15. Factors that affect South African Reading Literacy Achievement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that affect South African Reading Literacy Achievement: evidence from prePIRLS 2011. ... achievement among Grade 4 learners in South Africa by utilising aspects of Carroll's model of school learning. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Multiple factors affecting South African anchovy recruitment in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple factors affecting South African anchovy recruitment in the spawning, transport and nursery. ... and are inversely linked to high rates of gonad atresia in anchovy and reduced subsequent recruitment. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Identifying factors affecting destination choice of medical tourists: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical tourism”, has emerged as a new source of competitive advantage all over the world. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect destination choice of medical tourists. Methods: We systematically searched relevant databases ...

  18. Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective service to pre and ... Small, micro and medium entrepreneurs play an important role in economic ... such as production, marketing and management to adequately service the ...

  19. Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts in Merinos divergently selected for reproduction. ... The fixed effect of birth year x sex interaction was significant, with rams showing higher mean values for FWEC than ewes ...

  20. Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of Smallholders ... socio-economic characteristics which influence technical efficiency in maize production. ... Ministry of Agriculture and livestock, records, books, reports and internet.

  1. Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to antihypertensive medications and blood pressure control among patients attending the family practice clinic in a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria.

  2. An Initial Investigation of Factors Affecting Multi-Task Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Branscome, Tersa A; Swoboda, Jennifer C; Fatkin, Linda T

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first in a series of investigations designed to increase fundamental knowledge and understanding of the factors affecting multi-task performance in a military environment...

  3. Factors Affecting Community Participation in O and OD Planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Community Participation in O and OD Planning and ... great success at start but later dropped in number of cattle taken for dipping. ... and to establish the measures taken by the district leadership in addressing the problems.

  4. Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. ... Two hundred maize marketers were selected from Vandeikya Local Area (LGA) of ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  5. Factors affecting the adoption and diffusion of Internet in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa ... Factors affecting the adoption and diffusion of Internet in higher educational institutions in Kenya ... communication Technologies (ICTs) such as the Internet, Learning ...

  6. factors affecting antenatal care service utilization in yem special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jhon

    assess antenatal care utilization and factors that affect it in Yem Special Woreda, South Western Ethiopia. METHODS: A ... A pre-tested structured questionnaire consisting of information on socio- ..... model and access to medical care: does it.

  7. Determining the Factors Affecting Labor Productivity of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdanur Dikmen

    2016-12-01

    Results: It was found that the 45.5% of nurses participated in the study were in the 23-53 age group, 79.5% were women, 76.9% married, 41.1% associate degree graduates. 42.3% of nurses' durations of professional experience were 0-5 years, 22.4% of nurses were clinical chief, 69.2% were working as shifts. Participants believe that the factors affecting the labor productivity were respectively organizational factors, ergonomic factors and personal factors. When organizational factors was examined; nurses stated that the lack of working personnel in the section, the low wages and unequal wages for the same work, the long working hours and the system which based on personal relations instead of merit were affecting productivity. The factors affecting labor productivity of nurses were not different according to age, gender, education level and marital status (p>0.05, but different according to mode of operation and years of experience (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to this study, it was found that there are many factors that affect the efficiency of the nurses. The most important factors affecting nurses' efficiency were determined as wage and working conditions. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(4.000: 334-342

  8. The quantum walk search algorithm: Factors affecting efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lovett, Neil B.; Everitt, Matthew; Heath, Robert M.; Kendon, Viv

    2011-01-01

    We numerically study the quantum walk search algorithm of Shenvi, Kempe and Whaley [PRA \\textbf{67} 052307] and the factors which affect its efficiency in finding an individual state from an unsorted set. Previous work has focused purely on the effects of the dimensionality of the dataset to be searched. Here, we consider the effects of interpolating between dimensions, connectivity of the dataset, and the possibility of disorder in the underlying substrate: all these factors affect the effic...

  9. Determining the Factors Affecting Labor Productivity of Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Yurdanur Dikmen; Dilek Kara Yilmaz; Handenur Basaran; Nasibe Yagmur Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the factors affecting the labor productivity of nurses. Material and Methods: The study which was planned as descriptive and analytical was carried out with 156 nurses who volunteered to participate in the study in a public hospital in the northwest of Turkey. Data was collected with the and ldquo;Participant Presentation Form and rdquo; and the questionnaire including the factors affecting labor productivity which was developed by Ozkoc (2005). ...

  10. Evaluation of the Effect of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF) on Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Paknejad, M.; Shayesteh, Y. Soleymani; Yaghobee, S.; Shariat, S.; Dehghan, M.; Motahari, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Reconstruction methods are an essential prerequisite for functional rehabilitation of the stomatognathic system. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) offers a new and potentially useful adjunct to bone substitute materials in bone reconstructive surgery. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of PRGF and fibrin membrane on regeneration of bony defects with and without deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) on rabbit calvaria. Materials and Methods: Twelve New Zea...

  11. Evaluation of the Effect of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF) on Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    M. Paknejad; Y. Soleymani Shayesteh; S. Yaghobee; S. Shariat; M. Dehghan; P. Motahari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Reconstruction methods are an essential prerequisite for functional rehabilitation of the stomatognathic system. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) offers a new and potentially useful adjunct to bone substitute materials in bone reconstructive surgery. This study was carried out to investigate the influ-ence of PRGF and fibrin membrane on regeneration of bony defects with and without deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) on rabbit calvaria. Materials and Methods: Twelve New Ze...

  12. Factors affecting dignity of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Simin; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas

    2016-12-01

    MS is one of the most common chronic diseases of the nervous system. Apart from disease progression, other complications such as unemployment, separation and divorce could potentially threat patients' dignity. Most of the previous studies have been done of maintaining patients' dignity in interaction with healthcare team, but studies on affecting factors of dignity in chronic patients in the society and in interaction with usual people are scarce. We aimed to investigate factors affecting dignity of Iranian patients with MS in daily living and in interaction of them with the society. In this qualitative study, 13 patients with multiple sclerosis were chosen by purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews were conducted until data saturation. The study was done in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Factors affecting dignity were classified as 'personal factors' and 'social factors'. Personal factors consist of the following subcategories: patients' communication with self, patients' knowledge, patients' values and beliefs and patients' resources. Social factors include others' communication with patients, social knowledge, social values and beliefs and social resources. Multiple personal and social factors interfere in perceived patient dignity. In fact, interaction between personal and social factors can be influential in final perceived dignity. By focusing on whole aspects of the patients' lives, we can identify dignity-promoting or dignity-threatening factors and help patients maintain their dignity by taking appropriate measures for moderating threatening factors and improving dignity enhancing ones. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor affects bone homeostasis by regulating osteoblast and osteoclast function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlan, Federico; Galbiati, Clara; Jørgensen, Niklas R

    2007-01-01

    of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and RANKL. Phalloidin staining in osteoclasts served to study actin ring and podosome formation. RESULTS: pQCT revealed increased bone mass in uPAR-null mice. Mechanical tests showed reduced load-sustaining capability in uPAR KO tibias. uPAR KO osteoblasts showed...... a proliferative advantage with no difference in apoptosis, higher matrix mineralization, and earlier appearance of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Surface RANKL expression at different stages of differentiation was not altered. AP-1 components, such as JunB and Fra-1, were upregulated in uPAR KO osteoblasts, along...

  14. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  15. Personality factors and adult attachment affecting job mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, A.E.M.; Feij, J.A.; Krausz, M.; Taris, R.

    2003-01-01

    Past research has revealed that individuals' job mobility is affected by factors such as job satisfaction, specific career enhancing attributes and job availability. This study examined personality factors predicting voluntary internal and external job mobility. Three types of voluntary job mobility

  16. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin. Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...

  17. Factors Affecting Utilization of Skilled Birth Attendants by Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This underscores the need to investigate factors responsible for low use of skilled attendants at birth. The main purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting utilization of skilled attendants at birth by pregnant women in Kasama district in order to help contribute to the reduction of maternal and child complications.

  18. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin . Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...

  19. Stability of double-row rotator cuff repair is not adversely affected by scaffold interposition between tendon and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitzel, Knut; Chowaniec, David M; McCarthy, Mary Beth; Cote, Mark P; Russell, Ryan P; Obopilwe, Elifho; Imhoff, Andreas B; Arciero, Robert A; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2012-05-01

    Rotator cuff reconstructions may be improved by adding growth factors, cells, or other biologic factors into the repair zone. This usually requires a biological carrier (scaffold) to be integrated into the construct and placed in the area of tendon-to-bone healing. This needs to be done without affecting the constructs mechanics. Hypothesis/ The hypothesis was that scaffold placement, as an interposition, has no adverse effects on biomechanical properties of double-row rotator cuff repair. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of scaffold interposition on the initial strength of rotator cuff repairs. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-five fresh-frozen shoulders (mean age: 65.5 ± 8.9 years) were randomly assigned to 5 groups. Groups were chosen to represent a broad spectrum of commonly used scaffold types: (1) double-row repair without augmentation, (2) double-row repair with interposition of a fibrin clot (Viscogel), (3) double-row repair with interposition of a collagen scaffold (Mucograft) between tendon and bone, (4) double-row repair with interposition of human dermis patch (ArthroFlex) between tendon and bone, and (5) double-row repair with human dermis patch (ArthroFlex) placed on top of the repair. Cyclic loading to measure displacement was performed to 3000 cycles at 1 Hz with an applied 10- to 100-N load. The ultimate load to failure was determined at a rate of 31 mm/min. There were no significant differences in mean displacement under cyclic loading, slope, or energy absorbed to failure between all groups (P = .128, P = .981, P = .105). Ultimate load to failure of repairs that used the collagen patch as an interposition (573.3 ± 75.6 N) and a dermis patch on top of the reconstruction (575.8 ± 22.6 N) was higher compared with the repair without a scaffold (348.9 ± 98.8 N; P = .018 and P = .025). No significant differences were found for repairs with the fibrin clot as an interposition (426.9 ± 103.6 N) and the decellularized dermis

  20. Influence of fall related factors and bone strength on fracture risk in the frail elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrook, P N; Cameron, I D; Chen, J S; Cumming, R G; Lord, S R; March, L M; Schwarz, J; Seibel, M J; Simpson, J M

    2007-05-01

    When subjects are selected on the basis of fall risk alone, therapies for osteoporosis have not been effective. In a prospective study of elderly subjects at high risk of falls, we investigated the influence of bone strength and fall risk on fracture. At baseline we assessed calcaneal bone ultrasound attenuation (BUA) as well as quantitative measures of fall risk in 2005 subjects in residential care. Incident falls and fractures were recorded (median follow-up 705 days). A total of 6646 fall events and 375 low trauma fracture events occurred. The fall rate was 214 per 100 person years and the fracture rate 12.1 per 100 person years. 82% of the fractures could be attributed to falls. Although fracture rates increased with decreasing BUA (incidence rate ratio 1.94 for lowest vs. highest BUA tertile, pfalls also affected fracture incidence. Subjects who fell frequently (>3.15 falls/per person year) were 3.35 times more likely to suffer a fracture than those who did not fall. Some fall risk factors such as balance were associated with the lowest fracture risk lowest in the worst performing group. Multivariate analysis revealed higher fall rate, history of previous fracture, lower BUA, lower body weight, cognitive impairment and better balance as significant independent risk factors for fracture. In the frail elderly, both skeletal fragility and fall risk including the frequency of exposure to falls are important determinants of fracture risk.

  1. Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

  2. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azimi, Farideh; Kamali, Mohammad Bagher

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural development in Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have a better insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as a learning forum for bringing about changes for all participants, they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciative inquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting the facilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors...

  3. Parameters affecting mechanical and thermal responses in bone drilling: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuEun; Chavez, Craig L; Park, Joorok

    2018-04-11

    Surgical bone drilling is performed variously to correct bone fractures, install prosthetics, or for therapeutic treatment. The primary concern in bone drilling is to extract donor bone sections and create receiving holes without damaging the bone tissue either mechanically or thermally. We review current results from experimental and theoretical studies to investigate the parameters related to such effects. This leads to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical and thermal aspects of bone drilling to reduce their unwanted complications. This review examines the important bone-drilling parameters of bone structure, drill-bit geometry, operating conditions, and material evacuation, and considers the current techniques used in bone drilling. We then analyze the associated mechanical and thermal effects and their contributions to bone-drilling performance. In this review, we identify a favorable range for each parameter to reduce unwanted complications due to mechanical or thermal effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-04-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia. Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  5. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  6. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Yan, Ng Sze; Zakuan, Norhayati; Bahari, Ahamad Zaidi; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  7. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured ques...

  8. Experimental variation of the level and the ratio of angiogenic and osteogenic signaling affects the spatiotemporal expression of bone-specific markers and organization of bone formation in ectopic sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Norman; Goldstein, Jan; Kauffmann, Phillip; Epple, Matthias; Schliephake, Henning

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the ratio of angiogenic and osteogenic signaling affects ectopic bone formation when delivered in different amounts. Porous composite PDLLA/CaCO 3 scaffolds were loaded with rhBMP2 and rhVEGF in different dosage combinations and implanted into the gluteal muscles of 120 adult male Wistar rats. Bone formation and expression of alkaline phosphatase and Runx2 were quantified by histomorphometry. Spatial distribution across the scaffolds was assessed by using a grid that discriminated between the periphery and center of the scaffolds. The evaluation showed that the combined delivery of bone morphogenetic protein BMP2 and VEGF in different dosage combinations did not enhance the overall quantity of ectopic bone formation compared to the delivery of BMP2 alone. The addition of VEGF generally upregulated Runx2 after 4 weeks, which may have retarded terminal osteogenic differentiation. However, slow combined delivery of 1.5-2.0 μg BMP2 combined with 50 ng VEGF165 over a period of 5 weeks supported a more even distribution of bone formation across the implanted scaffolds whereas higher amounts of VEGF did not elicit this effect. The findings suggest that structural organization rather than the quantity of ectopic bone formation is affected by the dosage and the ratio of BMP2 and VEGF levels at the observed intervals. The development of carriers for dual growth factor delivery has to take into account the necessity to carefully balance the ratio of growth release.

  9. Soluble factor(s) from bone marrow cells can rescue lethally irradiated mice by protecting endogenous hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Zhan, Yuxia; Burke, Kathleen A; Anderson, W French

    2005-04-01

    Ionizing radiation-induced myeloablation can be rescued via bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or administration of cytokines if given within 2 hours after radiation exposure. There is no evidence for the existence of soluble factors that can rescue an animal after a lethal dose of radiation when administered several hours postradiation. We established a system that could test the possibility for the existence of soluble factors that could be used more than 2 hours postirradiation to rescue animals. Animals with an implanted TheraCyte immunoisolation device (TID) received lethal-dose radiation and then normal bone marrow Lin- cells were loaded into the device (thereby preventing direct interaction between donor and recipient cells). Animal survival was evaluated and stem cell activity was tested with secondary bone marrow transplantation and flow cytometry analysis. Donor cell gene expression of five antiapoptotic cytokines was examined. Bone marrow Lin- cells rescued lethally irradiated animals via soluble factor(s). Bone marrow cells from the rescued animals can rescue and repopulate secondary lethally irradiated animals. Within the first 6 hours post-lethal-dose radiation, there is no significant change of gene expression of the known radioprotective factors TPO, SCF, IL-3, Flt-3 ligand, and SDF-1. Hematopoietic stem cells can be protected in lethally irradiated animals by soluble factors produced by bone marrow Lin- cells.

  10. Factors affecting the aluminium content of human femoral head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Dąbrowski, Mikołaj; Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Rogala, Piotr; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Tissues for the study were obtained intraoperatively during hip replacement procedures from 96 patients. In all the cases, the indication for this treatment was primary or secondary degenerative changes in the hip joint. The subject of the study was the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Aluminium concentrations measured in femoral head and neck samples from patients aged between 25 and 91 were varied. Statistical methods were applied to determine the variations in relation to the parameters from the background survey. Significant differences in the aluminium content of femoral head samples were observed between patients under and over 60 years of age. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the aluminium accumulates in bones over a lifetime. The study showed that the content of aluminium in the head and neck of the femur depends on the factors such as: type of medicines taken, contact with chemicals at work, differences in body anatomy and sex. The study on the levels of aluminium in bones and the factors affecting its concentration is a valuable source of information for further research on the role of aluminium in bone diseases. Based on the investigations, it was found that the GF-AAS technique is the best analytical tool for routine analysis of aluminium in complex matrix samples. The use of femoral heads in the investigations was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the University of Medical Sciences in Poznań (Poland). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors Affecting Green Residential Building Development: Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Green residential buildings (GRBs are one of the effective practices of energy saving and emission reduction in the construction industry. However, many real estate developers in China are less willing to develop GRBs, because of the factors affecting green residential building development (GRBD. In order to promote the sustainable development of GRBs in China, this paper, based on the perspective of real estate developers, identifies the influential and critical factors affecting GRBD, using the method of social network analysis (SNA. Firstly, 14 factors affecting GRBD are determined from 64 preliminary factors of three main elements, and the framework is established. Secondly, the relationships between the 14 factors are analyzed by SNA. Finally, four critical factors for GRBD, which are on the local economy development level, development strategy and innovation orientation, developer’s acknowledgement and positioning for GRBD, and experience and ability for GRBD, are identified by the social network centrality test. The findings illustrate the key issues that affect the development of GRBs, and provide references for policy making by the government and strategy formulation by real estate developers.

  12. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Scott, Tammy; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis. Conversely, many dietary components such as curcumin, resveratrol, blueberry polyphenols, sulforaphane, salvionic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and diets enriched with polyphenols and PUFAs, as well as caloric restriction, physical exercise, and learning, have been shown to induce neurogenesis in adult brains. Although many of the underlying mechanisms by which nutrients and dietary factors affect adult neurogenesis have yet to be determined, nutritional approaches provide promising prospects to stimulate adult neurogenesis and combat neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the role of nutritional factors in modifying adult neurogenesis and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Factors affecting strategic plan implementation using interpretive structural modeling (ISM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Tajik, Hamidreza; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba

    2018-06-11

    Purpose Strategic planning is the best tool for managers seeking an informed presence and participation in the market without surrendering to changes. Strategic planning enables managers to achieve their organizational goals and objectives. Hospital goals, such as improving service quality and increasing patient satisfaction cannot be achieved if agreed strategies are not implemented. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting strategic plan implementation in one teaching hospital using interpretive structural modeling (ISM). Design/methodology/approach The authors used a descriptive study involving experts and senior managers; 16 were selected as the study sample using a purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a questionnaire designed and prepared based on previous studies. Data were analyzed using ISM. Findings Five main factors affected strategic plan implementation. Although all five variables and factors are top level, "senior manager awareness and participation in the strategic planning process" and "creating and maintaining team participation in the strategic planning process" had maximum drive power. "Organizational structure effects on the strategic planning process" and "Organizational culture effects on the strategic planning process" had maximum dependence power. Practical implications Identifying factors affecting strategic plan implementation is a basis for healthcare quality improvement by analyzing the relationship among factors and overcoming the barriers. Originality/value The authors used ISM to analyze the relationship between factors affecting strategic plan implementation.

  14. Empirical Analysis on Factors Affecting User Behavior in Social Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiayi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] This paper aims to discover the factors affecting user behavior in the derivative situation of e-commerce, social commerce, and explore the sustainable development and related marketing advice of it. [Method/process]This paper put forward a theoretical model of factors affecting user behavior in social commerce by integrating emotional state impact into the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R framework. 277 valid samples were collected by questionnaires and PLS. [Result/conclusion]The results show that information quality and tie strength significantly affect user emotional states, while emotional states positively affect user behavior. In addition, graphic features of business information have indirect effects on user emotional states, while it has direct effect on purchase intention.

  15. Acceleration of bone union after structural bone grafts with a collagen-binding basic fibroblast growth factor anchored-collagen sheet for critical-size bone defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Masaki; Uchida, Kentaro; Saito, Wataru; Inoue, Gen; Takahira, Naonobu; Takaso, Masashi; Matsushita, Osamu; Yogoro, Mizuki; Nishi, Nozomu; Ogura, Takayuki; Hattori, Shunji; Tanaka, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    Bone allografts are commonly used for the repair of critical-size bone defects. However, the loss of cellular activity in processed grafts markedly reduces their healing potential compared with autografts. To overcome this obstacle, we developed a healing system for critical-size bone defects that consists of overlaying an implanted bone graft with a collagen sheet (CS) loaded with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) fused to the collagen-binding domain derived from a Clostridium histolyticum collagenase (CB-bFGF). In a murine femoral defect model, defect sites treated with CS/CB-bFGF had a significantly larger callus volume than those treated with CS/native bFGF. In addition, treatment with CS/CB-bFGF resulted in the rapid formation of a hard callus bridge and a larger total callus volume at the host–graft junction than treatment with CS/bFGF. Our results suggest that the combined use of CS and CB-bFGF helps accelerate the union of allogenic bone grafts. (paper)

  16. Factors Affecting Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf

    OpenAIRE

    Luc, J. E.; Crow, W. T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for eit...

  17. Various factors affecting /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy of liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoki, T; Morinari, H; Oono, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-10-01

    Various factors affecting /sup 67/Ga accumulation in liver cancer were studied in 38 patients with liver cancer (19 with hepatocellular carcinoma and 19 with metastatic liver cancer) who had received /sup 67/Ga-scintigraphy and liver scintigraphy. Besides histological types, the size, necrosis, vascularity and treatments of liver cancer, concentrations of transferrin (/sup 67/Ga binding protein) and iron in blood probably affected /sup 67/Ga accumulation in liver cancer.

  18. Adaptive growth factor delivery from a polyelectrolyte coating promotes synergistic bone tissue repair and reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nisarg J.; Hyder, Md. Nasim; Quadir, Mohiuddin A.; Dorval Courchesne, Noémie-Manuelle; Seeherman, Howard J.; Nevins, Myron; Spector, Myron; Hammond, Paula T.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic wounds and congenital defects that require large-scale bone tissue repair have few successful clinical therapies, particularly for craniomaxillofacial defects. Although bioactive materials have demonstrated alternative approaches to tissue repair, an optimized materials system for reproducible, safe, and targeted repair remains elusive. We hypothesized that controlled, rapid bone formation in large, critical-size defects could be induced by simultaneously delivering multiple biological growth factors to the site of the wound. Here, we report an approach for bone repair using a polyelectrolye multilayer coating carrying as little as 200 ng of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and platelet-derived growth factor-BB that were eluted over readily adapted time scales to induce rapid bone repair. Based on electrostatic interactions between the polymer multilayers and growth factors alone, we sustained mitogenic and osteogenic signals with these growth factors in an easily tunable and controlled manner to direct endogenous cell function. To prove the role of this adaptive release system, we applied the polyelectrolyte coating on a well-studied biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) support membrane. The released growth factors directed cellular processes to induce bone repair in a critical-size rat calvaria model. The released growth factors promoted local bone formation that bridged a critical-size defect in the calvaria as early as 2 wk after implantation. Mature, mechanically competent bone regenerated the native calvaria form. Such an approach could be clinically useful and has significant benefits as a synthetic, off-the-shelf, cell-free option for bone tissue repair and restoration. PMID:25136093

  19. Biomechanical, microvascular, and cellular factors promote muscle and bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Georg N; Taylor, William R; Winkler, Tobias; Matziolis, Georg; Heller, Markus O; Haas, Norbert P; Perka, Carsten; Schaser, Klaus-D

    2008-04-01

    It is becoming clear that the long-term outcome of complex bone injuries benefits from approaches that selectively target biomechanical, vascular, and cellular pathways. The typically held view of either biological or mechanical aspects of healing is oversimplified and does not correspond to clinical reality. The fundamental mechanisms of soft tissue regeneration most likely hold the key to understanding healing response.

  20. Clinical assessment of bone quality of human extraction sockets after conversion with growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntounis, Athanasios; Geurs, Nico; Vassilopoulos, Philip; Reddy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA), alone or in combination with growth factors in extraction sockets, on subjective assessment of bone quality during implant placement. Forty-one patients whose treatment plan involved extraction of anterior or premolar teeth were randomized into four groups: Group 1, collagen plug (control); Group 2, FDBA/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/collagen plug; Group 3, FDBA/β-TCP/platelet-rich plasma (PRP)/collagen plug; Group 4, FDBA/β-TCP/recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB)/collagen plug. After 8 weeks of healing, implants were placed. The clinicians assessed bone quality according to the Misch classification. A benchtop calibration exercise test was conducted to evaluate agreement and accuracy of operators in recognizing different bone qualities. Differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) or chi-square tests for continuous and categorical data. Pairwise comparisons were tested using least squares means (LS means). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relationship of bone growth with potential confounders. P .05). Inclusion of bone grafting is associated with a shift from D4 quality to D3 quality bone. Inclusion of PRP in bone grafting eliminates the incidence of D4 bone, establishing D3 and D2 quality bone as prevalent (56% vs. 42%, respectively). Inclusion of rhPDGF-BB and β-TCP in combination with the bone grafting has the same effect, although D2 quality is less prevalent. When compared to sockets grafted with FDBA/β-TCP/collagen plug alone, the sockets with growth factors demonstrated fewer residual bone graft particles. (1) Inclusion of bone grafting enhanced bone quality as assessed during implant placement. (2) Overall inclusion of PRP and rhPDGF-BB enhanced subjective bone quality, eliminating incidence of D4 quality in human extraction sockets. (3) The use of PRP or rhPDGF-BB may

  1. Investigating the factors affecting the investment decision in residential development.

    OpenAIRE

    Narang, Somil

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a rare insight into the motivation behind residential property investors when looking to purchase an apartment. The factors driving demand preferences for housing are constantly changing, difficult to measure, and often deemed to be a complex bundle of attributes. The project attempts to answer the following questions: What are the factors affecting the investment decision in a Residential Development? To identify the significance and weight of su...

  2. Factors Which Affect Academic Achievement of University Students

    OpenAIRE

    RENÇBER, Bahman Alp

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate by analysing factors affecting academic achievement of university students. Also effects of these factors are studied. For this purpose, the students attending “Statistics and Transport Technology” course at Gazi University, Industrial Arts Education and Arts Faculty, Industrial Technology Education Department, in the 2008-2009 academic year have been identified as the study universe. Analysis has been done by taking examples for this universe. The ...

  3. Deletion of Adseverin in Osteoclasts Affects Cell Structure But Not Bone Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yixuan; Wang, Yongqiang; Sprangers, Sara; Picavet, Daisy I; Glogauer, Michael; McCulloch, Christopher A; Everts, Vincent

    2017-08-01

    Adseverin is an actin-severing/capping protein that may contribute to osteoclast differentiation in vitro but its role in bone remodeling of healthy animals is not defined. We analyzed bone and osteoclast structure in adseverin conditional null mice at alveolar and long bone sites. In wild-type and adseverin null mice, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, there were no differences of bone mineral content or bone mineral density, indicating no change of bone metabolism. In tibiae, TRAcP + osteoclasts were formed in comparable numbers in adseverin null and wild-type mice. Ultrastructural analysis showed normal and similar abundance of ruffled borders, sealing zones, and mitochondria, and with no difference of osteoclast nuclear numbers. In contrast, analyses of long bone showed that in the absence of adseverin osteoclasts were smaller (120 ± 13 vs. 274 ± 19 µm 2 ; p structure but not to bone metabolism in vivo.

  4. Oral health- related quality of life in patients with rare inherited diseases affecting bone and teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Haubek, Dorte

    Background X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a rare hereditary disease characterized by insufficient bone mineralization. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is another rare inherited disease characterized by fragile bones because of defective collagen synthesis. Both diseases may have impact on teeth...

  5. In Vivo Assessment of Bone Regeneration in Alginate/Bone ECM Hydrogels with Incorporated Skeletal Stem Cells and Single Growth Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothard, David; Smith, Emma L.; Kanczler, Janos M.; Black, Cameron R.; Wells, Julia A.; Roberts, Carol A.; White, Lisa J.; Qutachi, Omar; Peto, Heather; Rashidi, Hassan; Rojo, Luis; Stevens, Molly M.; El Haj, Alicia J.; Rose, Felicity R. A. J.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Oreffo, Richard O. C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study has investigated the use of decellularised, demineralised bone extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogel constructs for in vivo tissue mineralisation and bone formation. Stro-1-enriched human bone marrow stromal cells were incorporated together with select growth factors including VEGF, TGF-β3, BMP-2, PTHrP and VitD3, to augment bone formation, and mixed with alginate for structural support. Growth factors were delivered through fast (non-osteogenic factors) and slow (osteogenic factors) release PLGA microparticles. Constructs of 5 mm length were implanted in vivo for 28 days within mice. Dense tissue assessed by micro-CT correlated with histologically assessed mineralised bone formation in all constructs. Exogenous growth factor addition did not enhance bone formation further compared to alginate/bone ECM (ALG/ECM) hydrogels alone. UV irradiation reduced bone formation through degradation of intrinsic growth factors within the bone ECM component and possibly also ECM cross-linking. BMP-2 and VitD3 rescued osteogenic induction. ALG/ECM hydrogels appeared highly osteoinductive and delivery of angiogenic or chondrogenic growth factors led to altered bone formation. All constructs demonstrated extensive host tissue invasion and vascularisation aiding integration and implant longevity. The proposed hydrogel system functioned without the need for growth factor incorporation or an exogenous inducible cell source. Optimal growth factor concentrations and spatiotemporal release profiles require further assessment, as the bone ECM component may suffer batch variability between donor materials. In summary, ALG/ECM hydrogels provide a versatile biomaterial scaffold for utilisation within regenerative medicine which may be tailored, ultimately, to form the tissue of choice through incorporation of select growth factors. PMID:26675008

  6. Deletion of Adseverin in Osteoclasts Affects Cell Structure But Not Bone Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Yixuan; Wang, Yongqiang; Sprangers, Sara; Picavet, Daisy I.; Glogauer, Michael; McCulloch, Christopher A.; Everts, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Adseverin is an actin-severing/capping protein that may contribute to osteoclast differentiation in vitro but its role in bone remodeling of healthy animals is not defined. We analyzed bone and osteoclast structure in adseverin conditional null mice at alveolar and long bone sites. In wild-type and

  7. Id1 represses osteoclast-dependent transcription and affects bone formation and hematopoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April S Chan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The bone-bone marrow interface is an area of the bone marrow microenvironment in which both bone remodeling cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and hematopoietic cells are anatomically juxtaposed. The close proximity of these cells naturally suggests that they interact with one another, but these interactions are just beginning to be characterized.An Id1(-/- mouse model was used to assess the role of Id1 in the bone marrow microenvironment. Micro-computed tomography and fracture tests showed that Id1(-/- mice have reduced bone mass and increased bone fragility, consistent with an osteoporotic phenotype. Osteoclastogenesis and pit formation assays revealed that loss of Id1 increased osteoclast differentiation and resorption activity, both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a cell autonomous role for Id1 as a negative regulator of osteoclast differentiation. Examination by flow cytometry of the hematopoietic compartment of Id1(-/- mice showed an increase in myeloid differentiation. Additionally, we found increased expression of osteoclast genes, TRAP, Oscar, and CTSK in the Id1(-/- bone marrow microenvironment. Lastly, transplantation of wild-type bone marrow into Id1(-/- mice repressed TRAP, Oscar, and CTSK expression and activity and rescued the hematopoietic and bone phenotype in these mice.In conclusion, we demonstrate an osteoporotic phenotype in Id1(-/- mice and a mechanism for Id1 transcriptional control of osteoclast-associated genes. Our results identify Id1 as a principal player responsible for the dynamic cross-talk between bone and bone marrow hematopoietic cells.

  8. Formal Classroom Observations: Factors That Affect Their Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zeba

    2017-01-01

    Formal class room observation is a very delicate topic in any educational institution. It involves a series of emotions and sentiments that come with the package. In this paper, the researcher will attempt to analyze the factors that affect the process in a relatively significant manner and thereby contribute greatly to the success or failure of…

  9. Factors Affecting School Choice: What Do Malaysian Chinese Parents Want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Poh Chua; Christina Ong, Sook Beng; Tan, Swee Mee; Sim, Chzia Poaw; Xian Thoo, Raphael Yi

    2018-01-01

    Aiming to explore factors affecting Malaysian Chinese parents in sending their children to either national secondary schools or Chinese independent schools, 494 parents were surveyed using a questionnaire. Results showed that parents who sent their children to Chinese independent schools have different priorities compared to those who sent theirs…

  10. Factors Affecting Oil Palm Production in Ondo State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discovery of crude oil and the civil war adversely affected oil palm production in Nigeria. This has resulted in scarcity and high cost of palm products and palm oil. The study therefore investigated the factors influencing oil palm production in Ondo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty respondents were selected from ...

  11. Factors Affecting the Formation of Food Preferences in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alles-White, Monica L.; Welch, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    Identifies and discusses factors that affect the development of food preferences in preschool children, including familiarity, age, parents, peers, teachers, and programs designed to influence food habits. Makes recommendations to preschool and day care programs for creating an atmosphere conducive to trying new foods. (Author/DST)

  12. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  13. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plas...

  14. Factors affecting sustainable animal trypanosomosis control in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors affecting sustainable trypanosomiasis control in parts of Kaduna State within the sub-humid savannah ecological zone of Nigeria. Focus group discussions were ... More awareness and preference for pour-on and aerial spraying were higher than the use of traps, target or screens. Rearing of ...

  15. Factors affecting disclosure of serostatus to children attending Jinja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting disclosure of serostatus to children attending Jinja Hospital ... twenty children and all (ten) health workers at Jinja Hospital paediatric HIV clinic. ... and child attending psychosocial support group (OR 7.4 CI 3.6-15.3 p < 0.001).

  16. Factors Affecting Online Groupwork Interest: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the personal and contextual factors that may affect students' online groupwork interest. Using the data obtained from graduate students in an online course, both student- and group-level predictors for online groupwork interest were analyzed within the framework of hierarchical linear modeling…

  17. Factors Affecting the Effectiveness and Use of Moodle: Students' Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damnjanovic, Vesna; Jednak, Sandra; Mijatovic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the factors affecting the effectiveness of Moodle from the students' perspective. The research hypotheses derived from the suggested extended Seddon model have been empirically validated using the responses to a survey on e-learning usage among 255 users. We tested the model across higher education…

  18. Identifying factors affecting about outsourcing in paraclinical services

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Outsourcing refers to the transfer of services or functions to an outsider supplier, which controls them through a contract or cooperative. The main problem of senior managers in health organizations is determining the services which should be outsourced. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect ...

  19. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…

  20. Factors Affecting Loan Utilization And Repayment Patterns By Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified factors affecting loan utilization and repayment patterns by small holder farmers of the Nigerian Agricultural Co-operative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) Osogbo branch in Osun State. Two Local Government Areas with large number of loan beneficiaries from 2003 to 2008 in NACRDB were ...

  1. Unemployment in Kenya: Some economic factors affecting wage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the economic factors affecting wage employment in Kenya, where open unemployment fell from 15 per cent in 1998/1999 to 13 per cent in 2005/2006. As of 2005/2006, wage employment constituted 13 per cent of the total working population, which implies that doubling wage employment will absorb ...

  2. Examining the factors affecting willingness to use electronic banking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining the factors affecting willingness to use electronic banking: the ... which information technologies are accepted are of the research studies. ... Customers' understanding of the ease of use of e-banking systems has a significant impact on perceived usefulness and their attitude had. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Factors affecting mortality and epidemiological data in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Burns continue to be responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In this study we aimed to determine the factors affecting mortality and epidemiological data by examining the records of burned patients. Method. The hospital records of 980 patients who were hospitalised in the ...

  4. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  5. Factors Affecting Quality of Audit; Empirical Evidence from Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines factors affecting quality of audit using empirical evidence from Iran Quality of audit was seen as the degree to which an audit report is free from deficiencies and distortions which show up later on. The quality of an audit was measured in terms of an auditor's ability to report financial distortions willingly ...

  6. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Improved Rice Varieties in Borno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The study investigated the factors that affect adoption of improved rice varieties in the ... give a good results and also a threat to food security. Keywords: ..... decision of the farmers, however, inappropriate chain of supply/distributing the input or ...

  7. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller therapy in chest clinics in a sub-Saharan African setting: a cross-sectional study. ... Background: Adherence to controller therapy in asthma is a major concern during the management of the disease. Objective: To determine the adherence rate and identify the ...

  8. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  9. Factors Affecting Utilization of Cooking Banana among Households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated factors affecting utilization of cooking banana among households in Oguta area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 84 randomly selected respondents from six communities in the study area who were administered with structured questionnaire. Data analysis was by use of descriptive ...

  10. Factors affecting farmers' participation in irrigation schemes of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... those factors affecting farmers' participation in irrigated agriculture at the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority (LNRBDA) in Kwara State, Nigeria. One hundred and sixty (160) respondents were selected from communities around LNRBDA site at Oke Oyi for this study through a two-stage sampling procedures.

  11. Factors Affecting Academic Achievement of Students in Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors affecting academic achievement ofstudents in Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) in ChristianReligious Knowledge. A total of three hundred students in SS III from five secondary schools were randomly selected and used as sample for the study. Five hypotheses were tested, ...

  12. Teachers' Perception of the Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    perception of salary as a factor affecting job satisfaction. Also, there .... Thus workers now have higher purchasing power, are given opportunity to use their .... Z-Cal. Z-Crit Significant. Level decision. Female. 70 12.73 3.23. Teachers. 0.32. 1.96.

  13. Factors affecting sports participation among female students at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this study was to examine factors affecting sport participation among resident and non- resident female students at Tshwane University of Technology (TUT), Pretoria, South Africa. The study targeted all students participating in 12 registered sports but due to the fact that only a limited number of the total ...

  14. Scrutinizing the Factors Affecting Fluency of English among Arab Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghazali, Fawzi

    2017-01-01

    This research study investigates the cognitive, psychological and personal factors affecting the accuracy and fluency of English language usage among Arab learners. Early research led by Chomsky (1965) and Krashen (1981) suggested that an individual's Language Acquisition Device once triggered at the appropriate time and supported with adequate…

  15. factors affecting particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we report a range of factors which affect the retention of colloidal particles in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These results are observed among different sizes of polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in both aqueous and nonaqueous liquid carriers and very low density lipoproteins in a phosphate ...

  16. Motivation and Factors Affecting It among Health Professionals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Motivation is an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. This study assessed motivational status and factors affecting it among health professionals in public hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region. METHOD: Facility based cross-sectional survey ...

  17. Factors affecting guidance and counseling programme in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to establish the factors that affect guidance and counseling in primary schools. Guidance and counseling seems not to be adequately helping pupils with physical and psychological problems in Nairobi province of Kenya. Many primary schools are faced with indiscipline and poor performance ...

  18. Factors affecting mortality of critical care trauma patients | Hefny ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common mechanism of injury was road traffic collisions (72.3 %). The overall mortality was 13.9%. A direct logistic regression model has shown that factors that affected mortality were decreased GCS (p < 0.0001), mechanism of injury (p = 0.004) with burns having the highest mortality, increased age (p = 0.004), ...

  19. Factors Affecting Performance of Undergraduate Students in Construction Related Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…

  20. Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  1. Factors affecting the utilisation of electronic medical records system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi Medical Journal 29 (3): September 2017. Electronic medical ... care, as they enable storage of large amounts of data and ... EMRs. This study assessed factors that affect the use of EMRs in Malawi, particularly at Queen Elizabeth and Kamuzu Central ..... paperless hospitals in Norway : A socio-technical perspective.

  2. Factors Affecting Conservation Practice Behavior of CRP Participants in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwudili Onianwa; Gerald Wheelock; Shannon Hendrix

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the factors that affect conservation practice choices of CRP farmers in Alabama. From over 9,000 contracts enrolled in the state between 1986 and 1995, 594 were randomly selected for the study. A multiple-regression analysis was employed to analyze the data. Results indicate that education, ratio ofcropland in CRP, farm size, gender, prior crop...

  3. Factors affecting sustainability of land reform projects in Ehlanzeni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated factors affecting sustainability of land reform projects in Mpumalanga Province in Bushbuckridge Local Municipality (BLM) of Ehlanzeni District. The study was conducted between July and September 2014. A random sampling technique was used in selecting 31 key informants from the projects.

  4. Factors affecting in sacco dietary degradation by Ankole cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting in sacco dietary degradation by Ankole cattle grazing natural range pastures in Uganda. ... Keywords: Ankole cattle, dietary selection, dry matter disappearance, free water intake, in sacco degradation, lignification, live weight change, predictive model, water solubility. African Journal of Range & Forage ...

  5. Factors affecting quality of life in cancer patients undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting quality of life in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. ... Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QoL in cancer patients with solid tumors and at the different chemotherapy cycles (CT). ... Results: A significant relationship between the cancer type, pain intensity, and fatigue was found.

  6. Factors affecting compliance to treatment among children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND:This study aimed to determine the factors affecting compliance to treatment among children with epilepsy in Enugu,Nigeria. METHODS: Children with diagnosis of epilepsy were consecutively recruited.Their 6 months retrospective and 1 month prospective data were collected;and analyzed using SPSS ...

  7. Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

  8. Factors Affecting Time, Cost and Quality Management in Building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is an assessment of time, cost and quality management in the Nigerian construction industry, and it aims to explore time cost and quality management in the construction industry. The objective of the study is to identify factors affecting time; cost and quality management in building construction projects. This study ...

  9. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  10. Dietary phosphorus excess: a risk factor in chronic bone, kidney, and cardiovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribarri, Jaime; Calvo, Mona S

    2013-09-01

    There is growing evidence in the nephrology literature supporting the deleterious health effect of excess dietary phosphorus intake. This issue has largely escaped the attention of nutrition experts until this symposium, which raised the question of whether the same health concerns should be extended to the general population. The potential hazard of a high phosphorus intake in the healthy population is illustrated by findings from acute and epidemiologic studies. Acute studies in healthy young adults demonstrate that phosphorus intakes in excess of nutrient needs may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphorus contributing to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, bone loss, and impaired kidney function. One of the hormonal factors acutely affected by dietary phosphorus loading is fibroblast growth factor-23, which may be a key factor responsible for many of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications of high phosphorus intake. Increasingly, large epidemiological studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphorus within the normal range are associated with CVD risk in healthy populations. Few population studies link high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphorus due to study design issues specific to phosphorus and inaccurate nutrient composition databases. The increasing phosphorus intake due to the use of phosphorus-containing ingredients in processed food and the growing consumption of processed convenience and fast foods is an important factor that needs to be emphasized.

  11. Relevant Affect Factors of Smartphone Mobile Data Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Husnjak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are used to access a wide range of different information and communication services and perform functions based on data transfer. A number of subscription contracts for smartphones is rapidly increasing, and the development of mobile communications network provides higher speed of data transfer. The continuous increase in the average amount of data traffic per one subscriber contract leads to an increase in the total Mobile Data Traffic (MDT, globally. This research represents a summary of factors that affect the amount of smartphone MDT. Previous literature shows only a few of the factors individually that affect the realization of smartphone MDT. The results of the research clarify the ways which influence the amount of MDT generated by a smartphone. This paper increases the awareness of the users of the methods of generating smartphone MDT. The research also allows users to specify parameters that affect the prediction of generated MDT of a smartphone.

  12. Factors Affecting the Pharmacology of Antibody–Drug Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Lucas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in therapeutic proteins, including antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs, have created revolutionary drug delivery systems in cancer over the past decade. While these immunoconjugate agents provide several advantages compared to their small-molecule counterparts, their clinical use is still in its infancy. The considerations in their development and clinical use are complex, and consist of multiple components and variables that can affect the pharmacologic characteristics. It is critical to understand the mechanisms employed by ADCs in navigating biological barriers and how these factors affect their biodistribution, delivery to tumors, efficacy, and toxicity. Thus, future studies are warranted to better understand the complex pharmacology and interaction between ADC carriers and biological systems, such as the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS and tumor microenvironment. This review provides an overview of factors that affect the pharmacologic profiles of ADC therapies that are currently in clinical use and development.

  13. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W. [Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Dept 7610, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58103-6050 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  14. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W.

    2010-01-01

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market.

  15. [The role of Smads and related transcription factors in the signal transduction of bone morphogenetic protein inducing bone formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-liang; Dai, Ke-rong; Tang, Ting-ting

    2003-09-01

    To clarify the mechanisms of the signal transduction of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) inducing bone formation and to provide theoretical basis for basic and applying research of BMPs. We looked up the literature of the role of Smads and related transcription factors in the signal transduction of BMPs inducing bone formation. The signal transduction processes of BMPs included: 1. BMPs combined with type II and type I receptors; 2. the type I receptor phosphorylated Smads; and 3. Smads entered the cell nucleus, interacted with transcription factors and influenced the transcription of related proteins. Smads could be divided into receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads: Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad5, Smad8 and Smad9), common-mediator Smad (co-Smad: Smad4), and inhibitory Smads (I-Smads: Smad6 and Smad7). Smad1, Smad5, Smad8, and probable Smad9 were involved in the signal transduction of BMPs. Multiple kinases, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt serine/threonine kinase were related to Smads signal transduction. Smad1 and Smad5 related with transcription factors included core binding factor A1 (CBFA1), smad-interacting protein 1 (SIP1), ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (OAZ), activating protein-1 (AP-1), xenopus ventralizing homeobox protein-2 (Xvent-2), sandostatin (Ski), antiproliferative proteins (Tob), and homeodomain-containing transcriptian factor-8 (Hoxc-8), et al. CBFA1 could interact with Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, and Smad5, so it was involved in TGF-beta and BMP-2 signal transduction, and played an important role in the bone formation. Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) was thought to be caused by heterozygous mutations in CBFA1. The CBFA1 knockout mice showed no osteogenesis and had maturational disturbance of chondrocytes. Smads and related transcription factors, especially Smad1, Smad5, Smad8 and CBFA1, play an important role in the signal transduction of BMPs inducing bone

  16. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  17. Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, M.; Hassan, S.; Naseer, M.Z.; Baig, I.A.; Asma, J.

    2008-01-01

    The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)

  18. Enhancing proliferation and optimizing the culture condition for human bone marrow stromal cells using hypoxia and fibroblast growth factor-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Seok Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the cellular characteristics and behaviors of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs expanded in media in a hypoxic or normoxic condition and with or without fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 treatment. hBMSCs isolated from the vertebral body and expanded in these four groups were evaluated for cellular proliferation/migration, colony-forming units, cell-surface characterization, in vitro differentiation, in vivo transplantation, and gene expression. Culturing hBMSCs using a particular environmental factor (hypoxia and with the addition of FGF-2 increased the cellular proliferation rate while enhancing the regenerative potential, modulated the multipotency-related processes (enhanced chondrogenesis-related processes/osteogenesis, but reduced adipogenesis, and increased cellular migration and collagen formation. The gene expression levels in the experimental samples showed activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 pathway and glycolysis in the hypoxic condition, with this not being affected by the addition of FGF-2. The concurrent application of hypoxia and FGF-2 could provide a favorable condition for culturing hBMSCs to be used in clinical applications associated with bone tissue engineering, due to the enhancement of cellular proliferation and regenerative potential. Keywords: Bone marrow stromal cells, Hypoxia, Fibroblast growth factor, Tissue regeneration, Microenvironment interactions

  19. Exploring paraprofessional and classroom factors affecting teacher supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Dwight W; Ingram, Paul; Huffman, Jonathan; Mason, Rose; Wills, Howard

    2018-02-01

    Paraprofessionals serve a primary role in supporting students with disabilities in the classroom, which necessitates teachers' supervision as a means to improve their practice. Yet, little is known regarding what factors affect teacher supervision. We sought to identify how paraprofessional competence and classroom type affected the levels of teacher direction. We administered an adapted version of the Paraprofessional Needs, Knowledge & Tasks Survey and the Survey for Teachers Supervising Paraprofessionals to teachers supervising paraprofessionals in elementary schools. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the link between paraprofessional competence and classroom factors affecting the level of teacher supervision. Our results indicated that when teachers perceived paraprofessionals as being more skilled, they provided more supervision, and when more supervision was provided the less they thought paraprofessionals should be doing their assigned tasks. Additionally, paraprofessionals working in classrooms with more students with mild disabilities received less supervision than paraprofessionals working in classrooms with more students with moderate-to-severe disabilities. Those paraprofessionals in classrooms serving mostly children with mild disabilities were also perceived as having lower levels of skill competence than those serving in classrooms with students with more moderate-to-severe disabilities. By understanding the factors that affect teacher supervision, policy and professional development opportunities can be refined/developed to better support both supervising teachers and paraprofessionals and, in turn, improve the outcomes of children with disabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influential Factors Affecting Materials Management in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusoh Zairra Mat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects are more often than not plagued by poor performances such as delays, cost overrun, low productivity, construction wastes and compromised quality. Amongst the critical contributory factors of poor project performances, is the ineffectiveness of materials management occurring in the construction sites. Indeed, materials management is a very important component for construction projects. However, there are only limited numbers of research available regarding this topic. Thus, this research focuses its study on materials management, specifically in identifying the influential factors that affect materials management in the construction project activities. Literatures from books, journal articles and conference papers related to poor project performances and materials management have been reviewed. Consequently, this study sorted the salient influential factors and categorized them based on their specific group. Out of 47 factors identified, they are classified into 8 groups. They are (1 site condition; (2 planning and handling on site; (3 management; (4 materials; (5 supplier and manufacturer default; (6 transportation; (7 contractual; and (8 governmental interferences. In conclusion, this study contends that by identifying the influential factors affecting materials management, it will help construction players to avoid the occurrence of those factors and will minimize the negative impacts on the overall performance of construction projects. Hence, the handling-over of project will be according to schedule and not delayed by materials mismanagement.

  1. A review of affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Gardeshi, Zeinab Hamzeh; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Salehi, Fariba

    2014-12-01

    Sex is a complex, important and sensitive issue in human being and interwoven with the whole of human existence. Given the serious changes in attitude, function and behavior in sex, the need to address sexual function, especially sexual satisfaction, is felt completely. Sexual satisfaction has a very important role in creating marital satisfaction and any defect in sexual satisfaction is significantly associated with risky sexual behaviors, serious mental illness, social crimes and ultimately divorce. The aim of this study was to explore affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women based on an overview in scientific database. In this narrative review the researchers searched MEDLINE database, Google Scholar and Science Direct as well as Persian database like Scientific Information Database with search terms of sexual satisfaction and sexual function, restricted to English/ Persian language, during the 20 years ago. Then those articles written by renowned experts were selected. In this regard, 57 articles have been reviewed, which 30 articles related to this research have been extracted. The findings were divided in to four categories including: Demographic factors, Pathophysiological factors, Psychological factors and Sociocultural factors. Sexuality, especially sexual intimacy is sophisticated and yet elegant affair that the other persons has different definitions and different functions. Discrepancies in the results of the studies show that analysis of factors affecting sexual satisfaction regardless of the women's' sociocultural context, religious beliefs, and personal attitudes is undoubtedly inefficient, unscientific and irrational.

  2. Factors Affecting Adoption of Recommended Cauliflower Production Technology in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Raj Dhital

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Binary logit regression model of econometrics was used to identify the factors affecting adoption of recommended agricultural technology by the commercial farmers of Nepal. A survey was carried out in 2012 in 120 households from Kavre district, Nepal. The objective was to appraise factors affecting adoption of recommended technology of cauliflower, finding out the level of adoption, identifying the constraints of cauliflower cultivation, assessing the perceived level of satisfaction and studying the relationship of certain selected variables on the adoption. Education, Occupation, contact with Personal Localite sources of information, Group membership and Experience were the most influencing factors for adoption of recommended technology. Though, other factors were not strong enough to contribute significantly but indirectly influence the adoption decision of farmers as combined effects. Occupation was found as negatively associated. Landholding size was strongly and positively influencing among the non significant factors. The level of satisfaction and the constraints of cauliflower production were also identified. Transfer of technology will be effective if and only if the client adopts the technology. For an effective transfer of technology, it is better to go for activities for the welfare of the socioeconomic factors of the farmers.

  3. Bone turnover markers during pubertal development: relationships with growth factors and adipocytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2010-01-01

    The rapid increase in skeletal mass that occurs during puberty is caused by increases in longitudinal growth as well as cortical thickness. The measurement of growth changes during puberty using two-dimensional (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and/or three-dimensional (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) measurement devices provides only a static representation of bone tissue parameters. The measurement of bone turnover markers provides a more dynamic picture of the nature of bone tissue that can be repeated at much shorter intervals during puberty. The bone turnover markers are products of osteoblasts and osteoclasts which can be measured in urine or blood. The increase in different markers of bone turnover coincides with the pubertal growth spurt and thereafter markers decline until they converge into adult values. The initiation of puberty is accompanied by increases in androgens and estrogens. The effects of sex hormones on bone mineral accrual are mediated mainly by growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1, but they also exert a direct effect on bone metabolism. Important determinants of bone mineral accrual during puberty include optimal nutritional status, body composition parameters and physical activity pattern. All of these determinants are related to the state of energy balance, while peripheral indicators of energy balance, such as different growth factors and adipocytokines, may also have a positive influence of the growing skeleton. Taken together, bone mineral accrual during puberty is a complex interaction between physical activity pattern, various body composition parameters, specific growth factors and adipocytokines, and also sex hormones. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  5. Factors affecting the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Holland

    Full Text Available Abstract Tissue repair is an essential process that reestablishes tissue integrity and regular function. Nevertheless, different therapeutic factors and clinical conditions may interfere in this process of periapical healing. This review aims to discuss the important therapeutic factors associated with the clinical protocol used during root canal treatment and to highlight the systemic conditions associated with the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth. The antibacterial strategies indicated in the conventional treatment of an inflamed and infected pulp and the modulation of the host's immune response may assist in tissue repair, if wound healing has been hindered by infection. Systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, can also inhibit wound healing. The success of root canal treatment is affected by the correct choice of clinical protocol. These factors are dependent on the sanitization process (instrumentation, irrigant solution, irrigating strategies, and intracanal dressing, the apical limit of the root canal preparation and obturation, and the quality of the sealer. The challenges affecting the healing process of endodontically treated teeth include control of the inflammation of pulp or infectious processes and simultaneous neutralization of unpredictable provocations to the periapical tissue. Along with these factors, one must understand the local and general clinical conditions (systemic health of the patient that affect the outcome of root canal treatment prediction.

  6. Nurse aide decision making in nursing homes: factors affecting empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Tanni; Yeatts, Dale E; Cready, Cynthia M

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate factors affecting structural empowerment among nurse aides in nursing homes. Structural empowerment can be defined as the actual rather than perceived ability to make autonomous decisions within an organisation. Given the paucity of research on the subject, this study helps to close the gap by identifying factors that affect nurse aide empowerment, that is, decision-making among nurse aides. The data for the study come from self-administered questionnaires distributed to direct-care workers (nurse aides) in 11 nursing homes in a southern state in the USA. Ordinary least square regression models were estimated to analyse the effects of demographic predictors, personal factors (competency, emotional exhaustion and positive attitude) and structural characteristics (coworker and supervisor support, information availability and shared governance) on nurse aide decision-making. Findings suggest race among demographic predictors, emotional exhaustion among personal characteristics, and supervisor support, and shared governance among structural factors, significantly affect nurse aide decision-making. It is important to explore race as one of the central determinants of structural empowerment among nurse aides. In addition, the nature and type of emotional exhaustion that propels decision-making needs to be further examined. The study shows the importance of shared governance and supervisor support for fostering nurse aide empowerment. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Factors Affecting Successful Implementation of Hospital Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzandipur, Mehrdad; Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Azimi, Esmaeil

    2016-02-01

    Today, the use of information systems in health environments, like any other fields, is necessary and organizational managers are convinced to use these systems. However, managers' satisfaction is not the only factor in successfully implementing these systems and failed information technology projects (IT) are reported despite the consent of the directors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the factors affecting the successful implementation of a hospital information system. The study was carried out as a descriptive method in 20 clinical hospitals that the hospital information system (HIS) was conducted in them. The clinical and paraclinical users of mentioned hospitals are the study group. 400 people were chosen as samples in scientific method and the data was collected using a questionnaire consisted of three main human, managerial and organizational, and technological factors, by questionnaire and interview. Then the data was scored in Likert scale (score of 1 to 5) and were analyzed using the SPSS software. About 75 percent of the population were female, with average work experience of 10 years and the mean age was 30 years. The human factors affecting the success of hospital information system implementation achieved the mean score of 3.5, both organizational and managerial factors 2.9 and technological factors the mean of 3. Human factors including computer skills, perceiving usefulness and perceiving the ease of a hospital information system use are more effective on the acceptance and successful implementation of hospital information systems; then the technological factors play a greater role. It is recommended that for the successful implementation of hospital information systems, most of these factors to be considered.

  8. Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Quran Firas A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

  9. Spinal bone metastases in gynecologic malignancies: a retrospective analysis of stability, prognostic factors and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Robert; Habermehl, Daniel; Bruckner, Thomas; Bostel, Tilman; Schlampp, Ingmar; Welzel, Thomas; Debus, Juergen; Rief, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the stability of spinal metastases in gynecologic cancer patients (pts) on the basis of a validated scoring system after radiotherapy (RT), to define prognostic factors for stability and to calculate survival. Fourty-four women with gynecologic malignancies and spinal bone metastases were treated at our department between January 2000 and January 2012. Out of those 34 were assessed regarding stability using the Taneichi score before, 3 and 6 months after RT. Additionally prognostic factors for stability, overall survival, and bone survival (time between first day of RT of bone metastases and death from any cause) were calculated. Before RT 47% of pts were unstable and 6 months after RT 85% of pts were stable. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) >70% (p = 0.037) and no chemotherapy (ChT) (p = 0.046) prior to RT were significantly predictive for response. 5-year overall survival was 69% and 1-year bone survival was 73%. RT is capable of improving stability of osteolytic spinal metastases from gynecologic cancer by facilitating re-ossification in survivors. KPS may be a predictor for response. Pts who received ChT prior to RT may require additional bone supportive treatment to overcome bone remodeling imbalance. Survival in women with bone metastases from gynecologic cancer remains poor

  10. Factors affecting smartphone adoption for accessing information in medical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahamtan, Iman; Pajouhanfar, Sara; Sedghi, Shahram; Azad, Mohsen; Roudbari, Masoud

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to acquire knowledge about the factors affecting smartphone adoption for accessing information in medical settings in Iranian Hospitals. A qualitative and quantitative approach was used to conduct this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 medical residents and interns in 2013 to identify determinant factors for smartphone adoption. Afterwards, nine relationships were hypothesised. We developed a questionnaire to test these hypotheses and to evaluate the importance of each factor. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the causal relations between model parameters and to accurately identify determinant factors. Eight factors were identified in the qualitative phase of the study, including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, training, internal environment, personal experience, social impacts, observability and job related characteristics. Among the studied factors, perceived usefulness, personal experience and job related characteristics were significantly associated with attitude to use a smartphone which accounted for 64% of the variance in attitude. Perceived usefulness had the strongest impact on attitude to use a smartphone. The factors that emerged from interviews were consistent with the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and some previous studies. TAM is a reliable model for understanding the factors of smartphone acceptance in medical settings. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  11. Factors Affecting Sarcopenia in Korean Adults by Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eun-Jung; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors affecting sarcopenia in different age groups among Korean adults aged 20 years or older. In this secondary analysis, data were collected from records for 17,968, participants who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008-2011. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the associated factors of sarcopenia by age groups. The prevalence of sarcopenia increased significantly with age. Physical activity, blood pressure, waist circumference, triglycerides, vitamin D level were found to be factors significantly associated with sarcopenia in all age groups. Total energy intake was found to be a factor that is significantly associated with sarcopenia among the adults aged 20-39 years. Fasting glucose, suicidal ideation, perceived health status, mobility problem, pain/discomfort, total energy intake were found to be factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults aged 40-64 years. Sex, residential area, smoking, drinking, fasting glucose, osteoarthritis, fall experience, usual activity problem, protein intake were factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults over 65 years of age. The findings show that sarcopenia in adults and the associated factors were different by age groups. Thus, these factors should be considered in the development of intervention programs for the care and prevention of sarcopenia, and such programs should be modified according to different age groups.

  12. Factors Affecting Surgical Decision-making—A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gunaratnam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Guidelines and Class 1 evidence are strong factors that help guide surgeons’ decision-making, but dilemmas exist in selecting the best surgical option, usually without the benefit of guidelines or Class 1 evidence. A few studies have discussed the variability of surgical treatment options that are currently available, but no study has examined surgeons’ views on the influential factors that encourage them to choose one surgical treatment over another. This study examines the influential factors and the thought process that encourage surgeons to make these decisions in such circumstances. Methods Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 32 senior consultant surgeons, surgical fellows, and senior surgical residents at the University of Toronto teaching hospitals. An e-mail was sent out for volunteers, and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis using open and axial coding. Results Broadly speaking there are five groups of factors affecting surgeons’ decision-making: medical condition, information, institutional, patient, and surgeon factors. When information factors such as guidelines and Class 1 evidence are lacking, the other four groups of factors—medical condition, institutional, patient, and surgeon factors (the last-mentioned likely being the most powerful—play a significant role in guiding surgical decision-making. Conclusions This study is the first qualitative study on surgeons’ perspectives on the influential factors that help them choose one surgical treatment option over another for their patients.

  13. Factors affecting functional prognosis of patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M T

    2011-01-01

    to just one or two single factors. The current article reviews important factors affecting the functional prognosis, and clinicians are encouraged to include all factors potentially influencing the outcome of patients with hip fracture in their individualised treatment and rehabilitation plan. Especially......Having a hip fracture is considered one of the most fatal fractures for elderly people, resulting in impaired function, and increased morbidity and mortality. This challenges clinicians in identifying patients at risk of worse outcome, in order to optimise and intensify treatment in these patients....... A variety of factors such as age, prefracture function and health status, fracture type, pain, anaemia, muscle strength, and the early mobility level have been shown to influence patient outcome. Thus, the outcome of patients with hip fracture is considered multi-factorial, and can therefore not be related...

  14. When size matters: differences in demineralized bone matrix particles affect collagen structure, mesenchymal stem cell behavior, and osteogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozza, B; Lesci, I G; Duchi, S; Della Bella, E; Martini, L; Salamanna, F; Falconi, M; Cinotti, S; Fini, M; Lucarelli, E; Donati, D

    2017-04-01

    Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a natural, collagen-based, osteoinductive biomaterial. Nevertheless, there are conflicting reports on the efficacy of this product. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether DBM collagen structure is affected by particle size and can influence DBM cytocompatibility and osteoinductivity. Sheep cortical bone was ground and particles were divided in three fractions with different sizes, defined as large (L, 1-2 mm), medium (M, 0.5-1 mm), and small (S, structure, with DBM-M being altered but not as much as DBM-S. DBM-M displayed a preferable trend in almost all biological characteristics tested, although all DBM particles revealed an optimal cytocompatibility. Subcutaneous implantation of DBM particles into immunocompromised mice resulted in bone induction only for DBM-M. When sheep MSC were seeded onto particles before implantation, all DBM particles were able to induce new bone formation with the best incidence for DBM-M and DBM-S. In conclusion, the collagen alteration in DBM-M is likely the best condition to promote bone induction in vivo. Furthermore, the choice of 0.5-1 mm particles may enable to obtain more efficient and consistent results among different research groups in bone tissue-engineering applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1019-1033, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Factors Affecting Customer Retention in the Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghda Climis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study empirically investigated the factors that affect customer retention in the airline industry in North Cyprus. These factors were service quality attributes, perceived safety, customer satisfaction, loyalty reward program, relationship commitment and customer loyalty. The study also investigated four different groups for purposes of travel (business, education, vacation and family visit in the empirical model. Methodology: A descriptive approach was chosen to conduct this research. A quanhip between customer retention and the related study factors; however, not all of these relations are signifcant. The results also showed that the different purposes of travel had different influences on the variables regarding the positive and signifcant relations between them. Some independent variables had a negative effect on the dependent variables. Conclusions: This research was limited to one group and place: the students of Eastern Mediterranean University in North Cyprus. Originality: This study connected the retention, loyalty, satisfaction and service quality factors as attributes. In addition, this research was the frst to include other independent factors affecting satisfaction and loyalty in a comparison between four different groups regarding the purpose of travel in the airline industry.

  16. Immediate Placement of Dental Implants into Fresh Extraction Socket of Periapical Lesion with Bone Augmentation Using Growth Factors (PRGF) and Graft Bone (Bio-Oss)

    OpenAIRE

    Piuryk, V. P.; Kareem, Shujairi Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Immediate implant placement and loading can be done in a compromised bone. Curettage, cleaning of the whole area up to good bone quality and primary stability are the main necessities for success. The effect of local application of scaffold-like preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF) on bone regeneration in artificial defects and the potential effect of humidifying titanium dental implants with liquid PRGF on their osseointegration were investigated. The PRGF formulations were obtained fro...

  17. Cognitive Factors Affecting Freeze-like Behavior in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Michael W; Pocknell, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary research on survival-related defensive behaviors has identified physiological markers of freeze/flight/fight. Our research focused on cognitive factors associated with freeze-like behavior in humans. Study 1 tested if an explicit decision to freeze is associated with the psychophysiological state of freezing. Heart rate deceleration occurred when participants chose to freeze. Study 2 varied the efficacy of freezing relative to other defense options and found "freeze" was responsive to variations in the perceived effectiveness of alternative actions. Study 3 tested if individual differences in motivational orientation affect preference for a "freeze" option when the efficacy of options is held constant. A trend in the predicted direction suggested that naturally occurring cognitions led loss-avoiders to select "freeze" more often than reward-seekers. In combination, our attention to the cognitive factors affecting freeze-like behavior in humans represents a preliminary step in addressing an important but neglected research area.

  18. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

  19. Factors affecting the tissues composition of pork belly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duziński, K; Knecht, D; Lisiak, D; Janiszewski, P

    2015-11-01

    Bellies derived from the commercial population of pig carcasses are diverse in terms of tissue composition. Knowledge of the factors influencing it and the expected results, permits quick and easy evaluation of raw material. The study was designed to determine the factors affecting the tissues composition of pork bellies and to estimate their lean meat content. The research population (n=140 pig carcasses) was divided into groups according to sex (gilts, barrows), half-carcass mass (meat content class: S (⩾60%), E (55% to 60%), U (50% to 55%), R (meat content affected the growth of the fat and skin mass in a linear way. No differences were observed between class S and E in terms of belly muscle mass. A 0.37% higher share of belly in the half-carcass was found for barrows (Pmeat content in bellies, suggesting they may be used directly in the production line.

  20. Factors Affecting Microbial Contamination of Market Eggs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodová J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.

  1. Factors affecting metal and radionuclide pollution in the Baltic sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lodenius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available External pollution load in the Baltic Sea originates from urban, agricultural and industrial sources. Emissions of heavy metals have decreased substantially in the catchment area but the temporal trends are not always significant and differ with sample, area and pollutant. The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Many factors affect the future development of pollutant concentrations including anthropogenic emissions, political decisions and changes in salinity, temperature and water currents, in eutrophication and oxygen status, in fisheries and in atmospheric deposition of pollutants. Large scale changes like eutrophication and climate change affect ecosystems in many ways, directly and indirectly, causing biological and abiotic effects. These factors are interrelated and difficult to predict. Measures aiming to enhance the ecological status of the Baltic Sea will certainly give positive results but this will take at least several decades.

  2. Literature review of factors affecting continence after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Pacik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical prostatectomy (RP is the most common cause of stress urinary incontinence (UI in men. Several anatomic structures affect or may affect urinary continence - urethral sphincter, levator ani muscle, puboprostatic ligaments, bladder neck, endopelvic fascia, neurovascular bundle - and understanding of the anatomy of pelvic floor and urethra is crucial for satisfactory functional outcome of the procedure. Surgical techniques implemented to improve continence rates include nerve-sparing procedure, bladder neck preservation/plication, urethral length preservation, musculofascial reconstruction, puboprostatic ligaments preservation or seminal vesicle preservation. Perioperative (preoperative and postoperative pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT aims to shorten the duration of postoperative UI and thus, improve early continence rates postoperatively. In the review, complex information regarding anatomical, intra- and perioperative factors affecting urinary continence after RP is provided, including description of important anatomical structures, possible implications for surgical technique and evaluation of different PFMT strategies in perioperative period.

  3. Immobilization and Application of Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffold-based Growth Factor in Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guobao; Lv, Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers have been extensively used in growth factor delivery and regenerative medicine due to many advantages including large surface area to volume ratio, high porosity, excellent loading capacity, ease of access and cost effectiveness. Their relatively large surface area is helpful for cell adhesion and growth factor loading, while storage and release of growth factor are essential to guide cellular behaviors and tissue formation and organization. In bone tissue engineering, growth factors are expected to transmit signals that stimulate cellular proliferation, migration, differentiation, metabolism, apoptosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Bolus administration is not always an effective method for the delivery of growth factors because of their rapid diffusion from the target site and quick deactivation. Therefore, the integration of controlled release strategy within electrospun nanofibers can provide protection for growth factors against in vivo degradation, and can manipulate desired signal at an effective level with extended duration in local microenvironment to support tissue regeneration and repair which normally takes a much longer time. In this review, we provide an overview of growth factor delivery using biomimetic electrospun nanofiber scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. It begins with a brief introduction of different kinds of polymers that were used in electrospinning and their applications in bone tissue engineering. The review further focuses on the nanofiber-based growth factor delivery and summarizes the strategies of growth factors loading on the nanofiber scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. The perspectives on future challenges in this area are also pointed out.

  4. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan, Yousef; Al-Fouzan, Rawan; Al-Ajlan, Sarah; Al-Saleh, Mervat

    2012-01-01

    Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression wer...

  5. Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugan, M.A.

    1990-03-01

    The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

  6. A STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING HEALING OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT ANASTOMOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Anjani; Amit; Vikram Singh; Rajesh; Jalaj

    2014-01-01

    : Aim of this prospective study to identify the factor which affects the morbidity and mortality of gastrointestinal anastomosis. This prospective study was conducted in G.R. Medical College from November 2012 to October 2013. Our study plan was approved by Ethical Committee of our institute 80 patients were included in this study who underwent gastrointestinal anastomosis whether elective or emergency irrespective of age and gender. A detailed history and relevant preoper...

  7. Motivation-One of the Affective Factors and its Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Fang-hua

    2014-01-01

    Affective factors play a positive role in English study and motivation is the most important. Higher motivation predicts better second language acquisition. The types of motivation are mainly divided into two:extrinsic motivation and intrinsic moti-vation. Teachers should study their students as well as the teaching materials and then select scientific methods and make good use of them to reinforce their students' motivation.

  8. Factors affecting customer satisfaction of online travel agencies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Sabyasachi; Kumar Chauhan, Ram; Chauhan, Kavita

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors affecting customer satisfaction for online travel agencies in India. It will help guide existing online travel agencies and future entrants to have an in-depth understanding of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in their domain. It will also help to improve their business operations and investment focus, which in turn will lead to greater customer satisfaction and loyalty. Design – This paper defines the concept of cust...

  9. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  10. Factors affecting polyamide prototypes design of Albedo dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, M.M.; Mauricio, C.L.P.; Fonseca, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    This work studies the most important factors which affect the response of albedo neutron dosemeters containing LiF TLDs with the aim to improve their sensitivity. It includes tests of thickness and shape of the polyamide moderator body prototypes, albedo window diameter and TLD position inside the moderator. Analyzing the results, an albedo neutron dosemeter prototype, B 4 C covered, was developed. The prototype has a response three times higher than the albedo dosemeter now in use in Brazil. (author)

  11. Factors Affecting Aggression in South Korean Middle School Students

    OpenAIRE

    MiJeong Park, PhD, RN; Jihea Choi, PhD, RN, CPNP; Seung-Joo Lim, PhD, RN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using...

  12. Control of exogenous factors affecting plasma homovanillic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Giordani, A B; Mohs, R C; Mykytyn, V V; Platt, S; Aryan, Z S; Davis, K L

    1987-04-01

    Measurements of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations appear to be a valid research strategy in psychiatric disorders in which a central dopamine (DA) abnormality has been implicated. This study provides guidance about the control of some of the exogenous factors affecting pHVA concentrations. Fasting for 14 hours eliminates the dietary effects on pHVA in healthy human subjects. Changing position, walking for 30 minutes, or smoking two cigarettes has no effect on pHVA concentrations.

  13. Parallel factor analysis PARAFAC of process affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewanchuk, A.M.; Ulrich, A.C.; Sego, D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Alostaz, M. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    A parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of oil sands process-affected water was presented. Naphthenic acids (NA) are traditionally described as monobasic carboxylic acids. Research has indicated that oil sands NA do not fit classical definitions of NA. Oil sands organic acids have toxic and corrosive properties. When analyzed by fluorescence technology, oil sands process-affected water displays a characteristic peak at 290 nm excitation and approximately 346 nm emission. In this study, a parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was used to decompose process-affected water multi-way data into components representing analytes, chemical compounds, and groups of compounds. Water samples from various oil sands operations were analyzed in order to obtain EEMs. The EEMs were then arranged into a large matrix in decreasing process-affected water content for PARAFAC. Data were divided into 5 components. A comparison with commercially prepared NA samples suggested that oil sands NA is fundamentally different. Further research is needed to determine what each of the 5 components represent. tabs., figs.

  14. Low bone mass prevalence and osteoporosis risk factor assessment in African American Wisconsin women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidambi, Srividya; Partington, Susan; Binkley, Neil

    2005-11-01

    Post-menopausal osteoporosis is seen in all racial groups. With the increasing population and longevity of minority groups, osteoporosis is becoming an important health concern. Data regarding risk factors for, and prevalence of, low bone mass and awareness of osteoporosis risk in African American (AA) women are limited. This article evaluates the risk factors for, and prevalence of, low bone mass in a population of urban AA women in Wisconsin and assesses this group's perceived risk for osteoporosis. One hundred fifty consecutive community-dwelling AA women > or = 45 years old from Milwaukee, Wis were asked to complete a questionnaire based on currently accepted osteoporosis risk factors. Additionally, their perception of osteoporosis risk was assessed using a Likert scale. All subjects underwent quantitative calcaneal ultrasound. Subject mean age was 54 +/- 7 years. Mean T- and Z-scores were 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. Applying World Health Organization criteria, osteopenia (bone mineral density T-score 2 children), postmenopausal state, and current smoking were associated with lower calcaneal bone mass. Higher education and presence of diabetes were associated with a higher bone mass. Only 25% of the women surveyed thought they were at moderate to high risk for osteoporosis. Low bone mass was present in 33% of these AA women despite their relative young age. Many AA women do not perceive osteoporosis as a health risk. It is necessary to develop strategies to educate AA women regarding osteoporosis risk.

  15. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and

  16. Calculated dose factors for the radiosensitive tissues in bone irradiated by surface-deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiers, F.W.; Whitwell, J.R.; Beddoe, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    The method of calculating dose factors for the haemopoietic marrow and endosteal tissues in human trabecular bone, used by Whitwell and Spiers for volume-seeking radionuclides, has been developed for the case of radionuclides which are deposited as very thin layers on bone surfaces. The Monte Carlo method is again used, but modifications to the computer program are made to allow for a surface rather than a volume source of particle emission. The principal change is the introduction of a surface-orientation factor which is shown to have a value of approximately 2, varying slightly with bone structure. Results are given for β-emitting radionuclides ranging from 171 Tm(anti Esub(β) = 0.025 MeV) to 90 Y(anti Esub(β) = 0.93 MeV), and also for the α-emitter 239 Pu. It is shown that where the particle ranges are short compared with the dimensions of the bone structures the dose factors for the surface seekers are much greater than those for the volume seekers. For long range particles the dose factors for surface- and volume-seeking radionuclides converge. Comparisons are given relating the dose factors calculated in this paper on the basis of measured bone structures to those of other workers based on single plane geometry. (author)

  17. Cell-based Assay System for Predicting Bone Regeneration in Patient Affected by Aseptic Nonunion and Treated with Platelet Rich Fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perut, Francesca; Dallari, Dante; Rani, Nicola; Baldini, Nicola; Granchi, Donatella

    Regenerative strategies based on the use of platelet concentrates as an autologous source of growth factors (GF) has been proposed to promote the healing of long bone nonunions. However, the relatively high failure rate stimulates interest in growing knowledge and developing solutions to obtain the best results from the regenerative approach. In this study we evaluated whether a cell-based assay system could be able to recognize patients who will benefit or not from the use of autologous platelet preparations. The autologous serum was used in culture medium to promote the osteogenic differentiation of normal bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSC). Blood samples were collected from 16 patients affected by aseptic long bone nonunion who were candidates to the treatment with autologous platelet-rich fibrin. The osteoinductive effect was detected by measuring the BMSC proliferation, the mineralization activity, and the expression of bone-related genes. Serum level of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was considered as a representative marker of the delivery of osteogenic GFs from platelets. Laboratory results were related to the characteristics of the disease before the treatment and to the outcome at 12 months. Serum samples from "good responders" showed significantly higher levels of bFGF and were able to induce a significantly higher proliferation of BMSC, while no significant differences were observed in terms of osteoblast differentiation. BMSC-based assay could be a useful tool to recognize patients who have a low probability to benefit from the use of autologous platelet concentrate to promote the healing of long bone nonunion.

  18. Converted marine coral hydroxyapatite implants with growth factors: In vivo bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Samit K., E-mail: samitnandi1967@gmail.com [Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata (India); Kundu, Biswanath, E-mail: biswa_kundu@rediffmail.com [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Mukherjee, Jayanta [Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals, Kolkata (India); Mahato, Arnab; Datta, Someswar; Balla, Vamsi Krishna [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2015-04-01

    Herein we report rabbit model in vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite (HCCHAp) scaffolds without (group I) and with growth factors namely insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (group II) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) (group III). All HCCHAp scaffolds have been characterized for phase purity and morphology before implantation. Calcined marine coral was hydrothermally converted using a mineralizer/catalyst to phase pure HAp retaining original pore structure and geometry. After sintering at 1250 °C, the HCCHAp found to have ~ 87% crystallinity, 70–75% porosity and 2 ± 0.5 MPa compressive strength. In vitro growth factor release study at day 28 revealed 77 and 98% release for IGF-1 and BMP-2, respectively. The IGF-1 release was more sustained than BMP-2. In vivo bone healing of different groups was compared using chronological radiology, histological evaluations, scanning electron microscopy and fluorochrome labeling up to 90 days of implantation. In vivo studies showed substantial reduction in radiolucent zone and decreased radiodensity of implants in group II followed by group III and group I. These observations clearly suggest in-growth of osseous tissue, initiation of bone healing and complete union between implants and natural bone in group II implants. A statistical score sheet based on histological observations showed an excellent osseous tissue formation in group II and group III scaffolds and moderate bone regeneration in group I scaffolds. - Highlights: • In vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite • Scaffolds with and without growth factors (IGF-1 and BMP-2) • In vitro drug release was more sustained for IGF-1 than BMP-2. • Growth factor significantly improved osseous tissue formation of implanted scaffold. • Established through detailed statistical score sheet from histological observations.

  19. Converted marine coral hydroxyapatite implants with growth factors: In vivo bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Samit K.; Kundu, Biswanath; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Mahato, Arnab; Datta, Someswar; Balla, Vamsi Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Herein we report rabbit model in vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite (HCCHAp) scaffolds without (group I) and with growth factors namely insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (group II) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) (group III). All HCCHAp scaffolds have been characterized for phase purity and morphology before implantation. Calcined marine coral was hydrothermally converted using a mineralizer/catalyst to phase pure HAp retaining original pore structure and geometry. After sintering at 1250 °C, the HCCHAp found to have ~ 87% crystallinity, 70–75% porosity and 2 ± 0.5 MPa compressive strength. In vitro growth factor release study at day 28 revealed 77 and 98% release for IGF-1 and BMP-2, respectively. The IGF-1 release was more sustained than BMP-2. In vivo bone healing of different groups was compared using chronological radiology, histological evaluations, scanning electron microscopy and fluorochrome labeling up to 90 days of implantation. In vivo studies showed substantial reduction in radiolucent zone and decreased radiodensity of implants in group II followed by group III and group I. These observations clearly suggest in-growth of osseous tissue, initiation of bone healing and complete union between implants and natural bone in group II implants. A statistical score sheet based on histological observations showed an excellent osseous tissue formation in group II and group III scaffolds and moderate bone regeneration in group I scaffolds. - Highlights: • In vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite • Scaffolds with and without growth factors (IGF-1 and BMP-2) • In vitro drug release was more sustained for IGF-1 than BMP-2. • Growth factor significantly improved osseous tissue formation of implanted scaffold. • Established through detailed statistical score sheet from histological observations

  20. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tatarinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  1. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Salih, Bilal; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Cohen, Irit; Bolshoy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases) may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content) tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  2. EXPLORING THE FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES’ ADOPTION AND USE OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majharul Talukder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the factors affecting innovation adoption by individual employees within an organization in Australia. Following a qualitative research approach, this paper uses a series of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions involving academic and administrative employees at a tertiary educational institution in Australia. The qualitative approach is adopted to have a deeper insight into the complexities and dynamism associated with the factors influencing innovation adoption process in organizational settings. The findings of this research highlight the need for broadening an understanding of the key factors affecting employee’s decisions to uptake the adoption of innovation. The results provide important clues for comprehending the factors influencing and determining the employee’s adoption and continued use of innovation in the work environment. In the face of the current trend towards end-user applications of technological innovation, the results suggest some guidelines for management toward effective and efficient adoption and use of innovation in organizational settings. This paper has highlighted the above findings and their implications for management practices related to innovation management in an Australian organizational setting. This paper also identifies possible limitations and future research potential in the relevant field.

  3. Factors affecting midwives' confidence in intrapartum care: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Carol; McGowan, Linda; Lavender, Tina

    2015-01-01

    midwives are frequently the lead providers of care for women throughout labour and birth. In order to perform their role effectively and provide women with the choices they require midwives need to be confident in their practice. This study explores factors which may affect midwives' confidence in their practice. hermeneutic phenomenology formed the theoretical basis for the study. Prospective longitudinal data collection was completed using diaries and semi-structured interviews. Twelve midwives providing intrapartum care in a variety of settings were recruited to ensure a variety of experiences in different contexts were captured. the principal factor affecting workplace confidence, both positively and negatively, was the influence of colleagues. Perceived autonomy and a sense of familiarity could also enhance confidence. However, conflict in the workplace was a critical factor in reducing midwives' confidence. Confidence was an important, but fragile, phenomenon to midwives and they used a variety of coping strategies, emotional intelligence and presentation management to maintain it. this is the first study to highlight both the factors influencing midwives' workplace confidence and the strategies midwives employed to maintain their confidence. Confidence is important in maintaining well-being and workplace culture may play a role in explaining the current low morale within the midwifery workforce. This may have implications for women's choices and care. Support, effective leadership and education may help midwives develop and sustain a positive sense of confidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors associated with low bone mass in the hemodialysis patients – a cross-sectional correlation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Guey-Shiun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low bone mass is common in end-stage renal disease patients, especially those undergoing hemodialysis. It can lead to serious bone health problems such as fragility fractures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the risk factors of low bone mass in the hemodialysis patients. Methods Sixty-three subjects on hemodialysis for at least 6 months were recruited from a single center for this cross-sectional study. We collected data by questionnaire survey and medical records review. All subjects underwent a bone mineral density (BMD assay with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine and right hip. Data were statistically analyzed by means of descriptive analysis, independent t test and one way analysis of variance for continuous variables, Pearson product-moment correlation to explore the correlated factors of BMD, and stepwise multiple linear regression to identify the predictors of low bone mass. Results Using WHO criteria as a cutoff point, fifty-one subjects (81% had a T-score lower than -1, of them 8 subjects (13% had osteoporosis with the femoral neck most commonly affected. Regarding risk factors, age, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP level, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH level had significant negative correlations with the femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD. On the other hand, serum albumin level, effective exercise time, and body weight (BW had significant positive correlations with the femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD. Age, effective exercise time, and serum albumin level significantly predicted the femoral neck BMD (R2 × 0.25, whereas BW and the ALP level significantly predicted the lumbar spine BMD (R2 × 0.20. Conclusion This study showed that advanced age, low BW, low serum albumin level, and high ALP and iPTH levels were associated with a low bone mass in the hemodialysis patients. We suggest that regular monitoring of the femoral neck BMD, maintaining an adequate serum albumin level and BW

  5. Controllable mineral coatings on scaffolds as carriers for growth factor release for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurez-Gonzalez, Darilis

    The work presented in this document, focused on the development and characterization of mineral coatings on scaffold materials to serve as templates for growth factor binding and release. Mineral coatings were formed using a biomimetic approach that consisted in the incubation of scaffolds in modified simulated body fluids (mSBF). To modulate the properties of the mineral coating, which we hypothesized would dictate growth factor release, we used carbonate (HCO3) concentration in mSBF of 4.2 mM, 25mM, and 100mM. Analysis of the mineral coatings formed using scanning electron microscopy indicated growth of a continuous layer of mineral with different morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis showed peaks associated with hydroxyapatite. FTIR data confirmed the substitution of HCO3 in the mineral. As the extent of HCO3 substitution increased, the coating exhibited more rapid dissolution kinetics in an environment deficient in calcium and phosphate. The mineral coatings provided an effective mechanism for bioactive growth factor binding and release. Peptide versions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were bound with efficiencies up to 90% to mineral-coated PCL scaffolds. Recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) also bound to mineral coated scaffolds with lower efficiency (20%) and released with faster release kinetics compared to peptides growth factor. Released rhVEGF induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation in vitro and enhanced blood vessel formation in vivo in an intramuscular sheep model. In addition to the use the mineral coatings for single growth factor release, we expanded the concept and bound both an angiogenic (rhVEGF) and osteogenic (mBMP2) growth factor by a simple double dipping process. Sustained release of both growth factors was demonstrated for over 60 days. Released rhVEGF enhanced blood vessel formation in vivo in sheep and its biological activity was

  6. The G-factor as a tool to learn more about bone structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerath, E

    1999-07-01

    In normal life on earth, the locomotor system is exposed to two types of stimulation: gravity (passive stimulation) and motion (active stimulation). Both permanently combine, and the interactions between locomotion and gravity induce an overall recruitment which is repeated daily and maintains the bone tissue structure within the range of constraints to which it is adapted. This range is one of the basic hypotheses underlying the mechanical concepts of bone structure control, and it has been considered as logical to assume that weightlessness of spaceflight should produce bone loss since astronauts are outside of the terrestrial gravitational field of forces, no longer relying on muscular work to change positions or move. But, thirty years after the first changes in phospho-calcium metabolism were observed in astronauts after spaceflight, current knowledge does not provide a full understanding of this pathogeny, and prove the G-factor is now considered as an essential component of the experimental tools available to study bone physiology. The study of the physiology of bone tissue usually consists in the investigation of its two fundamental roles, i.e. reservoir of inorganic elements (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and mechanical support for soft tissues. Together with the combined action of muscles, tendons, and ligaments, this support permits motion and locomotion. These two functions rely on a sophisticated bone tissue architecture, and on the adaptability of this structure, with modeling and remodeling processes, themselves associated with the coupled activity of specialized bone cell populations.

  7. Mothers recovering from cocaine addiction: factors affecting parenting skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyer, S M

    2001-01-01

    To identify factors that may influence parenting by mothers who are recovering from cocaine addiction. Exploratory descriptive, with in-depth unstructured interviews. Interviews were conducted in the woman's home or in a treatment center. A convenience sample of 11 women recovering from cocaine addiction who were mothers of children 3 years of age and younger. A content analysis was used to analyze the interview data. Two themes, personal/psychologic factors and environmental/contextual factors, and four subthemes emerged. They identify issues that may affect parenting by mothers being treated for cocaine addiction. Subthemes included low self-esteem, difficulty developing a maternal identity, isolation from friends and family, and chronic life stress. This study provides a better understanding of the sources contributing to vulnerability in the parenting role for mothers recovering from cocaine addiction and will assist nurses in providing care for these mothers and their children.

  8. Factors affecting aggression in South Korean middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, MiJeong; Choi, Jihea; Lim, Seung-Joo

    2014-12-01

    The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regressions. Aggression had significant correlations with academic stress (r = .21, p decision-making competency (r = -.25, p emotional factors like depression and academic stress. Additionally, development of positive factors such as self esteem, decision-making skills, and happiness in middle school students is important to reduce aggression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Does fetal smoke exposure affect childhood bone mass? The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSummary: We assessed the intrauterine influence of maternal smoking on childhood bone mass by comparing parental prenatal and postnatal smoking habits. We observed higher bone mass in children exposed to maternal smoking, explained by higher body weight. Maternal smoking or related

  10. Airway delivery of soluble factors from plastic-adherent bone marrow cells prevents murine asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Lavinia I; Alphonse, Rajesh S; Arizmendi, Narcy; Morgan, Beverly; Abel, Melanie; Eaton, Farah; Duszyk, Marek; Vliagoftis, Harissios; Aprahamian, Tamar R; Walsh, Kenneth; Thébaud, Bernard

    2012-02-01

    Asthma affects an estimated 300 million people worldwide and accounts for 1 of 250 deaths and 15 million disability-adjusted life years lost annually. Plastic-adherent bone marrow-derived cell (BMC) administration holds therapeutic promise in regenerative medicine. However, given the low cell engraftment in target organs, including the lung, cell replacement cannot solely account for the reported therapeutic benefits. This suggests that BMCs may act by secreting soluble factors. BMCs also possess antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory properties and may therefore be beneficial for asthma. Our objective was to investigate the therapeutic potential of BMC-secreted factors in murine asthma. In a model of acute and chronic asthma, intranasal instillation of BMC conditioned medium (CdM) prevented airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation. In the chronic asthma model, CdM prevented airway smooth muscle thickening and peribronchial inflammation while restoring blunted salbutamol-induced bronchodilation. CdM reduced lung levels of the T(H)2 inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 and increased levels of IL-10. CdM up-regulated an IL-10-induced and IL-10-secreting subset of T regulatory lymphocytes and promoted IL-10 expression by lung macrophages. Adiponectin (APN), an antiinflammatory adipokine found in CdM, prevented AHR, airway smooth muscle thickening, and peribronchial inflammation, whereas the effect of CdM in which APN was neutralized or from APN knock-out mice was attenuated compared with wild-type CdM. Our study provides evidence that BMC-derived soluble factors prevent murine asthma and suggests APN as one of the protective factors. Further identification of BMC-derived factors may hold promise for novel approaches in the treatment of asthma.

  11. Thyroid Dysfunction Does Not Affect the Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Deniz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and thyroid dysfunction in postmenopausal women. Material and Method: A total of 261 postmenopausal women, who were examined between 2006 and 2008, were included in this prospective cohort study. Levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T3 (triiodothyronine, free T4 (tiroxin, and thyroid antibodies (anti-thyroglobulin antibody -antiTG Ab; anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody - antiTPO Ab were measured in all subjects. The subjects were classified into four groups: hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, and euthyroid(control. Bone mineral densities (BMDs from the lumbar 1–4 (L 1–4 vertebrae and the femoral neck regions of interest were measured using the dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA method and used to yield T-score values which were compared between groups. Results: The mean L1 – 4 T-score was 1.26 ± 1.25 in 56 cases (21.5% with hypothyroidism ; -1.46 ± 1.36 in 42 (16.1% cases with hyperthyroidism and -1.51 ± 1.22 in 37 cases (14.2% with autoimmune thyroiditis . The mean L1 – 4 T-score of the control group that consisted of 126 (48.3% cases was -1.28 ± 1.20. The mean femoral neck T-score was -0.31 ±1.15 in hypothyroid group; -0.80 ±1.41 in hyperthyroid group and -0.60 ±1.19 in cases with autoimmune thyroiditis . The mean femoral neck T-score of the control group was -0.55 ±1.08. When the T-scores of the entire L1 – 4 region and those of the femoral neck were compared, the values were not significantly different between the four patient groups (p = 0.680 and p = 0.258, respectively. Discussion: The present study indicated that thyroid dysfunction does not significantly affect BMD in postmenopausal women with hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or autoimmune thyroiditis. This result suggests that thyroid dysfunctions do not have a significant role in the development of osteoporosis during the postmenopausal period, perhaps because

  12. A Pattern to Evaluation of Motivational Factors Affecting Knowledge Sharing

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    Elnaz Hajian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the motivational factors affecting the willingness of employees to share knowledge and examine intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and influences on attitudes toward knowledge sharing and explicit and implicit knowledge sharing intention. Planned behavior pattern is used as a theoretical framework. This research was conducted in two phases. First, factors were identified according to the literature review and exploratory interviews. Then the impact of each factor was evaluated in terms of structural equation modeling. This is an empirical research and the research method is descriptive survey. Data was collected using a questionnaire and interview. The study was on the staff working in administrative units of Tehran Municipality and the number of staff at the time of study was 2230. Cluster sampling method and sample size based on population and using Cochran formula of 328 people determined that 35 persons were not held accountable. To determine the reliability of questionnaires, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated to 0.824 which was found at a high level. Data was analyzed by SPSS and LISREL software. Finally, the proposed pattern was confirmed. The results showed that the intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influence on the attitude of employees and the attitude influence on tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intention. Also, extrinsic motivational factors influence on tacit knowledge sharing intention and intrinsic motivational factors influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention. Extrinsic motivational factors influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention and intrinsic motivational factors influence on tacit knowledge sharing intention by the attitude and tacit knowledge sharing intention influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention.

  13. Factors affecting 30-month survival in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P A; Archana, S; Jayaraj, B S; Patil, Shekar; Chaya, S K; Shashidhar, H P; Sunitha, B S; Prabhakar, A K

    2012-10-01

    Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factors affecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients.

  14. Chronological Age as Factor Influencing the Dental Implant Osseointegration in the Jaw Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Papež

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate osseointegration of dental implant in the jaw bone in the young and elderly population and comparing the results to assess indicators and risk factors as age for the success or failure of dental implants. A retrospective study of 107 implants (Impladent, LASAK, Czech Republic was prepared. The patients at implants surgery were divided in three groups. The patients were followed-up for a 7-year period. We evaluated osseointegration from long term point of view as a change of marginal bone levels close to dental implant. Marginal bone levels were recorded and analysed with regard to different patient- and implant-related factors. An influence of chronological age on change of marginal bone levels during 6-year retrospective study vas evaluated. The study examined 47 patient charts and 107 implants from the Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and University Hospital Motol. We proved that young healthy patients with long bridges or Branemarks have the same progression of marginal bone levels changes. The chronological age hasn’t therefore direct influence on the osseointegration from long term point of view. But we found that the length of dental suprastrucure-prosthetic construction negatively influences marginal bone changes, though these results weren’t statistically significant. More extensive dental implant suprastrucure undergoes smaller osseointegration. On the other hand the length of dental suprastrucure (prosthetic construction negatively influences dental osseointegration in both groups of patient.

  15. Factors influencing diagnostic yield of CT-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy for bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Du, Y.; Luo, T.Y.; Yang, H.F.; Yu, J.H.; Xu, X.X.; Zheng, H.J.; Li, B.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the factors influencing diagnostic yield of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy (CNB) for bone lesions. Materials and methods: Between September 2005 and July 2011, 162 consecutive CT-guided CNB procedures were performed in 155 patients. The variables analysed were age, sex, lesion location, lesion type, lesion size, specimen size, biopsy needle gauge, and individual radiologist. The factors influencing diagnostic yield of CT-guided percutaneous CNB for bone lesions were determined by multivariate analysis of variables. Results: The diagnostic yield was 81.5%. Diagnostic yield was 89.9% for lytic bone lesions and 48.5% for sclerotic bone lesions (p < 0.001), and 89.2% for lesions ≥3 cm and 73.4% for lesions <3 cm (p = 0.010). The significant factors influencing diagnostic yield of CT-guided percutaneous CNB for bone lesions were lesion type [p < 0.001; odds ratio (OR) for a lytic lesion was approximately 12 times higher than that for a sclerotic lesion; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.22–34.01], and lesion size (p = 0.012; OR for a lesion size ≥3 cm was about five-times higher than that for a lesion size <3 cm; 95% CI: 1.42–16.71). Conclusion: Lesion type and lesion size are determining factors in diagnostic yield. The higher diagnostic yield is correlated with lytic lesion and lesion size ≥3 cm

  16. An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuremoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

  17. Risk factors that influence suicidal behavior in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Albina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known in the literature that the incidence and prevalence of suicide and attempted suicide in psychiatric patients is significantly higher than in the general population. The paper examined risk factors for suicidal behavior in the category of admitted patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of sleep disorders and affective (Unipolar resp. Bipolar depression. Study activated by 80 patients, 40 in both diagnostic groups received treatment at the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Gornja Toponica near Nis. The work methodology used are: psychiatric interview, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, and the C-SSRS (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale- assessment tool that assesses suicidal ideation and behavior. The study results show that there is a relationship between suicidal behavior (suicide attempts and suicidal ideation and the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, positive history of previous suicide attempts, so that these factors are stronger, to the degree of suicidality higher. On this sample, clearly suicidal behavior, with the same purpose, intensity of suicidal thoughts and medical impairment after suicide attempts were significantly more frequent in patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder in the depressive phase of the illness. Patients with a previous suicide attempt, and poor personal and social circumstances had a higher rate of attempted suicide.

  18. Bone mineral density and factors influencing it in Asian Indian population with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadishkumar Kamalanathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess bone mineral density (BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients and its relation, if any, to clinical, hormonal and metabolic factors. Materials and Methods: A prospective evaluation of 194 T2DM patients (97 men and 97 women was carried out. BMD was done with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA at the lumbar spine and total hip. Physical activity, nutritional intake and sunlight exposure were calculated. Biochemical and hormonal tests included serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH D], parathyroid hormone, estrogen, testosterone and urinary calcium-creatinine ratio. Glycosylated hemoglobin and complete lipid profiles were done in patients with diabetes. Five hundred and seventy one non-diabetic controls (262 males and 309 females were evaluated for BMD alone. Results: BMD was normal (Z score > -2 in 156 (80.5% and low (Z score ≤ -2 in 38 (19.5% patients in the diabetes study group. BMD in the diabetes group was significantly higher than the control group in both sexes at the hip and spine. The difference was no longer significant on analysis of a BMI matched control subgroup. Weight and BMI showed significant correlation to BMD. Duration of T2DM, degree of glycemic control, use of drugs like statins and thiazolidinediones, 25(OH D levels, calcium intake, sunlight exposure and physical activity did not significantly affect BMD in this cohort of individuals with diabetes. Conclusions: Bone mineral density of Asian Indian T2DM subjects was similar to that of healthy volunteers in this study.

  19. Transcription factor and bone marrow stromal cells in osseointegration of dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SG Yan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium implants are widely used in dental clinics and orthopaedic surgery. However, bone formation surrounding the implant is relatively slow after inserting the implant. The current study assessed the effects of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs with forced expression of special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2 on the osseointegration of titanium implants. To determine whether SATB2 overexpression in BMSCs can enhance the osseointegration of implants, BMSCs were infected with the retrovirus encoding Satb2 (pBABE-Satb2 and were locally applied to bone defects before implanting the titanium implants in the mouse femur. Seven and twenty-one days after implantation, the femora were isolated for immunohistochemical (IHC staining, haematoxylin eosin (H&E staining, real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, and micro-computed tomography (μCT analysis. IHC staining analysis revealed that SATB2-overexpressing BMSCs were intensely distributed in the bone tissue surrounding the implant. Histological analysis showed that SATB2-overexpressing BMSCs significantly enhanced new bone formation and bone-to-implant contact 3 weeks after implantation. Real-time qRT-PCR results showed that the local delivery of SATB2-overexpressing BMSCs enhanced expression levels of potent osteogenic transcription factors and bone matrix proteins in the implantation sites. μCT analysis demonstrated that SATB2-overexpressing BMSCs significantly increased the density of the newly formed bone surrounding the implant 3 weeks post-operatively. These results conclude that local delivery of SATB2-overexpressing BMSCs significantly accelerates osseointegration of titanium implants. These results provide support for future pharmacological and clinical applications of SATB2, which accelerates bone regeneration around titanium implants.

  20. Factors affecting yearly and monthly visits to Taipei Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ai-Tsen; Lin, Yann-Jou

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated factors affecting yearly and monthly numbers of visits to Taipei Zoo. Both linear and nonlinear regression models were used to estimate yearly visits. The results of both models showed that the "opening effect" and "animal star effect" had a significantly positive effect on yearly visits, while a SARS outbreak had a negative effect. The number of years had a significant influence on yearly visits. Results showed that the nonlinear model had better explanatory power and fitted the variations of visits better. Results of monthly model showed that monthly visits were significantly influenced by time fluctuations, weather conditions, and the animal star effect. Chinese New Year, summer vacation, numbers of holidays, and animal star exhibitions increased the number of monthly visits, while the number of days with temperatures at or below 15 °C, the number of days with temperatures at or above 30 °C, and the number of rainy days had significantly negative effects. Furthermore, the model of monthly visits showed that the animal star effect could last for over two quarters. The results of this study clarify the factors affecting visits to an outdoor recreation site and confirm the importance of meteorological factors to recreation use.

  1. A systematic study on factors affecting patient dose, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Akiyoshi; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Utsumi, Hiromoto; Ota, Masaji; Nakanishi, Takashi

    1979-01-01

    In the study of possible reduction in irradiation dose to patients during medical treatments, the following two methods can be considered: (1) To obtain absorbed doses for each part of a body in diagnostic X-ray examinations. (2) To obtain data on factors such as the tube voltage which may affect patient dose. There are a number of reports both at home and abroad concerning the above (1), but very few reports are available concerning the above (2). Moreover, most of them are on fragmentary aspects of each factor and no systematic reports have been made. For this reason, we have taken up, as factors affecting the patient dose, the field size, the tube voltage, and by checking them again, we wanted to obtain some systematic data. Our aim has been fully attained by conducting an experiment. In the ICRP's Publ. 26 issued last year, the idea of the critical organ which had not been fully elucidated in the Publ. 9 was abandoned. As a result, assessment of the irradiation doses has become more rational and the total risk for an individual was obtained. In Japan, the idea proposed in the Publ. 9 is adopted. Therefore, in this paper, we will raise some questions regarding the assessment of the irradiation doses, pointing out at the same time the rationality of the idea put forward in Publ. 26. (author)

  2. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Nazarpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental–emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse.

  3. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. External factors affecting data acquisition during corneal topography examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Méijome, José Manuel; Queirós, Antonio; Jorge, Jorge; Fernandes, Paulo; Cerviño, Alejandro; de Almeida, José Borges

    2007-03-01

    To analyze the factors affecting data acquisition during corneal topography examination with the Medmont E-300 videokeratoscope and to provide strategies to minimize their effects. Sixty eyes from thirty young adults were examined. A second observer registered incidences with the potential to affect data acquisition. Those factors were correlated with the difficulty of measurements as judged subjectively by the practitioner who performed the examination. Measurements of axial curvature were analyzed to evaluate the variability expressed as intrasession and intersession coefficient of variation and the standard error of the mean (SEM). The level of difficulty rated by the practitioner was in general low, with 70% of the eyes being easy or very easy to measure. For the remaining 30% of the eyes, corneal topography measurements were considered to be difficult (27%) or very difficult (3%). Of the external parameters investigated, only fixation instability (PSEM improved when three readings from each session were considered. The level of subjective difficulty found during videokeratoscopy examination is correlated strongly with fixation instability and the need for head reorientation in the chin rest, whereas tear-related events seem to be less relevant in the practitioner perception of test ease or difficulty. Those factors have relevance in measurement variability.

  5. Factors affecting cardiac rehabilitation referral by physician specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sherry L; Grewal, Keerat; Stewart, Donna E

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is widely underutilized because of multiple factors including physician referral practices. Previous research has shown CR referral varies by type of provider, with cardiologists more likely to refer than primary care physicians. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral in primary care physicians versus cardiac specialists. A cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of 510 primary care physicians and cardiac specialists (cardiologists or cardiovascular surgeons) in Ontario identified through the Canadian Medical Directory Online was administered. One hundred four primary care physicians and 81 cardiac specialists responded to the 26-item investigator-generated survey examining medical, demographic, attitudinal, and health system factors affecting CR referral. Primary care physicians were more likely to endorse lack of familiarity with CR site locations (P negatively impacting CR referral practices than cardiac specialists. Cardiac specialists were significantly more likely to perceive that their colleagues and department would regularly refer patients to CR than primary care physicians (P Marketing CR site locations, provision of standardized referral forms, and ensuring discharge summaries are communicated to primary care physicians may improve their willingness to refer to CR.

  6. Minimally invasive esthetic ridge preservation with growth-factor enhanced bone matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Marc L; Said, Sherif

    2017-12-28

    Extraction socket preservation procedures are critical to successful esthetic implant therapy. Conventional surgical approaches are technique sensitive and often result in alteration of the soft tissue architecture, which then requires additional corrective surgical procedures. This case series report presents the ability of flapless surgical techniques combined with a growth factor-enhanced bone matrix to provide esthetic ridge preservation at the time of extraction for compromised sockets. When considering esthetic dental implant therapy, preservation, or further enhancement of the available tissue support at the time of tooth extraction may provide an improved esthetic outcome with reduced postoperative sequelae and decreased treatment duration. Advances in minimally invasive surgical techniques combined with recombinant growth factor technology offer an alternative for bone reconstruction while maintaining the gingival architecture for enhanced esthetic outcome. The combination of freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) and rhPDGF-BB (platelet-derived growth factor-BB) provides a growth-factor enhanced matrix to induce bone and soft tissue healing. The use of a growth-factor enhanced matrix is an option for minimally invasive ridge preservation procedures for sites with advanced bone loss. Further studies including randomized clinical trials are needed to better understand the extent and limits of these procedures. The use of minimally invasive techniques with growth factors for esthetic ridge preservation reduces patient morbidity associated with more invasive approaches and increases the predictability for enhanced patient outcomes. By reducing the need for autogenous bone grafts the use of this technology is favorable for patient acceptance and ease of treatment process for esthetic dental implant therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. DEHP impairs zebrafish reproduction by affecting critical factors in oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliana Carnevali

    Full Text Available Public concerns on phthalates distributions in the environment have been increasing since they can cause liver cancer, structural abnormalities and reduce sperm counts in male reproductive system. However, few data are actually available on the effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP in female reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of DEHP on zebrafish oogenesis and embryo production. Female Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP and a significant decrease in ovulation and embryo production was observed. The effects of DEHP on several key regulators of oocyte maturation and ovulation including bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 (ptgs2 were determined by real time PCR. The expressions of BMP15 and mPR proteins were further determined by Western analyses to strengthen molecular findings. Moreover, plasma vitellogenin (vtg titers were assayed by an ELISA procedure to determine the estrogenic effects of DEHP and its effects on oocyte growth. A significant reduction of fecundity in fish exposed to DEHP was observed. The reduced reproductive capacity was associated with an increase in ovarian BMP15 levels. This rise, in turn, was concomitant with a significant reduction in LHR and mPRbeta levels. Finally, ptgs2 expression, the final trigger of ovulation, was also decreased by DEHP. By an in vitro maturation assay, the inhibitory effect of DEHP on germinal vesicle breakdown was further confirmed. In conclusion, DEHP affecting signals involved in oocyte growth (vtg, maturation (BMP15, LHR, mPRs, and ovulation (ptgs2, deeply impairs ovarian functions with serious consequences on embryo production. Since there is a significant genetic similarity between D.rerio and humans, the harmful effects observed at oocyte level may be relevant for further molecular studies on humans.

  8. A holistic approach to factors affecting depression in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerogianni, Georgia; Kouzoupis, Anastasios; Grapsa, Eirini

    2018-05-19

    Depression in dialysis populations is affected by co-morbid diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and immune dysfunction, and it also includes high suicide risk and frequent hospitalizations. Depressive disorders have a close association with malnutrition and chronic inflammation, as well as with cognitive impairment. Impaired cognitive function may be manifested as low adherence to dialysis treatment, leading to malnutrition. Additionally, chronic pain and low quality of sleep lead to high rates of depressive symptoms in haemodialysis patients, while an untreated depression can cause sleep disturbances and increased mortality risk. Depression can also lead to sexual dysfunction and non-adherence, while unemployment can cause depressive disorders, due to patients' feelings of being a financial burden on their family. The present review provides a holistic approach to the factors affecting depression in haemodialysis, offering significant knowledge to renal professionals.

  9. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured questionnaire; study reveals that service innovativeness, service reli- ability, service competitiveness and service consistency have significant influence on making customer satisfied and the operator’s network/signal coverage, pricing, offering, fulfillment of customer demand, value added service, brand value and op - erators contribution for society have insignificant influences on making customer satisfied at five percent level of significant at multiple regression analysis. On the basis of these findings; study concludes that in promoting customer satisfaction mobile service providers should be concerned for factors responsible for insignifi- cant influence on customer satisfaction and care of those factors have significant influence on promoting customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.

  10. Mechanically stimulated bone cells secrete paracrine factors that regulate osteoprogenitor recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Robert T.; O'Brien, Fergal J.; Hoey, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Bone formation requires the recruitment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors. A potent stimulus driving this process is mechanical loading, yet the signalling mechanisms underpinning this are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the mechanically-stimulated osteocyte and osteoblast secretome in coordinating progenitor contributions to bone formation. Initially osteocytes (MLO-Y4) and osteoblasts (MC3T3) were mechanically stimulated for 24hrs and secreted factors within the conditioned media were collected and used to evaluate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and osteoblast recruitment, proliferation and osteogenesis. Paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteocytes significantly enhanced MSC migration, proliferation and osteogenesis and furthermore significantly increased osteoblast migration and proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteocytes. Secondly, paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteoblasts significantly enhanced MSC migration but surprisingly, in contrast to the osteocyte secretome, inhibited MSC proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteoblasts. A similar trend was observed in osteoblasts. This study provides new information on mechanically driven signalling mechanisms in bone and highlights a contrasting secretome between cells at different stages in the bone lineage, furthering our understanding of loading-induced bone formation and indirect biophysical regulation of osteoprogenitors. - Highlights: • Physically stimulated osteocytes secrete factors that regulate osteoprogenitors. • These factors enhance recruitment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. • Physically stimulated osteoblasts secrete factors that also regulate progenitors. • These factors enhance recruitment but inhibit proliferation of osteoprogenitors. • This study highlights a contrasting

  11. Mechanically stimulated bone cells secrete paracrine factors that regulate osteoprogenitor recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Robert T. [Tissue Engineering Research Group, Dept. of Anatomy, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (Ireland); Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Advanced Materials and BioEngineering Research Centre (AMBER), Trinity College Dublin & Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (Ireland); Dept. of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick (Ireland); O' Brien, Fergal J. [Tissue Engineering Research Group, Dept. of Anatomy, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (Ireland); Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Advanced Materials and BioEngineering Research Centre (AMBER), Trinity College Dublin & Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (Ireland); Hoey, David A., E-mail: david.hoey@ul.ie [Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Dept. of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick (Ireland); The Centre for Applied Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Limerick (Ireland); Materials & Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick (Ireland)

    2015-03-27

    Bone formation requires the recruitment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors. A potent stimulus driving this process is mechanical loading, yet the signalling mechanisms underpinning this are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the mechanically-stimulated osteocyte and osteoblast secretome in coordinating progenitor contributions to bone formation. Initially osteocytes (MLO-Y4) and osteoblasts (MC3T3) were mechanically stimulated for 24hrs and secreted factors within the conditioned media were collected and used to evaluate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and osteoblast recruitment, proliferation and osteogenesis. Paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteocytes significantly enhanced MSC migration, proliferation and osteogenesis and furthermore significantly increased osteoblast migration and proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteocytes. Secondly, paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteoblasts significantly enhanced MSC migration but surprisingly, in contrast to the osteocyte secretome, inhibited MSC proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteoblasts. A similar trend was observed in osteoblasts. This study provides new information on mechanically driven signalling mechanisms in bone and highlights a contrasting secretome between cells at different stages in the bone lineage, furthering our understanding of loading-induced bone formation and indirect biophysical regulation of osteoprogenitors. - Highlights: • Physically stimulated osteocytes secrete factors that regulate osteoprogenitors. • These factors enhance recruitment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. • Physically stimulated osteoblasts secrete factors that also regulate progenitors. • These factors enhance recruitment but inhibit proliferation of osteoprogenitors. • This study highlights a contrasting

  12. The negative bone effects of the disease and of chronic corticosteroid treatment in premenopausal women affected by rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fassio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a well-known extra-articular complication in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The chronic corticosteroid treatment, the functional impairment associated with RA and the disease itself appear to be the most relevant determinants. Most of the previous studies involved postmenopausal women, in whom the estrogenic deficiency might amplify the negative effect towards bone of both RA and corticosteroid therapy. We decided to evaluate bone health in a cohort of premenopausal RA patients. The study population includes 47 premenopausal women attending our outpatient clinic for RA and twice as many healthy age-matched control women selected from the hospital personnel. The bone density at the spine and femoral neck were significantly lower in patients with RA as compared with controls. When spine bone mineral density (BMD values were adjusted for the cumulative glucocorticoid (GC dose alone and for the cumulative GC dose plus body mass index (BMI the mean differences between two groups decreased but they remained statistically significant. We found no difference when the spine BMD was adjusted for cumulative GC dose, BMI and health assessment questionnaire. The difference in femoral neck BMD remained statistically significant also after all the same adjustments. In conclusion, our study shows that a BMD deficiency is frequent also in premenopausal women affected by RA, especially at femoral site and that the main determinants of this bone loss are not only the disease-related weight loss, corticosteroid therapy and functional impairment, but also the systemic effects of the disease itself.

  13. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  14. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  15. The concept of and factors affecting transport accessibility of seaports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Dąbrowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport accessibility of seaports is a frequently studied area in economic research. In practice, port operators and authorities use it to promote their services and compete in the market. Up to this day, theoretical basis of seaports transport accessibility has not been properly described. The article attempts to systematize and expend the knowledge in this field. New definitions of transport availability from wider and narrower perspectives were suggested; different types of accessibility and their mutual relations were explained. These ideas were complemented by introducing classification of factors affecting transport accessibility of seaports.

  16. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academ...

  17. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemontt, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  18. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemontt, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  19. Job satisfaction and factors affecting motivation at Posti Oyj

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    The business trends and life style of humans are changing rapidly due to globalization and it visibly affects the work environment and employee’s attitude towards the work as the needs and desires of human being are changing too. In such circumstance, it is essential to have motivated team to survive in the market is vital agenda for the firms, where Posti Oyj is not an exception. It has become a challenge for HR officials to study about job satisfaction and motivation including factors affec...

  20. Factors Affecting Tourist Expenditure Coming To Mugla Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehime Korkmaz Bingöl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing tourist expenditure is a means to increase tourism income, which is extremely important for local economies. The purpose of this study is to understand the expending pattern of tourists coming to Mugla Region and provide empirical background for the policies to increase per tourist expenditure. The survey conducted at Dalaman International Airport and the data has been analyzed using OLS method. Nationality, age, accommodation type, pension type, credit card usage, availability of shopping facilities, standard of night life and entertainment, quality of food and beverage, length of holiday and group size has been found as significant factors affecting tourist expenditure

  1. 78 FR 46418 - Proposed Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting... entitlement factors. Individual factors such as income, marital status, and the beneficiary's number of...

  2. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J.J.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Internal Medicine-Geriatrics, Postbus 85500, Postbox: E.03.511, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-09-05

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 53 with malignant neoplasm) who underwent both unenhanced and two contrast-enhanced (arterial and portal venous phase) abdominal CT examinations in a single session between June 2011 and July 2013 were included. BMD was evaluated on the three examinations as CT-attenuation values in Hounsfield Units (HU) in the first lumbar vertebra (L1). CT-attenuation values were significantly higher in both contrast-enhanced phases, compared to the unenhanced phase (p < 0.01). In patients without malignancies, mean ± standard deviation (SD) HU-values increased from 128.8 ± 48.6 HU for the unenhanced phase to 142.3 ± 47.2 HU for the arterial phase and 147.0 ± 47.4 HU for the portal phase (p < 0.01). In patients with malignancies, HU-values increased from 112.1 ± 38.1 HU to 126.2 ± 38.4 HU and 130.1 ± 37.3 HU (p < 0.02), respectively. With different thresholds to define osteoporosis, measurements in the arterial and portal phase resulted in 7-25 % false negatives. Our study showed that intravenous contrast injection substantially affects BMD-assessment on CT and taking this into account may improve routine assessment of low BMD in nonquantitative CT. (orig.)

  3. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J.J.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Jong, Pim A. de

    2015-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 53 with malignant neoplasm) who underwent both unenhanced and two contrast-enhanced (arterial and portal venous phase) abdominal CT examinations in a single session between June 2011 and July 2013 were included. BMD was evaluated on the three examinations as CT-attenuation values in Hounsfield Units (HU) in the first lumbar vertebra (L1). CT-attenuation values were significantly higher in both contrast-enhanced phases, compared to the unenhanced phase (p < 0.01). In patients without malignancies, mean ± standard deviation (SD) HU-values increased from 128.8 ± 48.6 HU for the unenhanced phase to 142.3 ± 47.2 HU for the arterial phase and 147.0 ± 47.4 HU for the portal phase (p < 0.01). In patients with malignancies, HU-values increased from 112.1 ± 38.1 HU to 126.2 ± 38.4 HU and 130.1 ± 37.3 HU (p < 0.02), respectively. With different thresholds to define osteoporosis, measurements in the arterial and portal phase resulted in 7-25 % false negatives. Our study showed that intravenous contrast injection substantially affects BMD-assessment on CT and taking this into account may improve routine assessment of low BMD in nonquantitative CT. (orig.)

  4. Factors affecting intra-oral pH - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, C; Lee, J; Sander, S; Mei, L; Farella, M

    2016-10-01

    One of the greatest challenges to modern dentistry is the progressive destruction of tooth material due to chemical erosion. Dental erosion is the loss of dental hard tissue, without the action of bacteria, in which demineralisation of enamel and dentine results due to a decrease in intra-oral pH. The aim of this review was to appraise the scientific literature on the factors that can affect intra-oral pH. The review will examine (i) the protective role of human saliva, in terms of its mineral composition, flow rates and buffering systems and (ii) sources of in-mouth acids such as extrinsic acids, which are derived from the diet and environment, as well as intrinsic acids, which are related to disorders of the gastro-oesophageal tract. This review may assist clinicians to identify the risk factors for tooth wear and to recommend adequate preventive measures to patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmo Kang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service system such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - ‘wireless internet’ and ‘mobile applications’ - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

  6. Human Factors Affecting the Patient's Acceptance of Wireless Biomedical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensli, Rune; Boisen, Egil

    In monitoring arrhythmia, the quality of medical data from the ECG sensors may be enhanced by being based on everyday life situations. Hence, the development of wireless biomedical sensors is of growing interest, both to diagnose the heart patient, as well as to adjust the regimen. However, human factors such as emotional barriers and stigmatization, may affect the patient's behavior while wearing the equipment, which in turn may influence quality of data. The study of human factors and patient acceptance is important both in relation to the development of such equipment, as well as in evaluating the quality of data gathered from the individual patient. In this paper, we highlight some important aspects in patient acceptance by comparing results from a preliminary clinical trial with patients using a wireless ECG sensor for three days out-of-hospital service, to available published results from telehomecare projects, and discuss important aspects to be taken into account in future investigations.

  7. Extrinsic factors affecting accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters for LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managan, W.W.

    1976-08-01

    Assuming that ultrasonic flowmeters of suitable intrinsic accuracy are feasible, this report explores factors extrinsic to the flowmeter which affect the accuracy such as asymmetric flow profile, regions of high turbulence and thermal stratification. By integrating isovelocity flow profile maps, the predicted performance of various flowmeter configurations may be compared to experimental data. For the two pipe arrangements analyzed, the single diametral path flowmeter results were within 5 percent of true flow rate. Theoretical correction factors could reduce the error for the straight pipe but increased the error for asymmetrical flow. On the same pipe arrangements a four path ultrasonic flowmeter spaced for Gaussian integration gave less than 1 percent error. For more general conclusions a range of flow profiles produced by typical LMFBR piping arrangements must be analyzed

  8. Factors affecting the employability in people with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wo, Monica Chen Mun; Lim, Kheng Seang; Choo, Wan Yuen; Tan, Chong Tin

    2016-12-01

    People with epilepsy (PWE) are negatively prejudiced in their ability to work. This study aimed to examine demographic, clinical and psychological factors associated with employability in PWE. This study recruited epilepsy patients from a neurology clinic in Malaysia. Employability was measured using employment ratio, with a ratio ≥90% (ER90) classified as high employability. Basic demographic data such as age, gender, marital status, religion, education level and household income was collected. Clinical measures consisted of age of seizure onset, seizure frequency, type of epilepsy, aura, polytherapy, nocturnal seizures and seizure control. Psychological measures included Work Self-Determination Index (WSDI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Of 146 PWE, 64.4% had high employability. The participants were predominantly female (52%), Chinese (50.7%), single (50%), having tertiary education (55.5%) and focal epilepsy (72.6%). Clinically, only type of epilepsy was significantly correlated to employability of PWE. Employability of PWE was associated with ability to work (indicated by education level, work performance affected by seizures, ability to travel independently and ability to cope with stress at work) and family overprotection. The high employability group was found to have lower self-perceived stigma (ESS), higher self-determined motivation (WSDI), self-esteem (SES) and perceived social support (MSPSS), than the low employability group. Logistic regression analysis showed that tertiary education level (AOR 3.42, CI: 1.46-8.00), higher self-determination (WSDI, AOR 1.09, CI: 1.012-1.17), lower family overprotection (AOR 0.76, CI: 0.61-0.95), and generalised epilepsy (AOR 4.17, CI: 1.37-12.70) were significant predictors for higher employability in PWE. Ability to work (education level), clinical factor (type of epilepsy) and psychological factor (self-determined motivation and family

  9. COLLABORATION PRACTICE BETWEEN NURSES AND PHYSICIAN AND THE AFFECTING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwin Martiningsih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Collaboration is basically discuss about togetherness, cooperation, sharing tasks, equality, responsibility, and accountability. Purpose of this research was to learn the collaboration practice beetwen nurses and physician and the factors affecting. Method: Design of this research was correlational and comparational study, and population were the physician who work in Ngudi Waluyo Blitar hospitals, intensive cooperation with the nurse in the room, not holding structural positions and not studying, there are 19 peoples taken by total population and nurses who work in Ngudi Waluyo hospitals, not holding structural positions (Head of Division or Head of Section, having relationship with the physician and the samples were 31 peoples taken by probability proportional to size (PPS. Methods of data collection by giving questionnaire about the characteristics of respondents (nurses and physician and practice of collaboration scale. Data characteristics and attitudes of nurses and physicians about the practice of collaboration is analyzed with descriptive statistics, to know the differences between nurses and physicians attitude using mann whitney u test. To know affecting characteristic with nurses and physician attitude by multivariate analysis. Result: Results of mann whitney test p value is 0.611, which means that there is no difference between nurses and physician attitude in practice collaboration, and result of multivariate analysis the influence of nurse characteristics (age, education, functional potition, length of working with attitude are 0.460 or 46%, while 54% influenced by other factors, and the influence of physician characteristics (age, education, length of working with attitude are 0.435 or 43.5%, while 56.5% influenced by other factors. Discussion: Further need to study other factors that influence and research by observation the impact of collaboration between the nurse with physician on the service quality.

  10. Group decision-making: Factors that affect group effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Osmani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are operating in a dynamic and turbulent environment. In these conditions, they have to make decisions for new problems or situations. Most of decisions are therefore non-programmed and unstructured, accompanied by risk and uncertainty. Moreover, the problems and situations are complex. All organizations are oriented towards group decisionmaking processes, as useful tools to cope with uncertainty and complexity. Apart from the necessity, companies are turning towards participatory processes also to benefit from the important advantages that these processes offer. Organizations have realized the importance of group decision-making processes to contribute to the creation of sustainable competitive advantages. Main objective of this paper is to show that group decision-making processes do not offer guarantee for good decisions, because the effectiveness of group is affected by many factors. So, the first thing done in this paper is discussing about the benefits and limitations that accompany the use of groups with decision-making purpose. Afterwards, we stop on the different factors that influence the group’s ability to make good decisions. The aim is to emphasize that regardless of the many advantages of groups, some factors as group size, type of communication within the group, leadership style, the norms, the differentiation of roles and statuses, cohesion and compliance degree should be the main elements to keep into consideration because they affect the effectiveness of group. In this regard, is discussed how such factors influence the quality of decision and then we try to draw some conclusions that can improve and make better and easier group decision-making processes.

  11. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities

  12. Factors Affecting Husband Participation in Antenatal Care Attendance and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumaseuw, R.; Berliana, S. M.; Nursalam, N.; Efendi, F.; Pradanie, R.; Rachmawati, P. D.; Aurizki, G. E.

    2018-02-01

    The government has implemented several programs to prevent and reduce a mother’s mortality rate by enhancing active role of the family. The most responsible family member on maintaining the pregnancy and delivery process is the husband. The husband must be active to take care of his wife. Active participation of the husband in accompanying his wife during pregnancy and the delivery process is one of the substantial factors, which helps the husband to take decisions related to the health of his wife. This study aimed to identify variables and its trends, which significantly affect a husband’s participation in accompanying his wife during pregnancy and the delivery process. The data used in this study was from an Indonesian Demographic Health Survey 2012. The study used binary logistic regression as the analysis method. The result showed as many as 8,237 husbands accompanied their wife in antenatal care and the delivery process. The significant variables affecting the husband participation are the age of the wife, the education of wife, the education of the husband, the occupational status of the wife and the husband, the number of children, pregnancy status, and residency region. The possibility for a husband to accompany his wife is larger in several factors, such as the wife being between the ages of 21 - 35 years old, a husband who minimally graduated from junior high school, a working husband, as well as a wife, and the number of children less than and equal to two and the expected pregnancy. The government should consider those factors to create policy related women’s health and integrate the factors into various sectors.

  13. Lifestyle factors influencing bone health in young adult women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: High soft drink intake, lack of exercising and limited calcium and vitamin D supplementation are the combined lifestyle factors leading to osteopenia and osteoporosis among young Saudi ... It is a heel water-bath ultrasound system ...

  14. Factors that affect coseismic folds in an overburden layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaogang; Cai, Yongen

    2018-03-01

    Coseismic folds induced by blind thrust faults have been observed in many earthquake zones, and they have received widespread attention from geologists and geophysicists. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding fold kinematics; however, few have studied fold dynamics quantitatively. In this paper, we establish a conceptual model with a thrust fault zone and tectonic stress load to study the factors that affect coseismic folds and their formation mechanisms using the finite element method. The numerical results show that the fault dip angle is a key factor that controls folding. The greater the dip angle is, the steeper the fold slope. The second most important factor is the overburden thickness. The thicker the overburden is, the more gradual the fold. In this case, folds are difficult to identify in field surveys. Therefore, if a fold can be easily identified with the naked eye, the overburden is likely shallow. The least important factors are the mechanical parameters of the overburden. The larger the Young's modulus of the overburden is, the smaller the displacement of the fold and the fold slope. Strong horizontal compression and vertical extension in the overburden near the fault zone are the main mechanisms that form coseismic folds.

  15. The main factor affecting the competitiveness of Contractor Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurisra; Malahayati, Nurul; Mahmuddin

    2018-05-01

    Contractor companies must have the competitive advantage to compete in maintaining the survival of the company. Problems arise because quite a lot of advantages can be used and these advantages must be used appropriately to produce competitiveness for the company to continue to compete and to win the competition. This study aims to determine the main factors affecting the competitiveness of medium-class contractors in Banda Aceh. Data collection was obtained through questionnaires distributed to 31 middle-class contractors in Banda Aceh. Data processing and analysis is done by using descriptive analysis. Based on the result of descriptive analysis, it can be concluded that the most important competitiveness factor with a mean score value 4.52 is the relationship, and the factor that has the highest mean score value is the relationship with the government of 4.97, while the result of the ranking analysis is obtained 25 factor that is critical to the competitiveness of medium-class contractors in Banda Aceh.

  16. Solitary bone plasmacytoma: outcome and prognostic factors following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebross, Robert H.; Ha, Chul S.; Cox, James D.; Weber, Donna; Delasalle, Kay; Alexanian, Raymond

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the natural history of solitary plasmacytoma of bone (SBP) after radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Between 1965-1996, we identified 57 previously untreated patients with a SBP. A serum myeloma protein was present in 33 patients (58%) and Bence Jones proteinuria was present in an additional eight patients (14%). The median radiotherapy dose was 50 Gy (range, 30-70 Gy). Overall survival, cause-specific survival, and freedom from progression to multiple myeloma were calculated actuarially. Results: Local control was achieved in 55 of 57 patients (96%). For those 29 patients (51%) who subsequently developed multiple myeloma, the median time to progression was 1.8 years. There was a direct correlation between persistence of abnormal protein following radiotherapy and the likelihood of developing multiple myeloma. Among 11 patients with disappearance of myeloma protein, only two developed multiple myeloma after 4 and 12 years, in contrast to progression in 57% of patients with a persistent protein peak and 63% of those with nonsecretory disease (p = 0.02). Among 23 patients with thoracolumbar spine disease, 7 of 8 patients staged with plain radiographs alone developed multiple myeloma in comparison with 1 of 7 patients who also had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (p = 0.08). For all patients, the median survival from radiotherapy was 11.0 years. The median cause-specific survival of patients with disappearance of myeloma protein was significantly longer than that of the remaining patients (p = 0.004). Conclusion: Results supported the importance of precise staging that includes MRI of the spine for optimum patient selection and the application of definitive radiotherapy. Those patients with myeloma protein that disappears following radiotherapy represent a category with a high likelihood of cure

  17. Reciprocal Interactions between Multiple Myeloma Cells and Osteoprogenitor Cells Affect Bone Formation and Tumor Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    to-Prevent-Bone- Cancer-Strengthen-Bones.aspx. June 30, 2014. 2. DFCI’s Magazine : Paths of Progress, Page 18-19. Spring/Summer 2015. See Appendix 3...financial interest in BIND Therapeutics, Se- lecta Biosciences, and Blend Therapeutics, three biotechnology companies developing nanoparticle technologies...Progress Spring/Summer 2015 Dana-Farber Cancer Inst i tute ArouND ThE INSTITuTE Boston magazine named 57 physicians and surgeons affiliated

  18. A magnesium based phosphate binder reduces vascular calcification without affecting bone in chronic renal failure rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Neven

    Full Text Available The alternative phosphate binder calcium acetate/magnesium carbonate (CaMg effectively reduces hyperphosphatemia, the most important inducer of vascular calcification, in chronic renal failure (CRF. In this study, the effect of low dose CaMg on vascular calcification and possible effects of CaMg on bone turnover, a persistent clinical controversy, were evaluated in chronic renal failure rats. Adenine-induced CRF rats were treated daily with 185 mg/kg CaMg or vehicle for 5 weeks. The aortic calcium content and area% calcification were measured to evaluate the effect of CaMg. To study the effect of CaMg on bone remodeling, rats underwent 5/6th nephrectomy combined with either a normal phosphorus diet or a high phosphorus diet to differentiate between possible bone effects resulting from either CaMg-induced phosphate deficiency or a direct effect of Mg. Vehicle or CaMg was administered at doses of 185 and 375 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Bone histomorphometry was performed. Aortic calcium content was significantly reduced by 185 mg/kg/day CaMg. CaMg ameliorated features of hyperparathyroid bone disease. In CRF rats on a normal phosphorus diet, the highest CaMg dose caused an increase in osteoid area due to phosphate depletion. The high phosphorus diet combined with the highest CaMg dose prevented the phosphate depletion and thus the rise in osteoid area. CaMg had no effect on osteoblast/osteoclast or dynamic bone parameters, and did not alter bone Mg levels. CaMg at doses that reduce vascular calcification did not show any harmful effect on bone turnover.

  19. Factor affecting happiness among nursing students in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, W H; Jo, M J

    2016-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Despite the increased interest in nursing students' happiness in South Korea, few studies have attempted to identify factors influencing their happiness. Therefore, nursing educators should consistently investigate the factors influencing happiness and develop strategies to improve happiness among Korean nursing students. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study confirmed that there were positive correlations between grateful disposition, social support and happiness. In addition, grateful disposition and support from intimate people were identified as predictors of happiness in Korean nursing students. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Development of intervention programmes to help nursing students increase grateful disposition and support from intimate people may be helpful for improving happiness. These programmes can include activity, such as writing a gratitude journal, and extracurricular programmes, such as mentoring programmes between seniors and juniors and/or professor and student. Introduction Happiness is very important in the training and development of nursing students as future nurses. However, nursing students experience a high level of stress and low level of happiness in South Korea. Aim This study aimed to investigate factors that affect happiness among nursing students in South Korea. Method Data were collected from a total of 241 nursing enrolled in two 4-year baccalaureate nursing programmes in South Korea, using a self-administrated questionnaire. To identify predictors of happiness, stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Results The results indicated that grateful disposition and support from intimate people significantly predict happiness among Korean nursing students. These two factors accounted for 38.0% of the variance in happiness. Discussion This study indicated grateful disposition and support from intimate people as factors promoting happiness in nursing students. The findings

  20. Physical activity and dark skin tone: protective factors against low bone mass in Mexican men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanco-Muñoz, Nalleli; Jo, Talavera; Gerardo, Huitron-Bravo; Juan, Tamayo; Clark, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 268 Mexican men between the ages of 13 and 80 yr to evaluate the association of clinical factors related with bone mass. Men from high schools, universities, and retirement homes were invited to participate. Body mass index (BMI) was measured, and bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for L1-L4 and total hip. Factors related to bone mass were assessed by questionnaire and analyzed using a logistic regression model. Demographic factors (age, education, and occupation), clinical data (BMI, skin tone, previous fracture, history of osteoporosis [OP], and history of fractures), and lifestyle variables (diet, physical activity, sun exposure, and smoking) were evaluated. Physical activity (≥ 60 min/5 times a week) reduced the risk for low BMD for age, osteopenia, and OP at the spine and total hip (odds ratio [OR]: 0.276; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.099-0.769; p=0.014; and OR: 0.184; 95% CI: 0.04-0.849; p=0.03, respectively). Dark skin tone was a protective factor, decreasing the risk by up to 70%. In this population of healthy Mexican men (aged 13-80 yr), dark skin and physical activity were protective factors against low bone mass. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of Environmental Factors and Relationships between Vanadium, Chromium, and Calcium in Human Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Lanocha-Arendarczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of environmental factors on the concentrations of vanadium (V, chromium (Cr, and calcium (Ca and to examine the synergistic or antagonistic relationships between these metals, in cartilage (C, cortical bone (CB, and spongy bone (SB samples obtained following hip joint surgery on patients with osteoarthritis in NW Poland. We found significantly higher concentrations of V and Cr in spongy bone in patients who consumed game meat and also those with prosthetic implants. Chromium levels were significantly lower in patients with kidney diseases. The greatest positive correlations were found between spongy bone V and (i the amount of consumed beer and (ii seafood diet. Correlation analysis also showed a significant correlation between Cr levels and seafood diet. To a certain extent these results indicate that the concentrations of V, Cr, and Ca in the human hip joint tissues are connected with occupational exposure, kidney diseases, diet containing game meat, sea food, beer, and the presence of implants. Furthermore, we noted new types of interactions in specific parts of the femoral head. Vanadium may contribute to the lower bone Ca levels, especially in the external parts (cartilage and cortical bone.

  2. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  3. Identification and assessment of risk factors affecting construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sayed Bassiony Ahmed Abd El-Karim

    2017-08-01

    Unexpected increase in cost and delays in construction projects are caused by owner, contractor, environments, etc. in which several types of risk factors may occur concurrently. The effect of cost overrun and schedule overrun do not only influence the construction industry but the overall economy as well. Even though construction project increasing in cost and schedule has received extensive attention of researchers, but because of continuous changes and development in the field, the study considered of added value to the construction industry in Egypt, in addition to risk strategy and plan analysis. In order to meet the deadline of a project and due to the complex nature of construction projects, cost and scheduling should be flexible enough to accommodate changes without negatively affecting the overall project cost and duration. As such, the objectives of the presented research in this paper are to identify, study, and assess the effect of the factors that affect cost and time contingency. Data are collected from sixteen construction companies in Egypt. The collected data, output charts and analyses spreadsheets will be used for the development of computerized model built by the authors with identification abbreviation RIAM.

  4. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.

  5. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, R.; Levanon, D.; Hadar, Y.; Chet, I.

    1995-01-01

    Amir, R., Levanon, D., Hadar, Y., and Chet, I. 1995. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta. Experimental Mycology 19, 61-70. Morchella esculenta was grown on square split plates, forming sclerotia on one side and mycelium on the other. After the fungus ceased to colonize and before sclerotial initials appeared, [ 14 C]3-O-methyl glucose was added to the edge of the plate on the mycelial side. The effect of various activities in the mycelium (source) and sclerotia (sink) on sclerotial formation and translocation were examined using inhibitors and water potential changes of the media. Sodium azide or cycloheximide applied separately to both sides inhibited both sclerotial formation and translocation, showing that processes in the source and sink depend on metabolic activities as well as protein synthesis. The use of nikkomycin inhibited sclerotial formation, without affecting translocation to the sclerotia. Since the hyphal tips swelled and burst, the translocated compounds were lost to the media. In a strain defective in sclerotial formation, used as a control, no translocation took place, showing that there is a connection between sclerotial formation and translocation. Reversal of the water potential gradient between the two media (lower on the mycelial side), reduced the formation of sclerotia and translocation to them. Translocation to Morchella sclerotia takes place via turgor driven mass flow, but is nevertheless affected by activities in both the source and the sink. (author)

  6. Factors affecting the reproductive potential of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folman, Y.; Rosenberg, M.; Kaim, M.

    1990-01-01

    Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P 4 ) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (≤2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (≥4.1 ng/mL) P 4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P 4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

  7. Insulin-like growth factor I has independent effects on bone matrix formation and cell replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hock, J.M.; Centrella, M.; Canalis, E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin on bone matrix synthesis and bone cell replication were studied in cultured 21-day-old fetal rat calvariae. Histomorphometry techniques were developed to measure the incorporation of [2,3- 3 H]proline and [methyl- 3 H]thymidine into bone matrix and bone cell nuclei, respectively, using autoradiographs of sagittal sections of calvariae cultured with IGF-I, insulin, or vehicle for up to 96 h. To confirm an effect on bone formation, IGF-I was also studied for its effects on [ 3 H]proline incorporation into collagenase-digestible protein (CDP) and noncollagen protein and on [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into acid-precipitable material (DNA). IGF-I at 10(-9)-10(-7) M significantly increased the rate of bone matrix apposition and CDP after 24 h by 45-50% and increased cell labeling by 8-fold in the osteoprogenitor cell zone, by 4-fold in the osteoblast cell zone, and by 2-fold in the periosteal fibroblast zone. Insulin at 10(-9)-10(-6) M also increased matrix apposition rate and CDP by 40-50%, but increased cell labeling by 2-fold only at a concentration of 10(-7) M or higher and then only in the osteoprogenitor cell zone. When hydroxyurea was added to IGF-I-treated bones, the effects of IGF-I on DNA synthesis were abolished, but the increase in bone matrix apposition induced by IGF-I was only partly diminished. In conclusion, IGF-I stimulates matrix synthesis in calvariae, an effect that is partly, although not completely, dependent on its stimulatory effect on DNA synthesis

  8. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  9. Bone involvement in adult patients affected with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller-Vainicher, C; Bassotti, A; Imeraj, A; Cairoli, E; Ulivieri, F M; Cortini, F; Dubini, M; Marinelli, B; Spada, A; Chiodini, I

    2016-08-01

    The Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is characterized by abnormal connective tissue but bone involvement is debated. We found a reduced BMD and bone quality and increased prevalence of asymptomatic vertebral fractures in eugonadal patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. These findings suggest the need of a bone health evaluation in these patients. The Ehlers-Danlos (EDS) syndrome is characterized by abnormalities of the connective tissue leading to ligamentous laxity and skin and tissue fragility. We evaluated the bone metabolism, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone quality (measured by trabecular bone score, TBS), and the prevalence of vertebral fractures (VFx) in a group of eugonadal adult EDS patients. Fifty consecutive Caucasian patients, aged 30-50 years (36 females, 14 males) with classical or hypermobility EDS and 50 age-, gender-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched control subjects were enrolled. In all subjects' calcium-phosphorous metabolism, bone turnover, BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and femur (femoral neck, FN and total femur, FT) and TBS by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the VFx presence by spine radiograph were assessed. Patients showed reduced BMD (Z-scores LS -0.45 ± 1.00, FN -0.56 ± 1.01, FT -0.58 ± 0.92) and TBS (1.299 ± 0.111) and increased prevalence of morphometric VFx (32 %) than controls (Z-scores LS 0.09 ± 1.22, FN 0.01 ± 0.97, FT 0.08 ± 0.89; TBS 1.382 ± 0.176; VFx 8 %, p <0.05 for all comparisons), while vitamin D levels, calcium-phosphorous metabolism, and bone turnover were comparable. Fractured EDS patients showed lower TBS values than non-fractured ones (1.245 ± 0.138 vs 1.325 ± 0.086, p < 0.05), despite comparable BMD. In EDS patients, the VFx presence was significantly associated with TBS even after adjusting for sex, age, BMD, EDS type, and falls frequency. EDS patients have reduced BMD and bone quality (as measured by TBS) and increased prevalence of VFx.

  10. Companion of choice at birth: factors affecting implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar; Portela, Anayda

    2017-08-31

    Two recent recommendations made by the World Health Organization confirm the benefits of companion of choice at birth on labour outcomes; however institutional practices and policies do not always support its implementation in different settings around the world. We conducted a review to determine factors that affect implementation of this intervention considering the perspectives and experiences of different stakeholders and other institutional, systemic barriers and facilitators. Forty one published studies were included in this review. Thirty one publications were identified from a 2013 Cochrane review on the effectiveness of companion of choice at birth. We also reviewed 10 qualitative studies conducted alongside the trials or other interventions on labour and birth companionship identified through electronic searches. The SURE (Supporting the Use of Research Evidence) framework was used to guide the thematic analysis of implementation factors. Women and their families expressed appreciation for the continuous presence of a person to provide support during childbirth. Health care providers were concerned about the role of the companion and possible interference with activities in the labour ward. Allocation of resources, organization of care, facility-related constraints and cultural inclinations were identified as implementation barriers. Prior to introducing companion of choice at birth, understanding providers' attitudes and sensitizing them to the evidence is necessary. The commitment of the management of health care facilities is also required to change policies, including allocation of appropriate physical space that respects women's privacy. Implementation research to develop models for different contexts which could be scaled up would be useful, including documentation of factors that affected implementation and how they were addressed. Future research should also focus on documenting the costs related to implementation, and on measuring the impact of

  11. [Factors affecting re-smoking in male workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Hoon; Ha, Hee-Sook; Kam, Sin; Lim, Ji-Seun; Kang, Yune-Sik; Lee, Duk-Hee; Chun, Byung-Yeol

    2005-05-01

    This study was performed to examine the factors affecting re-smoking in male workers. A self-administrated questionnaire survey was conducted during April 2003 to examine the smoking state of 1,154 employees of a company that launched a smoking cessation campaign in 1998. Five hundred and eighty seven persons, who had stopped smoking for at least one week, were selected as the final study subjects. This study collected data on smoking cessation success or failure for 6 months, and looked at the factors having an effect on resmoking within this period. This study employed the Health Belief Model as its theoretical basis. The re-smoking rate of the 587 study subjects who had stopped smoking for at least one week was 44.8% within the 6 month period. In a simple analysis, the resmoking rates were higher in workers with a low age, on day and night shifts, blue collar, of a low rank, where this was their second attempt at smoking cessation and for those with a shorter job duration (pHeath Belief Model, re-smoking was significantly related with the perceived susceptibility factor, economic advantages of smoking cessation among the perceived benefits factor, the degree of cessation trial's barrier of the perceived barriers factor, smoking symptom experience, recognition of the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke and the existence of chronic disease due to smoking (psmoking, the significant variables were age, perceived susceptibility for disease, economic advantages due to smoking cessation, the perceived barrier for smoking cessation, recognition on the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke, the existence of chronic disease due to smoking and the number of attempts at smoking cessation (psmoking ban policy within the work place, health education that improves the knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and the harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke will be required, as well as counter plans to reduce the barriers for smoking

  12. Hyperelastic "bone": A highly versatile, growth factor-free, osteoregenerative, scalable, and surgically friendly biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakus, Adam E; Rutz, Alexandra L; Jordan, Sumanas W; Kannan, Abhishek; Mitchell, Sean M; Yun, Chawon; Koube, Katie D; Yoo, Sung C; Whiteley, Herbert E; Richter, Claus-Peter; Galiano, Robert D; Hsu, Wellington K; Stock, Stuart R; Hsu, Erin L; Shah, Ramille N

    2016-09-28

    Despite substantial attention given to the development of osteoregenerative biomaterials, severe deficiencies remain in current products. These limitations include an inability to adequately, rapidly, and reproducibly regenerate new bone; high costs and limited manufacturing capacity; and lack of surgical ease of handling. To address these shortcomings, we generated a new, synthetic osteoregenerative biomaterial, hyperelastic "bone" (HB). HB, which is composed of 90 weight % (wt %) hydroxyapatite and 10 wt % polycaprolactone or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), could be rapidly three-dimensionally (3D) printed (up to 275 cm(3)/hour) from room temperature extruded liquid inks. The resulting 3D-printed HB exhibited elastic mechanical properties (~32 to 67% strain to failure, ~4 to 11 MPa elastic modulus), was highly absorbent (50% material porosity), supported cell viability and proliferation, and induced osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells cultured in vitro over 4 weeks without any osteo-inducing factors in the medium. We evaluated HB in vivo in a mouse subcutaneous implant model for material biocompatibility (7 and 35 days), in a rat posterolateral spinal fusion model for new bone formation (8 weeks), and in a large, non-human primate calvarial defect case study (4 weeks). HB did not elicit a negative immune response, became vascularized, quickly integrated with surrounding tissues, and rapidly ossified and supported new bone growth without the need for added biological factors. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Lifestyle factors influencing bone health in young adult women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To analyze risk factors leading to osteopenia and osteoporosis among young female students. Methods: Quantitative Ultrasonography measurements were performed in the calcaneal region of 101 young Saudi females. Dietary habits, exercising and sun exposure were assessed using questionnaires. The association ...

  14. Markers of bone metabolism are affected by renal function and growth hormone therapy in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Anke; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Bayazit, Aysun Karabay; Canpolat, Nur; Duzova, Ali; Sözeri, Betül; Bacchetta, Justine; Balat, Ayse; Büscher, Anja; Candan, Cengiz; Cakar, Nilgun; Donmez, Osman; Dusek, Jiri; Heckel, Martina; Klaus, Günter; Mir, Sevgi; Özcelik, Gül; Sever, Lale; Shroff, Rukshana; Vidal, Enrico; Wühl, Elke; Gondan, Matthias; Melk, Anette; Querfeld, Uwe; Haffner, Dieter; Schaefer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The extent and relevance of altered bone metabolism for statural growth in children with chronic kidney disease is controversial. We analyzed the impact of renal dysfunction and recombinant growth hormone therapy on a panel of serum markers of bone metabolism in a large pediatric chronic kidney disease cohort. Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), sclerostin and C-terminal FGF-23 (cFGF23) normalized for age and sex were analyzed in 556 children aged 6-18 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 10-60 ml/min/1.73 m2. 41 children receiving recombinant growth hormone therapy were compared to an untreated matched control group. Standardized levels of BAP, TRAP5b and cFGF-23 were increased whereas sclerostin was reduced. BAP was correlated positively and cFGF-23 inversely with eGFR. Intact serum parathormone was an independent positive predictor of BAP and TRAP5b and negatively associated with sclerostin. BAP and TRAP5B were negatively affected by increased C-reactive protein levels. In children receiving recombinant growth hormone, BAP was higher and TRAP5b lower than in untreated controls. Sclerostin levels were in the normal range and higher than in untreated controls. Serum sclerostin and cFGF-23 independently predicted height standard deviation score, and BAP and TRAP5b the prospective change in height standard deviation score. Markers of bone metabolism indicate a high-bone turnover state in children with chronic kidney disease. Growth hormone induces an osteoanabolic pattern and normalizes osteocyte activity. The osteocyte markers cFGF23 and sclerostin are associated with standardized height, and the markers of bone turnover predict height velocity.

  15. Timing of growth hormone treatment affects trabecular bone microarchitecture and mineralization in growth hormone deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Erika; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Morck, Douglas W; Boyd, Steven K

    2010-08-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is essential in the development of bone mass, and a growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in childhood is frequently treated with daily injections of GH. It is not clear what effect GHD and its treatment has on bone. It was hypothesized that GHD would result in impaired microarchitecture, and an early onset of treatment would result in a better recovery than late onset. Growth hormone deficient homozygous (lit/lit) mice of both sexes were divided into two treatment groups receiving daily injections of GH, starting at an early (21 days of age) or a late time point (35 days of age, corresponding to the end of puberty). A group of heterozygous mice with normal levels of growth hormone served as controls. In vivo micro-computed tomography scans of the fourth lumbar vertebra were obtained at five time points between 21 and 60 days of age, and trabecular morphology and volumetric BMD were analyzed to determine the effects of GH on bone microarchitecture. Early GH treatment led to significant improvements in bone volume ratio (p=0.006), tissue mineral density (p=0.005), and structure model index (p=0.004) by the study endpoint (day 60), with no detected change in trabecular thickness. Trabecular number increased and trabecular separation decreased in GHD mice regardless of treatment compared to heterozygous mice. This suggests fundamental differences in the structure of trabecular bone in GHD and GH treated mice, reflected by an increased number of thinner trabeculae in these mice compared to heterozygous controls. There were no significant differences between the late treatment group and GHD mice except for connectivity density. Taken together, these results indicate that bone responds to GH treatment initiated before puberty but not to treatment commencing post-puberty, and that GH treatment does not rescue the structure of trabecular bone to that of heterozygous controls. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors Affecting Healthful Eating Among Touring Popular Musicians and Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Erin; Kelly, Patrick; Kress, Kathleen; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining good health is essential for touring musicians and singers. The stressful demands of touring may impact food choices, leading to detrimental effects on health and performance. This exploratory pilot study aimed to assess factors affecting healthful eating of touring musicians and singers. A 46-item survey was used to assess food- and nutrition-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviors, and environmental factors, as well as lifestyle, musical background, and demographic data. Participants (n=35) were recruited from a musicians' assistance foundation as well as touring musical theater productions and a music festival. Results indicate that touring musicians and singers had positive attitudes regarding healthful foods. Of 35 respondents, 80.0% indicated eating healthful food was important to them. Respondents reported feeling confident selecting (76.5%) and preparing (82.4%) healthful foods; however, they showed uncertainty when determining if carbohydrate-containing foods should be consumed or avoided. Respondents indicated environmental factors including availability and cost of healthy food options and tour schedules limited access to healthful foods. Venues (73.5%), fast food restaurants (67.6%), and airports (64.7%) were the most frequently identified locations in need of offering more healthful food choices. Respondents (52.9%) indicated more support from others while touring would help them make healthier food choices. More research is needed to develop mobile wellness programs as well as performance-based nutrition guidelines for musicians and singers that address the unique demands associated with touring.

  17. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  18. Risk factors affecting chronic rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Jae Jung

    2014-03-01

    Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We analyzed risk factors causing plantar fascia rupture in the presence of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed 286 patients with plantar fasciitis who were referred from private clinics between March 2004 and February 2008. Patients were divided into those with or without a plantar fascia rupture. There were 35 patients in the rupture group and 251 in the nonrupture group. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for plantar fascia rupture were compared between the 2 groups. We compared age, gender, the affected site, visual analog scale pain score, previous treatment regimen, body mass index, degree of ankle dorsiflexion, the use of steroid injections, the extent of activity, calcaneal pitch angle, the presence of a calcaneal spur, and heel alignment between the 2 groups. Of the assessed risk factors, only steroid injection was associated with the occurrence of a plantar fascia rupture. Among the 35 patients with a rupture, 33 had received steroid injections. The odds ratio of steroid injection was 33. Steroid injections for plantar fasciitis should be cautiously administered because of the higher risk for plantar fascia rupture. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  19. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.

  20. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  1. Factors Affecting Accidents Risks among Truck Drivers In Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshamly Ahmed Fathalla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is ranked among the countries with the highest rates of road accidents. According to the American Chamber of Commerce more than 96% of Egypt's goods are transported by trucks and due to their large volume and excessive weight, the severity and number of truck accident fatalities are much higher than other vehicles in Egypt. The present study aims at identifying truck driver's behavior and its influence on crash involvement. Due to the shortage in recording accident data and the inaccurate road accident audit, data was collected from several governorates in Egypt through questionnaire. Questionnaire forms were filled out through personal interviews with truck drivers. The total number of respondents was 643. The final analysis was made on the 615 questionnaires with complete answers. The data was analyzed and logistic regression was applied to accident related data to examine the contributing factors affecting accident occurrence of truck drivers. Results showed that fatigue in terms of driving hours (continuous and total and lack of sleep, drug use during driving, and driver obesity are the most influencing factors on the occurrence of truck accidents in Egypt. The findings of this research highlight the important role human factors have on the risk of crash involvement amongst Egypt's truck drivers and the need to improve their work conditions.

  2. Cytokines, growth, and environment factors in bone marrow plasma of acute lymphoblastic leukemia pediatric patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kováč, M.; Vášková, M.; Petráčková, Denisa; Pelková, V.; Mejstříková, E.; Kalina, T.; Žaliová, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2014), s. 8-13 ISSN 1148-5493 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR9531 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia * bone marrow plasma * cytokine Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.960, year: 2014

  3. Genetic sharing with cardiovascular disease risk factors and diabetes reveals novel bone mineral density loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Reppe (Sjur); Y. Wang (Yunpeng); W.K. Thompson (Wesley K.); L.K. McEvoy (Linda K.); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); V. Zuber (Verena); M. Leblanc (Marissa); F. Bettella (Francesco); I.G. Mills (Ian G.); R.S. Desikan (Rahul S.); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); A.M. Dale (Anders); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei (Ling); O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James F); V. Aalto (Ville); M. Alen (Markku); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted (Lise Bjerre); K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. Lacroix (Andrea Z.); S.H. Lee (Seung Hun); P.C. Leung (Ping C.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); J. Woo (Jean); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William D.); P. Lips (Paul); O. Ljunggren (Östen); R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho (José); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.S.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S.T. Palsson (Stefan Th); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K.T. Khaw; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (YongMei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak Chung); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); N.J. Wareham (Nicholas J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.W.C. Kung (Annie Wai Chee); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John P.A.); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown.

  4. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Does Not Drive New Bone Formation in Experimental Arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tok, Melissa N.; Yeremenko, Nataliya G.; Teitsma, Christine A.; Kream, Barbara E.; Knaup, Véronique L.; Lories, Rik J.; Baeten, Dominique L.; van Duivenvoorde, Leonie M.

    2016-01-01

    Insulin like growth factor (IGF)-I can act on a variety of cells involved in cartilage and bone repair, yet IGF-I has not been studied extensively in the context of inflammatory arthritis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether IGF-I overexpression in the osteoblast lineage could

  5. Effect of concentrated growth factor combined with guided bone regeneration on cell proliferation and bone resorption in patients with severe periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Gao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of concentrated growth factor (CGF combined with guided bone regeneration on cell proliferation and bone resorption in patients with severe periodontitis. Methods: Patients with severe periodontitis who were treated in Stomatology Department of Shenmu Hospital between May 2014 and February 2017 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into two groups, surgery + CGF group received concentrated growth factor combined with guided bone regeneration, and pure surgery group received guided bone regeneration. The contents of inflammatory response, cell proliferation and bone resorption markers in gingival crevicular fluid were determined 1 week after treatment. Results: 1 week after treatment, HMGB1, ICAM1, E-selectin, Smac, FasL, Caspase-8, Caspase-9, Caspase-3, RANKL and NTX contents in gingival crevicular fluid of surgery + CGF group were significantly lower than those of pure surgery group while PD-L1, hBD-3, Wnt3a, BGP and OPG contents were significantly higher than those of pure surgery group. Conclusion: Concentrated growth factor combined with guided bone regeneration for severe periodontitis can inhibit inflammatory response, apoptosis and bone resorption, which is beneficial to the reconstruction of periodontal tissue.

  6. Factors modifying the toxicity of total body irradiation (TBI) with bone marrow transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, B.L.; Moulder, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    In defined-flora, barrier-maintained rats, radiation nephritis is the principle late toxicity seen after single dose, high dose rate TBI with bone marrow transplant. Shielding the kidneys eliminates this late toxicity. If rats are exposed to a conventional microbiological environment during and after TBI and bone marrow transplant, the principle late toxicity is pneumonitis. Low dose rate TBI gives similar renal toxicity but at doses twice as large. Clinically, TBI and bone marrow transplant is preceded by intensive drug treatment, typically with cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) and cytosine arabinoside (ara-C). Pretreatment with a standard cytoxan/ara-C regimen, has no effect on the gastrointestinal toxicity of TBI, but results in a decrease in marrow toxicity. Late renal toxicity still occurs when bone marrow transplants are given, but it is to early to determine whether drug treatment has affected late renal tolerance. Experiments are also underway to determine the effects of fractionated TBI (3, 6 and 9 fractions in 60 hours) on acute tolerance and on late tolerance after bone marrow transplantation

  7. Protein growth factors loaded highly porous chitosan scaffold: A comparison of bone healing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Samit K., E-mail: samitnandi1967@gmail.com [Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata (India); Kundu, Biswanath, E-mail: biswa_kundu@rediffmail.com [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR—Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Basu, Debabrata [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR—Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2013-04-01

    Present study aimed to investigate and compare effectiveness of porous chitosan alone and in combination with insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in bone healing. Highly porous (85 ± 2%) with wide distribution of macroporous (70–900 μm) chitosan scaffolds were fabricated as bone substitutes by employing a simple liquid hardening method using 2% (w/v) chitosan suspension. IGF-1 and BMP-2 were infiltrated using vacuum infiltration with freeze drying method. Adsorption efficiency was found to be 87 ± 2 and 90 ± 2% for BMP-2 and IGF-1 respectively. After thorough material characterization (pore details, FTIR and SEM), samples were used for subsequent in vivo animal trial. Eighteen rabbit models were used to evaluate and compare control (chitosan) (group A), chitosan with IGF-1 (group B) and chitosan with BMP-2 (group C) in the repair of critical size bone defect in tibia. Radiologically, there was evidence of radiodensity in defect area from 60th day (initiated on 30th day) in groups B and C as compared to group A and attaining nearly bony density in most of the part at day 90. Histological results depicted well developed osteoblastic proliferation around haversian canal along with proliferating fibroblast, vascularization and reticular network which was more pronounced in group B followed by groups C and A. Fluorochrome labeling and SEM studies in all groups showed similar outcome. Hence, porous chitosan alone and in combination with growth factors (GFs) can be successfully used for bone defect healing with slight advantage of IGF-1 in chitosan samples. - Highlights: ► Fabrication and characterization of porous chitosan with or without IGF-1 and BMP-2 ► Highly porous growth factor loaded chitosan studied in animal subjects for 3 months ► Parameters studied: histopathology, radiology and fluorochrome labeling ► IGF-1 loaded porous chitosan found to be very effective for bone defect healing.

  8. Protein growth factors loaded highly porous chitosan scaffold: A comparison of bone healing properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Samit K.; Kundu, Biswanath; Basu, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    Present study aimed to investigate and compare effectiveness of porous chitosan alone and in combination with insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in bone healing. Highly porous (85 ± 2%) with wide distribution of macroporous (70–900 μm) chitosan scaffolds were fabricated as bone substitutes by employing a simple liquid hardening method using 2% (w/v) chitosan suspension. IGF-1 and BMP-2 were infiltrated using vacuum infiltration with freeze drying method. Adsorption efficiency was found to be 87 ± 2 and 90 ± 2% for BMP-2 and IGF-1 respectively. After thorough material characterization (pore details, FTIR and SEM), samples were used for subsequent in vivo animal trial. Eighteen rabbit models were used to evaluate and compare control (chitosan) (group A), chitosan with IGF-1 (group B) and chitosan with BMP-2 (group C) in the repair of critical size bone defect in tibia. Radiologically, there was evidence of radiodensity in defect area from 60th day (initiated on 30th day) in groups B and C as compared to group A and attaining nearly bony density in most of the part at day 90. Histological results depicted well developed osteoblastic proliferation around haversian canal along with proliferating fibroblast, vascularization and reticular network which was more pronounced in group B followed by groups C and A. Fluorochrome labeling and SEM studies in all groups showed similar outcome. Hence, porous chitosan alone and in combination with growth factors (GFs) can be successfully used for bone defect healing with slight advantage of IGF-1 in chitosan samples. - Highlights: ► Fabrication and characterization of porous chitosan with or without IGF-1 and BMP-2 ► Highly porous growth factor loaded chitosan studied in animal subjects for 3 months ► Parameters studied: histopathology, radiology and fluorochrome labeling ► IGF-1 loaded porous chitosan found to be very effective for bone defect healing

  9. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fouzan, Rawan; Al-Ajlan, Sarah; Marwan, Yousef; Al-Saleh, Mervat

    2012-01-01

    Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students' sociodemographic and academic factors. Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7%) decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2%) students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties - 18 (12.5%), 17 (11.8%), and 16 (11.1%) students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4%) of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8%) and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3%) were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498-6.065) more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002). A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

  10. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan Al-Fouzan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results: Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7% decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2% students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%, 17 (11.8%, and 16 (11.1% students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4% of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8% and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3% were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065 more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002. Conclusion : A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

  11. Factors affecting compliance with measles vaccination in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimmasane, Maniphet; Douangmala, Somthana; Koffi, Paulin; Reinharz, Daniel; Buisson, Yves

    2010-09-24

    In line with WHO objectives, the Lao Government is committed to eliminate measles by 2012. Yet from 1992 to 2007, the annual incidence of measles remained high while the vaccination coverage showed a wide diversity across provinces. A descriptive study was performed to determine factors affecting compliance with vaccination against measles, which included qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative study used a convenience sample of 13 persons in charge of the vaccination program, consisting of officials from different levels of the health care structure and members of vaccination teams. The quantitative study performed on the target population consisted of a matched, case-control survey conducted on a stratified random sample of parents of children aged 9-23 months. Overall, 584 individuals (292 cases and 292 controls) were interviewed in the three provinces selected because of low vaccination coverage. On the provision of services side (supply), the main problems identified were a lack of vaccine supply and diluent, a difficulty in maintaining the cold chain, a lack of availability and competence among health workers, a lack of coordination and a limited capacity to assess needs and make coherent decisions. In the side of the consumer (demand), major obstacles identified were poor knowledge about measles immunization and difficulties in accessing vaccination centers because of distance and cost. In multivariate analysis, a low education level of the father was a factor of non-immunization while the factors of good compliance were high incomes, spacing of pregnancies, a feeling that children must be vaccinated, knowledge about immunization age, presenting oneself to the hospital rather than expecting the mobile vaccination teams and last, immunization of other family members or friends' children. The main factors affecting the compliance with vaccination against measles in Laos involve both the supply side and the demand side. Obtaining an effective

  12. SOME ENVIRONMENTEAL FACTORS AFFECTING BROILER HOUSING IN WINTER SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850.2 W/ºC , 0.34 kg /h. ºC and 308.9 kJ/h. kg at the first week of age to 6213.4 W/ºC , 0.36 kg /h. ºC and 19.3 kJ/h. kg at the end of the life respectively

  13. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  14. Analysis of factors affecting the effect of stope leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wangnan; Dong Chunming

    2014-01-01

    The industrial test and industrial trial production of stope leaching were carried out at Taoshan orefield of Dabu deposit. The results of test and trial production showed obvious differences in leaching rate and leaching time. Compared with industrial trial production of stope leaching, the leaching rate of industrial test was higher, and leaching time was shorter. It was considered that the blasting method and liquid arrangement were the main factors affecting the leaching rate and leaching time according to analysis. So we put forward the following suggestions: the technique of deep hole slicing tight-face blasting was used to reduce the yield of lump ores, the effective liquid arrangement methods were adopted to make the lixiviant infiltrating throughout whole ore heap, and bacterial leaching was introduced. (authors)

  15. Factors and mechanisms affecting corrosion of steel in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehqanian, Ch.

    1986-01-01

    Atomic power plants possess reinforced concrete structures which are exposed to sea water or sea atmosphere. Sea water or its surrounding environment contain very corrosive species which cause corrosion of metal in concrete. It should be mentioned that corrosion of steel in concrete is a complex problem that is not completely understood. Some of the factors which influence the corrosion mechanism and can be related to the pore solution composition is discussed. Chloride ion caused problems are the main source of the corrosion damage seen on the reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion rate in concrete varies and depends on the way chloride ion diffuses into concrete. In addition, the associated cations can influence diffusion of chloride into concrete. The type of portland cement and also the concrete mix design all affect the corrosion behaviour of steel in concrete

  16. Analysis of Factors Affecting Inflation in Indonesia: an Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Ratna Wulan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors affecting inflation. The research is descriptive quantitative in nature. The data used are reported exchange rates, interest rates, money supply and inflation during 2008-2012. The research data was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed in the year 2008-2012 the condition of each variable are (1 the rate of inflation has a negative trend, (2 the interest rate has a negative trend, (3 the money supply has a positive trend, (4 the value of exchange rate has a positive trend. The test results by using multiple linear regression analysis result that variable interest rates, the money supply and the exchange rate of the rupiah significant effect on the rate of inflation.

  17. An Analysis on the Contextual Factors Affecting Motivation in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>For us Chinese,a foreign language is something to be acquired as a kind of communicative tool,so we can infer that an effective way in SLA(Second Language Acquisition) must be learning the target language in a communicative context.A communicative context certainly concerns not only the interactional classroom activities designed in accordance with some stated curriculum tasks to lead the L2 students to learning swimming by swimming,but also other relevant elements which have a lot to do with all the situational,interactional and cultural contexts.In order to lessen some potential sources of conflict between L2 teacher and L2 learner,this article is an attempt to urge a careful study on the contextual factors affecting motivation in SLA.

  18. Factors affecting the electrostatic charge of ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorite, I.; Romero, J.; Fernandez, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of electrostatic charge in ceramic powders takes place when the particle surfaces enter in contact between them or with the containers. The accumulation of electrostatic charge is of relevance in ceramic powders in view of their insulating character and the risk of explosions during the material handling. In this work the main factors that affect the appearance of intrinsic charge and tribo-charge in ceramic powder have been studied. In ceramic powders of alumina it has been verified that the smallest particle sizes present an increase of the electrostatic charge of negative polarity. A correlation has been observed between the nature of the OH -surface groups and the electrostatic charge. The intrinsic charge and the tribocharge in ceramic powders can be diminished by compensating the surface groups that support the charge. The dry dispersion of nanoparticles on microparticles allows surface charge compensation with a noticeable modification of the powder agglomeration. (Author) 19 refs.

  19. FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Buňka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ˂2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ˂30 mg.l-1; spermidine ˂10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ˂5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

  20. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2017-06-01

    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  1. Bisphosphonate treatment affects trabecular bone apparent modulus through micro-architecture rather than matrix properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2004-01-01

    and trabecular architecture independently. Conventional histomorphometry and microdamage data were obtained from the second and third lumbar vertebrae of the same dogs [Bone 28 (2001) 524]. Bisphosphonate treatment resulted in an increased apparent Young's modulus, decreased bone turnover, increased calcified...... matrix density, and increased microdamage. We could not detect any change in the effective Young's modulus of the calcified matrix in the bisphosphonate treated groups. The observed increase in apparent Young's modulus was due to increased bone mass and altered trabecular architecture rather than changes...... in the calcified matrix modulus. We hypothesize that the expected increase in the Young's modulus of the calcified matrix due to the increased calcified matrix density was counteracted by the accumulation of microdamage. Udgivelsesdato: 2004 May...

  2. The infrared spectroscopy in the study of the bone crystallinity thermally affected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, C.; Tiesler, V.; Azamar, J.A.; Alvarado G, J.J.; Quintana, P.

    2006-01-01

    Bone is made up by both organic and inorganic components. Among the latter stands out hydroxyapatite (HAP), composed by hexagonal crystallites arranged in a laminar form. The size of the hydroxyapatite crystals may be altered by different conditions, among those figures thermal exhibition, since during burning the bone eliminates organic matrix and thus promotes the crystallization process of the material. An experimental series was designed to measure crystallinity, in which pig bone remains were burnt at different temperatures and analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). By means of analogy a comparison was made between the infrared spectra in order to compare with the ones obtained from the archaeological samples, coming from the Classic period Maya sites of Calakmul and Becan, Campeche. (Author)

  3. Risk factors that affect metabolic health status in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaogullari, Selin; Demirel, Fatma; Hatipoglu, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    While some obese children are metabolically healthy (MHO), some have additional health problems, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, which increase mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. These children are metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. In this study we assessed the factors that affect metabolic health in obesity and the clinical and laboratory findings that distinguish between MHO and MUO children. In total, 1085 patients aged 6-18 years, with age- and sex-matched BMI exceeding the 95th percentile were included in the study (mean 11.1±2.9 years, 57.6% female, 59.7% pubertal). Patients without dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, or hypertension were considered as MHO. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL, triglyceride over 150 mg/dL, LDL over 130 mg/dL, or HDL under 40 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model of assesment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Hepatosteatosis was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound. Duration of obesity, physical activity and nutritional habits, screen time, and parental obesity were questioned. Thyroid and liver function tests were performed. Six hundred and forty-two cases (59.2%) were MUO. Older age, male sex, increased BMI-SDS, and sedentary lifestyle were associated with MUO. Excessive junk food consumption was associated with MUO particularly among the prepubertal obese patients. Our results revealed that the most important factors that affect metabolic health in obesity are age and BMI. Positive effects of an active lifestyle and healthy eating habits are prominent in the prepubertal period and these habits should be formed earlier in life.

  4. Factors affecting sorption of radiocobalt by river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Din, M.R.E.; Ramadan, A.B.; Atta, E.R.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the principal factors affecting the interaction of radio cobalt with fresh water sediments and their importance for migration of radio cobalt in surface water streams. The uptake percent (U%) of radio cobalt by Ismailia Cannal bottom sediments (ICUBS) have been studied as a function of contact time, ph, competing ion, carrier concentration and natural ligands such as humic acid using batch technique. Mineralogical analyses of the sediment samples were carried out. The amount sorbed per gram sediment, (X/m), increased as the carrier concentration increased from 10 -8 mol. Following a Freundlich type isotherm. The uptake of radio cobalt was found to be affected by changing in the ph of the aqueous phase. Presence of Mg 24 ions as competing cation decreases the sorption of 60 Co. Presence of humic acid shows a slight effect on the sorption of 60 Co. Desorption of the investigated metal ion from the loaded sediment samples was also studied. A mathematical model for the migration of the investigated radioisotope in Ismailia canal water stream was developed to predict the concentrations of cobalt ion at different distances in X-direction

  5. Factors Affecting Antenatal Corticosteroid Administration from the Obstetricians’ Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Kurtoğlu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the factors affecting antenatal corticosteroid administration from the obstetricians’ viewpoint. STUDY DESIGN: The pregnant women who delivered between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation were divided into two groups: Group 1, pregnant patients given corticosteroid therapy; Group 2, pregnant patients who were not given corticosteroid therapy. The indications for delivery, gestational week at administration, dosing, residence and manner of transfer of the patients to the tertiary center, and the interval between admission to hospital and delivery were evaluated. RESULTS: The percentage of patients who received antenatal corticosteroid treatment was 68.4%, whereas 31.6% of the pregnant women didn’t receive corticosteroid therapy. The most common indications for preterm delivery were preterm labor and severe preeclampsia. The interval between admission to hospital and delivery was significantly higher in group 1. CONCLUSION: Even though obstetricians are aware of the importance of corticosteroid treatment in preterm deliveries, indications for impending delivery can affect administration of the therapy.

  6. Factors affecting the diagnostic delay in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellura, Eleonora; Spataro, Rossella; Taiello, Alfonsa Claudia; La Bella, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    Although amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relentlessly progressive disorder, early diagnosis allows a prompt start with the specific drug riluzole and an accurate palliative care planning. ALS at onset may however mimic several disorders, some of them treatable (e.g., multifocal motor neuropathy) or epidemiologically more frequent (e.g., cervical myelopathy). To study the delay from onset to diagnosis in a cohort of ALS patients and to the variables that may affect it. We performed a retrospective analysis of the diagnostic delays in a cohort of 260 patients affected by ALS (M/F = 1.32) followed at our tertiary referral ALS Center between 2000 and 2007. The median time from onset to diagnosis was 11 months (range: 6-21) for the whole ALS cohort, 10 months (range: 6-15) in bulbar-onset (n = 65) and 12 months (range: 7-23) in spinal-onset (n = 195) patients (p = 0.3). 31.1% of patients received other diagnoses before ALS and this led to a significant delay of the correct diagnosis in this group (other diagnoses before ALS, n = 81: median delay, 15 months [9.75-24.25] vs ALS, n = 179, median delay, 9 months [6-15.25], p heuristics might represent an important contributing factor. Furthermore, the length of the differential diagnosis from other disorders and delays in referral to the neurologist seems to be positively associated with the delay in diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors affecting jail detention of defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Annette; Otto, Randy; Finch, Jacquelyn; Ringhoff, Daniel; Kimonis, Eva R

    2010-01-01

    The movement of defendants through the legal process who have been adjudicated incompetent to proceed is little studied, yet it is important. The purpose of this study was to provide empirical data regarding factors that affected the amount of time defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed and ordered to undergo hospitalization remained in jail while awaiting transfer to a state hospital. Statewide data collected in Florida between July 2005 and June 2008 were used to determine the lengths of time incompetent defendants spent at certain stages in the legal process. The addition of forensic bed capacity following media attention and litigation resulted in a significant decrease in the amount of time defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed waited in jail for transfer to a state hospital for treatment. The amount of time it took for completed commitment orders to be submitted to the state mental health authority by the Clerks of Court of each county accounted for a meaningful portion of days defendants spent in jail awaiting transfer to a state hospital, with considerable variation across counties with respect to waiting times. These findings reflect how various stakeholders can affect the amount of time defendants spend in jail while awaiting hospitalization. These issues are discussed in the context of controversy related to Florida's forensic mental health system, as well as issues related to the political process and funding of the state's mental health authority. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Hoof position during limb loading affects dorsoproximal bone strains on the equine proximal phalanx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Ellen; Garcia, Tanya; Stover, Susan

    2015-07-16

    Sagittal fractures of the proximal phalanx (P1) in the racehorse appear to be associated with turf racing surfaces, which are known to restrict forward slide of the foot at impact. We hypothesized that restriction of forward foot slip would result in higher P1 bone strains during metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) hyperextension. Unilateral limbs from six equine cadavers were instrumented with strain gauges and bone reference markers to measure dorsoproximal P1 bone strains and MCPJ extension, collateromotion and axial rotation during in vitro limb loading to 10,500 N. By limiting movement of the distal actuator platform, three different foot conditions (forward, free, and restricted) were applied in a randomised block design. Bone reference markers, recorded by video, were analyzed to determine motion of P1 relative to MC3. Rosette strain data were reduced to principal and shear magnitudes and directions. A mixed model ANOVA determined the effect of foot position on P1 bone strains and MCPJ angles. At 10,000 N load, the restricted condition resulted in higher P1 axial compressive (p=0.015), maximum shear (p=0.043) and engineering shear (p=0.046) strains compared to the forward condition. The restricted condition had higher compressive (p=0.025) and lower tensile (p=0.043) principal strains compared to the free condition. For the same magnitude of principal or shear strains, axial rotation and collateromotion angles were greatest for the restricted condition. Therefore, the increase in P1 principal compressive and shear bone strains associated with restricted foot slip indicate that alterations in foot:ground interaction may play a role in fracture occurrence in horses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationship between biological marker factors and the bone metastasis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Lingjing; Liang Changhua; Li Xinhui; Deng Haoyu; Hu Shuo; Duan Huaxin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between biological marker factors and the bone metastasis in breast cancer to instruct the follow-up of breast cancer patients. Methods: One hundred and fifteen breast cancer patients proved by histological examination after surgery were involved. To detect nm23 protein, C-erbB-2 protein, estrogen receptor (ER), progestogen receptor (PR) expression of their excised breast cancer tissue, immunohistochemical procedures were used. The relationship between biological marker factors and the bone metastasis in breast cancer was analyzed. All patients were examined by radioisotope whole body bone imaging during the follow-up. Results: The results were that the clinical staging, the status of axillary lymph nodes, the expression of nm23 protein, C-erbB-2 protein, ER were related to the bone metastasis in breast cancer, while the age, the mode of operation and the expression of PR were not. Conclusion: Colligating analysis of clinical, pathological status and biological marker factors is very important for the prediction of the prognosis and the direction of the follow-up in breast cancer patients after surgery

  10. Prognostic factors affecting the survival of patients with multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, age, sex, Durie and Salmon staging, lytic lesions, serum immunoglobulin concentration, urine Bence Jones protein, percentage of plasma cells in the bone marrow, proteinuria, and type of chemotherapy given were not significantly associated with survival. A strong prediction of survival was found by grouping the ...

  11. Altering adsorbed proteins or cellular gene expression in bone-metastatic cancer cells affects PTHrP and Gli2 without altering cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Page

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The contents of this data in brief are related to the article titled “Matrix Rigidity Regulates the Transition of Tumor Cells to a Bone-Destructive Phenotype through Integrin β3 and TGF-β Receptor Type II”. In this DIB we will present our supplemental data investigating Integrin expression, attachment of cells to various adhesion molecules, and changes in gene expression in multiple cancer cell lines. Since the interactions of Integrins with adsorbed matrix proteins are thought to affect the ability of cancer cells to interact with their underlying substrates, we examined the expression of Integrin β1, β3, and β5 in response to matrix rigidity. We found that only Iβ3 increased with increasing substrate modulus. While it was shown that fibronectin greatly affects the expression of tumor-produced factors associated with bone destruction (parathyroid hormone-related protein, PTHrP, and Gli2, poly-l-lysine, vitronectin and type I collagen were also analyzed as potential matrix proteins. Each of the proteins was independently adsorbed on both rigid and compliant polyurethane films which were subsequently used to culture cancer cells. Poly-l-lysine, vitronectin and type I collagen all had negligible effects on PTHrP or Gli2 expression, but fibronectin was shown to have a dose dependent effect. Finally, altering the expression of Iβ3 demonstrated that it is required for tumor cells to respond to the rigidity of the matrix, but does not affect other cell growth or viability. Together these data support the data presented in our manuscript to show that the rigidity of bone drives Integrinβ3/TGF-β crosstalk, leading to increased expression of Gli2 and PTHrP.

  12. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed quality, crop year, planting date (even in the same crop year, and planting location. Most varieties (except for Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 had significantly higher isoflavone content when planted in early rather than in late dry season. Additionally, seed viability as well as long-term storage at 10∘C or at ambient condition seemed unlikely to affect isoflavone content in Thai soybean varieties. Isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand depends on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Some varieties (Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 exhibited moderately high isoflavone content regardless of sowing date. Soybeans with decreased seed viability still retained their isoflavone content.

  13. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  14. Factors Affecting Mortality in Elderly Patients Hospitalized for Nonmalignant Reasons

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    Teslime Ayaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elderly population is hospitalized more frequently than young people, and they suffer from more severe diseases that are difficult to diagnose and treat. The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting mortality in elderly patients hospitalized for nonmalignant reasons. Demographic data, reason for hospitalization, comorbidities, duration of hospital stay, and results of routine blood testing at the time of first hospitalization were obtained from the hospital records of the patients, who were over 65 years of age and hospitalized primarily for nonmalignant reasons. The mean age of 1012 patients included in the study was 77.8 ± 7.6. The most common reason for hospitalization was diabetes mellitus (18.3%. Of the patients, 90.3% had at least a single comorbidity. Whilst 927 (91.6% of the hospitalized patients were discharged, 85 (8.4% died. Comparison of the characteristics of the discharged and dead groups revealed that the dead group was older and had higher rates of poor general status and comorbidity. Differences were observed between the discharged and dead groups in most of the laboratory parameters. Hypoalbuminemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypopotassemia, hypernatremia, hyperuricemia, and high TSH level were the predictors of mortality. In order to meet the health necessities of the elderly population, it is necessary to well define the patient profiles and to identify the risk factors.

  15. Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Ho; Jeong, Won Mee; Yu, Seung Hum; Lee Sun Hee; Sohn, Tae Yong

    1997-01-01

    Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future

  16. Validating YouTube Factors Affecting Learning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Yoga; Hartanto, Rudy; Suning Kusumawardani, Sri

    2018-03-01

    YouTube is often used as a companion medium or a learning supplement. One of the educational places that often uses is Jogja Audio School (JAS) which focuses on music production education. Music production is a difficult material to learn, especially at the audio mastering. With tutorial contents from YouTube, students find it easier to learn and understand audio mastering and improved their learning performance. This study aims to validate the role of YouTube as a medium of learning in improving student’s learning performance by looking at the factors that affect student learning performance. The sample involves 100 respondents from JAS at audio mastering level. The results showed that student learning performance increases seen from factors that have a significant influence of motivation, instructional content, and YouTube usefulness. Overall findings suggest that YouTube has a important role to student learning performance in music production education and as an innovative and efficient learning medium.

  17. The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.-S.; Chen, Y.-T.; Chen, W.-D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship.

  18. Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Immigrant Korean Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ji-Young; Cha, Sunkyung; Moon, Hyunjung; Ruggiero, Jeanne S; Jang, Haeran

    2016-03-01

    An increasing number of foreign-born nurses are working in the United States. Nurses' job satisfaction is a critical issue for quality patient care. The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting the job satisfaction of immigrant Korean nurses. We used a cross-sectional mailed survey design. A convenience sample (n = 105) of members of the Greater New York Korean Nurses Association currently working or had previously worked in the United States completed the questionnaires. We used hierarchical regression to test the effects of acculturation and life satisfaction on job satisfaction. Most participants were female (n = 98, 93.3%) aged 27 to 70 years (mean = 52.27 years, SD = 10.67). In the regression model, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and perceived stress predicted job satisfaction (F = 5.127, p job satisfaction. U.S. nurses need to gain insight into factors influencing job satisfaction in Korean nurses to promote retention and quality care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Factors affecting mechanical nociceptive thresholds in healthy sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalon, Elena; Maes, Dominiek; Piepers, Sofie; Taylor, Polly; van Riet, Miriam M J; Janssens, Geert P J; Millet, Sam; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-05-01

    To describe anatomical and methodological factors influencing mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) and intra-site variability in healthy sows. Prospective, randomized validation. Eight pregnant, healthy, mixed-parity sows (176-269 kg). Repeated MNT measurements were taken: 1) with a hand-held probe and a limb-mounted actuator connected to a digital algometer; 2) at nine landmarks on the limbs and tail; and 3) at 1 and 3 minute intervals. Data were analysed using linear mixed regression models. The MNTs (±SEM) of the limbs were lower with the probe (14.7 ± 1.2 N) than with the actuator (21.3 ± 1.2 N; p testing compared with day 1 (p < 0.001). The mean CV (±SE) was 38.9% (±1.1%). MNTs and intra-site variability in healthy sows were affected by several factors, indicating that this methodology requires considerable attention to detail. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  20. Factors affecting RAIU in hyperthyroidism patients: an analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Yi; Liu Jianfeng; Zhang Xiuli

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the factors affecting thyroid radioiodine uptake (RAIU) of hyperthyroidism patients. Methods; RAIU was performed in 106 hyperthyroidism patients. Some factors were studied to analyze influences on the peak of RAIU, including patients' age and sex, gland weight, taking antithyroid drugs (ATD) or not, time of ATD taking and withdrawal. Results: Patients' RAIU peak had no significant difference for different ages and sex (F=1.68, P=0.1439). If preparation was performed according to the requirements before RAIU measurement, taking ATD or not had no influence on RAIU (t=1.1362, P=0.2625). RAIU peak was different between patients whose gland weight was ≤ 30 g and >30 g. Conclusions: Age and sex have no influence on RAIU. As long as ATD was discontinued at least one week before RAIU measurement, time of taking ATD and discontinuation have no influence on RAIU, and the result of measurement coincide with that of patients who do not take medicine. RAIU peak has relation with gland weight, and RAIU of people with gland weight ≤30 g was lower than that of people with gland weight >30 g

  1. MICROECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING BANKS’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUŢU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are important cells in the economy as they have a significant role by maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. They refocus the resources from those who have surplus to those which have a deficit. Therefore, as any other enterprises, performance is highly desirable for banks and, then, it is crucial to discover what the main factors that influence this objective are. So, this paper analyzes the microeconomic factors affecting bank’s financial performance focusing on 11 entities for the period between 2003 and 2013. The performance is measured by return on assets. The independent variables used are bank’s size, financial leverage,loans to assets ratio, deposits to assets ratio, number of employees, liquidity, net result and monetary policy rate. The results show that bank’s size, loans to assets ratio and liquidity have not a significant impact on performance. Financial leverage has a negative impact, meanwhile the number of employees, deposits to assets ratio and net result have a positive effect.

  2. Study of the factors affecting radon diffusion through building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following - decay of 226 Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. Radon can originate from the deeply buried deposit beneath homes and can migrate to the surface of earth. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. It is well known that for building construction materials the porosity, permeability and the diffusion coefficient are the parameters, which can quantify the materials capability to hinder the flow of radon soil gas. An increase in porosity will provide more air space within the material for radon to travel, thus reducing its resistance to radon transport. The permeability of material describes its ability to act as a barrier to gas movement when a pressure gradient exists across it and is closely related to the porosity of material. The radon diffusion coefficient of a material quantifies the ability of radon gas to move through it when a concentration gradient is the driving force. This parameter depends upon the porosity and permeability of the medium. As diffusion process is the major contributor to indoor levels, therefore, the factors affecting the diffusion process need to be kept in consideration. Keeping this in mind the experimental arrangements have been made for control study of radon diffusion through some building materials to observe the effects of different factors viz.; compaction, grain size, temperature, humidity and the mixing of these materials etc. For the present study alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the recording of alpha tracks caused by radon gas after its diffusion through the

  3. Comprehensive Treatment of Severe Periodontal and Periimplant Bone Destruction Caused by Iatrogenic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor-Georg Zafiropoulos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental implant success requires placement after periodontal therapy, with adequate bone volume, plaque control, primary stability, control of risk factors, and use of well-designed prostheses. This report describes the surgical and prosthetic management of a patient with severe iatrogenic periodontal/periimplant bone destruction. Methods. A 55-year-old female smoker with fixed partial dentures (FPDs supported on teeth and implants presented with oral pain, swelling, bleeding, and a 10-year history of multiple implant placements and implants/prosthesis failures/replacements. Radiographs showed severe bone loss, subgingival caries, and periapical lesions. All implants and teeth were removed except implants #4 and #10 which served to retain an interim maxillary restoration. Bone defects were covered with nonresorbable dPTFE membranes. In the mandible, three new implants were placed and loaded immediately with a bar-retained temporary denture. Results. Seven months postoperatively, the bone defects were regenerated, and three additional mandibular implants were placed. All mandibular implants were splinted and loaded with a removable overdenture. Conclusions. In this case, periimplant infection and tissue destruction resulted from the lack of periodontal treatment/maintenance and failure to use evidence-based surgical and loading protocols. Combination therapy resolved the disease and the patient's severe discomfort while providing immediate function and an aesthetic solution.

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF on Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paknejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Reconstruction methods are an essential prerequisite for functional rehabilitation of the stomatognathic system. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF offers a new and potentially useful adjunct to bone substitute materials in bone reconstructive surgery. This study was carried out to investigate the influ-ence of PRGF and fibrin membrane on regeneration of bony defects with and without deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM on rabbit calvaria. Materials and Methods: Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were included in this randomized, blinded, prospective study. Four equal 3.3×6.6 mm cranial bone defects were created and immediately grafted with DBBM, PRGF+DBBM, PRGF+fibrin membrane and no treatment as control. The defects were evaluated with histologic and histomorphometric analysis performed 4 and 8 weeks later. Results: Adding PRGF to DBBM led to increased bone formation as compared with the control group in 4- and 8-week intervals. In DBBM and PRGF+fibrin membrane samples, no significant increase was seen compared to the control group. There was also a significant increase in the rate of biodegradation of DBBM particles with the addition of PRGF in the 8-week interval. Neither noti-ceable foreign body reaction nor any severe inflammation was seen in each of the specimens evaluated. Conclusion: Under the limitation of this study, adding PRGF to DBBM enhanced osteogenesis in rabbit calvarias. Applying autologous fibrin membrane in the de-fects was not helpful.

  5. Evaluation of the Effect of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF) on Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknejad, M; Shayesteh, Y Soleymani; Yaghobee, S; Shariat, S; Dehghan, M; Motahari, P

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction methods are an essential prerequisite for functional rehabilitation of the stomatognathic system. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) offers a new and potentially useful adjunct to bone substitute materials in bone reconstructive surgery. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of PRGF and fibrin membrane on regeneration of bony defects with and without deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) on rabbit calvaria. Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were included in this randomized, blinded, prospective study. Four equal 3.3×6.6 mm cranial bone defects were created and immediately grafted with DBBM, PRGF+DBBM, PRGF+fibrin membrane and no treatment as control. The defects were evaluated with histologic and histomorphometric analysis performed 4 and 8 weeks later. Adding PRGF to DBBM led to increased bone formation as compared with the control group in 4- and 8-week intervals. In DBBM and PRGF+fibrin membrane samples, no significant increase was seen compared to the control group. There was also a significant increase in the rate of biodegradation of DBBM particles with the addition of PRGF in the 8-week interval. Neither noticeable foreign body reaction nor any severe inflammation was seen in each of the specimens evaluated. Under the limitation of this study, adding PRGF to DBBM enhanced osteogenesis in rabbit calvarias. Applying autologous fibrin membrane in the defects was not helpful.

  6. Elastin-like-polypeptide based fusion proteins for osteogenic factor delivery in bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bryce; Yuan, Yuan; Koria, Piyush

    2016-07-08

    Modern treatments of bone injuries and diseases are becoming increasingly dependent on the usage of growth factors to stimulate bone growth. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a potent osteogenic inductive protein, exhibits promising results in treatment models, but recently has had its practical efficacy questioned due to the lack of local retention, ectopic bone formation, and potentially lethal inflammation. Where a new delivery technique of the BMP-2 is necessary, here we demonstrate the viability of an elastin-like peptide (ELP) fusion protein containing BMP-2 for delivery of the BMP-2. This fusion protein retains the performance characteristics of both the BMP-2 and ELP. The fusion protein was found to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as evidenced by the production of alkaline phosphatase and extracellular calcium deposits in response to treatment by the fusion protein. Retention of the ELPs inverse phase transition property has allowed for expression of the fusion protein within a bacterial host (such as Escherichia coli) and easy and rapid purification using inverse transition cycling. The fusion protein formed self-aggregating nanoparticles at human-body temperature. The data collected suggests the viability of these fusion protein nanoparticles as a dosage-efficient and location-precise noncytotoxic delivery vehicle for BMP-2 in bone treatment. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1029-1037, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Sensory factors affecting female consumers' acceptability of nail polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C; Koppel, K; Adhikari, K

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine what sensory factors impact consumers' acceptability of nail polishes, to explore how these sensory factors impact consumers' acceptability of nail polishes, to investigate whether there are any consumer segments according to their overall acceptability on different nail polishes and to scrutinize how the consumer segments are related to the sensory factors. Ninety-eight females participated in a nail polish consumer study at Kansas State University. Eight commercial products belonging to four categories - regular (REG), gel (GEL), flake (FLK) and water-based (WAT) - were evaluated. Each nail polish sample was evaluated twice by each participant in two different tasks - a task devoted to applying and evaluating the product and a task devoted to observing the appearance and evaluating the product. Pearson's correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), external preference mapping, cluster analysis and internal preference mapping were applied for data analysis. Participants' scores of overall liking of the nail polishes were similar in the application task and in the observation task. In general, participants liked the REG and GEL product samples more than the FLK and WAT samples. Among all the sensory attributes, appearance attributes were the major factors that affected participants' overall liking. Aroma seemed to be a minor factor to participants' overall liking. Some sensory attributes, such as runny, shininess, opacity, spreadability, smoothness, coverage and wet appearance, were found to drive participants' overall acceptability positively, whereas others such as pinhole, fatty-edges, blister, brushlines, pearl-like, flake-protrusion, glittery and initial-drag impacted participants' overall acceptability negatively. Four clusters of participants were identified according to their overall liking scores from both the application task and the observation task. Participants' acceptability, based on different

  8. Identifying Nonprovider Factors Affecting Pediatric Emergency Medicine Provider Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Fareed; Breslin, Kristen; Mullan, Paul C; Tillett, Zachary; Chamberlain, James M

    2017-10-31

    The aim of this study was to create a multivariable model of standardized relative value units per hour by adjusting for nonprovider factors that influence efficiency. We obtained productivity data based on billing records measured in emergency relative value units for (1) both evaluation and management of visits and (2) procedures for 16 pediatric emergency medicine providers with more than 750 hours worked per year. Eligible shifts were in an urban, academic pediatric emergency department (ED) with 2 sites: a tertiary care main campus and a satellite community site. We used multivariable linear regression to adjust for the impact of shift and pediatric ED characteristics on individual-provider efficiency and then removed variables from the model with minimal effect on productivity. There were 2998 eligible shifts for the 16 providers during a 3-year period. The resulting model included 4 variables when looking at both ED sites combined. These variables include the following: (1) number of procedures billed by provider, (2) season of the year, (3) shift start time, and (4) day of week. Results were improved when we separately modeled each ED location. A 3-variable model using procedures billed by provider, shift start time, and season explained 23% of the variation in provider efficiency at the academic ED site. A 3-variable model using procedures billed by provider, patient arrivals per hour, and shift start time explained 45% of the variation in provider efficiency at the satellite ED site. Several nonprovider factors affect provider efficiency. These factors should be considered when designing productivity-based incentives.

  9. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  10. The Bone Resorption Inhibitors Odanacatib and Alendronate Affect Post-Osteoclastic Events Differently in Ovariectomized Rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Pennypacker, Brenda L

    2014-01-01

    performed a histomorphometric study of trabecular remodeling in vertebrae of estrogen-deficient rabbits treated or not with ODN or ALN, a model where ODN, but not ALN, was previously shown to preserve bone formation. In line with our hypothesis, we found that ODN treatment compared to ALN results...

  11. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J. J.; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A; de Jong, Pim A.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and

  12. Dietary supplements and physical exercise affecting bone and body composition in frail elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de N.; Chin A Paw, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study determined the effect of enriched foods and all-around physical exercise on bone and body composition in frail elderly persons. Methods. A 17-week randomized, controlled intervention trial, following a 2 x 2 factorial design—(1) enriched foods, (2) exercise, (3) both, or (4) neither— was

  13. Plasma rich in growth factors and bone formation: a radiological and histomorphometric study in New Zealand rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Molina-Miñano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A radiographic and histomorphometric study was conducted on the influence of autologous plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF upon bone healing in surgically created defects in rabbits. Radiographically, bone regeneration was significantly greater with the use of PRGF after one month (p = 0.005, though no differences were recorded after the second month. In the histomorphometric analysis one month after surgery, the defects filled with autologous bone plus PRGF showed a greater percentage of neoformed bone (35.01 ± 5.31 than the control defects (22.90 ± 12.23, though the differences were not significant. Two months after surgery, the defects filled with autologous bone showed greater regeneration (46.04 ± 10.36% than the control defects (30.59 ± 5.69%, though the differences were not significant. The application of PRGF in the bone defects produced in New Zealand rabbits exerted a limited effect on local bone formation.

  14. Bone marrow transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia: factors associated with early mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortin, M.M.; Gale, R.P.; Kay, H.E.; Rimm, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive data were reported to the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry, Milwaukee, regarding 156 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia who were treated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation between 1978 and 1980. The minimum observation period was 15 months after transplant and most deaths occurred within the first six months. Prognostic factors were evaluated for associations with early mortality or life-threatening complications. Most early deaths were due to infections, interstitial pneumonitis, and graft-v-host disease (GVHD). Multivariate analyses disclosed five factors with significant associations with early death or a major cause of early death: (1) disease status; (2) dose-rate of irradiation; (3) drug used to prevent GVHD; (4) severity of GVHD; and (5) dose of marrow cells.It is emphasized that several of the important prognostic factors are within the control of the referring physician or the transplant team

  15. Factors affecting quality of social interaction park in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangunsong, N. I.

    2018-01-01

    The existence of social interactions park in Jakarta is an oasis in the middle of a concrete jungle. Parks is a response to the need for open space as a place of recreation and community interaction. Often the social interaction parks built by the government does not function as expected, but other functions such as a place to sell, trash, unsafe so be rarely visited by visitors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that affect the quality of social interaction parks in Jakarta by conducting descriptive analysis and correlation analysis of the variables assessment. The results of the analysis can give an idea of social interactions park based on community needs and propose the development of social interactioncity park. The object of study are 25 social interaction parks in 5 municipalities of Jakarta. The method used is descriptive analysis method, correlation analysis using SPSS 19 and using crosstab, chi-square tests. The variables are 5 aspects of Design, Plants composition: Selection type of plant (D); the beauty and harmony (Ind); Maintenance and fertility (P); Cleanliness and Environmental Health (BS); Specificity (Drainage, Multi Function garden, Means, Concern/Mutual cooperation, in dense settlements) (K). The results of analysis show that beauty is the most significant correlation with the value of the park followed by specificity, cleanliness and maintenance. Design was not the most significant variable affecting the quality of the park. The results of this study can be used by the Department of Parks and Cemeteries as input in managing park existing or to be developed and to improve the quality of social interaction park in Jakarta.

  16. Energy Balance, Myostatin, and GILZ: Factors Regulating Adipocyte Differentiation in Belly and Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingming Shi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor subfamily of transcription factors. PPARs are expressed in key target tissues such as liver, fat, and muscle and thus they play a major role in the regulation of energy balance. Because of PPAR-γ's role in energy balance, signals originating from the gut (e.g., GIP, fat (e.g., leptin, muscle (e.g., myostatin, or bone (e.g., GILZ can in turn modulate PPAR expression and/or function. Of the two PPAR-γ isoforms, PPAR-γ2 is the key regulator of adipogenesis and also plays a role in bone development. Activation of this receptor favors adipocyte differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, while inhibition of PPAR-γ2 expression shifts the commitment towards the osteoblastogenic pathway. Clinically, activation of this receptor by antidiabetic agents of the thiazolidinedione class results in lower bone mass and increased fracture rates. We propose that inhibition of PPAR-γ2 expression in mesenchymal stem cells by use of some of the hormones/factors mentioned above may be a useful therapeutic strategy to favor bone formation.

  17. Spatial distribution of osteoblast-specific transcription factor Cbfa1 and bone formation in atherosclerotic arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Killingsworth, Murray C; Lord, Reginald S A

    2008-08-01

    The mechanisms of ectopic bone formation in arteries are poorly understood. Osteoblasts might originate either from stem cells that penetrate atherosclerotic plaques from the blood stream or from pluripotent mesenchymal cells that have remained in the arterial wall from embryonic stages of the development. We have examined the frequency of the expression and spatial distribution of osteoblast-specific factor-2/core binding factor-1 (Osf2/Cbfa1) in carotid and coronary arteries. Cbfa1-expressing cells were rarely observed but were found in all tissue specimens in the deep portions of atherosclerotic plaques under the necrotic cores. The deep portions of atherosclerotic plaques under the necrotic cores were characterized by the lack of capillaries of neovascularization. In contrast, plaque shoulders, which were enriched by plexuses of neovascularization, lacked Cbfa1-expressing cells. No bone formation was found in any of the 21 carotid plaques examined and ectopic bone was observed in only two of 12 coronary plaques. We speculate that the sparse invasion of sprouts of neovascularization into areas underlying the necrotic cores, where Cbfa1-expressing cells reside, might explain the rarity of events of ectopic bone formation in the arterial wall. This study has also revealed that Cbfa1-expressing cells contain alpha-smooth muscle actin and myofilaments, indicating their relationship with arterial smooth muscle cells.

  18. Recurrens Rates and Affecting Factors in Patients Operated for Endometrioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Eftal Taner

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate reurrens rates and affecting factors in patients operated for endometrioma.\tMATERIAL-METHOD: The cases operated for over cyst diagnosis and pathologically endometrioma diagnosis between the years 2000-2004 has been reviewed retrospectively. Cases’s age, cyst diameter, endometriosis stage and operation procedure have been recorded and the cases that have recurrence and factors affecting recurrence are evaluated.\tRESULTS: Results: 51 of 137 (37.3% cases with endometrioma that have average age of 29.1 in course of operation ± 5.4 had left side, 37 of 137(27% had right side and 49 of 137 (35.7% had bilateral endometrioma. Average diameter of endometriomas was 5.1 ±1.9 cm (1-1.5 cm. After average 3.3±1.8 years from first operation time in 42 cases(30.6% had recurrence. in the left over recurrence rate was signifciantly high (10.8% to 41.2% than right over. For recurrence rate There were no significiant diference between the 102 cases that had laparoscopy and 35 cases that had laparotomy according to cyst diameter, case ages and type of operation.\tWhen the cases were reviewed according to endometriozis staging, There were significiantly high recurrence rate at stage III (28.9% and stage IV(46.0%. With respect to the operation type, patients that had one-sided ooferektomi,relapse is not seen. Patients that had fenestration and ablation as operation, relapse rate is 52.9% significiantly higher than patients that had kistektomi (26.9%.Despite decrease in preoperative complaints (dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, chronic pelvic pain in early postoperative period, they recurred in late postoperative period. 47(56% of 84 patients who have fertility desire gave live birth unfortunately 12(14.3% of them.\tCONCLUSION: Recurrence rates were signifiantly higher in cases with lift sided endometrioma, advanced stafe of endometriosis and in patient udergone fenestration and ablation for treatment.

  19. Prognostic factors for survival of women with unstable spinal bone metastases from breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Robert; Bruckner, Thomas; Bostel, Tilman; Schlampp, Ingmar; Debus, Juergen; Rief, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Bone metastases are an important clinical issue in women with breast cancer. Particularly, unstable spinal bone metastases (SBM) are a major cause of severe morbidity and reduced quality of life (QoL) due to frequent immobilization. Radiotherapy (RT) is the major treatment modality and is capable of promoting re-ossification and improving stability. Since local therapy response is excellent, survival of these patients with unstable SBM is of high clinical importance. We therefore conducted this analysis to assess survival and to determine prognostic factors for bone survival (BS) in women with breast cancer and unstable SBM. A total population of 92 women with unstable SBM from breast cancer who were treated with RT at our department between January 2000 and January 2012 was retrospectively investigated. We calculated overall survival (OS) and BS (time between first diagnosis of bone metastases until death) with the Kaplan-Meier method and assessed prognostic factors for BS with a Cox regression model. Mean age at first diagnosis of breast cancer was 60.8 years ± SD 12.4 years. OS after 1, 2 and 5 years was 84.8, 66.3 and 50 %, respectively. BS after 1, 2 and 5 years was 62.0, 33.7 and 12 %, respectively. An age > 50 years (p < .001; HR 1.036 [CI 1.015–1.057]), the presence of a single bone metastasis (p = .002; HR 0.469 [CI 0.292–0.753]) and triple negative phenotype (p < .001; HR 1.068 [CI 0.933–1.125]) were identified as independent prognostic factors for BS. Our analysis demonstrated a short survival of women with breast cancer and unstable SBM. Age, presence of a solitary SBM and triple-negative phenotype correlated with survival. Our results may have an impact on therapeutic decisions in the future and offer a rationale for future prospective investigations

  20. Factors affecting rural volunteering in palliative care - an integrated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittall, Dawn; Lee, Susan; O'Connor, Margaret

    2016-12-01

    To review factors shaping volunteering in palliative care in Australian rural communities using Australian and International literature. Identify gaps in the palliative care literature and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Proquest, Scopus, Sage Premier, Wiley online, Ovid, Cochran, Google Scholar, CINAHL and Informit Health Collection. The literature was synthesised and presented in an integrated thematic narrative. Australian Rural communities. While Australia, Canada, the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) are leaders in palliative care volunteer research, limited research specifically focuses on volunteers in rural communities with the least occurring in Australia. Several interrelated factors influence rural palliative care provision, in particular an increasingly ageing population which includes an ageing volunteer and health professional workforce. Also current and models of palliative care practice fail to recognise the innumerable variables between and within rural communities such as distance, isolation, lack of privacy, limited health care services and infrastructure, and workforce shortages. These issues impact palliative care provision and are significant for health professionals, volunteers, patients and caregivers. The three key themes of this integrated review include: (i) Geography, ageing rural populations in palliative care practice, (ii) Psychosocial impact of end-end-of life care in rural communities and (iii) Palliative care models of practice and volunteering in rural communities. The invisibility of volunteers in rural palliative care research is a concern in understanding the issues affecting the sustainability of quality palliative care provision in rural communities. Recommendations for future Australian research includes examination of the suitability of current models of palliative care practice in addressing the needs of rural communities; the recruitment

  1. Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yoshihisa

    1991-01-01

    The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169 Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198 Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

  2. Factors affecting the diffusion of online end user literature searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, J S

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at those institutions were surveyed by mail with electronic mail follow-up. Multiple regression analysis was performed. The survey yielded a 41% response rate with electronic mail follow-up being particularly effective. Two dependent variables, internal diffusion (spread of diffusion) and infusion (depth of diffusion), were measured. There was little correlation between them, indicating they measured different things. Fifteen independent variables clustered into three attribute sets were measured. The innovation attributes set was significant for both internal diffusion and infusion. Significant individual variables were visibility for internal diffusion and image enhancement effects (negative relation) as well as visibility for infusion (depth of diffusion). Organizational attributes were also significant predictors for both dependent variables. No individual variables were significant for internal diffusion. Communication, management support (negative relation), rewards, and existence of champions were significant for infusion. Marketing attributes were not significant predictors. Successful diffusion of online end user literature searching is dependent on the visibility of the systems, communication among, rewards to, and peers of possible users who promote use (champions). Personal image enhancement effects have a negative relation to infusion, possibly because the use of intermediaries is still seen as the more luxurious way to have searches done. Management support also has a negative relation to

  3. Factors affecting the adoption of quality assurance technologies in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, John

    2013-01-01

    In the light of public concern and of strong policy emphasis on quality and safety in the nursing care of patients in hospital settings, this paper aims to focus on the factors affecting the adoption of innovative quality assurance technologies. Two sets of complementary literature were mined for key themes. Next, new empirical insights were sought. Data gathering was conducted in three phases. The first involved contact with NHS Technology Hubs and other institutions which had insights into leading centres in quality assurance technologies. The second phase was a series of telephone interviews with lead nurses in those hospitals which were identified in the first phase as comprising the leading centres. The third phase comprised a series of face to face interviews with innovators and adopters of healthcare quality assurance technologies in five hospital trusts. There were three main sets of findings. First, despite the strong policy push and the templates established at national level, there were significant variations in the nature and robustness of the quality assurance toolkits that were developed, adapted and adopted. Second, in most of the adopting cases there were important obstacles to the full adoption of the toolkits that were designed. Third, the extent and nature of the ambition of the developers varied dramatically - some wished to see their work impacting widely across the health service; others had a number of different reasons for wanting to restrict the impact of their work. The general concerns about front-line care and the various inquiries into care quality failures emphasise the need for improved and consistent care quality assurance methodologies and practice. The technology adoption literature gives only partial insight into the nature of the challenges; this paper offers specific insights into the factors inhibiting the full adoption of quality assurance technologies in ward-based care.

  4. Risk factors affecting injury severity determined by the MAIS score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sara; Amorim, Marco; Couto, Antonio

    2017-07-04

    Traffic crashes result in a loss of life but also impact the quality of life and productivity of crash survivors. Given the importance of traffic crash outcomes, the issue has received attention from researchers and practitioners as well as government institutions, such as the European Commission (EC). Thus, to obtain detailed information on the injury type and severity of crash victims, hospital data have been proposed for use alongside police crash records. A new injury severity classification based on hospital data, called the maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS), was developed and recently adopted by the EC. This study provides an in-depth analysis of the factors that affect injury severity as classified by the MAIS score. In this study, the MAIS score was derived from the International Classification of Diseases. The European Union adopted an MAIS score equal to or greater than 3 as the definition for a serious traffic crash injury. Gains are expected from using both police and hospital data because the injury severities of the victims are detailed by medical staff and the characteristics of the crash and the site of its occurrence are also provided. The data were obtained by linking police and hospital data sets from the Porto metropolitan area of Portugal over a 6-year period (2006-2011). A mixed logit model was used to understand the factors that contribute to the injury severity of traffic victims and to explore the impact of these factors on injury severity. A random parameter approach offers methodological flexibility to capture individual-specific heterogeneity. Additionally, to understand the importance of using a reliable injury severity scale, we compared MAIS with length of hospital stay (LHS), a classification used by several countries, including Portugal, to officially report injury severity. To do so, the same statistical technique was applied using the same variables to analyze their impact on the injury severity classified according to LHS

  5. Biomaterials and bone mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikavitsas, V. I.; Temenoff, J. S.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Bone is an extremely complex tissue that provides many essential functions in the body. Bone tissue engineering holds great promise in providing strategies that will result in complete regeneration of bone and restoration of its function. Currently, such strategies include the transplantation of highly porous scaffolds seeded with cells. Prior to transplantation the seeded cells are cultured in vitro in order for the cells to proliferate, differentiate and generate extracellular matrix. Factors that can affect cellular function include the cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the biochemical and the mechanical environment. To optimize culture conditions, good understanding of these parameters is necessary. The new developments in bone biology, bone cell mechanotransduction, and cell-surface interactions are reviewed here to demonstrate that bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties.

  6. [Factors affecting biological removal of iron and manganese in groundwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gang; He, Sheng-Bing; Wang, Xin-Ze

    2006-01-01

    Factors affecting biological process for removing iron and manganese in groundwater were analyzed. When DO and pH in groundwater after aeration were 7.0 - 7.5 mg/L and 6.8 - 7.0 respectively, not only can the activation of Mn2+ oxidizing bacteria be maintained, but also the demand of iron and manganese removal can be satisfied. A novel inoculating approach of grafting mature filter material into filter bed, which is easier to handle than selective culture media, was employed in this research. However, this approach was only suitable to the filter material of high-quality manganese sand with strong Mn2+ adsorption capacity. For the filter material of quartz sand with weak adsorption capacity, only culturing and domesticating Mn2+ oxidizing bacteria by selective culture media can be adopted as inoculation in filter bed. The optimal backwashing rate of biological filter bed filled with manganese sand and quartz sand should be kept at a relatively low level of 6 - 9 L/(m2 x s) and 7 -11 L/( m2 x s), respectively. Then the stability of microbial phase in filter bed was not disturbed, and iron and manganese removal efficiency recovered in less than 5h. Moreover, by using filter material with uniform particle size of 1.0 - 1.2 mm in filter bed, the filtration cycle reached as long as 35 - 38h.

  7. Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, K M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

  8. Factors affecting graded and ungraded memory loss following hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris; Sekeres, Melanie J

    2013-11-01

    This review evaluates three current theories--Standard Consolidation (Squire & Wixted, 2011), Overshadowing (Sutherland, Sparks, & Lehmann, 2010), and Multiple Trace-Transformation (Winocur, Moscovitch, & Bontempi, 2010)--in terms of their ability to account for the role of the hippocampus in recent and remote memory in animals. Evidence, based on consistent findings from tests of spatial memory and memory for acquired food preferences, favours the transformation account, but this conclusion is undermined by inconsistent results from studies that measured contextual fear memory, probably the most commonly used test of hippocampal involvement in anterograde and retrograde memory. Resolution of this issue may depend on exercising greater control over critical factors (e.g., contextual environment, amount of pre-exposure to the conditioning chamber, the number and distribution of foot-shocks) that can affect the representation of the memory shortly after learning and over the long-term. Research strategies aimed at characterizing the neural basis of long-term consolidation/transformation, as well as other outstanding issues are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Some factors affecting the in vitro culture of banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadi, T.A.N.; Khan, N.H.; Rehman, Z.U.

    2006-01-01

    Factors affecting in vitro regeneration of shoots in shoot tip explant cultures of banana cultivar 'Basrai', such as solid and liquid media, growth regulators, vitamins, and antioxidants were studied. Three-quarters strength of MS liquid medium supplemented with 17.75 micro m 6-benzyladenine (BA), 11.42 micro M indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 205 micro M adenine sulphate induced the formation of mean number of 12.3 shoots, with the mean length of 3.0 cm, after three weeks of culture. Maximum shoot multiplication (14.33) occurred in liquid medium containing 22.19 micro M BA. Addition of 2.0% activated charcoal (AC) to the liquid medium improved quality of the regenerated plants with expanded and glossy leaves, though the number of shoots was reduced (13.66). Profuse formation of roots was characteristically induced by AC. Addition of citric acid (CA) to the medium caused decline in morphogenetic expression of the cultures. (author)

  10. Statistical factors affecting the success of nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunder, S.; Stephenson, J.R.; Hochman, D.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a statistical analysis to determine the operational, financial, technical, and managerial factors that most significantly affect the success of nuclear operations. The study analyzes data for over 70 nuclear plants and 40 operating companies over a period of five years in order to draw conclusions that they hope will be of interest to utility companies and public utility commissions as they seek ways to improve rates of success in nuclear operations. Some of these conclusions will not be surprising--for example, that older plants have heavier maintenance requirements--but others are less intuitive. For instance, the observation that operators of fewer plants have lower costs suggests that any experience curve benefits associated with managing multiple nuclear facilities is overshadowed by the logistic problems of multiple facilities. After presenting a brief history of nuclear power in America, the authors outline the motivations of the study and the methodology of their analysis. They end the article with the results of the study and discuss some of the managerial implications of these findings

  11. Nonfocal renal biopsies: adequacy and factors affecting a successful outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Mark A; Atri, Mostafa; O'Malley, Martin; Jacks, Lindsay; John, Rohan; Herzenberg, Andrew; Reich, Heather; Ghai, Sangeet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors affecting the success of ultrasound-guided core biopsy of kidneys and determine the optimum number of passes. This retrospective study evaluated 484 nonfocal renal biopsies performed with 18-gauge side-notch biopsy needles. Number of biopsy passes, serum creatinine, body mass index, needle type, transplant age, kidney size, diabetic status, and operator were evaluated as predictors of the number of biopsy passes. Four hundred seventy-four biopsies (338 transplant, 136 native) were included with mean number of passes 2.87 (3.1 native vs 2.78 transplant; P = 0.002). Mean number of glomeruli yielded per pass was 6.9 (7.2 transplant vs 6.1 native; P = 0.0002) with 3 passes adequate for histological diagnosis in 84% of biopsies. Native kidney, increasing serum creatinine level, trainee biopsy operator, and use of a Temno needle were found to be independent predictors of having more than 3 biopsy passes on multivariate analysis. Age, sex, body mass index, diabetic status, and kidney size were not associated with the number of biopsy passes. The success of a nonfocal renal biopsy has many influencing variables, and in the absence of an on-site electron microscopy technologist to immediately evaluate biopsy samples, 3 passes with an 18-gauge needle would be adequate in 84% of kidneys to achieve a histological diagnosis, with 2 passes needed for transplant kidneys to meet the Banff 97 criteria.

  12. Chordoma: review of clinico radiological features and factors affecting survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, M.Y.S.

    2001-01-01

    This study reviews the clinico radiological features of cranial and sacrospinal chordomas and identifies factors affecting survival. Nineteen patients seen between January 1980 and December 2000 with histopathological diagnosis of chordomas were retrospectively reviewed with reference to clinical presentation, imaging features, treatment modalities and post-therapy status. Eight had tumours in the skull base while 11 patients had spinal and sacro-coccygeal lesions. Surgical resection was performed in 16 patients whose subsequent natural history was used to identify clinical indicators that may influence survival. Completeness of resection, age, gender and postoperative irradiation were subjected to analysis using the Cox proportional hazard models. Kaplan-Meir survival curves illustrate the survival distributions. Diplopia and facial pain are prime clinical presentations in cranial lesions, while extremity weakness and a sacrogluteal mass are common complaints in the sacrospinal group. Lesional calcifications are present in 40% while an osteolytic soft tissue mass is detectable by CT in all cases. Heterogeneous signals and internal septations on T 2 -weighted MRI are predominant features. In sacrospinal tumours, complete excision with adjuvant radiotherapy achieves the best results with a disease-free survival of more than 5 years. The clinical and imaging findings in this study are in accordance with those of other series. Except for complete surgical excision followed by radiotherapy in the subset of patients with sacrospinal tumours, none of the other clinical indicators show a statistical significant influence on survival. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  13. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  14. Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

  15. Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Regina S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    1994-01-01

    Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species. Experimental Mycology, 18, 230-246. Twelve isolates representing four species of Colletotrichum were transformed either by enhanced protoplast, restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI), or electroporation-mediated protocols. The enhanced protoplast transformation protocol resulted in 100- and 50-fold increases in the transformation efficiencies of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. magna , respectively. REMI transformation involved the use of Hin dIII and vector DNA linearized with HindIII to increase the number of integration events and potential gene disruptions in the fungal genome. Combining the enhanced protoplast and the REMI protocols resulted in a 22-fold increase in the number of hygromycin/nystatin-resistant mutants in C. lindemuthianum . Electroporation-mediated transformation was performed on mycelial fragments and spores of four Colletotrichum species, resulting in efficiencies of up to 1000 transformants/μg DNA. The pHA1.3 vector which confers hygromycin resistance contains telomeric sequences from Fusarium oxysporum , transforms by autonomous replication and genomic integration, and was essential for elevated transformation efficiencies of 100 to 10,000 transformants/μg DNA. Modifications of pHA1.3 occurred during bacterial amplification and post fungal transformation resulting in plasmids capable of significantly elevated transformation efficiencies in C. lindemuthianum.

  16. Mechanical factors affecting reliability of pressure components (fatigue, cracking)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebey, J.; Garnier, C.; Roche, R.; Barrachin, B.

    1978-01-01

    The reliability of a pressure component can be seriously affected by the formation and development of cracks. The experimental studies presented in this paper are devoted to three different aspects of crack propagation phenomena which have been relatively little described. In close connection with safety analyses of PWR, the authors study the influence of the environment by carrying out fatigue tests with samples bathed in hot pressurized water. Ferritic, austenitic and Incolloy 800 steels were used and the results are presented in the form of fatigue curves in the oligocyclic region. The second part of the paper relates to crack initiation cirteria in ductile steels weakened by notches. The CT samples used make it possible to study almost all types of fracture (ductile, intermediate and brittle). The use of two criteria based on the load limit and on the toughness of the material constitutes a practical way of evaluating crack propagation conditions. A series of tests carried out on notched spherical vessels of different size shows that large vessels are relatively brittle; fast unstable fracture is observed as size increases. Crack growth rate in PWR primary circuits (3/6 steel) is studied on piping elements (0.25 scale) subjected to cyclic stress variations (285 0 C and with pressure varying between 1 and 160 bar in each cycle). By calculating the stress intensity factor, correlation with results obtained in the laboratory on CT samples is possible. (author)

  17. Non-auditory factors affecting urban soundscape evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; Hong, Joo Young; Cabrera, Densil

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  18. Factors Affecting Rural Households’ Resilience to Food Insecurity in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboubakr Gambo Boukary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Niger faces many natural and human constraints explaining the erratic evolution of its agricultural production over time. Unfortunately, this is likely to cause a decline in the food supply. This study attempts to identify factors affecting rural households’ resilience to food insecurity in Niger. For this, we first create a resilience index by using principal component analysis and later apply structural equation modeling to identify its determinants. Data from the 2010 National Survey on Households’ Vulnerability to Food Insecurity done by the National Institute of Statistics is used. The study shows that asset and social safety net indicators are significant and have a positive impact on households’ resilience. Climate change approximated by long-term mean rainfall has a negative and significant effect on households’ resilience. Therefore, to strengthen households’ resilience to food insecurity, there is a need to increase assistance to households through social safety nets and to help them gather more resources in order to acquire more assets. Furthermore, early warning of climatic events could alert households, especially farmers, to be prepared and avoid important losses that they experience anytime an uneven climatic event occurs.

  19. Some factors affecting acceptance of family planning in Manus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avue, B; Freeman, P

    1991-12-01

    This paper examines selected factors affecting the acceptance and delivery of modern family planning from health centres in Manus. A survey was carried out of mothers attending Maternal and Child Health clinics and a written questionnaire was given to health workers. The survey of mothers demonstrated the importance of the husband's approval for contraceptive practice and showed that knowledge about traditional methods of family planning is widespread. The health workers' questionnaire demonstrated a high level of dissatisfaction with the current family planning program delivered by health clinics: 45% found the program ineffective; 68% wrote that health workers' attitudes discouraged mothers from attending for family planning. The perceived and actual benefits and costs of children and the role of men should be assessed locally before planning future family planning programs. Widespread retraining and motivating of health workers is essential if improved coverage is to be achieved through health services. The efficacy of alternative methods of delivery of family planning such as local community-based and social marketing programs should also be investigated.

  20. Potential factors affecting accumulation of unsupported 210Pb in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailović, Aleksandra; Vučinić Vasić, Milica; Todorović, Nataša; Hansman, Jan; Vasin, Jovica; Krmar, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    Airborne 210 Pb, daughter of 222 Rn, is frequently used as a tracer in different studies concerning atmospheric transport, sedimentation, soil erosion, dating, etc. Concentration of 210 Pb was measured in 40 soil samples collected in urban and industrial areas in order to get evidence of possible influence of some factors on accumulation of airborne 210 Pb in soil. Different soil properties such as the content of organic matter, free CaCO 3 , and available phosphorus (P 2 O 5 ) were measured to explore their possible correlation with the amount of 210 Pb. Special attention was given to the correlation between 210 Pb and stable lead accumulated in the soil. Several samples were taken near a battery manufacturer to check if extremely high concentrations of lead can affect the uptake of the airborne 210 Pb in soil. Soil samples were also taken at different depths to investigate the penetration of lead through the soil. - Highlights: • 210 Pb and 137 Cs were measured in samples of urban soil. • Organic matter, free CaCO 3 content, available phosphorus, and lead were measured in soil samples. • There is no statistically significant correlation between 210 Pb and lead, CaCO 3 and phosphorus. • A strong positive correlation between 210 Pb and organic matter was observed