Sample records for factors accident investigation

  1. Accidents - personal factors

    Zaitsev, S.L.; Tsygankov, A.V.


    This paper evaluates influence of selected personal factors on accident rate in underground coal mines in the USSR. Investigations show that so-called organizational factors cause from 80 to 85% of all accidents. About 70% of the organizational factors is associated with social, personal and economic features of personnel. Selected results of the investigations carried out in Donbass mines are discussed. Causes of miner dissatisfaction are reviewed: 14% is caused by unsatisfactory working conditions, 21% by repeated machine failures, 16% by forced labor during days off, 14% by unsatisfactory material supply, 16% by hard physical labor, 19% by other reasons. About 25% of miners injured during work accidents are characterized as highly professionally qualified with automatic reactions, and about 41% by medium qualifications. About 60% of accidents is caused by miners with less than a 3 year period of service. About 15% of accidents occurs during the first month after a miner has returned from a leave. More than 30% of accidents occurs on the first work day after a day or days off. Distribution of accidents is also presented: 19% of accidents occurs during the first 2 hours of a shift, 36% from the second to the fourth hour, and 45% occurs after the fourth hour and before the shift ends.

  2. Accident investigation and analysis

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.


    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next ste

  3. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    Klinestiver, L.R.


    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  4. Investigating Prevalence of deaths from Traffic Accidents and Factors Associated with it in Yazd in 2009

    Gh Soltani


    Conclusion: This study findings provide useful information for setting priorities in order to prevent the traffic accidents injuries. In addition, appropriate intervention programs are necessary in order to prevent traffic accidents and their complications, as well as to minimize injuries in accordance with other relevant organizations.

  5. Definition of Investigative Areas for Human-Factor Aspects of Aircraft Accidents.


    ACINCE MANA6GMENT DISCUSSED IS WAEEOTETI~liN FATIGAE PIRM DESCUSSED OF SKILL FAT1G6U RECOMMENDATINS NME INCIDENCE COSTS. A FACTOR 0% Sf 452 MIEAP OUN ES...thought processes and/ or muscular reflexes are retarded to the point that the pilot cannot meet the workload deirands of a flight. 0 Overconfidence - A

  6. Factors associated with road accidents among Brazilian motorcycle couriers.

    da Silva, Daniela Wosiack; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Soares, Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas; Matsuo, Tiemi; de Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno


    The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with reports of road accidents, among motorcycle couriers in two medium-sized municipalities in southern Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire was answered by motorcycle couriers that had worked for at least 12 months in this profession. The outcomes analyzed were reports on accidents and serious accidents over the 12 months prior to the survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses by means of logistic regression were carried out to investigate factors that were independently associated with the outcomes. Seven hundred and fifty motorcycle couriers, of mean age 29.5 years (standard deviation = 8.1 ), were included in the study. Young age (18 to 24 years compared to ≥ 25 years, odds ratio [OR] = 1.77) speeding (OR = 1.48), and use of cell phones while driving (OR = 1.43) were factors independently associated with reports of accidents. For serious accidents, there was an association with alternation of work shifts (OR = 1.91) and speeding (OR = 1.67). The characteristics associated with accidents-personal (young age), behavioral (use of cell phones while driving and speeding), and professional (speeding and alternation of work shifts)-reveal the need to adopt wide-ranging strategies to reduce these accidents, including better work conditions for these motorcyclists.




    Full Text Available

    Introduction. Car accident mortality is the third order causes of death in the USA, following cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Given present survival and outcome Iranian data, more than 14,000 patients die annually in road accidents. Having a valid and reliable data could be useful in reduce mortality and morbidity reduction.
    Methods. Twenty five percent of total traumatic patients in Isfahan were selected (N=2809 at the time of study (1997-1998. Forty five percent of them with car accident were asked about causes of accidents and risk factors for the severity and type of injuries were recorded based on International Classification of Disease 10.
    Results. Most of the victims were young (10-20 years old, students and industrial workers. Statistically unreasonable numbers of cars without extension of roads and high ways, using old and unsafe cars will affects on accidents.
    Discussion. In comparison with European and some Asian countries, Iran has unacceptable road accidents and it seems necessary to pay more attention to stop the current increasing data.


  8. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz


    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  9. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz


    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics.Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  10. Factors associated with the severity of construction accidents: The case of South Australia

    Jantanee Dumrak


    Full Text Available While the causes of accidents in the construction industry have been extensively studied, severity remains an understudied area. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on severity, this study analysed 24,764 construction accidents reported during 2002-11 in South Australia. A conceptual model developed through literature uses personal characteristics such as age, experience, gender and language. It also employs work-related factors such as size of organization, project size and location, mechanism of accident and body location of the injury. These were shown to discriminate why some accidents result in only a minor severity while others are fatal. Factors such as time of accident, day of the week and season were not strongly associated with accident severity. When the factors affecting severity of an accident are well understood, preventive measures could be developed specifically to those factors that are at high risk.


    D. D. Selioukov


    Full Text Available The paper considers problems on better traffic safety at government, authority, engineering and driver activity levels, account of road conditions while investigating traffic accidents. The paper also provides road defects mentioned in forensic transport examinations of traffic accidents.

  12. Students’ driving behaviour as a risk factor of road accidents

    Zografakis-Sfakianakis M


    Full Text Available IntroductionRoad accidents are considered to be a public health problem since they have been massively adverse consequences in demography. Since there is a human loss, especially of young people, the problem should be investigated extensively. The driving behaviour (either alone or in combination with other factors is the most important cause of road accidents for 80-90%.Purpose Investigating students’ driving behaviour (culture of a technological educational institute and how positively or negatively they take actions, preventing themselves of accidents.Material and Method400 questionnaires were supplemented. The questionnaire was consisted of 18 closed type questions, created by the research group using bibliographical sources. The data were analyzed using the x2 test, in all cases, statistical significant was considered the two-tailed P<0,05.Results A 21,7% of students has driven the previous 7 days having consumed alcohol while 57% has been passengers. Men’s alcohol consumption has showed increased infringement (93,3% in relation to women (6,7%. (x2=53,983; p <0,001. In other crucial provisions of road traffic regulation, violation was found which exceeds 50% (speeding, wrong lane driving, etc.. The highest percentage, without a safety belt or a helmet -never or and rarely - are male drivers (x2=12,074; P=0,017.It was found that a particularly large percentage of students (61% were involved in a traffic accident. From those, who have been involved in a traffic accident, as drivers (97 students, as guilty pleaded 26,8%, while non-guilty 73,2%. Statistically males were a high majority (x2=23,425; p <0,001. The traffic accident occurred during their student years in percentage of 47,5%. 18,8% of students have been transferred to hospital as a casualty of a traffic accident. ConclusionIt is confirmed once again that the concepts of 'dangerous driving behaviour" and "young" are compatible. Male students have increased risk behaviour, mainly

  13. Factors Associated with Road Accidents among Brazilian Motorcycle Couriers

    da Silva, Daniela Wosiack; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; Soares,Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula; Mathias,Thais Aidar de Freitas; Matsuo, Tiemi; de Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno


    The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with reports of road accidents, among motorcycle couriers in two medium-sized municipalities in southern Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire was answered by motorcycle couriers that had worked for at least 12 months in this profession. The outcomes analyzed were reports on accidents and serious accidents over the 12 months prior to the survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses by means of logistic regression were carried ou...

  14. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja


    , attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders...

  15. Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors

    Cookson, Simon


    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

  16. The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident final report of the AESJ investigation committee

    Atomic Energy Society of Japan


    The Magnitude 9 Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, followed by a massive tsunami struck  TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and triggered an unprecedented core melt/severe accident in Units 1 – 3. The radioactivity release led to the evacuation of local residents, many of whom still have not been able to return to their homes. As a group of nuclear experts, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan established the Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to investigate and analyze the accident from scientific and technical perspectives for clarifying the underlying and fundamental causes, and to make recommendations. The results of the investigation by the AESJ Investigation Committee has been compiled herewith as the Final Report. Direct contributing factors of the catastrophic nuclear incident at Fukushima Daiichi NPP initiated by an unprecedented massive earthquake/ tsunami – inadequacies in tsunami measures, severe accident ma...

  17. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations

    Lundberg, J.; Rollenhagen, C.; Hollnagel, E.;


    . This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective...

  18. Aircraft Accident Investigation at ARL: The First 50 Years


    it is significant. Hercule Poirot - The Murder on the Links ( Agatha Christie , 1923) -92- Arrange your facts. Arrange your ideas. And if some little...The Murder on the Links ( Agatha Christie , 1923) -93- APPENDIX 1 CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF ARL PUBLICATIONS ON AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION 1. T.F.C

  19. Research on the framework of safety recommendations for human factor in aviation accident investigation%航空事故调查中人的因素安全建议框架研究

    霍志勤; 谢孜楠; 张永一


    Unsafe acts of human in aviation accidents were analyzed systemically. The errors were classified into sense and perceptual errors, memory error, decision-making error and skill error. Violation were classified into routine and exceptional violation. The dimensions for human factor intervention were organization and management,human/team, technology, task and the environment. After preliminary recommendations were made to various unsafe acts, they were necessary to be assessed comprehensively and chosen in accordance with the feasibility, acceptability, cost and effectiveness. Practical study showed that human factors intervention matrix provides an effective tool for developing the proposed safety recommendations and the frame on aviation accident investigation has excellent adaptability.%对航空事故中人的不安全行为进行了系统分析,将失误划分为感知失误、记忆失误、决策失误、技能失误4个类别,将违章划分为习惯性违章和偶然性违章.将人的因素干预维度确定为组织管理、人/团队、技术、任务和环境.针对不安全行为制定相应的初步改进措施后,还需从措施的可行性、可接受性、经济性和有效性4个方面进行综合评估和取舍.实证研究表明,人的因素干预矩阵是制定安钱建议的有效工具,该框架具备良好的适用性.

  20. Integral Test Facility PKL: Experimental PWR Accident Investigation

    Klaus Umminger


    Full Text Available Investigations of the thermal-hydraulic behavior of pressurized water reactors under accident conditions have been carried out in the PKL test facility at AREVA NP in Erlangen, Germany for many years. The PKL facility models the entire primary side and significant parts of the secondary side of a pressurized water reactor (PWR at a height scale of 1 : 1. Volumes, power ratings and mass flows are scaled with a ratio of 1 : 145. The experimental facility consists of 4 primary loops with circulation pumps and steam generators (SGs arranged symmetrically around the reactor pressure vessel (RPV. The investigations carried out encompass a very broad spectrum from accident scenario simulations with large, medium, and small breaks, over the investigation of shutdown procedures after a wide variety of accidents, to the systematic investigation of complex thermal-hydraulic phenomena. This paper presents a survey of test objectives and programs carried out to date. It also describes the test facility in its present state. Some important results obtained over the years with focus on investigations carried out since the beginning of the international cooperation are exemplarily discussed.

  1. Factors Associated with Road Accidents among Brazilian Motorcycle Couriers

    Daniela Wosiack da Silva


    , were included in the study. Young age (18 to 24 years compared to ≥25 years, odds ratio [OR]=1.77 speeding (OR=1.48, and use of cell phones while driving (OR=1.43 were factors independently associated with reports of accidents. For serious accidents, there was an association with alternation of work shifts (OR=1.91 and speeding (OR=1.67. The characteristics associated with accidents—personal (young age, behavioral (use of cell phones while driving and speeding, and professional (speeding and alternation of work shifts—reveal the need to adopt wide-ranging strategies to reduce these accidents, including better work conditions for these motorcyclists.

  2. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Foster, R.D.; Gregory, W.S.; Horak, H.L.; Idar, E.S.; Martin, R.A.; Ricketts, C.I.; Smith, P.R.; Tang, P.K.


    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported.

  3. Techniques and Tools of NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    McDanels, Steve J.


    The Space Shuttle Columbia accident investigation was a fusion of many disciplines into a single effort. From the recovery and reconstruction of the debris, Figure 1, to the analysis, both destructive and nondestructive, of chemical and metallurgical samples, Figure 2, a multitude of analytical techniques and tools were employed. Destructive and non-destructive testing were utilized in tandem to determine if a breach in the left wing of the Orbiter had occurred, and if so, the path of the resultant high temperature plasma flow. Nondestructive analysis included topometric scanning, laser mapping, and real-time radiography. These techniques were useful in constructing a three dimensional virtual representation of the reconstruction project, specifically the left wing leading edge reinforced carbon/carbon heat protectant panels. Similarly, they were beneficial in determining where sampling should be performed on the debris. Analytic testing included such techniques as Energy Dispersive Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA), Electron Spectroscopy Chemical Analysis (ESCA), and X-Ray dot mapping; these techniques related the characteristics of intermetallics deposited on the leading edge of the left wing adjacent to the location of a suspected plasma breach during reentry. The methods and results of the various analyses, along with their implications into the accident, are discussed, along with the findings and recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Likewise, NASA's Return To Flight efforts are highlighted.

  4. Integral Test Facility PKL: Experimental PWR Accident Investigation


    Investigations of the thermal-hydraulic behavior of pressurized water reactors under accident conditions have been carried out in the PKL test facility at AREVA NP in Erlangen, Germany for many years. The PKL facility models the entire primary side and significant parts of the secondary side of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) at a height scale of 1 : 1. Volumes, power ratings and mass flows are scaled with a ratio of 1 : 145. The experimental facility consists of 4 primary loops with circul...

  5. The Human Factors of an Early Space Accident: Flight 3-65 of the X-15

    Barshi, Immanuel; Statler, Irving C.; Orr, Jeb S.


    The X-15 was a critical research vehicle in the early days of space flight. On November 15, 1967, the X-15-3 suffered an in-flight breakup. This 191st flight of the X-15 and the 65th flight of this third configuration was the only fatal accident of the X-15 program. This paper presents an analysis, from a human factors perspective, of the events that led up to the accident. The analysis is based on the information contained in the report of the Air Force-NASA Accident Investigation Board (AIB) dated January, 1968. The AIBs analysis addressed, primarily, the events that occurred subsequent to the pilot's taking direct control of the reaction control system. The analysis described here suggests that, rather than events following the pilot's switch to direct control, it was the events preceding the switch that led to the accident. Consequently, the analyses and conclusions regarding the causal factors of, and the contributing factors to, the loss of Flight 3-65 presented here differ from those of the AIB based on the same evidence. Although the accident occurred in 1967, the results of the presented analysis are still relevant today. We present our analysis and discuss its implications for the safety of space operations.

  6. Motorcycle accidents in forensic pathology. Human factors, and injury and crash tipologies

    Annalisa Lanino


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the main human factors, related to motorcycle accidents, and the accident configuration and the lesive pattern. The present study considers the 200 two-wheel crashes occurred in Italy in the Province of Pavia between 1999 and 2001. For all cases a revision of the injured people’s interviews and their clinical records has been made. All the accidents of the survey have been examined considering the traumatic lesion abscribed to the accident to assess a direct causal link between human factors and the crash tipology and the injury pattern. Chi-square test was used to evaluate the relationship between the variables and a logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association of injury severity with some variables supposed to be predictive factors. Frontal-lateral impact collisions are about 6 times more likely to be caused by a traffic scan error of the other vehicle driver (no rider than other types of crashes (OR= 5,8; p < 0,0001; IC 95%: 2,875-11,736. Contusions-abrasions show the highest percentages in motorcyclists with no coverage worn (p < 0,001 and riders with no clothing have a higher risk to be severely injured than riders with coverage, but it is not statistically significant. Instead, there is not a statistical significant association between: rider’s gender, rider’s age, riding experience and accident configuration; damaged region of the helmet and cranium injury severity.

  7. Implementing recommendations from accident investigations: a case study of inter-organisational challenges.

    Cedergren, Alexander


    In many industries, a national accident investigation board conducts investigations following major accidents. For safety improvements to be achieved, however, it is essential that the recommendations presented in these investigations are followed by necessary actions. In this paper, challenges related to implementation of recommendations from accident investigations are studied. The theoretical framework providing the foundation for the study lies at the intersection between systems safety, risk governance, and implementation research. Empirical data for the case study was collected from the Swedish railway sector. The first part of the paper presents an analysis of the extent of recommendations that have not resulted in implemented actions. The second part consists of an interview study aiming at providing a deeper understanding of the difficulties related to transforming these recommendations into actual changes. Two key factors that give rise to challenges to implementation of recommendations are identified. The first factor is related to the different actors' views on their own and other stakeholders' roles in the implementation process, and can be described as a trade-off between being insider and outsider to the industry. The second factor is related to the scope of the accident investigations and their recommendations, and can be described as a trade-off between micro-level and macro-level factors. The opportunities for implementing recommendations, and achieving safety improvements at the industry level, are affected by the ways in which the different stakeholders manage these trade-offs at the local level. This study thus mainly contributes by highlighting the importance of co-ordinating the various actors involved in the implementation process, and the results show that challenges to implementation to a large extent arise in the interactions between these actors.

  8. 32 CFR 634.30 - Use of traffic accident investigation report data.


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use of traffic accident investigation report data... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.30 Use of traffic accident investigation report data. (a) Data derived from traffic...

  9. Accident-precipitating factors for crashes in turbine-powered general aviation aircraft.

    Boyd, Douglas D; Stolzer, Alan


    General aviation (14CFR Part 91) accounts for 83% of civil aviation fatalities. While much research has focused on accident causes/pilot demographics in this aviation sector, studies to identify factors leading up to the crash (accident-precipitating factors) are few. Such information could inform on pre-emptive remedial action. With this in mind and considering the paucity of research on turbine-powered aircraft accidents the study objectives were to identify accident-precipitating factors and determine if the accident rate has changed over time for such aircraft operating under 14CFR Part 91. The NTSB Access database was queried for accidents in airplanes (engines and occurring between 1989 and 2013. We developed and utilized an accident-precipitating factor taxonomy. Statistical analyses employed logistic regression, contingency tables and a generalized linear model with Poisson distribution. The "Checklist/Flight Manual Not Followed" was the most frequent accident-precipitating factor category and carried an excess risk (OR 2.34) for an accident with a fatal and/or serious occupant injury. This elevated risk reflected an over-representation of accidents with fatal and/or serious injury outcomes (pengine aircraft are more frequent than their single engine counterparts and the decline (50%) in the turbine aircraft accident rate over the study period was likely due, in part, to a 6-fold increased representation of single engine airplanes. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify novel precursive factors for accidents involving turbine aircraft operating under 14CFR Part 91. This research highlights areas that should receive further emphasis in training/recurrency in a pre-emptive attempt to nullify candidate accident-precipitating factor(s).

  10. Human and organisational factors in maritime accidents: analysis of collisions at sea using the HFACS.

    Chauvin, Christine; Lardjane, Salim; Morel, Gaël; Clostermann, Jean-Pierre; Langard, Benoît


    Over the last decade, the shipping industry has implemented a number of measures aimed at improving its safety level (such as new regulations or new forms of team training). Despite this evolution, shipping accidents, and particularly collisions, remain a major concern. This paper presents a modified version of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System, which has been adapted to the maritime context and used to analyse human and organisational factors in collisions reported by the Marine Accident and Investigation Branch (UK) and the Transportation Safety Board (Canada). The analysis shows that most collisions are due to decision errors. At the precondition level, it highlights the importance of the following factors: poor visibility and misuse of instruments (environmental factors), loss of situation awareness or deficit of attention (conditions of operators), deficits in inter-ship communications or Bridge Resource Management (personnel factors). At the leadership level, the analysis reveals the frequent planning of inappropriate operations and non-compliance with the Safety Management System (SMS). The Multiple Accident Analysis provides an important finding concerning three classes of accidents. Inter-ship communications problems and Bridge Resource Management deficiencies are closely linked to collisions occurring in restricted waters and involving pilot-carrying vessels. Another class of collisions is associated with situations of poor visibility, in open sea, and shows deficiencies at every level of the socio-technical system (technical environment, condition of operators, leadership level, and organisational level). The third class is characterised by non-compliance with the SMS. This study shows the importance of Bridge Resource Management for situations of navigation with a pilot on board in restricted waters. It also points out the necessity to investigate, for situations of navigation in open sea, the masters' decisions in critical conditions

  11. Truck Drivers' Experiences and Perspectives Regarding Factors Influencing Traffic Accidents: A Qualitative Study.

    Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Ranjbar, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Scurlock-Evans, Laura


    Traffic accidents are a major public health problem, leading to death and disability. Although pertinent studies have been conducted, little data are available in Iran. This study explored the experiences of truck drivers and their perspectives regarding factors contributing to traffic accidents. Eighteen truck drivers, purposively sampled, participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. A main theme, lack of ability to control stress, emerged as a factor influencing the incidence of traffic accidents. This main theme was found to have three subthemes: poor organization of the job, lack of workplace facilities and proper equipment, and unsupportive environment. Although several factors were found to contribute to traffic accidents, their effects were not independent, and all were considered significant. Identifying factors that contribute to traffic accidents requires a systematic and holistic approach. Findings could be used by the transportation industry and community health centers to prevent traffic accidents.

  12. A Study of The Relationship Between The Components of The Five-Factor Model of Personality and The Occurrence of Occupational Accidents in Industry Workers

    Ehsanollah Habibi


    Full Text Available Accidents are among the most important problems of both the developed and the developing countries. Individual factors and personality traits are the primary causes of human errors and contribute to accidents. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the components of the five-factor model of personality and the occurrence of occupational accidents in industrial workers. The independent T-test indicated that there is a meaningful relationship between the personality traits and accident proneness. In the two groups of industry workers injured in occupational accidents and industry workers without any occupational accidents, there is a significant relationship between personality traits, neuroticism (p=0.001, openness to experience (p=0.001, extraversion (p=0.024 and conscientiousness (p=0.021. Nonetheless, concerning the personality trait of agreeableness (p = 0.09, the group of workers with accidents did not differ significantly from the workers without any accidents. The results showed that there is a direct and significant relationship between accident proneness and the personality traits of neuroticism and openness to experience. Furthermore, there is a meaningful but inverse correlation between accident proneness and the personality traits of extraversion and conscientiousness, while there was no relationship between accident proneness and the personality trait of agreeableness.

  13. An integrated graphic–taxonomic–associative approach to analyze human factors in aviation accidents

    Gong Lei


    Full Text Available Human factors are critical causes of modern aviation accidents. However, existing accident analysis methods encounter limitations in addressing aviation human factors, especially in complex accident scenarios. The existing graphic approaches are effective for describing accident mechanisms within various categories of human factors, but cannot simultaneously describe inadequate human–aircraft–environment interactions and organizational deficiencies effectively, and highly depend on analysts’ skills and experiences. Moreover, the existing methods do not emphasize latent unsafe factors outside accidents. This paper focuses on the above three limitations and proposes an integrated graphic–taxonomic–associative approach. A new graphic model named accident tree (AcciTree, with a two-mode structure and a reaction-based concept, is developed for accident modeling and safety defense identification. The AcciTree model is then integrated with the well-established human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS to enhance both reliability of the graphic part and logicality of the taxonomic part for improving completeness of analysis. An associative hazard analysis technique is further put forward to extend analysis to factors outside accidents, to form extended safety requirements for proactive accident prevention. Two crash examples, a research flight demonstrator by our team and an industrial unmanned aircraft, illustrate that the integrated approach is effective for identifying more unsafe factors and safety requirements.

  14. Aspects Concerning The Rules And The Investigation Of Traffic Accidents As Work Accidents

    Tarnu, Lucian Ioan


    When Romania joined the European Union, it was imposed that the Romanian legislation in the field of the security and health at work be in line with the European one. The concept of health as it is defined by the International Body of Health, refers to a good physical, mental and social condition. The improvement of the activity of preventing the traffic accidents as work accidents must have as basis the correct and accurate evaluation of risks of getting injured. The goal of the activity of prevention and protection is to ensure the best working conditions, the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases and the adjustment to the scientific and technological progress. In the road transport sector, as in any other sector, it is very important to pay attention to working conditions to ensure a workforce motivated and well qualified. Some features make it a more difficult sector risk management than other sectors. However, if one takes into account how it works in practice this sector and the characteristics of drivers and how they work routinely, risks, dangers and threats can be managed efficiently and with great success.

  15. Cerebrovascular accidents in sickle cell disease: rates and risk factors.

    Ohene-Frempong, K; Weiner, S J; Sleeper, L A; Miller, S T; Embury, S; Moohr, J W; Wethers, D L; Pegelow, C H; Gill, F M


    Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is a major complication of sickle cell disease. The incidence and mortality of and risk factors for CVA in sickle cell disease patients in the United States have been reported only in small patient samples. The Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease collected clinical data on 4,082 sickle cell disease patients enrolled from 1978 to 1988. Patients were followed for an average of 5.2 +/- 2.0 years. Age-specific prevalence and incidence rates of CVA in patients with the common genotypes of sickle cell disease were determined, and the effects of hematologic and clinical events on the risk of CVA were analyzed. The highest rates of prevalence of CVA (4.01%) and incidence (0.61 per 100 patient-years) were in sickle cell anemia (SS) patients, but CVA occurred in all common genotypes. The incidence of infarctive CVA was lowest in SS patients 20 to 29 years of age and higher in children and older patients. Conversely, the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in SS patients was highest among patients aged 20 to 29 years. Across all ages the mortality rate was 26% in the 2 weeks after hemorrhagic stroke. No deaths occurred after infarctive stroke. Risk factors for infarctive stroke included prior transient ischemic attack, low steady-state hemoglobin concentration and rate of and recent episode of acute chest syndrome, and elevated systolic blood pressure. Hemorrhagic stroke was associated with low steady-state hemoglobin and high leukocyte count.

  16. Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report



    An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress.

  17. Scoping Study Investigating PWR Instrumentation during a Severe Accident Scenario

    Rempe, J. L. [Rempe and Associates, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knudson, D. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lutz, R. J. [Lutz Nuclear Safety Consultant, LLC, Asheville, NC (United States)


    The accidents at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) and Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3 nuclear power plants demonstrate the critical importance of accurate, relevant, and timely information on the status of reactor systems during a severe accident. These events also highlight the critical importance of understanding and focusing on the key elements of system status information in an environment where operators may be overwhelmed with superfluous and sometimes conflicting data. While progress in these areas has been made since TMI-2, the events at Fukushima suggests that there may still be a potential need to ensure that critical plant information is available to plant operators. Recognizing the significant technical and economic challenges associated with plant modifications, it is important to focus on instrumentation that can address these information critical needs. As part of a program initiated by the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), a scoping effort was initiated to assess critical information needs identified for severe accident management and mitigation in commercial Light Water Reactors (LWRs), to quantify the environment instruments monitoring this data would have to survive, and to identify gaps where predicted environments exceed instrumentation qualification envelop (QE) limits. Results from the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) scoping evaluations are documented in this report. The PWR evaluations were limited in this scoping evaluation to quantifying the environmental conditions for an unmitigated Short-Term Station BlackOut (STSBO) sequence in one unit at the Surry nuclear power station. Results were obtained using the MELCOR models developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored State of the Art Consequence Assessment (SOARCA) program project. Results from this scoping evaluation indicate that some instrumentation identified to provide critical information would be exposed to conditions that

  18. [Factors associated with work-related accidents in the informal commercial sector].

    Rios, Marcela Andrade; Nery, Adriana Alves; Rios, Polianna Alves Andrade; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Cardoso, Jefferson Paixão


    This study aimed to estimate the incidence of non-fatal work-related accidents in the informal commercial sector and analyze associated socio-demographic, occupational, workplace, and health factors, in a cross-sectional survey of 434 workers in the business district of Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2013. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with accidents. Incidence of accidents in the previous 12 months was estimated at 32.3%, and multivariate analysis showed higher odds of accidents in male sex workers (OR = 1.61), young individuals (OR = 4.62), meat or poultry workers (OR = 9.55), and workers performing heavy physical work (OR = 1.71). The results show the need for public policies to prevent accidents in the informal commercial sector.

  19. Safety and Health Standard 110: Incident/accident reporting and investigation

    Sones, K. [West Kootenay Power, BC (Canada)


    Incident/accident reporting requirements in effect at West Kootenay Power are discussed. Details provided include definitions of low risk, high risk, and critical events, the incidents to be reported, the nature of the reports, the timelines, the investigation to be undertaken for each type of incident/accident, counselling services available to employees involved in serious incidents, and the procedures to be followed in accidents involving serious injury to non-employees. The emphasis is on the `critical five` high risk events and the procedures relating to them.

  20. Accident risk and factors regarding non-motorised road users

    Agerholm, Niels; Andersen, Camilla Sloth


    Almost half of all traffic fatalities worldwide are non-motorised road users (NMRUs). In Denmark, the number has increased with about 30%. NMRUs consist of about 63% of the injured in the Danish traffic. Much has been done to reduce the number of injured NMRUs with counterparts, while little effort...... is put into the reduction of the vast majority of the accidents, NMRU single accidents, which are about 90% of all injured NMRUs. There are no efficient tools available to reduce this number. A significantly better designed, maintained, and illuminated road network would most likely help. However......, that is expensive and not possible for most road authorities. Despite this, the challenges with NMRUs in single accidents need more attention, if road safety is to be improved. The situation in Denmark is more than likely the case in many other countries as well; although the documentation is scarce....

  1. The crisis of investigative Journalism in Spain. The journalism practice in the Spanair accident

    José Vicente García-Santamaría, Ph.D.


    Full Text Available The crash of the McDonnell Douglas plane operated by the Spanish airline Spanair, on 20 August 2008 at Barajas Airport, and the journalistic treatment it received undoubtedly represent a unique opportunity to address the current state of journalism in Spain. In particular, this article studies the use of information sources in a crisis situation, which requires a major effort to find the maximum number of primary and specialised sources to provide, in a short period of time, the audience with the key facts to understand the event. This accident also represents an excellent opportunity to study some practices within investigative journalism and the different factors that condition the media agenda. Finally, as in any other air tragedy, where millionaire compensations can be paid to the victims, it is important to examine the application of a series of ethical frameworks, which have been captured in deontological codes designed to assure fair journalistic practices.

  2. An Analysis of Human Causal Factors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Accidents


    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT AN ANALYSIS OF HUMAN CAUSAL FACTORS IN UNMANNED AERIAL...December 2014 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AN ANALYSIS OF HUMAN CAUSAL FACTORS IN UNMANNED...287 causal factors attributed to 68 accidents, 65 percent of the factors were associated with humans. Moreover, this study also discloses that the

  3. Accident investigation related to the use of chainsaw

    Sirio Rossano Secondo Cividino


    Full Text Available Operating in woods might be highly dangerous as it takes place in hard environments because of slopes, uneven ground and the presence of the underwood that may prevent machines and operators from moving. The chainsaw is a widely-used tool in agriculture, in forestry as well as for professional and hobby-related purposes. This article has the aim to highlight the state of injuries both for professional and domestic uses. The research focused on web-based report of news published between 2007 and 2012 about mortal and non-mortal accidents occurred in Italy and involving people who were using a chainsaw. On the whole, 336 cases were collected over a 5-year period. The results of the work are represented by a series of thematic maps related to the causative agent, the age of the injured and the seat of the injury. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the operator’s head is the most exposed area of the body and is often correlated with the death of the operator (death is often due to collision against the chainsaw blade, facial traumas as well sudden contact with parts of the plant. The study shows the dangers of chainsaw. Even workers experts are involved in serious injury and death. The study highlights the needing of looking for technical solutions and specific procedures for training unskilled worker.


    Sorana POP PĂUN


    Full Text Available Air transport is an essential part of the international society, constituting a liaison between people and continents and an important contributor to the world economy and globalization. Aircraft operation has grown in complexity needing for a safety level to be maintained and constantly grown. Along with the development of the aviation industry, the legal system in the aviation field has registered significant challenges, one of them being the claims related to air crashes which are contested. The investigation process of an accident or incident has become not only important for the safety of operations but also to the establishment of legal fault and blame. The article proposes to present the principles of conducting and accident and incident investigation, the value of the report and new developments in relation to the recent case law on the use of the accident investigation report in Court.

  5. Review of the TMI-2 accident evaluation and vessel investigation projects

    Ladekarl Thomsen, Knud


    The results of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Programme and the Vessel Investigation Project have been reviewed as part of a literature study on core meltdown and in-vessel coolability. The emphasis is placed on the late phase melt progression, which is of special relevance to the NKS-sponsored RAK-2.1 project on Severe Accident Phenomenology. The body of the report comprises three main sections, The TMI-2 Accident Scenario, Core Region and Relocation Path Investigations, and Lower Head Investigations. In the final discussion, the lower head gap formation mechanism is explained in terms of thermal contraction and fracturing of the debris crust. This model seems more plausible than the MAAP model based on creep expansion of the lower head. (au) 1 tab., 33 ills., 31 refs.

  6. Accident reduction factors and causal inference in traffic safety studies: a review.

    Davis, G A


    Accident reduction factors are used to predict the change in accident occurrence which a countermeasure can be expected to cause. Since ethical and legal obstacles preclude the use of randomized experiments when evaluating traffic safety improvements, empirical support for the causal effectiveness of accident countermeasures comes entirely from observational studies. Drawing on developments in causal inference initiated by Donald Rubin, it is argued here that the mechanism by which sites are selected for application of a countermeasure should be included as part of a study's data model, and that when important features of the selection mechanism are neglected, existing methods for estimating accident reduction factors become inconsistent. A promising, but neglected, way out of these difficulties lies in developing rational countermeasure selection methods which also support valid causal inference of countermeasure effects.

  7. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten


    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious...

  8. Analyzing the role of climatic factors on road accidents (Case study: Ardabil-Parsabad road in Ardabil Province, Iran)

    Sadegheh Alizadeh


    Road accidents and their fatalities are among the currentchallenges human society facing, which in turn resulting in huge social and economiccosts on the countries. Thedeveloping countries are the biggest victims of the road accidents such that inthese countries, road accidents are considered asthe major cause of death. Unfortunately, Iran is amongthe countries in which the rate of road accidents is high. Among thedriving factors that affect road safety and transport isclimate. Ardabil-Parsab...

  9. Risk Factors for Intracranial Haemorrhage in Accidents Associated with the Shower or Bathtub.

    Thomas C Sauter

    Full Text Available There has been little research on bathroom accidents. It is unknown whether the shower or bathtub are connected with special dangers in different age groups or whether there are specific risk factors for adverse outcomes.This cross-sectional analysis included all direct admissions to the Emergency Department at the Inselspital Bern, Switzerland from 1 January 2000 to 28 February 2014 after accidents associated with the bathtub or shower. Time, age, location, mechanism and diagnosis were assessed and special risk factors were examined. Patient groups with and without intracranial bleeding were compared with the Mann-Whitney U test.The association of risk factors with intracranial bleeding was investigated using univariate analysis with Fisher's exact test or logistic regression. The effects of different variables on cerebral bleeding were analysed by multivariate logistic regression.Two hundred and eighty (280 patients with accidents associated with the bathtub or shower were included in our study. Two hundred and thirty-five (235 patients suffered direct trauma by hitting an object (83.9% and traumatic brain injury (TBI was detected in 28 patients (10%. Eight (8 of the 27 patients with mild traumatic brain injuries (GCS 13-15, (29.6% exhibited intracranial haemorrhage. All patients with intracranial haemorrhage were older than 48 years and needed in-hospital treatment. Patients with intracranial haemorrhage were significantly older and had higher haemoglobin levels than the control group with TBI but without intracranial bleeding (p<0.05 for both.In univariate analysis, we found that intracranial haemorrhage in patients with TBI was associated with direct trauma in general and with age (both p<0.05, but not with the mechanism of the fall, its location (shower or bathtub or the gender of the patient. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified only age as a risk factor for cerebral bleeding (p<0.05; OR 1.09 (CI 1.01;1.171.In patients

  10. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran: analysis of driver-related factors

    Moafian Ghasem


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Road traffic accident (RTA and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran. This paper explores the as-sociation between driver-related factors and RTA in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20, 2010 to June 10, 2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department. We included 538 588 RTA records, which were classified to control for the main confounders: accident type, final cause of accident, time of accident and driver-related factors. Driver-related factors included sex, educational level, license type, type of injury, duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver’s error type. Results: A total of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male, sex ratio of almost 13:1 were involved in the RTAs. Among them 423 932 (78.71% were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74% had a diploma degree. Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811, 54.00%. The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59 (75 024, 13.93%. The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years’ of driving experience. Ne-glect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589, 64.17%. Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175, 25.66% and 129 352, 24.02%, respectively. We found significant association between type of acci-dent and sex, education, license type, time of accident, final cause of accident, driver’s error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P<0.001. Conclusion: Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures, which will change inappropriate be-havior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Automobile

  11. A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents

    Jørgensen, Kirsten


    an unfortunate situation which could not be helped. Most prevention analysis and investigation methods focus on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, etc. In the industrial world, such risks do give rise to disasters, albeit very seldom. Nevertheless, the fact is that simpler...

  12. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Factors in Major Maritime Accidents in the USA and Canada (1996-2006)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C, M.


    Accident reports provide important insights into the causes and contributory factors leading to particular adverse events. In contrast, this paper provides an analysis that extends across the findings presented over ten years investigations into maritime accidents by both the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and Canadian Transportation Safety Board (TSB). The purpose of the study was to assess the comparative frequency of a range of causal factors in the reporting of adverse events. In order to communicate our findings, we introduce J-H graphs as a means of representing the proportion of causes and contributory factors associated with human error, equipment failure and other high level classifications in longitudinal studies of accident reports. Our results suggest the proportion of causal and contributory factors attributable to direct human error may be very much smaller than has been suggested elsewhere in the human factors literature. In contrast, more attention should be paid to wider systemic issues, including the managerial and regulatory context of maritime operations.

  13. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran:analysis of driver-related factors

    Ghasem Moafian; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Amin Hoseinzadeh; Kamran Bagheri Lankarani; Yaser Sarikhani


    Road traffic accident (RTA)and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran.This paper explores the association between driver-related factors and RTA in the country.Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20,2010 to June 10,2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department.We included 538 588 RTA records,which were classified to control for the main confounders:accident type,final cause of accident,time of accident and driver-related factors.Driver-related factors included sex,educational level,license type,type of injury,duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver's error type.Results:Atotal of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male,sex ratio of almost 13:1) were involved in the RTAs.Among them 423 932 (78.71%) were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74%) had a diploma degree.Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811,54.00%).The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59(75 024,13.93%).The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years' of driving experience.Neglect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589,64.17%).Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175,25.66% and 129 352,24.02%,respectively).We found significant association between type of accident and sex,education,license type,time of accident,final cause of accident,driver's error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P<0.001).Conclusion:Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures,which will change inappropriate behavior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users.

  14. Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.


    Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

  15. On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors

    Sousa, A.L., E-mail: [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, A.C.O., E-mail: [Bayer Crop Science Brasil S.A., Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, J.P., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F., E-mail: [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COOPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear


    Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

  16. Applying the AcciMap methodology to investigate the tragic Sewol Ferry accident in South Korea.

    Lee, Samuel; Moh, Young Bo; Tabibzadeh, Maryam; Meshkati, Najmedin


    This study applies the AcciMap methodology, which was originally proposed by Professor Jens Rasmussen (1997), to the analysis of the tragic Sewol Ferry accident in South Korea on April 16, 2014, which killed 304 mostly young people and is considered as a national disaster in that country. This graphical representation, by incorporating associated socio-technical factors into an integrated framework, provides a big-picture to illustrate the context in which an accident occurred as well as the interactions between different levels of the studied system that resulted in that event. In general, analysis of past accidents within the stated framework can define the patterns of hazards within an industrial sector. Such analysis can lead to the definition of preconditions for safe operations, which is a main focus of proactive risk management systems. In the case of the Sewol Ferry accident, a lot of the blame has been placed on the Sewol's captain and its crewmembers. However, according to this study, which relied on analyzing all available sources published in English and Korean, the disaster is the result of a series of lapses and disregards for safety across different levels of government and regulatory bodies, Chonghaejin Company, and the Sewol's crewmembers. The primary layers of the AcciMap framework, which include the political environment and non-proactive governmental body; inadequate regulations and their lax oversight and enforcement; poor safety culture; inconsideration of human factors issues; and lack of and/or outdated standard operating and emergency procedures were not only limited to the maritime industry in South Korea, and the Sewol Ferry accident, but they could also subject any safety-sensitive industry anywhere in the world.

  17. Experimental investigations relevant for hydrogen and fission product issues raised by the Fukushima accident

    Gupta, Sanjeev [Becker Technologies GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)


    The accident at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, caused by an earthquake and a subsequent tsunami, resulted in a failure of the power systems that are needed to cool the reactors at the plant. The accident progression in the absence of heat removal systems caused Units 1-3 to undergo fuel melting. Containment pressurization and hydrogen explosions ultimately resulted in the escape of radioactivity from reactor containments into the atmosphere and ocean. Problems in containment venting operation, leakage from primary containment boundary to the reactor building, improper functioning of standby gas treatment system (SGTS), unmitigated hydrogen accumulation in the reactor building were identified as some of the reasons those added-up in the severity of the accident. The Fukushima accident not only initiated worldwide demand for installation of adequate control and mitigation measures to minimize the potential source term to the environment but also advocated assessment of the existing mitigation systems performance behavior under a wide range of postulated accident scenarios. The uncertainty in estimating the released fraction of the radionuclides due to the Fukushima accident also underlined the need for comprehensive understanding of fission product behavior as a function of the thermal hydraulic conditions and the type of gaseous, aqueous, and solid materials available for interaction, e.g., gas components, decontamination paint, aerosols, and water pools. In the light of the Fukushima accident, additional experimental needs identified for hydrogen and fission product issues need to be investigated in an integrated and optimized way. Additionally, as more and more passive safety systems, such as passive autocatalytic recombiners and filtered containment venting systems are being retrofitted in current reactors and also planned for future reactors, identified hydrogen and fission product issues will need to be coupled with the

  18. Application of Electron Microscopy Techniques to the Investigation of Space Shuttle Columbia Accident

    Shah, Sandeep


    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the investigation into the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia, and addresses the importance of a failure analysis strategy for the investigation of the Columbia accident. The main focus of the presentation is on the usefulness of electron microscopy for analyzing slag deposits from the tiles and reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) wing panels of the Columbia orbiter.

  19. An investigation of awareness on the Fukushima nuclear accident and Radioactive contamination

    Ha, Jeong Chul; Song, Young Ju [Dept. of Consumer Safety, Korea Consumer Agency, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)


    The objective of this study was to investigate Korean people's awareness about impact of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Japan and radioactive contamination caused by it. The respondents of the survey were 600 adults who resided in the Seoul metropolitan area. The survey results show that the majority of respondents were concerned about impact of radiation leakage that might have an effect on our environment. They were worried about radioactive contamination of foodstuffs, particularly fishery products and preferred to acquire information through TV(49.8%) or the Internet(31.3%). Meanwhile, respondents mentioned that the information on the Fukushima nuclear accident and radioactive contamination had not been sufficient and they didn't know well about the follow-up measures of the government on the accident. Most respondents answered that information on radioactive contamination levels and safety of foods and environment was most needed. The results of this study could be useful to enhance awareness on radioactivity and improve risk communication on nuclear power plant accidents.


    Atip Latipulhayat


    Full Text Available The main objective of an aircraft accident investigation is to find out the most probable causes of such accident. This represents a technical investigation in nature. At the practical level, however, this report is often used as legal evidence before the court. This paper argues that the main purpose of an aircraft acccident investigation is technical in nature and judicial investigation is carried out when the technical investigation found elements of crime that has been alleged as the most probable cause of the accident.   Menurut Konvensi Chicago 1944, tujuan utama suatu investigasi kecelakaan pesawat udara adalah untuk menemukan penyebab terjadinya kecelakaan tersebut. Jadi, investigasi ini bersifat teknis. Namun, laporan investigasi ini seringkali dijadikan alat bukti di pengadilan khususnya apabila faktor kesalahan manusia dianggap sebagai penyebab utama terjadinya kecelakaan tersebut. Investigasi teknis berubah menjadi investigasi yuridis. Tulisan ini berpendapat bahwa hakikat investigasi kecelakaan pesawat udara adalah bersifat teknis dan investigasi yuridis hanya akan dilakukan apabila laporan investigasi teknis menunjukkan adanya elemen kriminal.

  1. Links between accidents and lifestyle factors among Lithuanian schoolchildren.

    Starkuviene, Skirmante; Zaborskis, Apolinaras


    The aim of the study was to evaluate associations of some lifestyle factors with injuries among schoolchildren. Analysis was performed using data from the survey conducted in 2002 according to the methods of World Health Organization Cross-National Study on Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC). Using stratified random sampling, the representative sample of 5645 schoolchildren aged 11, 13, and 15 years from 104 schools of Lithuania was drawn and surveyed. Associations between potential risk factors and injuries among schoolchildren were evaluated calculating odds ratio and its 95% confidence intervals. For the evaluation of the impact of explanatory variables on analyzed event, logistic regression analysis was performed. Behavioral, psychological, and social integration factors were associated with the risk to sustain injuries among school-aged children. The impact of these factors varied within subgroups of schoolchildren by grade and sex. The most significant factors were: risk-taking behavior (smoking, alcohol and drug consumption, premature sexual activity), frequent participation in sport activities, involvement in physical fight, longer time spent away from home with friends, experienced bullying, poor self-assessed health and academic achievement, unhappiness, feeling unsafe at school, and high suicidal risk. Analysis failed to identify an expected association between lower socio-economic status and risk for injury. Integrated approach to injury etiology is essential in planning injury prevention and safety promotion activities among schoolchildren, paying particular attention to lifestyle factors, which can have the potential influence on risk to sustain injuries.

  2. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin


    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  3. Aircraft accident investigation: the decision-making in initial action scenario.

    Barreto, Marcia M; Ribeiro, Selma L O


    In the complex aeronautical environment, the efforts in terms of operational safety involve the adoption of proactive and reactive measures. The process of investigation begins right after the occurrence of the aeronautical accident, through the initial action. Thus, it is in the crisis scenario, that the person responsible for the initial action makes decisions and gathers the necessary information for the subsequent phases of the investigation process. Within this scenario, which is a natural environment, researches have shown the fragility of rational models of decision making. The theoretical perspective of naturalistic decision making constitutes a breakthrough in the understanding of decision problems demanded by real world. The proposal of this study was to verify if the initial action, after the occurrence of an accident, and the decision-making strategies, used by the investigators responsible for this activity, are characteristic of the naturalistic decision making theoretical approach. To attend the proposed objective a descriptive research was undertaken with a sample of professionals that work in this activity. The data collected through individual interviews were analyzed and the results demonstrated that the initial action environment, which includes restricted time, dynamic conditions, the presence of multiple actors, stress and insufficient information is characteristic of the naturalistic decision making. They also demonstrated that, when the investigators make their decisions, they use their experience and the mental simulation, intuition, improvisation, metaphors and analogues cases, as strategies, all of them related to the naturalistic approach of decision making, in order to satisfy the needs of the situation and reach the objectives of the initial action in the accident scenario.

  4. Environmental risk factors contributing to traffic accidents in children: a case-control study.

    Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Moradi, Ali; Majdzadeh, Reza


    The aim of this study is to identify environmental risk factors related to road accidents in children of Tehran. This case-control study was performed in 2013. The cases were injured pedestrians aged 5-15 who were admitted to major hospitals supervised by Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample size for the cases was 273 and for the control group was 546. For the completeness of the clusters, 7 extra persons in case (total = 280) and 14 persons (total = 560) in control group were included. The interference of confounding variables assessed through forward conditional logistic regression. Result shows occurrence of traffic accidents was significantly associate with the width of the alleys or (traffic congestion (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 2.6-6.4), traffic speed (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.2) and existence of pedestrian bridges(OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.6-6.8). In the light of the important role of environmental factors in the occurrence of child traffic accidents, alleviating structural risk factors in addition to education and enforcement need more systematic efforts and planning by policymakers and urban planners to attain pedestrian safety goals.

  5. Accident investigation of construction sites in Qom city using Pareto chart (2009-2012

    M. H. Beheshti


    .Conclusions: Employing Pareto charts as a method for analyzing and identification of accident causes can have an effective role in the management of work-related accidents, proper allocation of funds and time.

  6. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the prostate of coalminers of Donbas--liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I


    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in prostate of Donbas's coalminer-non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a prostatic gland changes.

  7. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the testis of coal miners of Donbas-liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I


    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in testis of Donbas's coalminer - non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident, which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a testis changes.

  8. Proposed Method for Estimating Traffic Accident Risk Factors Based on Object Tracking and Behavior Prediction Using Particle Filtering

    Natori, Youichi; Kawamoto, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Hirota, Kaoru

    A traffic accident prediction method using a priori knowledge based on accident data is proposed for safe driving support. Implementation is achieved by an algorithm using particle filtering and fuzzy inference to estimate accident risk factors. With this method, the distance between the host vehicle and a vehicle ahead and their relative velocity and relative acceleration are obtained from the results of particle filtering of driving data and are used as attributes to build the relative driving state space. The attributes are evaluated as likelihoods and then consolidated as a risk level using fuzzy inference. Experimental validation was done using videos of general driving situations obtained with an on-vehicle CCD camera and one simulated accident situation created based on the video data. The results show that high risk levels were calculated with the proposed method in the early stages of the accident situations.

  9. Analysis of Individual and Environmental Factors for Road Traffic Accidents in Sirjan-Bandarabbas Road between 2010 and 2011, Iran

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Sirjan -Bandarabbas road is one of the important commercial roads in Iran and for Sirjan’s area situation and relevance between Sirjan and other states in Iran so high percentage of goods that forwarded from Bandarabbas to other states transit from Sirjan .Therefore this road is as one important transition road and traffic road too .This study analyzed road traffic accidents were occurred between 2010 and 201in Sirjan- Bandarabbas road. Individual and demographic factors include Time of accidents, Drivers age, time of the days, seat belt and safety laws, Guilty vehicle, Mode of accident and education Level. Time of day analyses suggested that the highest percentage of road traffic injuries occurred in the time group between 12-18 hours. Drivers with the age group of 36-50 had more involvement in death accidents. The findings of this study also revealed that most of the collisions was front to back and front to side. Female drivers were found to be generally safer drivers than their male counterparts; male drivers had a higher involvement rate in road traffic accidents. This study indicated that Observe safety laws, Guilty vehicle and Mode of accidents have a meaningful relationship with Type of accidents in road traffic accidents in Sirjan Bandarabbas road.

  10. Causal Factors and Adverse Conditions of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Jones, Sharon Monica


    The causal factors of accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database and incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) database associated with loss of control (LOC) were examined for four types of operations (i.e., Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121, Part 135 Scheduled, Part 135 Nonscheduled, and Part 91) for the years 1988 to 2004. In-flight LOC is a serious aviation problem. Well over half of the LOC accidents included at least one fatality (80 percent in Part 121), and roughly half of all aviation fatalities in the studied time period occurred in conjunction with LOC. An adverse events table was updated to provide focus to the technology validation strategy of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. The table contains three types of adverse conditions: failure, damage, and upset. Thirteen different adverse condition subtypes were gleaned from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), the FAA Accident and Incident database, and the NTSB database. The severity and frequency of the damage conditions, initial test conditions, and milestones references are also provided.

  11. Investigation of relationship between mental workload and information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks in NPPs

    Ha, Chang Hoon


    The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the relationship between an operator's mental workload and the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and further to propose the information flow rate as an analytic method for measuring the mental workload. There are two types of mental workload in the advanced MCR of NPPs: the information processing workload, which is the processing that the human operator must actually perform in order to complete the diagnosis task, and emotional stress workload experienced by the operator. In this study, the focus is on the former. Three kinds of methods are used to measure the operator's workload: information flow rate, subjective methods, and physiological measures. Information flows for eight accident diagnosis tasks are modeled qualitatively using a stage model and are quantified using Conant's model. The eight accident cases are considered here are: Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR), Steam Line Break (SLB), Feedwater Line Break (FLB), Pressurizer (PZR) spray and heater failure, Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) trip, Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) failure, and PZR spray failure. The information flow rate is obtained for each diagnosis task by imposing time limit restrictions for the tasks. Subjective methods require the operators to respond to questionnaires to rate their level of mental effort. NASA-TLX and MCH scale are selected as subjective methods. NASA-TLX is a subjective method used in the various fields including the aviation, automobile, and nuclear industries. It has a multi-dimensional rating technique and provides an overall workload score based on a weighted average on six subscales using pair-wise comparison tests. MCH, on the other hand, is one-dimensional and uses a 10- point rating technique. As with NASA-TLX, the higher the score is, the higher the subjective workload is. For the physiological measurements, an eye tracking system analyzes

  12. Skidding accidents : considerations on road surface and vehicle characteristics : summary of the present situation. Provisional recommendation concerning skidding resistance of road surfaces investigation programme. Interim report of the SWOV Working Group "Tyres, road surfaces and skidding accidents"

    SWOV Working Group "Tyres, road surfaces and skidding accidents"


    This is the first report of SWOV Working Group "Tyres, road surfaces and skidding accidents". Skidding is considered to be an important contributory factor in traffic accidents. Skidding can in principle be prevented in two ways, viz: (1) reduction of the minimum necessary friction, and (2) increasi

  13. The Analysis of the Contribution of Human Factors to the In-Flight Loss of Control Accidents

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.


    In-flight loss of control (LOC) is currently the leading cause of fatal accidents based on various commercial aircraft accident statistics. As the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) emerges, new contributing factors leading to LOC are anticipated. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), along with other aviation agencies and communities are actively developing safety products to mitigate the LOC risk. This paper discusses the approach used to construct a generic integrated LOC accident framework (LOCAF) model based on a detailed review of LOC accidents over the past two decades. The LOCAF model is comprised of causal factors from the domain of human factors, aircraft system component failures, and atmospheric environment. The multiple interdependent causal factors are expressed in an Object-Oriented Bayesian belief network. In addition to predicting the likelihood of LOC accident occurrence, the system-level integrated LOCAF model is able to evaluate the impact of new safety technology products developed in AvSP. This provides valuable information to decision makers in strategizing NASA's aviation safety technology portfolio. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of human causal factors in the model, including the contributions from flight crew and maintenance workers. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) taxonomy was used to develop human related causal factors. The preliminary results from the baseline LOCAF model are also presented.

  14. Effective Factors in Severity of Traffic Accident-Related Traumas; an Epidemiologic Study Based on the Haddon Matrix

    Kambiz Masoumi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Traffic accidents are the 8th cause of mortality in different countries and are expected to rise to the 3rd rank by 2020. Based on the Haddon matrix numerous factors such as environment, host, and agent can affect the severity of traffic-related traumas. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effective factors in severity of these traumas based on Haddon matrix. Methods: In the present 1-month cross-sectional study, all the patients injured in traffic accidents, who were referred to the ED of Imam Khomeini and Golestan Hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran, during March 2013 were evaluated. Based on the Haddon matrix, effective factors in accident occurrence were defined in 3 groups of host, agent, and environment. Demographic data of the patients and data regarding Haddon risk factors were extracted and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: 700 injured people with the mean age of 29.66 ± 12.64 years (3-82 were evaluated (92.4% male. Trauma mechanism was car-pedestrian in 308 (44% of the cases and car-motorcycle in 175 (25%. 610 (87.1% cases were traffic accidents and 371 (53% occurred in the time between 2 pm and 8 pm. Violation of speed limit was the most common violation with 570 (81.4% cases, followed by violation of right-of-way in 57 (8.1% patients. 59.9% of the severe and critical injuries had occurred on road accidents, while 61.3% of the injuries caused by traffic accidents were mild to moderate (p < 0.001. The most common mechanisms of trauma for critical injuries were rollover (72.5%, motorcycle-pedestrian (23.8%, and car-motorcycle (13.14% accidents (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the most important effective factors in severity of traffic accident-related traumas were age over 50, not using safety tools, and undertaking among host-related factors; insufficient environment safety, road accidents and time between 2 pm and 8 pm among environmental factors; and finally, rollover, car

  15. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'

    Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine (Ecole des Mines de Paris, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France))


    The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that

  16. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl



    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  17. Pilot Human Factors in Stall/Spin Accidents of Supersonic Fighter Aircraft

    Anderson, S. B.; Enevoldson, E. K.; Nguyen, L. T.


    A study has been made of pilot human factors related to stall/spin accidents of supersonic fighter aircraft. The military specifications for flight at high angles of attack are examined. Several pilot human factors problems related to stall/spin are discussed. These problems include (1) unsatisfactory nonvisual warning cues; (2) the inability of the pilot to quickly determine if the aircraft is spinning out of control, or to recognize the type of spin; (3) the inability of the pilot to decide on and implement the correct spin recovery technique; (4) the inability of the pilot to move, caused by high angular rotation; and (5) the tendency of pilots to wait too long in deciding to abandon the irrecoverable aircraft. Psycho-physiological phenomena influencing pilot's behavior in stall/spin situations include (1) channelization of sensory inputs, (2) limitations in precisely controlling several muscular inputs, (3) inaccurate judgment of elapsed time, and (4) disorientation of vestibulo-ocular inputs. Results are given of pilot responses to all these problems in the F14A, F16/AB, and F/A-18A aircraft. The use of departure spin resistance and automatic spin prevention systems incorporated on recent supersonic fighters are discussed. These systems should help to improve the stall/spin accident record with some compromise in maneuverability.

  18. Study of Factors Related to Accidents Occuring during the Construction Phase of Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Projects

    H Asilian Mahabadi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Construction phase in industries is a dynamic process that is naturally and intrinsically dangerous and as it becomes more complicated, the accidents rate also increases. One should note that without considering a model, one could not obtain useful and reliable information and method to prevent accidents. Therefore, to achieve useful methods for preventing accidents, it is desirable to consider a model. The general goal of this study was presentation of a model. A model is the reflection of a fact. In other words, it should be said that the model represents a system or process whose behavior can be predicted. Models are therefore used for understanding the behavior of actual terminals and show a theory in the way that covers important variables for describing phenomena and instead, ignore factors of low importance in the expression of those phenomena. Methods: This study was a research article conducted in 2004-2005 in the Assaluyeh region. Data was gathered from accident reports present in security and health records of the projects and also statistics present at the treatment centers. In this study, an analytical model (multi-regression was presented to describe the impact of effective and deep factors on the possibility of an increase in accidents leading to death, through measurement of the effects of independent variables on the dependent variables. For this purpose, the structure of 50 accidents that led to death were studied along with another 2700 accidents, and after studying the accident reports and related documents, observing operations and equipment, counseling with accident observers and an expert team of managers, supervisors and engineers, and simulation of some accidents, unsafe conditions and functions, mismanagement and use of worn out and defective tools, equipment, devices and machinery were considered as the four independent variables and the job accidents leading to death were considered as dependent

  19. NASA-ONERA Collaboration on Human Factors in Aviation Accidents and Incidents

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Fabiani, Patrick


    This is the first annual report jointly prepared by NASA and ONERA on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the human factors entailed in aviation accidents and incidents, particularly focused on the consequences of decreases in human performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this agreement is to generate reliable, automated procedures that improve understanding of the levels and characteristics of flight-crew fatigue factors whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and ONERA are collaborating on the development and assessment of automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases; much larger than can be handled practically by human experts.

  20. Investigation of an accident in a resins manufacturing site: the role of accelerator on polymerisation of methyl methacrylate.

    Casson, Valeria; Snee, Tim; Maschio, Giuseppe


    This paper analyzes the effect of an accelerator on the polymerisation of methyl methacrylate (MMA). This study is based on the results of an investigation of an accident in a manufacturing site for resins located in the United Kingdom. As sequence of event to cause the accident the following was assumed: during an unattended batch process a runaway undesired polymerisation of methyl methacrylate occurred, generating rapid vaporisation of monomer, which in contact with an ignition source, led to an explosion followed by a fire. Since no initiator for the polymerisation reaction had been jet added to the blend, it was supposed that the accelerator contributed to the onset of the undesired polymerisation. The accelerator involved in the accident t has therefore been tested by differential scanning calorimetry and adiabatic calorimetry. The experimental data allowed the authors to prove the hypothesis made and to define safety ranges for the polymerisation reaction.

  1. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: Anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract

    Emerit, I.; Levy, A.; Cernjavski, L. [Universite Paris (France)] [and others


    Clastogenic factors are found in the plasma of persons irradiated accidentally or therapeutically. They persisted in the plasma of A-bomb survivors over 30 years. Clastogenic factors were found in 33 or 47 Chernobyl accident recovery workers (often referred to as liquidators) in a previous study. In the present study, we show that there is a positive correlation between clastogenic activity and dose and that these biomarkers of oxidative stress can be influenced successfully by appropriate antioxidant treatment. With the authorization of the Armenian Ministry of Health, 30 workers were treated with antioxidants from Ginkgo biloba leaves. The extract EGb 761 containing flavonoids and terpenoids was given at a daily dose of 3 x 40 mg (Tanakan, IPSEN, France) during 2 months. The clastogenic activity of the plasma was reduced to control levels on the first day after the end of the treatment. A 1-year follow-up showed that the benefit of the treatment persisted for at least 7 months. One-third of the workers again had clastogenic factors after 1 year, demonstrating that the process which produced clastogenic factors continued. However, the observation that antioxidants do not have to be given continuously is encouraging for intervention trials on a large-scale basis. These appear justified, since clastogenic factors are thought to be risk factors for the development of late effects of irradiation. 43 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. Factors associated with nurses' intention to leave their jobs after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power plant accident.

    Yoshinobu Sato

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey among nurses who were working at the Fukushima Medical University Hospital at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to clarify the factors associated with their intention to leave their jobs during the radiation emergency. We asked 345 nurses (17 men and 328 women about their intention to leave their jobs after the accident. We also asked about relevant factors including the participants' demographic factors, living situation, working status, and knowledge of radiation health effects. We found that living with preschoolers (OR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.02-3.44, p = 0.042, anxiety about life in Fukushima City after the accident (OR = 5.55, 95%CI: 1.18-26.13, p = 0.030, consideration of evacuation from Fukushima after the accident (OR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.45-4.06, p = 0.001, consideration of the possible radiation health effects in children (OR = 1.90, 95%CI: 1.02-3.44, p = 0.042, and anxiety about relationships with colleagues in the hospital after the accident (OR = 3.23, p = 0.001 were independently associated with the nurses' intention to leave their jobs after the accident. On the other hand, the percentage of nurses with knowledge on radiation health effects was relatively low among those who had the intention to leave the job and among those who did not have the intention to leave the job after the accident, with no significant differences between the two groups. Our results suggest the need for an education program for nurses regarding radiation health effects.

  3. Factors associated with nurses' intention to leave their jobs after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power plant accident.

    Sato, Yoshinobu; Hayashida, Naomi; Orita, Makiko; Urata, Hideko; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Yumiko; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru


    We conducted a survey among nurses who were working at the Fukushima Medical University Hospital at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to clarify the factors associated with their intention to leave their jobs during the radiation emergency. We asked 345 nurses (17 men and 328 women) about their intention to leave their jobs after the accident. We also asked about relevant factors including the participants' demographic factors, living situation, working status, and knowledge of radiation health effects. We found that living with preschoolers (OR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.02-3.44, p = 0.042), anxiety about life in Fukushima City after the accident (OR = 5.55, 95%CI: 1.18-26.13, p = 0.030), consideration of evacuation from Fukushima after the accident (OR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.45-4.06, p = 0.001), consideration of the possible radiation health effects in children (OR = 1.90, 95%CI: 1.02-3.44, p = 0.042), and anxiety about relationships with colleagues in the hospital after the accident (OR = 3.23, p = 0.001) were independently associated with the nurses' intention to leave their jobs after the accident. On the other hand, the percentage of nurses with knowledge on radiation health effects was relatively low among those who had the intention to leave the job and among those who did not have the intention to leave the job after the accident, with no significant differences between the two groups. Our results suggest the need for an education program for nurses regarding radiation health effects.

  4. Daytime sleepiness and sleep habits as risk factors of traffic accidents in a group of Turkish public transport drivers

    Özer, Cahit; Etcibaşı, Şeref; Öztürk, Levent


    Aim: To explore the association of daytime sleepiness, sleep complaints and sleep habits with self-reported car crashes among public transport drivers. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on male professional public drivers in two different cities using a validated, self-administered sleep questionnaire which comprised of symptoms suggesting sleep disorders, a subjective report of daytime sleepiness and driving characteristics. The subjects (mean age±SD, 40±11 years) were divided into two groups: (1) accident group and (2) no accident group. Results: Forty nine (15.3%) of the 320 public drivers reported that they had at least one sleepiness related motor vehicle accident and/or near-missed accident (Group 1). The mean age, body mass index and annual distance driven were similar in both groups. Although Group 1 reported less sleep time per night, more witnessed apneas, abnormal sleep, alcohol use and had higher mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores than Group 2, multivariate analysis of risk factors revealed that only daytime sleepiness increase the risk of traffic accidents [OR: 1.32 (1.19-1.47)]. Conclusion: These results suggest that self-reported sleepiness is a predictive sign of traffic accidents due to driver sleepiness. PMID:24482715

  5. Investigation Effect of Biorhythm on Work-Related Accidents in The Metal Industry (A Short Report

    Ehsanollah Habibi


    Full Text Available Biorhythm is one of the newest subjects in the field of cognition of mental ergonomics which can be very effective in reduction of work-related accidents or mistakes with no apparent reason. With evaluating Biorhythm individuals can intervention action to reduce job accidents carried out. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship Biorhythm and work-related accidents in the metal industry. This research is a cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive in the metal industrial Isfahan city of 120 work-related accidents during 2015. The required information was collected from available documents in HSE unit of the company biorhythm charts were drawn based on a date of accidents and participants birthdays, using natural Biorhythm Software V3.02 Conduct. Finally، the data were analyzed using spss version 20 and descriptive statistics.This study showed that the frequency of accidents in critical days and negative section of physical cycle was more than expected. Also the frequency of accidents in critical days and negative section of emotional and intellectual cycles was less than expected. Most type of injury, including cuts to 35.8 percent and the lowest type of injury was torsion with 5 percent. Most limb injury, hands and fingers with 51.7 percent and the lowest limb injury were back at 2.5 percent. Accidents outbreak in physical cycles was 38.3 percent. These 120 accidents in additionally were causing 120 loss of working days in effect accident. Most percent of loss of working days were for 20 to 30 days with of 39.2 percent. Most percent of loss of working days were for 20 to 30 days with of 39.2 percent. Due to the physical nature of the work activities in the metal industry can be stated that the study showed that in physical work activities, frequency of accidents in critical days and negative section of physical cycle in which the person is not physically ready to do the job was more than expected. Therefore, by training

  6. Factors contributing to driver’s condition after fatal and injury vehicle accidents in North Khorasan province- New Year 1391

    Javad Rezazadeh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aim: Injuries from traffic accidents are a major public health problem, and the third leading cause of mortality in people aged 1 to 40 years. Each year 31.8 persons per hundred thousands of Iranians are killed in car accidents. Neighboring of North Khorasan province with Razavi Khorasan, a province with a lot of pilgrims caused a large number of passengers travel via North Khorasan province. This study aimed to evaluate the road accidents and its related factors in the city of bojnurd in March 2012. Materials and Methods: this cross-sectional study was done from … to … 2012(the New Year vacation in Iran. All injured or victims from car accidents who referred to the emergency department of the Imam Ali Hospital formed the research community. Data was gathered by a questionnaire consisting vehicle specification, driver and injured characteristics. For victims and those were not able to answer, we used the family members or relatives for gathering the data. All data analysis was done in SPSS version 19.Results: during the study period, 148 injured people were admitted to the hospital. Drivers’ mean age were 33.9 with the SD of 11.9 years; among them 43.2% were used seat belt. One driver and three passengers were killed immediately, and two drivers and three passengers died in the first 24 hours of admission. Fastening seat belt by drivers reduce the hospitalization rate significantly (p-value<0.0001. 50.7% of the accidents were head-on collisions. Violation from the speed limit (41.3%, indiscretions (25.4% and drowsiness were the most common causes of accident respectively. Conclusion: training the drivers, obligation for using seat belt by driver and passengers, rest after long hours driving , and more control of traffic police especially in two way roads could reduce the car accident or in case of accident help to prevent severe damage and injury.

  7. How to identify the key factors that affect driver perception of accident risk. A comparison between Italian and Spanish driver behavior.

    de Oña, Juan; de Oña, Rocio; Eboli, Laura; Forciniti, Carmen; Mazzulla, Gabriella


    Road crashes can be caused by different factors, including infrastructure, vehicles, and human variables. Many research studies have focused solely on identifying the key factors that cause road crashes. From these studies, it emerged that human factors have the most relevant impact on accident severity. More specifically, accident severity depends on several factors related directly to the driver, i.e., driving experience, driver's socio-economic characteristics, and driving behavior and attitudes. In this paper, we investigate driver behaviors and attitudes while driving and specifically focus on different methods for identifying the factors that most affect the driver's perception of accident risk. To this end, we designed and conducted a survey in two different European contexts: the city of Cosenza, which is located in the south of Italy, and the city of Granada, which is located in the south of Spain. Samples of drivers were contacted for their opinions on certain aspects of driving rules and attitudes while driving, and different types of questions were addressed to the drivers to assess their judgments of these aspects. Consequently, different methods of data analysis were applied to determine the aspects that heavily influence driver perception of accident risk. An experiment based on the stated preferences (SP) was carried out with the drivers, and the SP data were analyzed using an ordered probit (OP) model. Interesting findings emerged from different analyses of the data and from the comparisons among the data collected in the two different territorial contexts. We found that both Italian and Spanish drivers consider driving in an altered psychophysical state and violating the overtaking rules to be the most risky behaviors.


    Sanjeev Kumar


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expansion in network, motorization and urbanization in the country has been accompanied by a rise in road accidents leading to road traffic injuries (RTIs. Accident represents a major epidemic of non - communicable disease in present century. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs and its risk factors in Jhansi & around Jhansi city. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A hospital based cross sectional study was carried out in MLB Medical College and Hospital , Jhansi and the cases sustaining ro ad traffic injuries registering from 1 January 2013 to 31 July 2014 were taken irrespective of the place of accident. The data was entered in excel sheet and results were expressed as proportions and percentages. RESULTS: Among them maximum number of cases were in 21 - 30 years age group (30.53% followed by 31 - 40 years (21.66% and >60 years (4.65% shows the least no. of victims. In the study majority of cases were reported from Orchha Road (11.5%. In the study it was observed that majority of accidents oc cur in winter season (37.24% and in night time (34.47%.Among them 19.68% victims stated that defective road as the most common condition associated with RTA followed by poor lighting (18.54%. CONCLUSIONS: In this study majority of victims were younger, males, less educated and labourer by occupation. Among risk factors defective roads, poor lighting, excessive speed, overloading and alcohol consumption were found causing RTAs.

  9. Personality, Driving Behavior and Mental Disorders Factors as Predictors of Road Traffic Accidents Based on Logistic Regression

    Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Souri, Hamid; Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Sepahbodi, Ghazal


    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of variables such as personality traits, driving behavior and mental illness on road traffic accidents among the drivers with accidents and those without road crash. Methods: In this cohort study, 800 bus and truck drivers were recruited. Participants were selected among drivers who referred to Imam Sajjad Hospital (Tehran, Iran) during 2013-2015. The Manchester driving behavior questionnaire (MDBQ), big five personality test (NEO personality inventory) and semi-structured interview (schizophrenia and affective disorders scale) were used. After two years, we surveyed all accidents due to human factors that involved the recruited drivers. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software by performing the descriptive statistics, t-test, and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In terms of controlling the effective and demographic variables, the findings revealed significant differences between the two groups of drivers that were and were not involved in road accidents. In addition, it was found that depression and anxiety could increase the odds ratio (OR) of road accidents by 2.4- and 2.7-folds, respectively (P=0.04, P=0.004). It is noteworthy to mention that neuroticism alone can increase the odds of road accidents by 1.1-fold (P=0.009), but other personality factors did not have a significant effect on the equation. Conclusion: The results revealed that some mental disorders affect the incidence of road collisions. Considering the importance and sensitivity of driving behavior, it is necessary to evaluate multiple psychological factors influencing drivers before and after receiving or renewing their driver’s license. PMID:28293047

  10. Personality, Driving Behavior and Mental Disorders Factors as Predictors of Road Traffic Accidents Based on Logistic Regression

    Seyyed Salman Alavi


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of variables such as personality traits, driving behavior and mental illness on road traffic accidents among the drivers with accidents and those without road crash. Methods: In this cohort study, 800 bus and truck drivers were recruited. Participants were selected among drivers who referred to Imam Sajjad Hospital (Tehran, Iran during 2013-2015. The Manchester driving behavior questionnaire (MDBQ, big five personality test (NEO personality inventory and semi-structured interview (SADS were used. After two years, we surveyed all accidents due to human factors that involved the recruited drivers. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software by performing the descriptive statistics, t-test, and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In terms of controlling the effective and demographic variables, the findings revealed significant differences between the two groups of drivers that were and were not involved in road accidents. In addition, it was found that depression and anxiety could increase the odds ratio (OR of road accidents by 2.4- and 2.7-folds, respectively (P=0.04, P=0.004. It is noteworthy to mention that neuroticism alone can increase the odds of road accidents by 1.1-fold (P=0.009, but other personality factors did not have a significant effect on the equation. Conclusion: The results revealed that some mental disorders affect the incidence of road collisions. Considering the importance and sensitivity of driving behavior, it is necessary to evaluate multiple psychological factors influencing drivers before and after receiving or renewing their driver’s license.

  11. Cases of fatal accidents and violence among children, adolescents and young people: perception of the family and associated factors

    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins


    Full Text Available Hundreds of children and young people die from fatal accidents or violence every year and others suffer the consequences of non-lethal lesions. Knowing the associated factors is essential for moving forward in the control of these events. The study analysed the families’ perception and factors associated with deaths due to external causes of children, adolescents and young people. Cross-sectional study from deaths from accidents and violence in the age group of 0 to 24 years in the city ofCuiabá-State of Mato Grosso, followed by a domestic survey with the families. The families could not tell whether the accident/violence was a foreseeable event and do not believe that habits/lifestyle have favoured the occurrence. Intentional deaths showed a greater association with factors: maternity/paternity in adolescence, role overload of the mother, consumption of alcohol/drugs, family conflicts and prior deaths from external cause. Feelings of appreciation (study, housing, work, and whether the victim’s pregnancy has been desired were positive in a higher proportion among cases at which the victims died in an accident. The families had easy access to health care services; however, it was difficult to access the network of social and religious support. Associated factors differ according to the intentionality of the event.

  12. Derivation of Accident-Specific Material-at-Risk Equivalency Factors

    Jason P. Andrus; Dr. Chad L. Pope


    A novel method for calculating material at risk (MAR) dose equivalency developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) now allows for increased utilization of dose equivalency for facility MAR control. This method involves near-real time accounting for the use of accident and material specific release and transport. It utilizes all information from the committed effective dose equation and the five factor source term equation to derive dose equivalency factors which can be used to establish an overall facility or process MAR limit. The equivalency factors allow different nuclide spectrums to be compared for their respective dose consequences by relating them to a specific quantity of an identified reference nuclide. The ability to compare spectrums to a reference limit ensures that MAR limits are in fact bounding instead of attempting to establish a representative or bounding spectrum which may lead to unintended or unanalyzed configurations. This methodology is then coupled with a near real time material tracking system which allows for accurate and timely material composition information and corresponding MAR equivalency values. The development of this approach was driven by the complex nature of processing operations in some INL facilities. This type of approach is ideally suited for facilities and processes where the composition of the MAR and possible release mechanisms change frequently but in well defined fashions and in a batch-type nature.

  13. Investigations of radiocaesium in the natural terrestrial environment in Norway following the Chernobyl accident

    Bretten, S. (Trondheim Univ. (Norway). Museum of Natural Sciences and Archaeology); Gaare, E.; Skogland, T. (Norwegian Inst. for Nature Research, Trondheim (Norway)); Steinnes, E. (Trondheim Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry)


    Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident affected parts of central Norway to a considerable extent, in particular the {sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs deposition had a significant impact on the natural environment. When this became apparent, a comprehensive radioecological research programme was initiated in order to study the behaviour of radiocaesium in boreal and alpine ecosystems, with emphasis on food-chains leading to exposure of species used for human consumption, i.e., reindeer and freshwater fish. In this paper results from the terrestrial part of this research programme during the period 1986-1990 are presented. The work was mainly confined to the mountain areas of Dovre and Rondane. Parallel studies were performed in eutrophic and strongly oligotrophic communities. The influence of local variations in topography and microclimate on the observed radiocaesium levels in topsoils, lichens and vascular plants was studied in detail. Currently a significant re-distribution of radiocaesium from the originally strongly exposed surfaces to those that were less exposed is observed. In the soil, radiocaesium is strongly retained in the litter and raw humus layers. Current levels in lichens are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in vascular plants. This strongly affects the seasonal variation of radiocaesium in reindeer, showing winter maxima of about 5 times higher than the August levels. The radiocaesium levels in reindeer showed a decline of approximately a factor of 3 during the period 1987-1990. Other animal species studied in the programme exhibited substantially lower radiocaesium levels than reindeer, but a considerable interspecies variation was observed. (author).

  14. Investigations of radiocaesium in the natural terrestrial environment in Norway following the Chernobyl accident.

    Bretten, S; Gaare, E; Skogland, T; Steinnes, E


    Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident affected parts of central Norway to a considerable extent, in particular the 134Cs+137Cs deposition had a significant impact on the natural environment. When this became apparent, a comprehensive radioecological research programme was initiated in order to study the behaviour of radiocaesium in boreal and alpine ecosystems, with emphasis on food-chains leading to exposure of species used for human consumption, i.e., reindeer and freshwater fish. In this paper results from the terrestrial part of this research programme during the period 1986-1990 are presented. The work was mainly confined to the mountain areas of Dovre and Rondane. Parallel studies were performed in eutrophic and strongly oligotrophic communities. The influence of local variations in topography and microclimate on the observed radiocaesium levels in topsoils, lichens and vascular plants was studied in detail. Currently a significant re-distribution of radiocaesium from the originally strongly exposed surfaces to those that were less exposed is observed. In the soil, radiocaesium is strongly retained in the litter and raw humus layers. Current levels in lichens are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in vascular plants. This strongly affects the seasonal variation of radiocaesium in reindeer, showing winter maxima of about 5 times higher than the August levels. The radiocaesium levels in reindeer showed a decline of approximately a factor of 3 during the period 1987-1990. Other animal species studied in the programme exhibited substantially lower radiocaesium levels than reindeer, but a considerable interspecies variation was observed.

  15. On human factor in road traffic accidents%谈道路交通事故中人的因素

    高玉英; 马淑清


    Combining the typical traffic accidents this and last years,the paper has the deep analysis of the influential human factors,including the drivers,the bicycle riders and the pedestrians,in the traffic accidents,illustrates the causality relationship between the various behaviors of men who are involved in traffic and the traffic accidents,so as to warn people to adhere to the traffic regulation and to cherish their lives.%结合今年及去年的典型交通事故案例,对交通事故中人(驾驶员、骑车人、行人)的影响因素进行了深入分析,剖析了交通参与人的种种行为与交通事故的因果关系,达到警示人们遵守交通法规、珍爱生命的效果。

  16. Educational level and age as contributing factors to road traffic accidents

    Ashkan Sami; Ghasem Moafian; Arman Najafi; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi; Navid Yamini; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Kamran B Lankarani


    Objective:This research analyzes data on road traffic accidents (RTA) in Fars province,whose roads are among the highly dangerous ones in Iran.It investigates educational level and age involved in RTA in order to discover patterns that can prevent or decrease accidents.Methods:This research made use of data visualization techniques to find hidden patterns.The data included mortality rate related to RTA in Fars province and were obtained from Fars Forensic Medicine Registry covering a period of 1 year from March 21,2010 to March 21,2011.All data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5.The results were reported as descriptive indices such as frequency (percentage).The Chisquare test was applied to the data concerning educational level and age.P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results:In the mentioned period,1 831 people were killed,out of whom un/lowly educated people (69.6%) accounted for the highest mortality rate.The significant relationship between educational level and mortality rate was found (X2=275.98,P<0.0001).Also three was a significant association between age and mortality rate (x2=371.20,P<0.0001).Young people (age between 20 and 29 years)contribute to higher RTA mortality rate compared with other age groups.Conclusion:The educational level and age are significantly correlated to mortality rate.The youth and un/lowly educated people suffer more fatal RTA.

  17. Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents

    Sehgal, B.R.; Yang, Z.L.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Bui, V.A.; Haraldsson, H.O.; Li, H.X.; Konovakhin, M.; Paladino, D.; Leung, W.H [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety


    This report is the final report for the work performed in 1998 in the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI), under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The present report describes results of advanced analytical and experimental studies concerning melt-water-structure interactions during the course of a hypothetical severe core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Emphasis has been placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Many of the investigations performed in support of this project have produced papers which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings. A short summary of the results achieved in these papers is provided in this overview. Both experimental and analytical studies were performed to improve knowledge about phenomena of melt-structure-water interactions. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: the solidification has a strong effect on the drop deformation and breakup. Initially appearing at the drop surface and, later, thickening inwards, the solid crust layer dampens the instability waves on the drop surface and, therefore, hinders drop deformation and breakup. The drop thermal properties also affect the thermal behavior of the drop and, therefore, have impact on its deformation behavior. The jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters, e.g. the Weber number, but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from the liquidus to the solidus temperature. Additionally, the crust formed on the surface of the melt jet will also reduce the propensity

  18. Studying work practices: a key factor in understanding accidents on the level triggered by a balance disturbance.

    Derosier, C; Leclercq, S; Rabardel, P; Langa, P


    Accidents on the level (AOL) rank second amongst the most numerous and serious occupational accidents with days lost in France and are a major health and safety problem in every sector of activity. The case study described in this paper was conducted at a metallurgical company with 300 employees. The aims of this work were dual: 1) to extend the general knowledge required for preventing these accidents; 2) to propose prevention measures to this company. Existing data on company occupational accidents were gathered and analysed to identify a work situation that appeared likely to cause AOL. This work situation was analysed in detail. Several risk factors were identified within this work situation, by way of interviews with 12 operators. These risk factors concerned various dimensions of the work situation, particularly its physical dimension (e.g. templates structure) and organisational dimension (e.g. parts availability). Interviews were conducted, focusing on risk factors perceived by operators and involving allo-confrontations based on accounts of four AOL occurring in this situation. Allo-confrontations were interviews confronting operators with a risk occupational situation that was accidental for one of their colleagues, the latter being absent from the interview. Results highlighted the fact that the work practices implemented are key factors in understanding these accidents. This study underlines the role of work practices in AOL causality and prevention. It also provides explanations associated with various work situation dimensions involving adoption of more or less safe work practices. AOL are serious and frequent in occupational situations. Injury claims analysis and interviews in an industrial company emphasise the specific characteristics of an occupational situation and of prevention actions forming the basis of an intervention. The need for a better understanding of factors affecting work practice is highlighted in relation to research.

  19. Associated factors to the occurrence of motorcycle accident in the perception of hospitalized motorcyclist

    Augediva Maria Jucá Pordeus


    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the social demographic characteristics of injured motorcyclists admitted into an emergency hospital and their perception about the accident. Methods: Across-sectional study conducted between October and December 2007 with a sample of 209 patients who were victims of motorcycle accidents. A form was applied for data collection and the data were submitted to frequency analysis. The studied variables comprised social demographic data; conditions of the accident; the use of alcohol and the perception of the victim in relation to the accident. Results: Out of 209 interviewed patients, 183 (88% were male, 88 (42% were aged 21 to 30 years; 147 (65.9% were from different counties of the accident site, 89 (53.9% were not licensed riders; 93 (56.3% did not wear a helmet and 113 (54.4% reported drinking alcohol before the accident. Regarding the perception of the victims about the cause of the accident, 90 (43% highlighted the inappropriate behavior of their own rider. Conclusion: The study revealed that among injured motorcyclists, prevailed males, young and single, who did not wear helmet at the time of the accident, who were not legally qualified to drive a motorcycle and who recognize as the main cause of theseaccidents their own inadequate behavior.

  20. Logit Model of Motorcycle Accidents in the Philippines Considering Personal and Environmental Factors

    Rosemary R. Seva


    Full Text Available The study aims to determine significant personal and environmental variables in predicting motorcycle accidents in the Philippines, compare the results with findings in other countries, and propose possible government interventions. Data were gathered from 177 participants through the use of a survey in a licensing center in the largest city in Metro Manila. Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of an accident from variables considered in the model. Three variables were found to be significant predictors of motorcycle accidents: age, driving behavior, and junction type. Younger drivers are more likely to be involved in accidents. The significance of age was unexpected because similar models found this to be insignificant. Driving behavior, specifically, committing violation predicts accident likelihood. Driving at t- and y-junctions also predicts motorcycle accidents. In the Philippines, a unique set of variables were found to predict motorcycle accidents. Although previous studies have established the effect of these variables to accident likelihood, the combination was unforeseen. Government agencies can focus on interventions directed at these three variables.

  1. Investigation of the melt-down behaviour of massive radial core enclosures during LWR accidents

    Hering, W.; Sengpiel, W.; Messainguiral, C. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-les-Durance (France). DRN


    At the Institute for Reactor Safety (IRS) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) accident analyses were performed for the projected European pressurised water reactor (EPR) up to 1999 using the best estimate severe core damage code SCDAP/RELAP5 (S/R5). From various scenarios investigated with S/R5 the loss-of-offsite power (LOOP) and the 46 cm{sup 2} small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) were selected to be discussed here in some detail. To simulate the heavy reflector (HR) and core barrel (CB) behaviour beyond the capabilities of S/R5 mod 3.2 a detailed stand alone analytical tool (LOWCOR2) was developed and used to determine the time of HR melting, its axial position, the melting velocity and the melt mass. Furthermore, results of MELCOR calculations performed at Siemens/KWU were used for the SBLOCA scenario. The analyses were extended by a feasibility study to find out whether ICARE2 and the commercial FEM code FIDAP are applicable. The axial position of HR and CB melt through strongly depends on the scenario an ranges between 1.0 m and 2.5 m core elevation. The time period to melt down the HR inner edges lasts up to 17 min and a complete melt through of HR and CB is in the order of magnitude of one hour. At melt through time LOWCOR2 calculated a molten steel mass between 10 Mg and 32 Mg and a melt relocation rate of 35 kg/s along the HR inner surface into the core cavity. (orig.) [German] Am Institut fuer Reaktorsicherheit (IRS) des Forschungszentrums Karlsruhe (FZK) wurden bis 1999 Unfallanalysen fuer den projektierten Europaeischen Druckwasser Reaktor (EPR) mit dem ''best estimate'' Kernschmelzcode SCDAP/RELAP5 (S/R5) durchgefuehrt. Von den verschiedenen mit S/R5 untersuchten Szenarien wurden der ''Ausfall der Wechselspannungsnetze'' (LOOP) und das kleine Leck (46 cm{sup 2}) im kalten Strang der Hauptkuehlmittelleitung (SBLOCA) fuer eine ausfuehrlichere Diskussion ausgewaehlt. Um das Verhalten des &apos

  2. Airborne and deposited radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. A review of investigations in Finland

    Paatero, J. (Finnish Meteorogical Inst., Helsinki (Finland)); Haemeri, K. (Helsinki Univ., Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Jaakkola, T. (Helsinki Univ., Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland)); Jantunen, M. (National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland)); Koivukoski, J. (Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Government (Finland)); Saxen, R. (STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))


    The Chernobyl nuclear accident happened in the former Soviet Union on 26 April 1986. The accident destroyed one of the RBMK-1000 type reactors and released significant radioactive contamination into the environment. At first the emissions were transported north-westwards over Poland, the Baltic States, Finland, Sweden and Norway. During 27 April 1986 emissions were spreading to eastern-central Europe, southern Germany, Italy and Yugoslavia. Radioactivity mapping over Finland between 29 April and 16 May 1986 showed that the ground deposition in Finland covered southern and central parts of the country but had an irregular distribution. The highest (over 100 muR h-1 [1 muSv h-1]) contamination disclosed by the mapping was around the city of Uusikaupunki in western Finland and the city of Kotka in southeastern Finland. The Uusikaupunki region was an area of heavy fallout associated with the air mass that was located in the Chernobyl area at the time of the accident. The fallout pattern of reftractory nuclides, e.g. plutonium isotopes, had their spatial maximum in this region. Medical consequences in Finland were luckily mild, the most important symptoms being psychological ones. No increase in thyroid cancer or birth defect occurrence has been observed. The Chernobyl accident boosted the radioecological research which had already been calming down after the last atmospheric nuclear test in China in October 1980. Important new results concerning e.g. hot particles have been achieved. The most important effects of the accident in Finland were, however, the increase of public awareness of environmental issues in general and especially of nuclear energy. In Finland, the nuclear energy programme was halted until 2002 when the Parliament of Finland granted a licence to build the fifth nuclear reactor in Finland. (orig.)

  3. An analytical investigation of cold leg small break accidents of the ATLAS facility

    Kim, Yeon-Sik, E-mail:; Cho, Seok; Choi, Ki-Yong


    A previous parametric study of the direct vessel injection (DVI) line breaks was re-evaluated to see its applicability to that of the cold leg (CL) pipe breaks in advanced thermal-hydraulic test loop for accident simulation (ATLAS). Evaluation results of the tests and analyses for the major parameters, e.g., the pressurizer (PZR) pressure, downcomer water level, collapsed core water level, and clad temperature, were compared for four different CL pipe break scenarios. The overall trends of the major parameters showed reasonable behaviors between the tests and analyses. The clad temperature showed conservative behaviors in the analyses using the suggested options. The suggested counter-current flow limit (CCFL) options for the fuel alignment plate (FAP) and cross-over legs (COLs) can be applicable to any small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) scenario for the CL pipe and DVI line breaks in the ATLAS tests.

  4. An investigation of occupational accidents and safety risks in policing: Views of employees

    Murat Gözübenli


    Full Text Available Policing is one of the riskiest and dangerous professions by its nature. Police officers face a range of risks at work: homicide, assaults, attacks, communicable diseases, car crashes or explosions. The risks vary according to the task being undertaken such as arresting offenders, attending street disturbances or performing traffic duties. These risks, having the characteristics of occupational accident in a way, have institutional losses like compensation, loss of manpower and reputation besides individual results like injury, death, mutilation, and posttraumatic stress disorder, exposure to psychological disorders or decrease in quality of life. Opinions and suggestions of 1066 employees currently working at different ranks and units in Turkish National Police in regards with reducing the risks of occupational accidents and safety risks were studied in this research. Suggestions of the participants were reviewed under total nine headings (themes consisting of training, physical fitness and health, security measures, institutional policies and procedures, managerial policies, working conditions, equipment, uniforms, and patrol cars.

  5. Analyzing the role of climatic factors on road accidents (Case study: Ardabil-Parsabad road in Ardabil Province, Iran

    Sadegheh Alizadeh


    Full Text Available Road accidents and their fatalities are among the currentchallenges human society facing, which in turn resulting in huge social and economiccosts on the countries. Thedeveloping countries are the biggest victims of the road accidents such that inthese countries, road accidents are considered asthe major cause of death. Unfortunately, Iran is amongthe countries in which the rate of road accidents is high. Among thedriving factors that affect road safety and transport isclimate. Ardabil-Parsabad road in Ardabil province is one of the roads manyaccidents have been occurred during years, and thistrend began when the number of cars increased resulted in huge road deaths in1990s. In this study, data has been used from four meteorological stations inArdabil, Samian, Meshkin-Shahr and Parsabad, over a period of5years(2008-2002.For this purpose, several climatic elements werecollected including the average daily temperature, average of minimum temperatures,average of maximum temperatures, the number of snowy days, the number of frostdays, starting glacial period, duration of the snowfall, duration of theglacial period, total average humidity and moderate precipitation, average of sunnyhours, average number of foggy days, the average number of windy days. This analysis is provided using Excel software inthe Arc GIS environment of continuous levels of these parameters in the region.

  6. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo


    Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act...... that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because...

  7. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Hashim, Yusof bin [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang 26300 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Taha, Zahari bin [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)


    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  8. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin


    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  9. Characteristics and risk factors of cerebrovascular accidents after percutaneous coronary interventions in patients with history of stroke

    ZHANG Hua; FENG Li-qun; BI Qi; WANG Yu-ping


    Background Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a well-established method for managing coronary diseases.However, the increasing use of PCI has led to an increased incidence of acute cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) related to PCI. In this study, we investigated the characteristics and risk factors of CVA after PCI in patients with known stroke history.Methods Between January 1, 2005 and March 1, 2009, 621 patients with a history of stroke underwent a total of 665 PCI procedures and were included in this retrospective study. Demographic and clinical characteristics, previous medications, procedures, neurologic deficits, location of lesion and in-hospital clinical outcomes of patients who developed a CVA after the cardiac catheterization laboratory visit and before discharge were reviewed.Results Acute CVA was diagnosed in 53 (8.5%) patients during the operation or the perioperative pedod. Seventeen patients suffered from transient ischemic attack, thirty-four patients suffered from cerebral infarction and two patients suffered from cerebral hemorrhage. The risk factors for CVA after PCI in stroke patients were: admission with an acute coronary syndrome, use of an intra-aortic balloon pump, urgent or emergency procedures, diabetes mellitus, and poor left ventricular systolic function, arterial fibrillation, previous myocardial infarction, dyslipidemia, tobacco use, and no/irregular use of anti-platelet medications.Conclusions The incidence of CVA during and after PCI in patients with history of stroke is much higher than that in patients without history of stroke. Patients with atrial fibrillation, previous myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus,dyslipidemia, tobacco use, and no or irregular use of anti-platelet medications were at higher risk for recurrent stroke.This study showed a strong association between acute coronary syndromes and in-hospital stroke after PCI.

  10. Investigation on two-phase critical flow for loss-of-coolant accident of pressurized water reactor


    The previous investigations were mainly conducted under the condition of low pressure,however,the steam-water specific volume and the interphase evaporation rate in high pressure are much different from those in low pressure,Therefore,the new experimental and theoretical investigation are performed in Xi'an Jiaotong University.The investigation results could be directly applied to the analysis of loss-of -coolant accident for pressurized water reacor.The system transition characteristics of cold leg and hot leg break loss-of -coolant tests are described for convective circulation test loop.Two types of loss-of-coolant accident are identified for :hot leg” break,while three types for “cold leg”break and the effect parameters on the break geometries.Tests indicate that the mass flow rate with convergent-divergent nozzle reaches the maximum value among the different break sections at the same inlet fluid condition because the fluid separation does not occur.A wall surface cavity nucleation model is developed for prediction of the critical mass flow rate with water flowing in convergentdivergent nozzles.

  11. Risk-based Analysis of Construction Accidents in Iran During 2007-2011-Meta Analyze Study

    Mehran Amiri; Abdollah Ardeshir; Mohammad Hossein Fazel Zarandi


    Abstract Background The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of occupational accidents and frequency and severity of work related accidents in the construction industry among Iranian insured workers during the years 20072011. Methods The Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO) accident database containing 21,864 cases between the years 2007-2011 was applied in this study. In the next step, Total Accident Rate (TRA), Total Severity Index (TSI), and Risk Factor (RF) were d...

  12. Occupational accidents and affecting factors of metal industry in a factory in Ankara

    Mustafa N. Ilhan


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective:According to the statistics of the Social Security Institution, 18672 occupational accidents occurred in the metal industry in 2008 in Turkey. Whereas 78 of these accidents resulted in death, 252 people became permanently incapable of working. In 2008, 369677 working days were lost as a result of occupational accidents. Evaluating the reasons for and the results of accidents in the metal industry and contributing to the development of recommendations for prevention in accordance with the information obtained. Method: The study was conducted with 201 of 210 workers working in heavy metal manufacturing and construction in the building company between April 2008 and June 2008. Results: The frequency of occupational accidents among the metal workers was 22% between January 2007 and June 2008. The reasons for the workers’ accidents are listed as; insufficient use of personal protective equipment (44%, carelessness (37%, and personal reasons, not to be taken of security measures at machines and looms/ unsuitable machines (both 17%.Conclusion: The study demonstrates that the accidents mostly occur because of failure to use of personal protective equipment, insufficient vocational training. Key Words: Occupational, accident, metal industry, preventionAnkara’da bir metal sanayi fabrikasında iş kazaları ve etkileyen faktörler Özet Amaç: 2008 yılında Sosyal Güvenlik Kurumu’nun verilerine göre metal sanayisinde 18672 iş kazası meydana gelmiş ve 369677 işgünü kaybı olmuştur.  Bu kazalardan 78 tanesi ölümle sonuçlanırken, 252 kişi kalıcı olarak işgöremez hale gelmiştir. Metal sanayisinde meydana gelen kazaların sebep ve sonuçlarını inceleyerek, elde edilen bilgiler doğrultusunda kazaların önlenmesine yönelik tavsiyelerin geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Yöntem: Araştırma, Ankara’da faaliyet gösteren ağır metal imalat, konstrüksiyon ve inşaat sanayi şirketinde 2008 Nisan-2008 Haziran d

  13. Asthma is a risk factor for acute chest syndrome and cerebral vascular accidents in children with sickle cell disease

    Scott Paul J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and sickle cell disease are common conditions that both may result in pulmonary complications. We hypothesized that children with sickle cell disease with concomitant asthma have an increased incidence of vaso-occlusive crises that are complicated by episodes of acute chest syndrome. Methods A 5-year retrospective chart analysis was performed investigating 48 children ages 3–18 years with asthma and sickle cell disease and 48 children with sickle cell disease alone. Children were matched for age, gender, and type of sickle cell defect. Hospital admissions were recorded for acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accident, vaso-occlusive pain crises, and blood transfusions (total, exchange and chronic. Mann-Whitney test and Chi square analysis were used to assess differences between the groups. Results Children with sickle cell disease and asthma had significantly more episodes of acute chest syndrome (p = 0.03 and cerebral vascular accidents (p = 0.05 compared to children with sickle cell disease without asthma. As expected, these children received more total blood transfusions (p = 0.01 and chronic transfusions (p = 0.04. Admissions for vasoocclusive pain crises and exchange transfusions were not statistically different between cases and controls. SS disease is more severe than SC disease. Conclusions Children with concomitant asthma and sickle cell disease have increased episodes of acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accidents and the need for blood transfusions. Whether aggressive asthma therapy can reduce these complications in this subset of children is unknown and requires further studies.

  14. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

    Mohamed, Saeed Almheiri [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO{sup 1} and NISA{sup 2} that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident.

  15. The Effects of the Daily Driven Distance and Age Factor on the Traffic Accidents



    Full Text Available Based on Turkish traffic survey data (n=5,520, driver accident rates per million kilometre-driver were compared according to the daily driven distances (DDD for each age group as very old (65+, n=39, old (56-65, n=183, above middle-aged (36-55, n=1,875, middle-aged (26-35, n=2,204, and young (25-, n=1,219. When the accidents-per-km comparison was made in groups matched for daily exposure, there was no evidence of higher risk with increasing age. In all age groups, risk per km decreased with increasing daily driving distance. With this study the accident involvement prediction models have been obtained related to the daily driven distance with and without considering age. These models have been applied to some earlier studies. The results are quite satisfactory. The set of data of this study and the analysis controlling the daily (yearly driving distance might make the “age” effect disappear.

  16. Investigation on the sodium leak accident of Monju. Sodium leak test simulating the Monju leak

    Shimoyama, Kazuhito; Nishimura, Masahiro; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Usami, Masayuki


    Sodium fire experiments were carried out two times using the Sodium Fire Test Rig (SOFT-1) in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp (PNC) as a part of works to research the cause of the accident in secondary main cooling system of Monju. The purposes of these experiments are to confirm the leak rate and leakage form of sodium from damaged thermometer, to confirm the damage to the piping insulating structure around the thermometer and to the flexible tube, and to compare the temperature history of the signal from the thermometer between the experiments and Monju. In the experiments 56({+-}2)g/sec was obtained as the leak rate under the condition of ensuring the leakage pass in the simulated thermometer. This leak rate was corrected to 53g/sec to take account of manufacturing error of the thermometer between the experiment and Monju. In calculation of this leak rate, it is assumed that the annulus size of thermometer well tip is a nominal distance and pressure value to the leakage sodium is 1.65kg/cm{sup 2}G, which was the maximum one during the leakage of Monju. The behavior of signal from the simulated thermometer was very similar to that of the damaged thermometer in Monju and it was confirmed this temperature history could be sufficiently explained by moving of the temperature contact position of the thermocouple following the runoff of leakage sodium. (J.P.N.)

  17. Simulating experimental investigation on the safety of nuclear heating reactor in loss-of-coolant accidents

    Xu, Zhanjie


    The 5MW low temperature nuclear heating reactor (NHR-5) is a new and advanced type of nuclear reactor developed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University of China in 1989. Its main loop is a thermal-hydraulic system with natural circulation. This paper studies the safety of NHR under the condition of loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) by means of simulant experiments. First, the background and necessity of the experiments are presented, then the experimental system, including the thermal-hydraulic system and the data collection system, and similarity criteria are introduced. Up to now, the discharge experiments with the residual heating power (20% rated heating power) have been carried out on the experimental system. The system parameters including circulation flow rate, system pressure, system temperature, void fraction, discharge mass and so on have been recorded and analyzed. Based on the results of the experiments, the conclusions are shown as follos: on the whole, the reactor is safe under the condition of LOCAs, but the thermal vacillations resulting from the vibration of the circulation flow rate are disadvantageous to the internal parts of the reactor core.

  18. Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) Project: Dissemination of Weather Information for the Reduction of Aviation Weather-Related Accident Causal Factors

    Jarrell, Michael; Tanger, Thomas


    Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) is part of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project, which is part of the NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program. The goals of WINCOMM are to facilitate the exchange of tactical and strategic weather information between air and ground. This viewgraph presentation provides information on data link decision factors, architectures, validation goals. WINCOMM is capable of providing en-route communication air-to-ground, ground-to-air, and air-to-air, even on international or intercontinental flights. The presentation also includes information on the capacity, cost, and development of data links.

  19. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads.

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Matthews, Chelsea


    Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1) identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2) harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3) mandating personal protective equipment, (4) improving road signage, (5) comprehensive data collection, (6) developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7) safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8) increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.

  20. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads

    Kirrilly Thompson


    Full Text Available Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52% reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1 identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2 harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3 mandating personal protective equipment, (4 improving road signage, (5 comprehensive data collection, (6 developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7 safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8 increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.

  1. Investigation of Countercurrent Helium-Air Flows in Air-ingress Accidents for VHTRs

    Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard; Oh, Chang


    The primary objective of this research is to develop an extensive experimental database for the air- ingress phenomenon for the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This research is intended to be a separate-effects experimental study. However, the project team will perform a careful scaling analysis prior to designing a scaled-down test facility in order to closely tie this research with the real application. As a reference design in this study, the team will use the 600 MWth gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) developed by General Atomic. In the test matrix of the experiments, researchers will vary the temperature and pressure of the helium— along with break size, location, shape, and orientation—to simulate deferent scenarios and to identify potential mitigation strategies. Under support of the Department of Energy, a high-temperature helium test facility has been designed and is currently being constructed at Ohio State University, primarily for high- temperature compact heat exchanger testing for the VHTR program. Once the facility is in operation (expected April 2009), this study will utilize high-temperature helium up to 900°C and 3 MPa for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) depressurization and air-ingress experiments. The project team will first conduct a scaling study and then design an air-ingress test facility. The major parameter to be measured in the experiments is oxygen (or nitrogen) concentration history at various locations following a LOCA scenario. The team will use two measurement techniques: 1) oxygen (or similar type) sensors employed in the flow field, which will introduce some undesirable intrusiveness, disturbing the flow, and 2) a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging technique, which has no physical intrusiveness to the flow but requires a transparent window or test section that the laser beam can penetrate. The team will construct two test facilities, one for high-temperature helium tests with

  2. Speed Variance and Its Influence on Accidents.

    Garber, Nicholas J.; Gadirau, Ravi

    A study was conducted to investigate the traffic engineering factors that influence speed variance and to determine to what extent speed variance affects accident rates. Detailed analyses were carried out to relate speed variance with posted speed limit, design speeds, and other traffic variables. The major factor identified was the difference…

  3. Estimating the causes of traffic accidents using logistic regression and discriminant analysis.

    Karacasu, Murat; Ergül, Barış; Altin Yavuz, Arzu


    Factors that affect traffic accidents have been analysed in various ways. In this study, we use the methods of logistic regression and discriminant analysis to determine the damages due to injury and non-injury accidents in the Eskisehir Province. Data were obtained from the accident reports of the General Directorate of Security in Eskisehir; 2552 traffic accidents between January and December 2009 were investigated regarding whether they resulted in injury. According to the results, the effects of traffic accidents were reflected in the variables. These results provide a wealth of information that may aid future measures toward the prevention of undesired results.

  4. Investigation of a hydrogen mitigation system during large break loss-of-coolant accident for a two-loop pressurized water reactor

    Dehjourian, Mehdi; Rahgoshay, Mohmmad; Jahanfamia, Gholamreza [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sayareh, Reza [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kerman Graduate University of Technology, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirani, Amir Saied [Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Hydrogen release during severe accidents poses a serious threat to containment integrity. Mitigating procedures are necessary to prevent global or local explosions, especially in large steel shell containments. The management of hydrogen safety and prevention of over-pressurization could be implemented through a hydrogen reduction system and spray system. During the course of the hypothetical large break loss-of-coolant accident in a nuclear power plant, hydrogen is generated by a reaction between steam and the fuel-cladding inside the reactor pressure vessel and also core concrete interaction after ejection of melt into the cavity. The MELCOR 1.8.6 was used to assess core degradation and containment behavior during the large break loss-of-coolant accident without the actuation of the safety injection system except for accumulators in Beznau nuclear power plant. Also, hydrogen distribution in containment and performance of hydrogen reduction system were investigated.

  5. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.


    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  6. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    Rodrigues AN


    Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity

  7. Neutron Imaging Investigations of the Secondary Hydriding of Nuclear Fuel Cladding Alloys during Loss of Coolant Accidents

    Grosse, M.; Roessger, C.; Stuckert, J.; Steinbrueck, M.; Kaestner, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Schillinger, B.

    The hydrogen concentration and distribution at both sides of the burst opening of cladding tubes used in three QUENCH-LOCA simulation bundle experiments were investigated by means of neutron radiography and tomography. The quantitative correlation between the total macroscopic neutron cross-section and the atomic number density ratio between hydrogen and zirconium was determined by testing calibration specimens with known hydrogen concentrations. Hydrogen enrichments located at the end of the ballooning zone of the tested tubes were detected in the inner rods of the test bundles. Nearly all of the peripheral claddings exposed to lower temperatures do not show such enrichments. This implies that under the conditions investigated a threshold temperature exists below which no hydrogen enrichments can be formed. In order to understand the hydrogen distribution a model was developed describing the processes occurring during loss of coolant accidents after rod burst. The general shape of the hydrogen distributions with a peak each side of the ballooning region is well predicted by this model whereas the absolute concentrations are underestimated compared to the results of the neutron tomography investigations. The model was also used to discuss the influence of the alloy composition on the secondary hydrogenation. Whereas the relations for the maximal hydrogen concentrations agree well for one and the same alloy, the agreement for tests with different alloys is less satisfying, showing that material parameters such as oxidation kinetics, phase transition temperature for the zirconium oxide, and yield strength and ductility at high temperature have to be taken into account to reproduce the results of neutron imaging investigations correctly.

  8. Characterization of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System (TPS) Materials in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation

    Wingard, Charles D.


    NASA suffered the loss of the seven-member crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 1, 2003 when the vehicle broke apart upon re-entry to the Earth's atmosphere. The final report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) determined that the accident was caused by a launch ascent incident-a suitcase-sized chunk of insulating foam on the Shuttle's External Tank (ET) broke off, and moving at almost 500 mph, struck an area of the leading edge of the Shuttle s left wing. As a result, one or more of the protective Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels on the wing leading edge were damaged. Upon re-entry, superheated air approaching 3,000 F breached the wing damage and caused the vehicle breakup and loss of crew. The large chunk of insulating foam that broke off during the Columbia launch was determined to come from the so-called bipod ramp area where the Shuttle s orbiter (containing crew) is attached to the ET. Underneath the foam in the bipod ramp area is a layer of TPS that is a cork-filled silicone rubber composite. In March 2003, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama received cured samples of the foam and composite for testing from the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, Louisiana. The MAF is where the Shuttle's ET is manufactured. The foam and composite TPS materials for the ET have been well characterized for mechanical property data at the super-cold temperatures of the liquid oxygen and hydrogen fuels used in the ET. However, modulus data on these materials is not as well characterized. The TA Instruments 2980 Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) was used to determine the modulus of the two TPS materials over a range of -145 to 95 C in the dual cantilever bending mode. Multi-strain, fixed frequency DMA tests were followed by multi-frequency, fixed strain tests to determine the approximate bounds of linear viscoelastic behavior for the two materials. Additional information is included in the original extended

  9. The investigation and analysis of an atypical chemical fire accident%一起非典型化工火灾事故的调查分析



    结合一起化工火灾事故介绍火灾事故调查的程序.上海化工园区某公司低温罐区乙烯管道发生泄漏,引发爆炸燃烧,未造成人员伤亡.通过多方人证询问,首先排除人为破坏因素.录像分析表明首先发生了可燃物的泄漏,而后瞬间爆炸产生了亮光,发生火灾.由破坏痕迹轻重、可燃气体探测仪DCS分析、平台南侧管廊管道裂口朝向、平台区域管道裂口朝向确定泄漏部位;由录像比对分析阀门阀盖缺失情况,结合鉴定分析,确定泄漏点为超临界乙烯操作平台底层东南侧超临界乙烯计量器旁路阀处.引火源有三种可能,事故定性为设备缺陷引发的安全生产事故.应进一步研究分析新技术的安全风险,制定相关技术标准.应加强对化工设备的监管,细化部分电气设施的控制权限.%The fire accident investigation procedure with a chemical fire accident was put forward. A cryogenic tank farm ethyl-ene pipeline leak of a company in the Shanghai Chemical Industry Park caused the explosion burning without casualties. Through multi-party witnesses asked, the human damage factors were ruled out first. Video analysis showed that first the leakage of combustible occurred and then an instant explosion of light before the fire. Through the damage traces, DCS analysis of combustible gas detector, the orientation of pipe gallery and pipeline gap of the south side of the platform and the orientation of pipeline gap of platform, the leak site was determined. Combined with the identification analysis, the leak point was the bypass valve of the supercritical ethylene meter bypass on the southeast of the bottom of the supercritical ethylene platform by video analysis and the valve bonnet loss situation. There are three possibilities of ignition source. The accident was determined to be a production safety accident caused by equipment defects. It should be further studied to analyze the security risks of new

  10. Nondestructive Testing As a Tool in the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    McDanels, Steve


    Nondestructive testing (NDT) played a crucial role in determining the Columbia tragedy's cause. Over 84,000 pieces of debris were recovered; hundreds were subsequently subjected to NDT and materials analysis. Visual NDT of the debris revealed localized areas of damage such as erosion, excessive heating, knife edging and mechanical damage. Three-dimensional reconstructions were made of the left wing leading edge, utilizing a tripod-mounted laser scanning head and focused laser beam, and an advanced topometric optical scanner (ATOS) with digital white light to scan complex-shaped debris, producing monochrome 3-D models. Texture mapping provided a means to capture true colors of the debris and superimpose them on the scanned images. Uniform deposits were found over large portions of debris, obscuring underlying materials. To determine what was beneath, inverse radiography was enlisted. The radiographs guided investigators to where samples should be taken. To ascertain compositions, these samples were subjected to analytical testing, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis. This combination of visual evidence, radiography, virtual reconstruction, and materials analysis allowed the forensic scientists to verify that a breach occurred in the leading edge of the left wing, the path the plasma followed, and the sequence of events that led to the loss.

  11. Experimental investigation of material chemical effects on emergency core cooling pump suction filter performance after loss of coolant accident

    Park, Jong Woon, E-mail: [Dongguk University, 707 Seokjang-Dong, Gyeongju, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung Gi [Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Chungnam, 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Hyun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. 25-1, Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)


    Integral tests of head loss through an emergency core cooling filter screen are conducted, simulating reactor building environmental conditions for 30 days after a loss of coolant accident. A test rig with five individual loops each of whose chamber is established to test chemical product formation and measure the head loss through a sample filter. The screen area at each chamber and the amounts of reactor building materials are scaled down according to specific plant condition. A series of tests have been performed to investigate the effects of calcium-silicate, reactor building spray, existence of calcium-silicate with tri-sodium phosphate (TSP), and composition of materials. The results showed that head loss across the chemical bed with even a small amount of calcium-silicate insulation instantaneously increased as soon as TSP was added to the test solution. Also, the head loss across the filter screen is strongly affected by spray duration and the head loss increase is rapid at the early stage, because of high dissolution and precipitation of aluminum and zinc. After passivation of aluminum and zinc by corrosion, the head loss increase is much slowed down and is mainly induced by materials such as calcium, silicon, and magnesium leached from NUKON{sup TM} and concrete. Furthermore, it is newly found that the spay buffer agent, tri-sodium phosphate, to form protective coating on the aluminum surface and reduce aluminum leaching is not effective for a large amount of aluminum and a long spray.

  12. Investigating RNA editing factors from trypanosome mitochondria

    Aphasizheva, Inna; Zhang, Liye; Aphasizhev, Ruslan


    Mitochondrial U-insertion/deletion mRNA editing is carried out by two principal multiprotein assemblies, enzymatic RNA editing core (RECC) and RNA editing substrate binding (RESC) complexes, and a plethora of auxiliary factors. An integral part of mitochondrial gene expression, editing receives inputs from primary mRNA and gRNA precursor processing pathways, and generates substrates for mRNA polyadenylation and translation. Although nearly all RECC-embedded enzymes have been implicated in specific editing reactions, the majority of proteins that populate the RESC are also essential for generating edited mRNAs. However, lack of recognizable motifs in RESC subunits limits the prowess of bioinformatics in guiding biochemical experiments and elucidating their specific biological functions. In this chapter, we describe a generic workflow for investigating mitochondrial mRNA editing in Trypanosoma brucei and focus on several methods that proved instrumental is assigning definitive functions to editing factors lacking known signature sequences. PMID:27020893

  13. Accidents Preventive Practice for High-Rise Construction

    Goh Kai Chen


    Full Text Available The demand of high-rise projects continues to grow due to the reducing of usable land area in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The rapidly development of high-rise projects has leaded to the rise of fatalities and accidents. An accident that happened in a construction site can cause serious physical injury. The accidents such as people falling from height and struck by falling object were the most frequent accidents happened in Malaysian construction industry. The continuous growth of high-rise buildings indicates that there is a need of an effective safety and health management. Hence, this research aims to identify the causes of accidents and the ways to prevent accidents that occur at high-rise building construction site. Qualitative method was employed in this research. Interview surveying with safety officers who are involved in highrise building project in Kuala Lumpur were conducted in this research. Accidents were caused by man-made factors, environment factors or machinery factors. The accidents prevention methods were provide sufficient Personal Protective Equipment (PPE, have a good housekeeping, execute safety inspection, provide safety training and execute accidents investigation. In the meanwhile, interviewees have suggested the new prevention methods that were develop a proper site layout planning and de-merit and merit system among sub-contractors, suppliers and even employees regarding safety at workplace matters. This research helps in explaining the causes of accidents and identifying area where prevention action should be implemented, so that workers and top management will increase awareness in preventing site accidents.

  14. Tyres and road surfaces : experimental multifactor investigation of the factors affecting the brake and side way forces between car tyres and wet road surfaces : summary, conclusions and recommendations from the study by Sub-Committee I of the Working Group on "Tyres, Road Surfaces and Skidding Accidents".


    The study concerning the contact between a tyre and the road surface was conducted in three phases. In the first phase the first and second-order factors were separated. The factors: type of road surface, tyre type, tread depth, water depth, tyre pressure and tyre load were included in an experiment

  15. Bicycle accidents.

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S


    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres.

  16. 气象因素对电力安全事故影响的模型%Research on Impact Model of Meteorological Factors on the Power Accidents

    李彦斌; 韩颖; 张嵘; 李彦国


      以我国南方某地区为例,收集了该地区连续48个月的电力事故数据及其对应的15个气象要素资料。首先用因子分析法消除了15个气象要素的多重共线性,提取了温度因子、降水因子、湿度因子、风力因子4类主要因素,其次应用Logistic回归建立了气象因素对电力事故的影响模型。模型探究了气象条件与电力事故的内在联系,并用2010年的检验样本验证了模型拟合的准确性,为电力事故预警机制的建立进行了积极的探讨。%Taking a certain region in South China for example, the power system accident data in continuous 48 months of this region and corresponding data of 15 meteorological factors are collected. Firstly, the multicollinearity of the 15 meteorological factors are eliminated by factor analysis, and four kinds of main factors such as temperature factor, precipitation factor, humidity factor and wind power factor are extracted;secondly, an impact model of meteorological factors on power system accidents is established by Logistic regression. Using the established impact model the internal relations between meteorological conditions and power system accidents are explored, and the fitting accuracy of the proposed model is validated by test samples in 2010. The proposed impact model is available for reference to the establishment of early warning mechanism for power system accidents.

  17. Internal Flow Thermal/Fluid Modeling of STS-107 Port Wing in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board

    Sharp, John R.; Kittredge, Ken; Schunk, Richard G.


    As part of the aero-thermodynamics team supporting the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAB), the Marshall Space Flight Center was asked to perform engineering analyses of internal flows in the port wing. The aero-thermodynamics team was split into internal flow and external flow teams with the support being divided between shorter timeframe engineering methods and more complex computational fluid dynamics. In order to gain a rough order of magnitude type of knowledge of the internal flow in the port wing for various breach locations and sizes (as theorized by the CAB to have caused the Columbia re-entry failure), a bulk venting model was required to input boundary flow rates and pressures to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This paper summarizes the modeling that was done by MSFC in Thermal Desktop. A venting model of the entire Orbiter was constructed in FloCAD based on Rockwell International s flight substantiation analyses and the STS-107 reentry trajectory. Chemical equilibrium air thermodynamic properties were generated for SINDA/FLUINT s fluid property routines from a code provided by Langley Research Center. In parallel, a simplified thermal mathematical model of the port wing, including the Thermal Protection System (TPS), was based on more detailed Shuttle re-entry modeling previously done by the Dryden Flight Research Center. Once the venting model was coupled with the thermal model of the wing structure with chemical equilibrium air properties, various breach scenarios were assessed in support of the aero-thermodynamics team. The construction of the coupled model and results are presented herein.

  18. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 2, Developing a Pan-European In-depth Accident Investigation Network: Deliverable 2.3: Training package including training manual and Draft Protocols.

    Fagerlind, H. Armstrong, J. Atala, D. Dodson, E. Talbot, R. Hill, J. Roynard, M. Martensen, H. Jänsch, M. Margaritis, D. Ocampo Sanchez, A. Peez, J. Ferrer, A. Elslande, P. van Perrin, C. Hermitte, T. Giustiniani, G. & Davidse, R.


    This deliverable is intended to collate the DaCoTA training manual and draft protocols for in-depth road accident investigations in Europe. This deliverable aims at producing a document that will be used in the training of new and previously experienced teams in the realm of in depth accident data c

  19. Factors Associated with Fatal Occupational Accidents among Mexican Workers: A National Analysis

    Gonzalez-Delgado, Mery; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Robles, Eduardo; Borja, Víctor H.; Aguilar, Miriam


    Objective To identify the factors associated with fatal occupational injuries in Mexico in 2012 among workers affiliated with the Mexican Social Security Institute. Methods Analysis of secondary data using information from the National Occupational Risk Information System, with the consequence of the occupational injury (fatal versus non-fatal) as the response variable. The analysis included 406,222 non-fatal and 1,140 fatal injuries from 2012. The factors associated with the lethality of the injury were identified using a logistic regression model with the Firth approach. Results Being male (OR=5.86; CI95%: 4.22-8.14), age (OR=1.04; CI95%: 1.03-1.06), employed in the position for 1 to 10 years (versus less than 1 year) (OR=1.37; CI95%: 1.15-1.63), working as a facilities or machine operator or assembler (OR: 3.28; CI95%: 2.12- 5.07) and being a worker without qualifications (OR=1.96; CI95%: 1.18-3.24) (versus an office worker) were associated with fatality in the event of an injury. Additionally, companies classified as maximum risk (OR=1.90; CI 95%: 1.38-2.62), workplace conditions (OR=7.15; CI95%: 3.63-14.10) and factors related to the work environment (OR=9.18; CI95%:4.36-19.33) were identified as risk factors for fatality in the event of an occupational injury. Conclusions Fatality in the event of an occupational injury is associated with factors related to sociodemographics (age, sex and occupation), the work environment and workplace conditions. Worker protection policies should be created for groups with a higher risk of fatal occupational injuries in Mexico. PMID:25790063

  20. Integrating engineering principles into the medico-legal investigation of a rare fatal rollover car accident involving complex dynamics.

    Grassi, Vincenzo M; Castagnola, Flaminia; Miscusi, Massimo; De-Giorgio, Fabio


    Rollover car accidents can be the result of forceful steering or hitting an obstacle that acts like a ramp. Mortality from this type of car accident is particularly high, especially when occupants are thrown out of the vehicle. We report a case of a 67-year-old man who died after a rollover accident that occurred when he was driving a car equipped with a glass moonroof. He was found inside his car with his safety belt correctly fastened and the roof shattered. At autopsy, a wide avulsion injury of the head was observed, which was associated with an atlanto-axial dislocation and full-thickness fracture of the cervical body and posterior facet joints of the seventh cervical vertebra. The data collected at the scene of the accident were integrated with the autopsy results to yield a forensic engineering reconstruction. This reconstruction elucidated the dynamics of the event and correctly ascribed the lesions observed at autopsy to the phases of the rollover. Afterward, an analysis of the scientific literature concerning rollover crash tests was conducted to understand why the driver sustained fatal injuries even though his seatbelt was properly fastened.

  1. 海事调查英语培训课程的设计%Course Design of English for Marine Accident Investigator



    本文首先分析了海事调查英语培训考试大纲,然后在培训考试大纲分析的基础上为不同级别的海事调查官设计该课程的教学内容、教学重点以及教学方式。实践培训课程表明设计的教学内容和方式符合海事调查官的实际工作需求,并取得良好的教学效果。%This paper first of all has an analysis on the course syllabus of English for Marine Accident Investigator;and then based on the course syllabus analysis,proposes different course designs for marine accident investigators of different classes,which include the teaching content,teaching focus and teaching approaches. The teaching practice shows that the course design meets the practical working needs of marine accident investigators.

  2. Specific complex of non-radiation risk factors for socially significant pathologies could affect the liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Koterov A.N.


    Full Text Available The review considers the complex of non-radiation factors that could affect the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident: the demographic, social and professional group heterogeneity to warrant differentiation of risk, the effects of heavy metals, 'hot particles', chemicals, psychogenic stress, social dislocation in the post-perestroika period, alcohol abuse, smoking, and the effect of screening. All these factors tend to have a significant intensity, unlike the radiation exposure for the majority of subjects. It is concluded that the increased frequency and severity of some large socially significant pathologies in contingent liquidators may be due to a unique set of predominantly non-radiation factors associated, however, with a particular radiation accident.

  3. Somatic symptoms in women 11 years after the Chornobyl accident: prevalence and risk factors.

    Bromet, Evelyn J; Gluzman, Semyon; Schwartz, Joseph E; Goldgaber, Dmitry


    Exposure to the Chornobyl nuclear power plant explosion resulted in widespread, persistent somatic complaints, but little is known about the nature and risk factors for these conditions. This study compares the health reports of 300 women evacuated to Kyiv from the contamination zone around the plant and 300 controls with a child in the same homeroom as the evacuees in 1997. The interview addressed somatic concerns, risk factors for poor health, and Chornobyl-related stress. Compared with controls, evacuees reported significantly more health problems and rated their health more poorly overall. These differences remained significant after controlling for demographic and clinical risk factors, including the tendency to amplify physical symptoms. Significantly more evacuees received a diagnosis of a Chornobyl-related illness by a local physician, believed that their health and their children's health had been adversely affected, and were positive for Chornobyl-induced post-traumatic stress disorder. After controlling for these Chornobyl stress variables, the differences in number of health problems commonly attributed to Chornobyl remained significant but differences in general health ratings did not. The perceptions of controls were similar to those of women in a national sample. The relationship between Chornobyl stress and illness was twice as strong in evacuees (odds ratio = 6.95) as in Kyiv controls (odds ratio = 3.34) and weakest in the national sample (odds ratio = 1.64). The results confirm the persistence and nonspecificity of the subjective medical consequences of Chornobyl and are consistent with the hypothesis that traumatic events exert their greatest negative impacts on health in vulnerable or disadvantaged groups.

  4. Accidental knowledge: Using accidents and other project failures to inform research in systems engineering

    Sorenson, Diane C.

    Projects experience cost overruns, late deliveries, quality issues, cancellation, and accidents despite the best efforts of the systems engineering community. There is relatively little research on why systems engineering failures in general happen, but a substantial body of work on accident causation. Here, we investigate whether systems failures in general exhibit the same patterns of causation as accidents. We conducted a review of existing accident models to develop a model that could be applied to all types of project failures. Our model helped us to classify where the factors occur during the system development/system operation phases and which entity was involved in each factor. We analyzed 58 failure case studies. The failure cases span non-accidents, accidents, and dual failures. The sources for each subset had varying depth and scope of investigation. We developed a coding method to compare the factors between failure cases that broke each factor down into an "actor-action-object" structure. We further generalized the actions from the "actor-action-object" strings into control flaws so that we could analyze the failure cases at a high level. We analyzed the control flaws, actions, and actors for each failure case and compared the results for accidents and non-accidents. Of our results that we could not attribute to study biases, we found similarities and differences between project failure causation. We also identified which control flaws, actions, and actors were the most prevalent in the different types of project failures. Of all the actions, "failure to consider factor in system development" contributed most to non-accidents, while "failure to consider step in risk management" contributed the most to accidents. Of all the actors, "company management" contributed the most to non-accidents and accidents.

  5. Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  6. Sports Accidents



    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as an accident risk factor in professional drivers in Yekaterinburg. Dangerous Sleep (DS-1 study

    A. A. Belkin


    Full Text Available About 20% of all road traffic accidents may be associated with falling asleep while driving. This may be caused by sleep disorders leading to daytime sleepiness, the most common of which is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Objective: to study somatic and mental health, sleep disorders, OSAS in particular, in the population of Russian drivers (Sverdlovsk Region. Patients and methods. The descriptive cohort «Dangerous Sleep» (DS-1 study of 20 professional drivers having more than 5-year driving experience was conducted at the Clinical Institute of the Brain. The mean age of the drivers was 45.8 years. They underwent somatic evaluation for cardiovascular risk factors and a psychological examination involving a risk readiness diagnostic procedure, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and an electroencephalographic examination. A somnological examination assumed testing using the Epworth sleepiness scale, polysomnography, or overnight pulse metry. Results and discussion. 30% of the drivers were found to have marked attention disorders and an inability to adapt to extreme conditions, which create a risk for professional duties. The predisposing factors were noted to be alcohol addiction, overweight, and OSAS, the rate of the latter proved to be higher than that in the general population of able-bodied men. It was shown that a somnological examination should be obligatorily performed while hiring professional drivers, particularly to long hauliers. The drivers having a long length of experience, in whom a periodic examination detects sleep disorders, should be treated for somatic diseases and should also have individual working schedules to rule out their long night-time driving. 

  8. Human factors engineering in healthcare systems: the problem of human error and accident management.

    Cacciabue, P C; Vella, G


    This paper discusses some crucial issues associated with the exploitation of data and information about health care for the improvement of patient safety. In particular, the issues of human factors and safety management are analysed in relation to exploitation of reports about non-conformity events and field observations. A methodology for integrating field observation and theoretical approaches for safety studies is described. Two sample cases are discussed in detail: the first one makes reference to the use of data collected in the aviation domain and shows how these can be utilised to define hazard and risk; the second one concerns a typical ethnographic study in a large hospital structure for the identification of most relevant areas of intervention. The results show that, if national authorities find a way to harmonise and formalize critical aspects, such as the severity of standard events, it is possible to estimate risk and define auditing needs, well before the occurrence of serious incidents, and to indicate practical ways forward for improving safety standards.

  9. Investigation of Sleep Quality in Flight Crew after Flight Accidents%飞行事故后飞行人员睡眠质量研究

    王真真; 冀虎圣; 逯向娜; 汪粲; 杨璇


    目的 了解飞行事故后飞行人员的睡眠质量,为事故后飞行人员睡眠干预提供理论依据.方法 采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index,PSQl)量表,对事故后15名飞行教员、28名飞行学员和34名对照组进行调查.结果 事故后1周,飞行人员PSQI均分(8.55±2.66)分,67.44%的飞行人员出现睡眠问题;飞行事故后教员和学员的睡眠质量存在明显差异;Logistic回归分析表明,年龄、职别和婚姻状况是事故后飞行人员睡眠质量的独立危险因素.结论 飞行事故后飞行人员出现严重睡眠问题,应予以重视,进行针对性睡眠干预.%Objective To investigate the sleep quality in flight crew after flight accidents, so as to provide the theoretical basis for sleeping intervention after accidents. Methods The sleep quality of 43 flight crew (15 flight instructors and 28 flight cadtes) after accident and 34 controls were evaluated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results The average PSQI score of the flight crew was (8. 55 ± 2. 66) ,67.44% had sleep problem (PSQI>7) after one week accidents. The flight instructors' sleep problem was more serious than the cadets'. The Logistic regression analysis indicated that the age, official rank and marital status was independently associated with the sleep quality in flight crew after accidents. Conclusion The flight crew have severe sleep problem after accidents and sleep intervention should carry out.

  10. Utilization of the IAIA (Investigation and Analysis of Incidents and Accidents) method in the investigation of the P-36 platform accident; Utilizacao do metodo IAIA (Investigacao e Analise de Acidentes e Incidentes) na investigacao do acidente ocorrido na plataforma P-36

    Teles, Marcus de Barros [ARCE - Agencia Reguladora de Servicos Publicos Delegados do Estado do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)


    In the beginning of XXI century the Brazilian oil industry report a big accident involving that which was the biggest petroleum platform of the world. With capacity production of 180.000 barrels a day and capacity compression of 7,2 million cubic meter a day of natural gas, the off-shore platform P-36 was situated on Roncador field, in Campos basin, operating in 1360 meters of water. As consequences, eleven deaths with irreparable traumas to the families, friends and worker partners, one billion dollars in prejudices to brazilian country, environmental damages by oil leak and injuries to PETROBRAS reputation in Brazil and in the world. The method of investigation and analysis of incidents and accidents - IAIA is very wide and its philosophy contain a lot of topics, since basic concepts, investigation actions, analysis action and diagnosis by the general kind of fail. Using this method and taking advantage from the report elaborated by the commission organized by ANP - Agencia Nacional do Petroleo and DPC - Diretoria de Portos e Costas, responsible for the investigation and analysis of the accident occurred with P-36, this paper identify the direct and indirect causes of the accident, in attempt to avoid new similar situations. (author)

  11. Investigations on Health Conditions of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident Recovery Workers from Latvia in Late Period after Disaster

    Reste Jeļena


    Full Text Available The paper summarises the main findings on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP accident recovery workers from Latvia and their health disturbances, which have been studied by the authors during the last two decades. Approximately 6000 persons from Latvia participated in CNPP clean-up works in 1986–1991. During their work period in Chernobyl they were exposed to external as well as to internal irradiation, but since their return to Latvia they were living in a relatively uncontaminated area. Regular careful medical examinations and clinical studies of CNPP clean-up workers have been conducted during the 25 years after disaster, gathering knowledge on radiation late effects. The aim of the present review is to summarise the most important information about Latvian CNPP clean-up worker health revealed by thorough follow-up and research conducted in the period of 25 years after the accident. This paper reviews data of the Latvian State Register of Persons Exposed to Radiation due to CNPP Accident and gives insight in main health effects found by the researchers from the Centre of Occupational and Radiological Medicine (Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital and Rīga Stradiņš University in a number of epidemiological, clinical, biochemical, immunological, and physiological studies. Latvian research data on health condition of CNPP clean-up workers in the late period after disaster indicate that ionising radiation might cause premature ageing and severe polymorbidity in humans.

  12. Analysis of avalanche risk factors in backcountry terrain based on usage frequency and accident data in Switzerland

    Techel, F.; Zweifel, B.; Winkler, K.


    Recreational activities in snow-covered mountainous terrain in the backcountry account for the vast majority of avalanche accidents. Studies analyzing avalanche risk mostly rely on accident statistics without considering exposure (or the elements at risk), i.e., how many, when and where people are recreating, as data on recreational activity in the winter mountains are scarce. To fill this gap, we explored volunteered geographic information on two social media mountaineering websites - and Based on these data, we present a spatiotemporal pattern of winter backcountry touring activity in the Swiss Alps and compare this with accident statistics. Geographically, activity was concentrated in Alpine regions relatively close to the main Swiss population centers in the west and north. In contrast, accidents occurred equally often in the less-frequented inner-alpine regions. Weekends, weather and avalanche conditions influenced the number of recreationists, while the odds to be involved in a severe avalanche accident did not depend on weekends or weather conditions. However, the likelihood of being involved in an accident increased with increasing avalanche danger level, but also with a more unfavorable snowpack containing persistent weak layers (also referred to as an old snow problem). In fact, the most critical situation for backcountry recreationists and professionals occurred on days and in regions when both the avalanche danger was critical and when the snowpack contained persistent weak layers. The frequently occurring geographical pattern of a more unfavorable snowpack structure also explains the relatively high proportion of accidents in the less-frequented inner-alpine regions. These results have practical implications: avalanche forecasters should clearly communicate the avalanche danger and the avalanche problem to the backcountry user, particularly if persistent weak layers are of concern. Professionals and recreationists, on the

  13. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Naser Azad


    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  14. Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report

    Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nagel, Lise Loft


    A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the au......A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior...... to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation...... for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury severity...

  15. Análise e classificação dos fatores humanos nos acidentes industriais Analysis and classification of the human factors in industrial accidents

    Cármen Regina Pereira Correa


    Full Text Available O presente texto apresenta a evolução do conhecimento do fenômeno "acidente", mostrando a mudança do conceito do acidente como obra do destino para um componente do processo produtivo de qualquer segmento - industrial, aeronáutico, serviços, transporte dentre outros. O método de análise e classificação dos fatores humanos nos acidentes é apresentado e discutido quanto à viabilidade de implementação. Finalmente, conclui-se que a forma atual e moderna para prevenção de acidentes está baseada na identificação antecipada das falhas latentes da organização e do sistema, e que a ferramenta apresentada contribui para a gestão proativa e conseqüentemente para a diminuição do impacto dos acidentes do trabalho no processo produtivo.The present text presents the evolution of the knowledge of the phenomenon "accident", showing the change of the concept of the accident as workmanship of the destination for one component of the productive process of any segment - industrial, aeronautical, services, transports amongst others. The method of analysis and classification of the human factors in the accidents is presented and argued how much to the implementation viability. Finally one concludes that the current and modern form for prevention of accidents is based on the anticipated identification of the latent failures of the organization and the system, and that the presented tool contributes consequently for the pro-active management and in the reduction of the impact of the employment-related accidents in the productive process.

  16. Future lines of research in the field of toxic and psychological factors in road accidents : a study made on request of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Toxic and Psychological Factors in Road Traffic Accidents of the Committee of Medical Research and Public Health of the Commission of European Communities, Directorate General for Research Science and Education.


    The scope of this report is to state, discuss and forecast the various aspects related to toxic and psychological factors in road traffic accidents. The more specific aim is to prepare a basis on which future action (and more particularly the different priorities for these actions), can be defined.

  17. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Jones, J G


    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  18. Infrared investigation of hard human teeth tissues exposed to various doses of ionizing radiation from the 1986 Chernobyl accident

    Darchuk, L. A.; Zaverbna, L. V.; Bebeshko, V. G.; Worobiec, A.; Stefaniak, E. A.; Van Grieken, R.


    Infrared spectroscopy (IR) was applied to study changes in solid teeth tissues of persons exposed to low (0.12–0.20 Gy) and high (0.5–1.7 Gy) doses of ionizing radiation during their work in the Chernobyl zone after the accident. Changes in the inorganic and organic matrix of teeth were noted for both high and low radiation doses. The obtained results demonstrated that high doses of radiation lead to imbalance between phosphate–carbonate phases level (because of increasing of CO32− content) a...

  19. Development of a taxonomy of performance influencing factors for human reliability assessment of accident management tasks and its application

    Kim, Jae Whan; Jung, Won Dae; Kang, Dae Il; Ha, Jae Joo


    In this study, a new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. We collected the existing PIF taxonomies as many as possible. Then, we analyzed the trend in the selection of PIFs, the frequency of use between PIFs in HRA methods, and the level of definition of PIFs, in order to reflect these characteristics into the development of a new PIF taxonomy. Next, we analyzed the principal task context during accident management to draw the context specific PIFs. Afterwards, we established several criteria for the selection of the appropriate PIFs for HRA under emergency operation and accident management situations. Finally, the final PIF taxonomy containing the subitems for assessing each PIF was constructed based on the results of the previous steps and the selection criteria. The final result ofthis study is the new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. The selected 11 PIFs in the study are as follows: training and experience, availability and quality of information, status and trend of critical parameters, status of safety system/component, time pressure, working environment features, team cooperation and communication, plant policy and safety culture. (author). 35 refs., 23 tabs.

  20. Hindsight Bias in Cause Analysis of Accident

    Atsuo Murata; Yasunari Matsushita


    It is suggested that hindsight becomes an obstacle to the objective investigation of an accident, and that the proper countermeasures for the prevention of such an accident is impossible if we view the accident with hindsight. Therefore, it is important for organizational managers to prevent hindsight from occurring so that hindsight does not hinder objective and proper measures to be taken and this does not lead to a serious accident. In this study, a basic phenomenon potentially related to accidents, that is, hindsight was taken up, and an attempt was made to explore the phenomenon in order to get basically insights into the prevention of accidents caused by such a cognitive bias.

  1. Comparison of Management Oversight and Risk Tree and Tripod-Beta in Excavation Accident Analysis



    Full Text Available Background Accident investigation programs are a necessary part in identification of risks and management of the business process. Objectives One of the most important features of such programs is the analysis technique for identifying the root causes of accidents in order to prevent their recurrences. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP was used to compare management oversight and risk tree (MORT with Tripod-Beta in order to determine the superior technique for analysis of fatal excavation accidents in construction industries. Materials and Methods MORT and Tripod-Beta techniques were used for analyzing two major accidents with three main steps. First, these techniques were applied to find out the causal factors of the accidents. Second, a number of criteria were developed for the comparison of the techniques and third, using AHP, the techniques were prioritized in terms of the criteria for choosing the superior one. Results The Tripod-Beta investigation showed 41 preconditions and 81 latent causes involved in the accidents. Additionally, 27 root causes of accidents were identified by the MORT analysis. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP investigation revealed that MORT had higher priorities only in two criteria than Tripod-Beta. Conclusions Our findings indicate that Tripod-Beta with a total priority of 0.664 is superior to MORT with the total priority of 0.33. It is recommended for future research to compare the available accident analysis techniques based on proper criteria to select the best for accident analysis.

  2. An influential factor for external radiation dose estimation for residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident-time spent outdoors for residents in Iitate Village.

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Sakata, Ritsu; Ozasa, Kotaro; Hayashi, Masayuki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi


    Many studies have been conducted on radiation doses to residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Time spent outdoors is an influential factor for external dose estimation. Since little information was available on actual time spent outdoors for residents, different values of average time spent outdoors per day have been used in dose estimation studies on the FDNPP accident. The most conservative value of 24 h was sometimes used, while 2.4 h was adopted for indoor workers in the UNSCEAR 2013 report. Fukushima Medical University has been estimating individual external doses received by residents as a part of the Fukushima Health Management Survey by collecting information on the records of moves and activities (the Basic Survey) after the accident from each resident. In the present study, these records were analyzed to estimate an average time spent outdoors per day. As an example, in Iitate Village, its arithmetic mean was 2.08 h (95% CI: 1.64-2.51) for a total of 170 persons selected from respondents to the Basic Survey. This is a much smaller value than commonly assumed. When 2.08 h is used for the external dose estimation, the dose is about 25% (23-26% when using the above 95% CI) less compared with the dose estimated for the commonly used value of 8 h.

  3. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Drozd, Valentina M; Saenko, Vladimir A; Brenner, Alina V; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V; Demidchik, Yuri E; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph


    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  4. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Valentina M Drozd

    Full Text Available One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  5. Application of digital oil fingerprinting identification for investigation of oil pollution accident from ships%溢油鉴别数字化判定在船舶油污事故调查中的应用

    尹晓楠; 周洪洋; 张海江; 秦志江; 郭恩桥; 王江涛


    This paper described comparison principle and identification process of repeatability limit comparison method and t-test method, as well as the application process of these methods in a shipping oil pollution accident investigation. Result showed that the repeatability limit comparison method and t-test method were two effective methods in accident identification of shipping oil pollution. The diagnostic ratios accuracy was an important factor, which could influence the application of two methods.%本文以一起船舶油污事故的溢油源调查为例,简述了重复性限法、t检验法两种方法的判定原则及判定流程,具体介绍了两种方法在船舶油污事故溢油源鉴定中的应用.应用结果表明,重复性限法、t检验法是两种值得在船舶溢油事故鉴定中推广应用的判别方法,诊断比值的准确性是影响两种判定方法应用的一个重要因素.

  6. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C.; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.


    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document disc

  7. Accident: Reminder


    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  8. Investigation of Acute Poisoning Accident Caused by Hydrogen Sulfide%一起急性硫化氢中毒事故的调查

    周小涛; 熊田甜


      目的介绍一起因硫氢化钠与外环境酸性污水反应导致的硫化氢中毒死亡事件的调查处理情况。方法2006年11月29日, J 市 G 区发生一起以双眼及上呼吸道刺激为主要症状,伴有胸闷、憋气、头晕、恶心干呕等全身症状的中毒事故,造成1人死亡,一人昏迷,一人头晕。对患者进行临床诊断,对外环境相关有毒物质进行检测,模拟有毒气体的化学反应。结果三名患者临床表现符合硫化氢中毒后症状;事发后2h,现场空气硫化氢浓度为0.87mg/m3,现场含酸污水与原料硫化钠模拟试验可以检测到反应产物硫化氢气体。结论中毒主要原因是硫氢化钠被外环境酸性污水浸泡,分解后释放出硫化氢,加上作业工人防护不到位,导致吸入高浓度硫化氢中毒。%  Objective: To introduce an Accident Caused by Hydrogen Sulfide.   Methods: In some factory happened a poisoning accident,which resulted in death and casualty,the folowing measures such as Medical treatment, field investigation, laboratory detection were carried out immediately.   Results: Three victims were diagnosed as hydrogen sulfide poisoning; 2 hours after the accident, the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in spot was 0.87mg/m3, and hydrogen sulfide was detected positive in Simulation test.   Conclusion: The acute poisoning accident was caused by Hydrogen sulfide, which was released when sodium hydrosulfide mixed with hydrochloric acid. When the victims were lack of enough safeguard, high concentrations of Hydrogen sulfide were inhaled and resulted poisoning.

  9. Experimental Investigation on Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident for Direct Vessel Injection Line%DVI管小破口失水事故实验研究

    彭传新; 张妍; 黄志刚; 昝元锋; 卓文彬; 闫晓


    在模块化小型反应堆非能动安全系统综合模拟实验装置上进行了压力容器直接注入(DVI)管小破口失水事故实验,研究了DVI管小破口失水事故过程中的热工水力现象和非能动安全系统运行特性。研究结果表明:模块化小型反应堆DVI管小破口失水事故中,非能动安全系统可对堆芯进行注水,有效导出堆芯衰变热量,保护堆芯安全。%T he small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA ) experiment for direct vessel injection (DVI ) line , w hich investigated the thermal‐hydraulic phenomena and the performances of passive safety system during the accident ,was performed on the passive safety system test facility for small modular reactor .The experimental results show that the passive safety system of small modular reactor can provide effective cool‐ant injection ,successful removal of core residual heat under the DVI line SBLOCA and protection to reactor core safety .

  10. How to reduce the number of accidents


    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at HSE Unit

  11. Simulating Experimental Investigation on the Safety of Nuclear Heating Reactor in Loss—of —Coolant Accidents



    The 5MW low temperature nuclear heating reactor (NHR-5) is a new and advanced type of nuclear reactor developed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology(INET) of Tisinghuan University of CHina in 1989,Its main loop is a thermal-hydraulic system with natural circulation.This paper studies the safety of NHR under the condition of loss-of -coolant accidents(LOCAs) by means of simulant experiments.First,the Background and necessity of the experiments are presented.then the experimental system,including the thermal-hydraulic system and the data collection system,and similarity criteria are introduced.Up to now ,the discharge experiments with the residual heating power(20% rated heating power)have been carried out on the experimental system,The system prameters including circulation flow rate,system pressure,system temperature,void fraction,discharge mass and so on have been recorded and analyzed.Based on the results of the experiments,the conclusionas are shown as follos:on the whole,the reactor is safe under the condition of LOCAs,but the thermal vacillations resulting from the vibration of the circulation flow rate are disadvantageous to the internal parts of the reactor core.

  12. Touch DNA Testing in Car Accident Investigation%交通事故中汗潜指印DNA检验



    This paper introduces analysis of fingerprint DNA collected from accidental vehicles. Fingerprint on the steering wheel and gear lever was developed with 502 glue, and EZ-tape was used to collect the shed cells. DNA was extracted with Chelex-100 and magnetic bead-based method, and DNA purification and quantification were performed. PCR reaction was optimized by properly adding 4μL of DNA template and increasing PCR cycle number to 32. PCR products were run in ABI3130 with 10s extension of the injection time, and STR profiles were determined. This method had been successfully applied in 2 car accidents and the drivers were identified.%为成功提取交通事故中的指印 DNA,用502胶熏显指印,用 EZ-tape 胶带采集车辆方向盘及变速杆等处的脱落细胞,然后 Chelex-100法与磁珠法结合提取 DNA,延长保温时间。DNA 定量,根据 DNA 浓度调整PCR 反应体系,通过适当增加 PCR 循环数、增加 PCR 产物量及延长进样时间等方法,成功地对指印 DNA 做了 STR 分型,确定了两起交通事故中的驾驶人。

  13. Marine Offshore Accidents in Nigeria, Causes and Necessary Preventive Measures

    yinkepreye L. Bebeteidoh ,Robert Poku


    Full Text Available With the ground-breaking developments in the maritime industry and the implementation of safety-related regulations and the institution of International Safety Codes and Protocols, marine offshore accidents in Nigeria are still a serious concern for global maritime organizations as the rate of offshore accidents has not reduced to the expected level. Ensuring the consistency of offshore accident investigation reports is recognized as a significant goal in order to plainly ascertain the core causes of offshore accidents. This research work though limited due to poor response on the part of the respondents as regards to releasing some data that would have been helpful, the researchers were still able to investigate the core causes of marine offshore accidents in Nigeria’s maritime industry. With emphasis on the scope of work essentially, data was collected through the administration of a well-structured questionnaire to selected seafarers connected with the offshore oil and gas industry in Nigeria, which included Captains, engineers, deckhands, oilers and Quartermasters. The data’s collected through the administration of a self-constructed questionnaire was analyzed using the concept of the statistical tool, Chi-Square, which was considered appropriate for testing the validity and reliability of each hypothesis established in this research. The aim of this research was to determine the causes of marine offshore accidents in Nigeria, which identified that human, environmental/natural, design, and technical factors comprises the major causes of marine offshore accidents. With the findings gotten, recommendations were made which if implemented by governments and maritime organizations and adhered to by maritime operators will go a long way to reduce marine offshore accidents.

  14. Expert meeting with the Belgoprocess Inc. on the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. Search and investigation on cause elucidation and reoccurrence control for the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. A visiting report on abroad

    Funasaka, Hideyuki; Fujita, Hideto; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Koyama, Tomozo


    In order to investigate in detail on fire cause materials, test results of thermal analysis on waste liquids, and flow of affairs relating to the fire accident (15th December, 1981) of the Euro Bitum Plant (an asphalt solidification facility of the middle level wastes) settled at the Eurochemic reprocessing work in the Kingdom of Belgium, resemble to the present accident, 4 members of the Cause Elucidation Group and Mr. Kaneko, director of the Paris Office of PNC visited to Belgium to hold a meeting with experts of the Belgoprocess Inc. for 4 days. In this meeting, after exchanging mutual detail informations on accident occurred at the Euro Bitum Plant and fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility, some discussions on cause supposition of the present accident. For cause of the fire, mutual differences were found. As a state at occurring fires was much resemble, their followed states seemed to be extremely different on responses of operators to fire-extinguishing action, filter exchanging and so forth. As finishing to recover the plant after 1 month passed from the accident to restart its operation, the Belgoprocess, Inc. has conducted some improvements of the facility such as sufficiency of fire extinguishing apparatus, addition and improvements of fire detecting means, direct measurement of solid temperature and so on, as well as reinforcement of thermal analysis procedure and renewal to new apparatus. Although no special supposition on cause of the fire at this meeting, a lot of items to learn such as operation system, responses after accident, and so forth were acquired. (G.K.)

  15. Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis

    Naser Azad


    Full Text Available Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies using factor analysis. The proposed model of this paper investigates 36 factors and, using factor analysis, we extract six most influential factors including information sharing, intelligence information, exposure strategy, differentiation, research and development strategy and market survey. The first strategy, partnership, includes five sub-factor including product development partnership, partnership with foreign firms, customers’ perception from competitors’ products, Customer involvement in product development, inter-agency coordination, customer-oriented approach to innovation and transmission of product development change where inter-agency coordination has been considered the most important factor. Internal strengths are the most influential factors impacting the second strategy, intelligence information. The third factor, introducing strategy, introducing strategy, includes four sub criteria and consumer buying behavior is the most influencing factor. Differentiation is the next important factor with five components where knowledge and expertise in product innovation is the most important one. Research and development strategy with four sub-criteria where reducing product development cycle plays the most influential factor and finally, market survey strategy is the last important factor with three factors and finding new market plays the most important role.

  16. Factors associated with work-related accidents and sickness among maquiladora workers: the case of Nogales, Sonora, Mexico.

    Balcazar, H; Denman, C; Lara, F


    The health problems of maquiladora workers were explored in a sample of 497 workers of Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The workers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire containing four sections: a sociodemographic profile, occupational history, working conditions, and a health profile. Overall, 12.6 percent of the workers reported having an accident while working in the maquila, more than 40 percent of these requiring at least one day of disability, and 18.3 percent of workers reported having an episode of sickness/disease. More than 60 percent perceived health-related risks associated with working conditions. The presence of a doctor or nurse in the plant (odds ratio = 0.30), a perception of risk associated with working conditions (odds ratio = 1.85), and the plant offering information about work-related risks (odds ratio = 0.39) were among the significant predictors of work-related accidents and disease/sickness. The authors discuss the implications of these results for programs and policies to improve safety conditions in the maquiladora industry.

  17. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.


    ... States vessel wherever such casualty or accident occurs; or (3) With respect to a foreign tank vessel... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  18. Effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on goshawk reproduction.

    Murase, Kaori; Murase, Joe; Horie, Reiko; Endo, Koichi


    Although the influence of nuclear accidents on the reproduction of top predators has not been investigated, it is important that we identify the effects of such accidents because humans are also top predators. We conducted field observation for 22 years and analysed the reproductive performance of the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae), a top avian predator in the North Kanto area of Japan, before and after the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that occurred in 2011. The reproductive performance declined markedly compared with the pre-accident years and progressively decreased for the three post-accident study years. Moreover, it was suggested that these declines were primarily caused by an increase in the air dose rate of radio-active contaminants measured under the nests caused by the nuclear accidents, rather than by other factors. We consider the trends in the changes of the reproductive success rates and suggest that internal exposure may play an important role in the reproductive performance of the goshawk, as well as external exposure.

  19. Investigation and analysis of the intoxication accident of sodium nitrite%一起亚硝酸钠中毒事故的调查

    王滨; 周东升


    OBJECTIVE To analyze the causes of food-poisoning, to prevent and eliminate the similar accident. METHODS Used scene hygienic investigation, epidemiological analysis, laboratory detection and so on. RESULTS The food- poisoning event was caused by the polluted water with sodium nitrite from the reservior. The sodium nitrite water was siphoned from supply water pipe to drinking water pipe by temporary stop water. CONCLUSION More propagandas should be strengthened, the all population should improve the knowledge of the sodium nitrite intoxication. The health supervision department should strength training and inspection works. The enterprise should strength the management of sodium nitrite, the same water source should be forbidden to be used as industry water and drinking water in order to eliminate the accident and the similar accident of hazarding wokers' health.%目的 对一起食物中毒的原因进行分析,防止和杜绝事故的再次发生.方法 采用现场卫生学调查、流行病学分析、实验室检测等方法.结果 该事故为一起因暂时停水,引起的车间除锈用亚硝酸钠蓄水池水,由进水管虹吸返流至饮用水管,污染饮用水所致的食物中毒.结论 应加强多渠道宣传,提高各类人员对亚硝酸盐中毒的认识,卫生监督部门要加强培训和监督工作,企业要加强对亚硝酸盐规范管理,严禁工业用水与生活饮用水共用同一水源,以消除这类事件或其他危害职工身体健康的事件发生.

  20. Study of the Severity of Accidents in Tehran Using Statistical Modeling and Data Mining Techniques

    Hesamaldin Razi


    Full Text Available AbstractBackgrounds and Aims: The Tehran province was subject to the second highest incidence of fatalities due to traffic accidents in 1390. Most studies in this field examine rural traffic accidents, but this study is based on the use of logit models and artificial neural networks to evaluate the factors that affect the severity of accidents within the city of Tehran.Materials and Methods: Among the various types of crashes, head-on collisions are specified as the most serious type, which is investigated in this study with the use of Tehran’s accident data. In the modeling process, the severity of the accident is the dependent variable and defined as a binary covariate, which are non-injury accidents and injury accidents. The independent variables are parameters such as the characteristics of the driver, time of the accident, traffic and environmental characteristics. In addition to the prediction accuracy comparison of the two models, the elasticity of the logit model is compared with a sensitivity analysis of the neural network.Results: The results show that the proposed model provides a good estimate of an accident's severity. The explanatory variables that have been determined to be significant in the final models are the driver’s gender, age and education, along with negligence of the traffic rules, inappropriate acceleration, deviation to the left, type of vehicle, pavement conditions, time of the crash and street width.Conclusion: An artificial neural network model can be useful as a statistical model in the analysis of factors that affect the severity of accidents. According to the results, human errors and illiteracy of drivers increase the severity of crashes, and therefore, educating drivers is the main strategy that will reduce accident severity in Iran. Special attention should be given to a driver’s age group, with particular care taken when they are very young.

  1. Self-reported accidents

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth


    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  2. [Drowning accidents in childhood].

    Krandick, G; Mantel, K


    This is a report on five boys aged between 1 and 5 years who, after prolonged submersion in cold water, were treated at our department. On being taken out of the water, all the patients were clinically dead. After 1- to 3-hour successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a rectal temperature of about 27 degrees C, they were rewarmed at a rate of 1 degree/hour. Two patients died within a few hours after the accident. One patient survived with an apallic syndrome, 2 children survived with no sequelae. In the event of a water-related accident associated with hypothermia, we consider suitable resuscitation to have preference over rewarming measures. The most important treatment guidelines and prognostic factors are discussed.

  3. Accidents of bus drivers : an epidemiological approach

    M.L.I. Pokorny (Mirko); D.H.J. Blom (Dick)


    textabstractIn the history of accident research much emphasis has been laid on general statistics, different types of case studies concentrating on various personal factor-s, circumstantial influences etc. Often, in certain waves, the unequal initial liability theory (the accident proneness concept;

  4. Sleep Apnea, Sleep Debt and Daytime Sleepiness Are Independently Associated with Road Accidents. A Cross-Sectional Study on Truck Drivers

    Garbarino, Sergio; Durando, Paolo; Guglielmi, Ottavia; Dini, Guglielmo; Bersi, Francesca; Fornarino, Stefania; Toletone, Alessandra; Chiorri, Carlo; Magnavita, Nicola


    Background Recent research has found evidence of an association between motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) or near miss accidents (NMAs), and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) or its main medical cause, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). However, EDS can also be due to non-medical factors, such as sleep debt (SD), which is common among professional truck drivers. On the opposite side, rest breaks and naps are known to protect against accidents. Study Objectives To investigate the association of OSA,...

  5. Comprehensive analysis techniques for mine fire accident investigation%矿井火灾事故调查综合分析技术

    牛会永; 邓军; 周心权; 王海桥


    In order to ensure the scientific and objective investigation of the mine fire accident, theory model of roadway longitudinal temperature attenuation was established during unsteady heat exchange. Through analyzing the sphere of influence on mine fire disaster and the extent of damage to equipment and components in underground, the feasibility analysis for the interior and appearance of material evidence in mine fire which will be applied to coal mine fire accident investigation was carried out. Through analyzing the change of the electrical properties, microstructure, hardness and strength of different materials in coal mine when the fire happens, the change law of capability of common material during the different degrees of thermal in mine was obtained. According to the characteristics of mine fire, the quantitative relationship between temperature and damage was erected. The results show that when the mine fire investigation is carried out, the reason of fire can be cleared based on the changes of materials and equipment destroyed by fire, and the highest temperature and combustion duration of the fire can be anti-pushed, therefore, occurrence and development of fire can be deduced, and the technical support of material evidence analysis can be provided for coal mine fire accident investigation.%为保证矿井火灾事故调查的科学性与客观性,确定风流与巷壁在非稳态热交换条件下的巷道纵向温度衰减理论模型;通过分析矿井火灾灾变的影响范围以及对井下设备和构件的破坏程度,对火场物证材料的内观表象应用于煤矿火灾事故调查进行可行性研究;通过对矿井火灾时井下常见材料的导电性能、金相组织、硬度以及强度变化的分析,得出井下常见物质不同程度受热后性能的变化规律;根据矿井火灾的特点,建立温度与物证受损情况的量化关系.研究结果表明:事故调查时,可根据受到火灾破坏的材料及设备的性

  6. Dementia and Traffic Accidents

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe;


    BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic......-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual's personal...... data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric...

  7. A Technique for Showing Causal Arguments in Accident Reports

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.


    In the prototypical accident report, specific findings, particularly those related to causes and contributing factors, are usually written out explicitly and clearly. Also, the evidence upon which these findings are based is typically explained in detail. Often lacking, however, is any explicit discussion, description, or depiction of the arguments that connect the findings and the evidence. That is, the reports do not make clear why the investigators believe that the specific evidence they found necessarily leads to the particular findings they enumerated. This paper shows how graphical techniques can be used to depict relevant arguments supporting alternate positions on the causes of a complex road-traffic accident.

  8. Associated factors to the occurrence of motorcycle accident in the perception of hospitalized motorcyclist - doi:10.5020/18061230.2010.p213

    Augediva Maria Jucá Pordeus


    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the social demographic characteristics of injured motorcyclists admitted into an emergency hospital and their perception about the accident. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted between October and December 2007 with a sample of 209 patients who were victims of motorcycle accidents. A form was applied for data collection and the data were submitted to frequency analysis. The studied variables comprised social demographic data; conditions of the accident; the use of alcohol and the perception of the victim in relation to the accident. Results: Out of 209 interviewed patients, 183 (88% were male, 88 (42% were aged 21 to 30 years; 147 (65.9% were from different counties of the accident site, 89 (53.9% were not licensed riders; 93 (56.3% did not wear a helmet and 113 (54.4% reported drinking alcohol before the accident. Regarding the perception of the victims about the cause of the accident, 90 (43% highlighted the inappropriate behavior of their own rider. Conclusion: The study revealed that among injured motorcyclists, prevailed males, young and single, who did not wear helmet at the time of the accident, who were not legally qualified to drive a motorcycle and who recognize as the main cause of these accidents their own inadequate behavior

  9. The relationship between benzodiazepine use and traffic accidents: A systematic literature review.

    Smink, Beitske E; Egberts, Antoine C G; Lusthof, Klaas J; Uges, Donald R A; de Gier, Johan J


    In many countries, benzodiazepines are the most commonly used and misused psychoactive medicinal drugs. Results of epidemiological studies investigating the association between benzodiazepine use and traffic accidents seem to be inconclusive or inconsistent at first sight. However, the outcome of epidemiological studies may be influenced by several methodological factors like study design, study population, exposure measurement, outcome definitions and possible confounders. Our objective was to conduct a systematic literature review of epidemiological studies that investigated the association between benzodiazepine use and traffic accidents, including related outcomes like culpability and injury or accident severity. We searched EMBASE, PubMed and Forensic Science Abstracts 3/0 (FORS) for references included in these databases at 1 June 2009 using the term 'benzodiazepines' in combination with 'driving performance' or 'accident risk' or 'traffic accident'. For inclusion in this review, the study design had to be comparative, include road users involved in accidents and provide specific data about benzodiazepines. Sixty-six studies were included in the review. The study populations varied from the general (driving) population, accident-involved road users with or without injury and persons admitted to a hospital to fatally injured accident-involved drivers. Exposure assessment was performed by using toxicological results, prescription data or questionnaires. The divergent study populations and comparison groups and the variety of methods used to express the outcome of interest hampered comparison between results. Evidence is growing that exposure to benzodiazepines is related to increased accident risk. The literature indicates that the greatest accident risk is associated with the use of long half-life benzodiazepines, increasing dosage and the first few weeks of use of benzodiazepines. Clear evidence of increased culpability associated with benzodiazepine use is

  10. Investigations of Aluminum-Doped Self-Healing Zircaloy Surfaces in Context of Accident-Tolerant Fuel Cladding Research

    Carr, James; Vasudevamurthy, Gokul; Snead, Lance; Hinderliter, Brian; Massey, Caleb


    We present here some important results investigating aluminum as an effective surface dopant for increased oxidation resistance of zircaloy nuclear fuel cladding. At first, the transport behavior of aluminum into reactor grade zircaloy was studied using simple diffusion couples at temperatures greater than 770 K. The experiments revealed the formation of tens of microns thick graded Zr-Al layers. The activation energy of aluminum in zircaloy was found to be ~175 kJ/mol (~1.8 eV), indicating the high mobility of aluminum in zircaloy. Subsequently, aluminum sputter-coated zircaloy coupons were heat-treated to achieve surface doping and form compositionally graded layers. These coupons were then tested in steam environments at 1073 and 1273 K. The microstructure of the as-fabricated and steam-corroded specimens was compared to those of pure zircaloy control specimens. Analysis of data revealed that aluminum effectively competed with zircaloy for oxygen up until 1073 K blocking oxygen penetration, with no traces of large scale spalling, indicating mechanically stable interfaces and surfaces. At the highest steam test temperatures, aluminum was observed to segregate from the Zr-Al alloy under layers and migrate to the surface forming discrete clusters. Although this is perceived as an extremely desirable phenomenon, in the current experiments, oxygen was observed to penetrate into the zirconium-rich under layers, which could be attributed to formation of surface defects such as cracks in the surface alumina layers.

  11. A trial product of a new safety belt for a wheelchair user and its evaluation based on the actual investigation of fall accidents related to wheelchairs in a hospital.

    Konishi, Teuko; Matsuoka, Megumi; Toyoda, Mitsuko; Maie, Kazuo


    Old-aged patients, especially when they cannot keep stable sitting postures on wheelchairs, may get hurts seriously by falls. Preventing fall accidents is one of the most important subjects for keeping ADL of old-aged persons. We investigated the fall accidents related to from wheelchairs that occurred in a hospital (Asao General Hospital of Rehabilitation), and tried to make a new type of safety belts for old-aged wheelchair users based on the investigation. The results of trials using the product was evaluated by the care givers. The number of fall accidents in the hospital amounted to 226 cases within a year. It is noticed that the patients removed their belts by themselves intentionally or unintentionally, which is the most important point of the accidents. The evaluators of new belts were 91 care givers. The evaluation items were (1) the convenience for caregivers to fasten and remove the belts, (2) the ability of holding the patient on the wheelchair, (3) the safeness to prevent the fall from wheelchair (including the disability of removing a belt by the user), (4) the appearance when the usually used belts and the new belts were used, and only for the new belts, (5) the hygienic aspect and (6) the utility of the pocket. The new belts got better marks than the usually used belts. We intend to further improve the trial product (new belt) to be safer, more effective and more comfortable, based on the evaluation.

  12. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    Kerstens, N.F.H.


    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in producti

  13. Investigation regarding the long-term security developments in the Swedish nuclear power and the response to the accident at Fukushima; Utredning avseende den laangsiktiga saekerhetsutvecklingen i den svenska kaernkraften och aatgaerder med anledning av olyckan i Fukushima

    Skaanberg, Lars


    Swedish nuclear plants need to continue to work on analysis and actions in the plants, partly to meet the demands of legislation and agreed action plans, and partly due to additional security requirements on account of experiences from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, stress tests, security investigations and investigations relating to physical protection. It is also essential to continue with safety improvements to gradually increase margins against unforeseen events in aging plants during long-term operation.

  14. Investigating the effective factors on electronic trade by viral marketing

    Nina Ghane


    Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation to explore a number of strategies underpinning virtual marketing. The study also provides several suggestions for marketers seeking to use viral marketing to position brands or to change a brand’s image, to encourage new product trials and to increase product uptake rates. In this article, we investigate the effect of external factors such as capturing the imagination, targeting credible sources, leveraging combinations of technology and easy to use product on virtual marketing. In addition, the study considers internal factors such as inclusion (the need to be part of a group, the need to be different and affection on viral marketing. The survey has been accomplished among 140 Iranian people, who were familiar with virtual marketing and they are selected, randomly. Using Pearson correlation as well as regression analysis, the study provides some evidences that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between some internal/external factors and virtual marketing.

  15. Analysis on critical factor of human error accidents in coal mine based on gray system theory%基于灰色系统理论的煤矿人因事故关键因素分析

    兰建义; 乔美英; 周英


    Through analyzing the influence factors causing human error accidents in coal mine, the critical influ-ence factors were summarized.By applying the gray system correlation theory, according to the statistical data of mine accidents in recent 10 years from the State Administration of Coal Mine Safety, the influence types of human error accidents in coal mine were analyzed.Taking the number of accidents and death toll of accidents as reference index, the gray correlation degree about 10 kinds of factors mainly related to human error accident in coal mine, such as behavior error, personal violation, organization and management error and so on, were calculated and ana-lyzed.The gray correlation orders of these factors were derived, and the critical influence factors of human error ac-cident in coal mine were determined.Finally, the quantitative analysis result between the critical influence factors and human error accidents in coal mine were obtained.Using gray correlation theory to analyze the influence factors of human error in coal mine can well explain the weight relationship between human error and each critical affecting factor.It provides a strong reference for pretending and controlling the human error accident in coal mine, with more understanding on the main causing mechanism of human error accidents.%通过对煤矿人因失误事故致因因素进行分析,统计出相关的关键影响因素,运用灰色系统关联理论,根据国家安监局近十年煤矿事故统计数据,对煤矿人因失误事故影响类型进行了分析。以煤矿事故发生起数和事故死亡人数作为参考指标,计算和分析行为失误致因、个人违章、组织管理失误等十项主要与煤矿人因事故相关的灰色关联度,进而推算出这些因素的灰色关联序,确定出导致煤矿人因失误事故的关键因素,最终得到煤矿人因事故与关键影响因素之间的定量化分析结果。采用灰色关联理论对煤

  16. Injury Prevention in Aircraft Crashes: Investigative Techniques and Applications (la Prevention des lesions lors des accidents d’ avions: les techniques d’investigation et leurs applications)


    during a survivable crash, emergency escape through a chute was simulated to investigate body clearances and possible impacts with aircraft structures...LOADS / DRAG CHUTES B-20 Quest Accession Number : 94N13972 94N13972# NASA STAR Technical Report Issue: 02 An assessment of the potential for neck...Coordonnateur AGARD - VSL Etat-major de la Force aerienne Quartier Reine Elisabeth Rue d’Evere, B-1140 Bruxelles CANADA Directeur - Gestion de

  17. An association between dietary habits and traffic accidents in patients with chronic liver disease: A data-mining analysis.

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Suetsugu, Takuro; Ogata, Shyou; Imanaga, Minami; Ishii, Kumiko; Esaki, Nao; Sugimoto, Masako; Otsuyama, Jyuri; Nagamatsu, Ayu; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Itou, Minoru; Oriishi, Tetsuharu; Iwasaki, Shoko; Miura, Hiroko; Torimura, Takuji


    The incidence of traffic accidents in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) is high in the USA. However, the characteristics of patients, including dietary habits, differ between Japan and the USA. The present study investigated the incidence of traffic accidents in CLD patients and the clinical profiles associated with traffic accidents in Japan using a data-mining analysis. A cross-sectional study was performed and 256 subjects [148 CLD patients (CLD group) and 106 patients with other digestive diseases (disease control group)] were enrolled; 2 patients were excluded. The incidence of traffic accidents was compared between the two groups. Independent factors for traffic accidents were analyzed using logistic regression and decision-tree analyses. The incidence of traffic accidents did not differ between the CLD and disease control groups (8.8 vs. 11.3%). The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that yoghurt consumption was the only independent risk factor for traffic accidents (odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.85; P=0.0197). Similarly, the results of the decision-tree analysis showed that yoghurt consumption was the initial divergence variable. In patients who consumed yoghurt habitually, the incidence of traffic accidents was 6.6%, while that in patients who did not consume yoghurt was 16.0%. CLD was not identified as an independent factor in the logistic regression and decision-tree analyses. In conclusion, the difference in the incidence of traffic accidents in Japan between the CLD and disease control groups was insignificant. Furthermore, yoghurt consumption was an independent negative risk factor for traffic accidents in patients with digestive diseases, including CLD.

  18. Using Multilevel Factor Analysis with Clustered Data: Investigating the Factor Structure of the Positive Values Scale

    Huang, Francis L.; Cornell, Dewey G.


    Advances in multilevel modeling techniques now make it possible to investigate the psychometric properties of instruments using clustered data. Factor models that overlook the clustering effect can lead to underestimated standard errors, incorrect parameter estimates, and model fit indices. In addition, factor structures may differ depending on…

  19. Study on Nuclear Accident Precursors Using AHP and BBN

    Sujin Park


    Full Text Available Most of the nuclear accident reports used to indicate the implicit precursors which are not easily quantified as underlying factors. The current Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA is capable of quantifying the importance of accident causes in limited scope. It was, therefore, difficult to achieve quantifiable decision-making for resource allocation. In this study, the methodology which facilitates quantifying these precursors and a case study were presented. First, four implicit precursors have been obtained by evaluating the causality and hierarchy structure of various accident factors. Eventually, it turned out that they represent the lack of knowledge. After four precursors are selected, subprecursors were investigated and their cause-consequence relationship was implemented by Bayesian Belief Network (BBN. To prioritize the precursors, the prior probability is initially estimated by expert judgment and updated upon observations. The pair-wise importance between precursors is calculated by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the results are converted into node probability tables of the BBN model. Using this method, the sensitivity and the posterior probability of each precursor can be analyzed so that it enables making prioritization for the factors. We tried to prioritize the lessons learned from Fukushima accident to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed methodology.

  20. Squeal Those Tires! Automobile-Accident Reconstruction.

    Caples, Linda Griffin


    Methods use to reconstruct traffic accidents provide settings for real life applications for students in precalculus, mathematical analysis, or trigonometry. Described is the investigation of an accident in conjunction with the local Highway Patrol Academy integrating physics, vector, and trigonometry. Class findings were compared with those of…

  1. [Occupational accidents in Municipio Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela, 1979-1990. Determination of the frequency and risk factors which play a role in their production].

    Fernández-D'Pool, J; Montero-Proaño, G


    During the period of 1979-1990 job-related injuries were studied in Maracaibo, Zulia state, in order to analyze frequencies and causes. This information was obtained from annual reports on job-related injuries Form Number 15-411 of the Venezuelan Institute of Social Security (IVSS) which has been implemented nationally since 1982. Accidents that caused loss of man-hours were considered; variables considered were: age, risk category, day of the week, work shift, month, type of accident, agent, type of lesion, mechanical cause, body part affected and type of the activity in which the company is involved. The results were expressed as absolute values (mean +/- SE) and relative values. The mean accidents/year was 1651 +/- 177.97, most of them occurring in the age groups of 20-29 years (368.8) and 30-39 years (359.8). The triannual mean rate was higher for the group of the non-serious accidents (50%). Tuesday was the day of higher accidental incidence (22%) in addition to the morning shift between 9 and 11 hours (55%). Manufacturing was the economic activity most affected (43%). The most common causative agents were materials, substances and radiations (35%). The use of defective tools were the most frequent causes of mechanical accidents (31%). Upper limbs (46%) and between the type of lesion contusions or/and bruises (53%). It was concluded that, although the number of workers and accidents slowly diminished, the accidents rate slightly increased.

  2. An empirical investigation on factors influencing export of herbal supplements

    Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi


    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts who are professional in the area of production and distribution of herbal supplements and using factor analysis, the study detects eight factors including supportive laws and regulations, organizational atmosphere, marketing structure, knowledge oriented, feasibility study, research and development, competitive strategy and partnership strategies.

  3. Investigation on influencing factors of 5-HMF content in Schisandra *

    Xu, Qing; Li, Ying-Hua; Lü, Xiu-yang


    In order to investigate the influencing factors of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content in Schisandra, confirm the theory of 5-HMF deriving mainly from Schisandra processing course, and give some suggestions about the Schisandra processing method, the 5-HMF contents in decoctions of Schisandra under different heating temperature, decocting time, soaking time, processing methods and treatment with different solvents before decocting the Schisandra were measured by RP-HPLC method. The ...

  4. Investigation of Various Essential Factors for Optimum Infrared Thermography

    OKADA, Keiji; TAKEMURA, Kei; SATO, Shigeru


    ABSTRACT We investigated various essential factors for optimum infrared thermography for cattle clinics. The effect of various factors on the detection of surface temperature was investigated in an experimental room with a fixed ambient temperature using a square positioned on a wall. Various factors of animal objects were examined using cattle to determine the relationships among presence of hair, body surface temperature, surface temperature of the eyeball, the highest temperature of the eye circle, rectum temperature and ambient temperature. Also, the surface temperature of the flank at different time points after eating was examined. The best conditions of thermography for cattle clinics were determined and were as follows: (1) The distance between a thermal camera and an object should be fixed, and the camera should be set within a 45-degree angle with respect to the objects using the optimum focal length. (2) Factors that affect the camera temperature, such as extreme cold or heat, direct sunshine, high humidity and wind, should be avoided. (3) For the comparison of thermographs, imaging should be performed under identical conditions. If this is not achievable, hairless parts should be used. PMID:23759714

  5. Severe Accident Analysis for Combustible Gas Risk Evaluation inside CFVS

    Lee, NaRae; Lee, JinYong; Bang, YoungSuk; Lee, DooYong [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, HyeongTaek [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study is to identify the composition of gases discharged into the containment filtered venting system by analyzing severe accidents. The accident scenarios which could be significant with respect to containment pressurization and hydrogen generation are derived and composition of containment atmosphere and possible discharged gas mixtures are estimated. In order to ensure the safety of the public and environment, the ventilation system should be designed properly by considering discharged gas flow rate, aerosol loads, radiation level, etc. One of considerations to be resolved is the risk due to combustible gas, especially hydrogen. Hydrogen can be generated largely by oxidation of cladding and decomposition of concrete. If the hydrogen concentration is high enough and other conditions like oxygen and steam concentration is met, the hydrogen can burn, deflagrate or detonate, which result in the damage the structural components. In particularly, after Fukushima accident, the hydrogen risk has been emphasized as an important contributor threatening the integrity of nuclear power plant during the severe accident. These results will be used to analyze the risk of hydrogen combustion inside the CFVS as boundary conditions. Severe accident simulation results are presented and discussed qualitatively with respect to hydrogen combustion. The hydrogen combustion risk inside of the CFVS has been examined qualitatively by investigating the discharge flow characteristics. Because the composition of the discharge flow to CFVS would be determined by the containment atmosphere, the severe accident progression and containment atmosphere composition have been investigated. Due to PAR operation, the hydrogen concentration in the containment would be decreased until the oxygen is depleted. After the oxygen is depleted, the hydrogen concentration would be increased. As a result, depending on the vent initiation timing (i.e. vent initiation pressure), the important

  6. 交通事故致因中的人为因素分析%Human Factors in Causation of Traffic Accidents



    为改善交通安全状况,减少交通事故,从最主要的因素——人为因素出发,分析其影响.导致事故发生的主要原因是:驾驶员处理交通事件的能力(包括新手、老年、酒精、药物、疲劳、压力等),驾驶员在驾驶时采取冒险行为(包括不正确使用安全带、超速、犯罪、自杀等).结果表明:新手驾驶、饮酒驾驶、疲劳驾驶、不正确使用安全带驾驶等仍是影响交通安全的主要因素.%In order to improve the traffic safety and decrease the amount of traffic accidents, this article analyses the impact of the main factors influencing the traffic safety - - human factors. This paper distinguishes between those human factors that reduce capability to meet traffic contingencies (including inexperience, old age, alcoholism, drug abuse, fatigue and acute psychological stress) and those that modulate risk taking while driving (including incorrect use of seatbelt, speeding, crime and suicide) , then analyses comprehensively their influence on drivers. The results show that inexperience driving, drinking driving, fatigue driving and incorrect use of seatbelt driving are still the major aspects which should be taken into consideration.

  7. Consequences of radioactive releases into the sea resulting from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant - Evolution of expert investigation according to the data available


    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 led to an unprecedented direct input of artificial radioactivity into the marine environment. The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety was requested by the French authorities to investigate the radioecological impact of this input, in particular the potential contamination of products of marine origin used for human consumption. This article describes the close link between the responses provided and ...

  8. Estimated recurrence frequencies for initiating accident categories associated with the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant design

    Copus, E R


    Estimated recurrence frequencies for each of twenty-five generic LMFBR initiating accident categories were quantified using the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design. These estimates were obtained using simplified systems fault trees and functional event tree models from the Accident Delineation Study Phase I Final Report coupled with order-of-magnitude estimates for the initiator-dependent failure probabilities of the individual CRBRP engineered safety systems. Twelve distinct protected accident categories where SCRAM is assumed to be successful are estimated to occur at a combined rate of 10/sup -3/ times per year while thirteen unprotected accident categories in which SCRAM fails are estimated to occur at a combined rate on the order of 10/sup -5/ times per year. These estimates are thought to be representative despite the fact that human performance factors, maintenance and repair, as well as input common cause uncertainties, were not treated explicitly. The overall results indicate that for the CRBRP design no single accident category appears to be dominant, nor can any be totally eliminated from further investigation in the areas of accident phenomenology for in-core events and post-accident phenomenology for containment.

  9. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.


    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  10. Multi-model Integrated Analysis and Control Strategies of Human Factors in Aviation Accidents%航空事故人为因素多模型集成分析与控制策略

    徐璇; 王华伟; 王祥


    Human factors are leading causes of modern aviation accidents. So it is helpful to improve the level of flight safety and realize intrinsic safety by analyzing characteristics of human factors and further proposing preventive measures. In this paper,multi-model integrated analysis and control processes are put forward combining FTA and HFACS,to find direct and deep causes of the accidents and to fully rec-ognize human factors,accident mechanisms and evolutionary processes. An quantitative method is also ap-plied to identify key factors so that some targeted strategies can be put forward to prevent similar accidents caused by human factors. Besides,according to the associative hazard analysis,potential unsafe factors of the accidents are found to realize accident prevention in an active way.%人为因素是现代航空事故最主要的致因因素,分析航空事故中人为因素的特点,进一步提出预防措施,有利于提高飞行安全水平,实现本质安全。提出多模型集成的航空事故人为因素分析与控制流程,将事故树分析方法( FTA)和人因分析及分类系统( HFACS)相结合,寻找事故的直接原因和深层次原因,全面识别航空事故中的人为因素、事故机理及事故演化过程;运用定量方法找出关键因素,针对性地提出避免由人为因素导致航空事故的策略;根据关联危害性分析法,挖掘事故的潜在不安全因素,实现主动的事故预防。

  11. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

    Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.


    The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

  12. Prioritization of Lesson learned from Fukushima Accident using AHP

    Zubair, Muhammad; Park, Sujina; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Zubair, Muhammad [Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)


    Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) the present research signifies the technical and nontechnical issues of Fukushima accident. The study exposed that besides technical fixes such as enhanced engineering safety features and better siting choices, the critical ingredient for safe operation of nuclear reactors lie in the quality of human training and transparency of the nuclear regulatory process that keeps public interest at the forefront. In this paper a strategy to increase Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety has been developed. By using AHP, best alternative to improve safety and to allocate budget for all technical and non-technical factors related with nuclear safety has been investigated. By using AHP a methodology to increase NPP safety has been proposed. With the help of this technique the qualitative aspect of Fukushima accident has been examined by considering experts judgment. The results showed that a lack of regulatory authorities was one of the main causes of accident. So, more budget allocation in this area would be helpful to reduce accidents and to improve nuclear safety. Even if AHP only addresses the qualitative aspect of safety factors, this study can be extended to quantitative evaluation with other tools such as fault trees or crisis trees so that the final results enable data-driven decision-making process, which is on-going project at Kyung Hee University.

  13. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa


    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  14. Fatal diving accidents in western Norway 1983-2007.

    Ramnefjell, M P; Morild, I; Mørk, S J; Lilleng, P K


    Despite efforts to reduce their number, fatal diving accidents still occur. The circumstances and post-mortem findings in 40 fatal diving accidents in western Norway from 1983 through 2007 were investigated. Diving experience, medical history and toxicology reports were retrieved. The material consisted of recreational divers, professional saturation divers and professional divers without experience with saturation. In 33 cases the diving equipment was examined as part of the forensic investigation. In 27 cases defects in the diving equipment were found. For six divers such defects were responsible for the fatal accidents. Eighteen divers died on the surface or less than 10 m below surface. Five divers reached below 100 msw, and two of them died at this depth. The fatalities were not season-dependent. However, wave-height and strength of currents were influential factors in some cases. Twelve divers were diving alone. Twenty divers had one buddy, 9 of these divers were alone at the time of death. The cause of death was drowning in 31 out of 40 divers; one of them had a high blood-ethanol concentration, in two other divers ethanol was found in the urine, indicating previous ethanol consumption. Nine divers died from sudden decompression, pulmonary barotraumas, underwater trauma and natural causes. The study shows that most of the fatal diving accidents could be avoided if adequate diving safety procedures had been followed.

  15. An Investigation of Psychological Factors Inluencing Investment Decision Making

    Hsin Hue Chang


    Full Text Available This  study  applies  a  second-order  conirmatory  factor  analysis  (CFA  approach  to investigate  psychological  factors  inluencing  individuals'  investment  decision-making.  A second-order  CFA  approach  consists  of  ive  irst-order  psychological  factors  in  terms  of mental  accounting,  regret  avoidance,  self-control,  heuristic  and  overconidence,  and  one second-order factor in terms of investment decision-making. Quantitative data was yielded by the questionnaire, and an effective sample of 752 responses was used to execute the estimation procedure.  The  results  reveal  that  there  exist  statistically  signiicant  relationships  between ive psychological factors and investment decision-making. Investors are likely to consider a product with different functions as one with different mental accounts (gains. Thus, inancial institutions  are  advised  to  provide  their  potential  customers  with  multi-function  products. Since self-control is  a  signiicant self-imposed mechanism  for  investment decision-making, inancial institutions can merchandise products that can help their customers to execute the self-imposed rules of thumb. ";} // -->activate javascript

  16. Fatal traffic accidents and forensic medicine

    Kazuhiko Kibayashi


    Full Text Available In the event of a traffic accident fatality, the death is reported as an “unusual death,” an inquest is conducted, and, if necessary, a forensic autopsy is performed to prove any causal relationship between the accident and the death, identify the vehicle at fault, and determine the cause of the accident. A forensic autopsy of a traffic accident fatality needs to both determine the cause of death and identify the mechanism of injury, an analytical task that requires observation of three major traffic accident factors: the body, the vehicles involved, and the scene of the accident. Also crucial to determining the cause of death is the process of looking into whether the people involved in the accident had any diseases that might affect their driving performance or were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In order to reduce the number of people killed in traffic accidents, it will be important to promote joint research uniting forensic medicine, clinical medicine, automotive engineering, and road engineering, take measures to limit the impact of inebriated pedestrians and pedestrians suffering from dementia, and ensure proper screening of alcohol and illegal drug consumption in drivers.

  17. 园内儿童意外伤害对托幼园所影响的调查分析%Investigation on the influence of children's accident on kindergartens

    袁全莲; 马迎华


    目的 了解海淀区园内儿童意外伤害对托幼园所影响的现状,为制定减少园内意外伤害发生及其对园所影响的有效干预措施提供依据.方法 针对海淀区2007至2009年发生的306例园内意外伤害对托幼园所的影响进行调查分析.结果 随着园所级别升高,发生意外伤害的园所数逐渐减少,各类园所间发生意外伤害的比例差异有统计学意义(χ2=29.49,P<0.05).3年中园所因意外伤害导致直接经济损失约22万元,占园所支付伤害处置费用的76.1%.意外伤害的发生对园所的正常工作、教师情绪及经济损失等的不良影响程度随园所级别的降低而升高.结论 加强托幼园所与家长的信息沟通,使家长充分理解托幼园所的工作,推广全面覆盖儿童的意外伤害保险,减少儿童意外伤害对园所的影响.%Objective To understand the current status of the influence of children' s accident in kindergartens of Haidian District on kindergartens, so as to provide scientific guideline for effective measures to decrease children' s accident in kindergartens and the influence on kindergartens. Methods Three hundred and six cases of children s accident happened from 2007 to 2009 and the influence on the kindergartens of Haidian District were investigated. Results The children s accident was less with the highering of kindergartens rank, and the difference in rate of accident in different kindergartens was statistically significant ( χ2 - 29. 49,P < 0. 05 ). In these three years about 220 thousands yuan was lost because of accident in kindergartens, which occupied 76. 1% of expense of injury. The negative effects of accident on normal work of kindergarten, teachers' mood and economic loss increased with the lowering of kindergartens' rank. Conclusion Enhancing communication between parents and kindergartens promotes parents full understanding of kindergartens daily work. Accident insurance for children needs to be promoted so

  18. Natural hazard impacts on transport systems: analyzing the data base of transport accidents in Russia

    Petrova, Elena


    We consider a transport accident as any accident that occurs during transportation of people and goods. It comprises of accidents involving air, road, rail, water, and pipeline transport. With over 1.2 million people killed each year, road accidents are one of the world's leading causes of death; another 20-50 million people are injured each year on the world's roads while walking, cycling, or driving. Transport accidents of other types including air, rail, and water transport accidents are not as numerous as road crashes, but the relative risk of each accident is much higher because of the higher number of people killed and injured per accident. Pipeline ruptures cause large damages to the environment. That is why safety and security are of primary concern for any transport system. The transport system of the Russian Federation (RF) is one of the most extensive in the world. It includes 1,283,000 km of public roads, more than 600,000 km of airlines, more than 200,000 km of gas, oil, and product pipelines, 115,000 km of inland waterways, and 87,000 km of railways. The transport system, especially the transport infrastructure of the country is exposed to impacts of various natural hazards and weather extremes such as heavy rains, snowfalls, snowdrifts, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, snow avalanches, debris flows, rock falls, fog or icing roads, and other natural factors that additionally trigger many accidents. In June 2014, the Ministry of Transport of the RF has compiled a new version of the Transport Strategy of the RF up to 2030. Among of the key pillars of the Strategy are to increase the safety of the transport system and to reduce negative environmental impacts. Using the data base of technological accidents that was created by the author, the study investigates temporal variations and regional differences of the transport accidents' risk within the Russian federal regions and a contribution of natural factors to occurrences of different

  19. Decision Tree Model for Non-Fatal Road Accident Injury

    Fatin Ellisya Sapri


    Full Text Available Non-fatal road accident injury has become a great concern as it is associated with injury and sometimes leads to the disability of the victims. Hence, this study aims to develop a model that explains the factors that contribute to non-fatal road accident injury severity. A sample data of 350 non-fatal road accident cases of the year 2016 were obtained from Kota Bharu District Police Headquarters, Kelantan. The explanatory variables include road geometry, collision type, accident time, accident causes, vehicle type, age, airbag, and gender. The predictive data mining techniques of decision tree model and multinomial logistic regression were used to model non-fatal road accident injury severity. Based on accuracy rate, decision tree with CART algorithm was found to be more accurate as compared to the logistic regression model. The factors that significantly contribute to non-fatal traffic crashes injury severity are accident cause, road geometry, vehicle type, age and collision type.

  20. Correlation between the Ship Grounding Accident and the Ship Traffic – A Case Study Based on the Statistics of the Gulf of Finland

    Arsham Mazaheri


    Full Text Available Ship traffic is one of the factors that is presented in almost all of the existing grounding models, and is considered as one of the affecting factors on the likelihood of grounding accident. This effect in grounding accident is mostly accepted by the experts as a common sense or simply by just generalizing the ship-ship collision cases to grounding accidents. There is no available research on the actual causal link between the ship traffic and grounding accident in the literature. In this paper, authors have utilized the statistical analysis on historical grounding accident data in the Gulf of Finland between the years 1989 and 2010 and the AIS data of the same area in year 2010, as the source of ship traffic data, to investigate the possible existence of any correlation between the ship traffic and the grounding accident. The results show that for the studied area (Gulf of Finland there is no correlation between the traffic density and the grounding accident. However, the possibility of the existence of minor relation between the traffic distribution and grounding accident is shown by the result. This finding, however, needs further investigation for more clarification.

  1. Fatores associados ao óbito de motociclistas nas ocorrências de trânsito Factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclista en accidentes de tránsito Factors associated with the death of motorcyclists in traffic accidents

    Nelson Luiz Batista de Oliveira


    factors associated with death among motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents in Maringá - PR, a retrospective study was performed, including motorcyclists involved in accidents in the year 2004. Data were collected from the Military Police records, the Integrated System for Emergency Trauma Care (Sistema Integrado de Atendimento ao Trauma em Emergência -SIATE and the Institute of Legal Medicine. Bivariate analyses and binary logistical regression were performed. A total of 2,362 motorcyclists were identified in the Police Reports, 1,743 of whom also had records in the Emergency Responders reports. Victims who succumbed to their injuries differed from victims who survived in terms of age, place of residence, time elapsed since obtaining a driver's license, and their physiological condition at the scene of the accident. The following variables were maintained in the final model: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, pulse, and blood oxygen saturation. The physiological conditions of the victims at the scene of the accidents were highlighted in the final model, with GCS surpassing RTS in regards to association with death.

  2. Analysis of surface powered haulage accidents, January 1990--July 1996

    Fesak, G.M.; Breland, R.M.; Spadaro, J. [Dept. of Labor, Arlington, VA (United States)


    This report addresses surface haulage accidents that occurred between January 1990 and July 1996 involving haulage trucks (including over-the-road trucks), front-end-loaders, scrapers, utility trucks, water trucks, and other mobile haulage equipment. The study includes quarries, open pits and surface coal mines utilizing self-propelled mobile equipment to transport personnel, supplies, rock, overburden material, ore, mine waste, or coal for processing. A total of 4,397 accidents were considered. This report summarizes the major factors that led to the accidents and recommends accident prevention methods to reduce the frequency of these accidents.

  3. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Barat, K


    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  4. Driver Personality Proneness Difference and Risk Factor of Traffic Accidents Analysis in Hongkou District of Shanghai%上海市虹口区驾驶员人格倾向及其发生交通事故的危险因素分析

    谭俊; 冯学山; 黄智勇; 姚文


    目的:调查分析上海市虹口区驾驶员人格倾向及发生交通事故的危险因素,为采取针对性的预防控制措施提供依据.方法:采用自填式问卷方法调查2011年6-8月在虹口区车辆管理所正常验审的机动车驾驶员,内容主要包括驾驶员艾森克人格量表测量以及驾驶员发生交通事故的情况.结果:47.25%的驾驶员自我报告发生过交通事故,艾森克量表结果显示驾驶员性格外向、情绪稳定,有事故驾驶员相对无事故驾驶员性格更为内向.logistic回归分析显示A型血型、有过违章记录、驾驶行为得分低、艾森克量表E维度得分低是驾驶员多发交通事故的危险因素.结论:发生交通事故的驾驶员人格倾向有一定的特异性,建议有关部门结合调查发现的危险因素对驾驶员开展针对性的行车安全宣传和教育,以预防交通事故的发生.%Objective: To analyze the driver personality proneness difference and risk factor of traffic accidents in Hongkou district of Shanghai, and to provide the suggestions for prevention and control. Methods: Questionnaire survey was conducted in Hongkou district,1200 drivers who had finished the vehicle license inspection in vehicle administration department from June to August in 2011 were enrolled. Questionnaire included Eysenk Personality Test and traffic accidents situation of drivers. Results: 47.25% of drivers reported they had the traffic accident experience. The EPT analysis indicated drivers in this investigation were outgoing, steady, drivers with accidents while compared who without accidents were more introverted. Logistic regression indicated that drivers with type A blood, stigma of driving against the regulation, low driving assessment score and low marks of item E in EPT were risk factors for accidents. Conclusion: Drivers who with accidents have some specific characters, the related department should carry out targeted publicity and education to

  5. Investigation of factors impacting mobility and gait in Parkinson disease.

    Christofoletti, Gustavo; McNeely, Marie E; Campbell, Meghan C; Duncan, Ryan P; Earhart, Gammon M


    Mobility and gait limitations are major issues for people with Parkinson disease (PD). Identification of factors that contribute to these impairments may inform treatment and intervention strategies. In this study we investigated factors that predict mobility and gait impairment in PD. Participants with mild to moderate PD and without dementia (n=114) were tested in one session 'off' medication. Mobility measures included the 6-Minute Walk test and Timed-Up-and-Go. Gait velocity was collected in four conditions: forward preferred speed, forward dual task, forward fast as possible and backward walking. The predictors analyzed were age, gender, disease severity, balance, balance confidence, fall history, self-reported physical activity, and executive function. Multiple regression models were used to assess the relationships between predictors and outcomes. The predictors, in different combinations for each outcome measure, explained 55.7% to 66.9% of variability for mobility and 39.5% to 52.8% for gait velocity. Balance was the most relevant factor (explaining up to 54.1% of variance in mobility and up to 45.6% in gait velocity). Balance confidence contributed to a lesser extent (2.0% to 8.2% of variance) in all models. Age explained a small percentage of variance in mobility and gait velocity (up to 2.9%). Executive function explained 3.0% of variance during forward walking only. The strong predictive relationships between balance deficits and mobility and gait impairment suggest targeting balance deficits may be particularly important for improving mobility and gait in people with PD, regardless of an individual's age, disease severity, fall history, or other demographic features.

  6. [Accidents with the "paraglider"].

    Lang, T H; Dengg, C; Gabl, M


    With a collective of 46 patients we show the details and kinds of accidents caused by paragliding. The base for the casuistry of the accidents was a questionnaire which was answered by most of the injured persons. These were questions about the theoretical and practical training, the course of the flight during the different phases, and the subjective point of view of the course of the accident. The patterns of the injuries showed a high incidence of injuries of the spinal column and high risks for the ankles. At the end, we give some advice how to prevent these accidents.

  7. 营运驾驶员驾驶事故影响因素仿真研究%Simulation research on influencing factors of traffic accidents for commercial drivers

    李乃文; 崔宏


    In order to solve the problems of traffic accidents caused by unsafe behavior of commercial drivers , a model of traffic accidents for commercial drivers was built based on CAS and ABMS .Through adjusting the factors such as the vehicle condition , the management and supervision level of manager , the emotional state , safety educa-tion level, driving experience of commercial drivers , and the comprehensive environmental conditions , the effects of safety management level , safety responsibility consciousness and mental load level of commercial drivers on the traf -fic accidents were analyzed by using NetLogo platform .The results showed that the occurrence system of traffic ac-cidents for commercial drivers is a typical CAS , the traffic accidents of commercial drivers are the result of interac-tion between three various subject and behavior environment , and the interaction extent are different .Therefore, in order to reduce the occurrence of traffic accidents for commercial drivers , the transportation company should consid-er various factors and adopt the corresponding measures .%为解决营运驾驶员驾驶事故频发的不安全行为问题,基于复杂适应系统( CAS )理论和多主体建模与仿真( ABMS)方法,构建营运驾驶员驾驶事故模型。通过调节车辆状况、管理者管理监督水平、营运驾驶员情绪状态、安全教育水平、驾驶经验和环境综合条件等因素,运用NetLogo仿真平台分析安全管理水平、营运驾驶员安全责任意识、心理负荷水平对驾驶事故的影响。研究表明:营运驾驶员驾驶事故的发生系统是一种典型的CAS,营运驾驶员驾驶事故是三大主体属性和行为环境交互的结果,且交互作用程度不同。因此,运输企业要考虑多种因素,采取相应的措施来降低营运驾驶员驾驶事故的发生。

  8. Quantifying safety benefit of winter road maintenance: accident frequency modeling.

    Usman, Taimur; Fu, Liping; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F


    This research presents a modeling approach to investigate the association of the accident frequency during a snow storm event with road surface conditions, visibility and other influencing factors controlling for traffic exposure. The results have the premise to be applied for evaluating different maintenance strategies using safety as a performance measure. As part of this approach, this research introduces a road surface condition index as a surrogate measure of the commonly used friction measure to capture different road surface conditions. Data from various data sources, such as weather, road condition observations, traffic counts and accidents, are integrated and used to test three event-based models including the Negative Binomial model, the generalized NB model and the zero inflated NB model. These models are compared for their capability to explain differences in accident frequencies between individual snow storms. It was found that the generalized NB model best fits the data, and is most capable of capturing heterogeneity other than excess zeros. Among the main results, it was found that the road surface condition index was statistically significant influencing the accident occurrence. This research is the first showing the empirical relationship between safety and road surface conditions at a disaggregate level (event-based), making it feasible to quantify the safety benefits of alternative maintenance goals and methods.

  9. From the Statistical Analysis of Coal Mine Accident Point of View Human Factors Management in Future%从煤矿事故现状分析统计看未来人因管理

    崔宁; 田蜜蕊; 李涛; 刘婷婷


    Along with the increasing of China's coal mines, the theme of coal mine safety production is increasingly promi-nent, frequent coal mine accidents, through nearly ten years in China coal mine accident statistics and analysis, found that the process of coal production in China, there is a huge potential safety hazard, in which people due to factors of coal mine accident is the most direct, the most important reason, therefore, In order to ensure the safety of coal mine production, and one should enhance the safety management for the coal industry, especially for the management of human factors.%通过对我国近十几年煤矿事故的统计与分析,发现在我国的煤矿生产过程,存在巨大的安全隐患,其中人因因素是造成煤矿事故最直接、最重要的原因,为了保证煤矿的安全生产,提出了要加大对煤炭行业的安全管理,特别是对于人因因素管理的建议。

  10. A description of bicycle and moped rider accidents aimed to indicate priorities for injury prevention research.

    Huijbers, J.J.W.


    The aim of the study is to indicate priorities in the field of bicycle and moped injury prevention research, based on criteria given. The study is a part of a preparation for a SWOV accident investigation project that has to identify and to gratify factors influencing injuries of pedestrians, cyclis

  11. Relationship between Recent Flight Experience and Pilot Error General Aviation Accidents

    Nilsson, Sarah J.

    Aviation insurance agents and fixed-base operation (FBO) owners use recent flight experience, as implied by the 90-day rule, to measure pilot proficiency in physical airplane skills, and to assess the likelihood of a pilot error accident. The generally accepted premise is that more experience in a recent timeframe predicts less of a propensity for an accident, all other factors excluded. Some of these aviation industry stakeholders measure pilot proficiency solely by using time flown within the past 90, 60, or even 30 days, not accounting for extensive research showing aeronautical decision-making and situational awareness training decrease the likelihood of a pilot error accident. In an effort to reduce the pilot error accident rate, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has seen the need to shift pilot training emphasis from proficiency in physical airplane skills to aeronautical decision-making and situational awareness skills. However, current pilot training standards still focus more on the former than on the latter. The relationship between pilot error accidents and recent flight experience implied by the FAA's 90-day rule has not been rigorously assessed using empirical data. The intent of this research was to relate recent flight experience, in terms of time flown in the past 90 days, to pilot error accidents. A quantitative ex post facto approach, focusing on private pilots of single-engine general aviation (GA) fixed-wing aircraft, was used to analyze National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigation archival data. The data were analyzed using t-tests and binary logistic regression. T-tests between the mean number of hours of recent flight experience of tricycle gear pilots involved in pilot error accidents (TPE) and non-pilot error accidents (TNPE), t(202) = -.200, p = .842, and conventional gear pilots involved in pilot error accidents (CPE) and non-pilot error accidents (CNPE), t(111) = -.271, p = .787, indicate there is no

  12. Stocks and energy shocks : the impact of energy accidents on stock market value

    Scholtens, B.; Boersen, A.


    We investigate how financial market participants value energy accidents. We employ an event study to look into the response of stock markets to 209 accidents. These accidents were derived from Sovacool's (2008) database on major energy accidents from 1907 to 2007. It appears that the stock market in

  13. Developing techniques for cause-responsibility analysis of occupational accidents.

    Jabbari, Mousa; Ghorbani, Roghayeh


    The aim of this study was to specify the causes of occupational accidents, determine social responsibility and the role of groups involved in work-related accidents. This study develops occupational accidents causes tree, occupational accidents responsibility tree, and occupational accidents component-responsibility analysis worksheet; based on these methods, it develops cause-responsibility analysis (CRA) techniques, and for testing them, analyzes 100 fatal/disabling occupational accidents in the construction setting that were randomly selected from all the work-related accidents in Tehran, Iran, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). The main result of this study involves two techniques for CRA: occupational accidents tree analysis (OATA) and occupational accidents components analysis (OACA), used in parallel for determination of responsible groups and responsibilities rate. From the results, we find that the management group of construction projects has 74.65% responsibility of work-related accidents. The developed techniques are purposeful for occupational accidents investigation/analysis, especially for the determination of detailed list of tasks, responsibilities, and their rates. Therefore, it is useful for preventing work-related accidents by focusing on the responsible group's duties.

  14. The effect of work accidents on the efficiency of production in the coal sector

    Yaşar Kasap


    Full Text Available In comparison with other sectors, mining is one of the sectors with the highest rates of work accidents. Such accidents negatively affect a country’s economy by wasting domestic resources and causing losses of both labour force and working days. What distinguishes mining from other branches of industry is that its working environments change continually and the working conditions are particularly harsh. Because of the practice of labour-intensive underground production methods, which leads to an increase in risk factors in terms of work accidents, and the fact that coal is a leading resource in meeting the ever-increasing demand for energy, this study investigated how work accidents affected the efficiency of production in the Turkish Hard Coal Enterprise (TTK between 1987 and 2006. Using data envelopment analysis, the overall sources of technical inefficiency in the years examined were determined. The results from this analysis revealed that the overall technical efficiency was as low as 69.7%, particularly as a result of the disaster in 1992; work accidents therefore had a negative effect on production efficiency. The greatest degree of pure technical inefficiency was found to have occurred in the period between 1992 and 2000, when the highest number of work accidents were noted, whilst the greatest degree of scale inefficiency was found to have occurred between 1987 and 1993. Because TTK has a prominent position among institutions and attaches great importance to workers’ health and safety, an increase was noted in efficiency scores after 1993.

  15. Communication and industrial accidents

    As, Sicco van


    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  16. Investigation on influencing factors of 5-HMF content in Schisandra

    XU Qing; LI Ying-hua; L(U) Xiu-yang


    In order to investigate the influencing factors of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content in Schisandra,confirm the theory of 5-HMF deriving mainly from Schisandra processing course,and give some suggestions about the Schisandra processing method,the 5-HMF contents in decoctions of Schisandra under different heating temperature,decocting time,soaking time,processing methods and treatment with different solvents before decocting the Schisandra were measured by RP-HPLC method.The results showed that there is great difference of 5-HMF level in decoctions from differently processed Schisandra and unprocessed Schisandra;decocting time of 60 min has some effects on 5-HMF level in decoctions and there is certain quantity 5-HMF in processed Schisandra itself and very little 5-HMF in unprocessed Schisandra.Heating time,heating temperature and treating solvents all have effect on 5-HMF level in decoction of Schisandra.5-HMF in Schisandra was mainly from processing course.Both long heating time and high heating temperature can increase 5-HMF level in Schisandra.The production of 5-HMF in Schisandra may have some relationships with some polar components,which can dissolve in water,ethanol and acetone,especially in ethanol.To control processing temperature,processing time and treatment with some solvent is very important for controlling 5-HMF level in Schisandra.

  17. Investigations to environmental factors on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

    Althoff, H.; Wehr, K.; Michels, S.; Prajsnar, D.; Einbrodt, H.J.


    The discussions on noxious environmental factors concerning SIDS was a motive for systematically postmortal chemical-toxicological investigations on 54 SIDS-cases and 2 controlcases of the same age. Tissue levels of arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury and pentachlorphenol as well as other organic noxes were measured in several organs. Furthermore COHb-concentrations were determined. Inspite of the wide scattering values the measured extreme levels as well as the arithmetic mean- and the median averages of As, Pb, Cd, Hg, PCP and COHb ranged in concentration sizes which - according to present knowledge - can't be supposed of toxic effects. It was observed that infants from an urban environment didn't show a higher degree of the examined noxes than infants from rural regions. Also there were neither differences between SIDS-cases and controls, nor correlations between often morphologically detected infections of the respiratory system, including laryngitis - and superior concentrations of these noxes in the organs of SIDS-cases.

  18. Infant siblings and the investigation of autism risk factors

    Newschaffer Craig J


    Full Text Available Abstract Infant sibling studies have been at the vanguard of autism spectrum disorders (ASD research over the past decade, providing important new knowledge about the earliest emerging signs of ASD and expanding our understanding of the developmental course of this complex disorder. Studies focused on siblings of children with ASD also have unrealized potential for contributing to ASD etiologic research. Moving targeted time of enrollment back from infancy toward conception creates tremendous opportunities for optimally studying risk factors and risk biomarkers during the pre-, peri- and neonatal periods. By doing so, a traditional sibling study, which already incorporates close developmental follow-up of at-risk infants through the third year of life, is essentially reconfigured as an enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study. This review considers the enriched-risk pregnancy cohort approach of studying infant siblings in the context of current thinking on ASD etiologic mechanisms. It then discusses the key features of this approach and provides a description of the design and implementation strategy of one major ASD enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study: the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI.

  19. Relating aviation service difficulty reports to accident data for safety trend prediction

    Fullwood, R.; Hall, R.; Martinez, G.; Uryasev, S.


    This work explores the hypothesis that Service Difficulty Reports (SDR - primarily inspection reports) are related to Accident Incident Data System (AIDS - reports primarily compiled from National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigations). This work sought and found relations between equipment operability reported in the SDR and aviation safety reported in AIDS. Equipment is not the only factor in aviation accidents, but it is the factor reported in the SDR. Two approaches to risk analysis were used: (1) The conventional method, in which reporting frequencies are taken from a data base (SDR), and used with an aircraft reliability block diagram model of the critical systems to predict aircraft failure, and (2) Shape analysis that uses the magnitude and shape of the SDR distribution compared with the AIDS distribution to predict aircraft failure.

  20. An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires

    Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.


    All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

  1. Risk-based Analysis of Construction Accidents in Iran During 2007-2011-Meta Analyze Study.

    Mehran Amiri


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of occupational accidents and frequency and severity of work related accidents in the construction industry among Iranian insured workers during the years 20072011.The Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO accident database containing 21,864 cases between the years 2007-2011 was applied in this study. In the next step, Total Accident Rate (TRA, Total Severity Index (TSI, and Risk Factor (RF were defined. The core of this work is devoted to analyzing the data from different perspectives such as age of workers, occupation and construction phase, day of the week, time of the day, seasonal analysis, regional considerations, type of accident, and body parts affected.Workers between 15-19 years old (TAR=13.4% are almost six times more exposed to risk of accident than the average of all ages (TAR=2.51%. Laborers and structural workers (TAR=66.6% and those working at heights (TAR=47.2% experience more accidents than other groups of workers. Moreover, older workers over 65 years old (TSI=1.97%> average TSI=1.60%, work supervisors (TSI=12.20% >average TSI=9.09%, and night shift workers (TSI=1.89% >average TSI=1.47% are more prone to severe accidents.It is recommended that laborers, young workers, weekend and night shift workers be supervised more carefully in the workplace. Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE should be compulsory in working environments, and special attention should be undertaken to people working outdoors and at heights. It is also suggested that policymakers pay more attention to the improvement of safety conditions in deprived and cold western regions.

  2. Car Sales: Investigation into Factors Determining Consumer Behavior

    Aurelija Samoškienė


    Full Text Available The article examines customer behaviour in general and discusses factors determining customer behaviour in car industry. The paper describes a concept of consumer behaviour and the importance of factors influencing the situation. Empirical study about factors determining car industry in consumer-made decisions is carried out. In addition, statistical factor analysis is performed. The key sets of factors helping the user with choosing a new car are iden­tified and analysed at the level of the groups of factors (factor. The conducted analysis shows that car price, ergonomics, image, dynamic and user-friendliness as well as environmental groups are the main points that assist in buying a new car.Article in Lithuanian

  3. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.


    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  4. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko


    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation.

  5. Morbidity Caused by Accidents in Children under Five Years

    Mariela Dorta Figueredo


    Full Text Available Background: Accidents or unintentional injuries are a global health problem. In addition, they are considered as one of the leading causes of morbidity in children. Objective: To describe the morbidity caused by accidents in children under the age of five years in the V Health Area in Cienfuegos. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in Area V Polyclinic, Cienfuegos, aimed at analyzing the morbidity caused by accidents (from June to November 2008 in children from zero to five years who belonged to consultations 3, 4, 23 and 25 of that health area. The demographic variables, type of accident, cause, place of occurrence, adult presence at the time of the accident, request for medical assistance, as well as risk factors were analyzed. Results: 40.2% of the population studied had accidents and the accident frequency rate reached 48.2%. Children aged two, three and less than one year were the most affected as well as males. Falls, burns and foreign body aspiration were the most frequent accidents, occurring mostly at home. Conclusions: Unfortunately adults are not doing everything possible to reduce the occurrence of accidents. They need to be more active in the child vigilance and the elimination of potential triggering factors of the accident.

  6. Structural model of risk factors for safety accidents in coal mine based on CA-SEM%基于 CA -SEM 的煤矿安全事故风险因素结构模型

    汪刘凯; 孟祥瑞; 何叶荣; 王向前; 李慧宗


    围绕煤矿安全风险管理的内涵,通过因子分析和层次聚类分析,识别煤矿安全事故风险主要包含人因风险、管理风险、信息风险、环境风险和设备风险5个风险因素层的22项风险因子。以人因风险层的6个风险因素为内源潜变量,其他4个风险层的16个风险因素为外源潜变量,构建煤矿安全事故风险因素的CA-SEM模型。运用SPASS17.0和AMOS7.0剖析各风险因素层以及各风险因子对煤矿安全事故风险的综合影响及其作用机理,从而为实现煤矿本质化安全提供决策依据。%Centering on the connotation of risk management for coal mine safety, through factor analysis and hierar-chical clustering analysis, the risk of safety accidents in coal mine was identified, which included 22 risk factors in 5 risk factor levels such as human factor risk, management risk, information risk, environment risk and equipment risk.Taking the 6 risk factors in human factor risk level as endogenous latent variable and the 16 risk factors in oth-er 4 levels as exogenous latent variables, a CA-SEM model of risk factors for safety accidents in coal mine was es-tablished.The comprehensive influence and effect mechanism of each risk factor level and each risk factor on risk of safety accidents in coal mine were analyzed by using SPASS17 .0 and AMOS7 .0 , so as to provide decision basis for realizing the essence safety of coal mine.

  7. Development of Methodology for Spent Fuel Pool Severe Accident Analysis Using MELCOR Program

    Kim, Won-Tae; Shin, Jae-Uk [RETech. Co. LTD., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kwang-Il [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The general reason why SFP severe accident analysis has to be considered is that there is a potential great risk due to the huge number of fuel assemblies and no containment in a SFP building. In most cases, the SFP building is vulnerable to external damage or attack. In contrary, low decay heat of fuel assemblies may make the accident processes slow compared to the accident in reactor core because of a great deal of water. In short, its severity of consequence cannot exclude the consideration of SFP risk management. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has performed the consequence studies of postulated spent fuel pool accident. The Fukushima-Daiichi accident has accelerated the needs for the consequence studies of postulated spent fuel pool accidents, causing the nuclear industry and regulatory bodies to reexamine several assumptions concerning beyond-design basis events such as a station blackout. The tsunami brought about the loss of coolant accident, leading to the explosion of hydrogen in the SFP building. Analyses of SFP accident processes in the case of a loss of coolant with no heat removal have studied. Few studies however have focused on a long term process of SFP severe accident under no mitigation action such as a water makeup to SFP. USNRC and OECD have co-worked to examine the behavior of PWR fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions in a spent fuel rack. In support of the investigation, several new features of MELCOR model have been added to simulate both BWR fuel assembly and PWR 17 x 17 assembly in a spent fuel pool rack undergoing severe accident conditions. The purpose of the study in this paper is to develop a methodology of the long-term analysis for the plant level SFP severe accident by using the new-featured MELCOR program in the OPR-1000 Nuclear Power Plant. The study is to investigate the ability of MELCOR in predicting an entire process of SFP severe accident phenomena including the molten corium and concrete reaction. The

  8. Technical Advisory Team (TAT) report on the rocket sled test accident of October 9, 2008.

    Stofleth, Jerome H.; Dinallo, Michael Anthony; Medina, Anthony J.


    This report summarizes probable causes and contributing factors that led to a rocket motor initiating prematurely while employees were preparing instrumentation for an AIII rocket sled test at SNL/NM, resulting in a Type-B Accident. Originally prepared by the Technical Advisory Team that provided technical assistance to the NNSA's Accident Investigation Board, the report includes analyses of several proposed causes and concludes that the most probable source of power for premature initiation of the rocket motor was the independent battery contained in the HiCap recorder package. The report includes data, evidence, and proposed scenarios to substantiate the analyses.

  9. Study on coal mines accidents based on the grey relational analysis

    WANG Shuai; ZHANG Jin-long


    The subject investigated the system of people-machine-environment in coal mines. The coal mines working process was researched and the theory of grey system was applied to analyze coal mines safety accidents and those relevant factors. This re-search reveals that this analysis method is easy and highly available and the result is of great credibility, which can not only provide theoretical supports to the quantitative study of coal mines safety accident, but offer basis for coal mines companies' safety management.

  10. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident


    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  11. [Multicenter paragliding accident study 1990].

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P


    During the period from 1.1.90 until 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analyzed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. The injuries showed a mean score of over 2 and were classified as severe. Most frequent spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremity (35%) with a high risk of the ankles were diagnosed. One accident was fatal. 60% of the accidents happened during landing, 26% during launching and 14% during flight. Half of the pilots were affected during their primary training course. Most accidents were caused by inflight error of judgement--especially incorrect estimation of wind conditions--and further the choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to previous injury-reports, only one equipment failure could be noted, but often the equipment was not corresponding with the experience and the weight of the pilot. To reduce the frequency of paragliding-injuries an accurate choice of equipment and an increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore an education-program regarding the attitude and intelligence of the pilot should be included in training courses.

  12. Boating Accident Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  13. Accident resistant transport container

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.


    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  14. Clinical investigation of risk factors in ectopic pregnancy

    Ling-yun HU


    Full Text Available Objective  To discuss the relative and independent risk factors in ectopic pregnancy. Methods  The clinical data of 870 patients with ectopic pregnancy, admitted from 2005 to 2012, were retrospectively analyzed, with 800 cases of normal pregnancy serving as control. Monofactorial correlation analysis was used to analyze the related risk factor, and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the independent risk factor. Results  Pelvic adhesion, previous operation, cesarean section delivery, number of pregnancy, artificial abortion, medical abortion, in vitrofertilization and embryo replacement (IVF-ER, and placement of intrauterine device (IUD are the risk factors of ectopic pregnancy, pelvic adhesion, artificial abortion, operation, number of pregnancies and IUD are the independent risk factors, and pelvic adhesion is the major risk factor. Conclusion  Avoidance of unexpected pregnancy as possible, reduction of the number of artificial abortion, prevention and treatment of genital duct inflammation, and standardization of pelvic operation may reduce the incidence of ectopic pregnancy.

  15. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.


    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  16. 数值重构技术在一起厂房爆燃事故调查中的应用%Application of Numerical Reconstruction in Accident Investigation of A Factory Deflagration

    赵哲; 姚浩伟; 伍尚华; 王文青


    The fire numerical reconstruction can validate the speculation of accident investigation. A factory plant happens explosion fire and a preliminary site survey concluded that a certain concentration of n-Heptane ignited by electrical work and then deflagration happens. To verify the survey conclusions, the gas volatile situation in the factory is calculated by numerical simulation. The results show that the concentration of n-Heptane reaches the explosive limit. It is concluded the fire numerical reconstruction can provide technical support for survey of fire accident.%在火灾事故原因调查中,对事故现场进行数值重构,验证调查人员的一些推测。本文以佛山某生产车间厂房发生重大爆炸火灾事故为案例,现场勘查初步推测认定事故原因为正庚烷可燃气体爆炸引燃厂房,通过模拟计算验证了该厂房环境中的正庚烷浓度是否达到其爆炸极限的浓度范围。结果表明数值重构技术可以为火灾原因认定提供技术支持。

  17. Investigating Factors Affecting Group Processes in Virtual Learning Environments

    Hazari, Sunil; Thompson, Sandra


    With the widespread popularity of distance learning, there is a need to investigate elements of online courses that continue to pose significant challenges for educators. One of the challenges relates to creating and managing group projects. This study investigated business students' perceptions of group work in online classes. The constructs of…

  18. Prediction of accidents at full green and green arrow traffic lights in Switzerland with the aid of configuration-specific features.

    Hubacher, Markus; Allenbach, Roland


    In this study it was endeavored to predict full green and green arrow accidents at traffic lights, using configuration-specific features. This was done using the statistical method known as Poisson regression. A total of 45 sets of traffic lights (criteria: in an urban area, with four approach roads) with 178 approach roads were investigated (the data from two approach roads was unable to be used). Configuration-specific features were surveyed on all approach roads (characteristics of traffic lanes, road signs, traffic lights, etc.), traffic monitored and accidents (full green and green arrow) recorded over a period of 5 consecutive years. It was demonstrated that only between 23 and 34% of variance could be explained with the models predicting both types of accidents. In green arrow accidents, the approach road topography was found to be the major contributory factor to an accident: if the approach road slopes downwards, the risk of a green arrow accident is approximately five and a half times greater (relative risk, RR = 5.56) than on a level or upward sloping approach road. With full green accidents, obstructed vision plays the major role: where vision can be obstructed by vehicles turning off, the accident risk is eight times greater (RR = 8.08) than where no comparable obstructed vision is possible. From the study it emerges that technical features of traffic lights are not able to control a driver's actions in such a way as to eradicate error. Other factors, in particular the personal characteristics of the driver (age, sex, etc.) and accident circumstances (lighting, road conditions, etc.), are likely to make an important contribution to explaining how an accident occurs.

  19. Investigating the factors affecting knowledge management application in new ventures

    Ehsan Shahidifar


    Full Text Available Knowledge management is extensively used in large, medium and small firms. However, the larger the scale, the more knowledge management practices might be used in organizations. Unfortunately, application of knowledge management in new ventures is not sufficiently discussed in the extant literature. Thus this paper attempts to concentrate on this issue. Therefore, environmental, organizational and individual factors are enumerated and their effect on application of knowledge management in new ventures is examined. Findings revealed that all these factors significantly affect knowledge management application is new ventures.

  20. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Gas Law Problems

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.; Tang, Hui


    Undergraduate students were asked to complete gas law questions using a Web-based tool as a first step in our understanding of the role of cognitive load in chemistry word questions and in helping us assess student problem-solving. Each question contained five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by the tool so that a…

  1. The effectiveness of using pictures in teaching young children about burn injury accidents.

    Liu, Hsueh-Fen; Lin, Fang-Suey; Chang, Chien-Ju


    This study utilized the "story grammar" approach (Stein and Glenn, 1979) to analyze the within-corpus differences in recounting of sixty 6- and 7-year-old children, specifically whether illustrations (5-factor accident sequence) were or were not resorted to as a means to assist their narration of a home accident in which a child received a burn injury from hot soup. Our investigation revealed that the message presentation strategy "combining oral and pictures" better helped young children to memorize the story content (sequence of events leading to the burn injury) than "oral only." Specifically, the content of "the dangerous objects that caused the injury", "the unsafe actions that people involved took", and "how the people involved felt about the severity of the accident" differed significantly between the two groups.

  2. Explaining and predicting workplace accidents using data-mining techniques

    Rivas, T., E-mail: trivas@uvigo.e [Dpto. Ingenieria de los Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.I. Minas, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Paz, M., E-mail: [Dpto. Ingenieria de los Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.I. Minas, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Martin, J.E., E-mail: [CIPP International, S.L. Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Parcela 43, Oficina 11, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Matias, J.M., E-mail: jmmatias@uvigo.e [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, E.T.S.I. Minas, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Garcia, J.F., E-mail: [CIPP International, S.L. Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Parcela 43, Oficina 11, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Taboada, J., E-mail: jtaboada@uvigo.e [Dpto. Ingenieria de los Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.I. Minas, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain)


    Current research into workplace risk is mainly conducted using conventional descriptive statistics, which, however, fail to properly identify cause-effect relationships and are unable to construct models that could predict accidents. The authors of the present study modelled incidents and accidents in two companies in the mining and construction sectors in order to identify the most important causes of accidents and develop predictive models. Data-mining techniques (decision rules, Bayesian networks, support vector machines and classification trees) were used to model accident and incident data compiled from the mining and construction sectors and obtained in interviews conducted soon after an incident/accident occurred. The results were compared with those for a classical statistical techniques (logistic regression), revealing the superiority of decision rules, classification trees and Bayesian networks in predicting and identifying the factors underlying accidents/incidents.

  3. 精神疾病患者发生肇事肇祸行为的危险因素分析%Analysis on the influencing factors of making troubles and accidents in patients with mental disorder

    王丽丽; 谢映红; 曾荣斌


    Objective: To explore the influencing factors of making troubles and accidents in patients with mental disorder, and to provide scientific evidence for preventing and controlling these behaviour. Method:The basic demographic information,hospitalized status and disease types were compared between the study group and control group. Results:The difference test results shwoed that the influencing factors on making troubles and accidents were patient's career(P<0. 001),marriage(P<0. 05),family history(P<0. 05), self-knowledge(P<0. 05) and PSP score on admission(P<0. 05),disease types(P=0. 001),etc. Logistic re-gression analysis showed that the making troubles and accidents behavior was related to their career,marriage, family history,disease types. Conclusion:Patients with mental disorders, who are farmers, unemployed, no spouse,negative family history,and alcohol abuse are more probability to make troubles and accidents.%目的::探讨精神疾病患者发生肇事肇祸行为的危险因素,为防范肇事肇祸行为的发生提供依据。方法:比较研究组206例肇事肇祸精神疾病患者与对照组200例非肇事肇祸精神疾病患者基本人口学资料、入院情况以及疾病类型等。结果:单因素分析结果显示患者肇事肇祸行为的发生受其职业(P<0.001)、婚姻(P<0.05)、家族史(P<0.05)、自知力(P<0.05)、入院时PSP评分(P<0.05)、疾病类型(P=0.001)等影响;多因素分析结果显示患者肇事肇祸行为的发生与其职业、婚姻、家族史、疾病类型有关。结论:农民、无业、无配偶、家族史阴性、酒精引起的精神疾病患者更易发生肇事肇祸行为。

  4. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)


    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  5. Estudo médico-social dos fatores contribuintes para os acidentes das aeronaves executivas convencionais registrados entre 1971 e 1975, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil: I - Época e hora da ocorrência e principal fator contribuinte Medico-social study of factors related to aircraft accidents with light planes occurred during the period of 1971 to 1975, S. Paulo, Brazil: I - The month and hour of the occurrence and the principal contributing factor

    Affonso Renato Meira


    Full Text Available Em estudo sobre os acidentes aeronáuticos ocorridos de 1971 à 1975 com aeronaves executivas convencionais na área do IV Comando Aéreo Regional, foram analisados diversos fatores contribuintes para esse fato. Foram examinados a época da ocorrência e o principal fator contribuinte, concluindo-se que o período do dia em que se verificou maior número de acidentes foi à tarde entre 14 e 18 h., e que o fator operacional, devido ao piloto, está associado estatisticamente com a ocorrência dos acidentes. Não foi possível comprovar maior índice de ocorrência de acidentes com referência aos meses do ano.Studying the aircraft accidents occurred with light planes during the period of 1971 to 1975 in the area of the IV Comar in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, several factors related with accidents were analyzed. Among these the month and hour of the occurrence and the principal factor that contributed to the accident were studied. It was found that the majorit of the aircraft accidents occurred from 2 P.M. to 6 P.M. and that the main factor that contributed to the occurrence of the accidents was linked with the pilots' attitudes. It was not possible to establish an association of the accident with the month of occurrence.




    Full Text Available Team teaching factors, including mission clarity, affiliation, innovativeness, and fairness, are examined to determine how they influence student learning in a team-taught course. The study involved 184 college students enrolled in an Introduction to Computers course delivered in a team-taught format in a large university located in the United States. The collaborative teaching design followed a traditional team teaching approach with an instructor team teaching the same course collaboratively. Students enrolled in the team-taught course filled out an online survey targeted at identifying key factors that influence student-based outcomes (satisfaction and competency in the course. Results showed that instructor team mission clarity, affiliation, and fairness are significantly related to students’ satisfaction while instructor team mission clarity and fairness are significantly related to students’ competency.

  7. Investigation of high duty factor ISR RFQ-1000

    Lu, Y R; Fang, J X; Gao, S L; Guo, J F; Guo, Z Y; Li, D S; Li, W G; Pan, O J; Ren, X T; Wu, Y; Yan, X Q; Yu Jin Xiang; Yu, M L; Ratzinger, U; Deitinghoff, H; Klein, H; Schempp, A


    Two Integral Split Ring (ISR) RFQs with high duty factor of 16.7% have been designed for the application of heavy ion implantation and built in the past several years at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics (IHIP) in Peking University. Two kinds of PIG ion sources with permanent magnets and LEBT were installed and optimized for the injection into these two RFQs. The positive O**+ and negative O**- ions were extracted and accelerated separately as well as simultaneously. The output macro pulse O**- beam current reached 660muA at a transmission efficiency of more than 82%. The N**+ beam was also accelerated with similar transmission efficiency, but the output current intensity for positive ions were lower than the negative ions because of the extracted current limitation of ion sources. The improvements, especially for high duty factor and experimental results with the 1MeV ISR RFQ will be presented in this paper.




    Full Text Available Due to the wide application of advanced technology in education, many attitude scales have been developed to evaluate learners’ attitudes toward educational tools. However, with the rapid development of emerging technologies, using blogs as one of the Web 2.0 tools is still in its infancy and few blog attitude scales have been developed yet. In view of this need, a lot of researchers like to design a new scale based on their conceptual and theoretical framework of their own study rather than using available scales. The present study reports the design and development of a blog attitude scale (BAS. The researchers developed a pool of items to capture the complexity of the blog attitude trait, selected 29 items in the content analysis, and assigned the scale comprising 29 items to 216 undergraduate students to explore the underlying structure of the BAS. In exploratory factor analysis, three factors were discovered: blog anxiety, blog desirability, and blog self-efficacy; 14 items were excluded. The extracted items were subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis which lent further support to the BAS underpinning structure.

  9. Pilot study to investigate the feasibility of the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool (HOME FAST) to identify older Malaysian people at risk of falls

    Romli, Muhammad Hibatullah; Mackenzie, Lynette; Lovarini, Meryl; Tan, Maw Pin


    Objective The relationship between home hazards and falls in older Malaysian people is not yet fully understood. No tools to evaluate the Malaysian home environment currently exist. Therefore, this study aimed to pilot the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool (HOME FAST) to identify hazards in Malaysian homes, to evaluate the feasibility of using the HOME FAST in the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research (MELoR) study and to gather preliminary data about the experience of falls among a small sample of Malaysian older people. Design A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted. Setting An urban setting in Kuala Lumpur. Participants 26 older people aged 60 and over were recruited from the control group of a related research project in Malaysia, in addition to older people known to the researchers. Primary outcome measure The HOME FAST was applied with the baseline survey for the MELoR study via a face-to-face interview and observation of the home by research staff. Results The majority of the participants were female, of Malay or Chinese ethnicity and living with others in a double-storeyed house. Falls were reported in the previous year by 19% and 80% of falls occurred at home. Gender and fear of falling had the strongest associations with home hazards. Most hazards were detected in the bathroom area. A small number of errors were detected in the HOME FAST ratings by researchers. Conclusions The HOME FAST is feasible as a research and clinical tool for the Malaysian context and is appropriate for use in the MELoR study. Home hazards were prevalent in the homes of older people and further research with the larger MELoR sample is needed to confirm the validity of using the HOME FAST in Malaysia. Training in the use of the HOME FAST is needed to ensure accurate use by researchers. PMID:27531736

  10. Traffic accidents and road surface skidding resistance : an investigation into the statistical relationship between the skidding resistance of the road surface and relative road risk. Summary of the research report of Sub-committee V of the Working Group on Tyres, Road Surfaces and Skidding Accidents of the Institute for Road Safety Research, SWOV

    Schlösser, L.H.M


    This study forms part of an extended research programme of the Working Group on Tyres, Road-surfaces and Skidding accidents. According to the terms of reference a statistical relationship had to be established between the skidding resistance of a road-surface and the number of accidents per million

  11. An investigation on different factors influencing growth of banking deposits

    Zahra Houshmand Neghabi


    Full Text Available Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials. We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique study different hypotheses. All t-student values are statistically meaningful when the level of significance is ten percent and some of the parameters are even meaningful when the level of significance is five percent. The results indicate that the rate of bank deposit is negatively associated with commodity market growth rate (-.001995, US dollar exchange rate (-0.004167, banking industry growth rate (-0.278826 and moving average (-0.940418. In addition, dependent variable is positively associated with Euro exchange growth rate (0.005676.

  12. An Investigation of Work Culture and Social Factors influencing it

    Siroos Ahmadi


    Full Text Available This research examines work culture and social factors influencing it among employees of Islamic Azad University, the largest private organization in Iran. First, it has been tried to determine a rate for work culture and then relationships between work culture and participatory management, organizational justice, job satisfaction, and demographic variables have been examined. Research method is cross-sectional survey; research population is all personnel of the Islamic Azad Universities in three provinces: Fars, Boushehr and Kohkiloye-Boyerahmad. Overall, 481 subjects were selected by means of simple random sampling. Measurement tool is questionnaire, which includes four scales. Construct validity was obtained through factor analysis; Reliability test was also performed by means of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Research findings indicate that work culture is on average among subjects. Also, there are significant relationships between work culture and participatory management, organizational justice, job satisfaction, age and years of employment. Using regression analysis, it appears that of all independent variables, job satisfaction and years of employment are strongest predictors of work culture. Taken together, they explain 18% of the variance of work culture.

  13. Investigating important factors influencing on strategic marketing planning

    Davood Salmani; Mohammad Reza Daraei; Ali Bayazdi


    One of the most important methods for building good marketing strategy is to learn more about existing competitors, suppliers, etc. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between wholesalers, bargaining pricing, new rivals and pricing strategy on preparing appropriate marketing strategy in meat market in city of shiraz, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 200 experts in this market. Cronbach alpha has been...

  14. Analysis on relation between safety input and accidents

    YAO Qing-guo; ZHANG Xue-mu; LI Chun-hui


    The number of safety input directly determines the level of safety, and there exists dialectical and unified relations between safety input and accidents. Based on the field investigation and reliable data, this paper deeply studied the dialectical relationship between safety input and accidents, and acquired the conclusions. The security situation of the coal enterprises was related to the security input rate, being effected little by the security input scale, and build the relationship model between safety input and accidents on this basis, that is the accident model.

  15. Effect of Human Error Factors on the Major Accidents of Tungsten Mining Heading Face%某钨矿掘进工作面人因失误评价研究

    史德强; 靳波; 陆刚; 戚星; 曾旭; 陈振伟


    Human errors in arbitrated mining and tunneling partially contributed to the major mining accidents. For a comprehensive evaluation of the effect of human error factors on the accidents on tungsten mine heading face, this paper established a human error evaluation system by analyzing the relationship among man, machine and environment. By applying G1 improved fuzzy algorithm method and surveyed data, a model of human error factors is founded to identify important affecting factors. The results show that the highest impact in the human error factors model is environment, followed by human elements and equipments. The evaluation model provides theoretical and practical supports for the prevention of major accidents in tungsten mining heading face caused by human errors.%钨矿掘进工作面人因失误是导致重大事故发生的重要因素之一.为综合评价钨矿掘进工作面的人因失误问题,以人、机和环境三个影响因素为出发点,分析掘进工作面人-机-环境系统的关系,识别人因失误的影响因子,建立人-机-环境系统的人因失误评价体系.引入G1法改进模糊算法构建了人因失误评价模型,并结合调查统计数据,识别重要的影响因素.应用实例分析表明,人因失误致因模型中影响程度最高的是环境因素,其次是人的因素和设备因素等,该评价模型有助于对钨矿掘进工作面人因失误的预防提供理论与实践支持.

  16. Seasonal variability of iodine and selenium in surface and groundwater as a factor that may contribute to iodine isotope balance in the thyroid gland and its irradiation in case of radioiodine contamination during accidents at the NPP

    Korobova, Elena; Kolmykova, Lyudmila; Ryzhenko, Boris; Berezkin, Viktor; Saraeva, Anastasia


    Radioiodine release to the environment during the accident at the Chernobyl NPP led to the increased risk of the thyroid cancer cases within the contaminated areas, the effect being aggravated in conditions of stable iodine and selenium deficiency in local food chains. Although the drinking water iodine is usually believed to contribute not more than 10% to local diet, our estimations accounting of water content in other products and several regional studies (e.g. India and Australia) proved its portion to be at least twice as much. As radioiodine isotopes are short-lived, their absorption depends greatly on stable iodine and selenium sufficiency in thyroid gland in the first few days of contamination and seasonal variation of stable iodine and selenium in local sources of drinking water may be significant as modifying the resulting thyroid irradiation in different seasons of the year. The main goal of the study was to evaluate seasonal variation of levels of iodine and selenium in natural waters of the Bryansk region as a possible factor affecting the radioiodine intake by thyroid gland of animals and humans in case of radioiodine contamination during the accident. Seasonal I and Se concentration was measured in the years of 2014 and 2015 at 14 test points characterizing surface (river and lake) and drinking groundwater. Obtained data proved considerable seasonal variation of I and Se concentration in natural waters (3,7-8,1 μg/l and 0,04-0,4 μg/l respectively) related to physico-chemical water parameters, such as pH, Eh and fluctuations in concentration of dissolved organic matter. The widest I and Se seasonal variability was observed in surface and well waters, maximum I level being found in autumn at the end of vegetation period characterized by active I leaching from the decomposed organic residues by long lasting precipitations. The content of selenium in the surface waters during summer-autumn (0,06-0,3 μg/l) was higher than in spring (0,04-0,05

  17. Accident Management in VVER-1000

    F. D'Auria


    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the investigation study on accident management in VVER-1000 reactor type conducted in the framework of a European Commission funded project. The mentioned study involved both experimental and computational fields. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the main findings from the execution of a wide-range analysis focused on AM in VVER-1000 with main regard to the qualification of computational tools and the proposal for an optimal AM strategy for this kind of NPP.

  18. [Accidents of fulguration].

    Virenque, C; Laguerre, J


    Fulguration, first electric accident in which the man was a victim, is to day better known. A clap of thunder is decomposed in two elements: lightning, and thunder. Lightning is caused by an electrical discharge, either within a cloud, or between two clouds, or, above all, between a cloud and the surface of the ground. Experimental equipments owned by the French Electricity Company and by the Atomic Energy Commission, have allowed to photograph lightnings and to measure certain physical characteristics (Intensity variable between 25 to 100 kA, voltage variable between 20 to 1 000 kV). The frequency of storms was learned: the isokeraunic level, in France, is about 20, meaning that thunder is heard twenty days during one year. Man may be stricken by thunder by direct hit, by sudden bursting, by earth current, or through various conductors. The electric charge which reached him may go to the earth directly by contact with the ground or may dissipate in the air through a bony promontory (elbow). The total number of victims, "wounded" or deceased, is not now known by statistics. Death comes by insulation breakdown of one of several anatomic cephalic formations: skull, meninx, brain. Many various lesions may happen in survivors: loss of consciousness, more or less long, sensorial or motion deficiencies. All these signs are momentary and generally reversible. Besides one may observe much more intense lesions on the skin: burns and, over all, characteristic aborescence (skin effect by high frequency current). The heart is protected, contrarily to what happens with industrial electrocution. The curative treatment is merely symptomatic : reanimation, surgery for burns or associated traumatic lesions. A prevention is researched to help the lonely man, in the country or in the mountains in the houses (lightning conductor, Faraday cage), in vehicles (aircraft, cars, ships). The mysterious and unforseeable character of lightning still stays, leaving a door opened for numerous

  19. Diving Accidents. Analyses of Underlying Variables.


    Nitrogen narcosis 3 0.3 bad gas 3 0.3 Total 1,036 100.1 1,033 100.2 Another factor of potential relevance in mishap occurrence was the time of day...exposure air, and nitrogen -oxygen equivalent air were all at relatively high risk of terminating in a mishap. Accident rates for the other variables

  20. Investigation of Framingham Risk Factors in Turkish adults

    Arda Şanlı Ökmen


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine 10-year risk for development of cardiovascular diseases usingFramingham risk scoring as a tool for the estimationof coronary risk and renew the blood lipid levels.Materials and methods: Samples from fasting 3169healthy donors declaring as having no cardiovasculardisease and diabetes (1800 women, mean age 46.8±9.2years and 1369 men, mean age 46.03±8.4 years weretested and scored according to risk factors in both genders.Results: When average values were considered, totalcholesterol level was higher (204±42 mg/dL accordingto reactive insert reference values. High total kolesteroland low HDL-C levels were seen in 20% and 19.5% ofmen and 32.6% and 1.1% of women, respectively. Thenumber of participants having systolic blood pressure≥130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 85 mmHgwere 775 (24.5% and the distribution of those valueswas 10.6 % in men and 13.9% in women. The mean 10-year cardiovascular disease risks were 9.4 % in men and4.6% in women among 3169 participants.Conclusion: A 10-year risk of coronary disease, in Turkishmales was 2-fold higher than in Turkish females. Useof Framingham study in clinical assessments maintains tobe a valid method in preventive approaches for developmentof cardiovascular diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(1: 42-49

  1. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)


    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  2. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.


    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  3. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.


    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  4. Cellular phones and traffic accidents: an epidemiological approach.

    Violanti, J M; Marshall, J R


    Using epidemiological case-control design and logistic regression techniques, this study examined the association of cellular phone use in motor vehicles and traffic accident risk. The amount of time per month spent talking on a cellular phone and 18 other driver inattention factors were examined. Data were obtained from: (1) a case group of 100 randomly selected drivers involved in accidents within the past 2 years, and (2) a control group of 100 randomly selected licensed drivers not involved in accidents within the past 10 years. Groups were matched on geographic residence. Approximately 13% (N = 7) of the accident and 9% (N = 7) of the non-accident group reported use of cellular phones while driving. Data was obtained from Department of Motor Vehicles accident reports and survey information from study subjects. We hypothesized that increased use of cellular phones while driving was associated with increased odds of a traffic accident. Results indicated that talking more than 50 minutes per month on cellular phones in a vehicle was associated with a 5.59-fold increased risk in a traffic accident. The combined use of cellular phones and motor and cognitive activities while driving were also associated with increased traffic accident risk. Readers should be cautioned that this study: (1) consists of a small sample, (2) reveals statistical associations and not causal relationships, and (3) does not conclude that talking on cellular phones while driving is inherently dangerous.

  5. Road Traffic Accident Analysis of Ajmer City Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technology

    Bhalla, P.; Tripathi, S.; Palria, S.


    With advancement in technology, new and sophisticated models of vehicle are available and their numbers are increasing day by day. A traffic accident has multi-facet characteristics associated with it. In India 93% of crashes occur due to Human induced factor (wholly or partly). For proper traffic accident analysis use of GIS technology has become an inevitable tool. The traditional accident database is a summary spreadsheet format using codes and mileposts to denote location, type and severity of accidents. Geo-referenced accident database is location-referenced. It incorporates a GIS graphical interface with the accident information to allow for query searches on various accident attributes. Ajmer city, headquarter of Ajmer district, Rajasthan has been selected as the study area. According to Police records, 1531 accidents occur during 2009-2013. Maximum accident occurs in 2009 and the maximum death in 2013. Cars, jeeps, auto, pickup and tempo are mostly responsible for accidents and that the occurrence of accidents is mostly concentrated between 4PM to 10PM. GIS has proved to be a good tool for analyzing multifaceted nature of accidents. While road safety is a critical issue, yet it is handled in an adhoc manner. This Study is a demonstration of application of GIS for developing an efficient database on road accidents taking Ajmer City as a study. If such type of database is developed for other cities, a proper analysis of accidents can be undertaken and suitable management strategies for traffic regulation can be successfully proposed.


    Puharić, Zrinka; Stašević, Ina; Ropac, Darko; Petričević, Nina; Jurišić, Irena


    The aim of the study was to explore the characteristics of Internet use among elementary school eighth-graders in the Bjelo- var-Bilogora County, to evaluate gender and sociodemographic differences, and to examine predictors for Internet addiction. The study included 437 (female 51%) eighth-graders, mean age 13.8 ± 0.5 years. An anonymous questionnaire was used to measure the participants' Internet use, the functions for which they used Internet, their parents' attitude towards the child's Internet use, and their signs of Internet addiction. Logistic regression was conducted to evaluate predictors for Internet addiction. The majority of children (71.5%) reported using Internet every day. Considering important risk factors of Internet addiction development, we found that 32% of children almost always stayed on-line longer than intended, 13% of boys and 4% of girls almost always neglected chores to spend more time on-line and 51.7% of children thought their life would be boring and uninteresting without the Internet. There was no significant difference between urban and rural students. In terms of the function for which they used the Internet, they were mostly engaged in on-line community/chat websites (70%), to listen to music and watch movies (81 %), and boys in gaming websites. Most of the students (43.4%) spent 1-2 hours daily on-line, 26.2% of students spent 3-4 hours on-line, and 9% spent more than 5 hours daily on-line. In conclusion, more public health preventive measures should be conducted to raise public awareness and concern about the negative effect of Internet use and Internet addiction, especially in the young population.

  7. NASA's Accident Precursor Analysis Process and the International Space Station

    Groen, Frank; Lutomski, Michael


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the implementation of Accident Precursor Analysis (APA), as well as the evaluation of In-Flight Investigations (IFI) and Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) data for the identification of unrecognized accident potentials on the International Space Station.

  8. An application of probabilistic safety assessment methods to model aircraft systems and accidents

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.


    A case study modeling the thrust reverser system (TRS) in the context of the fatal accident of a Boeing 767 is presented to illustrate the application of Probabilistic Safety Assessment methods. A simplified risk model consisting of an event tree with supporting fault trees was developed to represent the progression of the accident, taking into account the interaction between the TRS and the operating crew during the accident, and the findings of the accident investigation. A feasible sequence of events leading to the fatal accident was identified. Several insights about the TRS and the accident were obtained by applying PSA methods. Changes proposed for the TRS also are discussed.

  9. 城乡结合部建筑火灾事故的调查及防范%Investigation and Prevention of the Building Fire Accident in Combination of Urban and Rural Areas


    Along with the speeding up of urbanization, migra-nt workers are increasing year by year, a large number of rental housing emerged in city suburban areas. Because of the com-plex nature of the lease and the safety management situation, fire casualties accidents have occurred, has become a major pr-oblem of fire control. This paper expounds the rental housing fire accident in combination of urban and rural areas, starts from identification methods of fire investigation, makes analy-sis and reasoning, final y found the reason, and puts forward the prevention countermeasures to reduce rental housing fire, for reference.%  随着城市化进程的加快,外来务工人员的逐年增多,城市城郊结合部涌现出了大批出租屋。因其租赁性质、安全管理情况复杂,火灾亡人事故时有发生,成为消防管理的一大难题。笔者就城乡结合部一起出租屋火灾事故进行了阐述,从火灾调查认定的方法入手,对火灾的发生进行了分析和推理,最终认定其发生的原因。并提出了减少出租屋火灾发生的预防对策,以供参考。

  10. Developing a Minimum Data Set for an Information Management System to Study Traffic Accidents in Iran

    Mohammadi, Ali; Ahmadi, Maryam; Gharagozlu, Alireza


    Background: Each year, around 1.2 million people die in the road traffic incidents. Reducing traffic accidents requires an exact understanding of the risk factors associated with traffic patterns and behaviors. Properly analyzing these factors calls for a comprehensive system for collecting and processing accident data. Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a minimum data set (MDS) for an information management system to study traffic accidents in Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 2014. Data were collected from the traffic police, trauma centers, medical emergency centers, and via the internet. The investigated resources for this study were forms, databases, and documents retrieved from the internet. Forms and databases were identical, and one sample of each was evaluated. The related internet-sourced data were evaluated in their entirety. Data were collected using three checklists. In order to arrive at a consensus about the data elements, the decision Delphi technique was applied using questionnaires. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaires were assessed by experts’ opinions and the test-retest method, respectively. Results: An (MDS) of a traffic accident information management system was assigned to three sections: a minimum data set for traffic police with six classes, including 118 data elements; a trauma center with five data classes, including 57 data elements; and a medical emergency center, with 11 classes, including 64 data elements. Conclusions: Planning for the prevention of traffic accidents requires standardized data. As the foundation for crash prevention efforts, existing standard data infrastructures present policymakers and government officials with a great opportunity to strengthen and integrate existing accident information systems to better track road traffic injuries and fatalities. PMID:27247791

  11. Investigating different factors influencing on return of private banks

    Pegah Motamedi


    Full Text Available Return of Investment has always been an interesting area of research among academics as well as investors. Although capital asset pricing model (CAPM is capable of estimating risk of investment, many people argue that CAPM is not able to predict long-term return, properly. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the effects of different financial figures including systematic risk (Beta, size of firm, ratio of book value to market share, volume of trade and the ratio of price/earnings (P/E on return of private banks in Iran. The study gathers the necessary information over the period 2005-2011 from private banks in Iran. The study uses multiple regression technique to find the effects of mentioned variables on return of private banks. The results indicate that there are some meaningful and positive relationship between return of banks and systematic risk (Beta, size, volume of trade and P/E. The study also finds some meaningful and reverse relationship between bank return and book value on market value.

  12. Investigation on influence factors of dual laterologs curve form

    Xiaomin FAN; Lei LU


    In order to investigate the influences of caliper, formation thickness and invaded zone on the form of dual laterologs, forward modeling technique were applied to calculate the dual laterologs for different cases. The result shows that the resistivity logs become smoother and lower as the borehole diameter increases, the increase of the contrast between mud resistivity and formation resistivity induce the logs to be more pointed. When the formation thickness is less than 1m, the two-peak on the logs for resistive invasion vanished, and for thickness between 1 m and 4 m, the form of logs does not vary significantly. If the formation thickness is greater than 4 m, a platform appears on the logs at the middle of the formation. The thinner the invaded zone is, the more obvious the invasion feature on the laterologs is. For thick invaded zone the form of logs tend to be that of an uninvaded resistive formation. The form and amplitude of logs depend on the resistivity contrast between invaded zone, uninvaded formation and adjacentlayers.

  13. A comparison of the hazard perception ability of accident-involved and accident-free motorcycle riders.

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K; Lee, Hoe C


    conceptualizing the influence of different driving behaviors so as to enrich our understanding of the role of human factors in road accidents and consequently develop effective countermeasures to prevent traffic accidents involving motorcycles.

  14. Future Integrated Systems Concept for Preventing Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accidents

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Jacobson, Steven r.


    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper presents future system concepts and research directions for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents.

  15. Trend of Elevator-Related Accidents in Tehran

    Ali Khaji


    Full Text Available Background:   Elevator-related accidents are uncommon, but can cause significant injury. However, little data exist on these types of accidents. To compile and analyze accident data involving elevators in an effort to eliminate or at least significantly reduce such accidents. Methods: In this retrospective study we investigated 1,819 cases of elevator-related accidents during a four-year period (1999-2003 in Tehran. The data were obtained from the Tehran Safety Services & Fire Fighting Organization (TSFO that is officially and solely responsible to conduct rescue missions of civilians in Tehran. Results: The number of elevator accidents has increased steadily during the four year study period. During these four years here was a positive upward trend for serious injuries and mortality resulting from elevator accidents. Technical problems were the main cause with 74.5%, followed by power loss and overcapacity riding with 11.5% and 7.9%respectively. Sixty-three individuals sustained serious injury and 15 people died as a result of elevator accidents. The number of accidents was significantly higher in summer (x2=18.32, P=0.032 and a considerable proportion of incidences (54%, 947 cases out of 1819 occurred between 5 and 12 pm. Conclusions: Establishment of an organization to inspect the settings, maintenance, and repair of elevators is necessary

  16. Prediction of vehicle traffic accidents using Bayesian networks

    Seyed Shamseddin Alizadeh


    Full Text Available Every year, thousands of vehicle accidents occur in Iran and result thousands of deaths, injuries and material damage in country. Various factors such as driver characteristics, road characteristics, vehicle characteristics and atmospheric conditions affect the injuries severity of these accidents. In order to reduce the number and severity of these accidents, their analysis and prediction is essential. Currently, the accidents related data are collected which can be used to predict and prevent them. New technologies have enabled humans to collect the large volume of data in continuous and regular ways. One of these methods is to use Bayesian networks. Using the literature review, in this study a new method for analysis and prediction of vehicle traffic accidents is presented. These networks can be used for classification of traffic accidents, hazardous locations of roads and factors affecting accidents severity. Using of the results of the analysis of these networks will help to reduce the number of accidents and their severity. In addition, we can use the results of this analysis for developing of safety regulations.

  17. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang


    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  18. Discussion on Strengthening and Improving the Fire Accident Investigation%关于加强和改进火灾事故调查工作的探讨


      本文主要根据国家现行的关于火灾调查法的规定,主要针对我国在火灾调查工作展开上的不足和缺陷之处做相应的分析,对于产生这类现象的原因进行简单分析,然后结合现下火灾调查工作对于预防火灾的重要性问题,提出相应的改进和强化火灾调查工作的办法,希望对于火灾调查工作者能有一定的帮助。%This paper according to the current national regula-teons on fire investigation, mainly to do the corresponding an-alysis aiming at the flaw of our country started in the fire inv-estigation work, makes a simple analysis for the reasons of this phenomenon, and then combined with the current fire investig-ation work for the importance of fire prevention, and puts for-ward the corresponding improvement and measures to strengt-hhen fire investigation, hopes having some help for fire invest-tigators.

  19. 内陆代表性厂址事故扩散因子不同估算方法的比较%Comparison of Different Estimation Methods of Accident Atmospheric Dispersion Factors for a Representative Inland Nuclear Power Plant

    范丹; 郝宏伟; 姚仁太; 乔清党; 段皓


    The applicability of atmospheric diffusion models in complex terrains and low wind speed conditions was discussed in this paper. The accident atmospheric dispersion factors (ATFs) of Taohuajiang nuclear power plant were calculated by using two methods: the probabilistic method recommended by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the three dimensional objective diagnostic wind field model coupled with Lagrangian trajectory puff model to simulate the 8 760 hourly emissions of radioactive nuclides. The results indicate that the maximum hourly accident ATFs calculated by the probabilistic method are conservative in exclusion area boundary (EAB) . However, in some directions, accident ATFs calculated using probabilistic method is smaller than that using Lagrangian puff model, as well as some accident ATFs in remote sectors are larger than those in close sectors. Moreover, results calculated by probabilistic method are smaller in long-term release situation. Therefore, accident ATFs obtained according to the regulatory guides may not conservative in some cases, and atmospheric diffusion model should be selected carefully when a nuclear plant is located at a site with complex environmental conditions.%针对内陆核电选址中小风、静风频率较高的厂址,分别采用美国核管会(NRC)导则推荐方法和运用三维客观诊断风场与Lagrangian烟团模型模拟整年8760/b时逐时排放方法,计算了湖南桃花江厂址事故工况下的大气扩散因子,探讨复杂条件下大气扩散模型的适宜性。研究表明:在非居住区边界概率论方法计算的最大小时事故扩散因子较烟团模型计算方法保守;Lagrangian烟团模型计算的小时事故扩散因子在某些方位大于概率论方法结果,某些远距离子区的扩散因子大于近距离子区;对于释放时间相对较长的情形,导则方法估算结果仍偏小。由此可见,导则推荐方法得到的扩散

  20. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Gittus, J.H.


    The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed.

  1. Analysis of Psychological Factors and Susceptibility Genes of Drivers′Accident Proneness%驾驶员产生事故倾向性的心理因素及易感基因分析

    王晓敏; 杨莉; 黄开勇; 苏华斌


    目的:研究驾驶员产生事故倾向性的心理因素及易感基因。方法采用病例对照研究方法,选取5年内发生3次(以上)责任事故的驾驶员46例为病例组(均为男性),另选择同期未发生交通事故的同性别、年龄、驾龄、驾驶车型等均衡可比的驾驶员46例为对照组。采用A型行为量表(TABP)和艾森克个性问卷(EPQ)量表进行心理评定;采用限制性片段长度多态性分析( PCR-RFLP )技术对候选基因5-羟色胺转运体基因启动子区(5-HTTLPR)进行基因型及等位基因检测。结果病例组驾驶员A型行为、精神质( P)和情绪性( N)因子得分均高于对照组(P均<0.05),而掩饰性(L)因子得分低于对照组(P<0.05);驾驶员的年龄与外向性(E)评分呈正相关关系(P<0.01);驾龄与E、P、N及A型行为评分均呈正相关关系(P均<0.05),而与L因子呈负相关关系(P<0.05)。病例组与对照组间5-HTTLPR基因的基因型构成及等位基因频率分布差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);经单因素及多因素logistic回归分析显示,精神质是驾驶员事故倾向性的危险因素(P<0.01),5-HTTLPR基因型及等位基因与驾驶员事故倾向性有关( P<0.05)。结论驾驶员A型行为、个性特征及5-HTTLPR基因与其事故倾向性有关;精神质是驾驶员事故倾向性的危险因素。%Objective To explore the psychological factors and susceptibility genes of the drivers ′accident proneness .Methods A case-control study was performed by using type-A behavior questionnaire ( TABP) and Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) scale.Forty-six male drivers who had 3 accidents or more in 5 years were in the case group ,and another 46 male drivers who had not accident in 5 years with similar age ,driver′s experience and vehicle type as the drivers in the case group were in the control group .The

  2. 基于事故/事件的民机人因防错设计关键因素研究%Research on key factors of human error proofing design for civil aircraft based on accidents/incidents

    高扬; 王向章; 李晓旭


    Aiming at the influence of human error proofing design for civil aircraft on flight safety, 92 typical acci-dents cases by human factors were selected from the world civil aviation safety accidents/incidents database.The element incident analysis method was applied to conduct deep analysis, then the important design factors which need to be considered in the human error proofing design for civil aircraft was summarized, and the important design factor set was established.Based on the man-machine-environment model in systems engineering, and combined with the relevant standards for aircrafts design at home and abroad, an index system of important factors about hu-man error proofing design for civil aircraft was built.The FAHP method was used to calculate the weight of inde-xes, and 14 key factors of human error proofing design that influence the flight safety were determined.Finally, the general requirements of human error proofing design for civil aircraft were proposed against the key factors.It can provide reference for the human error proofing design for civil aircraft to better meet the requirements of initial air-worthiness.%针对民机人因防错设计对飞行安全的影响,从世界民航安全事故/事件数据库中筛选出92起典型的人为因素事故案例,采用基元事件分析法进行深度分析,提炼出民机人因防错设计需要考虑的重要设计因素,并建立重要设计因素集。基于系统工程学的“人机环”模型,结合国内外飞机设计相关标准,建立民机人因防错设计重要因素指标体系。运用模糊层次分析法对因素指标进行权重计算,确立影响飞行安全的14项人因防错设计关键因素,并针对这些关键因素提出民机人因防错设计通用要求,以期为民机人因防错设计满足初始适航要求提供参考。

  3. Principais fatores associados à ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito na BR 163, Mato Grosso, Brasil, 2004 Main factors associated with motor vehicle accidents on Federal Highway 163, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 2004

    Lívia Victório de Carvalho Almeida


    Full Text Available O transporte é essencial para o desenvolvimento econômico de Mato Grosso, Brasil, sendo a BR 163 a principal rodovia de escoamento da produção agropecuária da região. Uma das conseqüências desta atividade é a ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito. Com o objetivo de analisar e categorizar os principais fatores associados à ocorrência de acidentes nesta rodovia, foram utilizados dados da Superintendência de Polícia Rodoviária Federal referentes ao ano de 2004. Nos resultados, destacaram-se como fatores associados à maior chance de ocorrência de acidentes com vítimas (com significância estatística: a condição de rolamento regular (OR = 1,89; IC: 1,32-2,70; os acidentes do tipo colisão frontal (OR = 14,14; IC: 8,96-22,32 e atropelamento de pedestre (OR = 35,95; IC: 8,10-159,52; e os fatores contribuintes defeito na via (OR = 4,35; IC: 1,94-9,75 e desobediência à sinalização (OR = 5,69; IC: 2,01-16,12. Conclui-se que para reduzir o problema dos acidentes nesta rodovia é preciso estabelecer medidas de intervenção de caráter global, não focalizando ações somente na modificação do comportamento do condutor e na fiscalização, mas considerando questões regionais e suas dimensões econômicas, sociais e culturais.Transportation is essential to the economic development of Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and Federal Highway 163 is the main route for marketing regional agricultural produce. One unfortunate consequence of this activity is the occurrence of motor vehicle accidents. With the aim of analyzing and categorizing the main factors associated with motor vehicle accidents on this highway, the current study used data from the Mato Grosso State Division of the Brazilian Federal Highway Patrol for the year 2004. Factors significantly associated with accidents involving casualties were: substandard paving (OR = 1.89; CI: 1.32-2.70; front-end collisions (OR = 14.14; CI: 8.96-22.32; and running over pedestrians (OR = 35.95; CI


    O. Hamankova


    Full Text Available The article describes the main trends of formation and development of insurance against accidents. Defined position of the social insurance against accidents and professional diseases in the social protection system in Ukraine. Investigated the essence and content of social insurance against accidents.

  5. Risk factors for accidents in children that consulted to the emergency unit of San Vicente de Púl Children's Hospital of Medellín, Colombia. December 1, 1998 - March 6, 1999 Factores de riesgo de accidentes en niños que consultaron al Policlínico Infantil de Medellín Diciembre 1 de 1998-marzo 6 de 1999

    Julio César Correa Escobar; Humberto Ramírez Gómez; Claudia Mónica Neira Velásquez; Diana Patricia Medina Mesa; Olga Francisca Salazar Blanco; María Beatriz Mesa Restrepo


    A prospective descriptive study was made to identify the factors of risk for accidents in children smaller than 12 years that consulted for this cause to the Emergency Unit of San Vicente de Paul Children´s Hospital of Medellin, from December 1 of 1998 until March 6 of 1999. These factors were compared during a period of school vacations and one of academic activity of same duration. We included 1.185 patients. The distribution for sex was: 771 children (65%) and 414 girls (35%); 912 patients...

  6. Analysis of traffic accident size for Korean highway using structural equation models.

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Chung, Jin-Hyuk; Son, Bongsoo


    Accident size can be expressed as the number of involved vehicles, the number of damaged vehicles, the number of deaths and/or the number of injured. Accident size is the one of the important indices to measure the level of safety of transportation facilities. Factors such as road geometric condition, driver characteristic and vehicle type may be related to traffic accident size. However, all these factors interact in complicate ways so that the interrelationships among the variables are not easily identified. A structural equation model is adopted to capture the complex relationships among variables because the model can handle complex relationships among endogenous and exogenous variables simultaneously and furthermore it can include latent variables in the model. In this study, we use 2649 accident data occurred on highways in Korea and estimate relationship among exogenous factors and traffic accident size. The model suggests that road factors, driver factors and environment factors are strongly related to the accident size.

  7. Accidents due to falls from roof slabs

    Bruno Alves Rudelli

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Falls from the roof slabs of houses are accidents of high potential severity that occur in large Brazilian cities and often affect children and adolescents. The aims of this study were to characterize the factors that predispose towards this type of fall involving children and adolescents, quantify the severity of associated lesions and suggest preventive measures. DESIGN AND SETTING Descriptive observational prospective longitudinal study in two hospitals in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. METHODS Data were collected from 29 cases of falls from roof slabs involving children and adolescents between October 2008 and October 2009. RESULTS Cases involving males were more prevalent, accounting for 84%. The predominant age group was schoolchildren (7 to 12 years old; 44%. Leisure activities were most frequently being practiced on the roof slab at the time of the fall (86%, and flying a kite was the most prevalent game (37.9%. In 72% of the cases, the children were unaccompanied by an adult responsible for them. Severe conditions such as multiple trauma and traumatic brain injuries resulted from 79% of the accidents. CONCLUSION Falls from roof slabs are accidents of high potential severity, and preventive measures aimed towards informing parents and guardians about the dangers and risk factors associated with this type of accident are needed, along with physical protective measures, such as low walls around the slab and gates with locks to restrict free access to these places.

  8. RENEB accident simulation exercise

    Brzozowska, Beata; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Baert, Annelot; Beaton-Green, Lindsay; Barrios, Leonardo; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Bassinet, Celine; Beinke, Christina; Benedek, Anett; Beukes, Philip; Bortolin, Emanuela; Buraczewska, Iwona; Burbidge, Christopher; De Amicis, Andrea; De Angelis, Cinzia


    Purpose: The RENEB accident exercise was carried out in order to train the RENEB participants in coordinating and managing potentially large data sets that would be generated in case of a major radiological event. Materials and methods: Each participant was offered the possibility to activate the network by sending an alerting email about a simulated radiation emergency. The same participant had to collect, compile and report capacity, triage categorization and exposure scenario results ob...

  9. Fatores ergonômicos de risco e de proteção contra acidentes de trabalho: um estudo caso-controle Ergonomic risk and protection factors from health accidents: a case-control study

    Raphael Mendonça Guimarães


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo estudar a relação entre os acidentes ocupacionais e os riscos ergonômicos no âmbito da organização do processo de trabalho de Enfermagem. Foi utilizado o método epidemiológico e um desenho de estudos caso-controle. O universo de estudo foram enfermarias do serviço de enfermagem clínica do Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto (HUPE, localizado no município do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram analisados com o programa Epi-Info 2004®, onde foram comparados, através de uma análise de odds ratio, os fatores estudados em um grupo controle de não acidentados e um grupo de estudo de acidentados. Obtivemos, como resultado, variáveis que foram classificadas por grupos de risco e proteção, de acordo com os valores de medidas encontrados. Foram considerados fatores de risco: divisão de tarefas insatisfatórias, concentração de atividades excessiva, acúmulo de divisão de tarefas, atividades de crescimento profissional, ocupação total da carga horária durante a jornada de trabalho. Como fatores de proteção: pausas durante o trabalho, disponibilidade de EPI, utilização de EPI, compatibilidade entre o cargo e o maior nível de formação, retorno da chefia quanto ao desempenho exercido e realização profissional.The research aimed to study the relationship between occupational accidents and ergonomic risks in the nursing work process. The epidemiological method was used with a case-control design. The research site was the clinical ward of Pedro Ernesto Academic Hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Data were analyzed with Epi-Info 2004®. Factors in the case group of workers who had an accident and the control group of workers who did not have an accident were compared through odds ratio. As results, we attained variables classified into risk groups and protection groups, according to the measurements found.

  10. Accident rates for heavy truck-tractors in Michigan.

    Blower, D; Campbell, K L; Green, P E


    Accident rates of heavy truck-tractors are modelled using log-linear methods. The accident data used are a census of truck-tractor involvements in Michigan from May 1987 to April 1988. Travel data used to calculate the rates were produced by a survey of truck-tractors in Michigan covering the same time period. Both the accident and travel data were limited to Michigan-registered tractors operating in Michigan. Log-linear models of casualty and property-damage-only accident rates were developed using number of trailers, road type, area type, and time of day as predictor variables. Overall, differences between tractors with one and two trailers were not significant. Tractors with no trailers (bobtails) have significantly higher accident rates. Characteristics of the operating environment were found to have larger effects on the accident rate than tractor configuration (except for the bobtail). Rates varied by a factor of up to 6.8, depending on the road type. Casualty accident risk at night was 1.4 times the risk during the day. The risk of a casualty accident in rural areas was 1.6 times that of urban areas.

  11. Fatal aviation accidents in Lower Saxony from 1979 to 1996.

    Ast, F W; Kernbach-Wighton, G; Kampmann, H; Koops, E; Püschel, K; Tröger, H D; Kleemann, W J


    So far no national or regional studies have been published in Germany regarding the number of fatal aviation accidents and results of autopsy findings. Therefore, we evaluated all fatal aviation accidents occurring in Lower Saxony from 1979 to 1996. A total of 96 aviation accidents occurred in this period involving 73 aeroplanes. The crashes resulted in the death of 154 people ranging in age from 19 to 68 years. The greatest number of victims in a single crash of an aircraft was (n=7). Other types of fatal accidents were crashes of aircraft and helicopter while on the ground (n=5), hot-air balloons (n=2), parachutes (n=10), hang glider accidents (n=5) and the striking of a bystander by a model airplane. Autopsies were performed on 68 of the 154 victims (44.2%), including 39 of the 73 pilots (53.4%). Some of the autopsies yielded findings relevant to the cause of the accident: gunshot wounds, the presence of alcohol or drugs in blood and preexisting diseases. Our findings emphasize the need for autopsy on all aviation accident victims, especially pilots, as this is the only reliable method to uncover all factors contributing to an accident.

  12. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) input

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Rollstin, J.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Helton, J.C. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))


    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs.

  13. Experimental investigation of heat transfer during severe accident of a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor with simulated decay heat generation in molten pool inside calandria vessel

    Prasad, Sumit Vishnu, E-mail:; Nayak, Arun Kumar, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Scaled test facility simulating the calandria vessel and calandria vault water of PHWR with simulated decay heat was built. • Experiments conducted with simulant material at about 1200 °C. • Experimental result shows that melt coolability and growth rate of crust thickness are affected by presence of decay heat. • No gap was observed between the crust and vessel on opening. • Result shows that vessel integrity is intact with presence of water inside water tank in both cases. - Abstract: The present study focuses on experimental investigation in a scaled facility of an Indian PHWR to investigate the coolability of molten corium with simulated decay heat in the simulated calandria vessel. Molten borosilicate glass was used as the simulant due to its comparable heat transfer characteristics similar to prototypic material. About 60 kg of the molten material was poured into the test section at about 1200 °C. Decay heat in the melt pool was simulated using four high watt heaters cartridges, each having 9.2 kW. The temperature distributions inside the molten pool, across the vessel wall thickness and vault water were measured. Experimental results obtained are compared with the results obtained previously for no decay heat case. The results indicated that presence of decay heat seriously affects the coolability behaviour and formation of crust in the melt pool. The location and magnitude of maximum heat flux and surface temperature of the vessel also are affected in the presence of decay heat.

  14. Impact Assessment of the Causes and Prevention of Farm Accidents on Mechanized Farms of North Central Zone/States of Nigeria

    J. K. Yohanna.


    Full Text Available Accidents occurring on mechanized farms have been a thing of concern to farmers and researchers both within and outside Nigeria. An investigation into the causes and prevention of farm accidents on mechanized farm was carried out in Benue, Federal Capital Territory, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger and Plateau states that constitute the north central zone/states of Nigeria. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire designed and distributed to all the states mentioned. The questionnaire addressed demographic variables and issues linked directly with the types, causes and prevention of farm accidents. A total of 2283 tractors were available in the mechanized farms surveyed, while a total of 1014 constituted other farm machinery/equipment. Results show that 81.7% of accidents victims are male. About 45.5% of the accident victims were aged between 40years and above. About 33.96% of the minor accidents resulted in slight damage to equipment and machinery. Similarly 43.4% of accidents resulted in substantial loss in time, while about 22.64% of accidents resulted in medical attention. There was no attempt made to quantify the monetary terms of the cost of each accidents, as there was dearth of information. The results obtained in this work are in agreement with the previous studies both outside and inside Nigeria. Also, from this survey work, there was a problem of good record keeping in most of the establishment surveyed. It is therefore, recommended among other things that adequate training and retraining of tractors/machinery operators should be carried out periodically, to intimate operators on recent use of farm equipment due to environmental and human factors


    V. M. Shubik


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of comparative investigation of morbidity and immunity of liquidators of radiation accidents occurred in South Urals (Kyshtym accident, at Chernobyl NPP and nuclear submarines (NS consequences. The most evident immunity and health changes were revealed for liquidators of Chernobyl NPP accident (ChNPP. Investigations of Kyshtym accident liquidators revealed long-term immunological losses. Comparison of health indicators of Chernobyl and nuclear submarine accident liquidators reveals the possibility of combined influence of radiation and stress on the immunity and health.

  16. Correspondence model of occupational accidents

    Juan C. Conte


    Full Text Available We present a new generalized model for the diagnosis and prediction of accidents among the Spanish workforce. Based on observational data of the accident rate in all Spanish companies over eleven years (7,519,732 accidents, we classified them in a new risk-injury contingency table (19×19. Through correspondence analysis, we obtained a structure composed of three axes whose combination identifies three separate risk and injury groups, which we used as a general Spanish pattern. The most likely or frequent relationships between the risk and injuries identified in the pattern facilitated the decision-making process in companies at an early stage of risk assessment. Each risk-injury group has its own characteristics, which are understandable within the phenomenological framework of the accident. The main advantages of this model are its potential application to any other country and the feasibility of contrasting different country results. One limiting factor, however, is the need to set a common classification framework for risks and injuries to enhance comparison, a framework that does not exist today. The model aims to manage work-related accidents automatically at any level.Apresentamos aqui um modelo generalizado para o diagnóstico e predição de acidentes na classe de trabalhadores da Espanha. Baseados em dados sobre a frequência de acidentes em todas as companhias da Espanha em 11 anos (7.519.732 acidentes, nós os classificamos em uma nova tabela de contingência risco-injúria (19×19. Através de uma análise por correspondência obtivemos uma estrutura composta por 3 eixos cuja combinação identifica 3 grupos separados de risco e injúria, que nós usamos como um perfil geral na Espanha. As mais prováveis ou frequentes relações entre risco e injúrias identificadas nesse perfil facilitaram o processo de decisão nas companhias em um estágio inicial de apreciação do risco. Cada grupo de risco-injúria tem suas próprias caracter

  17. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Takada, Jun


    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  18. MELCOR simulation of postulated severe accidents in OPR1000

    Lee, Seongn Yeon; Kim Sung Joong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwan Yeol; Park, Jong Hwa [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Since the Fukushima accident in 2011, severe accidents of a nuclear power plant have been a target of big debate whether the defense in depth philosophy applied to current nuclear system is still vigorous enough to ensure the protection of the operators and the public. Thus an accurate prediction of severe accident has become a critical task for the nuclear engineers with reliable employment of Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA). According to a recent PRA result, Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) without safety injection and Station Black Out (SBO) show high probability of proceeding to severe accidents. Thus, these accident scenarios need to be evaluated properly with reliable prediction tools. Song and Ahn analyzed SBO sequences in KSNP using MELCOR 1.8.5. Park and Song examined SBLOCA scenarios based on the PSA of KNSP using MAAP 4.06. Their studies utilized severe accident database. In continuation of the further analysis, several scenarios of postulated SBO and SBLOCA in OPR1000 are investigated using the severe accident database and MELCOR 1.8.6.

  19. Investigation of radioiodine behavior under accident conditions in LWR. Final report; Untersuchungen des Verhaltens von Radioiod unter Stoerfallbedingungen in LWR in kleintechnischen Versuchsanlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Panovsky, W.; Alm, M.; Eckelmann, U.; Jaspers, V.; Rentsch, J.; Vinzelberg, T.; Tuerpe, W.; Stark, M.


    Starting from safety considerations for WWER-type reactors main aspects of iodine chemistry are represented. By means of the use of application-oriented measuring techniques, existing equipment systems and their adaption to the requirements, investigations of the retention capacity of wet condensation systems for radioiodine were carried out. After analytical pre-tests (AAS, gaschromatography, laserspectrometry) - experiments were realized relating to both iodine absorption and iodine revolatilization. The absorption levels determined are between 92,5 and 99,9%, the iodine entrainment with revolatilization from the wet-condensation model is in the range between 0,003 and 0,0004%. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Ausgehend von Sicherheitsbetrachtungen fuer WWER-Reaktoren werden die Hauptaspekte der Iodchemie dargelegt. Durch Nutzung anwendungsorientierter Messtechniken, vorhandener Geraetesysteme und deren Anpassung an die Erfordernisse wurden Untersuchungen zum Rueckhaltevermoegne von Nasskondensationssystemen fuer Radioiod angestellt. Nach analytischen Vorversuchen (AAS, Gaschromatographie, Laserspektrometrie) wurden Experimente zur Iodabsorption zur Iodwiederfreisetzung durchgefuehrt. Die ermittelten Absorptionsgrade lagen zwischen 92,5 und 99,9%, der Iodaustrag bei der Wiederfreisetzung aus dem Nasskondensationsmodell bewegt sich im Bereich von 0,003 und 0,0004%. (orig./HP)

  20. Optimal operation of hybrid-SITs under a SBO accident

    Jeon, In Seop, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Sun, E-mail: [Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., 70 Yuseong-daero 1312 beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Gook, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Operation strategy of hybrid-SIT (H-SIT) in station blackout (SBO) is developed. • There are five main factors which have to be carefully treated in the development of the operation strategy. • Optimal value of each main factor is investigated analytically and then through thermal-hydraulic analysis using computer code. • The optimum operation strategy is suggested based on the optimal value of the main factors. - Abstract: A hybrid safety injection tank (H-SIT) is designed to enhance the capability of pressurized water reactors against high-pressure accidents which might be caused by the combined accidents accompanied by station blackout (SBO), and is suggested as a useful alternative to electricity-driven motor injection pumps. The main purpose of the H-SIT is to provide coolant to the core so that core safety can be maintained for a longer period. As H-SITs have a limited inventory, their efficient use in cooling down the core is paramount to maximize the available time for long-term cooling component restoration. Therefore, an optimum operation strategy must be developed to support the operators for the most efficient H-SIT use. In this study, the main factors which have to be carefully treated in the development of an operation strategy are first identified. Then the optimal value of each main factor is investigated analytically, a process useful to get the basis of the global optimum points. Based on these analytical optimum points, a thermal-hydraulic analysis using MARS code is performed to get more accurate values and to verify the results of the analytical study. The available time for long-term cooling component restoration is also estimated. Finally, an integrated optimum operation strategy for H-SITs in SBO is suggested.


    A. I. Nikitin


    Full Text Available In the period from April 22 until May 20, 2011, an expedition aboard the research vessel “Pavel Gordienko” (Russian Federation was carried out to the Sea of Japan and the Kuril-Kamchatka region of the Pacific Ocean. The main aim of the expedition was to study radioactive contamination of the atmospheric air and sea water after the accident at the NPP “Fukushima-1” in Japan. This paper provides preliminary results on the activity concentration of 137Cs and 134Cs in twenty four samples of sea water. The activity concentrations of 131I, 137Cs, 134Cs, and 7Be for twenty nine samples of atmospheric aerosols, which were sampled during the expedition, are also given. Despite the preliminary character of the results of this study, a generic conclusion on a negligible radiological impact of the anthropogenic gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides for the Far-Eastern sea areas of Russia can be reached. The investigations have been supported by a grant from the Russian Geographical Society.

  2. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin


    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...


    Akinyemi Olasunkanmi Oriola


    Full Text Available Aviation crashes all over the world have recently been on the high rise, stemming from negligence, mechanical faults, weather, ground control errors, pilot errors, taxing and maintenance crew errors as probable reasons for such accidents. This study models the probabilistic risk assessment of runway accident hazards in Nigeria aviation sector. Six categories of runway accident hazards with their corresponding basic events were identified and modeled using fault tree analysis method of probabilistic risk assessment. The six categories of runway accident hazards are runway surface conditions, weather conditions, collision risk, aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures and human factors. The Fault Tree developed is a system of OR-gates and the weights for each hazard were derived through a domain/expert opinion. The estimated probability of occurrence of runway accident which is the top event of the Fault Tree model is 0.2624. Fault Tree Analysis; thus, identifies the most likely root causes of runway accident through importance measures. The results of the analysis show close relationship of runway accidents in Nigeria aviation sector with aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures, human factor, weather conditions and collision risk.

  4. Analysis of hot leg natural circulation under station blackout severe accident


    Under severe accidents, natural circulation flows are important to influence the accident progression and result in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). In a station blackout accident with no recovery of steam generator (SG) auxiliary feedwater (TMLB' severe accident scenario), the hot leg countercurrent natural circulation flow is analyzed by using a severe-accident code, to better understand its potential impacts on the creep-rupture timing among the surge line, the hot leg, and SG tubes. The results show that the natural circulation may delay the failure time of the hot leg.The recirculation ratio and the hot mixing factor are also calculated and discussed.

  5. 基于动态风险平衡的海洋平台事故连锁风险研究%On the risk chain of the offshore oil-drilling platform accidents based on the dynamic risk balance

    郭恒; 陈国明; 朱渊


    The present paper is aimed at introducing a dynamic model for the offshore oil-drilling platform accidents proposed by the authors based on the two concepts, that is, the accident impetus and accident obstruction. As is well known, due to its own restricted conditions, offshore platforms, on the event of fire or explosion, are likely to suffer tragic casualties and material losses, letting alone the environmental contamination. Based on investigating and analyzing plenty of offshore platform accidents both at home and abroad, we have brought forward a new approach to dealing with such tragic accidents, that is, to finding the accident dynamic model characterized as dynamic nature and transient stability. As a matter of fact, a regular oil-drilling platform tends to present a dynamic equilibrium state between the accident impetus and the accident obstruction, while the accident dynamic state indicates a kind of energy that tends to lead to the happening of an accident whereas there exists some kind of transmitting impetus that passes on the energy that may obstruct or prevent the accident from occurring. In view of the dynamic risk balance, we have come up with the accident dynamic model consisting of four steps: first of all, the offshore platform likely to lead to grave accidents are chosen as an object of study, and next, the corresponding factors likely to cause the accidents are analyzed from the points of view of accident-incidence process, and, last of all, the countermeasures were taken in engineering, technology and management. What's more, the risk statistical data and information concerning the accident chains are to be built up when the elementary accident impetus has been determined. And, by this moment, it would be necessary to work out the probability distribution of all transmitting impetus and obstruction factors in the circumstance that the elementary accident-incidence dynamic has been calculated. Furthermore, the analysis results should be made

  6. Major accident analysis and prevention of coal mines in China from the year of 1949 to 2009

    Wu Lirong; Jiang Zhongan; Cheng Weimin; Zuo Xiuwei; Lv Dawei; Yao Yujing


    From the year of 1949 to the present,the China national coal output has been increasing quickly and became first in the world in 2009.But at the same time,major coal mining accidents still exist nowadays.In order to review the overall situation and provide information on major accidents of coal mines in China,we investigated 26 major coal mining accidents in China between the years of 1949 and 2009 through statistical methods,each of which led to more than 1 00 fatalities.Statistical characteristics about accident-related factors such as time,death toll,accident reasons,characters and nature of enterprise were analyzed.And some special conclusions have been achieved.For example,although we have made great progress,the safety situation in China coal mining industry is still serious,and the reasons for the mining accidents are all human errors which are not inevitable.Such results may be helpful to prevent major accidents in coal mines.Moreso,based on both the knowledge of other countries which have good safety situation nowadays and the safety management situation of China,we made suggestion on safety management of China coal mining.In conclusion,countermeasures were proposed in accordance with the results of statistical studies and the analyses of problems existed in coal mines,including the perfection of safety supervision organization,the establishment of cooperating agency among government,coal mines and workers,the perfection of safety rules and regulations,the improvement of safety investment,the enhancement of safety training,the development of safety technique,and the development of emergency rescue technique and equipment.

  7. Retrospective self-reports of childhood accidents causing unconsciousness in phallometrically diagnosed pedophiles.

    Blanchard, Ray; Christensen, Bruce K; Strong, Scott M; Cantor, James M; Kuban, Michael E; Klassen, Philip; Dickey, Robert; Blak, Thomas


    The present study investigated whetherhead injuries in childhood might increase the risk of pedophilia in males. The subjects were 1206 patients referred to a clinical sexology service for assessment of their erotic preferences. These were classified, on the basis of phallometric test results, as pedophilic (n = 413) or nonpedophilic (n = 793). Information regarding early head injuries, other signs of possible neurodevelopmental problems, and parental histories of psychiatric treatment were collected with self-administered questionnaires. The results showed that childhood accidents that resulted in unconsciousness were associated with pedophilia and with lower levels of intelligence and education. These associations were statistically significant for accidents that occurred before the age of 6, but not for accidents that occurred between the ages of 6 and 12. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental perturbations in early childhood may increase the risk of pedophilia. They are also, however, compatible with the alternative explanation that prior neurodevelopmental problems lead to accident-proneness and head injury, on the one hand, and to pedophilia, on the other, and that head injury has no causal influence on pedophilia. A secondary finding was that the pedophiles were more likely to report that their mothers had undergone psychiatric treatment. This finding suggests that pedophilia may be influenced by genetic factors, which are manifested in women as an increased risk of psychiatric problems, and in their sons, as an increased risk of erotic interest in children.

  8. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    Safety has been in the focus of seafaring during the past decade that observed a gradual reduction of reported work injuries in Danish ships. The injuries are, however, unevenly distributed in the maritime workforce, depending on various factors, the nationality of seafarer among them. The aim of...... the occurrence as well as the reporting of accidents is crucial to construct effective preventive measures for risk management....... to report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number...... Western European seafarers compared to South East Asian (mostly Filipino) employees. The results highlight a favourable level of reported injuries in the Danish maritime sector but also point out detectable differences between groups of employees. The identification of factors that determine...

  9. Investigation of Individual Factors Associated with Anxiety in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Dubin, Ashley H.; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca; Michele Lease, A.


    As youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to experience anxiety than youth in the general population, investigation of associated factors is important for diagnosis and treatment. The present study extended prior research by examining factors associated with caregiver-reported anxiety in 2662 youth (mean age = 8.82 years) with…

  10. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Stoichiometry Problems Using Logistic Regression and Eye Tracking

    Tang, Hui; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.


    This paper includes two experiments, one investigating complexity factors in stoichiometry word problems, and the other identifying students' problem-solving protocols by using eye-tracking technology. The word problems used in this study had five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by a Web-based tool that we developed. The…

  11. Insomnia and accidents: cross-sectional study (EQUINOX) on sleep-related home, work and car accidents in 5293 subjects with insomnia from 10 countries.

    Léger, Damien; Bayon, Virginie; Ohayon, Maurice M; Philip, Pierre; Ement, Philippe; Metlaine, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir; Faraut, Brice


    The link between sleepiness and the risk of motor vehicle accidents is well known, but little is understood regarding the risk of home, work and car accidents of subjects with insomnia. An international cross-sectional survey was conducted across 10 countries in a population of subjects with sleep disturbances. Primary care physicians administered a questionnaire that included assessment of sociodemographic characteristics, sleep disturbance and accidents (motor vehicle, work and home) related to sleep problems to each subject. Insomnia was defined using the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-10) criteria. A total of 5293 subjects were included in the study, of whom 20.9% reported having had at least one home accident within the past 12 months, 10.1% at least one work accident, 9% reported having fallen asleep while driving at least once and 4.1% reported having had at least one car accident related to their sleepiness. All types of accident were reported more commonly by subjects living in urban compared to other residential areas. Car accidents were reported more commonly by employed subjects, whereas home injuries were reported more frequently by the unemployed. Car accidents were reported more frequently by males than by females, whereas home accidents were reported more commonly by females. Patients with insomnia have high rates of home accidents, car accidents and work accidents related to sleep disturbances independently of any adverse effects of hypnotic treatments. Reduced total sleep time may be one factor explaining the high risk of accidents in individuals who complain of insomnia.

  12. 海南省旅游安全事故与时空因素的关联关系研究--基于最优尺度分析%Research on Correlation Effect Between the Temporal-Spatial Factors and Tourism Accidents In Hainan Province Based on the Optimal Scaling Analysis

    李月调; 谢朝武; 吴艺娟


    Taking the basic data of 1359 cases of tourism accidents in Hainan Province from 2010 to 2013 as research sample,the paper adopted the Optimal Scaling Analysis method to explore the correlation effect between the time-space factors and tourism accidents,and then described the time and space distribution.The result shows that time variables,including season,month and period,are high relevant to tourism accidents.On the frequency,the tourism accidents are closely related to different tourist sea-sons and tourist stages.As for time factor,the tourism accidents change obviously with different seasons and periods.Most of the tourism accidents happened in winter and spring.In daily,10:00 and 14:00 are the peak time of accidents happening.The space variables such as six elements in tourism and accidents site,are also high relevant to tourism accidents.In the spatial distri-bution and frequency of tourism accidents,different spot correlates with tourism accidents differently.Based on the research re-sults,some suggestions are put forward that the government and tourism administration departments should establish an effective safety prevention and control system,in order to minimize the occurrence of tourism accidents.%以2010-2013年全国旅游企业上报的旅行社责任险统保示范项目出险案例为数据基础,选取海南省1359起事故案例为研究样本,采用最优尺度分析法,对事故亚类型与其发生的季度、月度、微观时段和旅游六要素场所、具体方位空间进行相关性分析。结果表明:海南省旅游安全事故发生的频率与旅游淡旺季、旅游活动时段密切相关,事故亚类与时间因素存在差异性的关联特征;旅游六要素空间、事故发生的具体方位空间与事故亚类具有密切的关联关系,旅游安全事故呈现高发场所集中分布的特点。海南省应建立和完善“因时制宜”的旅游安全风险预防与监测机制,实施“因地制宜

  13. Safety Assessment of High-Risk Operations in Hydroelectric-Project Based on Accidents Analysis, SEM, and ANP

    Jian-Lan Zhou


    Full Text Available Safety risk analysis and assessment of high-risk work system in hydroelectric project has an important role in safety management. The interactive relationships between human factors and the importance of factors are analyzed and proposed. We analyze the correlation relationship among the factors by using statistical method, which is more objective than subjective judgment. The HFACS is provided to establish a rational and an applicable index system for investigating human error in accidents; the structural equation modeling (SEM and accident data are used to construct system model and acquire the path coefficient among the risk factor variables; the ANP model is built to assess the importance of accident factors. 289 pieces of valid questionnaires data are analyzed to obtain the path coefficient between risk factor variables and to build the ANP model’s judgment matrix. Finally, the human factors’ weights are calculated by ANP model. Combining SEM’s results and factor's frequency analysis and building the ANP model, the results show that the four greatest weight values of the factors are, respectively, “personal readiness,” “perception and decision errors,” “skill-based errors,” and “violation operations.” The results of ANP model provide a reference for the engineering and construction management.

  14. Perceived risks and risk attitudes in southern Russia in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research; Rumyantseva, G.M.; Martyvshov, A.N. [The Serbsky Research Institute, Moscow, (Russian Federation)


    The present study was conducted within the framework of the Joint Study Project 2 (JSP2), a research project involving the European Community and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The task involved the investigation of public reactions to radioactive contamination due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The here presented field-work was designed as a pilot investigation in a series of studies aimed at contributing to the understanding of social and psychological factors relevant to the design of countermeasures in the case of a future nuclear accident. The report presents questionnaire data collected from people living in Novozybkov and its surroundings in Russia, in the summer of 1992. The chosen areas had an overall surface contamination level of 15-40 Ci/km{sup 2}. The results showed that the respondents recalled the date of the accident surprisingly well. They often indicated that they had heard the first news of the accident via TV, radio or rumors. They often reported the content of that information to have been related to an explosion or a fire at a nuclear plant. They indicated that they at the time had a rather modest reaction to the news. Current worries especially concerned health risks due to the radioactive contamination, although the respondents also emphasized that ordinary life was filled with worries. Middle-aged persons and parents often indicated the highest personal worry. Risk ratings related to radiation and radioactive contamination were high. Ratings of perceived change in risk level since the accident of a variety of hazards showed an overall increase. 27 refs, 23 figs, 23 tabs.

  15. Noise as an explanatory factor in work-related fatality reports.

    Deshaies, Pierre; Martin, Richard; Belzile, Danny; Fortier, Pauline; Laroche, Chantal; Leroux, Tony; Nélisse, Hugues; Girard, Serge-André; Arcand, Robert; Poulin, Maurice; Picard, Michel


    Noise exposure in the workplace is a common reality in Québec, Canada as it is elsewhere. However, the extent to which noise acts as a causal or contributive factor in industrial work-related accidents has not been studied thoroughly despite its plausibility. This article aims to describe the importance or potential importance, during investigations looking into the specific causes of each work-related fatal accident, of noise as an explanatory factor. The written information contained in the accident reports pertaining to contextual and technical elements were used. The study used multiple case qualitative content analysis. This descriptive study was based on the content analysis of the 788 reports from the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec [Workers' Compensation Board (WCB)] investigating the fatal work-related accidents between 1990 and 2005. The study was descriptive (number and percentages). Noise was explicitly stated as one of the explanatory factors for the fatal outcome in 2.2% (17/788) of the fatal accidents, particularly when the work involved vehicular movement or the need to communicate between workers. Noise was not typically considered a unique cause in the accident, notably because the investigators considered that the accident would have probably occurred due to other risk factors (for example, disregard of safety rules, shortcomings in work methods, and inadequate training). Noise is an important risk factor when communication is involved in work. Since noise is ubiquitous and may also interfere with vigilance and other risk factors for accidents, it may be a much more important contributing factor to accidents than is currently recognized.

  16. Occupational accidents with piercing and cutting instruments in hospital nurses

    Maria Helena Palucci Marziale


    Full Text Available Goals: To identify factors associated with occupational accidents caused by piercing and cutting instruments and to identify the consequences of these accidents.Methods: Descriptive field research. Data were obtained through semi-structured interviews with nurses who suffered accidents during one year in four hospitals at São Paulo State - Brazil. Results: factors associated with accidents were: work overload, poor quality material, inadequate disposal materials, professional negligence, clients’ aggressiveness, lack of attention and use of unsheathed needles. The accidents caused financial damages to the institutions as well as emotional and physical impairments to workers. Conclusions: There are several factors associated with accidents with piercing and cutting instruments. Therefore, preventive measures must be implemented according to the peculiarities of each work environment. Better care should be taken with the preparation of the professionals as well as with the information on risks from exposure to body/blood fluids they are given. A specific legislation is needed in our country in order to minimize this problem.

  17. Reaction time of drivers who caused road traffic accidents

    Đurić Predrag


    Full Text Available Introduction. Human factor is the single cause of road traffic injuries in 57%, and together with other factors in more than 90% of all road traffic accidents. Human factor includes many aspects, where reaction time is very important. Material and methods. Thirty healthy drivers 28-40 y.o. with 50-500 km passed per week, having caused at least one road traffic accident in the last ten years were selected, provided they were not under the influence of alcohol and drugs during traffic accident. The same number of control were selected. Both cases and controls were tested to reaction time. Results. We found statistically significant difference between car drivers who caused car accidents and those who did not in both simple and choice reaction times. Discussion. Car drivers who caused road traffic accidents have longer reaction time (both simple and choice reaction time, but as the tasks were more complex, that difference was less visible. Since drivers involved in this study had introductory phase before measuring their reaction times, they faced with unpleasant sound when they made mistake, which forced them to be aware not to make a mistake in further tasks, so they showed longer reaction times. Conclusion. Measuring of reaction time seems to be important, and as we have showed they are different in drivers who have caused road traffic accidents and those who have do not.

  18. Investigation of loss of coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors using the ''Dynamic Best-Estimate Safety Analysis'' (DYBESA) method for considering of uncertainties in TRACE

    Sporn, Michael; Hurtado, Antonio [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)


    Loss of coolant accident must take uncertainties with potentially strong effects on the accident sequence prediction into account. For example, uncertainties in computational model input parameters resulting from varying geometry and material data due to manufacturing tolerances or unavailable measurements should be considered. The uncertainties of physical models used by the software program are also significant. In this paper, use of the ''Dynamic Best-Estimate Safety Analysis'' (DYBESA) method to quantify the uncertainties in the TRACE thermal-hydraulic program is demonstrated. For demonstration purposes loss of coolant accidents with breaks of various types and sizes in a DN 700 reactor coolant pipe are used as an example Application.

  19. Learning from incidents and accidents

    Drupsteen, L.; Kampen, J. van


    There are many different definitions for what constitutes an incident or an accident, however the focus is always on unintended and often unforeseen events that cause unintended consequences. This article is focused on the process of learning from incidents and accidents. The focus is on making sure

  20. [Practical management of CPB accident].

    Depoix, J-P; Fenet, L; Provenchere, S


    Accident of CPB is a reality. It is important to be prepared for discussion with the family, with the hospital administration, eventually with the justice. But we have also to support perfusionnist and anesthetic team in charge of the patient during accident.

  1. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.


    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the ...


    沙汝明; 周爱萍; 薛黎坚; 秦威


    [ Objective] To investigate accident injury pattern and health related behavior among the middle-school students in Kunshan, and to provide scientific gist for government and the related departments to formulate health protective measures on the young people. [Methods] Subjects were selected from middle schools by using cluster-stratified sample, and they were investigated with "Chinese City Young people Health Related Behavior Questionnaire" in classroom. The survey data were input by EPIDATA software, and analyzed by SPSS software. [Results] The injures among students were very serious, the main reason to which were tumbles-injured (32.24%) ; The injured by object crushes were 18.78%; Fights injured were 9.08%; Traffic accident injured were 4.86%; The phenomenon along the contrary side among middle-school students were quite common (49.0%): The rate of swimming in dangerous place was high (14.3%); The rate of bad-mood, high study pressure, psychological problem were relatively high; The rate of suicide tendency among students was 17.75%, 6.42% of the students have suicide schedule. [Conclusion] The injures among middle school students in Kunshan city were very serious, they don't have healthy behavior and psychological quality, the living environment was not appropriate for them. The demands to our society, schools and paterfamilias is increasing. Therefore, we should formulate health protective measures on the young people in time.%[目的]通过对中学生意外伤害模式及其健康相关行为情况的调查研究,为政府和相关部门制定保护青少年健康的决策方案,提供科学的理论依据.[方法]以整群抽样的方法抽取部分中学校,应用进入教室进行问卷式调查,所有数据输入EpiData数据库,应用SPSS软件进行统计分析.[结果]学生伤害情况相当严重,其中居伤害原因发生率前列的依次为跌倒受伤:32.24%;物体砸伤:18.78%;打架受伤:9.08%;交通事故:4.86%;中学生骑自

  3. Investigating the effects of different factors on development of open source enterprise resources planning software packages

    Mehdi Ghorbaninia


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of different factors on development of open source enterprise resources planning software packages. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 210 experts in the field of open source software package development. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.93, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. Using Pearson correlation as well as stepwise regression analysis, the study determines three most important factors including fundamental issues, during and after implementation of open source software development. The study also determines a positive and strong relationship between fundamental factors and after implementation factors (r=0.9006, Sig. = 0.000.

  4. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio


    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  5. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars


    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...

  6. Effects of Car Accidents on Three-Lane Traffic Flow

    Jianzhong Chen


    Full Text Available A three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to investigate the effect of car accidents on the traffic flow. The model is an extension of the full velocity difference (FVD model by taking into account the lane changing. The extended lane-changing rules are presented to model the lane-changing behaviour. The cases that the car accidents occupy the exterior or interior lane, the medium lane, and two lanes are studied by numerical simulations. The time-space diagrams and the current diagrams are presented, and the traffic jams are investigated. The results show that the car accident has a different effect on the traffic flow when it occupies different lanes. The car accidents have a more serious effect on the whole road when they occupy two lanes. The larger the density is, the greater the influence on the traffic flow becomes.

  7. Scientific aspects of the Tohoku earthquake and Fukushima nuclear accident

    Koketsu, Kazuki


    We investigated the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, and assessments conducted beforehand for earthquake and tsunami potential in the Pacific offshore region of the Tohoku District. The results of our investigation show that all the assessments failed to foresee the earthquake and its related tsunami, which was the main cause of the accident. Therefore, the disaster caused by the earthquake, and the accident were scientifically unforeseeable at the time. However, for a zone neighboring the reactors, a 2008 assessment showed tsunamis higher than the plant height. As a lesson learned from the accident, companies operating nuclear power plants should be prepared using even such assessment results for neighboring zones.

  8. 近12年中国民航人因事故与事故征候的分类研究%A Classification on Human Factor Accident/Incident of China Civil Aviation in Recent Twelve Years



    Objective To study human factor accident/incident occurred during 1990~2001 using new classification standard. Method The human factor accident/incident classification standard is developed on the basis of Reason's Model, combining with CAAC's traditional classifying method, and applied to the classified statistical analysis for 361 flying incidents and 35 flight accidents of China civil aviation, which is induced by human factors and occurred from 1990 to 2001. Result 1) the incident percentage of taxi and cruise is higher than that of takeoff, climb and descent. 2) The dominating type of flight incidents is diverging of runway, overrunning, near-miss, tail/wingtip/engine strike and ground obstacle impacting. 3) The top three accidents are out of control caused by crew, mountain collision and over runway. 4) Crew's basic operating skill is lower than what we imagined, the mostly representation is poor correcting ability when flight error happened. 5) Crew errors can be represented by incorrect control, regulation and procedure violation, disorientation and diverging percentage of correct flight level. Conclusion The poor CRM skill is the dominant factor impacting China civil aviation safety, this result has a coincidence with previous study, but there is much difference and distinct characteristic in top incident phase, the type of crew error and behavior performance compared with that of advanced countries. We should strengthen CRM training for all of pilots aiming at the Chinese pilot behavior characteristic in order to improve the safety level of China civil aviation.%目的对中国民航1990~2001年期间发生的人因事故征候和飞行事故进行分类研究.方法 运用Reason事故链模型,结合中国民航的传统分类方法,制订人因事故与事故征候分类标准,在此基础上按分类标准进行分类统计和分析.结果 1)在飞行的各个阶段中,滑行和巡航阶段小于间隔飞行的事故征候发生的百分比高于

  9. Typologie des Accidents Cyclistes

    Amoros, Emmanuelle; BILLOT-GRASSET, Alice; Hours, Martine


    L'usage du vélo est en hausse en ville ; cette pratique est encouragée dans le cadre du développement durable et de la lutte contre la sédentarité. Pour accompagner cela, il faut réduire les risques d'accident, et pour ce faire, mieux les connaître. Nous utilisons le Registre des victimes de la circulation routière du Rhône, basé sur les services hospitaliers (dont les urgences) ; il est quasi-exhaustif : env. 1100 blessés à vélo/an versus 120 dans les données officielles. L'ensemble des cycl...

  10. Traffic accident or dumping? - Striking results of a traffic accident reconstruction.

    Nerger, Eric; Bayer, Ronny; Gärtner, Tobias; Dreßler, Jan; Ondruschka, Benjamin


    An atypical traffic accident scenario should be investigated directly at the crash site from all concerned professions, especially police men, forensic pathologists and technical experts, to get a personal overview and impression of the situation and the opportunity for interdisciplinary discussion. We present the rare case of a fatal traffic accident on a German motorway which was initially thought to be an accidental discovery of dumping a corpse. Based on autopsy findings, the technical investigation and the accident reconstruction, this case was solved as a spectacular form of a collision between a pedestrian and a bonnet-front car, which was not described elsewhere in scientific literature to the best of our knowledge. The pedestrian was hit in an upright body position, was lifted up by the car, smashed the windscreen and flew over the car with several body rotations. His flight curve ends directly at the roof of the car during brake processing, where the body touched the roof, smashed the rear-window and landed in the trunk. Based on the technical investigation, the driver of the car was not able to hide the accident. However, the pedestrian could have avoided the collision if he did not cross the motorway on foot.

  11. Accident prevention in SME using ORM

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Troen, Hanne


    Risk perception in SMEs is normally low, and this is closely related to the fact that the chance of a mall enterprise experiencing a serious accident is very small compared to companies that employ a large workforce. This is a fact even though the SMEs together have a higher accident frequency...... compared with large enterprises. To reach the SMEs we must find a way of supporting them, because they normally have neither the time nor the resources to acquire the knowledge and awareness necessary for working with their own safety. The Occupational Risk Model (ORM) developed by the Dutch Workgroup...... safety in SMEs, as the project also focuses on management factors that can motivate the SMEs to increase their risk awareness and own initiatives. The project is now half way through the project period....

  12. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nucler Power Plant

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin


    The paper investigates applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...... for information sharing and decision support in accidents beyond design basis is also indicated. A modelling example demonstrating the application of Multilevel Flow Modelling and reasoning for a PWR LOCA is presented....

  13. Severe Accident Scoping Simulations of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts for BWRs

    Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Accident-tolerant fuels (ATFs) are fuels and/or cladding that, in comparison with the standard uranium dioxide Zircaloy system, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a considerably longer time period while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations [1]. It is important to note that the currently used uranium dioxide Zircaloy fuel system tolerates design basis accidents (and anticipated operational occurrences and normal operation) as prescribed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Previously, preliminary simulations of the plant response have been performed under a range of accident scenarios using various ATF cladding concepts and fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel. Design basis loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs) and station blackout (SBO) severe accidents were analyzed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for boiling water reactors (BWRs) [2]. Researchers have investigated the effects of thermal conductivity on design basis accidents [3], investigated silicon carbide (SiC) cladding [4], as well as the effects of ATF concepts on the late stage accident progression [5]. These preliminary analyses were performed to provide initial insight into the possible improvements that ATF concepts could provide and to identify issues with respect to modeling ATF concepts. More recently, preliminary analyses for a range of ATF concepts have been evaluated internationally for LOCA and severe accident scenarios for the Chinese CPR1000 [6] and the South Korean OPR-1000 [7] pressurized water reactors (PWRs). In addition to these scoping studies, a common methodology and set of performance metrics were developed to compare and support prioritizing ATF concepts [8]. A proposed ATF concept is based on iron-chromium-aluminum alloys (FeCrAl) [9]. With respect to enhancing accident tolerance, FeCrAl alloys have substantially slower oxidation kinetics compared to the zirconium alloys typically employed. During a severe accident, Fe

  14. Prevention of "simple accidents at work" with major consequences

    Jørgensen, Kirsten


    broadly. This review identifies gaps in the prevention of simple accidents, relating to safety barriers for risk control and the management processes that need to be in place to deliver those risk controls in a continuingly effective state. The article introduces the ‘‘INFO cards’’ as a tool...... for the systematic observation of hazard sources in order to ascertain whether safety barriers and management deliveries are present. Safety management and safety culture, together with the INFO cards are important factors in the prevention process. The conclusion is that we must look at safety as a part of being...... of prevention or safety methodologies and procedures established for major accidents are applicable to simple accidents. The article goes back to basics about accidents causes, to review the nature of successful prevention techniques and to analyze what have been constraints to getting this knowledge used more...

  15. Identification of Drivers in Traffic Accidents and Determination of Passenger Position in a Vehicle by Finger Marks

    Matej Trapečar


    Full Text Available The following paper aims to illustrate certain investigative activities in the forensic analysis and examination of the scene of traffic accidents. When a traffic accident occurs, the scene must be secured as soon as possible to enable professional and proper forensic investigation. Failure to secure the accident scene might result in losing or contaminating the traces, which makes it more difficult to prove or explain trace evidence in further procedure or even makes such evidence inadmissible. The topic is discussed from the viewpoint of crime scene examination, since analysing and investigating traffic accidents requires a great deal of expertise and attention of the investigators. Complex traffic accidents include feigned accidents, hit-and-run accidents as well as accidents in which the driver and passengers, dead or alive, need to be identified. In identifying the passengers, standard criminal investigation methods as well as police forensic and forensic medicine methods are followed. Such methods include confirming the identities with identity documents, other documents and vehicle ownership, fingerprints, biological traces, fibre traces, contact traces, traces of physical injuries on the driver and passengers, etc. According to the results obtained in fingerprint detection on human skin surfaces, this method can also be applied in confirming physical contact between the driver and the passengers in the accident, e.g. in the event of moving the victims and changing the scene of the accident.   Key words: traffic accidents, accident analysis, driver's identity, passengers' position, finger marks, human skin

  16. Implementation of numerical simulation techniques in analysis of the accidents in complex technological systems

    Klishin, G.S.; Seleznev, V.E.; Aleoshin, V.V. [RFNC-VNIIEF (Russian Federation)


    Gas industry enterprises such as main pipelines, compressor gas transfer stations, gas extracting complexes belong to the energy intensive industry. Accidents there can result into the catastrophes and great social, environmental and economic losses. Annually, according to the official data several dozens of large accidents take place at the pipes in the USA and Russia. That is why prevention of the accidents, analysis of the mechanisms of their development and prediction of their possible consequences are acute and important tasks nowadays. The accidents reasons are usually of a complicated character and can be presented as a complex combination of natural, technical and human factors. Mathematical and computer simulations are safe, rather effective and comparatively inexpensive methods of the accident analysis. It makes it possible to analyze different mechanisms of a failure occurrence and development, to assess its consequences and give recommendations to prevent it. Besides investigation of the failure cases, numerical simulation techniques play an important role in the treatment of the diagnostics results of the objects and in further construction of mathematical prognostic simulations of the object behavior in the period of time between two inspections. While solving diagnostics tasks and in the analysis of the failure cases, the techniques of theoretical mechanics, of qualitative theory of different equations, of mechanics of a continuous medium, of chemical macro-kinetics and optimizing techniques are implemented in the Conversion Design Bureau {number_sign}5 (DB{number_sign}5). Both universal and special numerical techniques and software (SW) are being developed in DB{number_sign}5 for solution of such tasks. Almost all of them are calibrated on the calculations of the simulated and full-scale experiments performed at the VNIIEF and MINATOM testing sites. It is worth noting that in the long years of work there has been established a fruitful and effective

  17. Factors Associated with Infant Feeding Methods after the Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Fukushima: Data from the Pregnancy and Birth Survey for the Fiscal Year 2011 Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Ishii, Kayoko; Goto, Aya; Ota, Misao; Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi; Fujimori, Keiya


    Objectives The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of and factors associated with infant feeding methods after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident using data from the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods We conducted an anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey of 16,001 women who gave birth around the time of the Great East Japan Earthquake and registered their pregnancies at Fukushima Prefecture municipal offices between August 1, 2010 and July 31, 2011. The responses of 8366 women were analyzed. Chi square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare various factors between women who had formula-fed their children because of concern regarding radioactive contamination or other reasons and those who had breastfed exclusively. Results The percentage of women who had breastfed exclusively was 30.9 %. The percentage of women who had both breastfed and formula-fed or formula-fed exclusively was 69.1 %, of which 20.3 % formula-fed because of concern regarding radioactive contamination of breast milk. The use of formula feeding because of concern about radioactive contamination was significantly higher in women who had resided within the evacuation area and those whose regular antenatal care had been interrupted. The use of formula feeding for other reasons was significantly higher in women who had resided within the evacuation area and lower for those who had willingly switched to another medical institution. Conclusions for Practice Our results suggest the importance of providing breastfeeding support to women who are forced to evacuate or whose antenatal care is interrupted after a disaster.

  18. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Gittus, J.H.; Bonell, P.G.; Hicks, D.


    The USSR power reactor programme is first described. The reasons for the accident at the Chernobyl-4 RBMK nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986, the sequence of events that took place, and the immediate and long-term consequences are considered. A description of the RBMK-type reactors is given and the design changes resulting from the experience of the accident are explained. The source terms describing the details of the radioactivity release associated with the accident and the environmental consequences are covered in the last two sections of the report. Throughout the text comments referring to the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Safety assessment principles have been inserted. (U.K.).

  19. Analytical Investigation on the Power Factor of a Flux-Modulated Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Jinglin;


    Flux-modulated permanent-magnet synchronous machine (FM-PMSM) is characterized as a high-torque direct-drive electrical machine, but may suffer from the low power factor. This paper aims to investigate the issue of the low power factor in theory and explore the possibilities for improvement....... An analytical model for the FM-PMSM is developed to obtain the magnetic field distribution, and its accuracy is verified by the finite-element method. On the basis of the developed analytical model, a fast approach is developed to predict the power factor of the FM-PMSM. The analytical results indicate...

  20. Brand Loyalty Factors Affecting the Hotel Elections of Tourists investigation with Respect to the Demographic Variables

    Ahmet Tayfun


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the factors affecting hotel guests’s brand loyalty and these factors is to determine whether there is a difference or not according to the demographic variables. Within this purpose, a survey research was conducted on the guests staying in the five star hotels of Ankara, Turkey. The research was carried out in two stages, namely the pilot study and the main study. As a result of study, while the factors affecting brand loyalty differs based on the gender and the age of the participants (p0,05

  1. Investigating Elementary & Intermediate Level Students’ Perspectives towards Demotivating Factors In ESP Classes

    Masoud Zoghi


    Full Text Available In the present study, attempts were made to investigate and contrast the demotivating factors in English classes from the viewpoint of ESP students at different proficiency levels. To this end, 134 ESP students were chosen from Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch. Based on the scores obtained from Oxford Placement Test, the sample was divided into two groups, i.e. the intermediate level of proficiency students (n=60 and the elementary level of proficiency students (n=74. The data required for the study were collected by means of a demotivating factors questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using the Minitab statistical package version 16. Results revealed that there were no significant differences among the demotivating factors perceived across the groups. From the viewpoint of both groups, teachers’ attitude and personality, their teaching methods, and the weakness of students in English vocabulary were among the highest frequency mentioned demotivating factors. Keywords: ESP, demotivating factors, proficiency levels

  2. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    Lind, Morten; Zhang Xinxin [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)


    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow Modeling is given and a detailed presentation of the foundational means-end concepts is presented and the conditions for proper use in modelling accidents are identified. It is shown that Multilevel Flow Modeling can be used for modelling and reasoning about design basis accidents. Its possible role for information sharing and decision support in accidents beyond design basis is also indicated. A modelling example demonstrating the application of Multilevel Flow Modelling and reasoning for a PWR LOCA is presented.

  3. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T


    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  4. Comparison of fatal motor vehicle accidents at passive and active railway level crossings in Finland

    Sirkku Laapotti


    The study compares accidents at passive and active railway level crossings, and both immediate and background risk factors are considered. Passive railway level crossings have no warning devices, although there might be a static warning sign. Active level crossings are equipped with automatic devices warning road users of approaching trains. The data covers all fatal motor vehicle accidents at level crossings in Finland during the years 1991 to 2011 (n = 142). All these accidents have previou...

  5. Risk factors for accidents in children that consulted to the emergency unit of San Vicente de Púl Children's Hospital of Medellín, Colombia. December 1, 1998 - March 6, 1999 Factores de riesgo de accidentes en niños que consultaron al Policlínico Infantil de Medellín Diciembre 1 de 1998-marzo 6 de 1999

    Julio César Correa Escobar


    Full Text Available A prospective descriptive study was made to identify the factors of risk for accidents in children smaller than 12 years that consulted for this cause to the Emergency Unit of San Vicente de Paul Children´s Hospital of Medellin, from December 1 of 1998 until March 6 of 1999. These factors were compared during a period of school vacations and one of academic activity of same duration. We included 1.185 patients. The distribution for sex was: 771 children (65% and 414 girls (35%; 912 patients (76,9% came from Medellin and their metropolitan area. The place of the accident was like it continues: in the street 582 children (49%; in the home 496 children (41,9%, in the school 32 children (2,7% and in other places 75 children (6,3%. 199 children (16,8% were alone in the moment of the accident, 512 (43,2% were with other children and 474 (40% were with adults. The main accident type was the mechanic in 1.077 cases (90,9%; 740 children (62,5% suffered falls. Trauma was light in 1.128 children (95,2%. Lethally was of 0,7% (8 children, especially for craneoencephalic trauma due to traffic accidents and hurt by firearm. The trauma was more serious in those smaller than 2 years. There was difference statistically significant in the frequency of traumas between the period of vacations and the academic, with more accidents during the vacations. It is recommended to begin programs of prevention of accidents especially in the home, directed to the parents and the minor caretakers, with emphasis in the stages of the children’s development and the risks for the different types of accidents. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo prospectivo para identificar los factores de riesgo para accidentes en los niños menores de 12 años que consultaron por esta causa al Policlínico Infantil de Medellín, desde diciembre 1 de 1998 hasta marzo 6 de 1999. Se compararon dichos factores durante un período de vacaciones escolares y uno de actividad académica de igual duraci

  6. Study of an investigation on factors influencing human resources productivity in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Zahra Ghasemi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing human resources management plays an essential role in the success of the firms. In this study, we investigated different factors influencing human resources productivity of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences staff. Method: The present research was a cross-sectional study. Sample size was calculated 208 individuals. To access information about the human resource productivity, a valid and reliable questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis of the data (p=0.05. Results:The results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship (p-value<0.001 between human resources productivity and factors affecting the productivity of human resources (motivational factors, leadership style, creativity and innovation, general and applied education, and competitive spirit. Motivational factors (r =0.89 and general education (r =0.65 had the most and the least effects on human resources productivity. Conclusion: Considering the fact that motivational factors were the most effective factors on human resource productivity, we recommend that managers should care more than before about this factor; also, in order to motivate the employees, they should consider the staff’s individual differences.

  7. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  8. Investigation of bandwidth, efficiency, and quality factor for circular patch antennas with magneto-dielectric substrate

    Nour, Baqer; Breinbjerg, Olav


    This article documents an investigation of the effect of a magneto-dielectric substrate on the performance of a circular patch antenna; in particular, the radiation efficiency, the quality factor, and the bandwidth. Both analytical and numerical methods have been used to model the patch antenna...

  9. Factors Affecting Business-to-Business Electronic Commerce Success: An Empirical Investigation

    Chen, Chun-I Philip


    It is generally believed that Business to Business (B2B) e-commerce has a great impact on business performance improvement. Considerable research also shows that another dependent variable, B2B e-commerce success, can be a good overall measure of B2B systems. This paper investigated and examined the impact of several factors, which are either…

  10. An Investigation into Factors Contributing to Iranian Secondary School English Teachers' Job Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

    Soodmand Afshar, Hassan; Doosti, Mehdi


    This study explored factors contributing to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of male and female Iranian secondary school English teachers. A Likert-scale 58-item questionnaire was developed which was completed by 210 participants. The questionnaire also included three open-ended questions which investigated participants' motivation and…

  11. Investigation of Factors Affecting Students' Science Achievement According to Student Science Teachers

    Tatar, Erdal; Tüysüz, Cengiz; Tosun, Cemal; Ilhan, Nail


    In this study, it was aimed to investigate the factors affecting students' science achievement according to student science teachers. The survey model which is one of the quantitative research methods was used. The sample was consisted of total 606 student science teachers from four state universities in Turkey. The data were obtained by using the…

  12. Investigating Factors in the Retention of Students in High School Physical Education

    Lodewyk, Ken R.; Pybus, Colin M.


    Several studies have reported declining student enrolment rates in optional physical education. This study--incorporating constructs from social cognitive, self-determination, and body image theory--investigated factors that might be influential to this trend. Surveys were administered to 227 tenth-grade students from five schools in one school…

  13. Investigating Factors Related to Virtual Private Network Adoption in Small Businesses

    Lederer, Karen


    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate six factors that may influence adoption of virtual private network (VPN) technologies in small businesses with fewer than 100 employees. Prior research indicated small businesses employing fewer than 100 workers do not adopt VPN technology at the same rate as larger competitors, and the…

  14. Investigating Factors Related to the Effects of Time-Out on Stuttering in Adults

    Franklin, Diane E.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Hennessey, Neville W.; Beilby, Janet M.


    Background: Response-contingent time-out has been shown to be an effective technique for enhancing fluency in people who stutter. However, the factors that determine individual responsiveness to time-out are not well understood. Aims: The study investigated the effectiveness of using response-contingent time-out to reduce stuttering frequency in…

  15. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D


    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  16. Paragliding accidents in remote areas.

    Fasching, G; Schippinger, G; Pretscher, R


    Paragliding is an increasingly popular hobby, as people try to find new and more adventurous activities. However, there is an increased and inherent danger with this sport. For this reason, as well as the inexperience of many operators, injuries occur frequently. This retrospective study centers on the helicopter rescue of 70 individuals in paragliding accidents. All histories were examined, and 43 patients answered a questionnaire. Nineteen (42%) pilots were injured when taking off, 20 (44%) during the flight, and six (13%) when landing. Routine and experience did not affect the prevalence of accident. Analysis of the causes of accident revealed pilot errors in all but three cases. In 34 rescue operations a landing of the helicopter near the site of the accident was possible. Half of the patients had to be rescued by a cable winch or a long rope fixed to the helicopter. Seven (10%) of the pilots suffered multiple trauma, 38 (54%) had injuries of the lower extremities, and 32 (84%) of them sustained fractures. Injuries to the spine were diagnosed in 34 cases with a fracture rate of 85%. One patient had an incomplete paraplegia. Injuries to the head occurred in 17 patients. No paraglider pilot died. The average hospitalization was 22 days, and average time of working inability was 14 weeks. Fourteen (34%) patients suffered from a permanent damage to their nerves or joints. Forty-three percent of the paragliders continued their sport despite the accident; two of them had another accident. An improved training program is necessary to lower the incidence of paragliding accidents. Optimal equipment to reduce injuries in case of accidents is mandatory. The helicopter emergency physician must perform a careful examination, provide stabilization of airways and circulation, give analgesics, splint fractured extremities, and transport the victim on a vacuum mattress to the appropriate hospital.

  17. Measuring Risk Aversion for Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Results of Contingent Valuation Survey in Korea

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Within the evaluation of the external cost of nuclear energy, the estimation of the external cost of nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accident is one of the major topics to be addressed. For the evaluation of the external cost of NPP severe accident, the effect of public risk averse behavior against the group accidents, such as NPP accident, dam failure, must be addressed. Although the equivalent fatalities from a single group accident are not common and its risk is very small compared to other accidents, people perceive the group accident more seriously. In other words, people are more concerned about low probability/high consequence events than about high probability/low consequence events having the same mean damage. One of the representative method to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of severe nuclear reactor accidents was developed by Eeckoudt et al., and he used the risk aversion coefficient, mainly based on the analysis of financial risks in the stock markets to evaluate the external cost of nuclear severe accident. However, the use of financial risk aversion coefficient to nuclear severe accidents is not appropriate, because financial risk and nuclear severe accident risk are entirely different. In this paper, the individual-level survey was conducted to measure the risk aversion coefficient and estimate the multiplication factor to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of NPP severe accident. This study propose an integrated framework on estimation of the external cost associated with severe accidents of NPP considering public risk aversion behavior. The theoretical framework to estimate the risk aversion coefficient/multiplication factor and to assess economic damages from a hypothetical NPP accident was constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the risk aversion coefficient can be analyzed by conducting public survey with a carefully designed lottery questions. Compared to the previous studies on estimation of the

  18. An analysis of accident data for franchised public buses in Hong Kong.

    Evans, W A; Courtney, A J


    This paper analyses data on accidents involving franchised public buses operating in Hong Kong. The data were obtained from the Royal Hong Kong Police, the Hong Kong Government Transport Department, the two major franchised bus operators and international sources. The analysis includes an international comparison of accidents with emphasis on the situation in Hong Kong compared to urban areas in the United Kingdom. An attempt has been made to identify the characteristics of bus accidents; accident incidence has been related to time of day, day of the week, time of year, weather conditions, driver's age and experience, hours on duty and policy-reported cause. The results indicate that Hong Kong has a high accident rate compared to Japan, the U.K. and the U.S.A., with particularly high pedestrian involvement rates. Bus accidents peak at around 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM but the accident rate is high throughout the day. Monday and Saturday appear to have a higher than average accident rate. The variability of accident rate throughout the year does not seem to be significant and the accident rate does not appear to be influenced by weather conditions. Older, more experienced drivers generally have a safer driving record than their younger, less experienced colleagues. Accident occurrence is related to the time the driver has been on duty. The paper questions the reliability of police-reported accident causation data and suggests improvements in the design of the accident report form and in the training of police investigators. The relevance of the Hong Kong study for accident research in general is also discussed.

  19. Investigation and calculation of filling factor of SnO2 inverse opal

    Wang, Jinquan; Wu, Shimin; Ji, Xiaoyuan; Li, Jinpeng; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Ming


    In the process of preparing inverse opal, the structure of inverse opal is affected by many factors, and the filling factor of inverse opal is difficult to directly test. In this paper, SnO2 inverse opal was prepared with the sol-gel method by cooperative opal template. The repetition times of the infiltrating precursor into the opal templates were investigated in detail. The band-gap positions of SnO2 inverse opal were tested. In order to prepare perfect inverse opal structure, the filling quantity of the precursor is greater, as the diameter of the PS microsphere of opal is bigger. The filling factor of air in inverse opal can be calculated with a formula derived from Bragg’s law. For inverse opal, the filling factor of air in inverse opal gradually enlarges as the diameter of the void increases.

  20. Investigation of zero-order light suppression methods for digital holograms in various ratio factors

    Liu, Jung-Ping; Poon, Ting-Chung; Yang, Tsung-Hsun


    Owing to the resolution of the recording device, digital holograms are generally fabricated with in-line configurations. However, holograms obtained in this way are plagued by the annoying problems of zero-order noise and the twin images. Here, we investigate methods to suppress the zero-order noise. We compare the suppression ability of each method with different ratio factors. The ratio factor is defined as the ratio between the reference light amplitude and the object light amplitude. We also introduce a new parameter, the normalized correlation peak value, to evaluate the fidelities of holograms obtained under various ratio factors. Results show that the suppression abilities and the hologram fidelities strongly depend on the ratio factor.

  1. Investigation of Factors Affecting Students’ Science Achievement According to Student Science Teachers

    Erdal Tatar


    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to investigate the factors affecting students’ science achievement according to student science teachers. The survey model which is one of the quantitative research methods was used. The sample was consisted of total 606 student science teachers from four state universities in Turkey. The data were obtained by using the Questionnaire of Factors Affecting Students’ Science Achievement (QFASSA. The data were analyzed by using the descriptive analyzing technique. The factors affecting students’ science achievement were analyzed under five dimensions. The result of the study shows that the most important factors affecting student science achievement according to student science teachers are the items in the dimensions of teacher and curriculum. The results also indicates that the most important predictor of science achievement is ―teaching the topics in a way that may arouse the students’ curiosity‖ in the teacher dimension of QFASSA

  2. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  3. Curve Estimation of Number of People Killed in Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    Berkhan Akalin, Kadir; Karacasu, Murat; Altin, Arzu Yavuz; Ergül, Bariş


    One or more than one vehicle in motion on the highway involving death, injury and loss events which have resulted are called accidents. As a result of increasing population and traffic density, traffic accidents continue to increase and this leads to both human losses and harm to the economy. In addition, also leads to social problems. As a result of increasing population and traffic density, traffic accidents continue to increase and this leads to both human losses and harm to the economy. In addition to this, it also leads to social problems. As a result of traffic accidents, millions of people die year by year. A great majority of these accidents occur in developing countries. One of the most important tasks of transportation engineers is to reduce traffic accidents by creating a specific system. For that reason, statistical information about traffic accidents which occur in the past years should be organized by versed people. Factors affecting the traffic accidents are analyzed in various ways. In this study, modelling the number of people killed in traffic accidents in Turkey is determined. The dead people were modelled using curve fitting method with the number of people killed in traffic accidents in Turkey dataset between 1990 and 2014. It was also predicted the number of dead people by using various models for the future. It is decided that linear model is suitable for the estimates.

  4. Systematic investigation of transcription factors critical in the protection against cerebral ischemia by Danhong injection

    Wei, Junying; Zhang, Yanqiong; Jia, Qiang; Liu, Mingwei; Li, Defeng; Zhang, Yi; Song, Lei; Hu, Yanzhen; Xian, Minghua; Yang, Hongjun; Ding, Chen; Huang, Luqi


    Systematic investigations of complex pathological cascades during ischemic brain injury help to elucidate novel therapeutic targets against cerebral ischemia. Although some transcription factors (TFs) involved in cerebral ischemia, systematic surveys of their changes during ischemic brain injury have not been reported. Moreover, some multi-target agents effectively protected against ischemic stroke, but their mechanisms, especially the targets of TFs, are still unclear. Therefore, a comprehensive approach by integrating network pharmacology strategy and a new concatenated tandem array of consensus transcription factor response elements method to systematically investigate the target TFs critical in the protection against cerebral ischemia by a medication was first reported, and then applied to a multi-target drug, Danhong injection (DHI). High-throughput nature and depth of coverage, as well as high quantitative accuracy of the developed approach, make it more suitable for analyzing such multi-target agents. Results indicated that pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1 and cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor 1, along with six other TFs, are putative target TFs for DHI-mediated protection against cerebral ischemia. This study provides, for the first time, a systematic investigation of the target TFs critical to DHI-mediated protection against cerebral ischemia, as well as reveals more potential therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke. PMID:27431009

  5. Human Factors Aspects of Aircraft Accidents


    factaur par rapport a 1’ensemble daa facteura cauaala retenua. Le pourcentaga ainai mis en Evidence varie peu au cours daa annexes et reste asses...homines, celjl d’Icare, ait pr^cisement mis on cause les facteurs humains ... Sur un plan, helas noins allegorlque, l’erp^rlence acquise au cours ...8217Europe. - En dtfpit d’une langue aeronautique, 1’ anglais , theoriquement commune,vlngt autres lan- guages au molns sont des langues maternellja

  6. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood


    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  7. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory


    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  8. Theoretical Investigation on Skin Effect Factor of Conductor in Power Cables

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kanaoka, Mamoru

    This paper describes a newly-derived theoretical equation on the skin effect factor of power cables, and its application to large-size OF and XLPE cables with segmental conductors, including insulated wires. The skin effect factors calculated with the new equation were fit very well to measurements in wide range conductor sizes. In the new equation, the important factor which characterizes the skin effect of segmental conductors is the `equivalent conductivity ratio' ν defined by the ratio of longitudinal conductivity in axial direction of conductor to conductivity of conductor wires. Since the obtained ratio ν in XLPE cable was three times greater than that in OF cable, the larger longitudinal eddy current passing from a wire to another increased the eddy current loss in conductor, which increased the conductor loss of XLPE cable. The new equation enables us to investigate quantitatively the dominant loss component affecting the skin effect factor. Then, the skin effect factors and coefficients for OF and XLPE cables were investigated with the new equation. It was revealed that the best number of separation, in which the skin effect became minimum, existed in OF and XLPE cables with segmental conductors. In addition, it was confirmed that the skin effect coefficients ks1 calculated with the new equation were consistent well with those used in JCS.

  9. Longitudinal relationship between economic development and occupational accidents in China.

    Song, Li; He, Xueqiu; Li, Chengwu


    The relativity between economic development and occupational accidents is a debated topic. Compared with the development courses of both economic development and occupational accidents in China during 1953-2008, this paper used statistic methods such as Granger causality test, cointegration test and impulse response function based on the vector autoregression model to investigate the relativity between economic development and occupational accidents in China from 1953 to 2008. Owing to fluctuation and growth scale characteristics of economic development, two dimensions including economic cycle and economic scale were divided. Results showed that there was no relationship between occupational accidents and economic scale during 1953-1978. Fatality rate per 10(5) workers was a conductive variable to gross domestic product per capita during 1979-2008. And economic cycle was an indicator to occupational accidents during 1979-2008. Variation of economic speed had important influence on occupational accidents in short term. Thus it is necessary to adjust Chinese occupational safety policy according to tempo variation of economic growth.

  10. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on electronic banking for developing export

    Naser Azad


    Full Text Available Developing economy needs appropriate infrastructure in different areas including electronic banking. This paper presents an empirical investigation on important factors influencing electronic banking for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 200 regular customers who use banking services of various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.752 and there are five factors including internet infrastructure, advanced services, usability and information design. The most important sub-criteria include building required culture, customer awareness, the role of government, internet knowledge and compatibility with internet technology.

  11. Theoretical and experimental investigation into the influence factors for range gated reconstruction

    Chua, Sing Yee; Wang, Xin; Guo, Ningqun; Tan, Ching Seong


    Range gated is a laser ranging technique that has been applied in various fields due to its good application prospects. In order to improve the effectiveness of this method, influence factors contributing to the system performance should be well understood. Thus this paper performs theoretical and experimental investigation to comprehend the effects caused by multiple factors on range gated reconstruction. Our study focuses on the distance, target reflection, and acquisition time step parameter where their impacts on the quality of range reconstruction are analyzed. The presented experimental results show the expected trends of range error to support the validity of our theoretical model and discussion which can be used in future improvement works.

  12. The special severity of occupational accidents in the afternoon: "the lunch effect".

    Camino López, Miguel A; Fontaneda, Ignacio; González Alcántara, Oscar J; Ritzel, Dale O


    The severity of occupational accidents suffered by construction workers at different hours of the day is analyzed in this study. It may be seen that the interval of time between 13:00 and 17:00 has incomprehensibly high rates of severe and fatal accidents in comparison with any other. We associate this higher accident rate with what we have termed the "lunch effect". We studied 10,239,303 labor accidents in Spain over the period 1990-2002. The relationships between potential risk factors for occupational accidents around lunch in Spain, especially alcohol consumption are studied, using two methods: analysis of national archival data of 2,155,954 occupational accidents suffered by workers in the construction sector over the period 1990-2002 and a survey study. This study also seeks to contribute the opinions of the workers themselves regarding the causes that might explain this situation.

  13. Differences in Characteristics of Aviation Accidents during 1993-2012 Based on Flight Purpose

    Evans, Joni K.


    Usually aviation accidents are categorized and analyzed within flight conduct rules (Part 121, Part 135, Part 91) because differences in accident rates within flight rules have been demonstrated. Even within a particular flight rule the flights have different purposes. For many, Part 121 flights are synonymous with scheduled passenger transport, and indeed this is the largest group of Part 121 accidents. But there are also non-scheduled (charter) passenger transport and cargo flights. The primary purpose of the analysis reported here is to examine the differences in aviation accidents based on the purpose of the flight. Some of the factors examined are the accident severity, aircraft characteristics and accident occurrence categories. Twenty consecutive years of data were available and utilized to complete this analysis.

  14. Prediction of hydrogen concentration in containment during severe accidents using fuzzy neural network

    Kim, Dong Yeong; Kim, Ju Hyun; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Na, Man Gyun [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Recently, severe accidents in nuclear power plants (NPPs) have become a global concern. The aim of this paper is to predict the hydrogen buildup within containment resulting from severe accidents. The prediction was based on NPPs of an optimized power reactor 1,000. The increase in the hydrogen concentration in severe accidents is one of the major factors that threaten the integrity of the containment. A method using a fuzzy neural network (FNN) was applied to predict the hydrogen concentration in the containment. The FNN model was developed and verified based on simulation data acquired by simulating MAAP4 code for optimized power reactor 1,000. The FNN model is expected to assist operators to prevent a hydrogen explosion in severe accident situations and manage the accident properly because they are able to predict the changes in the trend of hydrogen concentration at the beginning of real accidents by using the developed FNN model.

  15. Trends in gender differences in accidents mortality: Relationships to changing gender roles and other societal trends

    Inga Earle


    Full Text Available This study tests five hypotheses concerning trends in gender differences in accidents mortality and accident-related behavior, using data for the US, UK, France, Italy, and Japan, 1950-98. As predicted by the Convergence Hypothesis, gender differences have decreased for amount of driving, motor vehicle accidents mortality, and occupational accidents mortality. However, for many types of accidents mortality, gender differences were stable or increased; these trends often resulted from the differential impact on male and female mortality of general societal trends such as increased illicit drug use or improved health care. Similarly, trends in gender differences in accident-related behavior have shown substantial variation and appear to have been influenced by multiple factors, including gender differences in rates of adoption of different types of innovations.

  16. The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.

    Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K


    This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines.

  17. 新形势下食品安全事故流行病学调查处置影响因素分析%Influencing Factors Analysis of Epidemiological Investigation of Food Safety Incidents Disposal Under the New Situation



    根据当前甘肃省食品安全管理现状,结合近年来食品安全事故调查处置实践,分析新形势下食品安全事故流行病学调查处置的影响因素,提出针对性的解决措施和建议.%According to the current food safety management situation of Gansu province, combined with the investigation of food safety accident disposal practice in recent years, influencing factors of the epidemiological investigation of food safety incidents disposal under the new situation were analyzed, and some measures and suggestions were put forward.

  18. Obstructive sleep apnoea, motor vehicle accidents, and work performance.

    Sanna, Antonio


    The obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows a very high prevalence in the middle-age work force population and, between all diseases and medical conditions, is the major risk factor for motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). OSA can be diagnosed and treated, with resultant reduction in MVAs to those seen in the healthy population. It is increasing evidence that it is a major risk factor for occupational accidents also in fields different from the professional transport and for work disability. It is likely that the treatment of OSA results in the reduction of occupational accidents and work performance improvement with expected benefits in work processes and business in general. It is therefore advisable to develop strategies for screening and treatment of OSA in workers. The risk assessment of OSA in workers may also help to reduce the burden on national health care systems.

  19. Investigating the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief).

    Toll, Benjamin A; Katulak, Nicole A; McKee, Sherry A


    This study was designed to investigate the proposed two-factor structure of the 10-item Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief) and to provide evidence for the psychometric properties of this questionnaire using the seven-point scoring set from the original QSU study [Tiffany, S.T., Drobes, D.J. (1991). The development and initial validation of a questionnaire on smoking urges. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 1467-1476.]. The study sample (N=576) was comprised of smokers presenting for treatment. Although an initial exploratory factor analysis appeared to replicate the original factor analytic findings of Cox et al. [Cox, L.S., Tiffany, S.T., Christen, A.G. (2001). Evaluation of the brief questionnaire of smoking urges (QSU-Brief) in laboratory and clinical settings. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 3, 7-16.], when subjected to confirmatory factor analyses, a five-item, two-factor model using the most robust items from the original QSU-Brief factor analysis was the best explanation of the data in the present study. Good internal consistency reliability estimates were also obtained with this model. These results suggest that this shortened form of the QSU-Brief can be used with the original seven-point scoring set as a reliable assessment of the dual nature of smoking urges in a treatment-seeking population.

  20. Analysis on influence factors of electrostatic accidents in oil industry based on fishbone diagram and AHP%基于鱼骨图和层次分析法的石油静电事故影响因素分析∗

    胡玉琴; 王殿生; 赵洪磊; 刘金玉


    According to the characteristics of complexity, diversity and uncertainty about the influence factors of e-lectrostatic accidents in oil industry, the influencing factors leading to electrostatic accident in oil industry were i-dentified by adopting fishbone diagram method, and an assessment index system of oil electrostatic accidents was determined, which included 6 main factors and 25 sub factors. The AHP method was used to obtain the significance level of each factor, and the key factors leading to the accident were analyzed. The results showed that in the 6 main factors, the sum of weights of 3 main factors being attached to production operation process and work safety management, including the operation mistake, human static electricity and ground fault, is up to 0. 792, and they are the dominant factors leading to oil electrostatic accidents. The prevention emphasis of sub factors should be placed on splashing oil loading and unloading, friction between chemical fiber and human body, and grounding line damage. The combined application of fishbone diagram and AHP solves the difficult problem of influence factor analysis on e-lectrostatic accidents in oil industry reasonably, and it has a certain value of popularization and application.%针对石油静电事故影响因素的复杂性、多层次性和不确定性的特点,采用鱼骨图分析法,找出了引发石油静电事故的影响因素,确定出6个主因素、25个子因素的石油静电事故评价指标体系。应用层次分析法确定了各个影响因素的重要程度,分析出导致石油静电事故的重要因素。结果表明,6个主因素中,隶属于生产操作工艺和安全生产管理的操作错误、人体静电和接地故障3个主因素权重之和高达0.792,是引发石油静电事故的主导因素;子因素中预防的重点应放在喷溅式装卸油、化纤品与人体摩擦和接地线损坏方面。鱼骨图分析法和层次分析法的联合应

  1. Analysis on the nitrogen drilling accident of Well Qionglai 1 (II: Restoration of the accident process and lessons learned

    Yingfeng Meng


    Full Text Available All the important events of the accident of nitrogen drilling of Well Qionglai 1 have been speculated and analyzed in the paper I. In this paper II, based on the investigating information, the well log data and some calculating and simulating results, according to the analysis method of the fault tree of safe engineering, the every possible compositions, their possibilities and time schedule of the events of the accident of Well Qionglai 1 have been analyzed, the implications of the logging data have been revealed, the process of the accident of Well Qionglai 1 has been restored. Some important understandings have been obtained: the objective causes of the accident is the rock burst and the induced events form rock burst, the subjective cause of the accident is that the blooie pipe could not bear the flow burden of the clasts from rock burst and was blocked by the clasts. The blocking of blooie pipe caused high pressure in wellhead, the high pressure made the blooie pipe burst, natural gas came out and flared fire. This paper also thinks that the rock burst in gas drilling in fractured tight sandstone gas zone is objective and not avoidable, but the accidents induced from rock burst can be avoidable by improving the performance of the blooie pipe, wellhead assemblies and drilling tool accessories aiming at the downhole rock burst.

  2. Descriptive and analytical epidemiology of accidents in five categories of sport aviation aircraft

    van Doorn, R.R.A.; de Voogt, A.J.


    The present study reports and compares causes of, and factors contributing to, 2,118 documented accidents of sport aviation represented by diverse aircraft types including balloons and blimps, gliders, gyroplanes, and ultralights. For the 26-year period, accidents were aircraft-specific regarding da

  3. Investigating the Effective Factors on Entering into International Markets by Presenting the Local Islamic Model

    Sayyed Mohammad Ali Alamolhodaei


    Full Text Available The internationalization of small and medium size businesses is regarded as one of the most leading general policies in many of the world’s countries. The reason is that it is often the small and medium size companies which have a vital role in industrial innovation and gain profit for their societies through economic development. This research has investigated and identified the effective factors (organizational factors and business etiquette in Islam on entering into international markets by presenting local Islamic model in the companies of incubator of Science and Technology Park. The statistical population of the research includes the existing companies of Incubator of Mashhad Science and Technology Park. The statistical sample was investigated through simple random sampling from managers of active companies in export in Science and Technology Park. AMOS and SPSS software were applied for data analysis to identify the effects among variables survey research methodology and questionnaire tools were used.

  4. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on work stress: Evidence from banking industry

    Alireza Davoudzadeh Moghaddam


    Full Text Available An individual with a career faced with various career challenges may experience work-related stress. Work related stress is a factor that threatens employees’ health. The most common negative consequences of stress are particularly the deterioration of performance and efficiency, decrease in productivity and quality of customer’s services, which results in health problems. Work-related stress is a global issue, and banks are no exception. This paper presents a survey to investigate the influencing factors on work stress in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 200 randomly selected bank department managers in city of Tehran, Iran. Using principle component analysis, the study has detected five factors including organizational characteristics, external environment, work content, personal characteristics and top management.

  5. Survey the relationship between mental health statuses with safety behavior, occupational accident and demographic variables among workers: A case study in publication industry

    Mohammad Khandan,


    Full Text Available Background & objective: Physical and mental health of workers is one of the important factors affecting their job performance. The number of fatal occupational accidents in our country is high. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between mental health and safety behaviors, occupational accidents and demographic variables in a publishing industry in one of the central provinces of Iran, 2014. Methods: In this cross-sectional study all operational employees (98 persons were included. Researchers developed a demographics questionnaire, Goldberg general health-28, safety behavior checklist and self-reported accidents were tools to gather the required data. Statistical analysis such as independent T-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation were used for data evaluation by SPSS V20. Results: All workers were men and Mean of age was 41.79 also its standard deviation was 6.77. Studied personnel have been experienced occupational accident in a range of 0-5 cases. As well as, 80.75% of total observed behaviors (800 were safe. The mean score of GHQ test equals to 50.38±10.39 that was over the cut point (23. There was no significant relationship between mental health with safety behaviors (p>0.05. Also, significant level of its correlation with occupational accident was calculated as 0.08. Conclusion: Workers mental health status was unacceptable. Although, work condition based on the occupational accident and safety behavior has not showed caution situation, but the ABC model (Activators-Behaviors-Consequences can help to promote personnel behaviors and control accidents.

  6. An Investigation of Social Factors Affecting on Personnel Job Satisfaction of Remedial Service Insurance Department

    Sayyed Yaser Ebrahimian Jolodar


    Because of the paramount importance of job satisfaction and due to its main consequences such as reduction of work absence and resignation, personnel promotion and society‟s health, and more importantly, its role in achievement of organization goals, this study aimed at investigating the effects of six social factors including personnel‟s belief, salary and benefits, participation in organizational decision-making, sense of job security, interaction with colleagues and meeting the basic needs...

  7. The inhibiting factors that principal investigators experience in leading publicly funded research projects

    Cunningham, James; O'Reilly, Paul; O'Kane, Conor; Mangematin, Vincent


    International audience; Securing public funding to conduct research and leading it by being a principal investigator (PI) is seen as significant career development step. Such a role brings professional prestige but also new responsibilities beyond research leadership to research management. If public funding brings financial and infrastructure support, little is understood about the inhibiting factors that publicly funded PIs face given the research autonomy offered by publicly funded researc...

  8. Managing the academic talent void: Investigating factors in academic turnover and retention in South Africa

    Marguerite Theron


    Full Text Available Orientation: Globally, the demand for academic staff in higher education is expected to continue to increase. The South African situation is exacerbated by the so-called ‘retirement swell’ and turnover and retention problems; measurements to diagnose these factors remain limited.Research purpose: This study aimed to investigate the factors that influence turnover and retention of academic and to validate the developed talent retention diagnostic tool for use in South African higher education institutions.Motivation for the study: Limited research currently exists on the retention factors of academic staff in the South African context.Research approach, design and method: Using an investigative quantitative research approach, the tool was administered to a convenience sample of academics (n = 153 in 13 higher education institutions.Main findings: The results showed an array of distinguishing turnover and retention factors and proved the tool to be a valid and reliable measure. Over half the respondents indicated slight to strong dissatisfaction with compensation and performance management practices. Significantly, 34% indicated that they considered exiting their academic institution, citing unhappiness about compensation, as the most likely reason, whilst 74.5% have previously looked for another job.Practical/managerial implications: The research highlights key areas (i.e. compensation, emotional recognition, a bonus structure that reflects employee contribution, performance management systems, mentorship and career development opportunities that higher education should attend to if they want to retain their key and talented academic staff.Contribution/value-add: The results contribute to new knowledge on the factors that contribute to turnover and retention of academic staff and present a valid and reliable measure to assess these retention factors.

  9. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Sims, C S


    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry.

  10. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    McSweeney, T.I.; Maheras, S.J.; Ross, S.B. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (United States)


    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites.

  11. Noise as an explanatory factor in work-related fatality reports

    Pierre Deshaies


    The study used multiple case qualitative content analysis. This descriptive study was based on the content analysis of the 788 reports from the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec [Workers′ Compensation Board (WCB] investigating the fatal work-related accidents between 1990 and 2005. The study was descriptive (number and percentages. Noise was explicitly stated as one of the explanatory factors for the fatal outcome in 2.2% (17/788 of the fatal accidents, particularly when the work involved vehicular movement or the need to communicate between workers. Noise was not typically considered a unique cause in the accident, notably because the investigators considered that the accident would have probably occurred due to other risk factors (for example, disregard of safety rules, shortcomings in work methods, and inadequate training. Noise is an important risk factor when communication is involved in work. Since noise is ubiquitous and may also interfere with vigilance and other risk factors for accidents, it may be a much more important contributing factor to accidents than is currently recognized.

  12. A Study to Assess the Factors and Out of Pocket Expenditures in the Patients of Road Traffic Accidents Admitted in a Tertiary Care Hospital in a Central India District

    Srivastava DK


    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic injuries are estimated to be the eighth leading cause of death globally, with an impact similar to that caused by many communicable diseases, such as malaria. road traffic injuries are estimated to cost low- and middle-income countries between 1–2 % of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP, an estimate of about US$ 100 billion a year. Objectives: To study the epidemiological profile of Road Traffic Injuries among the patients admitted in a tertiary care centre and too find out the various out of pocket expenditure in the patients of Road Traffic Accidents. Material and Method: The present study was a hospital based Descriptive Prospective Study. A list of all the patients admitted due to Road Traffic Accident in last one week was obtained from the ward sisters of Orthopedic Department. All the selected participants were interviewed on the two fixed days. A pre tested structured open ended questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Of the 48 participants interviewed, 34male and 14 females. Most common age group affected was 21-25 years followed by 16-20 years. The rate of accidents was most common on the weekends. The rate of accidents was more in users of two wheelers. Majority of the expenditure in the First week of admission was on the purchase of medicines followed by diagnosis. Majority of the victims also suffered huge financial loss due to loss of salary, closure of shop, loss due to daily wages etc. Conclusion: The present study hereby concludes that there is an urgent need for creating awareness about Road Traffic Accident. The study also concludes that majority of the out of pocket expenditure in the first week of admission is on the medication.

  13. Exploring the potential of data mining techniques for the analysis of accident patterns

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Galtzur, Ayelet


    Research in road safety faces major challenges: individuation of the most significant determinants of traffic accidents, recognition of the most recurrent accident patterns, and allocation of resources necessary to address the most relevant issues. This paper intends to comprehend which data mining...... and association rules) data mining techniques are implemented for the analysis of traffic accidents occurred in Israel between 2001 and 2004. Results show that descriptive techniques are useful to classify the large amount of analyzed accidents, even though introduce problems with respect to the clear...... importance of input and intermediate neurons, and the relative importance of hundreds of association rules. Further research should investigate whether limiting the analysis to fatal accidents would simplify the task of data mining techniques in recognizing accident patterns without the “noise” probably...

  14. An empirical investigation on factors influencing customer selection of ADSL services

    Naser Azad


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical investigation on various factors affecting ADSL service selection in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed model of this paper uses a standard questionnaire and distributes it among randomly selected customers who have some experiences on internet based ADSL products. The study implements factor analysis as well as weighted regression technique to perform the study. There are eight hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper, which indicates the effects of product marketing, place and time of marketing mix, process-marketing mix, productivity and quality of marketing mix, people, promotion and education and physical evidence on customer choice. The results of factor analysis have confirmed the impacts of the first four factors but the effects of the other factor were not confirmed. In other words, the results of the survey have indicated that product marketing, place and time of marketing mix, process-marketing mix and productivity and quality of marketing mix influence customer choice. However, the other four components including people, promotion, price and physical evidence do not play essential role on customer choice.

  15. Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe

    Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp


    agreement with Chernobyl experiences. However, emergency planning presently is still often focussing on too small areas. In reality, almost all of Europe should be prepared for nuclear disaster. The project investigated also the effect of a simple phase-out scenario. A regional phase-out policy is effective for reducing or even eliminating high damage in the respective regions. It should also be mentioned that risk distribution depends strongly on accident frequency, but this parameter is highly uncertain. The work in flexRISK was funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund (KLI.EN).

  16. Drunk driving accidents related risk factors are analyzed of sanmenxia city from 2012 to 2013 in 639 cases%三门峡市2012-2013年酒后驾车交通事故639例危险因素分析

    李向阳; 梁丽娜; 范洪庚; 王秀娟


    目的:通过对三门峡市酒后驾车交通事故的相关危险因素分析,以期为酒后驾驶预防和控制提供科学依据。方法:对酒后驾车交通事故驾驶员639例性别、年龄、肇事时间、驾驶车辆类型、事故形态及血液酒精含量等作统计分析。结果:酒后驾车639例交通事故中男性627例(98.12%);20~49岁508例(79.50%)。肇事时间18:00~0:00段占304例(47.57%)。酒后驾驶摩托车314例(49.14%),酒后驾驶小型汽车243例(38.03%)。结论:酒后驾车以中青年男性为主,多集中在晚餐后,摩托车及小型汽车驾驶员是酒后驾驶的主要行为人群,应加强对酒后驾车的预防和控制。%Objective: Drunk driving accidents related risk factors are analyzed of sanmenxia city, in order to pro-vide scientific basis for the prevention and control of drunk driving. Methods:In the Excel table of 639 cases of drunk driving accidents the driver’s gender, age, driving accident time, vehicle type, such as accident form and blood alcohol content for statistical analysis. Results:Male 627 in 639 cases of drunk driving traffic accident cases, accounted for 98.12%;20 to 49 years old in 508 cases, accounting for 79.50%. Accident time 18:00~0:00 segment accounts for 304 cas-es, accounting for 47.57%. Drunk driving motorcycle 314 cases, accounting for 49.14%, 243 cases of drunk driving small cars accounted for 38.03%. Conclusion:Drunk driving is given priority to with young and middle-aged men, more concen-trated in the after dinner, motorcycles and small car driver is drunk driving the main behavior of the crowd, should strengthen the prevention and control of drunken driving.

  17. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

    Hadjisavvas Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigation on risk factors of breast cancer among the Cypriot female population. Methods We carried out a case-control study, involving 1,109 breast cancer patients and a group of 1,177 controls who were recruited while participating in the National screening programme for breast cancer. Information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected from both groups during a standardized interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association between each risk factor and breast cancer risk, before and after adjusting for the possible confounding effect of other factors. Results In multivariable models, family history of breast cancer (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23, 2.19 was the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk in the Cypriot population. Late menarche (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.92 among women reaching menarche after the age of 15 vs. before the age of 12 and breastfeeding (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59, 0.92 exhibited a strong protective effect. In the case of breastfeeding, the observed effect appeared stronger than the effect of pregnancy alone. Surprisingly, we also observed an inverse association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT although this may be a product of the retrospective nature of this study. Conclusion Overall the findings of our study corroborate with the results of previous investigations on descriptive epidemiology of risk factors for breast cancer. This investigation provides important background

  18. [Commuting accidents: the influence of excessive daytime sleepiness. A review of an Italian Police officers population].

    Garbarino, S; Repice, A M; Traversa, F; Spigno, F; Mascialino, B; Mantineo, G; Ferrillo, F; Bonsignore, A D


    Commuting accidents (CA) play an important role in many systems of workers' compensation insurance and with good reason, as they generally bring about more serious consequences in terms of permanent disablement and death than ordinary occupational accidents; this usually leads to high social costs. Nevertheless, research investigations aimed at studying the possible causes underlying the phenomenon are not available in medical literature. Objective of the present study is to evaluate whether excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) might influence the occurrence of CA. 463 CA occurred to 411 police officers in northern Italy during the period 1999 - 2002 were collected; 51.9% of the subjects were working on shifts, 48.1% were non-shift workers. The study was carried out by submitting a self-administered questionnaire to gather information on age and physical characteristics, working conditions, sleep-related problems and accidents occurrence; EDS was measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A large number of workers (36%) complained of EDS; a strict significant relationship between shift - work condition and the presence of EDS was found, thus suggesting that CA are significantly influenced by EDS. The shift work schedule adopted by Italian Police might be accountable for the disruption of the balance between circadian and homeostatic factors.

  19. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)


    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  20. Fukushima accident study using MELCOR

    Randall O Gauntt


    The accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station stunned the world as the sequences played out over severals days and videos of hydrogen explosions were televised as they took place.The accidents all resulted in severe damage to the reactor cores and releases of radioactivity to the environment despite heroic measures had taken by the operating personnel.The following paper provides some background into the development of these accidents and their root causes,chief among them,the prolonged station blackout conditions that isolated the reactors from their ultimate heat sink — the ocean.The interpretations given in this paper are summarized from a recently completed report funded by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE).

  1. Road characteristics and bicycle accidents.

    Nyberg, P; Björnstig, U; Bygren, L O


    In Umeå, Sweden, defects in the physical road surface contributed to nearly half of the single bicycle accidents. The total social cost of these injuries to people amount to at least SEK 20 million (SEK 60,000 or about USD 8,500 per accident), which corresponds to the estimated loss of "eight life equivalents a year". Improved winter maintenance seems to have the greatest injury prevention potential and would probably reduce the number of injuries considerably, whereas improved road quality and modification of kerbs would reduce the most severe injuries. A local traffic safety program should try to prevent road accidents instead of handling the consequences of them. In accordance with Parliament decisions on traffic we would like to see increased investment in measures favoring bicycle traffic, where cycling is seen as a solution, not as a problem.

  2. Bathtub immersion accidents involving children.

    Pearn, J; Nixon, J


    A review of 19 consecutive serious bathtub immersion accidents (11 survivals, 8 fatalities) is presented. In all instances, consciousness was lost in the water. Unlike other childhood accidents which usually show a male predominance, the sexes are equally affected. The modal age is 11 months. Six separate causes of bath drownings and near-drownings have been identified, and in 14 of the 19 accidents, two or more causes were operating concurrently. Median estimated immersion time for survivals was four minutes, and five minutes for fatalities. The median depth of water was eight inches. An 'at risk' profile for home bathtub drownings is presented; this includes the youngest or second youngest child of a large family, a family of grade 4 to 7 sociooccupational status (congalton) and a family in which routine is temporarily broken.

  3. Internal Accident Report on EDH

    SC Department


    The A2 Safety Code requires that, the Internal Accident Report form must be filled in by the person concerned or any witness to ensure that all the relevant services are informed. Please note that an electronic version of this form has been elaborated in collaboration with SC-IE, HR-OPS-OP and IT-AIS. Whenever possible, the electronic form shall be used. The relative icon is available on the EDH Desktop, Other tasks page, under the Safety heading, or directly here: If you have any questions, please contact the SC Secretariat, tel. 75097 Please notice that the Internal Accident Report is an integral part of the Safety Code A2 and does not replace the HS50.

  4. Preliminary Investigation Of Emirati Women Entrepreneurship In The UAE Motivating Factors Challenges And Government Initiatives

    Mohammad Rehan Shahnawaz


    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this research is to conduct an in depth preliminary investigation of the Emirati Women Entrepreneurship in the UAE in terms of the factors motivating the Emirati women to engage in the entrepreneurial activities challenges and issues faced by them in that process and initiatives taken by the government of UAE in overcoming those challenges and in encouraging promoting and safeguarding their interests. Methodology This research is an exploratory one due to the fact that the topic of the research strongly requires an in depth analysis or investigation of the underlying motivating factors challenges and issues and the government initiatives taken on behalf of Emirati women entrepreneurs. The research has used qualitative content analysis technique in which the existing literature secondary data on women and Emirati women entrepreneurship was gathered and discussed to serve the purpose of the research such as from other published researches internet searches and books. DiscussionsFindings The research explored an array of factors motivating the Emirati women towards entrepreneurship and the challenges and issues they come across in that process. The motivating factors were divided into positive and negative factors with main emphasis on the positive factors. Among the positive motivating factors were the Emiratization change in the organizational culture and beliefs relaxation of social and cultural structures inde-pendence and self-improvement and development. The negative motivating factors were the necessity unacceptable working conditions inflexible work hours wage gap between males and females and job frustrations. The major challenges and issues they usually come across are traditions cultural religious and social restrictions lack of managerial experience and basic business knowledge low self-confidence and determination male prejudice stereotyping and preconception minimal networking gender based promotional

  5. Analysis of FY79 Army Aircraft Accidents.


    materiel failure/ malfunction 1. A accident. taskerrr (E) s Jb prforanc whch evited The acronym for the 3W approach to the Investigation, fro tht rquied y... lulli , It t , 1AZ" l iil~ i ..-... lI :.].,;.’,, - ,- S !5U" i_ ’ , o ’o , "% ", . #.,""" ".’ - "-’.’’’’-. "" " "’ ."- " " " II I S.7 44’ * U 11 Imem <I

  6. Simulation study of traffic accidents on a three-lane highway

    Chang, Jau-Yang; Lai, Wun-Cing


    Unsuitable driving behaviors often lead to the occurrence of traffic accidents. To reduce accidents and to prolong human life, simulated investigations are highly desirable to evaluate the effect of traffic safety in terms of number of traffic accidents. In this paper, a three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to analyze the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents on highway. We define appropriate driving rules for the forward moving and lane changing of the vehicles. Three types of vehicle accidents are designed to investigate the relationships between different driving behaviors and traffic accidents. We simulate four road driving strategies, and compute the traffic flow, velocity, lane-changing frequency and the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents for different road driving strategies. According to the simulation and analysis, it is shown that the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents can be reduced by using the specified road driving strategies. Additionally, we found that the occurrence of traffic accidents can be avoided when the slow vehicles are suitably constrained to move on a three-lane highway.




    Full Text Available India experienced very rapid population growth from 48 million to 1.2 billion in a span of decades. In India rapid urbanization, industrialization, population explosion and migration of people in past two decades r esults in enormous growth in the field of road transportation. This resulted in increasing amount of the road traffic leading to increased risk for occurrence of road traffic accidents. In India road traffic injuries will be third leading cause of death by 2020 with the increase in the use of two wheelers and congestion and environmental pollution this mortality rate will continue to rise. Considering the preciousness of human lives, this study has been undertaken to analyse the pattern of injuries in Road Traffic Accidents Involving Two Wheelers to create awareness among the law enforcing authorities, transport authorities and public regarding two wheeler fatalities. A sincere attempt has been made in this study to analyse the distribution of the pattern of injuries sustained by two wheeler travellers, so that appropriate interventional strategies can be evolved at various levels and by different agencies. 147 Two wheeler Accident victims were randomly selected from 1063 road traffic accident cases brought t o the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Madras Medical College Chennai - 3 for routine medico legal examination. Preliminary data were collected from the medico legal documents such as history of the case, Inquest form, First Information Report, Accident Regis ter, Death Report, Clinical data submitted by the investigating officer at the time of medico legal examination. During autopsy, on external exami nation, nature of injury, size, number were measured in all cases. Internal organ injuries were recorded. Caus e of death was arrived at based on the findings made out during autopsy. Totally 147 motorcyclist victims were included in this study in which demographic factors such as age, sex, time of accident, manner of collision

  8. The Importance of Safety in Construction Sector: Costs of Occupational Accidents in Construction Sites

    Fatih Yılmaz


    Full Text Available Occupational accidents cause important social and economic problems by loss of life and physical injuries. Construction sector involves high risk due to its production processes and labor intensive characteristic and because of occupational accidents the sector brings up against financial loss in large scale. In developing countries, construction sector is one of the most important sectors that have a great contribution to economic development with its employment capacity and added-value to the economy. On the other hand, due to the lack of preventive measures, occupational accidents occur, frequently in construction in Turkey. Major occupational accidents are defined as the cause of serious injuries and a long-term disability; minor occupational accidents are defined as the cause of insignificant injuries and short-term disability. Minor occupational accidents are not considered sufficiently, they are even not kept as a record. It is known that minor occupational accidents, which are not considered sufficiently and even not registered, cause great financial loss in workplaces. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cost of workforce loss caused by the accidents in construction sites by using the statistics of three construction sites in Turkey and to compare the financial losses of minor and major occupational accidents. In this study, three construction project are investigated in Turkey in 2009 and it is obtained that the cost of workday loss caused by major occupational accidents is 19431.75 $ and minor occupational accidents cause a loss of 6924.25 $. The cost of workday loss caused by minor occupational accidents are almost 35 % of major workday losses’. These costs presents the importance of preventive measures for workers’ health and safety in construction.

  9. Road Accident Analysis: A Case Study of Federal Route FT024 Yong Peng- Parit Sulong

    Mohd Masirin Mohd Idrus


    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are considered as an unplanned and unfortunate event which is a serious concern to the community as well as the authority. An accident-counter measure can reduce the rate of road accidents by initially identifying critical locations. The total of road accidents along FT 024 between 2009 and 2012 is 907 cases. Road accidents during the same period range between 24 % and 26 % each year. These accidents killed 34 people and injuring another 101 people. This research aims to identify factors that may contribute to the cause of accidents and to study the effects of speed, volume and road geometry on road accidents. In this study, the locations labelled as km 1, km 2, km 4, km 8, km 5 and km 14 of Federal Route FT 024 Yong Peng – Parit Sulong were selected as the study-case sections based on Accident Point Weightage of ranking, in which each location has different road characteristics. Speed study was carried out at selected road sections to evaluate the influence of speed upon road accidents; and traffic volume count was conducted at the same selected road sections to determine the existing condition of the route. Besides, road geometry observations and measurements were also conducted at selected sections, they were also studied to evaluate influence of road designs upon road accidents. The extracted data were analyzed by using regression analysis on different variables to evaluate the relationship between accident Weightage point and other dependent variables that were considered to have considerable effects upon road accidents such as mean speed, volume, shoulder width, lane width and access point. P value below 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. After conducting data analysis, this study showed that the number of road accidents increases with the increment of speed and access point. On the other hand, volume has no strong relationship to road accidents which means that it may not have an effect on accidents

  10. Environmental Aftermath of the Radiation Accident at Tomsk-7

    Porfiriev, Boris N.; Porfiriev, Boris N.


    An analysis is presented of the environmental effects of the most serious radiation accident recorded after Chernobyl, which occurred in the formerly secret town of Tomsk-7 in Siberia, Russia, on 6, April 1993. Fortunately, it appears not to have become a major industrial crisis or disaster. The causes of the accident are described. It is argued that a mixture of both objective and subjective prerequisites, including specific human, organizational, and technological factors, were responsible for the explosion or directly facilitated it. The Tomsk-7 accident’s ecological, medical, social, and psychological consequences are discussed.

  11. Investigation of Ductility Reduction Factor in Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Reinforced Concrete School Buildings

    O. Gorgulu


    Full Text Available Converting existing Reinforced Concrete (RC frames into RC infill walls is one of the most efficient seismic strengthening technique due to its simplicity in application providing high rigidity, stability and strength in structures. On the other hand, this method affects the seismic behavior of existing RC structure in terms of the energy dissipation capacity or in other words, ductility reduction factor, Rμ. This research is an attempt to investigate the RC infill wall ratio effect on ductility reduction factor in terms of the seismic rehabilitation of the typical RC school buildings. For this purpose, nonlinear static pushover analyses are conducted for existing 3 and 5 story RC school buildings which were rehabilitated with different RC infill wall ratio. Numerical analyses are carried out by using the fiber element based modeling approach in the software, Perform-3D. Based on these analytical results, correlation between the ductility reduction factor and the RC infill wall ratio is obtained for the seismic rehabilitation of the RC school buildings. In addition, two mathematical expressions for the variation of the ductility reduction factor with RC infill wall ratios are proposed in terms of the preliminary seismic rehabilitation assessment of the existing RC school buildings.


    Mishalov, V G; Zavodovskiy, E S; Markulan, L Yu; Goyda, S M


    The risk factors of the dialysis peritonitis occurrence were determined in patients with chronic renal disease, to whom a substitute renal therapy, using peritoneal dialysis, was conducted. The results of a three-year prospective investigation and treatment of 73 patients in Kyiv City Oleksandrivska Clinical Hospital on the base of the general surgery and nephrology departments in 2007 - 2010 yrs were studied. The dialysis peritonitis (first episode) have occurred in 42 (57.5%) patients. Cumulative rate of a dialysis peritonitis in accordance to a censored data (the dialysis peritonitis suspension or other causes) have constituted 67.7%. Due to the dialysis peritonitis occurrence the peritoneal dialysis was stopped in 14 (19.2%) patients. The obesity, raising of a serum albumin level, constipation, preliminary injection into the site of the catheter exit site we consider a risk factors for the dialysis peritonitis occurrence.

  13. Investigation of stress intensity factor for internal cracks in FG cylinders under static and dynamic loading

    Mahmoud Shariati


    Full Text Available his paper investigates the variations of mode I stress intensity factor (KI for inner penny-shaped and circumferential cracks in functionally graded solid and hollow thick walled cylinders, respectively with the changes of crack geometry, material gradation and loading conditions. The functionally graded material of cylinders consists of epoxy and glass. It is assumed that the mechanical properties vary with a power law in the radial direction of cylinders. Micromechanical models for conventional composites are used to estimate the material properties of functionally graded cylinders. The equations of motion obtained from the extended finite element discretization are solved by the Newmark method in the time domain. The interaction integral method is employed to calculate the mode I stress intensity factor (KI. The MATLAB programming environment was implemented to solve the problem.


    Tijian Wang; Shu Li; Fei Jiang; Lijie Gao


    Factors affecting tropospheric nitrate aerosol formation were investigated through a number of sensitivity studies using the thermodynamic equilibrium model ISORROPIA and the condensed gas-phase chemistry model. Resuits indicate that the equilibrium concentration of nitrate aerosol varies with solar zenith angle, air temperature, relative humidity, initial SO2 concentration, initial NO2 concentration and initial NH3 concentration. NH3 concentration and solar zenith angle play the most important roles, followed by relative humidity and NO2 concentration. It seems that the relations between nitrate aerosol and these four factors, as well as air temperature, are strong and highly nonlinear due to the coupling effect. The influence of SO2 concentration on nitrate aerosol is near-linear and weak.

  15. An Investigation of Social Factors Affecting on Personnel Job Satisfaction of Remedial Service Insurance Department

    Sayyed Yaser Ebrahimian Jolodar


    Full Text Available Because of the paramount importance of job satisfaction and due to its main consequences such as reduction of work absence and resignation, personnel promotion and society‟s health, and more importantly, its role in achievement of organization goals, this study aimed at investigating the effects of six social factors including personnel‟s belief, salary and benefits, participation in organizational decision-making, sense of job security, interaction with colleagues and meeting the basic needs of personnel on job satisfaction. The statistical population of this study was the personnel of Remedial Service Insurance Department in Sari and the questionnaire was distributed among them. The results showed that there is a significant and positive correlation among all these factors and they have meaningful effects on personnel job satisfaction based on multiple regression analysis. Furthermore, findings revealed that personnel‟s belief about their job has the most effects on job satisfaction.

  16. An Investigation of Factors Influencing Nurses' Clinical Decision-Making Skills.

    Wu, Min; Yang, Jinqiu; Liu, Lingying; Ye, Benlan


    This study aims to investigate the influencing factors on nurses' clinical decision-making (CDM) skills. A cross-sectional nonexperimental research design was conducted in the medical, surgical, and emergency departments of two university hospitals, between May and June 2014. We used a quantile regression method to identify the influencing factors across different quantiles of the CDM skills distribution and compared the results with the corresponding ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. Our findings revealed that nurses were best at the skills of managing oneself. Educational level, experience, and the total structural empowerment had significant positive impacts on nurses' CDM skills, while the nurse-patient relationship, patient care and interaction, formal empowerment, and information empowerment were negatively correlated with nurses' CDM skills. These variables explained no more than 30% of the variance in nurses' CDM skills and mainly explained the lower quantiles of nurses' CDM skills distribution.

  17. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Purchase of Comprehensive Car Insurance Policies of Vehicle Owners

    Hakan EYGÜ


    Full Text Available Comprehensive insurance is the coverage purchased by the individuals in exchange for the premiums paid for insuring their movable properties against the damages caused by either their or others’ faults. Comprehensive insurance is generally rooted in the automotive sector and its applications are generally designed for this sector. Vehicle owners buy their vehicles according to their tastes using a considerable part of their savings. Purchasing of a comprehensive car insurance policy means that the purchaser is transferring the costs borne by the risks to be occurred related to his or her vehicle to the insurance company. Thus, the vehicle is insured against any costs arise in case of any damage. This study were examined to investigate the comprehensive car insurance policy ownership ratio of vehicle owners, factors that may be affecting the ownership of such policies, opinions of policy owners on the insurance company providing the coverage and the factors affecting the decision of not purchasing comprehensive car insurance policies.

  18. The Consumer Quality Index in an accident and emergency department : Internal consistency, validity and discriminative capacity

    Bos, Nanne; Sturms, Leontien M.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P; van Stel, Henk F.


    Background: Patients' experiences are an indicator of health-care performance in the accident and emergency department (A&E). The Consumer Quality Index for the Accident and Emergency department (CQI A&E), a questionnaire to assess the quality of care as experienced by patients, was investigated. Th

  19. Best practices to reduce the accident rate hotel

    García Revilla, M. R.; Kahale Carrillo, D. T.


    Examining the available databases and existing tourism organizations can conclude that appear studies on accidents and their relationship with other variables. But in our case we want to assess this relationship in the performance of the hotel in relation to lower the accident rate. The Industrial Safety studies analyzing this accident causes (why they happen), their sources (committed activities), their agents (participants work means), its type (how the events occur or develop), all in order to develop prevention. In our case, as accidents happen because people commit wrongful acts or because the equipment, tools, machinery or workplaces are not in proper conditions, the preventive point of view we analyze through the incidence of workplace accidents hotel subsector. The crash occurs because there is a risk, so that adequate control of it would avoid despite individual factors. Absenteeism or absence from work was taken into account first by Dubois in 1977, as he realized the time lost in the nineteenth century due to the long working hours, which included the holidays. Motivation and job satisfaction were the elements that have been most important in the phenomenon of social psychology.

  20. [Paragliding accidents--a prospective analysis in Swiss mountain regions].

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P


    During the period from 1.1 to 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analysed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. Spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremities (35%) were diagnosed most frequently. Surprisingly no neurological complications occurred, which is possibly explained by the solitary axial trauma. In 15 cases very severe malleolar fractures required surgical intervention. One accident was fatal due to a lung rupture. 60% of all accidents happened during the landing phase, 26% at launching and 14% at flight. Half of the pilots were affected in their primary training course. Most accidents were due to an in-flight error of judgement, such as incorrect estimation of wind conditions and a choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to early reports of hang-gliding injuries, only one accident was due to an equipment failure, namely a ruptured steering line. In more than a third of all accidents, the used paraglider was not in correct correlation with the pilot's weight and experience. Inspired by the desire for a long flight, gliders of too large surface-areas were often used, leading to a more unstable flight. To reduce the frequency of paragliding injuries, an accurate choice of equipment and increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore education-programs should focus more on intensifying the pilot's mental and practical skills.

  1. 基于事故发展与控制的隐患分级方法%Risk Classification Method for Accident Potential Based on Development and Control Measures of Accident

    赵东风; 申玉琪; 赵志强; 张佑明; 孟亦飞


    For the purpose of making the management of accident potential more scientific, the relationship between accident potential and accident was discussed and studied. The fundamental property of accident potential was brought forward that it can make the accident happen or develop. The mechanism whereby accident potential functions in the accident was revealed clearly, by predicting the impelling and inhibiting factors in the accident process. The accident potential was classified into two types (the first type of accident potential and the second type of accident potential) according to the different time they work. In the risk assessment, the problem of specific accident potential grading was resolved. By introducing the assessment indexes of accident potential exposure frequency, possibility of other factors, corrective actions, the initial value of the consequences of the accident, the correction factor of personnel protection, the correction factor of personnel exposure, the correction factor of emergency measures, the correction factor of property loss, an assessment index system was established. By calculating the risk of accident potential-causing accident, the real risk of accident potential was assessed.%为使隐患管理工作更加科学,对隐患与事故的关系进行研讨,提出隐患的根本属性是能够促使事故发生或发展.通过预估促使和控制(阻碍)事故发展的因素,来揭示隐患在事故过程中的作用机制.根据发生作用的时间将隐患分为第1类隐患和第2类隐患.在风险评估过程中,解决了具体隐患风险分级的问题,提出隐患暴露频率、其他条件的可能性、隐患纠正系数、事故后果初始分值、人员防护修正系数、人员暴露修正系数、应急处理与事故控制修正系数和财产损失修正系数等评价指标.通过隐患致因事故风险的计算,评估隐患的最终风险.

  2. Analysis of traffic accidents in children

    Pavlekić Snežana


    Full Text Available Introduction: Violent health damages of different origin (accidents, murders, suicides in children and youth are one of the main causes of death and disabilities in this group of population in most countries. Objective: Objective of our paper was to analyze all related factors of traffic accidents involving children and to propose adequate measures of their prevention. Method: The analysis of fatal traffic accidents of children and youth aged to 18 years on the territory of Belgrade, within the period from 1998 to 2002. Results: In relation to other forms of violent death, the traffic mortality rate in children and youth holds the leading position, accounting for 56.9% with pedestrians as the most frequent category (57.4%. The most frequent age was between 7 and 9 years (46.8% and the boys were more frequently injured than the girls. It was established that the majority of children (51.9% was either running across the street outside the pedestrian/ zebra crossings or they were carelessly running out in the street, especially in April, July, August and September. More than a half of them (55.5%, predominantly school children, were injured by the end of working week, on Thursday and Friday. Conclusion: Results of our research have shown that the traffic education of children in our region is inadequate. Due to the abovementioned, it is primarily necessary to establish long-term and permanent education of this category of population. In addition, some public investments in the City infrastructure will be required in order to reduce the risk of traffic injuries in children.

  3. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Thakur Jagdeep


    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  4. Investigating the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief)

    Toll, Benjamin A.; Katulak, Nicole A.; McKee, Sherry A.


    This study was designed to investigate the proposed two-factor structure of the 10-item Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief) and to provide evidence for the psychometric properties of this questionnaire using the seven-point scoring set from the original QSU study [Tiffany, S.T., Drobes, D.J. (1991). The development and initial validation of a questionnaire on smoking urges. British Journal of Addiction 86, 1467–1476.]. The study sample (N =576) was comprised of smokers presenting...

  5. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    Zarubina, Nataliia E.; Zarubin, Oleg L. [Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciense, 03680, pr-t Nauki, 47, Kiev (Ukraine)


    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident ({sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba /{sup 140}La, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs). They accumulate the long-living {sup 90}Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than {sup 137}Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of {sup 137}Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more {sup 137}Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of {sup 137}Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination

  6. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    Oppe, S.


    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  7. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.


    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...

  8. New technology for accident prevention

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Work Accidents and Professional Diseases

    Doru Hauptmann


    Full Text Available The major accident is defined as “any event occurred, like an emission of dangerous materials or agents, which emerges from uncontrolled evolutions along the exploitation of any objective that leads to the immediate or delayed occurrence of serious dangers with impact over human health or over the environment, inside or outside the objective in which are involved one or more than one dangerous materials”.The dangerous phenomenon is a potential source of harms. In the ambit of industrial risks of accidental origins, this expression more frequently refers to physical phenomena like conflagrations, explosions, toxic gases dispersion, etc.Any accident scenario relates itself to the potential effects at the level of environmental “targets”. In the case of major accidents, we can distinguish the following categories of “targets”: human (employees of the objective, working or resident people in the nearby of the emplacement; the installation or equipments that may stay at the origin of the accidents (dangerous equipments; certain all-important equipments to ensure the safety level of the installation (critical security equipments: control rooms, civil fire brigade headquarters, etc; goods and structures situated in the installation’ environment (ground water, rivers, soil, flora, fauna.

  10. Effect of In-Vessel Retention Strategies under Postulated SGTR Accidents of OPR1000

    Choi, Wonjun; Lee, Yongjae; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwan-Yeol; Park, Rae-Joon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, MELCOR code was used to simulate the severe accident of the OPR1000. MELCOR code is computer code which enables to simulate the progression of the severe accident for light water reactors. It has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for plant risk assessment and source term analysis since 1982. According to the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) Level 1 of OPR1000, typical severe accident scenarios of high probability of a transition to severe accident for OPR1000 were identified as Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA), Station Black out (SBO), Total Loss of Feed Water (TLOFW), and Steam Generator Tube Rupture. While the first three accidents are expected to result in the generation and transportation of the radioactive nuclides within the containment building as consequence of the core damage and subsequent reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure, the latter accident scenario may be progressed with possible direct release of the radioactive nuclides to the environment by bypassing the containment building. Thus it is of significance to investigate the SGTR accident with a sophisticated severe accident code. This code can simulate the whole phenomena of a severe accident such as thermal-hydraulic response, core heat-up, oxidation and relocation, and fission product release and transport. Thus many researchers have used MELCOR in severe accident studies. In this study, in-vessel retention strategies were applied for postulated SGTR accidents. Mitigation effect and adverse effect of in-vessel strategies was studied in aspect of RPV failure, fission product release and containment thermal-hydraulic and hydrogen behavior. Base case of SGTR accident and three mitigation cases were simulated using MELCOR code 1.8.6. For each mitigation cases, mitigation effect and adverse effect were investigated. Conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) RPV failure of SGTR base case occurred at 5.62 hours and fission product of RCS released to

  11. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  12. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  13. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  14. Analysing truck position data to study roundabout accident risk

    Kamla, Jwan Jameel Shekh Mohammed


    In order to reduce accident risk, highway authorities prioritise maintenance budgets partly based upon previous accident history. However, as accident rates have continued to fall in most contexts, this approach has become problematic as accident ‘black spots’ have been treated and the number of accidents at any individual site has fallen. Another way of identifying sites of higher accident risk might be to identify near-miss accidents (where an accident nearly happened, but was avoided), whi...

  15. The willingness to pay of parties to traffic accidents for loss of productivity and consolation compensation.

    Jou, Rong-Chang; Chen, Tzu-Ying


    In this study, willingness to pay (WTP) for loss of productivity and consolation compensation by parties to traffic accidents is investigated using the Tobit model. In addition, WTP is compared to compensation determined by Taiwanese courts. The modelling results showed that variables such as education, average individual monthly income, traffic accident history, past experience of severe traffic accident injuries, the number of working days lost due to a traffic accident, past experience of accepting compensation for traffic accident-caused productivity loss and past experience of accepting consolation compensation caused by traffic accidents have a positive impact on WTP. In addition, average WTP for these two accident costs were obtained. We found that parties to traffic accidents were willing to pay more than 90% of the compensation determined by the court in the scenario of minor and moderate injuries. Parties were willing to pay approximately 80% of the compensation determined by the court for severe injuries, disability and fatality. Therefore, related agencies can use our study findings as the basis for determining the compensation that parties should pay for productivity losses caused by traffic accidents of different types.

  16. An analysis on the severe accident progression with operator recovery actions

    Vo, T.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Song, J.H., E-mail: [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T.W.; Kim, D.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Severe accident progression for the station blackout and SBLOCA accident. • Analyses on APR1400 using MELCOR. • Operator recovery actions for decay heat removal and inventory make up. • Determine the time allowed for the operator to prevent reactor vessel failure. • Insight for the operator recovery actions for the severe accident management. - Abstract: Analyses on the severe accident progressions for the station blackout (SBO) accident and small break LOCA (SBLOCA) initiated severe accident were performed for APR1400 by using MELCOR computer code. Operator recovery actions for decay heat removal and inventory make up using a depressurization system and safety injection pump were simulated in parallel with a simulation of the severe accident progression. Sensitivity studies on the operator actions were performed to investigate the changes in the timing of the reactor vessel failure and to determine the time allowed for the operator to prevent reactor vessel failure. Sensitivity analyses on the effect of major modeling parameters were performed additionally to quantify the uncertainties in timing. It is found that the operator has about 2 h for the recovery actions after the indication of core damage by the signal of core exit thermocouple (CET) for the SBLOCA initiated severe accident, while the operator has to take immediate actions after the indication of core damage by CET for the SBO accident.

  17. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie


    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents.

  18. 不同年代住院精神病患者自杀的相关因素及护理策略%A study on the related factors and nursing countermeasures of suicide accidents in psychotic inpatients among different years

    王晓璇; 吴妙新; 高镇松; 谢小霞; 陈克佳


    目的 了解不同年代住院精神病患者自杀的相关因素,探索预防精神病患者自杀的护理策略.方法 回顾性调查1961~2000年住院精神病患者的自杀原因,并采用Logistic回归分析患者自杀的危险因素.结果 各种精神疾病患者自杀率差异无显著性(P>0.05);自杀与精神病理症状有关;既往有自杀史、负性生活事件、家庭成员有自杀史、病情严重、负性生活事件和社会支持不足,是住院精神病患者发生自杀的危险因素;治疗依从性好是患者自杀的保护因素;各年代自杀率呈下降的趋势(P0.05).Suicide accidents were correlated with psychopathologic symptoms.The main risk factors of suicide were suicide past history,suicide family history,severe ill-condition,negative life events and insufficient social support.Better treatment adherence war protective factor of suicide accident. Suicide rates showed significantly decreasing tendency among different years(P<0.01).Conclusion lt's helpful for preventing suicide accident to perform multiple nursing countermeasures,including to completely evaluate risk factors of suicide and adopt foresight nursing,control ill-onset and enhance supervision.

  19. Why did the patient die? The relationship between ambulance accidents and death of patients: forensic medical issues.

    Ersoy, Gokhan; Ersoy, Ozlem; Yuksekbas, Ozlem; Kurnaz, Gulay; Akyildiz, Elif Ulker; Ekemen, Suheyla


    This article's aim is investigating traumatic consequences of ambulance accident on patients and discussing difficulties to give a decision about the relation between death and accident at these cases. The cases were selected among the forensic medical reports concluded between 1996 and 2005 years. They were documented for age, sex, causes of urgent call, localization and extent of traumatic lesion, properties of events and board decisions. A total of 21 cases were found. 15 cases died on the day of the accident. Skin injuries at head (8 cases) and legs (6 cases) were most common traumatic lesions. Totally 6 deaths were found related with ambulance accident. Death of patient after ambulance accidents may not be associated easily to the accident. Delay due to accident or concomitant contributing medical conditions may also facilitate the death in this type of cases. Reliable medical records were needed for accurate medicolegal evaluation.

  20. Factores de riesgo de lesión por accidentes de tráfico y el impacto de una intervención sobre la carretera Risk factors of injury by traffic accidents and the impact of an intervention on the road

    Martha C Híjar-Medina


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de intervenciones realizadas en la autopista, tanto en la ocurrencia de lesiones por accidentes de tráfico, como en la gravedad de las mismas. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis comparativo de dos estudios transversales realizados en 1994 y 1996 en los que se investigó la ocurrencia de lesiones en los conductores de vehículos a motor que sufrieron accidente en la autopista, Cuernavaca, México. RESULTADOS: Para 1994 la tasa de accidentes fue de 7,96 / 100.000 vehículos y para 1996 fue de 8,49 / 100.000 vehículos, incremento no significativo (p>0,05. Para 1994 la tasa de lesionados fue de 2,10 / 100.000 vehículos y para 1996 de 1,35 / 100.000 vehículos, disminución significativa (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito das intervenções em uma rodovia, na ocorrência e gravidade de ferimentos por acidente. MÉTODOS: Foi feita uma análise comparativa de dois estudos transversais em 1994 e 1996. RESULTADOS: Em 1994 a taxa foi de 7,96 acidentes/100.000 veículos e em 1996, 8,49/100.000 veículos. O aumento não foi significante (p>0.05. O índice de motoristas feridos em 1994 foi de 2,10/100.000 veículos e de 1,35/100.000 veículos em 1996, o que representa uma redução significante (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of interventions at a highway, in the occurrence and severity of injuries by traffic accidents. METHOD: It was made a comparative analysis of two cross-sectional studies in 1994 and 1996. RESULTS: In 1994 the rate was 7.96 accidents/ 100,000 vehicles and in 1996 8.49 / 100,000 vehicles. The increase was not significant (p>0.05. The rate of injured drivers in 1994 was of 2.10 / 100,000 vehicles and of 1.35 / 100,000 vehicles in 1996, which was a significant decrease (p<0.000. The self-report of use of seat belt (63.46% versus 76.6%, the small vehicles involved in accidents (7.9% versus 37.7%, nocturnal schedule (23.7% versus 31.8% and in Mexico-Cuernavaca direction (45% versus 66.7%, were more frequent in

  1. Investigation of epidemic characteristics and emergency nursing on patients suffered from traffic accidents%交通事故伤害患者流行病学特点及急救护理的调查研究

    唐灵芝; 陈由珠; 李云燕


    目的 了解交通伤患者的性别、年龄、受伤部位、车祸发生的时间等特征,为临床救护提供依据.方法 以2005年6月至2007年6月收治的2 955例交通事故伤害的急诊患者为研究对象,进行回顾性、描述性统计分析.结果 交通伤比例高的时间段为5~11月、双休日、每年3个长假,1 d内以11:00~13:00、16:00~19:00为多.交通伤患者男多于女,年龄以16~35岁的青年最多,伤害部位以头面部和四肢为主,需立即实施抢救措施者945例.结论 应加强节假日、双休日、中晚班急诊护理人员的配备,保证有足够的人力参与抢救;同时应加强护士急救意识、各种穿刺能力、抢救技能以及应急应变能力训练,进一步规范交通伤的救治.%Objective To understand the sex,age,injured portion,time of accident on patients suf-fered from traffic accidents in order to provide evidences for clinical emergency rescue.Methods For retrospective analysis and descriptive statistics,2955 patients who suffered from traffic accidents between Jun 2005 and Jun 2007 were as study objects.Results The periods with high traffic wounds were in May to September,weekends,three long holidays.Among a day,accidents happened more in 11Am to 13Pro,16Pm to 19Pm.Male patients were more than females.16 to 35 year old young people were at most.Injured portions were mainly in head,face and four limbs.945 patients needed emergency rescue immediately.Conclusion In order to have sufficient poople to take part in rescues,emergency nurses for holidays,weekends,mid and night duties should be prepared in-creasingly.Meanwhile,nurses'emergency consciousness,various kinds puncture techniques,rescuing and strin-gency skills should be strengthened.Remedy for traffic wounds should be further specified.

  2. Investigation of the influence factors of polyethylene molecule encapsulated into carbon nanotubes by molecular dynamics simulation

    Li, Qun; He, Guofang; Zhao, Rengao; Li, Yanfei


    In this work, the influence factors, namely chirality, temperature, radius and surface chemical modification, of the interaction energy for polyethylene (PE) molecule encapsulated into single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) had been investigated by molecular mechanics (MM) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The results showed that all these factors would influence the interaction energy between PE and SWNTs. The interaction energy between PE molecule and the armchair SWNTs is largest among eight kinds of chiral SWNTs. The interaction energy decreases with the increase of temperature or the SWNT radius. The methyl, phenyl, hydroxyl, carboxyl, -F, and amino groups, have been introduced onto the surface of the SWNTs by the simulation software and the influence of SWNT chemical modification has also been investigated. The interaction energy between PE and chemically modified SWNTs is larger than that between PE and pristine SWNTs, and increases with increasing the concentration of the modified groups monotonously. In addition, the group electronegativity and van der Waals force will affect the interaction energy between PE and chemically modified SWNTs greatly, which can be attributed to the electronic structures of the chemically modified groups. This study can provide some useful suggestions for the composite material design and drug transport.

  3. Investigating the effects of Iranian cultural factors on brand equity for strategic management of market share

    Maryam Jahandoost


    Full Text Available Brand is a symbol, logo and indicator of the specific identity of a product manufacturer and the services they render which can create value for both the manufacturer itself and the customers of those products and services. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between Iranian cultural factors with those creating brand value in this industry. The proposed study chooses Philpa System Co. as statistical population and the subject for our case study. The study chooses 56 people who had some past purchase experience from Philpa System as samples. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among the participants. The validity of which was confirmed through depth interviews made with experts of the pertinent industry and its reliability was also calculated using Cronbach's alpha test and was shown to be 82.4 %, which indicated the good reliability of these questionnaires. The data obtained from these questionnaires were analyzed using path analysis and structural equation modeling methods. The results gained from the investigations showed that different aspects of Iranian cultural factors, specifically customer honoring, had the greatest effect on the quality of customers’ perception from the brand; it was also shown that promotion in any of the other aspects presented in Aaker’s brand equity model will directly influence and increase the perceived quality of the brand.

  4. An investigation on factors influencing electronic banking adoption in private banks versus public banks

    Ali Alikhani


    Full Text Available The movement of industrial societies towards implementation of information technology has begun and it has gained moment since early 90th and presently the speed of this movement is well obvious in less developed countries, including Iran. Internet Banking is one of the most tangible trends in today’s electronic commerce. It has direct relationship with the perception of the service qualities not only because of unique absorption of the internet, but also because of e-commerce, acceptance of internet services of banks by clients and the tendency for using such services. This paper investigates different factors influencing on acceptance of electronic banking in private banks versus public banks in a case study of two Iranian banks namely; Eqtesade Novin and Sepah using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. Correlation test reveals that there was a positive and significant relationship between clients of private and public bank on five factors associated with TAM. In addition, structural equation method was used for investigation of relationships in offered model. In conclusion, all primary and secondary hypotheses for clients of private and public bank were confirmed.

  5. Investigating factors influencing construction waste management efforts in developing countries: an experience from Thailand.

    Manowong, Ektewan


    Rapid economic growth and urbanization in developing countries lead to extensive construction activities that generate a large amount of waste. A challenge is how to manage construction waste in the most sustainable way. In the developing world, research on construction waste management is scarce and such academic knowledge needs to be responsive to actual practices in the industry in order to be implemented. As construction projects involve a number of participants and stakeholders, their participation and commitment can have a major influence on the goals of green and sustainable construction for urban development. This study provides a significant step in conducting a very first research of this kind in Thailand by aiming to investigate the level of construction stakeholders' commitment as well as the achievement of construction waste management in order to improve short-term practices and to establish a long-term strategic construction waste management plan. In this study, a structural equation model was employed to investigate the influence of factors that are related to environmental aspects, social aspects, and economic aspect of construction waste management. Concern about health and safety was found to be the most significant and dominant influence on the achievement of sustainable construction waste management. Other factors affecting the successful management of construction waste in Thai construction projects were also identified. It is perceived that this study has potential to contribute useful guidelines for practitioners both in Thailand and other developing countries with similar contexts.

  6. O Fator Acidentário Previdenciário como instrumento epidemiológico de controle de riscos do trabalho The work accident and social security factor as an epidemiologic tool for controlling risks in work settings

    Heleno Rodrigues Corrêa Filho


    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute a validade da Resolução Ministerial n° 1.236, do Conselho Nacional de Previdência Social, que dispõe sobre padrões de freqüência, gravidade e custo no cálculo do Fator Acidentário Previdenciário. Esse fator multiplicará alíquotas de impostos sobre riscos decorrentes do trabalho, podendo reduzir em até 50% o imposto devido por empresas que aplicarem controles coletivos eficientes na sua prevenção. Analisa-se a consistência do método adotado para selecionar os grupos de morbidade destinados a construir os vetores de freqüência, gravidade e custo, bem como a validade da aplicação dos conceitos epidemiológicos à produção econômica geradora da morbidade. Contrapõem-se as listas tradicionais de morbidade aos critérios epidemiológicos móveis, como alternativas distintas que têm sido adotadas para resolução de conflitos sobre a existência de nexo causal entre doenças, lesões, acidentes e os modos de produção. Apoiam-se os grupos de riscos epidemiológicos móveis que correspondam às doenças e lesões cujo risco epidemiológico, medido por um intervalo de confiança de 99%, esteja acima do valor unitário. Conclui-se que o método proposto para determinação do Fator multiplicador atende aos requisitos epidemiológicos de definição de cálculo de riscos e validade, uma vez que é assegurada sua revisão periódica para questões de sensibilidade e especificidade. Alerta-se que não se deve confiar unicamente nos métodos como instrumentos unilaterais de ação social para avaliação, controle e prevenção dos males associados ao trabalho nas modalidades de produção do nosso desenvolvimento. Os métodos são instrumentos que devem ser considerados na tomada de decisão e na ação política que se deseja imprimir.This report discusses the validity of a Brazilian Ministry Decree that establishes standards for calculating a multiplying Factor for Accidents and Social Security. The index

  7. Investigating the Underlying Factors of Corruption in the Public Construction Sector: Evidence from China.

    Shan, Ming; Le, Yun; Yiu, Kenneth T W; Chan, Albert P C; Hu, Yi


    Over recent years, the issue of corruption in the public construction sector has attracted increasing attention from both practitioners and researchers worldwide. However, limited efforts are available for investigating the underlying factors of corruption in this sector. Thus, this study attempted to bridge this knowledge gap by exploring the underlying factors of corruption in the public construction sector of China. To achieve this goal, a total of 14 structured interviews were first carried out, and a questionnaire survey was then administered to 188 professionals in China. Two iterations of multivariate analysis approaches, namely, stepwise multiple regression analysis and partial least squares structural equation modeling were successively utilized to analyze the collected data. In addition, a case study was also conducted to triangulate the findings obtained from the statistical analysis. The results generated from these three research methods achieve the same conclusion: the most influential underlying factor leading to corruption was immorality, followed by opacity, unfairness, procedural violation, and contractual violation. This study has contributed to the body of knowledge by exploring the properties of corruption in the public construction sector. The findings from this study are also valuable to the construction authorities as they can assist in developing more effective anti-corruption strategies.

  8. Factors Influencing Students’ Acceptance of M-Learning: An Investigation in Higher Education

    Ahmad Abu-Al-Aish


    Full Text Available M-learning will play an increasingly significant role in the development of teaching and learning methods for higher education. However, the successful implementation of m-learning in higher education will be based on users’ acceptance of this technology. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to study the factors that affect university students’ intentions to accept m-learning. Based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT (Venkatesh et al., 2003, this study proposes a model to identify the factors that influence the acceptance of m-learning in higher education and to investigate if prior experience of mobile devices affects the acceptance of m-learning. A structural equation model was used to analyse the data collected from 174 participants. The results indicate that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, influence of lecturers, quality of service, and personal innovativeness were all significant factors that affect behavioural intention to use m-learning. Prior experience of mobile devices was also found to moderate the effect of these constructs on behavioural intention. The results of this research extend the UTAUT in the context of m-learning acceptance by adding quality of service and personal innovativeness to the structure of UTAUT and provide practitioners and educators with useful guidelines for designing a successful m-learning system.

  9. Epidemiology of temporomandibular disorders: implications for the investigation of etiologic factors.

    LeResche, L


    Epidemiology is the study of the distribution, determinants, and natural history of disease in populations. Epidemiology has several uses in addition to its traditional role of documenting the public health significance of a condition. Notably, epidemiologic methods and data can be used to identify and verify causes of disease. This article reviews the epidemiologic data on pain in the temporomandibular region, and on signs and symptoms associated with specific subtypes of temporomandibular disorders, with the aim of identifying possible etiologic factors for these conditions that deserve further study. Despite methodologic and population differences, several consistencies are apparent in the epidemiologic literature. Pain in the temporomandibular region appears to be relatively common, occurring in approximately 10% of the population over age 18; it is primarily a condition of young and middle-aged adults, rather than of children or the elderly, and is approximately twice as common in women as in men. This prevalence pattern suggests that etiologic investigations should be directed at biologic and psychosocial factors that are more common in women than in men, and diminish in older age groups. Most signs and symptoms associated with particular temporomandibular disorders (e.g., joint sounds, pain in the joint) also appear to be more prevalent in women than in men, although age patterns for these signs and symptoms are not as clear as for temporomandibular pain. The available data highlight the need for further research on etiologic factors associated with temporomandibular pain and with specific diagnostic subtypes of temporomandibular disorders.

  10. Iodine behaviour in severe accidents

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Grindon, E.; Handy, B.J.; Sutherland, L. [NNC Ltd., Knutsford (United Kingdom); Bruns, W.G.; Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Dickinson, S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Hueber, C.; Jacquemain, D. [IPSN/CEA, Cadarache, Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)


    A description is given of analyses which identify which aspects of the modelling and data are most important in evaluating the release of radioactive iodine to the environment following a potential severe accident at a PWR and which identify the major uncertainties which affect that release. Three iodine codes are used namely INSPECT, IODE and IMPAIR, and their predictions are compared with those of the PSA code MAAP. INSPECT is a mechanistic code which models iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, spray water and sump water, and the partitioning of volatile species between the aqueous phases and containment gas space. Organic iodine is not modelled. IODE and IMPAIR are semi-empirical codes which do not model iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, but model organic iodine. The fault sequences addressed are based on analyses for the Sizewell `B` design. Two types of sequence have been analysed.: (a) those in which a major release of fission products from the primary circuit to the containment occur, e.g. a large LOCAS, (b) those where the release by-passes the containment, e.g. a leak into the auxiliary building. In the analysis of the LOCA sequences where the pH of the sump is controlled to be a value of 8 or greater, all three codes predict that the oxidation of iodine to produce gas phase species does not make a significant contribution to the source term due to leakage from the reactor building and that the latter is dominated by iodide in the aerosol. In the case where the pH of the sump is not controlled, it is found that the proportion of gas phase iodine increases significantly, although the cumulative leakage predicted by all three codes is not significantly different from that predicted by MAAP. The radiolytic production of nitric acid could be a major factor in determining the pH, and if the pH were reduced, the codes predict an increase in gas phase iodine species leaked from the containment. (author) 4 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  11. Multiscale Multiphysics Developments for Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts

    Gamble, K. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, J. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yu, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bai, X. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andersson, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Patra, A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wen, W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tome, C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baskes, M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stanek, C. R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miao, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ye, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hofman, G. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yacout, A. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Liu, W. [ANATECH Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)


    U3Si2 and iron-chromium-aluminum (Fe-Cr-Al) alloys are two of many proposed accident-tolerant fuel concepts for the fuel and cladding, respectively. The behavior of these materials under normal operating and accident reactor conditions is not well known. As part of the Department of Energy’s Accident Tolerant Fuel High Impact Problem program significant work has been conducted to investigate the U3Si2 and FeCrAl behavior under reactor conditions. This report presents the multiscale and multiphysics effort completed in fiscal year 2015. The report is split into four major categories including Density Functional Theory Developments, Molecular Dynamics Developments, Mesoscale Developments, and Engineering Scale Developments. The work shown here is a compilation of a collaborative effort between Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory and Anatech Corp.

  12. Investment Strategy Based on Aviation Accidents: Are there abnormal returns?

    Marcos Rosa Costa


    Full Text Available This article investigates whether an investment strategy based on aviation accidents can generate abnormal returns. We performed an event study considering all the aviation accidents with more than 10 fatalities in the period from 1998 to 2009 and the stock market performance of the respective airlines and aircraft manufacturers in the days after the event. The tests performed were based on the model of Campbell, Lo & MacKinlay (1997 for definition of abnormal returns, by means of linear regression between the firms’ stock returns and the return of a market portfolio used as a benchmark. This enabled projecting the expected future returns of the airlines and aircraft makers, for comparison with the observed returns after each event. The result obtained suggests that an investment strategy based on aviation accidents is feasible because abnormal returns can be obtained in the period immediately following an aviation disaster.

  13. Simple estimate of fission rate during JCO criticality accident

    Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro [Faculty of Studies on Contemporary Society, Aichi Shukutoku Univ., Nagakute, Aichi (Japan)


    The fission rate during JCO criticality accident is estimated from fission-product (FP) radioactivities in a uranium solution sample taken from the preparation basin 20 days after the accident. The FP radioactivity data are taken from a report by JAERI released in the Accident Investigation Committee. The total fission number is found quite dependent on the FP radioactivities and estimated to be about 4x10{sup 16} per liter, or 2x10{sup 18} per 16 kgU (assuming uranium concentration 278.9 g/liter). On the contrary, the time dependence of the fission rate is rather insensitive to the FP radioactivities. Hence, it is difficult to determine the fission number in the initial burst from the radioactivity data. (author)

  14. [Recreational boating accidents--Part 1: Catamnestic study].

    Lignitz, Eberhard; Lustig, Martina; Scheibe, Ernst


    Deaths on the water are common in the autopsy material of medicolegal institutes situated on the coast or big rivers and lakes (illustrated by the example of the Institute of Legal Medicine of Greifswald University). They mostly occur during recreational boating activities. Apart from hydro-meteorological influences, human error is the main cause of accidents. Often it is not sufficiently kept in mind whether the boat crew is fit for sailing and proper seamanship is ensured. Drowning (following initial hypothermia) is the most frequent cause of death. Medicolegal aspects are not decisive for ordering a forensic autopsy. As statistics are not compiled in a uniform way, a comparison of the data of different institutions engaged in investigating deaths at sea and during water sports activities is hardly possible, neither on a national nor an international basis--and the reconstruction of aquatic accidents is generally difficult. Fatal accidents can only be prevented by completely clarifying their causes.

  15. MELCOR modeling of Fukushima unit 2 accident

    Sevon, Tuomo [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)


    A MELCOR model of the Fukushima Daiichi unit 2 accident was created in order to get a better understanding of the event and to improve severe accident modeling methods. The measured pressure and water level could be reproduced relatively well with the calculation. This required adjusting the RCIC system flow rates and containment leak area so that a good match to the measurements is achieved. Modeling of gradual flooding of the torus room with water that originated from the tsunami was necessary for a satisfactory reproduction of the measured containment pressure. The reactor lower head did not fail in this calculation, and all the fuel remained in the RPV. 13 % of the fuel was relocated from the core area, and all the fuel rods lost their integrity, releasing at least some volatile radionuclides. According to the calculation, about 90 % of noble gas inventory and about 0.08 % of cesium inventory was released to the environment. The release started 78 h after the earthquake, and a second release peak came at 90 h. Uncertainties in the calculation are very large because there is scarce public data available about the Fukushima power plant and because it is not yet possible to inspect the status of the reactor and the containment. Uncertainty in the calculated cesium release is larger than factor of ten.

  16. An Investigation of Factors Influencing Design Team Attributes in Green Buildings

    Mohamed S. Elforgani


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Buildings contribute significantly global environmental problems. Better design can minimize these impacts. Design Green Building (DGB aims to reduce buildings' impact on the environment. However, the green design performance depends on design team attributes. In addition, the Governance System (GS and Client Quality (CQ as external factors have influence on Design Team Attributes (DTA of green building. Approach: To identify mentioned factors questionnaire survey was conducted to collect dada required. A sample of 277 respondents has been covered under the study, including architects and engineers practicing design and consultancy building sectors. Analysis data includes descriptive and quantitative analysis by using SSPS software version 16 was carried out. A correlation and regression models was established to explore the relationship between identified factors. Results: Architect is most involved one during the design process of green buildings with mean 4.82 followed by mechanical and electrical engineers with mean 4.52 and 4.44 respectively, while structural and civil engineers, interior designers and quantity survivors were 3.71, 3.29 and 2.88 respectively. The most design team attributes were investigated have a significance degree of influence except design team reputation. On the other hand, the other hand, the Governance system and client quality have major influence on these attributes. Conclusion: Involvement and participation of a ll project stakeholders are required. Design team attributes are the key factors to improve green design performance. Governance system and client quality play major role to enhance design team attributes. Therefore, effective regulations and policies may increase performance of the green Effective design team management device should be applied to implement Design team attributes effectively in order to improve green design team performance.

  17. Injury rates and injury risk factors among federal bureau of investigation new agent trainees

    Knapik Joseph J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A one-year prospective examination of injury rates and injury risk factors was conducted in Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI new agent training. Methods Injury incidents were obtained from medical records and injury compensation forms. Potential injury risk factors were acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire and existing data at the FBI Academy. Results A total of 426 men and 105 women participated in the project. Thirty-five percent of men and 42% of women experienced one or more injuries during training. The injury incidence rate was 2.5 and 3.2 injuries/1,000 person-days for men and women, respectively (risk ratio (women/men = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.7. The activities most commonly associated with injuries (% of total were defensive tactics training (58%, physical fitness training (20%, physical fitness testing (5%, and firearms training (3%. Among the men, higher injury risk was associated with older age, slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the physical fitness test (PFT, lower self-rated physical activity, lower frequency of aerobic exercise, a prior upper or lower limb injury, and prior foot or knee pain that limited activity. Among the women higher injury risk was associated with slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the PFT, and prior back pain that limited activity. Conclusion The results of this investigation supported those of a previous retrospective investigation emphasizing that lower fitness and self-reported pain limiting activity were associated with higher injury risk among FBI new agents.

  18. The use of Grey System Theory in predicting the road traffic accident in Fars province in Iran

    Ali Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Traffic accidents have become a more and more important factor that restrict the development of economy and threaten the safety of human beings. Considering the complexity and uncertainty of the influencing factors on traffic accidents, traffic accident forecasting can be regarded as a grey system with unknown and known information, so be analyzed by grey system theory. Grey models require only a limited amount of data to estimate the behavior of unknown systems. In this paper, first, the original predicted values of road traffic accidents are separately obtained by the GM (1,1 model, the Verhulst model and the DGM(2,1 model. The results of these models on predicting road traffic accident show that the forecasting accuracy of the GM(1,1 is higher than the Verhulst model and the DGM(2,1 model. Then, the GM(1,1 model is applied to predict road traffic accident in Fars province.

  19. 基于风险管理理论的煤矿事故研究:人因风险因素探讨∗%Research on coal mine accidents based on risk management theory:discussion on man-made risk factors

    桑志彪; 彭锟; 申霞; 贺山峰; 钱洪伟; 揣小明


    基于风险管理理论,探讨了造成煤矿事故的人因风险因素,认为人因风险因素具有不确定性、潜在性、环境驱使性和可恢复性4个特点,分别从心理、生理、素质、环境、文化、管理6个方面详细分析了人因风险因素的产生原因,以期为科学研究煤矿人因事故形成机理、减少煤矿安全事故的发生提供一定的理论基础。%Based on risk management theory,the man-made risk factors for accidents in coal mines were discussed.These factors are characterized with uncertainty,potentiality,environmental driving and recoverability.The causes for man-made risk factors were analyzed in detail from six respects,such as psychology,physiology,quality,environment,culture and management.It is respected that this study can provide a certain theoretical foundation for the scientific study on the forming mechanism of man-made risks and for the decrease of the safety accidents in coal mines.

  20. [Hanggliding accidents. Distribution of injuries and accident analysis].

    Ballmer, F T; Jakob, R P


    Paragliding--a relatively new sport to Switzerland--brought 23 patients with 48 injuries (38% lower limb and 29% spinal) within a period of 8 months to the Inselspital University hospital in Berne. The aim of the study in characterizing these injuries is to formulate some guidelines towards prevention. With over 90% of accidents occurring at either take off or landing, emphasis on better training for the beginner is proposed with strict guidelines for the more experienced pilot flying in unfavourable conditions.

  1. Severe Accidents in the Energy Sector

    Hirschberg, S.; Spiekerman, G.; Dones, R


    A comprehensive database on severe accidents, with main emphasis on the ones associated with the energy sector, has been established by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Fossil energy carriers, nuclear power and hydro power are covered in ENSAD (Energy related Severe Accident Database), and the scope of work includes all stages of the analysed energy chains, i.e. exploration, extraction, transports, processing, storage and waste disposal. The database has been developed using a wide variety of sources. As opposed to the previous studies the ambition of the present work has been, whenever feasible, to cover a relatively broad spectrum of damage categories of interest. This includes apart from fatalities also serious injuries, evacuations, land or water contamination, and economic losses. Currently, ENSAD covers 13,914 accidents, of which 4290 are energy related, and 1943 are considered as severe accidents. Significant effort has been directed towards the examination of the relevance of the worldwide accident records to the Swiss specific conditions, particularly in the context of nuclear and hydro power. For example, a detailed investigation of large dam failures and their consequences was carried out. Generally, while Swiss specific aspects are emphasised, the major part of the collected and analysed data, as well as the insights gained, are considered to be of general interest. In particular, three sets of the aggregated results are provided based on world wide occurrence, on OECD countries, and on non OECD countries, respectively. Significant differences exist between the aggregated, normalised damage rates assessed for the various energy carriers: On the world wide basis, the broader picture obtained by coverage of full energy chains leads to aggregated immediate fatality rates being much higher for the fossil fuels than what one would expect if power plants only were considered. The highest rates apply to LPG, followed by hydro, oil, coal, natural gas and

  2. Accident Precursor Analysis and Management: Reducing Technological Risk Through Diligence

    Phimister, James R. (Editor); Bier, Vicki M. (Editor); Kunreuther, Howard C. (Editor)


    Almost every year there is at least one technological disaster that highlights the challenge of managing technological risk. On February 1, 2003, the space shuttle Columbia and her crew were lost during reentry into the atmosphere. In the summer of 2003, there was a blackout that left millions of people in the northeast United States without electricity. Forensic analyses, congressional hearings, investigations by scientific boards and panels, and journalistic and academic research have yielded a wealth of information about the events that led up to each disaster, and questions have arisen. Why were the events that led to the accident not recognized as harbingers? Why were risk-reducing steps not taken? This line of questioning is based on the assumption that signals before an accident can and should be recognized. To examine the validity of this assumption, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) undertook the Accident Precursors Project in February 2003. The project was overseen by a committee of experts from the safety and risk-sciences communities. Rather than examining a single accident or incident, the committee decided to investigate how different organizations anticipate and assess the likelihood of accidents from accident precursors. The project culminated in a workshop held in Washington, D.C., in July 2003. This report includes the papers presented at the workshop, as well as findings and recommendations based on the workshop results and committee discussions. The papers describe precursor strategies in aviation, the chemical industry, health care, nuclear power and security operations. In addition to current practices, they also address some areas for future research.

  3. A preliminary factor analytic investigation into the firstorder factor structure of the Fifteen Factor Plus (15FQ+ on a sample of Black South African managers

    Seretse Moyo


    Full Text Available Orientation: The Fifteen Factor Questionnaire Plus (15FQ+ is a prominent personality questionnaire that organisations frequently use in personnel selection in South Africa.Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to undertake a factor analytic investigation of the first-order factor structure of the 15FQ+.Motivation for the study: The construct validity of the 15FQ+, as a measure of personality, is necessary even though it is insufficient to justify its use in personnel selection.Research design, approach and method: The researchers evaluated the fit of the measurement model, which the structure and scoring key of the 15FQ+ implies, in a quantitative study that used an ex post facto correlation design through structural equation modelling. They conducted a secondary data analysis. They selected a sample of 241 Black South African managers from a large 15FQ+ database.Main findings: The researchers found good measurement model fit. The measurement model parameter estimates were worrying. The magnitude of the estimated model parameters suggests that the items generally do not reflect the latent personality dimensions the designers intended them to with a great degree of precision. The items are reasonably noisy measures of the latent variables they represent.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should use the 15FQ+ carefully on Black South African managers until further local research evidence becomes available.Contribution/value-add: The study is a catalyst to trigger the necessary additional research we need to establish convincingly the psychometric credentials of the 15FQ+ as a valuable assessment tool in South Africa.

  4. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M


    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry.

  5. Midair collisions - The accidents, the systems, and the Realpolitik

    Wiener, E. L.


    Two midair collisions occurring in 1978 are described, and the air traffic control system and procedures in use at the time, human factors implications and political consequences of the accidents are examined. The first collision occurred in Memphis and involved a Falcon jet and a Cessna 150 in a situation in which the controllers handling each aircraft were not aware of the presence of the other aircraft until it was too late. The second occurred in San Diego four months later, when a Boeing 727 on a visual approach struck a Cessna 172 from the rear. Following the San Diego collision there arose a great deal of investigative activity, resulting in suggestions for tighter control on visual flight rules aircraft and the expansion of positive control airspace. These issues then led to a political battle involving general aviation, the FAA and the Congress. It is argued, however, that the collisions were in fact system-induced errors resulting from an air traffic control system which emphasizes airspace allocation and politics rather than the various human factors problems facing pilots and controllers.

  6. A New Cultivation-Evolution Technology of Accident Immune Function for a Petrochemical Enterprise

    Yang Zhenhong; Zhang Xuhua; Wang Xiangyao; Wang Zhihu; Liu Yan; Zhang Xuan


    For the purpose of developing an immune function on production accidents in a petrochemical enterprise, a new cultivation-evolution approach of preventive mechanism is suggested by analyzing various factors relating to immune deficiency syndrome and by referring to immunity genetic algorithm and relevant concepts applied in medicine science. Accident-immunity system for highly hazardous petrochemical enterprise, which is made up of its productive system's Safety Organ and Safety Organization, is typically an evolution-cultivation progress for immune function, The new B immune cell is generated after several layers' screening, clone expanding, receptor editing, organizing in immune system of work accident in petrochemical enterprise. There is a B immune cell with high appetency and a manipulative function chain for accident-immunity. Taking the antigen of accidents in industry as the target function and the immune antibody as the solution, the authors carried out a computation diagram for prediction of appetency between the antigen and antibody.

  7. Thermal Hydraulic design parameters study for severe accidents using neural networks

    Roh, Chang Hyun; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)


    To provide the information on severe accident progression is very important for advanced or new type of nuclear power plant (NPP) design. A parametric study, therefore, was performed to investigate the effect of thermal hydraulic design parameters on severe accident progression of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Nine parameters, which are considered important in NPP design or severe accident progression, were selected among the various thermal hydraulic design parameters. The backpropagation neural network (BPN) was used to determine parameters, which might more strongly affect the severe accident progression, among nine parameters. For training, different input patterns were generated by the latin hypercube sampling (LHS) technique and then different target patterns that contain core uncovery time and vessel failure time were obtained for Young Gwang Nuclear (YGN) Units 3 and 4 using modular accident analysis program (MAAP) 3.0B code. Three different severe accident scenarios, such as two loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs) and station blackout (SBO), were considered in this analysis. Results indicated that design parameters related to refueling water storage tank (RWST), accumulator and steam generator (S/G) have more dominant effects on the progression of severe accidents investigated, compared to the other six parameters. 9 refs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  8. A comparative study of road traffic accidents in West Malaysia.

    Silva, J F


    The problem of road traffic accidents in developing countries is now becoming a cause for concern. This is more so as preventive measures have not kept pace with economic progress and development. This paper reviews the present situation in West Malaysia, one of the better developed countries of the East, during the period 1970 to 1975. A comparative study has been made between the United States and Malaysia. To enable the urgency of the problem in developing countries to be appreciated the increases in the country's population and in the number of vehicles in use and their relation to the lesser increase in road mileage over the period of study have been discussed. The study has considered every aspect of the causative factors leading to traffic accidents, such as the effects of weather, seasonal variation, and road and lighting conditions. The common human errors leading to accidents have been discussed. Other factors, such as the ethnic distribution in Malaysia, and their relation to road accidents have shown the effect of the social structure on the problems. The data evaluated in this study make it clear that preventive measures are very necessary in underdeveloped as well as in developed countries.

  9. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M


    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  10. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Utilization of Information Technology (IT by Agricultural Students

    Masoud Rezaei


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the aim of investigating factors affecting utilization of information technology by students of agriculture. A survey approach was used in this study and a questionnaire was developed to gather the data. The study population was postgraduate students (MS and PhD of economic and agricultural development faculty in Tehran University who were selected by applying random sampling technique. Sample size for students was 61 persons. Data was analyzed by using SPSS/WIN software. The results of the research indicated that there was a positive significant relationship between using of information technology by students and their age, average, prior experience, information technology skills, innovativeness, perceived ease of use, attitude and self-efficacy. The relationship between computer anxiety and using of IT was negative. Stepwise Regression Analysis showed that innovativeness and attitude predict 53.2 percent of variations of IT use by students.

  11. Investigating important factors influencing customer relationship management: A case study from banking industry

    Ali Sedigh


    Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation on measuring the effect of different factors on customer relationship management (CRM for different branches of an Iranian banks located in various regions of city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 275 managers and using structural equation modeling examines the effects of five variables including CRM knowledge, employment’s information technology skills, specialty, strategic use, CRM performance on the performance of CRM. Cronbach alpha has been calculated for the questionnaire as 0.881, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The survey has concluded that there were meaningful relationships between all four mentioned variables and performance of CRM. In other words, knowledge and information technology influence on improving employments’ skills, which increase strategic use of CRM components and this would improve CRM performance.

  12. Studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics

    Mora, R.; San Juan, C.


    In this paper, we review studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics, making special emphasis on the policy framework in the European Union. We find several conclusions, among which the following should be emphasized. First, this review highlights the existence of different methodologies to build up models to identify the effects of policy reforms affecting land use and desertification. Second, use of micro data to set up an econometric-process simulation model of land use has already been used with success. Third, in the geographical distribution of land use, prices drive all short and long-rung processes. Finally, logistic models have recently been used to study micro decisions at the agricultural sector to identify relative rents and land characteristics such as location and soil fertility as main determinants of land use patters. (Author) 8 refs.


    Everton Roberto Comin


    Full Text Available The collective online shopping is a recent phenomenon in Brazil whose objective is to sell products and services for a minimum number of consumers. This study aims to investigate whether the intensity of collective online shopping is influenced by the aspects consumer interest in online collective shopping, impulse buying and insecurity. The data collection was based on a questionnaire with closed questions with multiple choices and a 5-point Likert scale.The final sample is composed of 143 respondents. Data was analyzed through the following statistic techniques: exploratory data analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, and logistic regression. The results suggest that people more interest in collective shopping are more likely to make collective shopping. People who feel greater insecurity in navigating the website is less likely to make collective shopping. It was observed that there is no a positive relationship between impulse shopping and collective purchasing. Some limitations include the number of constructs and sample characteristics.

  14. An investigation on important factors influencing on forecasted earnings adjustment: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Fatemeh Babakhani


    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing earning adjustment on firms selected on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2011. There are four independent variables associated with the proposed study of this paper including Proportion of shares owned by institutional investors, Return on assets, Profit change and Market value to book value. In addition, Investment restructuring is considered as control variable. The results of the implementation of regression analysis indicate that there was a reverse relationship between earning forecasted adjustment and two independent variables including size of firm as well as the ratio of market value to book value. However, Net profit has a direct and positive relationship with earning forecast adjustment.

  15. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Elementary School Students’ BMI Values Based on the System Dynamics Modeling

    Tian-Syung Lan


    Full Text Available This study used system dynamics method to investigate the factors affecting elementary school students’ BMI values. The construction of the dynamic model is divided into the qualitative causal loop and the quantitative system dynamics modeling. According to the system dynamics modeling, this study consisted of research on the four dimensions: student’s personal life style, diet-relevant parenting behaviors, advocacy and implementation of school nutrition education, and students’ peer interaction. The results of this study showed that students with more adequate health concepts usually have better eating behaviors and consequently have less chance of becoming obese. In addition, this study also verified that educational attainment and socioeconomic status of parents have a positive correlation with students’ amounts of physical activity, and nutrition education has a prominent influence on changing students’ high-calorie diets.

  16. Analysis of traffic accidents on rural highways using Latent Class Clustering and Bayesian Networks.

    de Oña, Juan; López, Griselda; Mujalli, Randa; Calvo, Francisco J


    One of the principal objectives of traffic accident analyses is to identify key factors that affect the severity of an accident. However, with the presence of heterogeneity in the raw data used, the analysis of traffic accidents becomes difficult. In this paper, Latent Class Cluster (LCC) is used as a preliminary tool for segmentation of 3229 accidents on rural highways in Granada (Spain) between 2005 and 2008. Next, Bayesian Networks (BNs) are used to identify the main factors involved in accident severity for both, the entire database (EDB) and the clusters previously obtained by LCC. The results of these cluster-based analyses are compared with the results of a full-data analysis. The results show that the combined use of both techniques is very interesting as it reveals further information that would not have been obtained without prior segmentation of the data. BN inference is used to obtain the variables that best identify accidents with killed or seriously injured. Accident type and sight distance have been identify in all the cases analysed; other variables such as time, occupant involved or age are identified in EDB and only in one cluster; whereas variables vehicles involved, number of injuries, atmospheric factors, pavement markings and pavement width are identified only in one cluster.

  17. Practical approaches in accident analysis

    Stock, M.

    An accident analysis technique based on successive application of structural response, explosion dynamics, gas cloud formation, and plant operation failure mode models is proposed. The method takes into account the nonideal explosion characteristic of a deflagration in the unconfined cloud. The resulting pressure wave differs significantly from a shock wave and the response of structures like lamp posts and walls can differ correspondingly. This gives a more realistic insight into explosion courses than a simple TNT-equivalent approach.

  18. An investigation into the determining factors of zoo visitor attendances in UK zoos.

    Andrew William Whitworth

    Full Text Available The debate as to which animals are most beneficial to keep in zoos in terms of financial and conservative value is readily disputed; however, demographic factors have also been shown to relate to visitor numbers on an international level. The main aims of this research were: (1 To observe the distribution and location of zoos across the UK, (2 to develop a way of calculating zoo popularity in terms of the species kept within a collection and (3 to investigate the factors related to visitor numbers regarding admission costs, popularity of the collection in terms of the species kept and local demographic factors. Zoo visitor numbers were positively correlated with generated popularity ratings for zoos based on the species kept within a collection and admission prices (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126 and n = 34, r = -0.430, P = 0.011. Animal collections are aggregated around large cities and tourist regions, particularly coastal areas. No relationship between demographic variables and visitor numbers was found (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126, which suggests that the popularity of a zoo's collection relative to the types and numbers of species kept is more indicative of a collection's visitor numbers than its surrounding demographic figures. Zoos should incorporate generating high popularity scores as part of their collection planning strategies, to ensure that they thrive in the future, not only as tourist attractions but also as major conservation organizations.

  19. An investigation into the determining factors of zoo visitor attendances in UK zoos.

    Whitworth, Andrew William


    The debate as to which animals are most beneficial to keep in zoos in terms of financial and conservative value is readily disputed; however, demographic factors have also been shown to relate to visitor numbers on an international level. The main aims of this research were: (1) To observe the distribution and location of zoos across the UK, (2) to develop a way of calculating zoo popularity in terms of the species kept within a collection and (3) to investigate the factors related to visitor numbers regarding admission costs, popularity of the collection in terms of the species kept and local demographic factors. Zoo visitor numbers were positively correlated with generated popularity ratings for zoos based on the species kept within a collection and admission prices (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126 and n = 34, r = -0.430, P = 0.011). Animal collections are aggregated around large cities and tourist regions, particularly coastal areas. No relationship between demographic variables and visitor numbers was found (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126), which suggests that the popularity of a zoo's collection relative to the types and numbers of species kept is more indicative of a collection's visitor numbers than its surrounding demographic figures. Zoos should incorporate generating high popularity scores as part of their collection planning strategies, to ensure that they thrive in the future, not only as tourist attractions but also as major conservation organizations.

  20. Epidemiological investigation into the introduction and factors for spread of Peste des Petits Ruminants, southern Tanzania

    Epaphras A. Muse


    Full Text Available A study was carried out to confirm and identify sources and elucidate factors associated with the introduction of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR in southern Tanzania. This study was conducted in Tandahimba and Newala districts of Mtwara region following suspected outbreak of PPR in the area. Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews of key informants who included goat and sheep owners with suspected cases of PPR and animal health service providers as well as local administrative authority. Additionally, 216 serum samples and 28 swabs were collected for serological and virological laboratory disease confirmation. The results show that PPR was first introduced in Likuna village of Newala district in February 2009 through newly purchased goats from the Pugu livestock market located about 700 km in the outskirts of Dar es Salaam city. Factors which contributed to spread of PPR included communal grazing and the cheap prices of sick animals bought by livestock keepers for slaughtering in other villages. Laboratory findings confirmed presence of PPR in the area by RT-PCR and serological analysis revealed that seroprevalence was 31%. These findings have confirmed, for the first time, introduction of PPR in southern Tanzania. The presence of PPR poses high risk of southward spread of the disease to other southern African countries in the SADC region thus calling for concerted and collaborative efforts in prevention and control of the disease to avoid losses. Further elaborate studies on the spread, prevalence and risk factors associated with the disease should urgently be investigated.