WorldWideScience

Sample records for factorial design based

  1. Flow-based approach for holistic factory engineering and design

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinescu, C.; Westkämper, E.

    2010-01-01

    The engineering of future factories requires digital tools along life cycle phases from investment planning to ramp-up. Manufacturers need scientific-based integrated highly dynamic data management systems for the participative and integrated factory planning. The paper presents a new approach for the continuously integrated product design, factory and process planning, through a service-oriented architecture for the implementation of digital factory tools. A first prototype of the digital fa...

  2. Architectural design of experience based factory model for software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    architectural design. Automation features are incorporated in the design in which workflow system and intelligent agents are integrated, and the facilitation of cloud environment is empowered to further support the automation. Keywords: architectural design; knowledge management; experience factory; workflow;

  3. Handbook factory planning and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wiendahl, Hans-Peter; Nyhuis, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This handbook introduces a methodical approach and pragmatic concept for the planning and design of changeable factories that act in strategic alliances to supply the ever-changing needs of the global market. In the first part, the change drivers of manufacturing enterprises and the resulting new challenges are considered in detail with focus on an appropriate change potential. The second part concerns the design of the production facilities and systems on the factory levels work place, section, building and site under functional, organisational, architectural and strategic aspects keeping in mind the environmental, health and safety aspects including corporate social responsibility. The third part is dedicated to the planning and design method that is based on a synergetic interaction of process and space. The accompanying project management of the planning and construction phase and the facility management for the effective utilization of the built premises close the book. -        Concise overview o...

  4. General B factory design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences

  5. Rank-based permutation approaches for non-parametric factorial designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umlauft, Maria; Konietschke, Frank; Pauly, Markus

    2017-11-01

    Inference methods for null hypotheses formulated in terms of distribution functions in general non-parametric factorial designs are studied. The methods can be applied to continuous, ordinal or even ordered categorical data in a unified way, and are based only on ranks. In this set-up Wald-type statistics and ANOVA-type statistics are the current state of the art. The first method is asymptotically exact but a rather liberal statistical testing procedure for small to moderate sample size, while the latter is only an approximation which does not possess the correct asymptotic α level under the null. To bridge these gaps, a novel permutation approach is proposed which can be seen as a flexible generalization of the Kruskal-Wallis test to all kinds of factorial designs with independent observations. It is proven that the permutation principle is asymptotically correct while keeping its finite exactness property when data are exchangeable. The results of extensive simulation studies foster these theoretical findings. A real data set exemplifies its applicability. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Model-based design of bistable cell factories for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Shyam; Cluett, William R; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan

    2018-04-15

    Metabolism can exhibit dynamic phenomena like bistability due to the presence of regulatory motifs like the positive feedback loop. As cell factories, microorganisms with bistable metabolism can have a high and a low product flux at the two stable steady states, respectively. The exclusion of metabolic regulation and network dynamics limits the ability of pseudo-steady state stoichiometric models to detect the presence of bistability, and reliably assess the outcomes of design perturbations to metabolic networks. Using kinetic models of metabolism, we assess the change in the bistable characteristics of the network, and suggest designs based on perturbations to the positive feedback loop to enable the network to produce at its theoretical maximum rate. We show that the most optimal production design in parameter space, for a small bistable metabolic network, may exist at the boundary of the bistable region separating it from the monostable region of low product fluxes. The results of our analysis can be broadly applied to other bistable metabolic networks with similar positive feedback network topologies. This can complement existing model-based design strategies by providing a smaller number of feasible designs that need to be tested in vivo. http://lmse.biozone.utoronto.ca/downloads/. krishna.mahadevan@utoronto.ca. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Optimization of cardiovascular stent against restenosis: factorial design-based statistical analysis of polymer coating conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Acharya

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to optimize the physicodynamic conditions of polymeric system as a coating substrate for drug eluting stents against restenosis. As Nitric Oxide (NO has multifunctional activities, such as regulating blood flow and pressure, and influencing thrombus formation, a continuous and spatiotemporal delivery of NO loaded in the polymer based nanoparticles could be a viable option to reduce and prevent restenosis. To identify the most suitable carrier for S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, a NO prodrug, stents were coated with various polymers, such as poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, polyethylene glycol (PEG and polycaprolactone (PCL, using solvent evaporation technique. Full factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of the formulation variables in polymer-based stent coatings on the GSNO release rate and weight loss rate. The least square regression model was used for data analysis in the optimization process. The polymer-coated stents were further assessed with Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images and platelet adhesion studies. Stents coated with PCL matrix displayed more sustained and controlled drug release profiles than those coated with PLGA and PEG. Stents coated with PCL matrix showed the least platelet adhesion rate. Subsequently, stents coated with PCL matrix were subjected to the further optimization processes for improvement of surface morphology and enhancement of the drug release duration. The results of this study demonstrated that PCL matrix containing GSNO is a promising system for stent surface coating against restenosis.

  8. Apiary B Factory lattice design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, M.H.R.; Garren, A.A.

    1991-04-01

    The Apiary B Factory is a proposed high-intensity electron-positron collider. This paper will present the lattice design for this facility, which envisions two rings with unequal energies in the PEP tunnel. The design has many interesting optical and geometrical features due to the needs to conform to the existing tunnel, and to achieve the necessary emittances, damping times and vacuum. Existing hardware is used to a maximum extent. 8 figs. 1 tab

  9. Evaluation of the influence of base and alkyl bromide on synthesis of pyrazinoic acid esters through factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Joao Paulo dos Santos; Felli, Veni Maria Andres

    2009-01-01

    Pyrazinoic acid esters have been synthesized as prodrugs of pyrazinoic acid. In the literature, its preparation is reported through the reaction of pyrazinoyl chloride with alcohols and the reaction with DCC/DMAP. In this work, it is reported a 22 factorial design to evaluate the preparation of these esters through the substitution of alkyl bromides with carboxylate anion. The controlled factors were alkyl chain length of bromides (ethyl and hexyl) and the used base (triethylamine and DBU). Results revealed that the used base used has significant effect on yield, and alkyl bromide used has neither significant influence, nor its interaction effect with base. (author)

  10. Information Management for Factory Planning and Design

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Danfang

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the manufacturing industry for the improvement of information management within the factory planningand design domain, and for more efficient factory planning and design. Currently the manufacturing industry lacks sufficient methods for capturing, structuring, and representing information and knowledge for easy access, exchange, integration and reuse within the domain. Therefore the focus of this thesis is on information and knowledge management within factory plan...

  11. Formulation, evaluation and 3(2) full factorial design-based optimization of ondansetron hydrochloride incorporated taste masked microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, Vandana; Saharan, Vikas Anand; Dev, Kapil; Jadhav, Hemant; Purohit, Suresh

    2014-11-01

    Masking the bitter taste of Ondansetron hydrochloride (ONS) may improve palatability, acceptance and compliance of ONS products. ONS-loaded, taste-masked microspheres were prepared with a polycationic pH-sensitive polymer and 3(2) full factorial design (FFD) was applied to optimize microsphere batches. Solvent evaporation, in acetone--methanol/liquid paraffin system, was used to prepare taste-masked ONS microspheres. The effect of varying drug/polymer (D/P) ratios on microspheres characteristics were studied by 3(2) FFD. Desirability function was used to search the optimum formulation. Microspheres were evaluated by FTIR, XRD and DSC to examine interaction and effect of microencapsulation process. In vitro taste assessment approach based on bitterness threshold and drug release was used to assess bitterness scores. Prepared ONS microspheres were spherical and surface was wrinkled. ONS was molecularly dispersed in microspheres without any incompatibility with EE100. In hydrochloric acid buffer pH 1.2, ONS released completely from microsphere in just 10 min. Contrary to this, ONS release at initial 5 min from taste-masked microspheres was less than the bitterness threshold. Full factorial design and in vitro taste assessment approach, coupled together, was successfully applied to develop and optimize batches of ONS incorporated taste-masked microspheres.

  12. The Mathematics of Symmetrical Factorial Designs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Mathematics of Symmetrical Factorial Designs. Mausumi Bose (nee Sen) obtained her MSc degree in. Statistics from the Calcutta. University and PhD degree from the Indian Statistical. Institute. She is on the faculty of the Indian. Statistical Institute. Her main field of research interest is design and analysis of experiments.

  13. A conceptual design of circular Higgs factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2016-11-30

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory (CHF) will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in the arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 125 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at the 2% level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of a CHF. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in a CHF, emphasizing the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most importantly, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable.

  14. A Group-Based Mobile Application to Increase Adherence in Exercise and Nutrition Programs: A Factorial Design Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatakrishnan, Anusha; Youngblood, Gregory Michael; Ram, Ashwin; Pirolli, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Novel methods of promoting self-monitoring and social support are needed to ensure long-term maintenance of behavior change. In this paper, we directly investigate the effects of group support in an exercise and nutrition program delivered by an mHealth application called Fittle. Objective Our first specific study aim was to explore whether social support improved adherence in wellness programs. Our second specific study aim was to assess whether media types (ePaper vs mobile) were associated with different levels of compliance and adherence to wellness programs. The third aim was to assess whether the use of an mHealth application led to positive changes to participants’ eating behavior, physical activity, and stress level, compared to traditional paper-based programs. Methods A 2 × 2 (eg, Media: Mobile vs ePaper × Group Type: Team vs Solo) factorial design feasibility study was conducted. A sample of 124 volunteers who were interested in improving eating behavior, increasing physical activity, or reducing stress participated in this study. The study duration was 8 weeks. All groups were self-directed with no ongoing human input from the research team. Results Participants in ePaper conditions had higher attrition rates compared to participants in Mobile conditions, χ3 2=9.96, P=.02 (N=124). Participants in Mobile conditions reported their compliance with a much higher frequency closer to the time of challenge activity completion (2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test comparing distributions was highly significant—KS=0.33, PMobile conditions—χ1 2=25.25, Pmobile app allowed a more accurate method to report and track health behaviors over a longer period than traditional ePaper-based diaries or log books. There was a significant difference in the overall compliance score for Mobile-Solo (Mean [SD] 0.30 [0.39]) and Mobile-Team (Mean [SD] 0.49 [0.35]) conditions (t 50.82=1.94, P=.05). This suggests that working in a team increased participants

  15. B factory rf system design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss the issues of relevance to the design of a B factory RF system. First, the general parameter regime is outlined, and the reasons behind certain commonly made choices are indicated. This regime involves high beam currents, and many relatively short bunches. Next, the physics difficulties associated with coupled-bunch instabilities are described briefly. We then describe in general terms the alternative approaches taken by various B factory designers, the motivation for these choices, and the technical issues raised by them. Technical solutions have been proposed for both the room-temperature and the superconducting RF scenarios, and considerable R ampersand D is being carried out worldwide to confirm and optimize these solutions

  16. B factory RF system design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the issues of relevance to the design of a B factory RF system. First, the general parameter regime is outlined, and the reasons behind certain commonly made choices are indicated. This regime involves high beam currents, and many relatively short bunches. Next, the physics difficulties associated with coupled-bunch instabilities are described briefly. We then describe in general terms the alternative approaches taken by various B factory designers, the motivation for these choices, and the technical issues raised by them. Technical solutions have been proposed for both the room-temperature and the superconducting RF scenarios, and considerable R ampersand D is being carried out worldwide to confirm and optimize these solutions

  17. Design studies for the Positron Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, S.; Sunaga, H.; Kaneko, H.; Masuno, S.; Kawasuso, A.; Sakai, T.; Takizawa, H.; Yotsumoto, K.; Honda, Y.; Tagawa, S.

    1996-01-01

    In the design study for the Positron Factory, a feasibility of simultaneous extraction of multi-channel monoenergetic positron beams, which had been proposed at the previous conference (Linac 94), was demonstrated by an experiment using an electron linac. On the basis of the experimental result, an efficient moderator structure, which is composed of honeycomb-like assembled moderator foils and reflectors, is proposed. (author)

  18. Analysis of transmission properties in an indoor wireless sensor network based on a full-factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christmann, Dennis; Martinovic, Ivan; Schmitt, Jens B

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we systematically investigate different factors and their effects on the wireless transmission properties using a full-factorial experimental design of a wireless sensor network in a real-world indoor environment. We quantify the impact of primary factors such as the wireless channel, physical position, transmission power and line of sight, as well as their interactions on the received signal strength (RSS). While some of our results support conventional assumptions, this study also shows that there are several properties which are in contrast to existing findings. For example, there is no significant correlation in the measured RSS between differently located but equally distant transmitters, yet the correlation coefficient for the two directions of a single link between two transmitters is above 94%, leading to very symmetric links that differ only in a few dBm for the two directions. Further analysis reveals the strong interaction of transmission frequency and physical position, while the transmission power has only an isolated, non-interacting effect on the RSS. Since the analyzed network consists of commodity motes utilizing TI's well-known IEEE 802.15.4 compliant CC2420 transceiver, the results of this experimental analysis can serve as valuable insights in planning and deploying wireless sensor networks in different application scenarios

  19. Radiation safety design of super KEKB factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanami, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    The SuperKEKB factory, which was scheduled to start operation early 2015, is an electron-positron collider designed to produce an 80x10"3"4-1/cm"2/s luminosity, which is 40 times greater than the KEKB factory. Built to investigate CP violation and 'new physics' beyond the Standard Model, the facility consists of a 7-GeV electron/3.5-GeV positron linac, a 1.1- GeV positron damping ring, beam transport, and a 7-GeV electron/4-GeV positron collider. To meet this level of luminosity, the collider will be operated with a small beam size and a large crossing angle at the interaction point. According to particle tracking simulations, beam losses under these conditions will be 35 times more than those previously operated. To help optimise shielding configurations, leakage radiation and induced activity are estimated through empirical equations and detailed Monte-Carlo simulations using MARS15 code for the interaction region, beam halo collimators, emergency pathways, ducts, forward direction tunnels, and positron production target. Examples of shielding strategies are presented to reduce both leakage dose and airborne activity for several locations in the facility. (authors)

  20. High-gravity brewing utilizing factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Almeida

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of factors can influence the behavior of yeast during fermentation. Some of these factors (initial wort concentration, initial pH and percentage of corn syrup in the composition of the wort were studied in order to determine their influence on the productivity of fermentation. Fermentations were carried out at 25ºC utilizing a 2³ factorial design of these factors. The results showed that the percentage of corn syrup had no influence on process productivity, whereas initial pH and especially initial wort concentration did. It can be concluded that using pH and initial wort concentration values higher than those utilized in this work (5.5 and 20ºP, respectively will result in a higher productivity.

  1. Climatic and basin factors affecting the flood frequency curve: PART II – A full sensitivity analysis based on the continuous simulation approach combined with a factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Franchini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity analysis described in Hashemi et al. (2000 is based on one-at-a-time perturbations to the model parameters. This type of analysis cannot highlight the presence of parameter interactions which might indeed affect the characteristics of the flood frequency curve (ffc even more than the individual parameters. For this reason, the effects of the parameters of the rainfall, rainfall runoff models and of the potential evapotranspiration demand on the ffc are investigated here through an analysis of the results obtained from a factorial experimental design, where all the parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. This latter, more complex, analysis confirms the results obtained in Hashemi et al. (2000 thus making the conclusions drawn there of wider validity and not related strictly to the reference set selected. However, it is shown that two-factor interactions are present not only between different pairs of parameters of an individual model, but also between pairs of parameters of different models, such as rainfall and rainfall-runoff models, thus demonstrating the complex interaction between climate and basin characteristics affecting the ffc and in particular its curvature. Furthermore, the wider range of climatic regime behaviour produced within the factorial experimental design shows that the probability distribution of soil moisture content at the storm arrival time is no longer sufficient to explain the link between the perturbations to the parameters and their effects on the ffc, as was suggested in Hashemi et al. (2000. Other factors have to be considered, such as the probability distribution of the soil moisture capacity, and the rainfall regime, expressed through the annual maximum rainfalls over different durations. Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation; factorial experimental design; analysis of variance (ANOVA

  2. Design Learning of Teaching Factory in Mechanical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, R. C.; Kusumah, I. H.; Komaro, M.; Rahayu, Y.; Asfiyanur, E. P.

    2018-02-01

    The industrial world that is the target of the process and learning outcomes of vocational high school (SMK) has its own character and nuance. Therefore, vocational education institutions in the learning process should be able to make the appropriate learning approach and in accordance with the industrial world. One approach to learning that is based on production and learning in the world of work is by industry-based learning or known as Teaching Factory, where in this model apply learning that involves direct students in goods or service activities are expected to have the quality so it is worth selling and accepted by consumers. The method used is descriptive approach. The purpose of this research is to get the design of the teaching factory based on the competency requirements of the graduates of the spouse industry, especially in the engineering department. The results of this study is expected to be one of the choice of model factory teaching in the field of machinery engineering in accordance with the products and competencies of the graduates that the industry needs.

  3. Argonne Tau-charm factory collider design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.; Crosbie, E.A.; Norem, J.

    1995-01-01

    The design approach and design principles for a Tau-charm Factory at Argonne were studied. These studies led to a set of preliminary parameters and tentative component features as presented in this paper

  4. Argonne Tau-charm Factory collider design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.; Crosbie, E.A.; Norem, J.; Repond, J.

    1996-01-01

    The design approach and design principles for a Tau-charm Factory at Argonne were studied. These studies led to a set of preliminary parameters and tentative component features as presented in this paper. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  6. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e + e - collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings

  7. Implementing Clinical Research Using Factorial Designs: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Timothy B; Smith, Stevens S; Bolt, Daniel M; Loh, Wei-Yin; Mermelstein, Robin; Fiore, Michael C; Piper, Megan E; Collins, Linda M

    2017-07-01

    Factorial experiments have rarely been used in the development or evaluation of clinical interventions. However, factorial designs offer advantages over randomized controlled trial designs, the latter being much more frequently used in such research. Factorial designs are highly efficient (permitting evaluation of multiple intervention components with good statistical power) and present the opportunity to detect interactions amongst intervention components. Such advantages have led methodologists to advocate for the greater use of factorial designs in research on clinical interventions (Collins, Dziak, & Li, 2009). However, researchers considering the use of such designs in clinical research face a series of choices that have consequential implications for the interpretability and value of the experimental results. These choices include: whether to use a factorial design, selection of the number and type of factors to include, how to address the compatibility of the different factors included, whether and how to avoid confounds between the type and number of interventions a participant receives, and how to interpret interactions. The use of factorial designs in clinical intervention research poses choices that differ from those typically considered in randomized clinical trial designs. However, the great information yield of the former encourages clinical researchers' increased and careful execution of such designs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. JINR tau-charm factory design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perel'shtejn, E.; Aleksandrov, V.; Antropov, V.

    1993-01-01

    The review on tau-charm factory in JINR (Dubna) is presented. The structure scheme of tau-charm factory is described. The problems on injection complex are discussed: the composition, the working regime and parameters. The magnetic lattice of a booster is described. A versatile magnet lattice is used in tau-charm collider. It can realize both conventional flat beam scheme and monochromatization scheme. The results of chromaticity correction in high emittance lattice are presented. The list of parameters of tau-charm collider is given. The technical proposal of magnetic elements of booster and collider and their power supplies is made, as well as RF power supply in collider and vacuum system in its periodic cell. 12 refs.; 12 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. CONFOUNDING STRUCTURE OF TWO-LEVEL NONREGULAR FACTORIAL DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Junbai

    2012-01-01

    In design theory,the alias structure of regular fractional factorial designs is elegantly described with group theory.However,this approach cannot be applied to nonregular designs directly. For an arbitrary nonregular design,a natural question is how to describe the confounding relations between its effects,is there any inner structure similar to regular designs? The aim of this article is to answer this basic question.Using coefficients of indicator function,confounding structure of nonregular fractional factorial designs is obtained as linear constrains on the values of effects.A method to estimate the sparse significant effects in an arbitrary nonregular design is given through an example.

  10. Mainz/PSI φ-factory design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streun, A.

    1991-01-01

    Design considerations for a φ-factory with a Luminosity of the order of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 lead to the concept of a multi-bunch round beam double storage ring with superconducting solenoids for micro-beta focusing and beam rotation. Simulations of the beam-beam-interaction indicate, that significantly higher beam-beam-parameters may become possible with round beams. A rough draft design of a round beam φ-factory is presented. (orig.)

  11. Optimization of minoxidil microemulsions using fractional factorial design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaipakdee, Napaphak; Limpongsa, Ekapol; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply fractional factorial and multi-response optimization designs using desirability function approach for developing topical microemulsions. Minoxidil (MX) was used as a model drug. Limonene was used as an oil phase. Based on solubility, Tween 20 and caprylocaproyl polyoxyl-8 glycerides were selected as surfactants, propylene glycol and ethanol were selected as co-solvent in aqueous phase. Experiments were performed according to a two-level fractional factorial design to evaluate the effects of independent variables: Tween 20 concentration in surfactant system (X1), surfactant concentration (X2), ethanol concentration in co-solvent system (X3), limonene concentration (X4) on MX solubility (Y1), permeation flux (Y2), lag time (Y3), deposition (Y4) of MX microemulsions. It was found that Y1 increased with increasing X3 and decreasing X2, X4; whereas Y2 increased with decreasing X1, X2 and increasing X3. While Y3 was not affected by these variables, Y4 increased with decreasing X1, X2. Three regression equations were obtained and calculated for predicted values of responses Y1, Y2 and Y4. The predicted values matched experimental values reasonably well with high determination coefficient. By using optimal desirability function, optimized microemulsion demonstrating the highest MX solubility, permeation flux and skin deposition was confirmed as low level of X1, X2 and X4 but high level of X3.

  12. Designing fractional factorial split-plot experiments using integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capehart, Shay R.; Keha, Ahmet; Kulahci, Murat

    2011-01-01

    factorial (FF) design, with the restricted randomisation structure to account for the whole plots and subplots. We discuss the formulation of FFSP designs using integer programming (IP) to achieve various design criteria. We specifically look at the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions...

  13. Design, analysis and presentation of factorial randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Little Paul

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of more than one intervention in the same randomised controlled trial can be achieved using a parallel group design. However this requires increased sample size and can be inefficient, especially if there is also interest in considering combinations of the interventions. An alternative may be a factorial trial, where for two interventions participants are allocated to receive neither intervention, one or the other, or both. Factorial trials require special considerations, however, particularly at the design and analysis stages. Discussion Using a 2 × 2 factorial trial as an example, we present a number of issues that should be considered when planning a factorial trial. The main design issue is that of sample size. Factorial trials are most often powered to detect the main effects of interventions, since adequate power to detect plausible interactions requires greatly increased sample sizes. The main analytical issues relate to the investigation of main effects and the interaction between the interventions in appropriate regression models. Presentation of results should reflect the analytical strategy with an emphasis on the principal research questions. We also give an example of how baseline and follow-up data should be presented. Lastly, we discuss the implications of the design, analytical and presentational issues covered. Summary Difficulties in interpreting the results of factorial trials if an influential interaction is observed is the cost of the potential for efficient, simultaneous consideration of two or more interventions. Factorial trials can in principle be designed to have adequate power to detect realistic interactions, and in any case they are the only design that allows such effects to be investigated.

  14. Shielding design of RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Oishi, Koji [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Construction of the RIKEN RI Beam Factory is started, and the phase 1 will be finished by the end of March 2003. Two ring cyclotrons including one superconducting machine and two Big RIPSs will be constructed in the phase 1. Heavy ions of proton to uranium will be accelerated up to 400 MeV/u (A<40) and 150 MeV/u for uranium at an intensity of 10{sup 13} pps. Neutron production by the 400 MeV/u {sup 20}Ne beam was measured at HIMAC of NIRS and it was used for the source term of the shielding calculations. The deep penetration of high-energy neutrons was calculated by using the ANISN code with the DLC-119/HILO86R group constants and also by using the HETC code. The ANISN results were modified by using the HETC results and the shielding experiment at ISIS, and they were fitted by a simple formula for practical use. High-energy neutron penetrations of slantwise injection and the reflection probabilities of iron slab were calculated with the HETC code, and these results were used for the estimation of the thickness for the iron local shielding of Big RIPSs. Induced radioactivity in the air, accelerator components and the building, and the skyshine effect were also estimated. (author)

  15. Constructing General Orthogonal Fractional Factorial Split-Plot Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartono, B.; Goos, P.; Schoen, E.

    2015-01-01

    While the orthogonal design of split-plot fractional factorial experiments has received much attention already, there are still major voids in the literature. First, designs with one or more factors acting at more than two levels have not yet been considered. Second, published work on nonregular

  16. Design Studies for a 1036 SuperB-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J

    2003-01-01

    A Super B Factory, an asymmetric e + e - collider with a luminosity of 10 36 cm -2 s -1 , can provide a sensitive probe of new physics in the flavor sector of the Standard Model. The success of PEP-II and KEKB in producing unprecedented luminosity with unprecedented short commissioning time has taught us about the accelerator physics of asymmetric e + e - colliders in a new parameter regime. It appears to be possible to build on this success to advance the state of the accelerator art by building a collider at a luminosity approaching 10 36 cm -2 s -1 . Such a collider would produce an integrated luminosity of 10,000 fb -1 (10 ab -1 ) in a running year. Design studies are underway to arrive at a complete parameter set based on a collider in the PEP-II tunnel but with an upgraded RF system (perhaps a higher frequency) and an upgraded interaction region [1-6

  17. Factorial study of rain garden design for nitrogen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Nitrate (〖NO〗_3^--N ) removal studies in bioretention systems showed great variability in removal rates and in some cases 〖NO〗_3^--N was exported. A 3-way factorial design (2 x 2 x 4) was devised for eight outdoor un-vegetated rain gardens to evaluate the effects of ...

  18. Two ways factorial design for round robin test of anemometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuerva, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents a way to carry out an inter-comparison between different cup anemometers that are tested in different wind tunnels. The method applied is known as Factorial design and allows determining the influence in the test of different factors in this case the anemometer itself and the wind tunnel where it is tested. (Author) 4 refs

  19. Two Ways Factorial Design for round robin test of anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuerva, A.

    1998-07-01

    This work presents a way to carry out an inter-comparison between different cup anemometers that are tested in different wind tunnels. The method applied is known as Factorial design and allows determining the influence in the test of different factors in this case the anemometer itself and the wind tunnel where it is tested. (Author) 4 refs.

  20. Bioretention Systems: Partial Factorial Designs for Nitrate Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in nutrient loadings are monitored by introducing captured stormwater runoff into eight outdoor rain gardens at EPA’s Urban Water Research Facility in Edison, New Jersey scaled for residential and urban landscapes. The partial factorial design includes non-vegetated meso...

  1. KEKB B-factory design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    KEKB is an asymmetric electron-positron collider at 8 x 3.5 GeV which aims at providing electron-positron collision at the center of mass energy of 10.58 GeV. Its mission is to support high energy physics research programs on CP violation and other topics in B-meson decay. Its luminosity goal is 10 34 /cm 2 s. As the construction of the KEKB was approved as a five-year project by the Japanese government, it was begun formally in April, 1994. The low energy ring LER for positrons at 3.5 GeV and the high energy ring HER for electrons at 8 GeV will be built side by side in the existing TRISTAN tunnel with 3 km circumference, and the maximum use of the infrastructure of TRISTAN will be made. The KEKB has only one interaction point in the Tsukuba experimental hall, and the BELLE detector will be installed in this interaction region. The layout of the two rings is explained. In this report, the basic design, hardware systems, the construction schedule, physics requirement, machine parameters, beam-beam interaction, RF parameters, impedance and collective effects, lattice design, interaction region, RF system, magnet system, vacuum system, beam instrumentation, injection and accelerator control system are described. (K.I.)

  2. KEKB B-factory design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    KEKB is an asymmetric electron-positron collider at 8 x 3.5 GeV which aims at providing electron-positron collision at the center of mass energy of 10.58 GeV. Its mission is to support high energy physics research programs on CP violation and other topics in B-meson decay. Its luminosity goal is 10{sup 34}/cm{sup 2}s. As the construction of the KEKB was approved as a five-year project by the Japanese government, it was begun formally in April, 1994. The low energy ring LER for positrons at 3.5 GeV and the high energy ring HER for electrons at 8 GeV will be built side by side in the existing TRISTAN tunnel with 3 km circumference, and the maximum use of the infrastructure of TRISTAN will be made. The KEKB has only one interaction point in the Tsukuba experimental hall, and the BELLE detector will be installed in this interaction region. The layout of the two rings is explained. In this report, the basic design, hardware systems, the construction schedule, physics requirement, machine parameters, beam-beam interaction, RF parameters, impedance and collective effects, lattice design, interaction region, RF system, magnet system, vacuum system, beam instrumentation, injection and accelerator control system are described. (K.I.).

  3. Concurrent removal of elemental mercury and SO2 from flue gas using a thiol-impregnated CaCO3-based adsorbent: a full factorial design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasundaram, Karthik; Sharma, Mukesh

    2018-03-22

    Mercury (Hg) emitted from coal-based thermal power plants (CTPPs) can accumulate and bio-magnify in the food chain, thereby posing a risk to humans and wildlife. The central idea of this study was to develop an adsorbent which can concurrently remove elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) and SO 2 emitted from coal-based thermal power plants (CTPPs) in a single unit operation. Specifically, a composite adsorbent of CaCO 3 impregnated with 2-mercaptobenimidazole (2-MBI) (referred to as modified calcium carbonate (MCC)) was developed. While 2-MBI having sulfur functional group could selectively adsorb Hg 0 , CaCO 3 could remove SO 2 . Performance of the adsorbent was evaluated in terms of (i) removal (%) of Hg 0 and SO 2 , (ii) adsorption mechanism, (iii) adsorption kinetics, and (iv) leaching potential of mercury from spent adsorbent. The adsorption studies were performed using a 2 2 full factorial design of experiments with 15 ppbV of Hg 0 and 600 ppmV of SO 2 . Two factors, (i) reaction temperature (80 and 120 °C; temperature range in flue gas) and (ii) mass of 2-MBI (10 and 15 wt%), were investigated for the removal of Hg 0 and SO 2 (as %). The maximum Hg 0 and SO 2 removal was 86 and 93%, respectively. The results of XPS characterization showed that chemisorption is the predominant mechanism of Hg 0 and SO 2 adsorption on MCC. The Hg 0 adsorption on MCC followed Elovich kinetic model which is also indicative of chemisorption on heterogeneous surface. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) leached mercury from the spent adsorbent were within the acceptable levels defined in these tests. The engineering significance of this study is that the 2-MBI-modified CaCO 3 -based adsorbent has potential for concurrent removal of Hg 0 and SO 2 in a single unit operation. With only minor process modifications, the newly developed adsorbent can replace CaCO 3 in the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) system.

  4. Design and manufacture NCS instruments for cement factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Tuy; Nguyen Tien Dung; Dang Nguyet Anh; Nguyen Phuc; Khuong Thanh Tuan; Luong Duc Long; Pham Trong Quyen

    2003-01-01

    The ministry project 'Design and manufacture some of NCS instruments for cement factories' is a part of instrumentation for cement production in Vietnam. The objectives of the project include: 1/Design and manufacture the automatic control system for cement raw material mixing, connected to components X-ray analyzer through serial port of PC; 2/Design and manufacture the automatic discharge control system using gamma rays. The instruments, made by the project , for controlling the conveyor belt weighing machine can be easily improved for various types of conveyor belt weighing machines. Their mobility and software equipped can be adapted for requirement of modern cement production technology. The instruments are operating well in some cement factories and they are helping in quality control. (NHA)

  5. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias C.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  6. RF system design for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, H.; Rimmer, R.

    1994-06-01

    The paper presents an overview of the design of the RF system for the PEP-II B Factory. An RF station consists of either two or four single-cell cavities driven by a 1.2 MW klystron through a waveguide distribution network. A variety of feedback loops stabilize the RF and its interaction with the beam. System parameters and all the relevant parameters of klystron and cavities are given

  7. A Market-Based Approach to Multi-factory Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vytelingum, Perukrishnen; Rogers, Alex; MacBeth, Douglas K.; Dutta, Partha; Stranjak, Armin; Jennings, Nicholas R.

    In this paper, we report on the design of a novel market-based approach for decentralised scheduling across multiple factories. Specifically, because of the limitations of scheduling in a centralised manner - which requires a center to have complete and perfect information for optimality and the truthful revelation of potentially commercially private preferences to that center - we advocate an informationally decentralised approach that is both agile and dynamic. In particular, this work adopts a market-based approach for decentralised scheduling by considering the different stakeholders representing different factories as self-interested, profit-motivated economic agents that trade resources for the scheduling of jobs. The overall schedule of these jobs is then an emergent behaviour of the strategic interaction of these trading agents bidding for resources in a market based on limited information and their own preferences. Using a simple (zero-intelligence) bidding strategy, we empirically demonstrate that our market-based approach achieves a lower bound efficiency of 84%. This represents a trade-off between a reasonable level of efficiency (compared to a centralised approach) and the desirable benefits of a decentralised solution.

  8. Factorial Design Approach in Proportioning Prestressed Self-Compacting Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Wu-Jian; Khayat, Kamal Henri; Lemieux, Guillaume; Xing, Feng; Wang, Wei-Lun

    2015-03-13

    In order to model the effect of mixture parameters and material properties on the hardened properties of, prestressed self-compacting concrete (SCC), and also to investigate the extensions of the statistical models, a factorial design was employed to identify the relative significance of these primary parameters and their interactions in terms of the mechanical and visco-elastic properties of SCC. In addition to the 16 fractional factorial mixtures evaluated in the modeled region of -1 to +1, eight axial mixtures were prepared at extreme values of -2 and +2 with the other variables maintained at the central points. Four replicate central mixtures were also evaluated. The effects of five mixture parameters, including binder type, binder content, dosage of viscosity-modifying admixture (VMA), water-cementitious material ratio (w/cm), and sand-to-total aggregate ratio (S/A) on compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, as well as autogenous and drying shrinkage are discussed. The applications of the models to better understand trade-offs between mixture parameters and carry out comparisons among various responses are also highlighted. A logical design approach would be to use the existing model to predict the optimal design, and then run selected tests to quantify the influence of the new binder on the model.

  9. The effect of stimulation therapy and donepezil on cognitive function in Alzheimer’s disease. A community based RCT with a two-by-two factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Fred

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progressive neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD induces cognitive deterioration, and there is controversy regarding the optimal treatment strategy in early AD. Stimulation therapy, including physical exercise and cholinesterase inhibitors are both reported to postpone cognitive deterioration in separate studies. We aimed to study the effect of stimulation therapy and the additional effect of donepezil on cognitive function in early AD. Method Design: A two-by-two factorial trial comprising stimulation therapy for one year compared to standard care to which a randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trial with donepezil was added. Setting: Nine rural municipalities in Northern Norway. Participants: 187 participants 65 years and older with a recent diagnosis of mild or moderate AD were included in the study of which 146 completed a one-year follow-up. INTERVENTIONS: In five municipalities the participants received stimulation therapy whereas participants in four received standard care. All participants were randomised double-blindly to donepezil or placebo and tested with three different cognitive tests four times during the one-year study period. Main outcome: Changes in MMSE sum score. Secondary outcome: Changes in ADAS-Cog and Clock Drawing Test. Results MMSE scores remained unchanged amongst AD participants receiving stimulation therapy and those receiving standard care. The results were consistent for ADAS-Cog and Clock Drawing Test. No time trend differences were found during one-year follow-up between groups receiving stimulation therapy versus standard care or between donepezil versus placebo. Conclusion In rural AD patients non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapy did not improve outcome compared with standard care but all groups retained cognitive function during one year follow-up. Other studies are needed to confirm these results. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT00443014

  10. Lighting up yeast cell factories by transcription factor-based biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'ambrosio, Vasil; Jensen, Michael Krogh

    2017-01-01

    Our ability to rewire cellular metabolism for the sustainable production of chemicals, fuels and therapeutics based on microbial cell factories has advanced rapidly during the last two decades. Especially the speed and precision by which microbial genomes can be engineered now allow for more...... process. For this purpose, there is a need to develop new techniques for screening and selection of best-performing cell factory designs in multiplex. Here we review the current status of the sourcing, design and engineering of biosensors derived from allosterically regulated transcription factors applied...... advanced designs to be implemented and tested. However, compared to the methods developed for engineering cell factories, the methods developed for testing the performance of newly engineered cell factories in high throughput are lagging far behind, which consequently impacts the overall biomanufacturing...

  11. Magnet design studies for the TRIUMF KAON factory proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, A.J.; Ellstrom, L.; Haddock, C.; Harold, M.; Reeve, P.; Sasaki, H.; Schwandt, P.

    1989-10-01

    TRIUMF is engaged on a one year Project Definition Study of its KAON factory proposal. This proposal calls for a total of 1800 magnets to be installed in three storage rings, two synchrotrons, beam transfer lines and experimental facilities to increase the present beam from 200 μA at 500 MeV to 100 μA at 30 GeV. The paper discusses the current design status concentrating on the ac booster synchrotron ring magnets which will be driven by biased dc current modulated at 50 Hz. Methods of estimating the core losses for this excitation, the coil eddy current losses and design and fabrication features of prototypes will be presented

  12. FFAG Designs for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.S.; Machida, S.

    2009-05-04

    The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (IDS-NF) aims to produce a design report for a neutrino factory. One component of that design is a linear nonscaling fixed-field alternating gradient accelerator (FFAG) that will accelerate to the final energy of 25 GeV. An FFAG is used to reduce the machine cost by maximizing the number of passes made through the RF cavities. We present some design options for this FFAG, individually optimized for cost. We study the addition of nonlinear magnets to the lattice to improve the performance of the lattice and consider the negative effects of doing so.

  13. Optimization of MCM-48 synthesis using factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, A.R. do; Medeiros, R.L.B. de A.; Melo, M. A. de F.; Melo, D.M. de A. [Universitdade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil); Souza, M.J.B. de, E-mail: ale3ufs@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    MCM-48 mesoporous materials were hydrothermally synthesized according to the 2{sup 2} factorial design by varying the crystallization time and temperature of the synthesis gel, and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and adsorption of N{sub 2} . In the crystallization temperature and time conditions used, specific areas between 924 to 1102 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}, pore volumes between 0.015 to 0.087 cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1} and pore diameters between 3.2 to 4.0 nm were obtained. It was observed that for the syntheses performed at high temperature, the crystallization time should be reduced so that the material structure is formed. (author)

  14. Dynamic Supply Chain Design and Operations Plan for Connected Smart Factories with Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Do Chung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest in smart factories and smart supply chains has been increasing, and researchers have emphasized the importance and the effects of advanced technologies such as 3D printers, the Internet of Things, and cloud services. This paper considers an innovation in dynamic supply-chain design and operations: connected smart factories that share interchangeable processes through a cloud-based system for personalized production. In the system, customers are able to upload a product design file, an optimal supply chain design and operations plan are then determined based on the available resources in the network of smart factories. The concept of smart supply chains is discussed and six types of flexibilities are identified, namely: design flexibility, product flexibility, process flexibility, supply chain flexibility, collaboration flexibility, and strategic flexibility. Focusing on supply chain flexibility, a general planning framework and various optimization models for dynamic supply chain design and operations plan are proposed. Further, numerical experiments are conducted to analyze fixed, production, and transportation costs for various scenarios. The results demonstrate the extent of the dynamic supply chain design and operations problem, and the large variation in transportation cost.

  15. Accelerator design of the KEK B-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Shin-ichi; Satoh, Kotaro; Kikutani, Eiji

    1991-03-01

    A design study has been made for the KEK B-Factory, an accelerator complex dedicated to the detection of the CP-violation effect of B-mesons. It is an asymmetric two-ring electron-positron collider of 3.5x8 GeV within a new tunnel measuring 1273 m circumference. The design peak luminosity is to be 10 34 cm -2 s -1 , which will be realized in two steps. The luminosity is to be 2 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 with a head-on collision scheme in the first step; it is then increased to a final value of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 with a finite-angle crossing scheme. This document comprises two parts; the first part presents an overview of the design; the second part is a collection of papers giving detailed descriptions of various subjects. Stress is put on the design of the first step; the second step is mentioned when necessary. (author)

  16. PEP-II: An asymmetric B factory. Conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    In this report, the authors have described an updated conceptual design for the high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory (PEP-II) to be built in the PEP tunnel culmination of more than four years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sub +}e{sub {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. All aspects of the conceptual design were scrutinized in March 1991 by a DOE technical review committee chaired by Dr. L. Edward Temple. The design was deemed feasible and capable of achieving its physics goals. Furthermore, the cost estimate, schedule, and management plan for the project were fully endorsed by the committee. This updated conceptual design report captures the technical progress since the March 1991 review and reflects the lower cost estimate corresponding to the improved design. Although the PEP-II design has continued to evolve, no technical scope changes have been made that invalidate the conclusion of the DOE review. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, an electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of PEP-II. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two PEP-II storage rings.

  17. MapFactory - Towards a mapping design pattern for big geospatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenbach, Victoria; Coetzee, Serena

    2018-05-01

    With big geospatial data emerging, cartographers and geographic information scientists have to find new ways of dealing with the volume, variety, velocity, and veracity (4Vs) of the data. This requires the development of tools that allow processing, filtering, analysing, and visualising of big data through multidisciplinary collaboration. In this paper, we present the MapFactory design pattern that will be used for the creation of different maps according to the (input) design specification for big geospatial data. The design specification is based on elements from ISO19115-1:2014 Geographic information - Metadata - Part 1: Fundamentals that would guide the design and development of the map or set of maps to be produced. The results of the exploratory research suggest that the MapFactory design pattern will help with software reuse and communication. The MapFactory design pattern will aid software developers to build the tools that are required to automate map making with big geospatial data. The resulting maps would assist cartographers and others to make sense of big geospatial data.

  18. An asymmetric Β-factory based on PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oddone, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the motivation for building asymmetric B-factories based on storage rings and describes the current LBL/SLAC study to develop such a factory by modifying the PEP storage ring and adding a new low energy (2.5-3 GeV) storage ring. Collisions between the beam of the modified high energy PEP ring and the low energy ring lead to a luminosity of 2 x 10 33 cm- 2 sec - 1 at E cm = Y(4s) with currents of 0.8A in each beam. Further increases in current can lead to luminosities close to 10 34 cm - 2 sec - 1

  19. Full factorial design analysis of carbon nanotube polymer-cement composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Paiva Cota

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The work described in this paper is related to the effect of adding carbon nanotubes (CNT on the mechanical properties of polymer-cement composites. A full factorial design has been performed on 160 samples to identify the contribution provided by the following factors: polymeric phase addition, CNT weight addition and water/cement ratio. The response parameters of the full factorial design were the bulk density, apparent porosity, compressive strength and elastic modulus of the polymer-cement-based nanocomposites. All the factors considered in this analysis affected significantly the bulk density and apparent porosity of the composites. The compressive strength and elastic modulus were affected primarily by the cross-interactions between polymeric phase and CNT additions, and the water/cement ratio with polymeric phase factors.

  20. Application of Factorial Design for Gas Parameter Optimization in CO2 Laser Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Dragsted, Birgitte; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1997-01-01

    The effect of different gas process parameters involved in CO2 laser welding has been studied by applying two-set of three-level complete factorial designs. In this work 5 gas parameters, gas type, gas flow rate, gas blowing angle, gas nozzle diameter, gas blowing point-offset, are optimized...... to be a very useful tool for parameter optimi-zation in laser welding process. Keywords: CO2 laser welding, gas parameters, factorial design, Analysis of Variance........ The bead-on-plate welding specimens are evaluated by a number of quality char-acteristics, such as the penetration depth and the seam width. The significance of the gas pa-rameters and their interactions are based on the data found by the Analysis of Variance-ANOVA. This statistic methodology is proven...

  1. THE USE OF A FACTORIAL DESIGN TO EVALUATE THE PHYSICAL STABILITY OF TABLETS PREPARED BY DIRECT COMPRESSION .1. A NEW APPROACH BASED ON THE RELATIVE CHANGE IN TABLET PARAMETERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C. E.; BOLHUIS, G. K.; LERK, C. F.; de Boer, J. H.; DUINEVELD, C. A. A.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    A factorial design has been used to study the influence of disintegrant concentration and compression force as well as storage temperature and relative humidity on the physical stability during storage of alpha-lactose monohydrate/rice starch tablets prepared by direct compression. The tablet

  2. Industry 4.0 learning factory didactic design parameters for industrial engineering education in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sackey, S. M.; Bester, A.; Adams, D.

    2017-01-01

    To manage the impact of Industry 4.0 on industrial engineering (IE) education curriculum requirements, realistic teaching and learning infrastructure such as a learning factory are required. This paper scans the literature to determine Industry 4.0’s principles and interactions with IE and a learning factory, surveys relevant universities by questionnaire to determine its current status and practices, and formulates didactic design parameters for an Industry 4.0 learning factory to support IE...

  3. Batch phenol biodegradation study and application of factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hellal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC27853, was investigated for its ability to grow and to degrade phenol as solecarbon source, in aerobic batch culture. The parameters which affect the substrate biodegradation such as the adaptation ofbacteria to phenol, the temperature, and the nature of the bacteria were investigated. The results show that for a range oftemperature of 30 to 40°C, the best degradation of phenol for a concentration of 100mg/l was observed at 30°C. The regenerationof the bacterium which allows the reactivation of its enzymatic activity, shows that the degradation of 100 mg/ l ofsubstrate at 30° C required approximately 50 hours with revivified bacteria, while it only starts after 72 hours for those norevivified. Adapted to increasing concentrations, allows the bacteria to degrade a substrate concentration of about 400mg/l in less than 350 hours.A second part was consisted in the determination of a substrate degradation model using the factorial experiment design,as a function of temperature (30-40°C and of the size of the inoculums (260.88 - 521.76mg/ l. The results were analyzedstatistically using the Student’s t-test, analysis of variance, and F-test. The value of R2 (0.99872 and adjusted R2 (0.9962close to 1.0, verifies the good correlation between the observed and the predicted values, and provides the excellent relationshipbetween the independent variables (factors and the response (the time of the phenol degradation. F-value found above200, indicates that the considered model is statistically significant.

  4. Industry 4.0 learning factory didactic design parameters for industrial engineering education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sackey, S. M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To manage the impact of Industry 4.0 on industrial engineering (IE education curriculum requirements, realistic teaching and learning infrastructure such as a learning factory are required. This paper scans the literature to determine Industry 4.0’s principles and interactions with IE and a learning factory, surveys relevant universities by questionnaire to determine its current status and practices, and formulates didactic design parameters for an Industry 4.0 learning factory to support IE education in South Africa, making use of existing models of cyber-physical systems and learning factory morphology. In other results, the technical universities are discovered to be more positively disposed, in general terms, to developing an Industry 4.0 learning factory than are the traditional programmes which, with one exception, prefer computational facilities. Of ten universities that offer IE, only one — a traditional programme — has made significant progress towards creating an Industry 4.0 learning factory.

  5. Superintensive pulse slow neutron source SIN based on kaon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolmichkov, N.V.; Laptev, V.D.; Matveev, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    Possibility of intensive pulse slow neutron source creation based on 45-GeV proton synchrotron of K-meson factory, planned to construction in INR AS USSR is considered. Calculated peak thermal neutrons flux density value, averaged on 'radiating' light-water moderator surface of 100 cm 2 is 6.6 x 10 17 neutrons/(cm 2 sec) for pulse duration of 35 microseconds. (author)

  6. Algorithm for designing smart factory Industry 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjanov, A. V.; Zakoldaev, D. A.; Shukalov, A. V.; Zharinov, I. O.

    2018-03-01

    The designing task of production division of the Industry 4.0 item designing company is being studied. The authors proposed an algorithm, which is based on the modified V L Volkovich method. This algorithm allows generating options how to arrange the production with robotized technological equipment functioning in the automatic mode. The optimization solution of the multi-criteria task for some additive criteria is the base of the algorithm.

  7. Design of a surface-based factory for the production of life support and technology support products. Phase 2: Integrated water system for a space colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Phase 2 of a conceptual design of an integrated water treatment system to support a space colony is presented. This includes a breathable air manufacturing system, a means of drilling for underground water, and storage of water for future use. The system is to supply quality water for biological consumption, farming, residential and industrial use and the water source is assumed to be artesian or subsurface and on Mars. Design criteria and major assumptions are itemized. A general block diagram of the expected treatment system is provided. The design capacity of the system is discussed, including a summary of potential users and the level of treatment required; and, finally, various treatment technologies are described.

  8. Fractional factorial plans

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Aloke

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...

  9. DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE, GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mynatt Fred R.; Townsend, L.W.; Williamson, Martin; Williams, Wesley; Miller, Laurence W.; Khan, M. Khurram; McConn, Joe; Kadak, Andrew C.; Berte, Marc V.; Sawhney, Rapinder; Fife, Jacob; Sedler, Todd L.; Conway, Larry E.; Felde, Dave K.

    2003-11-12

    The purpose of this research project is to develop compact (100 to 400 MWe) Generation IV nuclear power plant design and layout concepts that maximize the benefits of factory-based fabrication and optimal packaging, transportation and siting. The reactor concepts selected were compact designs under development in the 2000 to 2001 period. This interdisciplinary project was comprised of three university-led nuclear engineering teams identified by reactor coolant type (water, gas, and liquid metal) and a fourth Industrial Engineering team. The reactors included a Modular Pebble Bed helium-cooled concept being developed at MIT, the IRIS water-cooled concept being developed by a team led by Westinghouse Electric Company, and a Lead-Bismuth-cooled concept developed by UT. In addition to the design and layout concepts this report includes a section on heat exchanger manufacturing simulations and a section on construction and cost impacts of proposed modular designs.

  10. DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE, GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynatt, Fred R.; Townsend, L.W.; Williamson, Martin; Williams, Wesley; Miller, Laurence W.; Khan, M. Khurram; McConn, Joe; Kadak, Andrew C.; Berte, Marc V.; Sawhney, Rapinder; Fife, Jacob; Sedler, Todd L.; Conway, Larry E.; Felde, Dave K.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research project is to develop compact (100 to 400 MWe) Generation IV nuclear power plant design and layout concepts that maximize the benefits of factory-based fabrication and optimal packaging, transportation and siting. The reactor concepts selected were compact designs under development in the 2000 to 2001 period. This interdisciplinary project was comprised of three university-led nuclear engineering teams identified by reactor coolant type (water, gas, and liquid metal) and a fourth Industrial Engineering team. The reactors included a Modular Pebble Bed helium-cooled concept being developed at MIT, the IRIS water-cooled concept being developed by a team led by Westinghouse Electric Company, and a Lead-Bismuth-cooled concept developed by UT. In addition to the design and layout concepts this report includes a section on heat exchanger manufacturing simulations and a section on construction and cost impacts of proposed modular designs

  11. Design and implementation of a factorial randomized controlled trial of methadone maintenance therapy and an evidence-based behavioral intervention for incarcerated people living with HIV and opioid dependence in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazazi, Alexander R; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Wegman, Martin P; Culbert, Gabriel J; Pillai, Veena; Shrestha, Roman; Al-Darraji, Haider; Copenhaver, Michael M; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-08-01

    Incarcerated people living with HIV and opioid dependence face enormous challenges to accessing evidence-based treatment during incarceration and after release into the community, placing them at risk of poor HIV treatment outcomes, relapse to opioid use and accompanying HIV transmission risk behaviors. Here we describe in detail the design and implementation of Project Harapan, a prospective clinical trial conducted among people living with HIV and opioid dependence who transitioned from prison to the community in Malaysia from 2010 to 2014. This trial involved 2 interventions: within-prison initiation of methadone maintenance therapy and an evidence-based behavioral intervention adapted to the Malaysian context (the Holistic Health Recovery Program for Malaysia, HHRP-M). Individuals were recruited and received the interventions while incarcerated and were followed for 12months after release to assess post-release HIV transmission risk behaviors and a range of other health-related outcomes. Project Harapan was designed as a fully randomized 2×2 factorial trial where individuals would be allocated in equal proportions to methadone maintenance therapy and HHRP-M, methadone maintenance therapy alone, HHRP-M alone, or control. Partway through study implementation, allocation to methadone maintenance therapy was changed from randomization to participant choice; randomization to HHRP-M continued throughout. We describe the justification for this study; the development and implementation of these interventions; changes to the protocol; and screening, enrollment, treatment receipt, and retention of study participants. Logistical, ethical, and analytic issues associated with the implementation of this study are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CrossRef Neutrino factory proton driver and target design

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, Roland; Thomason, John; Davenne, Tristan; Caretta, Ottone; Back, John J

    2016-01-01

    Neutrinos are very elusive particles belonging to the lepton family. They exist in different types corresponding to the different charged leptons, namely electrons, muons and taus. Contrary to electrons, neutrinos hardly interact with matter which makes them very difficult to detect and study. To the best of today’s knowledge, neutrinos have hardly any mass and they can change from one type to another (so-called “neutrino oscillation”). Most physicists think that this oscillation occurs because neutrinos have mass. A Neutrino Factory [1] is a special facility producing a large amount of neutrinos every year (typically 10$^{21}$ neutrinos/year). Its main purpose is to study the change of type of neutrinos between the place where they are generated and a remote location. In a Neutrino Factory, neutrinos result from the decay of muons, unstable particles with a mean lifetime of 2.2 $\\mu$s in their rest frame. Sharp beams of high energy neutrinos are obtained at the end of the long straight sections of a mu...

  13. Vacuum system of the high energy ring of an asymmetric B-factory based on PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.A.; Calderon, M.O.; Wong, R.; Jenkins, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    The multi-ampere currents required for high luminosity operation of an asymmetric B factory leads to extremely stressing requirements on a vacuum system suitable for maintaining long beam-gas lifetimes and acceptable background levels in the detector. We present the design for a Cu alloy vacuum chamber and its associated pumping system for the 9 GeV electron storage ring of the proposed B factory based on PEP. The excellent thermal and photo-desorption properties of Cu allows handling the high proton flux in a conventional, single chamber design with distributed ion pumps. The x-ray opacity of the Cu is sufficiently high that no additional lead shielding is necessary to protect the dipoles from the intense synchrotron radiation generated by the beam. The design allows chamber commissioning in <500 hr of operation. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Alternative Muon Cooling Options based on Particle-Matter-Interaction for a Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Stratakis, D; Alekou, A; Pasternak, J

    2013-01-01

    An ionization cooling channel is a tightly spaced lattice containing absorbers for reducing the momentum of the muon beam, rf cavities for restoring the momentum and strong solenoids for focusing the beam. Such a lattice is an essential feature of most designs for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders. Here, we explore three different approaches for designing ionization cooling channels based on periodic solenoidal focusing. Key parameters such as the engineering constraints arising from the length and separation between the solenoidal coils are systematically examined. In addition, we propose novel approaches for reducing the peak magnetic field inside the rf cavities, for example, by using bucked coils for focusing. Our lattice designs are numerically examined against two independent codes: The ICOOL and G4BL code. The performance of our proposed cooling channels is examined by implementing those to the front-end of a Neutrino Factory.

  15. Accelerated and Rational Design of Improved CHO Cell Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grav, Lise Marie

    Recombinant production of therapeutic proteins provides huge benefits to human health and promises solutions to some of the most devastating and currently untreatable diseases in healthcare. Key to the development of new therapeutic proteins is to optimize and engineer living cells, namely cell...... of a number of novel tools is reported that aim to accelerate the construction of production cell lines for therapeutic proteins with optimal phenotypic attributes for industrial processes. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the predominant production host for therapeutic proteins, and are the cell factory...... of interest in this thesis. The core of the thesis is revolved around the development and application of genome editing techniques that enable us to precisely engineer the genome of CHO cells by either rendering specific-targeted genes unfunctional or inserting new genes in precise genomic locations...

  16. SCREENING OF MEDIUM COMPOUNDS USING A TWO-LEVEL FACTORIAL DESIGN FOR SACCHAROMYCES BOULARDII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUOWEI SHU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Even if the probiotic effect of Saccharomyces boulardii is has been reported, this yeast is rarely used in medium composition. Based on single factor experiment, two-level factorial design was employed to evaluate the effect of carbon sources (sucrose, glucose, nitrogen sources (soy peptone, beef extract, yeast extract, calf serum, malt extract and salts (K2HPO4, KH2PO4, MgSO4, Na2HPO4, NaH2PO4, CaCl2, sodium citrate, sodium glutamate on the growth of S. boulardii. At the same time, the optical density (OD in the medium was measured at 560 nm after 36 h of incubation. The result of two-level factorial design experiment showed that calf serum (p = 0.0214 and sodium citrate (p = 0.0045 are the significant growth factors of S. boulardii, sucrose (p = 0.0861 and malt extract (p = 0.0763 are important factors. In addition, sucrose and sodium citrate showed positive effect on the growth of S. boulardii. However, calf serum and malt extract showed negative effect on the growth. And we determined that the optimum medium composition for S. boulardii was as follow: 37.5 g·L-1 sucrose, 6 g·L-1 calf serum, 6 g·L-1 malt extract, 5 g·L-1 sodium citrate.

  17. Gaming in the Classroom: An Innovative Way to Teach Factorial Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Jessica A.; Munro, Geoffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of video game use for instruction of factorial designs in a research methods course. Students designed and conducted a mini study, playing "Dance, Dance, Revolution", using video game scores as the dependent variable. A mixed-design analysis of variance revealed a significantly greater increase from pretest to…

  18. Status of the Super-B factory Design

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmer, W; Chao, A; Novokhatski, A; Nosochkov, Y; Seeman, J; Sullivan, M K; Wienands, U; Weathersby, S; Bogomyagkov, A V; Levichev, E; Nikitin, S; Piminov, P; Shatilov, D; Sinyatkin, S; Vobly, P; Okunev, I N; Bolzon, B; Brunetti, L; Jeremie, A; Biagini, M E; Boni, R; Boscolo, M; Demma, T; Drago, A; Esposito, M; Guiducci, S; Liuzzo, S; Preger, M; Raimondi, P; Tomassini, S; Zobov, M; Paoloni, E; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Farinon, S; Bettoni, S; Poirier, F; Rimbault, C; Variola, A; Baylac, M; Bourrion, O; Monseu, N; Vescovi, C; Chance, A

    2011-01-01

    The SuperB international team continues to optimize the design of an electron-positron collider, which will allow the enhanced study of the origins of flavor physics. The project combines the best features of a linear collider (high single-collision luminosity) and a storage-ring collider (high repetition rate), bringing together all accelerator physics aspects to make a very high luminosity of 10$^{36}$ cm$^{-2}$ sec$^{-1}$. This asymmetric-energy collider with a polarized electron beam will produce hundreds of millions of B-mesons at the $\\Upsilon$(4S) resonance. The present design is based on extremely low emittance beams colliding at a large Piwinski angle to allow very low $\\beta_y^\\star$ without the need for ultra short bunches. Use of crab-waist sextupoles will enhance the luminosity, suppressing dangerous resonances and allowing for a higher beam-beam parameter. The project has flexible beam parameters, improved dynamic aperture, and spin-rotators in the Low Energy Ring for longitudinal polarization o...

  19. Possible kaon and antiproton factory designs for TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craddock, M K [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada); Kost, C J; Richardson, J R [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility

    1979-12-01

    Two alternative designs based on proton synchrotrons and isochronous ring cyclotrons, respectively are considered for accelerating high currents (<30 ..mu..A) from TRIUMF (0.45 GeV) to energies high enough for the production of high fluxes of kaons (8-10 GeV) and antiprotons (25-30 GeV). The first synchrotron would be fast cycling at 20 Hz, with third harmonic flat-topping to aid in injection and extraction. The cw beam from TRIUMF would be extracted in 100-turn macropulses at 22 ..mu..sec intervals. With 400 ..mu..A in TRIUMF and injection over 8-20 % of the magnet cycle, 30-80 ..mu..A could be accelerated to 10 GeV. A second synchrotron would accelerate 30 ..mu..A to 30 GeV for production of antiprotons. The ring cyclotron option would also be built in two stages, 0.45 to 3 GeV (15 sectors, 10 m radius) and 3 to 8.5 GeV (30 sectors, 20 m radius). With superconducting magnets (5 T) the weight of steel could be kept below 2000 tons for each ring. Large field-free regions between the spiral ium ions, are obtained with an av the polarimetry installation is being carried out.

  20. Possible kaon and antiproton factory designs for TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.; Kost, C.J.; Richardson, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Two alternative designs based on proton synchrotrons and isochronous ring cyclotrons, respectively are considered for accelerating high currents (<30 μA) from TRIUMF (0.45 GeV) to energies high enough for the production of high fluxes of kaons (8-10 GeV) and antiprotons (25-30 GeV). The first synchrotron would be fast cycling at 20 Hz, with third harmonic flat-topping to aid in injection and extraction. The cw beam from TRIUMF would be extracted in 100-turn macropulses at 22 μsec intervals. With 400 μA in TRIUMF and injection over 8-20 % of the magnet cycle, 30-80 μA could be accelerated to 10 GeV. A second synchrotron would accelerate 30 μA to 30 GeV for production of antiprotons. The ring cyclotron option would also be built in two stages, 0.45 to 3 GeV (15 sectors, 10 m radius) and 3 to 8.5 GeV (30 sectors, 20 m radius). With superconducting magnets (5 T) the weight of steel could be kept below 2000 tons for each ring. Large field-free regions between the spiral sector magnets allow room for multiple SIN-style accelerating cavities, permitting energy gains of many MeV/turn. Second or third harmonic cavities and the phase compression effect help in achieving separated turn extraction. Up to 100 % of the beam in TRIUMF could be accelerated to 8.5 GeV. (auth)

  1. Possible kaon and antiproton factory designs for TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.; Kost, C.J.; Richardson, J.R.

    1979-11-01

    Two alternative designs based on proton synchrotrons and isochronous ring cyclotrons, respectively are considered for accelerating high currents (>=30 μA) from TRIUMF (0.45 GeV) to energies high enough for the production of high fluxes of kaons (8-10 GeV) and antiprotons (25-30 GeV). The first synchrotron would be fast cycling at 20 Hz, with third harmonic flat-topping to aid in injection and extraction. The cw beam from TRIUMF would be extracted in 100-turn macropulses at 22 μsec intervals. With 400 μA in TRIUMF and injection over 8-20% of the magnet cycle, 30-80 μA could be accelerated to 10 GeV. A second synchrotron would accelerate 30 μA to 30 GeV for production of antiprotons. The ring cyclotron option would also be built in two stages, 0.45 to 3 GeV (15 sectors, 10 m radius) and 3 to 8.5 GeV (30 sectors, 20 m radius). With superconducting magnets (5 T) the weight of steel could be kept below 2000 tons for each ring. Large field-free regions between the spiral sector magnets allow room for multiple SIN-style accelerating cavities, permitting energy gains of many MeV/turn. Second or third harmonic cavities and the phase compression effect help in achieving separated turn extraction. Up to 100% of the beam in TRIUMF could be accelerated to 8.5 GeV. (auth)

  2. Interim Design Report for the International Design Study for a Neutrino Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choubey, S.; Gandhi, R.; Goswami, S.; Berg, J.S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Souchlas, N.; Ellis, M.

    2011-01-01

    The starting point for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) was the output of the earlier International Scoping Study for a future Neutrino Factory and super-beam facility (the ISS). The accelerator facility described in section 2 incorporates the improvements that have been derived from the substantial amount of work carried out within the Accelerator Working Group. Highlights of these improvements include: (1) Initial concepts for the implementation of the proton driver at each of the three example sites, CERN, FNAL, and RAL; (2) Detailed studies of the energy deposition in the target area; (3) A reduction in the length of the muon beam phase-rotation and bunching systems; (4) Detailed analyses of the impact of the risk that stray magnetic field in the accelerating cavities in the ionization cooling channel will reduce the maximum operating gradient. Several alternative ionization-cooling lattices have been developed as fallback options to mitigate this technical risk; (5) Studies of particle loss in the muon front-end and the development of strategies to mitigate the deleterious effects of such losses; (6) The development of more complete designs for the muon linac and re-circulating linacs; (7) The development of a design for the muon FFAG that incorporates insertions for injection and extraction; and (8) Detailed studies of diagnostics in the decay ring. Other sub-systems have undergone a more 'incremental' evolution; an indication that the design of the Neutrino Factory has achieved a degree of maturity. The design of the neutrino detectors described in section 3 has been optimized and the Detector Working Group has made substantial improvements to the simulation and analysis of the Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) resulting in an improvement in the overall neutrino-detection efficiency and a reduction in the neutrino-energy threshold. In addition, initial consideration of the engineering of the MIND has generated a

  3. Interim Design Report for the International Design Study for a Neutrino Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, S.; Gandhi, R.; Goswami, S.; /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst.; Berg, J.S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Souchlas, N.; /Brookhaven; Ellis, M.; /Brunel U. /CERN /Durham U., IPPP /Fermilab /Geneva U. /Glasgow U. /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Imperial Coll., London /Jefferson Lab /Saha Inst.

    2011-10-01

    The starting point for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) was the output of the earlier International Scoping Study for a future Neutrino Factory and super-beam facility (the ISS). The accelerator facility described in section 2 incorporates the improvements that have been derived from the substantial amount of work carried out within the Accelerator Working Group. Highlights of these improvements include: (1) Initial concepts for the implementation of the proton driver at each of the three example sites, CERN, FNAL, and RAL; (2) Detailed studies of the energy deposition in the target area; (3) A reduction in the length of the muon beam phase-rotation and bunching systems; (4) Detailed analyses of the impact of the risk that stray magnetic field in the accelerating cavities in the ionization cooling channel will reduce the maximum operating gradient. Several alternative ionization-cooling lattices have been developed as fallback options to mitigate this technical risk; (5) Studies of particle loss in the muon front-end and the development of strategies to mitigate the deleterious effects of such losses; (6) The development of more complete designs for the muon linac and re-circulating linacs; (7) The development of a design for the muon FFAG that incorporates insertions for injection and extraction; and (8) Detailed studies of diagnostics in the decay ring. Other sub-systems have undergone a more 'incremental' evolution; an indication that the design of the Neutrino Factory has achieved a degree of maturity. The design of the neutrino detectors described in section 3 has been optimized and the Detector Working Group has made substantial improvements to the simulation and analysis of the Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) resulting in an improvement in the overall neutrino-detection efficiency and a reduction in the neutrino-energy threshold. In addition, initial consideration of the engineering of the MIND has

  4. Process of chemical recycling of post-consumer PET using a factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Carlos Eduardo de O.; Almeida, Yeda Medeiros B. de; Vinhas, Gloria M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated important variables in the depolymerization reaction of post-consumer poly (ethylene terephthalate) - PET via alkaline hydrolysis. Through this reaction is obtained terephthalic acid (PTA), a monomer, which when purified, is used for the production of PET resin. The study was based on a 2"2 factorial design in which the independent variables were the concentration of NaOH solution and the reaction time, and the dependent variable was the yield of PTA obtained. The experiments that generated the best results, 100 % of yield, were obtained with the higher values of the independent variables. Statistical analysis showed that the concentration of NaOH solution is the variable that most influences in the process. The PTA obtained was analyzed by NMR ¹H technique, confirming the strong resemblance to commercial PTA obtained by petrochemical way. (author)

  5. Application of fractional factorial design to improve hot smoked Nile Perch (Lates niloticus quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokamté, T.A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the parameters influencing moisture, salt and total phenol content of hot smoked Nile Perch and to compare the influence of processing conditions on its proximate composition and sensory quality. The effect on moisture, salt and total phenol content was investigated using fractional factorial design with seven factors and two levels: X1 for brine concentration, X2 for brining time, X3 for preliminary smoking-drying time, X4 for smoking time, X5 for hot smoking time, X6 for smoking temperature and X7 for hot smoking temperature. A Multiple Linear Regression Analysis was performed to fit the mathematical model to the collected data and the model tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results of ANOVA indicated the good accuracy and highest significance of the mathematical model. The range of total protein and lipid content was 17.96 to 34.34% and 0.87 to 4.43%, respectively. The range of general acceptability of smoked Nile Perch was 4.6 to 8.2 based on 9-point hedonic scale. Based on the results obtained, including the overall acceptability, proximate composition and smoking criteria of finished product, samples produced with the following conditions: brining at 4% for 270min, drying at 30°C for 30min and the smoked time/temperature cycles following: 30°C/120min; 50°C/240min and 80°C/240min was the best and most accepted. The results derived from this study indicate that the fractional factorial design is a useful screening tool for improving industrial smoking process of Nile Perch.

  6. Clustering Words to Match Conditions: An Algorithm for Stimuli Selection in Factorial Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch, Marc; Haro, Juan; Boada, Roger

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing refinement of language processing models and the new discoveries about which variables can modulate these processes, stimuli selection for experiments with a factorial design is becoming a tough task. Selecting sets of words that differ in one variable, while matching these same words into dozens of other confounding variables…

  7. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Design Development and Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kessler, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mullens, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rath, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  8. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3. Design Development and Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Kessler, B. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Mullens, M. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Rath, P. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  9. Harmonic filter design consideration for a tire-rubber factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebardast, A. [Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Abhar Branch]|[Sharif Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mokhtari, H. [Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Nonlinear loads and arc furnace loads are the main sources of harmonic currents in power distribution systems. Harmonic currents can cause reductions in system efficiency, and shorten the lifespan of transformers and capacitor banks. This paper provided details of a filter designed to attenuate harmonic currents at a tire company in Iran. The tire company was supplied by 3 distribution transformers and an emergency transformer. Main supply was through a 132 kV/20 kV transformer, which was connected to 2 A and B stations. The AC/DC drivers generated harmonics. Harmonic measurements were performed to determine the type and size of the required filters. A summary of site harmonic measurements was provided. A passive filter was placed at a medium voltage location. A sensitivity analysis was then performed in order to assess loading effects on filter performance. The analysis was performed on all possible configurations in the plant, including load change, capacitor bank step change, and transformer energization. Resonance conditions were also examined. Results showed that attention must be paid to the filter component rating in addition to potential resonant conditions. It was concluded that resonant conditions alter when system operating conditions change. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Synthetic yeast based cell factories for vanillin-glucoside production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strucko, Tomas

    and controlled expression/overexpression of genes of interest. De novo biosynthetic pathway for vanillin-β-glucoside production was employed as a model system for several case studies in this project. In order to construct yeast cell factories fulfilling current demands of industrial biotechnology, methods......The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well a characterized microorganism and widely used as eukaryotic model organism as well as a key cell factory for bioproduction of various products. The latter comprise a large variety of scientifically and industrially relevant products such as low-value bulk...... chemicals and biofuels, food additives, high-value chemicals and recombinant proteins. Despite the recent achievements in the fields of systems biology and metabolic engineering together with availability of broad genetic engineering toolbox, the full potential of S. cerevisiae as a cell factory is not yet...

  11. SuperB A High-Luminosity Asymmetric $e^+ e^-$ Super Flavour Factory : Conceptual Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Bona, M.; Grauges Pous, E.; Colangelo, P.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Eigen, G.; Venturini, M.; Soni, N.; Bruschi, M.; De Castro, S.; Faccioli, P.; Gabrieli, A.; Giacobbe, B.; Semprini Cesare, N.; Spighi, R.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; Hearty, C.; McKenna, J.; Soni, A.; Khan, A.; Barniakov, A.Y.; Barniakov, M.Y.; Blinov, V.E.; Druzhinin, V.P.; Golubev, V.B.; Kononov, S.A.; Koop, I.A.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Levichev, E.B.; Nikitin, S.A.; Onuchin, A.P.; Piminov, P.A.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Shatilov, D.N.; Skovpen, Y.I.; Solodov, E.A.; Cheng, C.H.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D.J.; Porter, F.C.; Asner, D.M.; Pham, T.N.; Fleischer, R.; Giudice, G.F.; Hurth, T.; Mangano, M.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B.T.; Schwartz, A.J.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Soffer, A.; Beard, C.D.; Haas, T.; Mankel, R.; Hiller, G.; Ball, P.; Pappagallo, M.; Pennington, M.R.; Gradl, W.; Playfer, S.; Abada, A.; Becirevic, D.; Descotes-Genon, S.; Pene, O.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabresi, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Prencipe, E.; Santoro, V.; Stancari, G.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Biagini, M.E.; Boscolo, M.; Calcaterra, A.; Drago, A.; Finocchiaro, G.; Guiducci, S.; Isidori, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I.M.; Piccolo, M.; Preger, M.A.; Raimondi, P.; Rama, M.; Vaccarezza, C.; Zallo, A.; Zobov, M.; De Sangro, R.; Buzzo, A.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M.; Monge, M.R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Matias, J.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Borzumati, F.; Eyges, V.; Prell, S.A.; Pedlar, T.K.; Korpar, S.; Pestonik, R.; Staric, M.; Neubert, M.; Denig, A.G.; Nierste, U.; Agoh, T.; Ohmi, K.; Ohnishi, Y.; Fry, J.R.; Touramanis, C.; Wolski, A.; Golob, B.; Krizan, P.; Flaecher, H.; Bevan, A.J.; Di Lodovico, F.; George, K.A.; Barlow, R.; Lafferty, G.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D.A.; Simi, G.; Patel, P.M.; Robertson, S.H.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Kaidalov, A.; Buras, A.J.; Tarantino, C.; Buchalla, G.; Sanda, A.I.; D'Ambrosio, G.; Ricciardi, G.; Bigi, I.; Jessop, C.P.; Losecco, J.M.; Honscheid, K.; Arnaud, N.; Chehab, R.; Fedala, Y.; Polci, F.; Roudeau, P.; Sordini, V.; Soskov, V.; Stocchi, A.; Variola, A.; Vivoli, A.; Wormser, G.; Zomer, F.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Gagliardi, N.; Gaz, A.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Bonneaud, G.R.; Lombardo, V.; Calderini, G.; Ratti, L.; Speziali, V.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Servoli, L.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Dell'Orso, M.; Forti, F.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Massa, M.; Mazur, M.A.; Morsani, F.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J.; Braun, V.; Lenz, A.; Adams, G.S.; Danko, I.Z.; Baracchini, E.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; D'Orazio, A.; Del Re, D.; Di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Gaspero, Mario; Jackson, P.; Martinelli, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Morganti, Silvio; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Silvestrini, L.; Voena, C.; Catani, L.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Messi, R.; Santovetti, E.; Satta, A.; Ciuchini, M.; Lubicz, V.; Wilson, F.F.; Godang, R.; Chen, X.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M.; Trivedi, A.; White, R.M.; Wilson, J.R.; Allen, M.T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Brodsky, S.J.; Cai, Y.; Coleman, J.; Convery, M.R.; DeBarger, S.; Dingfelder, J.C.; Dubois-Felsmann, G.P.; Ecklund, S.; Fisher, A.S.; Haller, G.; Heifets, S.A.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M.H.; Kocian, M.L.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Li, N.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; MacFarlane, D.; Messner, R.; Muller, D.R.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Pivi, M.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Roodman, A.; Schwiening, J.; Seeman, J.; Snyder, A.; Sullivan, M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wienands, U.; Wisniewski, W.; Stoeck, H.; Cheng, H.Y.; Li, H.N.; Keum, Y.Y.; Gronau, M.; Grossman, Y.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Gambino, P.; Marchetto, F.; Menichetti, Ezio A.; Mussa, R.; Pelliccioni, M.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Bernabeu, J.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D.A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paradisi, P.; Pich, A.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Roney, J.M.; Back, J.J.; Gershon, T.J.; Harrison, P.F.; Latham, T.E.; Mohanty, G.B.; Petrov, A.A.; Pierini, M.; INFN

    2007-01-01

    The physics objectives of SuperB, an asymmetric electron-positron collider with a luminosity above 10^36/cm^2/s are described, together with the conceptual design of a novel low emittance design that achieves this performance with wallplug power comparable to that of the current B Factories, and an upgraded detector capable of doing the physics in the SuperB environment.

  12. Compatible validated spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods for determination of vildagliptin and saxagliptin by factorial design experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Omar; Ayad, Miriam F.; Tadros, Mariam M.

    2015-04-01

    Simple, selective and reproducible spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of vildagliptin and saxagliptin in bulk and their pharmaceutical dosage forms. The first proposed spectrofluorimetric method is based on the dansylation reaction of the amino group of vildagliptin with dansyl chloride to form a highly fluorescent product. The formed product was measured spectrofluorimetrically at 455 nm after excitation at 345 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in a concentration range of 100-600 μg ml-1. The second proposed spectrophotometric method is based on the charge transfer complex of saxagliptin with tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (p-chloranil). The formed charge transfer complex was measured spectrophotometrically at 530 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in a concentration range of 100-850 μg ml-1. The third proposed spectrophotometric method is based on the condensation reaction of the primary amino group of saxagliptin with formaldehyde and acetyl acetone to form a yellow colored product known as Hantzsch reaction, measured at 342.5 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in a concentration range of 50-300 μg ml-1. All the variables were studied to optimize the reactions' conditions using factorial design. The developed methods were validated and proved to be specific and accurate for quality control of vildagliptin and saxagliptin in their pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  13. A Profile-Based Framework for Factorial Similarity and the Congruence Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Anselma G; Furr, R Michael

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel profile-based framework for understanding factorial similarity in the context of exploratory factor analysis in general, and for understanding the congruence coefficient (a commonly used index of factor similarity) specifically. First, we introduce the profile-based framework articulating factorial similarity in terms of 3 intuitive components: general saturation similarity, differential saturation similarity, and configural similarity. We then articulate the congruence coefficient in terms of these components, along with 2 additional profile-based components, and we explain how these components resolve ambiguities that can be-and are-found when using the congruence coefficient. Finally, we present secondary analyses revealing that profile-based components of factorial are indeed linked to experts' actual evaluations of factorial similarity. Overall, the profile-based approach we present offers new insights into the ways in which researchers can examine factor similarity and holds the potential to enhance researchers' ability to understand the congruence coefficient.

  14. Vacuum system design for the PEP-II B Factory High-Energy Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.; Bostic, D.; Daly, E.

    1994-06-01

    The design of the vacuum system for the PEP-II B Factory High-Energy Ring is reviewed. The thermal design and vacuum requirements are particularly challenging in PEP-II due to high stored beam currents up to 3.0 amps in 1658 bunches. The vacuum chambers for the HER arcs are fabricated by electron beam welding extruded copper sections up to 6 m long. Design of these chambers and the vacuum PumPing configuration is described with results from vacuum and thermal analyses

  15. Enhancing biodegradation of wastewater by microbial consortia with fractional factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yuancai [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, Guangdong (China); Lin Chejen, E-mail: Jerry.Lin@lamar.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710-0024 (United States); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong (China); Jones, Gavin [Texas Research Institute for Environmental Studies, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341-2506 (United States); Fu Shiyu; Zhan Huaiyu [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, Guangdong (China)

    2009-11-15

    Batch experiments were conducted on the degradation of synthetic and municipal wastewater by six different strains, i.e., Agrobacterium sp., Bacillus sp., Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas putida. By applying a fractional factorial design (FFD) of experiments, the influence of each strain and their interactions were quantified. An empirical model predicting the treatment efficiency was built based on the results of the FFD experiments with an R{sup 2} value of 99.39%. For single strain, Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia and P. putida (p = 0.008, 0.009 and 0.023, respectively) showed significant enhancement on organic removal in the synthetic wastewater. Positive interaction from Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia (p = 0.046) was found, indicating that syntrophic interaction existed, and their coexistence can improve total organic carbon (TOC) degradation. Verification experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of bioaugmentation by introducing three selected strains into an activated sludge reactor for treating municipal wastewater. The removal efficiency of TOC with the bioaugmentation was increased from 67-72% to 80-84% at an influent TOC concentration of 200 mg/L. The results derived from this study indicate that the FFD is a useful screening tool for optimizing the microbial community to enhance treatment efficiency.

  16. Enhancing biodegradation of wastewater by microbial consortia with fractional factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuancai; Lin Chejen; Jones, Gavin; Fu Shiyu; Zhan Huaiyu

    2009-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted on the degradation of synthetic and municipal wastewater by six different strains, i.e., Agrobacterium sp., Bacillus sp., Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas putida. By applying a fractional factorial design (FFD) of experiments, the influence of each strain and their interactions were quantified. An empirical model predicting the treatment efficiency was built based on the results of the FFD experiments with an R 2 value of 99.39%. For single strain, Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia and P. putida (p = 0.008, 0.009 and 0.023, respectively) showed significant enhancement on organic removal in the synthetic wastewater. Positive interaction from Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia (p = 0.046) was found, indicating that syntrophic interaction existed, and their coexistence can improve total organic carbon (TOC) degradation. Verification experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of bioaugmentation by introducing three selected strains into an activated sludge reactor for treating municipal wastewater. The removal efficiency of TOC with the bioaugmentation was increased from 67-72% to 80-84% at an influent TOC concentration of 200 mg/L. The results derived from this study indicate that the FFD is a useful screening tool for optimizing the microbial community to enhance treatment efficiency.

  17. Study on bio-ethanol production from oil palm (Elaies Guineensis) trunks sap using factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norhazimah, A. H.; Che Ku, M. Faizala [Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (Malaysia)], email: amfaizal@ump.edu.my

    2011-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaies Guineensis) trunks (OPT), a waste generated from the re-plantation of oil palm trees for palm oil production, contain useful fermentable sugar for bio-ethanol production, and are a very important biomass material for future energy production. The fermentation usually can be affected along several parameters: temperature, pH, agitation rate, percentage inoculums, time of incubation, nitrogen sources, age of the inoculums and other chemical and physical factors. Since identifying all the effects of a particular factor on the fermentation process is impractical for reasons of time and cost, the approach of this study was based on a two-level five-factor (25) full factorial design (FFD) in order to identify the independent parameters for screening experiment purposes and determine the range of levels of the factor as well as the regions for optimization. The results from this study showed that the most influential principal factors affecting ethanol concentration and productivity were temperature, followed by initial pH and agitation rate.

  18. Rapid Determination of Protein Solubility and Stability Conditions for NMR Studies Using Incomplete Factorial Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducat, Thierry; Declerck, Nathalie; Gostan, Thierry; Kochoyan, Michel; Demene, Helene

    2006-01-01

    Sample preparation constitutes a crucial and limiting step in structural studies of proteins by NMR. The determination of the solubility and stability (SAS) conditions of biomolecules at millimolar concentrations stays today empirical and hence time- and material-consuming. Only few studies have been recently done in this field and they have highlighted the interest of using crystallogenesis tools to optimise sample conditions. In this study, we have adapted a method based on incomplete factorial design and making use of crystallisation plates to quantify the influence of physico-chemical parameters such as buffer pH and salts on protein SAS. A description of the experimental set up and an evaluation of the method are given by case studies on two functional domains from the bacterial regulatory protein LicT as well as two other proteins. Using this method, we could rapidly determine optimised conditions for extracting soluble proteins from bacterial cells and for preparing purified protein samples sufficiently concentrated and stable for NMR characterisation. The drastic reduction in the time and number of experiments required for searching protein SAS conditions makes this method particularly well-adapted for a systematic investigation on a large range of physico-chemical parameters

  19. A Preliminary Interaction Region Design for a Super B-Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Michael K; Donald, Martin; Ecklund, Stanley; Novokhatski, Alexander; Seeman, John; Wienands, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    The success of the two B-Factories (PEP-II and KEKB) has encouraged us to look at design parameters for a B-Factory with a 30-50 times increase in the luminosity of the present machines (L~1e36). In order to achieve this high luminosity, the beta y* values are reduced to 3-2 mm, the bunch spacing is minimized (0.6-0.3 m) and the bunch currents are increased. Total beam currents range from 5-25 A. The interaction region (IR) of these "SuperB" designs presents special challenges. Synchrotron radiation fans from local bending in shared magnets and from upstream sources pose difficulties due to the high power levels in these fans. High-order-mode(HOM)heating, effects that have been seen in the present B-factories, will become much more pronounced with the very short bunches and high beam currents. Masking the detector beam pipe from synchrotron radiation must take into account effects of HOM power generation. Backgrounds that are a function of the luminosity will become very important. We presen...

  20. Fractional Factorial Design for Parameter Sweep Experiments Using Nimrod/E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C. Peachey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of formal experimental design and analysis are powerful tools for scientists and engineers. However, these techniques are currently underused for experiments conducted with computer models. This has motivated the incorporation of experimental design functionality into the Nimrod tool chain. Nimrod has been extensively used for exploration of the response of models to their input parameters; the addition of experimental design tools will combine the efficiency of carefully designed experiments with the power of distributed execution. This paper describes the incorporation of one type of design, the fractional factorial design, and associated analysis tools, into the Nimrod framework. The result provides a convenient environment that automates the design of an experiment, the execution of the jobs on a computational grid and the return of results, and which assists in the interpretation of those results. Several case studies are included which demonstrate various aspects of this approach.

  1. THE PRIMARY TARGET FACILITY FOR A NEUTRINO FACTORY BASED ON MUON BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSENEIN, A.; KAHN, S.A.; KING, B.J.; KIRK, H.G.; LUDEWIG, H.; PALMER, R.B.; PEARSON, C.E.; SAMULYAK, R.; SIMOS, N.; STUMER, I.; THIEBERGER, P.; WEGGEL, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Neutrino beams from the decay of muons in a storage ring offer the prospect of very high flux, well-understood spectra, and equal numbers of electron and muon neutrinos, as desirable for detailed exploration of neutrino oscillations via long baseline detectors [1]. Such beams require. large numbers of muons, and hence a high performance target station at which a 1-4 MW proton beam of 16-24 GeV impinges on a compact target, all inside a high field solenoid channel to capture as much of the phase volume of soft pions as possible. A first concept was based on a carbon target, as reported in 2000 the Neutrino Factory Study-I [2]. A higher performance option based on a free mercury jet has been studied in 2001 as part of the Neutrino Factory Feasibility Study-II [3,4]. An overview of a mercury jet target facility is presented here, including requirements, design concept and summaries of simulated performance. Further details are presented in related papers at this conference

  2. Factory physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hopp, Wallace J.

    2011-01-01

    After a brief introductory chapter, "Factory Physics 3/e" is divided into three parts: I - The Lessons of History; II - Factory Physics; and III - Principles in Practice. The scientific approach to manufacturing and supply chain management, developed in Part II, is unique to this text. No other text or professional book provides a rigorous, principles-based foundation for manufacturing management. The Third Edition offers tighter connections between Lean Manufacturing, MRP/ERP, Six Sigma, Supply Chain Management, and Factory Physics. In addition to enhancing the historical overview of how these systems evolved, the authors show explicitly how users can achieve Lean Manufacturing objectives (faster response, less inventory) using the integration aspects of MRP/ERP/SCM systems along with the variance analysis methods of Six Sigma. Factory Physics provides the overarching framework that coordinates all of these initiatives into a single-focused strategy.

  3. Test results of distributed ion pump designs for the PEP-II Asymmetric B-Factory collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, M.; Holdener, F.; Peterson, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-07-01

    The testing facility measurement methods and results of prototype distributed ion pump (DIP) designs for the PEP-II B-Factory High Energy Ring are presented. Two basic designs with 5- or 7-anode plates were tested at LLNL with penning cell sizes of 15, 18, and 21 mm. Direct comparison of 5- and 7-plate anodes with 18 mm holes shows increased pumping speed with the 7-plate design. The 5-plate, 18 mm and 7-plate, 15 mm designs both gave an average pumping speed of 135 1/s/m at 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} Torr nitrogen base pressure in a varying 0.18 T peak B-field. Comparison of the three hole sizes indicates that cells smaller than the 15 mm tested can be efficiently used to obtain higher pumping speeds for the same anode plate sizes used.

  4. Test results of distributed ion pump designs for the PEP-II Asymmetric B-Factory collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, M.; Holdener, F.; Peterson, D.

    1994-07-01

    The testing facility measurement methods and results of prototype distributed ion pump (DIP) designs for the PEP-II B-Factory High Energy Ring are presented. Two basic designs with 5- or 7-anode plates were tested at LLNL with penning cell sizes of 15, 18, and 21 mm. Direct comparison of 5- and 7-plate anodes with 18 mm holes shows increased pumping speed with the 7-plate design. The 5-plate, 18 mm and 7-plate, 15 mm designs both gave an average pumping speed of 135 1/s/m at 1 x 10 -8 Torr nitrogen base pressure in a varying 0.18 T peak B-field. Comparison of the three hole sizes indicates that cells smaller than the 15 mm tested can be efficiently used to obtain higher pumping speeds for the same anode plate sizes used

  5. A method to identify energy efficiency measures for factory systems based on qualitative modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Krones, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Manuela Krones develops a method that supports factory planners in generating energy-efficient planning solutions. The method provides qualitative description concepts for factory planning tasks and energy efficiency knowledge as well as an algorithm-based linkage between these measures and the respective planning tasks. Its application is guided by a procedure model which allows a general applicability in the manufacturing sector. The results contain energy efficiency measures that are suitable for a specific planning task and reveal the roles of various actors for the measures’ implementation. Contents Driving Concerns for and Barriers against Energy Efficiency Approaches to Increase Energy Efficiency in Factories Socio-Technical Description of Factory Planning Tasks Description of Energy Efficiency Measures Case Studies on Welding Processes and Logistics Systems Target Groups Lecturers and Students of Industrial Engineering, Production Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Practi...

  6. Factorial experimental design intended for the optimization of the alumina purification conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmi, Mounaouer; Ba, Mohamedou; Hidri, Yassine; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal conditions by using the experimental design methodology for the removal of some impurities associated with the alumina. So, three alumina qualities of different origins were investigated under the same conditions. The application of full-factorial designs on the samples of different qualities of alumina has followed the removal rates of the sodium oxide. However, a factorial experimental design was developed to describe the elimination of sodium oxide associated with the alumina. The experimental results showed that chemical analyze followed by XRF prior treatment of the samples, provided a primary idea concerning these prevailing impurities. Therefore, it appeared that the sodium oxide constituted the largest amount among all impurities. After the application of experimental design, analysis of the effectors different factors and their interactions showed that to have a better result, we should reduce the alumina quantity investigated and by against increase the stirring time for the first two samples, whereas, it was necessary to increase the alumina quantity in the case of the third sample. To expand and improve this research, we should take into account all existing impurities, since we found during this investigation that the levels of partial impurities increased after the treatment.

  7. Optimization of wood flour acetylation by factorial design and partial least squares regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra M. K. Nadal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation was performed to reduce the polarity of wood and increase its compatibility with polymer matrices for the production of composites. These reactions were performed first as a function of acetic acid and anhydride concentration in a mixture catalyzed by sulfuric acid. A concentration of 50%/50% (v/v of acetic acid and anhydride was found to produced the highest conversion rate between the functional groups. After these reactions, the kinetics were investigated by varying times and temperatures using a 3² factorial design, and showed time was the most relevant parameter in determining the conversion of hydroxyl into carbonyl groups.

  8. Factorial design applied to the optimization of lipid composition of topical antiherpetic nanoemulsions containing isoflavone genistein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argenta DF

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Débora Fretes Argenta,1 Cristiane Bastos de Mattos,1 Fabíola Dallarosa Misturini,1 Leticia Scherer Koester,1 Valquiria Linck Bassani,1 Cláudia Maria Oliveira Simões,2 Helder Ferreira Teixeira1 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 2Programa de Pós-graduação em Farmácia da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil Abstract: The aim of this study was to optimize topical nanoemulsions containing genistein, by means of a 23 full factorial design based on physicochemical properties and skin retention. The experimental arrangement was constructed using oil type (isopropyl myristate or castor oil, phospholipid type (distearoylphosphatidylcholine [DSPC] or dioleylphosphaditylcholine [DOPC], and ionic cosurfactant type (oleic acid or oleylamine as independent variables. The analysis of variance showed effect of third order for particle size, polydispersity index, and skin retention of genistein. Nanoemulsions composed of isopropyl myristate/DOPC/oleylamine showed the smallest diameter and highest genistein amount in porcine ear skin whereas the formulation composed of isopropyl myristate/DSPC/oleylamine exhibited the lowest polydispersity index. Thus, these two formulations were selected for further studies. The formulations presented positive ζ potential values (>25 mV and genistein content close to 100% (at 1 mg/mL. The incorporation of genistein in nanoemulsions significantly increased the retention of this isoflavone in epidermis and dermis, especially when the formulation composed by isopropyl myristate/DOPC/oleylamine was used. These results were supported by confocal images. Such formulations exhibited antiherpetic activity in vitro against herpes simplex virus 1 (strain KOS and herpes simplex virus 22 (strain 333. Taken together, the results show that the genistein-loaded nanoemulsions developed in this study are promising

  9. Formulation of topical bioadhesive gel of aceclofenac using 3-level factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjay; Parhi, Rabinarayan; Garg, Anuj

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop bioadhesive topical gel of Aceclofenac with the help of response-surface approach. Experiments were performed according to a 3-level factorial design to evaluate the effects of two independent variables [amount of Poloxamer 407 (PL-407 = X1) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose K100 M (HPMC = X2)] on the bioadhesive character of gel, rheological property of gel (consistency index), and in-vitro drug release. The best model was selected to fit the data. Mathematical equation was generated by Design Expert® software for the model which assists in determining the effect of independent variables. Response surface plots were also generated by the software for analyzing effect of the independent variables on the response. Quadratic model was found to be the best for all the responses. Both independent variable (X1 and X2) were found to have synergistic effect on bioadhesion (Y1) but the effect of HPMC was more pronounced than PL-407. Consistency index was enhanced by increasing the level of both independent variables. An antagonistic effect of both independent variables was found on cumulative percentage release of drug in 2 (Y3) and 8 h (Y4). Both independent variables approximately equally contributed the antagonistic effect on Y3 whereas antagonistic effect of HPMC was more pronounced than PL-407. The effect of formulation variables on the product characteristics can be easily predicted and precisely interpreted by using a 3-level factorial experimental design and generated quadratic mathematical equations.

  10. Optimizing conditions for the development process of the sponge liquid bread mold through a factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Quintero Gil

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The bread in its many forms is one of the oldest and most widely food consumed by humanity, its appearance is not known for sure, but it is presumed that he was in the Middle East, where he began to cultivate wheat. Due to its development in different cultures have been many developments in technology and industry, however all the processes that are designed to make bread have had a common purpose and simple, the conversion of wheat four in a food spongy and appetizing. This objective has been achieved through a series of stages are common as the mixture of water and four with yeast, salt and other ingredients individuals in appropriate proportions; the generation of specific aroma and favor through fermentation and the development a structure of gluten in combination with the application of mechanical energy during the kneading and the subsequent acquisition of a fixed and final structure consistent with a nice color through the baking.To achieve this goal which is based on the fermentation of the baking industry has created the term to refer to a sponge pre whose primary function is precisely to change the favor and aroma and contribute to the development of the mass through changes in the properties rheological properties of the mixture. Among the ingredients of the sponge is drawn to the food for yeast known as (APL that has the primary role of regulating the fermentation through the right mix of ingredients both qualitatively and quantitatively.The study of this combination was raised in this paper using a factorial design of experiments with statistical treatment looking to evaluate the effects of the formulation in combination with the temperature on a response variable called gasification power which indirectly measured the development of the fermentation Liquid sponges that serve as a basis for the preparation of bread mold. The results made it possible to defne a design and the apl an optimum temperature at which the variable response

  11. Development and application of computer-aided design methods for cell factory optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Joao

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can be used to produce chemicals for everyday applications. Engineering microorganisms is a multidisciplinary task comprising four steps: design, build, test and learn. The design and learn phases rely on computational, statistical models, data analysis...... and machine learning. The process of creating strains with commercially relevant titers is time consuming and expensive. Computer-aided design (CAD) software can help scientists build better strains by providing models and algorithms that can be used to generate and test hypotheses before implementing them...... microbial cell factories. In this PhD thesis we present cameo, a CAD software for metabolic engineering that uses GEMs. State-of-the-art and novel algorithms are implemented in cameo. These algorithms have been made accessible using a high-level API to enable any user to start running them without having...

  12. Factorial design of a solar photocatalytic process to treatment of wastewater effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Adriana Ribeiro; Paterniani, Jose Euclides Stipp [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: adriana.francisco@agr.unicamp.br; Kuwakino, Adriana Yuri [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CESET/UNICAMP), Limeira, SP (Brazil). Centro Superior de Educacao Tecnologica

    2008-07-01

    Advanced treatments are attributed to improving the quality of various types of waste such as the sanitary wastewater. The heterogeneous photocatalysis is an alternative that allows to improve the effluents conditions. This is possible because many chemical compounds of environmental concern can be degraded using UV radiation on a semiconductor. However, to enable the efficiency of the process photocatalytic is necessary to conduct a study of optimization to establish favorable conditions between selected variables. The aim of this work was a reactor solar photocatalytic optimization using factorial design 2{sup k}, depending on variables: mass (TiO{sub 2}), time (min) and flow of air (L min{sup -1}), using as analytical response the removal of color. The experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering (FEAGRI) and it was used the sanitary wastewater of there. The results indicated that there were significant efficiency using combinations mass = 1000 mg L{sup -1}, time = 360 min and flow of air = 5 L min{sup -1}. In the calculations of factorial design, the time showed a marked positive effect of 7.76, while the flow of air, when in excess, had an inhibitor behavior, even getting positive effect. (author)

  13. Optimization of LDL targeted nanostructured lipid carriers of 5-FU by a full factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sare Andalib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC are a mixture of solid and liquid lipids or oils as colloidal carrier systems that lead to an imperfect matrix structure with high ability for loading water soluble drugs. The aim of this study was to find the best proportion of liquid and solid lipids of different types for optimization of the production of LDL targeted NLCs used in carrying 5-Fu by the emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Materials and Methods: The influence of the lipid type, cholesterol or cholesteryl stearate for targeting LDL receptors, oil type (oleic acid or octanol, lipid and oil% on particle size, surface charge, drug loading efficiency, and drug released percent from the NLCs were studied by a full factorial design. Results: The NLCs prepared by 54.5% cholesterol and 25% of oleic acid, showed optimum results with particle size of 105.8 nm, relatively high zeta potential of −25 mV, drug loading efficiency of 38% and release efficiency of about 40%. Scanning electron microscopy of nanoparticles confirmed the results of dynamic light scattering method used in measuring the particle size of NLCs. Conclusions: The optimization method by a full factorial statistical design is a useful optimization method for production of nanostructured lipid carriers.

  14. Optimization of LDL targeted nanostructured lipid carriers of 5-FU by a full factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andalib, Sare; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Hassanzadeh, Farshid; Sadeghi, Hojjat

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are a mixture of solid and liquid lipids or oils as colloidal carrier systems that lead to an imperfect matrix structure with high ability for loading water soluble drugs. The aim of this study was to find the best proportion of liquid and solid lipids of different types for optimization of the production of LDL targeted NLCs used in carrying 5-Fu by the emulsification-solvent evaporation method. The influence of the lipid type, cholesterol or cholesteryl stearate for targeting LDL receptors, oil type (oleic acid or octanol), lipid and oil% on particle size, surface charge, drug loading efficiency, and drug released percent from the NLCs were studied by a full factorial design. The NLCs prepared by 54.5% cholesterol and 25% of oleic acid, showed optimum results with particle size of 105.8 nm, relatively high zeta potential of -25 mV, drug loading efficiency of 38% and release efficiency of about 40%. Scanning electron microscopy of nanoparticles confirmed the results of dynamic light scattering method used in measuring the particle size of NLCs. The optimization method by a full factorial statistical design is a useful optimization method for production of nanostructured lipid carriers.

  15. A Method for Monitoring Iron and Steel Factory Economic Activity Based on Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government has promulgated a de-capacity policy for economic growth and environmental sustainability, especially for the iron and steel industry. With these policies, this study aimed to monitor the economic activities and evaluate the production conditions of an iron and steel factory based on satellites via Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS data and high-resolution images from January 2013 to October 2017, and propel next economic adjustment and environmental protection. Our methods included the construction of a heat island intensity index for an iron and steel factory (ISHII, a heat island radio index for an iron and steel factory (ISHRI and a dense classifying approach to monitor the spatiotemporal changes of the internal heat field of an iron and steel factory. Additionally, we used GF-2 and Google Earth images to identify the main production area, detect facility changes to a factory that alters its heat field and verify the accuracy of thermal analysis in a specific time span. Finally, these methods were used together to evaluate economic activity. Based on five iron and steel factories in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, when the ISHII curve is higher than the seasonal changes in a time series, production is normal; otherwise, there is a shut-down or cut-back. In the spatial pattern analyses, the ISHRI is large in normal production and decreases when cut-back or shut-down occurs. The density classifying images and high-resolution images give powerful evidence to the above-mentioned results. Finally, three types of economic activities of normal production, shut-down or cut-back were monitored for these samples. The study provides a new perspective and method for monitoring the economic activity of an iron and steel factory and provides supports for sustainable development in China.

  16. Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M; Tsenov, R; Dracos, M; Bonesini, M; Palladino, V; Tortora, L; Mori, Y; Planche, T; Lagrange, J  B; Kuno, Y; Benedetto, E; Efthymiopoulos, I; Garoby, R; Gilardoini, S; Martini, M; Wildner, E; Prior, G; Blondel, A; Karadzhow, Y; Ellis, M; Kyberd, P; Bayes, R; Laing, A; Soler, F  J  P; Alekou, A; Apollonio, M; Aslaninejad, M; Bontoiu, C; Jenner, L  J; Kurup, A; Long, K; Pasternak, J; Zarrebini, A; Poslimski, J; Blackmore, V; Cobb, J; Tunnell, C; Andreopoulos, C; Bennett, J  R  J; Brooks, S; Caretta, O; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Edgecock, T  R; Fitton, M; Kelliher, D; Loveridge, P; McFarland, A; Machida, S; Prior, C; Rees, G; Rogers, C; Rooney, M; Thomason, J; Wilcox, D; Booth, C; Skoro, G; Back, J  J; Harrison, P; Berg, J  S; Fernow, R; Gallardo, J  C; Gupta, R; Kirk, H; Simos, N; Stratakis, D; Souchlas, N; Witte, H; Bross, A; Geer, S; Johnstone, C; Mokhov, N; Neuffer, D; Popovic, M; Strait, J; Striganov, S; Morfín, J  G; Wands, R; Snopok, P; Bogacz, S  A; Morozov, V; Roblin, Y; Cline, D; Ding, X; Bromberg, C; Hart, T; Abrams, R  J; Ankenbrandt, C  M; Beard, K  B; Cummings, M  A  C; Flanagan, G; Johnson, R  P; Roberts, T  J; Yoshikawa, C  Y; Graves, V  B; McDonald, K  T; Coney, L; Hanson, G

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that $\\theta_{13} > 0$. The measured value of $\\theta_{13}$ is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti)neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO$\

  17. Analyzing the shape parameter effects on the performance of the mixed-flow fan using CFD and Factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Uk Hee; Kim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Sung; Kim, Jin Hyuk; Choi, Young Seok

    2016-01-01

    Fans are representative turbo-machinery widely used for ventilation throughout the industrial world. Recently, as the importance of energy saving has been magnified with the fans, the demand for the fans with high efficiency and performance has been increasing. The representative method for enhancing the performance includes design optimization; in practice, fan performance can be improved by changing the shape parameters such as those of meridional plane, impeller, and diffuser. Before optimizing the efficient design, a process of screening to select important design parameters is essential. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of mixed-flow fans' shape parameters on fan performance (static pressure and fan static efficiency) and derive optimum models based on the results. In this study, the shape parameters considered in the impeller domain are as follows: tip clearance, number of blades, beta angle of Leading edge (LE) in the blade, and beta angle of Trailing edge (TE) in the blade. The shape parameters considered in the diffuser domain are as follows: meridional length of the Guide vane (GV), number of GV, beta angle of LE in the GV and beta angle of TE in the GV. The effects of individual shape parameters were analyzed using the CFD (Computational fluid dynamic) and DOE (Design of experiments) methods. The reliability of CFD was verified through the comparison between preliminary fan model's experiment results and CFD results, and screening processes were implemented through 24-1 fractional factorial design. From the analysis of DOE results, it could be seen that the tip clearance and the number of blades in the impeller domain greatly affected the fan performance, and the beta angle of TE at the GV in the diffuser domain greatly affected the fan performance. Finally, the optimum models with improved fan performance were created using linear regression equations derived from 24-1 fractional factorial design.

  18. Design and Factory Test of the E /E- Frascati Linear Accelerator for DAFNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anamkath, H.; Lyons, S.; Nett, D.; Treas, P.; Whitham, K.; Zante, T.; /Titan Beta, Dublin; Miller, R.; /Titan Beta, Dublin /SLAC; Boni, R.; Hsieh, H.; Sannibale, F.; Vescovi, M.; Vignola, G.; /Frascati

    2011-11-28

    The electron-positron accelerator for the DAFNE project has been built and is in test at Titan Beta in Dublin, CA. This S-Band RF linac system utilizes four 45 MW sledded klystrons and 16-3 m accelerating structures to achieve the required performance. It delivers a 4 ampere electron beam to the positron converter and accelerates the resulting positrons to 550 MeV. The converter design uses a 4.3T pulsed tapered flux compressor along with a pseudo-adiabatic tapered field to a 5 KG solenoid over the first two positron accelerating sections. Quadrupole focusing is used after 100 MeV. The system performance is given in Table 1. This paper briefly describes the design and development of the various subassemblies in this system and gives the initial factory test data.

  19. Effects of process parameters on ozone washing for denim using 3/sup 3/ factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asim, F.; Mahmood, M.

    2017-01-01

    Denim garment is getting popular day by day. It is highly demandable because of its versatility, comfort and durability. Different techniques of denim washing increase this demand drastically. Denim washing is the process to enhance the appearance of a garment. This enhanced appearance may be the aged look, faded look, greyer cast, or any other shade setting or resin application. The two most advanced washing techniques are; ozone wash and laser wash. The effects of ozone on environment as well as on the garment are significant and cannot be neglected because number of benefits achieved such as time saving, less energy consumption, chemical, labour cost reduction, less discharge of water and chemicals. Therefore, effects of process parameters on ozone washing for denim fabric have been investigated in this research work using three level factorial design. 33 factorial design has been designed and conducted to investigate the effect of gas concentration, time and speed on the response variables namely; Shrinkage, Tensile and Tear strength of ozone washing. The influence of individual factors and their interactions has been critically examined using software Design Expert 8.0. Prior to the analysis of variance model accuracy has been examined through various residuals plots. The study of residuals plots shown that the residuals are normally distributed and significant evidence of possible outliers was not found. So the model can be used to predicted results with 95% confidence interval. The results from the experiment suggest that two out of three factors were significant, which are speed and time that influences mainly on the tear strength of the denim garment. (author)

  20. Computer modelling of bunch-by-bunch feedback for the SLAC B-factory design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, D.; Fox, J.D.; Hosseini, W.; Klaisner, L.; Morton, P.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Thompson, K.A.; Lambertson, G.

    1991-05-01

    The SLAC B-factory design, with over 1600 high current bunches circulating in each ring, will require a feedback system to avoid coupled-bunch instabilities. A computer model of the storage ring, including the RF system, wave fields, synchrotron radiation loss, and the bunch-by-bunch feedback system is presented. The feedback system model represents the performance of a fast phase detector front end (including system noise and imperfections), a digital filter used to generate a correction voltage, and a power amplifier and beam kicker system. The combined ring-feedback system model is used to study the feedback system performance required to suppress instabilities and to quantify the dynamics of the system. Results are presented which show the time development of coupled bunch instabilities and the damping action of the feedback system. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Optimization of Emulsifying Effectiveness of Phytosterol in Milk Using Two-Level Fractional Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yunxia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper emulsifying effects of seven emulsifiers including Tween 80, Span 80, tripolyglycerol monostearate, sodium stearoyl lactylate, sucrose ester, soy lecithin and monoglyceride on phytosterol in milk were investigated using single factor test and fractional factorial design. The addition for seven emulsifiers were in the following concentrations: 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5% and 0.6%. The results revealed that tripolyglycerol monostearate, sucrose ester and monoglyceride had a significant emulsifying effect on phytosterol in milk, Tripolyglycerol monostearate showed a positive emulsifying effect on phytosterol in milk, while sucrose ester and monoglyceride exhibited a negative emulsifying effect on phytosterol in milk.

  2. Application of a complete factorial design for the production of zeaxanthin by Flavobacterium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetto, A; Flores-Cotera, L B; Díaz, C; Langley, E; Sanchez, S

    2001-01-01

    Utilizing a four-liter fermentor and applying a complete factorial design 2(3), the combined effects of agitation speed, aeration rate, and corn steep liquor concentration on zeaxanthin production by Flavobacterium sp. were studied. Maximum growth and production of total carotenoids and zeaxanthin were obtained at 600 rpm, 2 vvm and 4.6% corn steep liquor. Under these conditions, zeaxanthin represented 86% of the total carotenoids produced. Lower values of the variables studied resulted in lower growth, volumetric production of zeaxanthin and total carotenoids, and favored the formation of other carotenoids such as beta-carotene and canthaxanthin. The positive effects on growth and total carotenoids and zeaxanthin formation were in a large extent due to the interaction of agitation/corn steep liquor. However, aeration also had a positive effect on growth.

  3. Preparation of one-step NiO/Ni-CGO composites using factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.J.M. de; Sousa, A R.O. de; Camposa, L.F.A.; Macedo, D.A.; Loureiro, F. J.A.; Fagg, D.P.

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the synthesis, processing and characterization of NiO/Ni- CGO composite materials as potential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. The particulate materials were obtained by a one-step synthesis method and characterized by thermal analysis (prior to calcination) and X-ray diffraction (calcined powder). The ceramic processing of samples containing from 30 to 70 wt.% NiO was carried out by factorial design. Besides the NiO content controlled during the chemical synthesis, the impacts of the pore-former content (citric acid, used in proportions of 0, 7.5 and 15 wt.%) and the sintering temperature (1300, 1350 and 1400 °C) were also investigated. The open porosity of NiO-CGO composites and reduced Ni-CGO cermets was modeled as a function of factors (NiO content, citric acid content and sintering temperature) and interaction of factors. (author)

  4. Using factorial experimental design to evaluate the separation of plastics by froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Davide; Jordão, Helga; La Marca, Floriana; Carvalho, M Teresa

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes the use of factorial experimental design as a standard experimental method in the application of froth flotation to plastic separation instead of the commonly used OVAT method (manipulation of one variable at a time). Furthermore, as is common practice in minerals flotation, the parameters of the kinetic model were used as process responses rather than the recovery of plastics in the separation products. To explain and illustrate the proposed methodology, a set of 32 experimental tests was performed using mixtures of two polymers with approximately the same density, PVC and PS (with mineral charges), with particle size ranging from 2 to 4 mm. The manipulated variables were frother concentration, air flow rate and pH. A three-level full factorial design was conducted. The models establishing the relationships between the manipulated variables and their interactions with the responses (first order kinetic model parameters) were built. The Corrected Akaike Information Criterion was used to select the best fit model and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to identify the statistically significant terms of the model. It was shown that froth flotation can be used to efficiently separate PVC from PS with mineral charges by reducing the floatability of PVC, which largely depends on the action of pH. Within the tested interval, this is the factor that most affects the flotation rate constants. The results obtained show that the pure error may be of the same magnitude as the sum of squares of the errors, suggesting that there is significant variability within the same experimental conditions. Thus, special care is needed when evaluating and generalizing the process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Calculation of stricken to mortality and incidence cancers due to beyond design basis accidents of the Esfahan Fuel Production Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari Azar, A.; Shahshahani, M.; Roshanzamir, M.; Sabouhi, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation the amount of absorbed doses by the different pathways of Cloud shine, Ground shine, deposition of radioactive materials on skin and cloths, ingestion, inhalation and the consequences of radioactive material releases due to Beyond Design Basis Accidents such as fire, sintering furnace explosion, criticality and earthquake in Esfahan Fuel Production factory by the residents are evaluated. The calculations related to atomic cloud distribution, estimation of delivered dose and decay chains are performed by PCCOSYMA dose. These computations are based on radioactive source terms, distribution height of radioactive materials. actions for reducing the absorbed dose, human body physiological characteristics, metrological condition and population distribution. Finally, the number of peoples who are stricken to mortality and morbidity cancers and risk values are calculated for 1 year and 50 years

  6. Study on light and thermal energy of illumination device for plant factory design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A.; Moriuchi, K.; Ueda, Y.; Kinoshita, S.

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effect of illumination devices on the yield of crops cultivated in a plant factory, it is necessary to measure the actual cultivation environmental factors related to the plant growth and understand the distribution ratio of light and thermal energy to the electrical energy injected into the illumination device. Based on cultivation results, we found that light intensity greatly affected the growth of plant weight. Regarding the selection of illumination device, its spectral components also affected the morphological change. Lighting experiments using a high frequency (Hf) fluorescent lamp and a light emitting diode (LED) bulb were performed. A certain difference was found in the distribution ratio of light energy to electrical energy between Hf and LED. It was showed that by placing the safety equipment or internal circuits outside the cultivated site, the air conditioning load could be reduced.

  7. Effect of a Preoperative Preparation Program on Anxiety in School-age Children Undergoing Surgery Using a Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Shoja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery is a stressful experience in children. Therefore, the familiarization of this population with treatment processes by means of appropriate training tools and techniques can be an effective way to control their anxiety. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a preoperative preparation program on anxiety in school-age children undergoing surgery using a factorial design. Method: This clinical trial was conducted on 81 children aged 6-12 years as candidates for elective surgery at Doctor Sheikh Hospital in Mashhad, Iran, in 2016. A preparation program was implemented with two methods (i.e., displaying video tutorials with and without nurses’ explanations and on two different days (i.e., prior to and on the day of operation using a factorial design. The estimation of children’s anxiety was accomplished by using the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale administered before training and prior to operating room admission. The data were analyzed by statistical tests in SPSS software, version 16. Results: The study groups were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics (P>0.05. There was no significant differences among the four groups regarding manifest anxiety based on the place of referral (i.e., department or clinic (P=0.22, presentation or non-presentation of explanations by nurses (P=0.12, and their interaction effects (P=0.22. Implications for Practice: No significant difference was observed among the four groups in terms of manifest anxiety. Therefore, all four training methods were effective in reducing anxiety in children. Consequently, each of these methods can be used depending on human resources and infrastructure of each department.

  8. Design, engineering, and construction of photosynthetic microbial cell factories for renewable solar fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Oliveira, Paulo; Stensjö, Karin; Heidorn, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H(2) production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted.

  9. Assessment of the recycling potential of fresh concrete waste using a factorial design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, S L; Souza, F L; Dienstmann, G; Segadães, A M

    2009-11-01

    Recycling of industrial wastes and by-products can help reduce the cost of waste treatment prior to disposal and eventually preserve natural resources and energy. To assess the recycling potential of a given waste, it is important to select a tool capable of giving clear indications either way, with the least time and work consumption, as is the case of modelling the system properties using the results obtained from statistical design of experiments. In this work, the aggregate reclaimed from the mud that results from washout and cleaning operations of fresh concrete mixer trucks (fresh concrete waste, FCW) was recycled into new concrete with various water/cement ratios, as replacement of natural fine aggregates. A 3(2) factorial design of experiments was used to model fresh concrete consistency index and hardened concrete water absorption and 7- and 28-day compressive strength, as functions of FCW content and water/cement ratio, and the resulting regression equations and contour plots were validated with confirmation experiments. The results showed that the fresh concrete workability worsened with the increase in FCW content but the water absorption (5-10 wt.%), 7-day compressive strength (26-36 MPa) and 28-day compressive strength (32-44 MPa) remained within the specified ranges, thus demonstrating that the aggregate reclaimed from FCW can be recycled into new concrete mixtures with lower natural aggregate content.

  10. HPLC/DAD determination of rosmarinic acid in Salvia officinalis: sample preparation optimization by factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Karina B. de; Oliveira, Bras H. de

    2013-01-01

    Sage (Salvia officinalis) contains high amounts of the biologically active rosmarinic acid (RA) and other polyphenolic compounds. RA is easily oxidized, and may undergo degradation during sample preparation for analysis. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an analytical procedure for determination of RA in sage, using factorial design of experiments for optimizing sample preparation. The statistically significant variables for improving RA extraction yield were determined initially and then used in the optimization step, using central composite design (CCD). The analytical method was then fully validated, and used for the analysis of commercial samples of sage. The optimized procedure involved extraction with aqueous methanol (40%) containing an antioxidant mixture (ascorbic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)), with sonication at 45 deg C for 20 min. The samples were then injected in a system containing a C 18 column, using methanol (A) and 0.1% phosphoric acid in water (B) in step gradient mode (45A:55B, 0-5 min; 80A:20B, 5-10 min) with flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1 and detection at 330 nm. Using this conditions, RA concentrations were 50% higher when compared to extractions without antioxidants (98.94 ± 1.07% recovery). Auto-oxidation of RA during sample extraction was prevented by the use of antioxidants resulting in more reliable analytical results. The method was then used for the analysis of commercial samples of sage. (author)

  11. Design and alaysis of the PEP-II B-Factory HER QF5 quadrupole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, C.M.; Harvey, A.; Swan, J.; Yamamoto, R.; Yokota, T.; Tanabe, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.

    1997-01-01

    The High Energy Ring (HER) in Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's PEP-II B-Factory employs two high field quality quadrupole magnets, labeled QF5, located in the Interaction Region (IR) symmetrically about the Interaction Point (IP), for final horizontal beam focusing. An asymmetric, septum, Collins quadrupole design is required for QF5 as a result of space constraints within the IR. Water cooled square hollow copper conductor is used in a two coil per pole configuration to develop the 61.7 kG/m and 82.2 kG/m gradients required for the HER 9 GeV and 12 GeV energy levels respectively. A 1.45 m long laminated iron core constructed in two halves with a 160 mm diameter aperture and pole tip shims shape the quadruple field. The QF5 field quality requirements include a multipole content of b n /b 2 ≤1 x 10 -4 for n = 3-15 at a radius of 78.1 mm. The QF5 quadrupole mechanical and magnetic design and analysis are presented

  12. HPLC/DAD determination of rosmarinic acid in Salvia officinalis: sample preparation optimization by factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina B. de [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Oliveira, Bras H. de, E-mail: bho@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2013-01-15

    Sage (Salvia officinalis) contains high amounts of the biologically active rosmarinic acid (RA) and other polyphenolic compounds. RA is easily oxidized, and may undergo degradation during sample preparation for analysis. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an analytical procedure for determination of RA in sage, using factorial design of experiments for optimizing sample preparation. The statistically significant variables for improving RA extraction yield were determined initially and then used in the optimization step, using central composite design (CCD). The analytical method was then fully validated, and used for the analysis of commercial samples of sage. The optimized procedure involved extraction with aqueous methanol (40%) containing an antioxidant mixture (ascorbic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)), with sonication at 45 deg C for 20 min. The samples were then injected in a system containing a C{sub 18} column, using methanol (A) and 0.1% phosphoric acid in water (B) in step gradient mode (45A:55B, 0-5 min; 80A:20B, 5-10 min) with flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1 and detection at 330 nm. Using this conditions, RA concentrations were 50% higher when compared to extractions without antioxidants (98.94 {+-} 1.07% recovery). Auto-oxidation of RA during sample extraction was prevented by the use of antioxidants resulting in more reliable analytical results. The method was then used for the analysis of commercial samples of sage. (author)

  13. Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Stensjoe, Karin (Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Dept. of Chemistry-Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)), E-mail: Peter.Lindblad@kemi.uu.se; Oliveira, Paulo (Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Porto (Portugal)); Heidorn, Thorsten (Bioforsk-Norwegian Inst. for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Aas Oslo, (Norway))

    2012-03-15

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H{sub 2} production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted

  14. Electrodialytic desalination of brackish water: determination of optimal experimental parameters using full factorial design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmar, Soumaya; Helali, Nawel; Boubakri, Ali; Sayadi, Ilhem Ben Salah; Tlili, Mohamed; Amor, Mohamed Ben

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study the desalination of brackish water by electrodialysis (ED). A two level-three factor (23) full factorial design methodology was used to investigate the influence of different physicochemical parameters on the demineralization rate (DR) and the specific power consumption (SPC). Statistical design determines factors which have the important effects on ED performance and studies all interactions between the considered parameters. Three significant factors were used including applied potential, salt concentration and flow rate. The experimental results and statistical analysis show that applied potential and salt concentration are the main effect for DR as well as for SPC. The effect of interaction between applied potential and salt concentration was observed for SPC. A maximum value of 82.24% was obtained for DR under optimum conditions and the best value of SPC obtained was 5.64 Wh L-1. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the DR and the SPC profiles with satisfactory results. The process was applied for the treatment of real brackish water using the optimal parameters.

  15. Fluoride removal from diluted solutions by Donnan dialysis using full factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubakri, Ali; Helali, Nawel; Tlili, Mohamed; Amor, Mohamed Ben [Center of Researches and Water Technologies, Soliman (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    Excessive fluoride concentration in potable water can lead to fluorosis of teeth and bones. In the present study, Donnan dialysis (DD) is applied for the removal of fluoride ions from diluted sodium fluoride solutions. A four factor two level (2{sup 4}) full factorial design was used to investigate the influence of different physico-chemical parameters on fluoride removal efficiency (Y{sub F}) and fluoride flux (J{sub F}) through anion exchange membrane. The statistical design determines factors which have the important effects on Donnan dialysis performance and studies all interactions among the considered parameters. The four significant factors were initial fluoride concentration, feed flow rate, temperature and agitation speed. The experimental results and statistical analysis show that the temperature and agitation speed have positive effects on fluoride removal efficiency and the initial fluoride concentration has a negative effect. In the case of fluoride flux, feed flow rate and initial concentration are the main effect and all factors have a positive effect. The interaction between studied parameters was not negligible on two responses. A maximum fluoride removal of 75.52% was obtained under optimum conditions and the highest value of fluoride flux obtained was 2.4 mg/cm{sup 2}·h. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the flux and the fluoride removal profiles with satisfactory results.

  16. Formulation optimization of gentamicin loaded Eudragit RS100 microspheres using factorial design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deependra; Saraf, Swarnlata; Dixit, Vinod Kumar; Saraf, Shailendra

    2008-04-01

    Gentamicin-Eudragit RS100 microspheres were prepared by modified double emulsion method. A 3(2) full factorial experiment was designed to study the effects of the composition of outer aqueous phase in terms of amount of glycerol (viscosity effect) and sodium chloride (osmotic pressure gradient effect) on the entrapment efficiency and % yield and microsphere size. The results of analysis of variance test for responses measured indicated that the test is significant (p>0.05). The contribution of sodium chloride concentration was found to be higher on entrapment efficiency and % yield, whereas glycerol produced significant effect on the mean diameter of microspheres. Microspheres demonstrated spherical particles in the size range of 33.24-60.43 microm. In vitro release profile of optimized formulation demonstrated sustained release for 24 h following Higuchi kinetics. Finally, drug bioactivity was found to remain intact after microencapsulation. Response surface graphs are presented to examine the effects of independent variables on the responses studied. Thus, by formulation design important parameters affecting formulation characteristics of gentamicin loaded Eudragit RS100 microspheres can be identified for controlled delivery with desirable characters in terms of maximum entrapment and yield.

  17. SPL-based Proton Driver for a nu-Factory at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, E; Garoby, R; Meddahi, M

    2010-01-01

    The conceptual design and feasibility studies for a nu-Factory Proton Driver based on the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) have been com- pleted. In the proposed scenario, the 4 MW proton beam (H- beam) is acceler- ated with the upgraded High Power (HP)-SPL to 5 GeV, stored in an accumu- lator ring and Þnally transported to a compressor ring, where bunch rotation takes place, in order to achieve the speciÞc time structure. We here summa- rize the choices in terms of lattice, magnet technology and RF manipulations in the two rings. The possible critical issues, such as heating of the foil for the charge-exchange injection, space-charge problems in the compressor and beam stability in the accumulator ring, have been addressed and are shown not to be show-stoppers. The analysis focuses on the baseline scenario, consider- ing 6 bunches in the accumulator, and preliminary studies are discussed for the option of 3 or a single bunch per burst.

  18. Resolution V fractional factorial Design for Screening of factors affecting weakly basic drugs liposomal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Helaly, Sara Nageeb; Habib, Basant A; Abd El-Rahman, Mohamed K

    2018-04-21

    This study aims to investigate factors affecting weakly basic drugs liposomal systems. Resolution V fractional factorial design (2 V 5-1 ) is used as an example of screening designs that would better be used as a wise step before proceeding with detailed factors effects or optimization studies. Five factors probable to affect liposomal systems of weakly basic drugs were investigated using Amisulpride as a model drug. Factors studied were; A: Preparation technique B: Phosphatidyl choline (PhC) amount (mg) C: Cholesterol: PhC molar ratio, D: Hydration volume (ml) and E: Sonication type. Levels investigated were; Ammonium sulphate-pH gradient technique or Transmembrane zinc chelation-pH gradient technique, 200 or 400 mg, 0 or 0.5, 10 or 20 ml and bath or probe sonication for A, B, C, D and E respectively. Responses measured were Particle size (PS) (nm), Zeta potential (ZP) (mV) and Entrapment efficiency percent (EE%). Ion selective electrode was used as a novel method for measuring unentrapped drug concentration and calculating entrapment efficiency without the need for liposomal separation. Factors mainly affecting the studied responses were Cholesterol: PhC ratio and hydration volume for PS, preparation technique for ZP and preparation technique and hydration volume for EE%. The applied 2 V 5-1 design enabled the use of only 16 trial combinations for screening the influence of five factors on weakly basic drugs liposomal systems. This clarifies the value of the use of screening experiments before extensive investigation of certain factors in detailed optimization studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Informing the Uninformed: Optimizing the Consent Message Using a Fractional Factorial Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Alan R.; Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Nair, Vijayan N.; Narisetty, Naveen N.; Fagerlin, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Objective Research information should be presented in a manner that promotes understanding. However, many parents and research subjects have difficulty understanding and making informed decisions. This study was designed to examine the effect of different communication strategies on parental understanding of research information. Participants 640 parents of children scheduled for elective surgery Design Observational study using a fractional factorial design Setting Large tertiary care children's hospital Interventions Parents were randomized to receive information about a hypothetical pain trial presented in one of 16 consent documents containing different combinations of 5 selected communication strategies (i.e., length, readability, processability [formatting], graphical display, and supplemental verbal disclosure). Main outcome measures Parents were interviewed to determine their understanding of the study elements (e.g., protocol, alternatives etc.) and their gist (main point) and verbatim (actual) understanding of the risks and benefits. Results Main effects for understanding were found for processability, readability, message length, use of graphics, and verbal discussion. Consent documents with high processability, 8th grade reading level, and graphics resulted in significantly greater gist and verbatim understanding compared with forms without these attributes (mean difference, 95% CI = 0.57, 0.26–0.88, correct responses out of 7 and 0.54, 0.20–0.88 correct responses out of 4 for gist and verbatim, respectively). Conclusions Results identified several communication strategy combinations that improved parents' understanding of research information. Adoption of these active strategies by investigators, clinicians, IRBs, and study sponsors represents a simple, practical, and inexpensive means to optimize the consent message and enhance parental, participant, and patient understanding. PMID:23700028

  20. Optimization Of Freeze-Dried Starter For Yogurt By Full Factorial Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen He

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapidly development of fermented milk product, it is significant for enhancing the performance of starter culture. This paper not only investigated the influence of anti-freeze factors and freeze-drying protective agents on viable count, freeze-drying survival rate and yield of Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LB and Streptococcus thermophilus (ST, but also optimized the bacteria proportion of freeze-dried starter culture for yogurt by full factorial experimental design. The results showed as following: the freeze-drying protective agents or anti-freeze factors could enhanced survival rate of LB and ST; the freeze-dried LB and ST powders containing both of anti-freeze factors and freeze-drying protective agents had higher viable count and freeze-drying survival rate that were 84.7% and 79.7% respectively; In terms of fermentation performance, the best group of freeze-dried starter for yogurt was the compound of LB3 and ST2.

  1. Evaluating the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea comorbid with insomnia disorder using an incomplete factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Megan R; Turner, Arlener D; Wyatt, James K; Fogg, Louis F; Ong, Jason C

    2016-03-01

    Chronic insomnia disorder is a prevalent condition and a significant proportion of these individuals also have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These two sleep disorders have distinct pathophysiology and are managed with different treatment approaches. High comorbidity rates have been a catalyst for emerging studies examining multidisciplinary treatment for OSA comorbid with insomnia disorder. In this article, we describe a randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) and positive airway pressure (PAP) for OSA. Participants are randomized to receive one of three treatment combinations. Individuals randomized to treatment Arm A receive sequential treatment beginning with CBT-I followed by PAP, in treatment Arm B CBT-I and PAP are administered concurrently. These treatment arms are compared to a control condition, treatment Arm C, where individuals receive PAP alone. Adopting an incomplete factorial study design will allow us to evaluate the efficacy of multidisciplinary treatment (Arms A & B) versus standard treatment alone (Arm C). In addition, the random allocation of individuals to the two different combined treatment sequences (Arm A and Arm B) will allow us to understand the benefits of the sequential administration of CBT-I and PAP relative to concurrent treatment of PAP and CBT-I. These findings will provide evidence of the clinical benefits of treating insomnia disorder in the context of OSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Improvement of biomass production and glucoamylase activity by Candida famata using factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbah, Habib; Aissa, Imen; Hassad, Nahla; Farh, Dhaker; Bakhrouf, Amina; Achour, Sami

    2016-07-01

    To improve biomass production and glucoamylase activity (GA) by Candida famata, culture conditions were optimized. A 2(3) full factorial design (FFD) with a response surface model was used to evaluate the effects and interactions of pH (X1 ), time of cultivation (X2 ), and starch concentration (X3 ) on the biomass production and enzyme activity. A total of 16 experiments were conducted toward the construction of an empiric model and a first-order equation. It was found that all factors (X1 , X2 , and X3 ) and their interactions were significant at a certain confidence level (P production and GA of C. famata. Under this optimized medium, the experimental biomass production and GA obtained were 1.8 ± 0.54 g/L and 0.078 ± 0.012 µmol/L/Min, about 1.5- and 1.8-fold, respectively, higher than those in basal medium. The (R(2) ) coefficients obtained were 0.997 and 0.990, indicating an adequate degree of reliability in the model. Approximately 99% of validity of the predicted value was achieved. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Design of a Low Cost Smart Dryer Temperature Measurement System for Tea Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal SARMA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a low cost smart dryer temperature measurement system for Tea Factories using K-type Thermocouple implementing linearization polynomial. The thermo emf is amplified by an instrumentation amplifier having high CMRR (106 dB and high input impedance (1012 Ohm. The analog signal is converted to digital form with the help of an SPI compatible 12-bit ADC. Data acquisition and transmission is done with an 8- bit microcontroller. As the dependence of thermo emf on temperature is not linear hence it is fitted with a polynomial. NIST data for K-type TC is taken as a standard for this fitting. The error with linear fit and polynomial fit is also presented. The digital data is corrected according to the polynomial and sent to a PC located at a remote control room for monitoring and data logging via RS232C communication. The performance of the entire system is discussed in the paper.

  4. Mucoadhesive Hydrogel Films of Econazole Nitrate: Formulation and Optimization Using Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaram Gajra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mucoadhesive hydrogel film was prepared and optimized for the purpose of local drug delivery to oral cavity for the treatment of oral Candidiasis. The mucoadhesive hydrogel film was prepared with the poly(vinyl alcohol by freeze/thaw crosslinking technique. 32 full factorial design was employed to optimize the formulation. Number of freeze/thaw cycles (4, 6, and 8 cycles and the concentration of the poly(vinyl alcohol (10, 15, and 20% were used as the independent variables whereas time required for 50% drug release, cumulative percent of drug release at 8th hour, and “k” of zero order equation were used as the dependent variables. The films were evaluated for mucoadhesive strength, in vitro residence time, swelling study, in vitro drug release, and effectiveness against Candida albicans. The concentration of poly(vinyl alcohol and the number of freeze/thaw cycles both decrease the drug release rate. Mucoadhesive hydrogel film with 15% poly(vinyl alcohol and 7 freeze/thaw cycles was optimized. The optimized batch exhibited the sustained release of drug and the antifungal studies revealed that the drug released from the film could inhibit the growth of Candida albicans for 12 hours.

  5. Analysis of semi-solid processing for metal matrix composite synthesis using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratus Ranieri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal in this work is to conduct a quantitative analysis of the mechanical stir casting process for obtaining particulate metal matrix composites. A combined route of stirring at semi-solid state followed by stirring at liquid state is proposed. A fractional factorial design was developed to investigate the influence and interactions of factors as: time, rotation, initial fraction and particle size, on the incorporated fraction. The best incorporations were obtained with all factors at high levels, as well as that very long stirring periods have no strong influence being particle size and rotation the most important factors on the incorporated fraction. Particle wetting occurs during stirring at semi-solid state, highlighting the importance of the interactions between particles and the alloy globularized phase. The role of the alloying element Mg as a wettability-promoting agent is discussed. The shear forces resulting from the stirring system is emphasized and understood as the effect of rotation itself added to the propeller blade geometry.

  6. Benzocaine loaded biodegradable poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanocapsules: factorial design and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Moraes, Carolina; Prado de Matos, Angelica; Paula, Eneida de; Rosa, Andre Henrique; Fernandes Fraceto, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    Local anesthetics are able to induce pain relief since they bind to the sodium channel of excitable membranes, blocking the influx of sodium ions and the propagation of the nervous impulse. Benzocaine (BZC) is a local anesthetic that presents limited application in topical formulations due to its low water-solubility. This study aimed to develop polymeric nanocapsules as a drug delivery system for the local anesthetic benzocaine (BZC). To do so, BZC loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanocapsules were prepared using the nanoprecipitation method and were characterized. The factorial experimental design was used to study the influence of four different independent variables on response to nanocapsules drug loading. The physical characteristics of PLGA nanocapsules were evaluated by analyzing the particle size, the polydispersion index and the zeta potential, using a particle size analyzer. The results of the optimized formulation showed a size distribution with a polydispersity index of 0.12, an average diameter of 123 nm, zeta potential of -33.6 mV and a drug loading of more than 69%. The release profiles showed a significant difference in the release behavior for the pure drug in solution when compared with that containing benzocaine loaded PLGA nanocapsules. Thus, the prepared nanocapsules described here may be of clinical importance in both the processes of stabilization and delivery of benzocaine for pain treatment.

  7. Benzocaine loaded biodegradable poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanocapsules: factorial design and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Moraes, Carolina; Prado de Matos, Angelica; Paula, Eneida de [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rosa, Andre Henrique [Department of Environmental Engineering, State University of Sao Paulo, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Fernandes Fraceto, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo@sorocaba.unesp.b [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Department of Environmental Engineering, State University of Sao Paulo, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    Local anesthetics are able to induce pain relief since they bind to the sodium channel of excitable membranes, blocking the influx of sodium ions and the propagation of the nervous impulse. Benzocaine (BZC) is a local anesthetic that presents limited application in topical formulations due to its low water-solubility. This study aimed to develop polymeric nanocapsules as a drug delivery system for the local anesthetic benzocaine (BZC). To do so, BZC loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanocapsules were prepared using the nanoprecipitation method and were characterized. The factorial experimental design was used to study the influence of four different independent variables on response to nanocapsules drug loading. The physical characteristics of PLGA nanocapsules were evaluated by analyzing the particle size, the polydispersion index and the zeta potential, using a particle size analyzer. The results of the optimized formulation showed a size distribution with a polydispersity index of 0.12, an average diameter of 123 nm, zeta potential of -33.6 mV and a drug loading of more than 69%. The release profiles showed a significant difference in the release behavior for the pure drug in solution when compared with that containing benzocaine loaded PLGA nanocapsules. Thus, the prepared nanocapsules described here may be of clinical importance in both the processes of stabilization and delivery of benzocaine for pain treatment.

  8. Factorial experimental design for recovering heavy metals from sludge with ion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I.H.; Kuan, Y.-C.; Chern, J.-M.

    2006-01-01

    Wastewaters containing heavy metals are usually treated by chemical precipitation method in Taiwan. This method can remove heavy metals form wastewaters efficiently, but the resultant heavy metal sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and becomes another environmental problem. If we can remove heavy metals from sludge, it becomes non-hazardous waste and the treatment cost can be greatly reduced. This study aims at using ion-exchange resin to remove heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from sludge generated by a PCB manufacturing plant. Factorial experimental design methodology was used to study the heavy metal removal efficiency. The total metal concentrations in the sludge, resin, and solution phases were measured respectively after 30 min reaction with varying leaching agents (citric acid and nitric acid); ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-718 and IR-120), and temperatures (50 and 70 deg. C). The experimental results and statistical analysis show that a stronger leaching acid and a higher temperature both favor lower heavy metal residues in the sludge. Two-factors and even three-factor interaction effects on the heavy metal sorption in the resin phase are not negligible. The ion-exchange resin plays an important role in the sludge extraction or metal recovery. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the heavy metal profiles with satisfactory results

  9. Ammonia-nitrogen and Phosphate Reduction by Bio-Filter using Factorial Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmuri, Norhafezah; Ashikin Mat Damin, Nur; Omar, Megawati

    2018-02-01

    Untreated landfill leachate is known to have endangered the environment. As such new treatment must be sought to ensure its cost-effective and sustainable treatment. Thus this paper reports the effectiveness of bio-filter to remove pollutants. In this research, the reduction of nutrients concentration was evaluated in two conditions: using bio-filter and without bio-filter. Synthetic wastewater was used in the batch culture. It was conducted within 21 days in the initial mediums of 100 mg/L ammonia-nitrogen. The nitrification medium consisted of 100 mg/L of ammonia-nitrogen while the nitrite assay had none. The petri dish experiment was also conducted to observe the existence of any colony. The results showed 22% of ammonia- nitrogen reduction and 33% phosphate in the nitrification medium with the bio-filter. The outcome showed that the bio-filter was capable to reduce the concentration of pollutants by retaining the slow growing bacteria (AOB and NOB) on the plastic carrier surface. The factorial design was applied to study the effect of the initial ammonia-nitrogen concentration and duration on nitrite-nitrogen removal. Finally, a regression equation was produced to predict the rate of nitrite-nitrogen removal without conducting extended experiments and to reduce the number of trials experiment.

  10. Effect of polymer type on characteristics of buccal tablets using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Esim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A two factor three level factorial design was used to investigate the effects of carbopol and cationic hydrophilic polymers which have a common use in buccal drug formulations. Statistical models with interaction terms were derived to evaluate influence of carbopol (X1 and chitosan (X2 on tablet disintegration (Y1 and dissolution (Y2, mechanical properties (Y3, swelling (Y4. Tablet disintegration studies were carried out using two different pH environments within buccal region pH limits and also two different commonly used dissolution methods for buccal tablets were also investigated to compare the effect of polymer type on dissolution. Polymer type and ratio affect the characteristics of the buccal tablets due to their different physicochemical behavior at buccal pH. Also significant variances between dissolution profiles for buccal tablets, using either USP Paddle or flow through cell methods were found. These results indicate that both polymer type and ratio as well as combination of them effects the drug behavior in different ways. Keywords: Buccal tablet, Hydrophilic matrix, Effect of polymer, Carbopol, Chitosan

  11. JackEx: The new digital manufacturing resource for optimization of Exoskeleton-based factory environments

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinescu, Carmen; Mureșan, Paul Cristian; Simon, Gabriel-Marian

    2016-01-01

    The employment of Exoskeletons for manual handling work in manufacturing industries aims at increased employment, productivity, safety and security at workplace. This paper highlights several challenges, current results and future steps of our work in optimization of Exoskeleton based factory environments. “JackEx” is the enhancement of the standard digital humanoid “Jack” with concepts and elements of passive Exoskeletons. For the development of JackEx, a new digital manufacturing resource, ...

  12. A Randomized Longitudinal Factorial Design to Assess Malaria Vector Control and Disease Management Interventions in Rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall A. Kramer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of malaria control strategies is complicated by constraints posed by local health systems, infrastructure, limited resources, and the complex interactions between infection, disease, and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol of a randomized factorial study designed to address this research gap. This project will evaluate two malaria control interventions in Mvomero District, Tanzania: (1 a disease management strategy involving early detection and treatment by community health workers using rapid diagnostic technology; and (2 vector control through community-supported larviciding. Six study villages were assigned to each of four groups (control, early detection and treatment, larviciding, and early detection and treatment plus larviciding. The primary endpoint of interest was change in malaria infection prevalence across the intervention groups measured during annual longitudinal cross-sectional surveys. Recurring entomological surveying, household surveying, and focus group discussions will provide additional valuable insights. At baseline, 962 households across all 24 villages participated in a household survey; 2,884 members from 720 of these households participated in subsequent malariometric surveying. The study design will allow us to estimate the effect sizes of different intervention mixtures. Careful documentation of our study protocol may also serve other researchers designing field-based intervention trials.

  13. A randomized longitudinal factorial design to assess malaria vector control and disease management interventions in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Randall A; Mboera, Leonard E G; Senkoro, Kesheni; Lesser, Adriane; Shayo, Elizabeth H; Paul, Christopher J; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-05-16

    The optimization of malaria control strategies is complicated by constraints posed by local health systems, infrastructure, limited resources, and the complex interactions between infection, disease, and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol of a randomized factorial study designed to address this research gap. This project will evaluate two malaria control interventions in Mvomero District, Tanzania: (1) a disease management strategy involving early detection and treatment by community health workers using rapid diagnostic technology; and (2) vector control through community-supported larviciding. Six study villages were assigned to each of four groups (control, early detection and treatment, larviciding, and early detection and treatment plus larviciding). The primary endpoint of interest was change in malaria infection prevalence across the intervention groups measured during annual longitudinal cross-sectional surveys. Recurring entomological surveying, household surveying, and focus group discussions will provide additional valuable insights. At baseline, 962 households across all 24 villages participated in a household survey; 2,884 members from 720 of these households participated in subsequent malariometric surveying. The study design will allow us to estimate the effect sizes of different intervention mixtures. Careful documentation of our study protocol may also serve other researchers designing field-based intervention trials.

  14. Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne; Radziwon, Agnieszka; Grube Hansen, David

    2017-01-01

    their innovation and competitive advantage by focusing at their competences, strengths and opportunities. The project suggests innovative solutions and business models through collaboration and use of new technologies. In the Smart Factory, SMEs should be able to collaborate on new products, markets and production......, and to target their challenges and ensure sustainable growth and business in these enterprises. Therefore the focus of the Smart Factory project was to support the growth and sustainable development of the small and medium sized manufacturing industry in Denmark. The project focused on SMEs and how to improve......A large part of Danish Industry is based on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs), which account for –99% of the companies in Denmark and about two third of the job positions (source: statistikbanken.dk) . That is why, it is so important also to focus research and development at SMEs...

  15. On application of a new hybrid maximum power point tracking (MPPT) based photovoltaic system to the closed plant factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Joe-Air; Su, Yu-Li; Shieh, Jyh-Cherng; Kuo, Kun-Chang; Lin, Tzu-Shiang; Lin, Ta-Te; Fang, Wei; Chou, Jui-Jen; Wang, Jen-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid MPPT method was developed and utilized in a PV system of closed plant factory. • The tracking of the maximum power output of PV system can be achieved in real time. • Hybrid MPPT method not only decreases energy loss but increases power utilization. • The feasibility of applying PV system to the closed plant factory has been examined. • The PV system significantly reduced CO 2 emissions and curtailed the fossil fuels. - Abstract: Photovoltaic (PV) generation systems have been shown to have a promising role for use in high electric-load buildings, such as the closed plant factory which is dependent upon artificial lighting. The power generated by the PV systems can be either directly supplied to the buildings or fed back into the electrical grid to reduce the high economic costs and environmental impact associated with the traditional energy sources such as nuclear power and fossil fuels. However, PV systems usually suffer from low energy-conversion efficiency, and it is therefore necessary to improve their performance by tackling the energy loss issues. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control technique is essential to the PV-assisted generation systems in order to achieve the maximum power output in real time. In this study, we integrate the previously proposed direct-prediction MPP method with a perturbation and observation (P and O) method to develop a new hybrid MPPT method. The proposed MPPT method is further utilized in the PV inverters in a PV system installed on the roof of a closed plant factory at National Taiwan University. The tested PV system is constructed as a two-stage grid-connected photovoltaic power conditioning (PVPC) system with a boost-buck full bridge design configuration. A control scheme based on the hybrid MPPT method is also developed and implemented in the PV inverters of the PVPC system to achieve tracking of the maximum power output of the PV system in real time. Based on experimental results

  16. NEUTRINO FACTORY BASED ON MUON-STORAGE-RINGS TO MUON COLLIDERS: PHYSICS AND FACILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARSA, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Intense muon sources for the purpose of providing intense high energy neutrino beams (ν factory) represents very interesting possibilities. If successful, such efforts would significantly advance the state of muon technology and provides intermediate steps in technologies required for a future high energy muon collider complex. High intensity muon: production, capture, cooling, acceleration and multi-turn muon storage rings are some of the key technology issues that needs more studies and developments, and will briefly be discussed here. A muon collider requires basically the same number of muons as for the muon storage ring neutrino factory, but would require more cooling, and simultaneous capture of both ± μ. We present some physics possibilities, muon storage ring based neutrino facility concept, site specific examples including collaboration feasibility studies, and upgrades to a full collider

  17. NEUTRINO FACTORY BASED ON MUON-STORAGE-RINGS TO MUON COLLIDERS: PHYSICS AND FACILITIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PARSA,Z.

    2001-06-18

    Intense muon sources for the purpose of providing intense high energy neutrino beams ({nu} factory) represents very interesting possibilities. If successful, such efforts would significantly advance the state of muon technology and provides intermediate steps in technologies required for a future high energy muon collider complex. High intensity muon: production, capture, cooling, acceleration and multi-turn muon storage rings are some of the key technology issues that needs more studies and developments, and will briefly be discussed here. A muon collider requires basically the same number of muons as for the muon storage ring neutrino factory, but would require more cooling, and simultaneous capture of both {+-} {mu}. We present some physics possibilities, muon storage ring based neutrino facility concept, site specific examples including collaboration feasibility studies, and upgrades to a full collider.

  18. Full factorial design optimization of anti-inflammatory drug release by PCL–PEG–PCL microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azouz, L' Hachemi, E-mail: azouz.chimie@gmail.com [Laboratoire des Matériaux Organiques (LMO), Faculté des Sciences Exactes, Département de Chimie, Université de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia Algérie (Algeria); Dahmoune, Farid, E-mail: farid.dahmoune@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Biomathématiques, Biophysique, Biochimie et Scientométrie (L3BS-Bejaia), Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie et des Sciences de la Terre, Université de Bouira 10000 Bouira (Algeria); Rezgui, Farouk, E-mail: rezgui-farouk@netcourrier.com [Laboratoire des Matériaux Organiques (LMO), Faculté de Technologie, Département de Génie des Procédés, Université de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria); G' Sell, Christian, E-mail: gsell.christian@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Pôle scientifique M4, Institut Jean Lamour - UMR CNRS-UL 7198, Département SI2M, 54000 Nancy (France)

    2016-01-01

    A biodegradable triblock poly(ε-caprolactone)–poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer was successfully synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone, and was characterized by intrinsic viscosimetry, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Copolymer microparticles loaded with ibuprofen were prepared by an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion solvent evaporation process. They were carefully weighted and characterized through their zeta potential. In this work, 4 selected process parameters (shaking speed X{sub 1}, time of contact X{sub 2}, poly(vinyl alcohol) concentration X{sub 3}, and ibuprofen concentration X{sub 4}) were adjusted at 2 different values. For each of the 16 experimental conditions, repeated twice, the drug encapsulation efficiency of the microspheres was determined, according to the following definition: EE (X{sub 1}, X{sub 2}, X{sub 3}, X{sub 4}) = mass of encapsulated ibuprofen / total weight of ibuprofen. A “full factorial design method” was applied to analyze the results statistically according to a polynomial fit and to determine the optimal conditions for the microencapsulation of the ibuprofen through an accurate statistical protocol. The microparticles obtained exhibit a spherical shape as shown by electron microscopy. - Highlights: • PCEC copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone. • 2{sup 4} experimental design was used to optimize the IBF encapsulation efficiency (EE). • 88.86% of ibuprofen (IBF) was encapsulated in PCEC microspheres. • EE significantly decreases with increasing shaking speed (antagonist effect). • EE significantly increases with increasing IBF concentration (synergetic effect).

  19. Full factorial design optimization of anti-inflammatory drug release by PCL–PEG–PCL microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azouz, L'Hachemi; Dahmoune, Farid; Rezgui, Farouk; G'Sell, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A biodegradable triblock poly(ε-caprolactone)–poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer was successfully synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone, and was characterized by intrinsic viscosimetry, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Copolymer microparticles loaded with ibuprofen were prepared by an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion solvent evaporation process. They were carefully weighted and characterized through their zeta potential. In this work, 4 selected process parameters (shaking speed X 1 , time of contact X 2 , poly(vinyl alcohol) concentration X 3 , and ibuprofen concentration X 4 ) were adjusted at 2 different values. For each of the 16 experimental conditions, repeated twice, the drug encapsulation efficiency of the microspheres was determined, according to the following definition: EE (X 1 , X 2 , X 3 , X 4 ) = mass of encapsulated ibuprofen / total weight of ibuprofen. A “full factorial design method” was applied to analyze the results statistically according to a polynomial fit and to determine the optimal conditions for the microencapsulation of the ibuprofen through an accurate statistical protocol. The microparticles obtained exhibit a spherical shape as shown by electron microscopy. - Highlights: • PCEC copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone. • 2 4 experimental design was used to optimize the IBF encapsulation efficiency (EE). • 88.86% of ibuprofen (IBF) was encapsulated in PCEC microspheres. • EE significantly decreases with increasing shaking speed (antagonist effect). • EE significantly increases with increasing IBF concentration (synergetic effect).

  20. Statistical optimization of the growth factors for Chaetoceros neogracile using fractional factorial design and central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sung-Eun; Park, Jae-Kweon; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Chang, In-Jeong; Hong, Seong-Joo; Kang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Choul-Gyun

    2008-12-01

    Statistical experimental designs; involving (i) a fractional factorial design (FFD) and (ii) a central composite design (CCD) were applied to optimize the culture medium constituents for production of a unique antifreeze protein by the Antartic microalgae Chaetoceros neogracile. The results of the FFD suggested that NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and Na2SiO3 were significant variables that highly influenced the growth rate and biomass production. The optimum culture medium for the production of an antifreeze protein from C. neogracile was found to be Kalleampersandrsquor;s artificial seawater, pH of 7.0ampersandplusmn;0.5, consisting of 28.566 g/l of NaCl, 3.887 g/l of MgCl2, 1.787 g/l of MgSO4, 1.308 g/l of CaSO4, 0.832 g/l of K2SO4, 0.124 g/l of CaCO3, 0.103 g/l of KBr, 0.0288 g/l of SrSO4, and 0.0282 g/l of H3BO3. The antifreeze activity significantly increased after cells were treated with cold shock (at -5oC) for 14 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating an antifreeze-like protein of C. neogracile.

  1. Meson factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicello, J.F.; Zaider, M.; Bradbury, J.N.

    1979-01-01

    Technological improvements in accelerator design in the 1960's resulted in the capability to develop medium-energy proton accelerators with beam intensities of almost 1 mA. These beams are able to produce fluxes of secondary particles, including pions, muons, neutrinos, and neutrons, which are as much as 10,000 times as intense as those previously available. Those machines built for optimum meson production are commonly called meson factories. The characteristics of these facilities are reviewed, and the present programs in applied research, and some potential areas of future work are discussed

  2. Engineering microbial cell factories for the production of plant natural products: from design principles to industrial-scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaonan; Ding, Wentao; Jiang, Huifeng

    2017-07-19

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are widely used as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, seasonings, pigments, etc., with a huge commercial value on the global market. However, most of these PNPs are still being extracted from plants. A resource-conserving and environment-friendly synthesis route for PNPs that utilizes microbial cell factories has attracted increasing attention since the 1940s. However, at the present only a handful of PNPs are being produced by microbial cell factories at an industrial scale, and there are still many challenges in their large-scale application. One of the challenges is that most biosynthetic pathways of PNPs are still unknown, which largely limits the number of candidate PNPs for heterologous microbial production. Another challenge is that the metabolic fluxes toward the target products in microbial hosts are often hindered by poor precursor supply, low catalytic activity of enzymes and obstructed product transport. Consequently, despite intensive studies on the metabolic engineering of microbial hosts, the fermentation costs of most heterologously produced PNPs are still too high for industrial-scale production. In this paper, we review several aspects of PNP production in microbial cell factories, including important design principles and recent progress in pathway mining and metabolic engineering. In addition, implemented cases of industrial-scale production of PNPs in microbial cell factories are also highlighted.

  3. Turbo-extraction of glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana using a fractional factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, Asteraceae, leaf extract has recently called the attention of food industry as a proposal for natural sweetener. The sweet flavor is attributed to the glycosides, in especial stevioside and rebaudioside A, which are the plant main chemical markers. The aim of the work reported here was to optimize the turbo-extraction of stevia leaves using water, ethanol 70% and 90% (w/w as green solvents. A 25-2 factorial design was applied to study the linear effects of the drug size, solvent to drug ratio, temperature, time and also the turbolysis speed on the extraction of glycosides. The glycosides exhaustive extraction showed that ethanol 70% gave better results and was used for turbo-extraction. The stevioside and rebaudioside A contents were quantified by a validated method by high performance liquid chromatographic with photodiode array detector. The contents of stevioside and rebaudioside A in fluid extract increased with the drug size, but decreased at high shearing speeds and solvent to drug ratio, while their yields decreased at higher temperature and were not affected by turbo speed. An increase in solvent to drug ratio reduced significantly the glycosides percent in dried extract. Optimal solution for S. rebaudiana leaves turbo-extraction was determined by desirability functions. The optimal extraction condition corresponded to drug size of 780 µm, solvent to drug ratio of 10, extraction time of 18 min; temperature of 23 ºC and turbo speed of 20,000 rpm, resulting in yields of 4.98% and 2.70%, for stevioside and rebaudioside A, respectively. These yields are comparable to the ones recently published for dynamic maceration, but with the advantage of shorter extraction times. This work demonstrates that turbolysis is promising for S. rebaudiana glycosides extraction and stimulate new research on the purification of these extracts, which may become an interesting source of income for developing

  4. Development and optimization of enteric coated mucoadhesive microspheres of duloxetine hydrochloride using 32 full factorial design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Anupama; Kansal, Sahil; Goyal, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Microspheres constitute an important part of oral drug delivery system by virtue of their small size and efficient carrier capacity. However, the success of these microspheres is limited due to their short residence time at the site of absorption. Objective: The objective of the present study was to formulate and systematically evaluate in vitro performance of enteric coated mucoadhesive microspheres of duloxetine hydrochloride (DLX), an acid labile drug. Materials and Methods: DLX microspheres were prepared by simple emulsification phase separation technique using chitosan as carrier and glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. Microspheres prepared were coated with eudragit L-100 using an oil-in-oil solvent evaporation method. Eudragit L-100was used as enteric coating polymer with the aim to release the drug in small intestine The microspheres prepared were characterized by particle size, entrapment efficiency, swelling index (SI), mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release and surface morphology. A 32 full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables polymer-to-drug ratio (X1) and stirring speed (X2) on dependent variables, particle size, entrapment efficiency, SI, in vitro mucoadhesion and drug release up to 24 h (t24). Results: Microspheres formed were discrete, spherical and free flowing. The microspheres exhibited good mucoadhesive property and also showed high percentage entrapment efficiency. The microspheres were able to sustain the drug release up to 24 h. Conclusion: Thus, the prepared enteric coated mucoadhesive microspheres may prove to be a potential controlled release formulation of DLX for oral administration. PMID:24167786

  5. The Optimization of the Oiling Bath Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil by the Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Górecki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF, alcohol (E and non-ionic emulsifier (P were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 10−5 cm−1.

  6. Evaluation of the use of steelmaking slag as an aggregate in concrete mix: A factorial design approach

    OpenAIRE

    Aljbour Salah H.; Tarawneh Sultan A.; Al-Harahsheh Adnan M.

    2017-01-01

    Slag is investigated towards its potential use as an aggregate in concrete mix production. Full factorial design methodology is applied to study the effect of two process input variables, namely: slag as coarse aggregate and slag as medium aggregate on the properties of concrete mix. Additionally, the interaction between input variables is also examined. Incorporating steel slag aggregate in the concrete mix affected its compressive strength. Enhanced compressive strength concrete mix was obt...

  7. Design and Construction of a High-speed Network Connecting All the Protein Crystallography Beamlines at the Photon Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsugaki, Naohiro; Yamada, Yusuke; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2007-01-01

    A private network, physically separated from the facility network, was designed and constructed which covered all the four protein crystallography beamlines at the Photon Factory (PF) and Structural Biology Research Center (SBRC). Connecting all the beamlines in the same network allows for simple authentication and a common working environment for a user who uses multiple beamlines. Giga-bit Ethernet wire-speed was achieved for the communication among the beamlines and SBRC buildings

  8. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, J; Hover, J; Love, P; Stewart, G A

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment's computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ‘pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to pick-up a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single Virtual Organization (VO), and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO's distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new and improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is highly configurable. It is able to send different types of pilots to sites and exploit different submission mechanisms and queue characteristics. It is tightly integrated with the PanDA job submission framework, coupling pilot flow to the amount of work the site has to run. It gathers information from many sources in order to correctly configure itself for a site and its decision logic can easily be updated. Integrated into AutoPyFactory is a flexible system for delivering both generic and specific job wrappers which can perform many useful actions before starting to run end-user scientific applications, e.g., validation of the middleware, node profiling and diagnostics, and monitoring. AutoPyFactory also has a robust monitoring system that has been invaluable in establishing a reliable pilot factory service for ATLAS.

  9. Particle factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, Rafe

    1989-01-01

    Physicists' attention is increasingly turning to the high luminosity frontier - providing enough collisions to amass sizable numbers of rare events - to complement the traditional quest for higher energies. This month we cover three areas where projects are now being considered: Phi-factory workshop, PSI Planning for B meson factory, Tau-charm factory

  10. Particle factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Rafe

    1989-07-15

    Physicists' attention is increasingly turning to the high luminosity frontier - providing enough collisions to amass sizable numbers of rare events - to complement the traditional quest for higher energies. This month we cover three areas where projects are now being considered: Phi-factory workshop, PSI Planning for B meson factory, Tau-charm factory.

  11. Application of Factorial Designs and Simplex Optimisation in the Development of Flow Injection-Hydride Generation-Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Procedures as Demonstrated for the Determination of Trace Levels of Germanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilligsøe, Bo; Hansen, Elo Harald

    1997-01-01

    The optimisation of a volume-based FI-HG-GFAAS procedure is described for the trace determination of Ge, comprising in situ collection of the generated germane in the graphite furnace. The response function is the peak area readout (A*s). Based on a preliminary study, where factorial designs were...

  12. Enhancing EPA Content in an Arctic Diatom: A Factorial Design Study to Evaluate Interactive Effects of Growth Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Steinrücken

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae with a high content of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are of great demand for microalgae-based technologies. An Arctic strain of the diatom Attheya septentrionalis was shown in previous experiments to increase its EPA content from 3.0 to 4.6% of dry weight (DW in the nutrient-replete exponential phase and nutrient-depleted stationary phase, respectively. In the present study, a factorial-design experiment was used, to investigate this effect in more detail and in combination with varying salinities and irradiances. A mathematical model revealed that both growth phase and salinity, alone and in combination, influenced the EPA content significantly. Maximum EPA values of 7.1% DW were obtained at a salinity of 22 and after 5 days in stationary phase, and might be related to a decreased silica content, an accumulation of storage lipids containing EPA, or both. However, growth rates were lower for low salinity (0.54 and 0.57 d−1 than high salinity (0.77 and 0.98 d−1 cultures.

  13. Performance Prediction of a MongoDB-Based Traceability System in Smart Factory Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yong-Shin; Park, Il-Ha; Youm, Sekyoung

    2016-01-01

    In the future, with the advent of the smart factory era, manufacturing and logistics processes will become more complex, and the complexity and criticality of traceability will further increase. This research aims at developing a performance assessment method to verify scalability when implementing traceability systems based on key technologies for smart factories, such as Internet of Things (IoT) and BigData. To this end, based on existing research, we analyzed traceability requirements and an event schema for storing traceability data in MongoDB, a document-based Not Only SQL (NoSQL) database. Next, we analyzed the algorithm of the most representative traceability query and defined a query-level performance model, which is composed of response times for the components of the traceability query algorithm. Next, this performance model was solidified as a linear regression model because the response times increase linearly by a benchmark test. Finally, for a case analysis, we applied the performance model to a virtual automobile parts logistics. As a result of the case study, we verified the scalability of a MongoDB-based traceability system and predicted the point when data node servers should be expanded in this case. The traceability system performance assessment method proposed in this research can be used as a decision-making tool for hardware capacity planning during the initial stage of construction of traceability systems and during their operational phase. PMID:27983654

  14. Performance Prediction of a MongoDB-Based Traceability System in Smart Factory Supply Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yong-Shin; Park, Il-Ha; Youm, Sekyoung

    2016-12-14

    In the future, with the advent of the smart factory era, manufacturing and logistics processes will become more complex, and the complexity and criticality of traceability will further increase. This research aims at developing a performance assessment method to verify scalability when implementing traceability systems based on key technologies for smart factories, such as Internet of Things (IoT) and BigData. To this end, based on existing research, we analyzed traceability requirements and an event schema for storing traceability data in MongoDB, a document-based Not Only SQL (NoSQL) database. Next, we analyzed the algorithm of the most representative traceability query and defined a query-level performance model, which is composed of response times for the components of the traceability query algorithm. Next, this performance model was solidified as a linear regression model because the response times increase linearly by a benchmark test. Finally, for a case analysis, we applied the performance model to a virtual automobile parts logistics. As a result of the case study, we verified the scalability of a MongoDB-based traceability system and predicted the point when data node servers should be expanded in this case. The traceability system performance assessment method proposed in this research can be used as a decision-making tool for hardware capacity planning during the initial stage of construction of traceability systems and during their operational phase.

  15. Performance Prediction of a MongoDB-Based Traceability System in Smart Factory Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Shin Kang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the future, with the advent of the smart factory era, manufacturing and logistics processes will become more complex, and the complexity and criticality of traceability will further increase. This research aims at developing a performance assessment method to verify scalability when implementing traceability systems based on key technologies for smart factories, such as Internet of Things (IoT and BigData. To this end, based on existing research, we analyzed traceability requirements and an event schema for storing traceability data in MongoDB, a document-based Not Only SQL (NoSQL database. Next, we analyzed the algorithm of the most representative traceability query and defined a query-level performance model, which is composed of response times for the components of the traceability query algorithm. Next, this performance model was solidified as a linear regression model because the response times increase linearly by a benchmark test. Finally, for a case analysis, we applied the performance model to a virtual automobile parts logistics. As a result of the case study, we verified the scalability of a MongoDB-based traceability system and predicted the point when data node servers should be expanded in this case. The traceability system performance assessment method proposed in this research can be used as a decision-making tool for hardware capacity planning during the initial stage of construction of traceability systems and during their operational phase.

  16. Used frying oil biodiesel production: experimental factorial design and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel é derivado de fontes renováveis ereduz significativamente as emissões atmosféricas. Pode serobtido de diversos processos, como a alcoolise. Nestetrabalho, o biodiesel foi produzido através da alcoolise doóleo de fritura usado de indústrias de alimentação. Umplanejamento experimental foi utilizado e os produtos dereação foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa (CGespectroscopia na região do infravermelho com acessório dereflexão total atenuada horizontal (IV-HATR e análiseexploratória por análise de componentes principais (PCA eanálise hierárquica de grupos (HCA. De acordo com ascondições analisadas obteve-se alta conversão em ésteresmetílicos. Por IV-HATR, a conversão máxima foi observadaem condições experimentais de temperatura ( 50 e 60°C,concentração de catalisador (0,6 e 1,2% e a 1:8 de relaçãomolar entre óleo e metanol. Também foi possíveldiscriminar por análise quimiométrica, 4 grupos noplanejamento experimental e determinar as melhorescondições para a produção de biodiesel de óleo de friturausado.Abstract Biodiesel is derived from renewable sources and it significantly reduces atmospheric emissions. It can be obtained byseveral processes, such as alcoholysis. In this work, biodiesel was produced through alcoholysis of used frying oil from a cateringbusiness. An experimental factorial design was used and the reaction products were analyzed through gas chromatography (GC,horizontal attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (HATR/FT-IR spectroscopy and exploratory analysis withprincipal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. Under the conditions analyzed, a high degree ofconversion to methyl ester was found. As shown by HATR/FT-IR, the maximum conversion was obtained when the experimentalconditions had the temperature ( 50 e 60°C, largest catalyst concentration (0,6 e 1,2% and a 1:8 molar proportion of oil tomethanol. It was possible to discriminate

  17. Application of factorial design for the ab initio study of cis- and trans-1,2 dihaloethylene stabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva João Bosco P. da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemometric technique Two Level Factorial Design was used to evaluate the principal and interaction effects of wave function modifications on calculated energy differences (DE between the cis and trans isomers of 1,2-dihaloethylenes, C2H2X2 (X=F and Cl. The factorial profile of DE is quite different for these systems. The addition of polarization and diffuse functions to the basis set have the largest effects in describing cis 1,2-difluoroethylene as the most stable isomer. In contrast electronic correlation, at the MP2 level, and the inclusion of polarization functions in the basis set have the largest effects in describing the cis form as the most stable one in the 1,2-dichloroethylenes. In both systems the interaction effects are smaller than the principal effects.

  18. Investigation of the impact of trace elements on anaerobic volatile fatty acid degradation using a fractional factorial experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles; Heaven, Sonia; Longhurst, Philip

    2017-11-15

    The requirement of trace elements (TE) in anaerobic digestion process is widely documented. However, little is understood regarding the specific requirement of elements and their critical concentrations under different operating conditions such as substrate characterisation and temperature. In this study, a flask batch trial using fractional factorial design is conducted to investigate volatile fatty acids (VFA) anaerobic degradation rate under the influence of the individual and combined effect of six TEs (Co, Ni, Mo, Se, Fe and W). The experiment inoculated with food waste digestate, spiked with sodium acetate and sodium propionate both to 10 g/l. This is followed by the addition of a selection of the six elements in accordance with a 2 6-2 fractional factorial principle. The experiment is conducted in duplicate and the degradation of VFA is regularly monitored. Factorial effect analysis on the experimental results reveals that within these experimental conditions, Se has a key role in promoting the degradation rates of both acetic and propionic acids; Mo and Co are found to have a modest effect on increasing propionic acid degradation rate. It is also revealed that Ni shows some inhibitory effects on VFA degradation, possibly due to its toxicity. Additionally, regression coefficients for the main and second order effects are calculated to establish regression models for VFA degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Design of a factorial experiment with randomization restrictions to assess medical device performance on vascular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diestelkamp, Wiebke S; Krane, Carissa M; Pinnell, Margaret F

    2011-05-20

    Energy-based surgical scalpels are designed to efficiently transect and seal blood vessels using thermal energy to promote protein denaturation and coagulation. Assessment and design improvement of ultrasonic scalpel performance relies on both in vivo and ex vivo testing. The objective of this work was to design and implement a robust, experimental test matrix with randomization restrictions and predictive statistical power, which allowed for identification of those experimental variables that may affect the quality of the seal obtained ex vivo. The design of the experiment included three factors: temperature (two levels); the type of solution used to perfuse the artery during transection (three types); and artery type (two types) resulting in a total of twelve possible treatment combinations. Burst pressures of porcine carotid and renal arteries sealed ex vivo were assigned as the response variable. The experimental test matrix was designed and carried out as a split-plot experiment in order to assess the contributions of several variables and their interactions while accounting for randomization restrictions present in the experimental setup. The statistical software package SAS was utilized and PROC MIXED was used to account for the randomization restrictions in the split-plot design. The combination of temperature, solution, and vessel type had a statistically significant impact on seal quality. The design and implementation of a split-plot experimental test-matrix provided a mechanism for addressing the existing technical randomization restrictions of ex vivo ultrasonic scalpel performance testing, while preserving the ability to examine the potential effects of independent factors or variables. This method for generating the experimental design and the statistical analyses of the resulting data are adaptable to a wide variety of experimental problems involving large-scale tissue-based studies of medical or experimental device efficacy and performance.

  20. Kaon factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1983-03-01

    Kaon factories would provide beams 100-1000 times more intense than those available from present accelerators in the 10-30 GeV range. More intense or cleaner secondary beams of kaons, antiprotons and neutrinos would be of particular interest for high precision experiments and studies of rare processes in both particle and nuclear physics, e.g. symmetry violations in K-decay, neutrino scattering, meson and baryon spectroscopy, hypernuclei, exotic atoms, K + studies of nuclear density and resonance propagation in nuclei. The various accelerators proposed include both fast-cycling synchrotrons providing 100 μA proton beams at 15 to 32 GeV and superconducting isochronous ring cyclotrons giving 100-400 μA at up to 15 GeV. This paper describes these designs and the various technical problems associated with them

  1. Computational tools and lattice design for the PEP-II B-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yunhai; Irwin, John; Nosochkov, Yuri; Yan, Yiton

    1997-01-01

    Several accelerator codes were used to design the PEP-II lattices, ranging from matrix-based codes, such as MAD and DIMAD, to symplectic-integrator codes, such as TRACY and DESPOT. In addition to element-by-element tracking, we constructed maps to determine aberration strengths. Furthermore, we have developed a fast and reliable method (nPB tracking) to track particles with a one-turn map. This new technique allows us to evaluate performance of the lattices on the entire tune-plane. Recently, we designed and implemented an object-oriented code in C++ called LEGO which integrates and expands upon TRACY and DESPOT

  2. Full‐factorial design space exploration approach for multi‐criteria decision making of the design of industrial halls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B. (Bruno); Pourmousavian, N. (Navid); Hensen, J.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Industrial halls pose high energy saving potential that is not yet explored under current design practice. Common design approaches such as parametric study or optimization are largely constrained by the assumptions and do not promote flexibility in the decision making process. Based on the unique

  3. Design, manufacture and factory testing of the Ion Source and Extraction Power Supplies for the SPIDER experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, Marco; Rinaldi, Luigi; Simon, Muriel; Sita, Luca; Taddia, Giuseppe; Carrozza, Saverino; Decamps, Hans; Luchetta, Adriano; Meddour, Abdelraouf; Moressa, Modesto; Morri, Cristiano; Musile Tanzi, Antonio; Recchia, Mauro; Wagner, Uwe; Zamengo, Andrea; Toigo, Vanni

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 5 MVA ion source power supplies effectively integrated in 150 m"2 Faraday cage. • Load protection and performance requirements met of custom design high voltage power supplies. • 200 kW tetrode oscillator with 200 kHz frequency range successfully tested. - Abstract: The SPIDER experiment, currently under construction at the Neutral Beam Test Facility in Padua, Italy, is a full-size prototype of the ion source for the ITER Neutral Beam Injectors. The Ion Source and Extraction Power Supplies (ISEPS) for SPIDER are supplied by OCEM Energy Technology s.r.l. (OCEM) under a procurement contract with Fusion for Energy (F4E) covering also the units required for MITICA and ITER injectors. The detailed design of SPIDER ISEPS was finalized in 2011 and manufacture of most components completed by end 2013. The Factory Acceptance Tests took place early 2014. ISEPS, with an overall power rating of 5 MVA, form a heterogeneous set of items including solid state power converters and 1 MHz radiofrequency generators of 200 kW output power. The paper presents the main features of the detailed design developed by OCEM, focusing in particular on the high output voltage pulse step modulators, the high output current resonant converters, the radiofrequency generators by HIMMELWERK GmbH and the architecture and implementation of the complex control system. Details are given on non-standard factory tests verifying the insulation requirements specific to this application. Performance of ISEPS during the factory acceptance tests is described, with emphasis on demonstration of the load protection requirements, a crucial point for all neutral beam power supplies. Finally, key dates of SPIDER ISEPS installation and site testing schedule are provided.

  4. Design, manufacture and factory testing of the Ion Source and Extraction Power Supplies for the SPIDER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigi, Marco, E-mail: marco.bigi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Rinaldi, Luigi [OCEM Energy Technology, Via della Solidarietà 2/1, 40056 Valsamoggia (località Crespellano), Bologna (Italy); Simon, Muriel [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Sita, Luca; Taddia, Giuseppe; Carrozza, Saverino [OCEM Energy Technology, Via della Solidarietà 2/1, 40056 Valsamoggia (località Crespellano), Bologna (Italy); Decamps, Hans [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Luchetta, Adriano [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Meddour, Abdelraouf [HIMMELWERK Hoch- und Mittelfrequenzanlagen GmbH, Jopestr. 10, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Moressa, Modesto [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Morri, Cristiano; Musile Tanzi, Antonio [OCEM Energy Technology, Via della Solidarietà 2/1, 40056 Valsamoggia (località Crespellano), Bologna (Italy); Recchia, Mauro [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Wagner, Uwe [HIMMELWERK Hoch- und Mittelfrequenzanlagen GmbH, Jopestr. 10, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Zamengo, Andrea; Toigo, Vanni [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • 5 MVA ion source power supplies effectively integrated in 150 m{sup 2} Faraday cage. • Load protection and performance requirements met of custom design high voltage power supplies. • 200 kW tetrode oscillator with 200 kHz frequency range successfully tested. - Abstract: The SPIDER experiment, currently under construction at the Neutral Beam Test Facility in Padua, Italy, is a full-size prototype of the ion source for the ITER Neutral Beam Injectors. The Ion Source and Extraction Power Supplies (ISEPS) for SPIDER are supplied by OCEM Energy Technology s.r.l. (OCEM) under a procurement contract with Fusion for Energy (F4E) covering also the units required for MITICA and ITER injectors. The detailed design of SPIDER ISEPS was finalized in 2011 and manufacture of most components completed by end 2013. The Factory Acceptance Tests took place early 2014. ISEPS, with an overall power rating of 5 MVA, form a heterogeneous set of items including solid state power converters and 1 MHz radiofrequency generators of 200 kW output power. The paper presents the main features of the detailed design developed by OCEM, focusing in particular on the high output voltage pulse step modulators, the high output current resonant converters, the radiofrequency generators by HIMMELWERK GmbH and the architecture and implementation of the complex control system. Details are given on non-standard factory tests verifying the insulation requirements specific to this application. Performance of ISEPS during the factory acceptance tests is described, with emphasis on demonstration of the load protection requirements, a crucial point for all neutral beam power supplies. Finally, key dates of SPIDER ISEPS installation and site testing schedule are provided.

  5. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Love, P; Stewart, G

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment’s computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ’pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to retrieve a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single VO, and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO’s distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new or improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is hig...

  6. Tamarind seed gum-hydrolyzed polymethacrylamide-g-gellan beads for extended release of diclofenac sodium using 32 full factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Gouranga; Nandi, Amit Kumar; Khan, Najim Sarif; Pal, Souvik; Dey, Sibasish

    2018-07-15

    Development of tamarind seed gum (TSG)-hydrolyzed polymethacrylamide-g-gellan (h-Pmaa-g-GG) composite beads for extended release of diclofenac sodium using 3 2 full factorial design is the main purpose of this study. The ratio of h-Pmaa-g-GG and TSG and concentration of cross-linker CaCl 2 were taken as independent factors with three different levels of each. Effects of polymer ratio and CaCl 2 on drug entrapment efficiency (DEE), drug release, bead size and swelling were investigated. Responses such as DEE and different drug release parameters were statistically analyzed by 3 2 full factorial design using Design-Expert software and finally the formulation factors were optimized to obtain USP-reference release profile. Drug release rate was found to decrease with decrease in the ratio of h-Pmaa-g-GG:TSG and increase in the concentration of Ca 2+ ions in cross-linking medium. The optimized formulation showed DEE of 93.25% and an extended drug release profile over a period of 10h with f 2 =80.13. Kinetic modeling unveiled case-I-Fickian diffusion based drug release mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ibuprofen nanocrystals developed by 22 factorial design experiment: A new approach for poorly water-soluble drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Fernandes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of the particle size of drugs of pharmaceutical interest down to the nano-sized range has dramatically changed their physicochemical properties. The greatest disadvantage of nanocrystals is their inherent instability, due to the risk of crystal growth. Thus, the selection of an appropriate stabilizer is crucial to obtain long-term physicochemically stable nanocrystals. High pressure homogenization has enormous advantages, including the possibility of scaling up, lack of organic solvents and the production of small particles diameter with low polydispersity index. The sequential use of high shear homogenization followed by high pressure homogenization, can modulate nanoparticles’ size for different administration routes. The present study focuses on the optimization of the production process of two formulations composed of different surfactants produced by High Shear Homogenization followed by hot High Pressure Homogenization. To build up the surface response charts, a 22 full factorial design experiment, based on 2 independent variables, was used to develop optimized formulations. The effects of the production process on the mean particle size and polydispersity index were evaluated. The best ibuprofen nanocrystal formulations were obtained using 0.20% Tween 80 and 1.20% PVP K30 (F1 and 0.20% Tween 80 and 1.20% Span 80 (F2. The estimation of the long-term stability of the aqueous suspensions of ibuprofen nanocrystals was studied using the LUMISizer. The calculated instability index suggests that F1 was more stable when stored at 4 °C and 22 °C, whereas F2 was shown to be more stable when freshly prepared.

  8. Parameters Studies on Surface Initiated Rolling Contact Fatigue of Turnout Rails by Three-Level Unreplicated Saturated Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochuan Ma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface initiated rolling contact fatigue (RCF, mainly characterized by cracks and material stripping, is a common type of damage to turnout rails, which can not only shorten service life of turnout but also lead to poor running safety of vehicle. The rail surface initiated RCF of turnouts is caused by a long-term accumulation, the size and distribution of which are related to the dynamic parameters of the complicated vehicle-turnout system. In order to simulate the accumulation of rail damage, some random samples of dynamic parameters significantly influencing it should be input. Based on the three-level unreplicated saturated factorial design, according to the evaluation methods of H, P and B statistic values, six dynamic parameters that influence the rail surface initiated RCF in turnouts, namely running speed of vehicle, axle load, wheel-rail profiles, integral vertical track stiffness and wheel-rail friction coefficient, are obtained by selecting 13 dynamic parameters significantly influencing the dynamic vehicle-turnout interaction as the analysis factors, considering four dynamic response results, i.e., the normal wheel-rail contact force, longitudinal creep force, lateral creep force and wheel-rail contact patch area as the observed parameters. In addition, the rail surface initiated RCF behavior in turnouts under different wheel-rail creep conditions is analyzed, considering the relative motion of stock/switch rails. The results show that the rail surface initiated RCF is mainly caused by the tangential stress being high under small creep conditions, the normal and tangential stresses being high under large creep conditions, and the normal stress being high under pure spin creep conditions.

  9. Heavy ion beam factory for material science based on the KEK digital accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Ken, E-mail: takayama@post.kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatusda, Yokohama, Knagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Adachi, Toshikazu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Arai, Teruo; Arakawa, Dai [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Asao, Hiroyuki [NEC Network-Sensor, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8501 (Japan); Barata, Yuji; Harada, Shinya [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tokyo City University, Todoroki, Tokyo 158-8586 (Japan); Horioka, Kazuhiko [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatusda, Yokohama, Knagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Iwata, Taiki; Kadokura, Eiichi; Kwakubo, Tadamichi; Kubo, Tomio [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Leo, Kwee Wah [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Liu, Xingguaung [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatusda, Yokohama, Knagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Mochiki, Koichi [Tokyo City University, Todoroki, Tokyo 158-8586 (Japan); Munemoto, Naoya [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatusda, Yokohama, Knagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Nakanishi, Hiroshi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Okada, Yoshihito [NEC Network-Sensor, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8501 (Japan); Okamura, Katsuya [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); and others

    2013-11-01

    The KEK digital accelerator (DA) is an alternative to high-voltage electrostatic accelerators and conventional cyclotrons and synchrotrons, which are commonly used as swift heavy ion beam drivers. Compared with conventional accelerators, KEK-DA is capable of delivering a wider variety of ion species with various energies, as a result of its intrinsic properties. It is expected to serve as a heavy ion beam factory for research in materials science. Plans for its utilization include unique application programs, such as laboratory-based space science using virtual cosmic rays, heavy-ion mutagenesis in microorganisms, deep ion implantation, and modification of materials, which may be categorized into systematic studies of the spatial and temporal evolution of the locally and highly excited states of materials.

  10. A Complete MCDM Model for NPD Performance Assessment in an LED-Based Lighting Plant Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chin Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, industries and economies have undergone rapid development and expansion over the last several decades. As a result, global warming and environmental contaminations have resulted in climate change and jeopardized food security. In many developing countries, already decreasing crop yields are threatened by extreme weather and soil damaged by genetically modified food, making environmental problems worse and increasing food and organic product prices. For these reasons, this study proposes a hybrid multicriteria decision-making (MCDM model for new product development (NPD in the light-emitting diode- (LED- based lighting plant factory. First, literature reviews and expert interviews are employed in constructing a list of decision-making objectives and criteria for new product development. Then, a fuzzy Delphi method (FDM is used to screen the elements of the objectives and criteria, while a fuzzy decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (FDEMATEL is used to determine the relationships among the objectives and criteria. Finally, a fuzzy analytic network process (FANP and a composite priority vector (CPV are manipulated to determine the relative importance weights of the critical objectives and criteria. Results show that the proposed method can create a useful and assessable MCDM model for decision-making applications in new product development, and a case study is herein performed to validate the feasibility of the proposed model in a Taiwanese LED-based lighting plant factory, which not only provides the decision-makers with a feasible hierarchical data structure for decision-making guidance but also increases the competitive advantages of trade-offs on developing novel products.

  11. Computational tools and lattice design for the PEP-II B-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Irwin, J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Yan, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Several accelerator codes were used to design the PEP-II lattices, ranging from matrix-based codes, such as MAD and DIMAD, to symplectic-integrator codes, such as TRACY and DESPOT. In addition to element-by-element tracking, we constructed maps to determine aberration strengths. Furthermore, we have developed a fast and reliable method (nPB tracking) to track particles with a one-turn map. This new technique allows us to evaluate performance of the lattices on the entire tune-plane. Recently, we designed and implemented an object-oriented code in C++ called LEGO which integrates and expands upon TRACY and DESPOT. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Does a population-based multi-factorial lifestyle intervention increase social inequality in dietary habits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Jakobsen, Iris Marie; Aadahl, Mette

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether the effect of an individualised multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on dietary habits differs across socioeconomic groups.......To investigate whether the effect of an individualised multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on dietary habits differs across socioeconomic groups....

  13. Advances and prospects of Bacillus subtilis cellular factories: From rational design to industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang; Xu, Xianhao; Wu, Yaokang; Niu, Tengfei; Liu, Yanfeng; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long

    2018-05-15

    Bacillus subtilis is the most characterized gram-positive bacterium that has significant attributes, such as growing well on cheap carbon sources, possessing clear inherited backgrounds, having mature genetic manipulation methods, and exhibiting robustness in large-scale fermentations. Till date, B. subtilis has been identified as attractive hosts for the production of recombinant proteins and chemicals. By applying various systems and synthetic biology tools, the productivity features of B. subtilis can be thoroughly analyzed and further optimized via metabolic engineering. In the present review, we discussed why B. subtilis is the primary organisms used for metabolic engineering and industrial applications. Additionally, we summarized the recent advances in systems and synthetic biology, engineering strategies for improving cellular performances, and metabolic engineering applications of B. subtilis. In particular, we proposed emerging opportunities and essential strategies to enable the successful development of B. subtilis as microbial cell factories. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Newly designed double surface bimorph mirror for BL-15A of the photon factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Noriyuki, E-mail: noriyuki.igarashi@kek.jp; Nitani, Hiroaki; Takeichi, Yasuo; Niwa, Yasuhiro; Abe, Hitoshi; Kimura, Masao; Mori, Takeharu; Nagatani, Yasuko; Kosuge, Takashi; Kamijo, Ai; Koyama, Atsushi; Shimizu, Nobutaka [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ohta, Hiromasa [Mitsubishi Electric System & Service Co., Ltd. 20F Carrot Tower 4-1-1 Taishido, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154-8520 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    BL-15A is a new x-ray undulator beamline at the Photon Factory. It will be dedicated to two independent research activities, simultaneous XAFS/XRF/XRD experiments, and SAXS/WAXS/GI-SAXS studies. In order to supply a choice of micro-focus, low-divergence and collimated beams, a double surface bimorph mirror was recently developed. To achieve further mirror surface optimization, the pencil beam scanning method was applied for “in-situ” beam inspection and the Inverse Matrix method was used for determination of optimal voltages on the piezoelectric actuators. The corrected beam profiles at every focal spot gave good agreement with the theoretical values and the resultant beam performance is promising for both techniques. Quick and stable switching between highly focused and intense collimated beams was established using this new mirror with the simple motorized stages.

  15. Application of full 42 Factorial Design for the Development and Characterization of Insecticidal Soap from Neem Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. KOVO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the extraction, characterization and production of insecticidal soap from Neem oil using full 42 factorial design. Soxhlet extractor was used for the extraction purpose and two solvent was chosen to determine which is better. N-hexane gives a Neem oil yield of 45.43% while ethanol gives a yield of 46.38%, confirming the earlier literature result giving ethanol as better solvent for Neem oil extraction. The basic properties of the oil were determined as follows, saponification value 215.95ml/g, acid value 1.122g/mol, unsaponifiable matter 19.66 etc. The Neem oil was found to have a colour of golden yellow due to the presence of Nimbidin.Full 42 factorial design and mathematical model was applied to the extraction process and a first order regression equation of the form:Y = 9.548 + 0.144X1 + 0.1931X2 + 0.1892 X12was obtained growing the individual effect of time and solvent type as parameter and their interaction in the entire extraction process the Neem insecticidal soap was found to be effective in insect and pest control.

  16. Optimization of thiamethoxam adsorption parameters using multi-walled carbon nanotubes by means of fractional factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panić, Sanja; Rakić, Dušan; Guzsvány, Valéria; Kiss, Erne; Boskovic, Goran; Kónya, Zoltán; Kukovecz, Ákos

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate significant factors affecting the thiamethoxam adsorption efficiency using oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as adsorbents. Five factors (initial solution concentration of thiamethoxam in water, temperature, solution pH, MWCNTs weight and contact time) were investigated using 2V(5-1) fractional factorial design. The obtained linear model was statistically tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the analysis of residuals was used to investigate the model validity. It was observed that the factors and their second-order interactions affecting the thiamethoxam removal can be divided into three groups: very important, moderately important and insignificant ones. The initial solution concentration was found to be the most influencing parameter on thiamethoxam adsorption from water. Optimization of the factors levels was carried out by minimizing those parameters which are usually critical in real life: the temperature (energy), contact time (money) and weight of MWCNTs (potential health hazard), in order to maximize the adsorbed amount of the pollutant. The results of maximal adsorbed thiamethoxam amount in both real and optimized experiments indicate that among minimized parameters the adsorption time is one that makes the largest difference. The results of this study indicate that fractional factorial design is very useful tool for screening the higher number of parameters and reducing the number of adsorption experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A systematic approach to designing statistically powerful heteroscedastic 2 × 2 factorial studies while minimizing financial costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Show-Li Jan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2 × 2 factorial design is widely used for assessing the existence of interaction and the extent of generalizability of two factors where each factor had only two levels. Accordingly, research problems associated with the main effects and interaction effects can be analyzed with the selected linear contrasts. Methods To correct for the potential heterogeneity of variance structure, the Welch-Satterthwaite test is commonly used as an alternative to the t test for detecting the substantive significance of a linear combination of mean effects. This study concerns the optimal allocation of group sizes for the Welch-Satterthwaite test in order to minimize the total cost while maintaining adequate power. The existing method suggests that the optimal ratio of sample sizes is proportional to the ratio of the population standard deviations divided by the square root of the ratio of the unit sampling costs. Instead, a systematic approach using optimization technique and screening search is presented to find the optimal solution. Results Numerical assessments revealed that the current allocation scheme generally does not give the optimal solution. Alternatively, the suggested approaches to power and sample size calculations give accurate and superior results under various treatment and cost configurations. Conclusions The proposed approach improves upon the current method in both its methodological soundness and overall performance. Supplementary algorithms are also developed to aid the usefulness and implementation of the recommended technique in planning 2 × 2 factorial designs.

  18. KAON factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1989-09-01

    Proposals for high intensity proton synchrotrons (typically providing 100 μA (6 x 10 14 p/s)) at 30 GeV have been made in Canada, Europe, Japan, the USA and the USSR. These beams would be roughly 100 times more intense than those available now and would yield equivalent increases in the fluxes of secondary particles (kaons, pions, muons, antiprotons, hyperons and neutrinos) - or cleaner beams for a smaller increase in flux. The ability to investigate rare processes on the precision frontier opens new avenues to fundamental questions in both particle and nuclear physics, complementary to traditional approaches via the energy frontier. The demand for higher currents has led to novel features in many of the accelerator designs: asymmetric magnet cycles, avoidance of transition crossing, separate collector and stretcher rings, three-dimensional beam painting at injection, bucket-to-bucket beam transfer, perpendicular biassing of microwave ferrite in the rf tuners, the use of Siberian Snakes to preserve polarization, and the addition of a pre-septum to make slow extraction >99.8% efficient. Other characteristic features include rapid cycling rates, booster stages, H - injection, low impedance enclosures, powerful feedback systems for control of beam instabilities and beam loading, and local collimation systems for handling beam loss. This paper reviews the general features of kaon factory accelerator design and the status of the various proposals

  19. A coupled factorial-analysis-based interval programming approach and its application to air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Huang, G H

    2013-02-01

    In this study, a coupled factorial-analysis-based interval programming (CFA-IP) approach is developed through incorporating factorial analysis within an interval-parameter linear programming framework. CFA-IP can tackle uncertainties presented as intervals that exist in the objective function and the left- and right-hand sides of constraints, as well as robustly reflect interval information in the solutions for the objective-function value and decision variables. Moreover CFA-IP has the advantage of investigating the potential interactions among input parameters and their influences on lower- and upper-bound solutions, which is meaningful for supporting an in-depth analysis of uncertainty. A regional air quality management problem is studied to demonstrate applicability of the proposed CFA-IP approach. The results indicate that useful solutions have been generated for planning the air quality management practices. They can help decision makers identify desired pollution mitigation strategies with minimized total cost and maximized environmental efficiency, as well as screen out dominant parameters and explore the valuable information that may be veiled beneath their interrelationships. The CFA-IP approach can not only tackle uncertainties presented as intervals that exist in the objective function and the left- and right-hand sides of constraints, but also investigate their interactive effects on model outputs, which is meaningful for supporting an in-depth analysis of uncertainty. Thus CFA-IP would be applicable to air quality management problems under uncertainty. The results obtained from CFA-IP can help decision makers identify desired pollution mitigation strategies, as well as investigate the potential interactions among factors and analyze their consequent effects on modeling results.

  20. The Use of a Fractional Factorial Design to Determine the Factors That Impact 1,3-Propanediol Production from Glycerol by Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Kalia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, biodiesel, a substitute for fossil fuels, has led to the excessive production of crude glycerol. The resulting crude glycerol can possess a high concentration of salts and an alkaline pH. Moreover, current crude glycerol purification methods are expensive, rendering this former commodity a waste product. However, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, a haloalkaliphilic bacterium, possesses the metabolic capability to convert glycerol into 1,3-propanediol, a valuable commodity compound, without the need for salt dilution or adjusting pH when grown on this waste. Experiments were performed with different combinations of 24 medium components to determine their impact on the production of 1,3-propanediol by using a fractional factorial design. Tested medium components were selected based on data from the organism’s genome. Analysis of HPLC data revealed enhanced production of 1,3-propanediol with additional glycerol, pH, vitamin B12, ammonium ions, sodium sulfide, cysteine, iron, and cobalt. However, other selected components; nitrate ions, phosphate ions, sulfate ions, sodium:potassium ratio, chloride, calcium, magnesium, silicon, manganese, zinc, borate, nickel, molybdenum, tungstate, copper and aluminum, did not enhance 1,3-propanediol production. The use of a fractional factorial design enabled the quick and efficient assessment of the impact of 24 different medium components on 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol from a haloalkaliphilic bacterium.

  1. The Use of a Fractional Factorial Design to Determine the Factors That Impact 1,3-Propanediol Production from Glycerol by Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Shivani; Trager, Jordan; Sitton, Oliver C; Mormile, Melanie R

    2016-08-20

    In recent years, biodiesel, a substitute for fossil fuels, has led to the excessive production of crude glycerol. The resulting crude glycerol can possess a high concentration of salts and an alkaline pH. Moreover, current crude glycerol purification methods are expensive, rendering this former commodity a waste product. However, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, a haloalkaliphilic bacterium, possesses the metabolic capability to convert glycerol into 1,3-propanediol, a valuable commodity compound, without the need for salt dilution or adjusting pH when grown on this waste. Experiments were performed with different combinations of 24 medium components to determine their impact on the production of 1,3-propanediol by using a fractional factorial design. Tested medium components were selected based on data from the organism's genome. Analysis of HPLC data revealed enhanced production of 1,3-propanediol with additional glycerol, pH, vitamin B12, ammonium ions, sodium sulfide, cysteine, iron, and cobalt. However, other selected components; nitrate ions, phosphate ions, sulfate ions, sodium:potassium ratio, chloride, calcium, magnesium, silicon, manganese, zinc, borate, nickel, molybdenum, tungstate, copper and aluminum, did not enhance 1,3-propanediol production. The use of a fractional factorial design enabled the quick and efficient assessment of the impact of 24 different medium components on 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol from a haloalkaliphilic bacterium.

  2. Preliminary conceptual design for a 510 MeV electron/positron injector for a UCLA φ factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlbacka, G.; Hartline, R.; Barletta, W.; Pellegrini, C.

    1991-01-01

    UCLA is proposing a compact suer conducting high luminosity (10 32-33 cm -2 sec -1 ) e + e - collider for a φ factory. To achieve the required e + e - currents, full energy injections from a linac with intermediate storage in a Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is used. The elements of the linac are outlined with cost and future flexibility in mind. The preliminary conceptual design starts with a high current gun similar in design to those developed at SLAC and at ANL (for the APS). Four 4-section linac modules follow, each driven by a 60 MW klystron with a 1 μsec macropulse and an average current of 8.6 A. The first 4-section model is used to create positrons in a tungsten target at 186 MeV. The three remaining three modules are used to accelerate the e + e - beam to 558 MeV (no load limit) for injection into the PAR

  3. Design and analysis of a wiggler magnet system for the PEP-II B-Factory LER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, J.; Kendall, M.; Bertolini, L.; Fackler, O.; O'Connor, T.; Swan, T.; Zholents, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Low Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II B-Factory will use a wiggler magnet system for emittance control and additional damping. The wiggler magnet system is a set of 11 individual iron core, water cooled, dipole magnets designed to operate at 1.6 T and generate 400 kW of synchrotron radiation. Space has been provided to add a second wiggler with an additional 400 kW of synchrotron radiation if more damping is needed in the future. A copper vacuum chamber is used with continuous antechambers connected to both sides of the beam chamber via slots. Synchrotron radiation dump surfaces and distributed vacuum pumping are located in both antechambers. The authors describe the design and analysis of the wiggler magnets and the salient features of the vacuum chamber and dumps

  4. Physics and design issues of asymmetric storage ring colliders as B-factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    1989-08-01

    This paper concentrates on generic R ampersand D and design issues of asymmetric colliders via a specific example, namely a 9 GeV x 3 GeV collider based on PEP at SLAC. An asymmetric e + -e - collider at the Y(4s) and with sufficiently high luminosity (10 33 -10 34 cm -2 s -1 ) offers the possibility of studying mixing, rare decays, and CP violation in the B bar B meson system, as well as ''beautiful'' tau-charm physics, and has certain qualitative advantages from detection and machine design points of view. These include: the energy constraint; clean environment (∼25% B + B - , B 0 bar B 0 ); large cross section (1 nb); vertex reconstruction (from the time development of space-time separated B and bar B decays due to moving center-of-mass); reduced backgrounds; greatest sensitivity to CP violation in B → CP eigenstate; the possibility of using higher collision frequencies, up to 100 MHz, in a head-on colliding mode using magnetic separation. It is estimated that for B → ΨK s , an asymmetric collider has an advantage equivalent to a factor of five in luminosity relative to a symmetric one. There are, however, questions with regard to the physics of the asymmetric beam-beam coulomb interaction that may limit the intrinsic luminosity and the possibility of realizing the small beam pipes necessary to determine the vertices. 16 refs., 2 figs

  5. The Injection System of the INFN-SuperB Factory Project: Preliminary Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, Roberto; /INFN, Rome; Guiducci, Susanna; /INFN, Rome; Preger, Miro; /INFN, Rome; Raimondi, Pantaleo; /INFN, Rome; Chance, Antoine; /Saclay; Dadoun, Olivier; /Orsay, LAL; Poirier, Freddy; /Orsay, LAL; Variola, Alessandro; /Orsay, LAL; Seeman, John; /SLAC

    2012-07-05

    The ultra high luminosity B-factory (SuperB) project of INFN requires a high performance and reliable injection system, providing electrons at 4 GeV and positrons at 7 GeV, to fulfil the very tight requirements of the collider. Due to the short beam lifetime, continuous injection of electron and positron bunches in both LER and HER rings is necessary to maintain an high average luminosity. Polarized electrons are required for experiments and must be delivered by the injection system, due to the beam lifetime shorter than the ring polarization build-up: they will be produced by means of a SLAC-SLC polarized gun. The emittance and the energy spread of the e{sup -}/e{sup +} beams are reduced in a 1 GeV Damping Ring (DR) before injection in the main rings. Two schemes for positron production are under study, one with e{sup -}/e{sup +} conversion at low energy (< 1 Gev) and one with conversion at 6 GeV and a recirculation line to bring the positrons back to the DR. Acceleration through the Linac is provided by a 2856 MHz RF system made of travelling wave (TW), room temperature accelerating structures.

  6. Internet Factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes a novel concept for introducing new network technologies in network infrastructures. The concept, called Internet factories, describes the methodical process to create and manage application-specific networks from application programs, referred to as Netapps. An Internet

  7. Internet factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes a novel concept for introducing new network technologies in network infrastructures. The concept, called Internet factories, describes the methodical process to create and manage application-specific networks from application programs, referred to as Netapps. An Internet

  8. Baby Factory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... mass media have the power to easily propagate ideas on social change ... issue of 'baby factory' is becoming everyday news affecting the right of ... according to recent mass media reports, teenage girls and young women are.

  9. Optimizing flurbiprofen-loaded NLC by central composite factorial design for ocular delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mira, E.; Egea, M. A.; Souto, E. B.; Calpena, A. C.; García, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and optimize a new topical delivery system for ocular administration of flurbiprofen (FB), based on lipid nanoparticles. These particles, called nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), were composed of a fatty acid (stearic acid (SA)) as the solid lipid and a mixture of Miglyol® 812 and castor oil (CO) as the liquid lipids, prepared by the hot high pressure homogenization method. After selecting the critical variables influencing the physicochemical characteristics of the NLC (the liquid lipid (i.e. oil) concentration with respect to the total lipid (cOil/L (wt%)), the surfactant and the flurbiprofen concentration, on particle size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency), a three-factor five-level central rotatable composite design was employed to plan and perform the experiments. Morphological examination, crystallinity and stability studies were also performed to accomplish the optimization study. The results showed that increasing cOil/L (wt%) was followed by an enhanced tendency to produce smaller particles, but the liquid to solid lipid proportion should not exceed 30 wt% due to destabilization problems. Therefore, a 70:30 ratio of SA to oil (miglyol + CO) was selected to develop an optimal NLC formulation. The smaller particles obtained when increasing surfactant concentration led to the selection of 3.2 wt% of Tween® 80 (non-ionic surfactant). The positive effect of the increase in FB concentration on the encapsulation efficiency (EE) and its total solubilization in the lipid matrix led to the selection of 0.25 wt% of FB in the formulation. The optimal NLC showed an appropriate average size for ophthalmic administration (228.3 nm) with a narrow size distribution (0.156), negatively charged surface (-33.3 mV) and high EE (~90%). The in vitro experiments proved that sustained release FB was achieved using NLC as drug carriers. Optimal NLC formulation did not show toxicity on ocular tissues.

  10. Optimizing flurbiprofen-loaded NLC by central composite factorial design for ocular delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Mira, E; Egea, M A; Garcia, M L [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Barcelona, Avenida Joan XXIII s/n, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Souto, E B [Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Rua Carlos da Maia, Nr. 296, Office S.1, P-4200-150 Porto (Portugal); Calpena, A C, E-mail: eligonzalezmi@ub.edu [Department of Biopharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Avenida Joan XXIII s/n, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-28

    The purpose of this study was to design and optimize a new topical delivery system for ocular administration of flurbiprofen (FB), based on lipid nanoparticles. These particles, called nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), were composed of a fatty acid (stearic acid (SA)) as the solid lipid and a mixture of Miglyol 812 and castor oil (CO) as the liquid lipids, prepared by the hot high pressure homogenization method. After selecting the critical variables influencing the physicochemical characteristics of the NLC (the liquid lipid (i.e. oil) concentration with respect to the total lipid (cOil/L (wt%)), the surfactant and the flurbiprofen concentration, on particle size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency), a three-factor five-level central rotatable composite design was employed to plan and perform the experiments. Morphological examination, crystallinity and stability studies were also performed to accomplish the optimization study. The results showed that increasing cOil/L (wt%) was followed by an enhanced tendency to produce smaller particles, but the liquid to solid lipid proportion should not exceed 30 wt% due to destabilization problems. Therefore, a 70:30 ratio of SA to oil (miglyol + CO) was selected to develop an optimal NLC formulation. The smaller particles obtained when increasing surfactant concentration led to the selection of 3.2 wt% of Tween 80 (non-ionic surfactant). The positive effect of the increase in FB concentration on the encapsulation efficiency (EE) and its total solubilization in the lipid matrix led to the selection of 0.25 wt% of FB in the formulation. The optimal NLC showed an appropriate average size for ophthalmic administration (228.3 nm) with a narrow size distribution (0.156), negatively charged surface (-33.3 mV) and high EE ({approx}90%). The in vitro experiments proved that sustained release FB was achieved using NLC as drug carriers. Optimal NLC formulation did not show toxicity on ocular tissues.

  11. Optimizing flurbiprofen-loaded NLC by central composite factorial design for ocular delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mira, E; Egea, M A; Garcia, M L; Souto, E B; Calpena, A C

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and optimize a new topical delivery system for ocular administration of flurbiprofen (FB), based on lipid nanoparticles. These particles, called nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), were composed of a fatty acid (stearic acid (SA)) as the solid lipid and a mixture of Miglyol 812 and castor oil (CO) as the liquid lipids, prepared by the hot high pressure homogenization method. After selecting the critical variables influencing the physicochemical characteristics of the NLC (the liquid lipid (i.e. oil) concentration with respect to the total lipid (cOil/L (wt%)), the surfactant and the flurbiprofen concentration, on particle size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency), a three-factor five-level central rotatable composite design was employed to plan and perform the experiments. Morphological examination, crystallinity and stability studies were also performed to accomplish the optimization study. The results showed that increasing cOil/L (wt%) was followed by an enhanced tendency to produce smaller particles, but the liquid to solid lipid proportion should not exceed 30 wt% due to destabilization problems. Therefore, a 70:30 ratio of SA to oil (miglyol + CO) was selected to develop an optimal NLC formulation. The smaller particles obtained when increasing surfactant concentration led to the selection of 3.2 wt% of Tween 80 (non-ionic surfactant). The positive effect of the increase in FB concentration on the encapsulation efficiency (EE) and its total solubilization in the lipid matrix led to the selection of 0.25 wt% of FB in the formulation. The optimal NLC showed an appropriate average size for ophthalmic administration (228.3 nm) with a narrow size distribution (0.156), negatively charged surface (-33.3 mV) and high EE (∼90%). The in vitro experiments proved that sustained release FB was achieved using NLC as drug carriers. Optimal NLC formulation did not show toxicity on ocular tissues.

  12. Aspergillus oryzae-based cell factory for direct kojic acid production from cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Yoshie, Toshihide; Wakai, Satoshi; Asai-Nakashima, Nanami; Okazaki, Fumiyoshi; Ogino, Chiaki; Hisada, Hiromoto; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Hata, Yoji; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-05-18

    Kojic acid (5-Hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4-pyrone) is one of the major secondary metabolites in Aspergillus oryzae. It is widely used in food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. The production cost, however, is too high for its use in many applications. Thus, an efficient and cost-effective kojic acid production process would be valuable. However, little is known about the complete set of genes for kojic acid production. Currently, kojic acid is produced from glucose. The efficient production of kojic acid using cellulose as an inexpensive substrate would help establish cost-effective kojic acid production. A kojic acid transcription factor gene over-expressing the A. oryzae strain was constructed. Three genes related to kojic acid production in this strain were transcribed in higher amounts than those found in the wild-type strain. This strain produced 26.4 g/L kojic acid from 80 g/L glucose. Furthermore, this strain was transformed with plasmid harboring 3 cellulase genes. The resultant A. oryzae strain successfully produced 0.18 g/L of kojic acid in 6 days of fermentation from the phosphoric acid swollen cellulose. Kojic acid was produced directly from cellulose material using genetically engineered A. oryzae. Because A. oryzae has efficient protein secretion ability and secondary metabolite productivity, an A. oryzae-based cell factory could be a platform for the production of various kinds of bio-based chemicals.

  13. A Factorial Design Approach to Analyse the Effect of Coarse Recycled Concrete Aggregates on the Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanty, Kiranbala; Mukharjee, Bibhuti Bhusan; Das, Sudhanshu Shekhar

    2018-06-01

    The present study investigates the effect of replacement of coarse fraction of natural aggregates by recycled concrete aggregates on the properties of hot mix asphalt (HMA) using general factorial design approach. For this two factors i.e. recycled coarse aggregates percentage [RCA (%)] and bitumen content percentage [BC (%)] are considered. Tests have been carried out on the HMA type bituminous concrete, prepared with varying RCA (%) and BC (%). Analysis of variance has been performed on the experimental data to determine the effect of the chosen factors on various parameters such as stability, flow, air void, void mineral aggregate, void filled with bitumen and bulk density. The study depicts that RCA (%) and BC (%) have significant effect on the selected responses as p value is less than the chosen significance level. In addition to above, the outcomes of the statistical analysis indicate that interaction between factors have significant effects on void mineral aggregate and bulk density of bituminous concrete.

  14. Use of fractional factorial design for selection of nutrients for culturing Paecilomyces variotii in eucalyptus hemicellulosic hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Almeida e Silva

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available A eucalyptus hemicellulose fraction was hydrolysed by treating eucalyptus wood chips with sulfuric acid. The hydrolysate was used as the substrate to grow Paecilomyces variotii IOC-3764 cultured for 72 or 96 hours. The influence of the inhibitors, nutrients and fermentation time was verified by a 28-4 and, subsequently, a 25-1 fractional factorial design. The effects of the inhibitors (acetic acid and furfural, nutrients (rice bran, urea, potassium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, magnesium sulfate and sodium phosphate and fermentation time were investigated. The highest yield (10.59 g/L of biomass was obtained when the microorganisms were cultivated for 72 hours in a medium composed of 30 g/L rice bran, 9.4 g/L ammonium sulfate (2 g/L nitrogen and 2 g/L sodium phosphate.

  15. Optimization of Amylase and Protease Production from Aspergillus awamori in Single Bioreactor Through EVOP Factorial Design Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Negi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary operation (EVOP factorial design technique was explored in order to economically produce amylase and protease at their optimum level in a single bioreactor by modified solid-state fermentation. Maximum yields of amylase and protease were achieved, using wheat bran as a substrate by a highly potent, locally isolated strain of Aspergillus awamori: Nakazawa MTCC 6652. The strain had been induced previously, inferring the ability to produce both enzymes concomitantly in a single bioreactor with their maximum capacity. The highest secretion of amylase and protease were measured to be 9420.6 and 1930 U/g, respectively, at 37 °C. pH and relative humidity were found to be optimum at 4 and 85 %, evaluated through EVOP method.

  16. Evaluation of the use of steelmaking slag as an aggregate in concrete mix: A factorial design approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljbour Salah H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Slag is investigated towards its potential use as an aggregate in concrete mix production. Full factorial design methodology is applied to study the effect of two process input variables, namely: slag as coarse aggregate and slag as medium aggregate on the properties of concrete mix. Additionally, the interaction between input variables is also examined. Incorporating steel slag aggregate in the concrete mix affected its compressive strength. Enhanced compressive strength concrete mix was obtained with 70 wt.% coarse slag aggregate and 70 wt.% medium slag aggregate. Under these proportions, the 28-days compressive strength was higher than the 28-days compressive strength of a concrete mix prepared from normal aggregate. Strong interaction effect exists between slag aggregate size on the compressive strength at 7-days curing. Lower compressive strength for the concrete mix might be obtained if improper proportions of mixed medium and coarse slag aggregate were employed.

  17. A Factorial Design Approach to Analyse the Effect of Coarse Recycled Concrete Aggregates on the Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanty, Kiranbala; Mukharjee, Bibhuti Bhusan; Das, Sudhanshu Shekhar

    2018-02-01

    The present study investigates the effect of replacement of coarse fraction of natural aggregates by recycled concrete aggregates on the properties of hot mix asphalt (HMA) using general factorial design approach. For this two factors i.e. recycled coarse aggregates percentage [RCA (%)] and bitumen content percentage [BC (%)] are considered. Tests have been carried out on the HMA type bituminous concrete, prepared with varying RCA (%) and BC (%). Analysis of variance has been performed on the experimental data to determine the effect of the chosen factors on various parameters such as stability, flow, air void, void mineral aggregate, void filled with bitumen and bulk density. The study depicts that RCA (%) and BC (%) have significant effect on the selected responses as p value is less than the chosen significance level. In addition to above, the outcomes of the statistical analysis indicate that interaction between factors have significant effects on void mineral aggregate and bulk density of bituminous concrete.

  18. Application of 2k Full Factorial Design in Optimization of Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction of Ginger Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaj Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from ginger was optimized using a 23 full factorial design in terms of oil yield to determine the optimum extraction conditions. Sixteen experiments were carried out with three varying parameters, extraction time, microwave power, and type of sample for two levels of each. A first order regression equation best fits the experimental data. The predicted values calculated by the regression model were in good agreement with the experimental values. The results showed that the extraction time is the most prominent factor followed by microwave power level and sample type for extraction process. An average of 0.25% of ginger oil can be extracted using current setup. The optimum conditions for the ginger oil extraction using SFME were the extraction time 30 minutes, microwave power level 640 watts, and sample type, crushed sample. Solvent-free microwave extraction proves a green and promising technique for essential oil extraction.

  19. A review of metabolic and enzymatic engineering strategies for designing and optimizing performance of microbial cell factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K. Fisher

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial cell factories (MCFs are of considerable interest to convert low value renewable substrates to biofuels and high value chemicals. This review highlights the progress of computational models for the rational design of an MCF to produce a target bio-commodity. In particular, the rational design of an MCF involves: (i product selection, (ii de novo biosynthetic pathway identification (i.e., rational, heterologous, or artificial, (iii MCF chassis selection, (iv enzyme engineering of promiscuity to enable the formation of new products, and (v metabolic engineering to ensure optimal use of the pathway by the MCF host. Computational tools such as (i de novo biosynthetic pathway builders, (ii docking, (iii molecular dynamics (MD and steered MD (SMD, and (iv genome-scale metabolic flux modeling all play critical roles in the rational design of an MCF. Genome-scale metabolic flux models are of considerable use to the design process since they can reveal metabolic capabilities of MCF hosts. These can be used for host selection as well as optimizing precursors and cofactors of artificial de novo biosynthetic pathways. In addition, recent advances in genome-scale modeling have enabled the derivation of metabolic engineering strategies, which can be implemented using the genomic tools reviewed here as well.

  20. Process of chemical recycling of post-consumer PET using a factorial design; Processo de reciclagem quimica do PET pos-consumo empregando o planejamento fatorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Carlos Eduardo de O.; Almeida, Yeda Medeiros B. de; Vinhas, Gloria M., E-mail: carlos.olacerda@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated important variables in the depolymerization reaction of post-consumer poly (ethylene terephthalate) - PET via alkaline hydrolysis. Through this reaction is obtained terephthalic acid (PTA), a monomer, which when purified, is used for the production of PET resin. The study was based on a 2{sup 2} factorial design in which the independent variables were the concentration of NaOH solution and the reaction time, and the dependent variable was the yield of PTA obtained. The experiments that generated the best results, 100 % of yield, were obtained with the higher values of the independent variables. Statistical analysis showed that the concentration of NaOH solution is the variable that most influences in the process. The PTA obtained was analyzed by NMR ¹H technique, confirming the strong resemblance to commercial PTA obtained by petrochemical way. (author)

  1. The PEP-II Asymmetric B Factory: Design details and R ampersand D results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.; DeStaebler, H.; Dorfan, J.

    1994-06-01

    PEP-II, a 9 GeV x 3.1 GeV electron-positron collider with a design luminosity of 3 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 has now been approved for construction by SLAC, LBL and LLNL for the purpose of studying CP violation in the B bar B system. This upgrade project involves replacing the vacuum and RF systeum of PEP, which will serve as the high-energy ring (HER), along with the addition of a new low-energy ring (LER) mounted atop the HER. Designs for both rings are described, and the anticipated project construction schedule is indicated. Collider operation will begin at the end of 1998. An aggressive R ampersand D program has been carried out to validate our design choices; key results in the areas of lattice design, vacuum, RF, and multibunch feedback are summarized

  2. Sub Tenth Micron CMOS Devices - A Demonstration of the Virtual Factory Approach to New Structure Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Plummer, James L

    1995-01-01

    ...'. This project is exploring the use of advanced TCAD simulation tools to design a candidate 21st century MOS device - a fully-depleted surrounding gate vertical MOSFET with self-aligned drain contact...

  3. The participation of the Experimental Design Factory of the Uranium Industry of Czechoslovakia in the design of a tunneling machine with disk bits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, P

    1983-01-01

    A tunneling machine, two prototypes of which were designed and built jointly on the basis of scientific and technical cooperation between the Experimental Design Factory of the Uranium Industry of Czechoslovakia and the VEB-Schachtbau enterprise (East Germany), is described. The experimental design operations were conducted under the methodological leadership of the Mine Construction in the Uranium Industry (Czechoslovakia) enterprise. The experimental design factory developed a general design system for the machine and its individual subassemblies. The detailed technical documentation for the machine units was developed by both enterprises. Each enterprise made two complexes of specific units and spare parts. The prototypes were assembled in both countries with the technical assistance of the producer enterprise of the appropriate subassembly. Industrial tests were conducted by each enterprise independently with technical assistance and delivery of spare parts on the part of the producer enterprise. A machine under the title of VM 24-27 was used to drill more than 2,300 meters of water supply tunnel in East Germany in 1982 and a machine called the RS 24-27 (29) was used in Prague in the same year to drill approximately 1,400 meters of cable collectors. The machine is designed for the passage of rounded mine drifts with a diameter of 2.4 to 2.7 (2.9) meters) to the full cross section in stable rocks. Its overall length is 32.5 meters, while the total weight is 85 tons. The shift productivity was 9.55 meters. Since 1979 the Mining Construction in the Uranium Industry and the Experimental Design Plant of the Uranium Industry Enterprises of Czechoslovakia have supplied disk bits for the TVM Demag tunnel drilling machines (West Germany) and RS 24-27 and the HG 210 Wirth (West Germany) cross cut drills.

  4. Participatory design based research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Bach Jensen, Louise; Falk, Lars

    This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus.......This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus....

  5. Phi factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Plans for 'phi factories' gathered momentum with a recent workshop at UCLA. These machines, high luminosity electron-positron colliders working near the phi resonance at 1020 MeV, have been proposed at Laboratories in Europe, the US, Japan and the USSR

  6. PEP-II asymmetric B Factory: Design update and R ampersand D results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.; Bell, R.A.; Dorfan, J.; Schwarz, H.; Barletta, W.A.; Calderon, M.

    1992-07-01

    PEP-II, a 9 GeV x 3.1 GeV e + e - collider with a design luminosity of 3 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 , was proposed jointly by SLAC, LBL, and LLNL. Recent efforts have continued towards an optimized design. In addition, an aggressive R ampersand D program is under way to validate our design choices. Fabrication of a low-power prototype RF cavity is complete, and impedance measurements are beginning. A 500-kW, 476-MHz klystron has been completed; it will be used for testing both high-power RF windows and a prototype high-power cavity (now under design in collaboration with Chalk River Laboratory). Vacuum studies have demonstrated that chambers with suitable photodesorption properties can be fabricated. A mockup of the two-ring arc area has been completed and used to investigate alignment and stability issues. The PEP-II project is ready to begin construction as soon as funds become available

  7. The Walking Interventions Through Texting (WalkIT) Trial: Rationale, Design, and Protocol for a Factorial Randomized Controlled Trial of Adaptive Interventions for Overweight and Obese, Inactive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Jane C; Hollingshead, Kevin E; Todd, Michael; Jarrett, Catherine L; Tucker, Wesley J; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Adams, Marc A

    2015-09-11

    the first studies focusing on the individual components of combined goal setting and reward structures in a factorial design to increase walking. The trial is expected to produce results useful to future research interventions and perhaps industry initiatives, primarily focused on mHealth, goal setting, and those looking to promote behavior change through performance-based incentives. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02053259; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02053259 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6b65xLvmg).

  8. Related factors to workers' use of hearing protection device in knitting & ppinning factories of Yazd city based on Protection Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barkhordi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsNoise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL is an important occupational disorder. High percentage of workers in occupational environments did not use the hearing protection device against harmful noise. This study was carried out to study factors related to workers' use of Hearing protection Device in Knitting & spinning factories of Yazd city based on protection motivation theory.MethodsIn this cross-sectional analytical study 280 workers of the knitting & spinning factories of Yazd City who exposed to harmful noise (over 85dB selected among the three factories by cluster sampling. The data gathered via exclusive interviews with selected workers  using the questionnaire designed based on protection motivation theory and were analyzedResults42/5 percent of workers permanently used hearing protection devices, and 20/7 percent of workers never use.There was a significant correlation between the age of workers and the mean score components of PMT; perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, perceived response efficacy and protection motivation. There was also a significant correlation between the work experience and the mean score of PMT factors; perceived severity, perceived response efficacy and perceived vulnerability. Also there was a significant correlation between workers' education level and the mean score of perceived response efficacy and there was a significant correlation between protection motivation and the mean score components of PMT; perceived vulnerability, perceived self-efficacy, perceived response efficacy, perceived costs and behaviorConclusionRegarding the significant correlations between the more constructs of PMT and protection motivation of workers for using hearing protective device, designing educational program based on PMT to increase hearing protection devices usage among workers is recommended.

  9. Removing lead from metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation: factorial design and removal mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingang; Gao, Yujie; Ding, Hui

    2013-10-01

    The lead removal from the metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation was optimized using experimental design, and a mathematical model was established to elucidate the removal mechanism. The variables studied in lead evaporation consisted of the chamber pressure, heating temperature, heating time, particle size and initial mass. The low-level chamber pressure was fixed at 0.1 Pa as the operation pressure. The application of two-level factorial design generated a first-order polynomial that agreed well with the data for evaporation efficiency of lead. The heating temperature and heating time exhibited significant effects on the efficiency, which was validated by means of the copper-lead mixture experiments. The optimized operating conditions within the region studied were the chamber pressure of 0.1 Pa, heating temperature of 1023 K and heating time of 120 min. After the conditions were employed to remove lead from the metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards, the efficiency was 99.97%. The mechanism of the effects was elucidated by mathematical modeling that deals with evaporation, mass transfer and condensation, and can be applied to a wider range of metal removal by vacuum distillation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancement of Solubility of Lamotrigine by Solid Dispersion and Development of Orally Disintegrating Tablets Using 32 Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinderpal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation deals with the preparation and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs of lamotrigine using β-cyclodextrin and PVP-K30 as polymers for the preparation of solid dispersion which help in enhancement of aqueous solubility of this BCS CLASS-II drug and sodium starch glycolate (SSG and crospovidone as a superdisintegrating agent, to reduce disintegration time. The ODTs were prepared by direct compression method. Nine formulations were developed with different ratios of superdisintegrating agents. All the formulations were evaluated for disintegration time, weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, and in vitro drug release study. In vitro drug release study was performed using United States Pharmacopoeia (USP type 2 dissolution test apparatus employing paddle stirrer at 50 rpm using 900 mL of 0.1 N HCl maintained at 37°C ± 0.5°C as the dissolution medium. On the basis of evaluation parameters formulations were prepared using β-CD 1 : 1 solid dispersion. Then 32 full factorial design was applied using SSG and crospovidone in different ratios suggested by using design expert 8.0.7.1 and optimized formulation was prepared using amount of SSG and crospovidone as suggested by the software. The optimized formulation prepared had disintegrating time of 15 s, wetting time of 24 s, and % friability of 0.55.

  11. High-power RF window design for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.; Hodgson, J.; Ng, C.; Schwarz, H.; Skarpaas, K.; Kroll, N.; Rimmer, R.

    1994-06-01

    We describe the design of RF windows to transmit up to 500 kW CW to the PEP-II 476 MHz cavities. RF analysis of the windows using high-frequency simulation codes are described. These provide information about the power loss distribution in the ceramic and tim matching properties of the structure. Finite-element analyses of the resulting temperature distribution and thermal stresses are presented. Fabrication methods including a proposed scheme to compensate for thermal expansion s are discussed and hardware tests to validate this approach are described. The effects of surface coatings (intentional and otherwise) and the application of air cooling are considered

  12. Design and performance of a compact scanning transmission X-ray microscope at the Photon Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeichi, Y., E-mail: yasuo.takeichi@kek.jp; Mase, K.; Ono, K. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Materials Structure Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Inami, N. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Suga, H. [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Miyamoto, C. [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku 113-0033 (Japan); Ueno, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Takahashi, Y. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    We present a new compact instrument designed for scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. It has piezo-driven linear stages, making it small and light. Optical components from the virtual source point to the detector are located on a single optical table, resulting in a portable instrument that can be operated at a general-purpose spectroscopy beamline without requiring any major reconstruction. Careful consideration has been given to solving the vibration problem common to high-resolution microscopy, so as not to affect the spatial resolution determined by the Fresnel zone plate. Results on bacteriogenic iron oxides, single particle aerosols, and rare-earth permanent magnets are presented as examples of its performance under diverse applications.

  13. Approach to improve the productivity of bioactive compounds of the cyanobacterium Anabaena oryzae using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragaa A. Hamouda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are one of the richest sources of biomedical relevant compounds with extensive therapeutic pharmaceutical applications and are also known as producer of intracellular and extracellular metabolites with diverse biological activities. The genus Anabaena sp. is known to produce antimicrobial compounds, like phycocyanin and others. The goal of this study was to optimize the production of these bioactive compounds. The Plackett–Burman experimental design was used to screen and evaluate the important medium components that influence the production of bioactive compounds. In this present study, eight independent factors including NaNO3, K2HPO4, MgSO4·7H2O, CaCl2, citric acid, ammonium ferric citrate, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid disodium magnesium salt (EDTA-Na2Mg and Na2CO3 were surveyed and the effective variables for algal components production of Anabaena oryzae were determined using two-levels Plackett–Burman design. Results analysis showed that the best medium components were NaNO3 (2.25 g l−1; K2HPO4 (0.02 g l−1; MgSO4 (0.0375 g l−1; CaCl2 (0.018 g l−1; citric acid (0.009 g l−1; ammonium ferric citrate (0.009 g l−1 and EDTA-Na2 (0.0015 g l−1 respectively. The total chlorophyll-a, carotenoids, phenol, tannic acid and flavonoid contents in crude extract of Anabaena oryzae were determined. They were 47.7, 4.11, 0.256, 1.046 and 1.83 μg/ml, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was 62.81%.

  14. Neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dydak, F.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino oscillations marks a major milestone in the history of neutrino physics, and opens a window to what lies beyond the Standard Model. Many current and forthcoming experiments will answer open questions; however, a major step forward, up to and possibly including CP violation in the neutrino mixing matrix, will be offered by the neutrino beams from a neutrino factory. The neutrino factory is a new concept for producing neutrino beams of unprecedented quality in terms of intensity, flavour composition, and precision of the beam parameters. These beams enable the exploration of otherwise inaccessible domains in neutrino oscillation physics by exploiting baselines of planetary dimensions. Suitable detectors pose formidable challenges but seem within reach with only moderate extrapolations from existing technologies. Although the main physics attraction of the neutrino factory is in the area of neutrino oscillations, an interesting spectrum of further opportunities ranging from high-precision, high-rate neutrino scattering to physics with high-intensity stopped muons comes with it

  15. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MSIC02 in cashew apple juice using a 24 full factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Maria Valderez Ponte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the production of biosurfactants from cashew apple juice by P. aeruginosa MSIC02 was investigate by carrying out a 24 full factorial experimental design, using temperature, glucose concentration from cashew apple juice, phosphorous concentration and cultivation time as variables. The response variable was the percentage of reduction in surface tension in the cell-free culture medium, since it indicates the surface-active agent production. Maximum biosurfactant production, equivalent to a 58% reduction in surface tension, was obtained at 37°C, with glucose concentration of 5.0 g/L and no phosphorous supplementation. Surface tension reduction was significant, since low values were observed in the cell-free medium (27.50 dyne/cm, indicating that biosurfactant was produced. The biosurfactant emulsified different hydrophobic sources and showed stability in the face of salinity, exposure to high temperatures and extreme pH conditions. These physiochemical properties demonstrate the potential for using biosurfactants produced by P. aeruginosa MSIC02 in various applications.

  16. Formulation and Optimization of Lansoprazole Pellets Using Factorial Design Prepared by Extrusion-Spheronization Technique Using Carboxymethyl Tamarind Kernel Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muley, Sagar Sopanrao; Nandgude, Tanaji; Poddar, Sushilkumar

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, Lansoprazole pellets were prepared employing a novel excipient Carboxymethyl tamarind kernel powder (CMTKP) using extrusion-spheronization technique. Various research studies including patents have been carried out on this polymer. Pellet formulation was optimized for formulation parameters (concentration of microcrystalline cellulose, CMTKP, croscarmellose sodium and isopropyl alcohol). Process parameters (speed and duration of spheronization) were optimized using factorial design. The pellets were evaluated for yield, bulk and tapped density, particle size, hardness, drug content, disintegration time and drug release. The optimized batch showed 93.53% yield, 0.307 kg/cm2 hardness, 2.15 mm average particle size, 292 sec disintegration time and 90.46% drug content. Drug release of the optimized batch (2F7) and marketed formulation (LANZOL cap) was found to be 82.33% and 80.07%, respectively. An accelerated study indicated that optimized formulation was stable. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Background species effect on aqueous arsenic removal by nano zero-valent iron using fractional factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanboonchuy, Visanu; Grisdanurak, Nurak; Liao, Chih-Hsiang

    2012-02-29

    This study describes the removal of arsenic species in groundwater by nano zero-valent iron process, including As(III) and As(V). Since the background species may inhibit or promote arsenic removal. The influence of several common ions such as phosphate (PO4(3-)), bicarbonate (HCO3-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), calcium (Ca2+), chloride (Cl-), and humic acid (HA) were selected to evaluate their effects on arsenic removal. In particular, a 2(6-2) fractional factorial design (FFD) was employed to identify major or interacting factors, which affect arsenic removal in a significant way. As a result of FFD evaluation, PO4(3-) and HA play the role of inhibiting arsenic removal, while Ca2+ was observed to play the promoting one. As for HCO3- and Cl-, the former one inhibits As(III) removal, whereas the later one enhances its removal; on the other hand, As(V) removal was affected only slightly in the presence of HCO3- or Cl-. Hence, it was suggested that the arsenic removal by the nanoiron process can be improved through pretreatment of PO4(3-) and HA. In addition, for the groundwater with high hardness, the nanoiron process can be an advantageous option because of enhancing characteristics of Ca2+. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fractional Factorial Design Study on the Performance of GAC-Enhanced Electrocoagulation Process Involved in Color Removal from Dye Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Gabriela Breaban

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of main factors and interactions on the color removal performance from dye solutions using the electrocoagulation process enhanced by adsorption on Granular Activated Carbon (GAC. In this study, a mathematical approach was conducted using a two-level fractional factorial design (FFD for a given dye solution. Three textile dyes: Acid Blue 74, Basic Red 1, and Reactive Black 5 were used. Experimental factors used and their respective levels were: current density (2.73 or 27.32 A/m2, initial pH of aqueous dye solution (3 or 9, electrocoagulation time (20 or 180 min, GAC dose (0.1 or 0.5 g/L, support electrolyte (2 or 50 mM, initial dye concentration (0.05 or 0.25 g/L and current type (Direct Current—DC or Alternative Pulsed Current—APC. GAC-enhanced electrocoagulation performance was analyzed statistically in terms of removal efficiency, electrical energy, and electrode material consumptions, using modeling polynomial equations. The statistical significance of GAC dose level on the performance of GAC enhanced electrocoagulation and the experimental conditions that favor the process operation of electrocoagulation in APC regime were determined. The local optimal experimental conditions were established using a multi-objective desirability function method.

  19. Process improvement approach to the acid activation of smectite using factorial and orthogonal central composite design methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRDJAN PETROVIC

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effective operating parameters and the optimum operating conditions of an acid activation process within the framework of improvement of the process. Full two-level factorial and orthogonal central composite design methods were used successively. The examined parameters were the main and interaction effects of temperature, leaching time, acid normality, solid-to-liquid ratio and stirring rate. The selected process response was the leaching yield of the MgO content because Mg is the element most readily removed from the octahedral sheet, which affects the tendency for activation. Statistical regression analysis and analysis of variance were applied to the experimental data to develop a predictive model, which revealed that temperature, leaching time and acid normality exert the strongest influence on the specific surface area of smectite, whilst the solid-to-liquid ratio and the stirring rate have a secondary effect. Furthermore, the highest leaching yield of MgO was found to be 41.86 %, which is responsible for the increase in the specific surface area of up to 221 m2 g-1.

  20. Design of the 150 kW, 46-62 MHz power amplifier for the TRIUMF KAON factory booster ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowski, S.; Enegren, T.; Poirier, R.L.

    1988-06-01

    The rf amplifiers for the KAON Factory booster ring must be capable of reactively compensating (detuning) for the injected/extracted beam load as well as providing the beam power and the cavity losses. In order to insure the stability of the rf system under heavy transient and steady state beam loading conditions it is necessary to equip the power amplifiers with fast rf feedback with sufficient gain and bandwidth to reduce the apparent Q of the rf amplifier system as seen by the beam and the other feedback loops. The maximum gain and bandwidth of such a feedback loop is limited by the propagation delay around the feedback path. To minimize the propagation delay a 2.4 kW two stage solid state driver will be used to drive the cathode of the Eimac Y567B tetrode to give an overall propagation delay less than 30 nS. The design features of the rf amplifier to meet the above conditions will be described and test results reported. (Author) (7 refs., 7 figs.)

  1. Fractional Factorial Design Study on the Performance of GAC-Enhanced Electrocoagulation Process Involved in Color Removal from Dye Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secula, Marius Sebastian; Cretescu, Igor; Cagnon, Benoit; Manea, Liliana Rozemarie; Stan, Corneliu Sergiu; Breaban, Iuliana Gabriela

    2013-07-10

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of main factors and interactions on the color removal performance from dye solutions using the electrocoagulation process enhanced by adsorption on Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). In this study, a mathematical approach was conducted using a two-level fractional factorial design ( FFD ) for a given dye solution. Three textile dyes: Acid Blue 74, Basic Red 1, and Reactive Black 5 were used. Experimental factors used and their respective levels were: current density (2.73 or 27.32 A/m²), initial pH of aqueous dye solution (3 or 9), electrocoagulation time (20 or 180 min), GAC dose (0.1 or 0.5 g/L), support electrolyte (2 or 50 mM), initial dye concentration (0.05 or 0.25 g/L) and current type (Direct Current- DC or Alternative Pulsed Current- APC ). GAC-enhanced electrocoagulation performance was analyzed statistically in terms of removal efficiency, electrical energy, and electrode material consumptions, using modeling polynomial equations. The statistical significance of GAC dose level on the performance of GAC enhanced electrocoagulation and the experimental conditions that favor the process operation of electrocoagulation in APC regime were determined. The local optimal experimental conditions were established using a multi-objective desirability function method.

  2. Spray drying of budesonide, formoterol fumarate and their composites-II. Statistical factorial design and in vitro deposition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajber, L; Corrigan, O I; Healy, A M

    2009-02-09

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changing spray drying parameters on the production of a budesonide/formoterol fumarate 100:6 (w/w) composite. The systems were spray dried as solutions from 95% ethanol/5% water (v/v) using a Büchi 191-Mini Spray Dryer. A 2(5-1) factorial design study was undertaken to assess the consequence of altering spray drying processing variables on particle characteristics. The processing parameters that were studied were inlet temperature, spray drier airflow rate, pump rate, aspirator setting and feed concentration. Each batch of the resulting powder was characterised in terms of thermal and micromeritic properties as well as an in vitro deposition by twin impinger analysis. Overall, the parameter that had the greatest influence on each response investigated was production yield - airflow (higher airflow giving greater yields), median particle size - airflow (higher airflow giving smaller particle sizes) and Carr's compressibility index - feed concentration (lower feed concentration giving smaller Carr's indices). A six- to seven-fold difference in respirable fraction can be observed by changing the spray drying process parameters. The co-spray dried composite system which displayed best in vitro deposition characteristics, showed a 2.6-fold increase in respirable fraction in the twin impinger experiments and better dose uniformity compared with the physical mix of micronised powders.

  3. Development and optimization of enteric coated mucoadhesive microspheres of duloxetine hydrochloride using 3(2) full factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Anupama; Kansal, Sahil; Goyal, Naveen

    2013-07-01

    Microspheres constitute an important part of oral drug delivery system by virtue of their small size and efficient carrier capacity. However, the success of these microspheres is limited due to their short residence time at the site of absorption. The objective of the present study was to formulate and systematically evaluate in vitro performance of enteric coated mucoadhesive microspheres of duloxetine hydrochloride (DLX), an acid labile drug. DLX microspheres were prepared by simple emulsification phase separation technique using chitosan as carrier and glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. Microspheres prepared were coated with eudragit L-100 using an oil-in-oil solvent evaporation method. Eudragit L-100was used as enteric coating polymer with the aim to release the drug in small intestine The microspheres prepared were characterized by particle size, entrapment efficiency, swelling index (SI), mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release and surface morphology. A 3(2) full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables polymer-to-drug ratio (X1) and stirring speed (X2) on dependent variables, particle size, entrapment efficiency, SI, in vitro mucoadhesion and drug release up to 24 h (t24). Microspheres formed were discrete, spherical and free flowing. The microspheres exhibited good mucoadhesive property and also showed high percentage entrapment efficiency. The microspheres were able to sustain the drug release up to 24 h. Thus, the prepared enteric coated mucoadhesive microspheres may prove to be a potential controlled release formulation of DLX for oral administration.

  4. Development of hydroethanolic extract of Ipomoea pes-caprae using factorial design followed by antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vieira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. R. Br., Convolvulaceae, is a medicinal plant that grows abundantly as a pan-tropical stand plant. The 3² (two factors and three levels factorial design, was applied to determine the best time and drug/solvent proportion to maximize the flavonoid content in the hydroethanolic extract by maceration process. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied at 5-20 mg/kg, i.p., using the writhing test and carrageenan-induced pleurisy models in mice. The optimized extract was able to inhibit more than 50% of abdominal writhing at 20 mg/kg, with 55.88%±2.4 of maximum inhibition. Indomethacin, used as positive control, inhibited 64.86% at 10 mg/kg. In the pleurisy model, the extract produced dose-dependent inhibition of the first phase of inflammation (4 h in the pleural cavity induced by injection of carrageenan (1% in mice. It inhibited 50%±0.82 (p<0.01 of exudation induced by carrageenan, and 60.88%±0.14 (p<0.01 of leukocyte migration to the pleural cavity. In conclusion, the results validate the technological conditions of the maceration process to produce an optimized bioactive herb extract for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory phytopharmaceuticals using 70 ºGL ethanol, a plant to solvent ratio of 12.5% (w/v, and ten days of maceration.

  5. Design-Based Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gynther, Karsten; Christensen, Ove; Petersen, Trine Brun

    2012-01-01

    I denne artikel introduceres Design Based Research for første gang på dansk i et videnskabeligt tidsskrift. Artiklen præsenterer de grundlæggende antagelser, som ligger til grund for Design Based Research-traditionen, og artiklen diskuterer de principper, som ligger til grund for gennemførelse af...... et DBR-forskningsprojekt. Med udgangspunkt i forsknings- og udviklingsprojektet ELYK: E-læring, Yderområder og Klyngedannelse, præsenteres den innovationsmodel, som projektet har udviklet med udgangspunkt i Design Based Research traditionen. ELYKs DBR innovationsmodel har vist sig effektiv i forhold...

  6. Virtual patients design and its effect on clinical reasoning and student experience: a protocol for a randomised factorial multi-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bateman James

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtual Patients (VPs are web-based representations of realistic clinical cases. They are proposed as being an optimal method for teaching clinical reasoning skills. International standards exist which define precisely what constitutes a VP. There are multiple design possibilities for VPs, however there is little formal evidence to support individual design features. The purpose of this trial is to explore the effect of two different potentially important design features on clinical reasoning skills and the student experience. These are the branching case pathways (present or absent and structured clinical reasoning feedback (present or absent. Methods/Design This is a multi-centre randomised 2x2 factorial design study evaluating two independent variables of VP design, branching (present or absent, and structured clinical reasoning feedback (present or absent.The study will be carried out in medical student volunteers in one year group from three university medical schools in the United Kingdom, Warwick, Keele and Birmingham. There are four core musculoskeletal topics. Each case can be designed in four different ways, equating to 16 VPs required for the research. Students will be randomised to four groups, completing the four VP topics in the same order, but with each group exposed to a different VP design sequentially. All students will be exposed to the four designs. Primary outcomes are performance for each case design in a standardized fifteen item clinical reasoning assessment, integrated into each VP, which is identical for each topic. Additionally a 15-item self-reported evaluation is completed for each VP, based on a widely used EViP tool. Student patterns of use of the VPs will be recorded. In one centre, formative clinical and examination performance will be recorded, along with a self reported pre and post-intervention reasoning score, the DTI. Our power calculations indicate a sample size of 112 is required for

  7. The TRIUMF KAON Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.

    1989-05-01

    TRIUMF has been awarded $11M for a one-year pre-construction Engineering Design and Impact Study of the KAON Factory. This will enable prototypes of many accelerator components to be built and the design of the accelerators and the layout of the experimental areas to be reviewed. The building and tunnel designs will be finalized, environmental, legal and economic impact studies carried out, and international involvement pursued further

  8. B-factory detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    The designs of the recently commissioned BaBar and Belle B-Factory detectors are described. The discussion is organized around the methods and instruments used to detect the so-called gold-plated-mode B 0 →J/ΨK S decays and related modes

  9. Factorial Analysis of Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta VINTILA; Ilie GHEORGHE; Ioana Mihaela POCAN; Madalina Gabriela ANGHEL

    2012-01-01

    The DuPont analysis system is based on decomposing the profitability ratio in factors of influence. This paper describes the factorial analysis of profitability based on the DuPont system. Significant importance is given to the impact on various indicators on the shares value and profitability.

  10. Peer support for family carers of people with dementia, alone or in combination with group reminiscence in a factorial design: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenborn Jennifer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peer support interventions can improve carer wellbeing and interventions that engage both the carer and person with dementia can have significant mutual benefits. Existing research has been criticised for inadequate rigour of design or reporting. This paper describes the protocol for a complex trial that evaluates one-to-one peer support and a group reminiscence programme, both separately and together, in a factorial design. Design A 2 × 2 factorial multi-site randomised controlled trial of individual peer support and group reminiscence interventions for family carers and people with dementia in community settings in England, addressing both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Discussion The methods described in this protocol have implications for research into psychosocial interventions, particularly complex interventions seeking to test both individual and group approaches. Trial Registration ISRCTN37956201

  11. The Three-dimensional Digital Factory for Shipbuilding Technology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional digital factory technology research is the hotspot in shipbuilding recently. The three-dimensional digital factory technology not only focus on design the components of the product, but also discuss on the simulation and analyses of the production process.Based on the three-dimensional model, the basic data layer, application control layer and the presentation layer of hierarchical structure are established in the three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding in this paper. And the key technologies of three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding are analysed. Finally, a case study is applied and the results show that the three-dimensional digital factory will play an important role in the future.

  12. Problem Based Game Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reng, Lars; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    At Aalborg University’s department of Medialogy, we are utilizing the Problem Based Learning method to encourage students to solve game design problems by pushing the boundaries and designing innovative games. This paper is concerned with describing this method, how students employ it in various ...... projects and how they learn to analyse, design, and develop for innovation by using it. We will present various cases to exemplify the approach and focus on how the method engages students and aspires for innovation in digital entertainment and games.......At Aalborg University’s department of Medialogy, we are utilizing the Problem Based Learning method to encourage students to solve game design problems by pushing the boundaries and designing innovative games. This paper is concerned with describing this method, how students employ it in various...

  13. Liaison based assembly design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, A.; Kholwadwala, D.; Wilson, R.H.

    1996-12-01

    Liaison Based Assembly Design extends the current information infrastructure to support design in terms of kinematic relationships between parts, or liaisons. These liaisons capture information regarding contact, degrees-of-freedom constraints and containment relationships between parts in an assembly. The project involved defining a useful collection of liaison representations, investigating their properties, and providing for maximum use of the data in downstream applications. We tested our ideas by implementing a prototype system involving extensions to Pro/Engineer and the Archimedes assembly planner. With an expanded product model, the design system is more able to capture design intent. When a product update is attempted, increased knowledge availability improves our ability to understand the effect of design changes. Manufacturing and analysis disciplines benefit from having liaison information available, so less time is wasted arguing over incomplete design specifications and our enterprise can be more completely integrated.

  14. Factorial experimental design for the optimization of catalytic degradation of malachite green dye in aqueous solution by Fenton process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elhalil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the optimization of the catalytic degradation of malachite green dye (MG by Fenton process “Fe2+/H2O2”. A 24 full factorial experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of four factors considered in the optimization of the oxidative process: concentration of MG (X1, concentration of Fe2+ (X2, concentration of H2O2 (X3 and temperature (X4. Individual and interaction effects of the factors that influenced the percentage of dye degradation were tested. The effect of interactions between the four parameters shows that there is a dependency between concentration of MG and concentration of Fe2+; concentration of Fe2+ and concentration of H2O2, expressed by the great values of the coefficient of interaction. The analysis of variance proved that, the concentration of MG, the concentration of Fe2+ and the concentration of H2O2 have an influence on the catalytic degradation while it is not the case for the temperature. In the optimization, the great dependence between observed and predicted degradation efficiency, the correlation coefficient for the model (R2=0.986 and the important value of F-ratio proved the validity of the model. The optimum degradation efficiency of malachite green was 93.83%, when the operational parameters were malachite green concentration of 10 mg/L, Fe2+ concentration of 10 mM, H2O2 concentration of 25.6 mM and temperature of 40 °C.

  15. Test results of pre-production prototype distributed ion pump design for the PEP-II Asymmetric B-Factory collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdener, F.R.; Behne, D.; Hathaway, D. [and others

    1995-04-24

    We have built and tested a plate-type pre-production distributed Ion Pump (DIP) for the PEP-II B-Factory High Energy Ring (HER). The design has been an earlier design to use less materials and to costs. Penning cell hole sizes of 15, 18, and 21 mm have been tested in a uniform magnetic field of 0.18 T to optimize pumping speed. The resulting final DIP design consisting of a 7-plate, 15 mm basic cell size anode was magnetic field of the HER dipole. A description of the final optimized DIP design will be presented along with the test results of the pumping speed measurements.

  16. Yarrowia lipolytica as an Oleaginous Cell Factory Platform for Production of Fatty Acid-Based Biofuel and Bioproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abghari, Ali; Chen, Shulin, E-mail: chens@wsu.edu [Bioprocessing and Bioproducts Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States)

    2014-06-19

    Today’s biotechnologists seek new biocatalysts to meet the growing demand for the bioproducts. This review critically evaluates the potential use of Y. lipolytica as an oleaginous cell factory platform. This yeast has undergone extensive modifications for converting a wide range of hydrophobic and hydrophilic biomass, including alkane, oil, glycerol, and sugars to fatty acid-based products. This article highlights challenges in the development of this platform and provides an overview of strategies to enhance its potential in the sustainable production of biodiesel, functional dietary lipid compounds, and other value-added oleochemical compounds. Future applications of the recombinant Y. lipolytica platform are also discussed.

  17. Predicting the Responses of Soil Nitrite-Oxidizers to Multi-Factorial Global Change: A Trait-Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Roux, Xavier; Bouskill, Nicholas J.; Niboyet, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Soil microbial diversity is huge and a few grams of soil contain more bacterial taxa than there are bird species on Earth. This high diversity often makes predicting the responses of soil bacteria to environmental change intractable and restricts our capacity to predict the responses of soil...... functions to global change. Here, using a long-term field experiment in a California grassland, we studied the main and interactive effects of three global change factors (increased atmospheric CO2 concentration, precipitation and nitrogen addition, and all their factorial combinations, based on global...

  18. Design bases - Concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Llanos Ros, M.

    1993-01-01

    The most suitable title for Section 2 is 'Design Bases', which covers not only calculation but also the following areas: - Structural design concepts. - Project criteria. - Material specifications. These concepts are developed in more detail in the following sections. The numbering in this document is neither complete nor hierarchical since, for easier cross referencing, it corresponds to the paragraphs of Eurocode 2 Part 1 (hereinafter 'EUR-2') which are commented on. (author)

  19. Full factorial design applied to the synthesis of Pd-?Ag nanobars by the polyol method and the perspective for ethanol oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera-Cerritos, Raul; Ponce de Leon, Carlos; Ledesma-Garcia, J.; Fuentes-Ramirez, R.; Arriaga, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Full factorial design methodology was applied to the synthesis and optimization of Pd–Ag nanobars usingthe polyol process as the reducer. The concentration of Br? ions, the temperature and the reaction timewere selected as factors to study, whereas the yield (% nanobars) was the response to be analyzed. Thenanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy,transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-rayphoto...

  20. Information security of Smart Factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iureva, R. A.; Andreev, Y. S.; Iuvshin, A. M.; Timko, A. S.

    2018-05-01

    In several years, technologies and systems based on the Internet of things (IoT) will be widely used in all smart factories. When processing a huge array of unstructured data, their filtration and adequate interpretation are a priority for enterprises. In this context, the correct representation of information in a user-friendly form acquires special importance, for which the market today presents advanced analytical platforms designed to collect, store and analyze data on technological processes and events in real time. The main idea of the paper is the statement of the information security problem in IoT and integrity of processed information.

  1. Syngas Production from Catalytic CO2 Reforming of CH4 over CaFe2O4 Supported Ni and Co Catalysts: Full Factorial Design Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anwar Hossain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of dry reforming reaction over CaFe2O4 supported Ni and Co catalysts were investigated. The Co/CaFe2O4 and Ni/CaFe2O4 catalysts were synthesized using wet impregnation method by varying the metal loading from 5-15 %. The synthesized catalysts were tested in methane dry reforming reaction at atmospheric pressure and reaction temperature ranged 700-800 oC. The catalytic performance of the catalysts based on the initial screening is ranked as 5%Co/CaFe2O4 < 10%Co/CaFe2O4 < 5%Ni/CaFe2O4 < 10%Ni/CaFe2O4 according to their performance. The Ni/CaFe2O4 catalyst was selected for further investigation using full factorial design of experiment. The interaction effects of three factors namely metal loading (5-15 %, feed ratio (0.4-1.0, and reaction temperature (700-800 oC were evaluated on the catalytic activity in terms of CH4 and CO2 conversion as well as H2 and CO yield. The interaction between the factors showed significant effects on the catalyst performance at metal loading, feed ratio and reaction temperature of 15 %, 1.0, and 800 oC. respectively. The 15 wt% Ni/CaFe2O4 was subsequently characterized by Thermogravimetric (TGA, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, N2-physisorption, Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD-NH3, TPD-CO2, and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR to ascertain its physiochemical properties.  This study demonstrated that the CaFe2O4 supported Ni catalyst has a good potential to be used for syngas production via methane dry reforming. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 5th May 2017; Revised: 8th August 2017; Accepted: 9th August 2017; Available online: 22nd January 2018; Published regularly: 2nd April 2018 How to Cite: Hossain, M.A., Ayodele, B.V., Cheng, C.K., Khan, M.R. (2018. Syngas Production from Catalytic CO2 Reforming of CH4 over CaFe2O4 Supported

  2. Multivariate study of parameters in the determination of pesticide residues in apple by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using experimental factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulra'uf, Lukman Bola; Tan, Guan Huat

    2013-12-15

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a solvent-less sample preparation method which combines sample preparation, isolation, concentration and enrichment into one step. In this study, multivariate strategy was used to determine the significance of the factors affecting the solid phase microextraction of pesticide residues (fenobucarb, diazinon, chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos) using a randomised factorial design. The interactions and effects of temperature, time and salt addition on the efficiency of the extraction of the pesticide residues were evaluated using 2(3) factorial designs. The analytes were extracted with 100 μm PDMS fibres according to the factorial design matrix and desorbed into a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detector. The developed method was applied for the analysis of apple samples and the limits of detection were between 0.01 and 0.2 μg kg(-)(1), which were lower than the MRLs for apples. The relative standard deviations (RSD) were between 0.1% and 13.37% with average recovery of 80-105%. The linearity ranges from 0.5-50 μg kg(-)(1) with correlation coefficient greater than 0.99. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of a Communication Scheme in a Modern Factory in Accordance with the Standard of Industry 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halenár, Igor; Juhásová, Bohuslava; Juhás, Martin

    2016-12-01

    This article first describes the current state of the problem in the area of communication in modern factories. Next in the article is given a summary of the requirements that must be implemented for the possibility of establishing a compatible and safe communication system. In the final part of the article is given a proposal of communication model suitable for the implementation.

  4. Determinação simultânea de As, Cd e Pb em amostras de água purificada para hemodiálise por espectrometria de absorção atômica com forno de grafite, após otimização multivariada baseada no uso de planejamento experimental Simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium and lead by GF AAS in purified water samples for hemodialysis after multivariate optimization based on factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisia Maria G. dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the development of a methodology for simultaneously determining As, Cd and Pb, employing GF AAS with polarized Zeeman-effect background correction. In order to make the procedure applicable, the influence of pyrolysis and atomization temperatures and the amount of chemical modifiers were studied. Factorial and central composite designs were used to optimize these variables. Precision and accuracy of the method were investigated using Natural Water Reference material, Nist SRM 1640. Results are in agreement with certified values at the 95% confidence limit when the Student t-test is used. This methodology was used for quality control of purified water for hemodialysis.

  5. Application of general multilevel factorial design with formulation of fast disintegrating tablets containing croscaremellose sodium and Disintequick MCC-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaiman, Amanda; Suliman, Ammar Said; Shinde, Swapnil; Naz, Sidra; Elkordy, Amal Ali

    2016-03-30

    Despite the popularity of orally fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs), their formulation can sometimes be challenging, producing tablets with either poor mechanical properties or high disintegration times. The aim of this research was to enhance the properties of FDTs produced by direct compression to have both sufficient hardness to withstand manual handling, and rapid disintegration time. General multilevel factorial design was applied to optimise and evaluate main and interaction effects of independent variables (i) disintegrant concentration, (ii) % filler (Disintequick MCC-25) to mannitol on the responses hardness, tensile strength and disintegration time. In this experiment mannitol was used as a diluent, Disintequick MCC-25 (to best of our knowledge there is no publication available yet for its use with FDTs) was termed in this study as a filler and croscaremellose sodium was used as the superdisintegrant. Seven formulations were prepared following a progressive two-stage approach. Each stage involved the change in the ratio of excipients (Mannitol:Filler) (1:0), (1:0.25), (1:0.50), (1:1), (0.50:1), (0.25:1), (0:1) w/w and concentration of superdisintegrant (1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 10% w/w). All FDTs were tested for different parameters such as diameter, hardness, tensile strength, thickness, friability and disintegration time. The results of multiple linear regression analysis show a good degree of correlation between experimental (R(2):0.84, 0.94, 0.91) and predicted response (R(2):0.83, 0.96, 0.95) for hardness, tensile strength and disintegration time respectively. The optimum formulations (regarding disintegration time with acceptable hardness and friability properties) consisted of: (i) 5% w/w disintegrant and 20% w/w filler to mannitol, showing a disintegration time of 30s, a hardness of 66.6N (6.8 kg/cm(2)) and friability of 2.2%; (ii) 7% or 10% w/w disintegrant with 33.33% w/w filler to mannitol, showing disintegration time of 84 s (for 7% disintegrant) and

  6. Design and Development of a Relative Humidity and Room Temperature Measurement System with On Line Data Logging Feature for Monitoring the Fermentation Room of Tea Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal SARMA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and development of a Relative Humidity (RH and Room Temperature (RT monitoring system with on line data logging feature for monitoring fermentation room of a tea factory is presented in this paper. A capacitive RH sensor with on chip signal conditioner is taken as RH sensor and a temperature to digital converter (TDC is used for ambient temperature monitoring. An 8051 core microcontroller is the heart of the whole system which reads the digital equivalent of RH data with the help of a 12-bit Analog to Digital (A/D converter and synchronize TDC to get the ambient temperature. The online data logging is achieved with the help of RS-232C communication. Field performance is also studied by installing it in the fermentation room of a tea factory.

  7. Design of a Communication Scheme in a Modern Factory in Accordance with the Standard of Industry 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halenár Igor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article first describes the current state of the problem in the area of communication in modern factories. Next in the article is given a summary of the requirements that must be implemented for the possibility of establishing a compatible and safe communication system. In the final part of the article is given a proposal of communication model suitable for the implementation.

  8. MODEL PENGELOLAAN TEACHING FACTORY SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEJURUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Burhan R Wijaya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and develop management models Factory Teaching Vocational School through a series of tests and validation of the model with the approach of reasearch and Development. Teaching Factory Management Models at Vocational Schools is a concept that combines learning management approach learning Competency Based Training (CBT and Production Based Training (PBT in the real atmosphere so that the process of achieving competence or skill skills life skills (life skills in accordance with the standards of graduate work in the industrial world. In particular, this study aims to formulate design management model development Teaching Factory Vocational School. To achieve the research objectives above using the approach of Research and Development, through preliminary studies, design development models, testing and validation. Preliminary study phase is planned to take the flow / stage as follows: the study of literature, study / collection of field data, and a description and analysis of field findings (factual, namely: (1 the description of the characteristics of vocational school with a standard performance indicators that can be poured as the content of the development of Teaching Factory, (2 description of the characteristics and potential development group management model Tefa as an outcome groups to develop and implement management models Tefa for Vocational Schools (3 description of the characteristics of potential stakeholders to support the development and implementation TEFA management model, and (4 preparation of the management model TEFA for Vocational Schools excellence and innovative. Trial design done on a limited scale model group. Then the model was accompanied by outcome group to develop and implement a model TEFA for Vocational Schools to determine whether the model developed can be applied correctly. Data analysis in this study, the preliminary study stage, the findings or the facts about productive learning

  9. Haiti. Educating factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, H

    1990-04-01

    There are approximately 50,000 workers employed in the light assembly industry in Haiti. About 70% are women, the majority of whom are aged between 25 and 34 years, and are either single or in a nonpermanent relationship with the father of their children. Many live and work in appalling conditions, surviving on very low wages to support several children and an extended family. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is now a visible problem in many factories. In October 1988, the Center for the Promotion of Women Workers (Centre de Promotion des Femmes Ouvriers/CPFO) launched a pilot AIDS education program for factory women. The Center, based in a large industrial zone near the airport, runs a health clinic and courses in literacy, communications skills, health promotion and family planning. The new AIDS program allowed CPFO staff to gain entry into factories for the 1st time. Other courses were held outside working hours and outside factory premises. Staff contacted manages by telephone to arrange a meeting to discuss AIDS and to ask permission to hold educational "round tables" with workers. Of 18 managers in the factories approached over a 12-month period, only 2 refused entry to CPFO staff. Almost all managers reported they had registered between 2 and 5 deaths from AIDS among their employees over the past couple of years. A total of 85 educational sessions, each lasting about 2 hours, were held within 28 different factories, community or labor organizations reaching 3063 workers (male and female). In each session, the presentation was carried out by 2 CPFO trained monitors and included a slide show, flip charts, and the video "Met ko," originally produced for Haitian immigrants in New York. The most important aspect of the program was the training of 38 volunteer factory-based health promoters. These promoters attended the round table sessions, where they facilitated discussion and distributed condoms and were subsequently available for counseling co

  10. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  11. A control strategy for grid-side converter of DFIG under unbalanced condition based on Dig SILENT/Power Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pingping; Zhang, Haitian; Chen, Lingqi; Zhang, Xiaoan

    2018-01-01

    The models of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and its grid-side converter (GSC) are established under unbalanced grid condition based on DIgSILENT/PowerFactory. According to the mathematical model, the vector equations of positive and negative sequence voltage and current are deduced in the positive sequence synchronous rotating reference frame d-q-0 when the characteristics of the simulation software are considered adequately. Moreover, the reference value of current component of GSC in the positive sequence frame d-q-0 under unbalanced condition can be obtained to improve the traditional control of GSC when the national issue of unbalanced current limits is combined. The simulated results indicate that the control strategy can restrain negative sequence current and the two times frequency power wave of GSC’s ac side effectively. The voltage of DC bus can be maintained a constant to ensure the uninterrupted operation of DFIG under unbalanced grid condition eventually.

  12. Factorial Invariance and Convergent Validity of the Group-Based Medical Mistrust Scale across Gender and Ethnoracial Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheldon, Christopher W; Kolar, Stephanie K; Hernandez, Natalie D; Daley, Ellen M

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the factorial invariance and convergent validity of the Group-Based Medical Mistrust Scale (GBMMS) across gender (male and female) and ethnoracial identity (Latino and Black). Minority students (N = 686) attending a southeastern university were surveyed in the fall of 2011. Psychometric analysis of the GBMMS was performed. A three-factor solution fit the data after the omission of two problematic items. This revised version of the GBMMS exhibited sufficient configural, metric, and scalar invariance. Convergence of the GBMMS with conceptually related measures provided further evidence of validity; however, there was variation across ethnoracial identity. The GBMMS has viable psychometric properties across gender and ethnoracial identity in Black and Latino populations.

  13. Statistical analysis of weld bead geometry in Ti6Al4V laser cladding. Comparison of central composite design and five step full factorial test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marko, Angelina [Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology IPK, Berlin (Germany); Graf, Benjamin; Rethmeier, Michael [Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology IPK, Berlin (Germany). Dept. for Joining and Coating Technology

    2017-11-01

    The process of laser cladding has become more important during recent years because of its broad application for cladding, repair or additive manufacturing. In the field of mechanical engineering, one use is the repair of turbine blades. For high quality and reliability of the repaired components, it is necessary to adjust the weld bead geometry to the specific repair task. The bead geometry influences the metallurgical bonding and the degree of dilution as well as the formation of defects like pores or cracks. Therefore, it is important to know the effects of the different parameters on the welding bead. A valuable tool to meet this industrial challenge is the design of experiments (DoE). In this context, the user can choose between a huge number of test plans. Greater profit of information is expected by a larger test range. In order to confirm the acceptance, a five-step full factorial test plan is compared to a central composite design in this paper. Moreover, the limits of the experimental range are indicated and restrictions can be derived. As the results show, the essential effects are detected with a full factorial test plan as well as with a central composite design. Merely the effect strength could not always be specified unambiguously. On this account and in consideration of cost efficiency, the use of central compound design is recommended in industrial applications.

  14. Statistical analysis of weld bead geometry in Ti6Al4V laser cladding. Comparison of central composite design and five step full factorial test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, Angelina; Graf, Benjamin; Rethmeier, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The process of laser cladding has become more important during recent years because of its broad application for cladding, repair or additive manufacturing. In the field of mechanical engineering, one use is the repair of turbine blades. For high quality and reliability of the repaired components, it is necessary to adjust the weld bead geometry to the specific repair task. The bead geometry influences the metallurgical bonding and the degree of dilution as well as the formation of defects like pores or cracks. Therefore, it is important to know the effects of the different parameters on the welding bead. A valuable tool to meet this industrial challenge is the design of experiments (DoE). In this context, the user can choose between a huge number of test plans. Greater profit of information is expected by a larger test range. In order to confirm the acceptance, a five-step full factorial test plan is compared to a central composite design in this paper. Moreover, the limits of the experimental range are indicated and restrictions can be derived. As the results show, the essential effects are detected with a full factorial test plan as well as with a central composite design. Merely the effect strength could not always be specified unambiguously. On this account and in consideration of cost efficiency, the use of central compound design is recommended in industrial applications.

  15. Design Concepts for Muon-Based Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryne, R. D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kirk, H. G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Palmer, R. B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stratkis, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Alexahin, Y. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bross, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gollwitzer, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mokhov, N. V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Neuffer, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Palmer, M. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yonehara, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Snopok, P. [IIT, Chicago, IL (United States); Bogacz, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roberts, T. J. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Delahaye, J. -P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Muon-based accelerators have the potential to enable facilities at both the Intensity and the Energy Frontiers. Muon storage rings can serve as high precision neutrino sources, and a muon collider is an ideal technology for a TeV or multi-TeV collider. Progress in muon accelerator designs has advanced steadily in recent years. In regard to 6D muon cooling, detailed and realistic designs now exist that provide more than 5 order-of-magnitude emittance reduction. Furthermore, detector performance studies indicate that with suitable pixelation and timing resolution, backgrounds in the collider detectors can be significantly reduced, thus enabling high-quality physics results. Thanks to these and other advances in design & simulation of muon systems, technology development, and systems demonstrations, muon storage-ring-based neutrino sources and a muon collider appear more feasible than ever before. A muon collider is now arguably among the most compelling approaches to a multi-TeV lepton collider. This paper summarizes the current status of design concepts for muon-based accelerators for neutrino factories and a muon collider.

  16. Deficits and Solutions in the Development of Modular Factory Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Achim Kampker; Peter Burggräf; Moritz Krunke; Hanno Voet

    2017-01-01

    As a reaction to current challenges in factory planning, many companies think about introducing factory standards to lower planning times and decrease planning costs. If these factory standards are set-up with a high level of modularity, they are defined as modular factory systems. This paper deals with the main current problems in the application of modular factory systems in practice and presents a solution approach with its basic models. The methodology is based on methods from factory pla...

  17. Computer experimental analysis of the CHP performance of a 100 kW e SOFC Field Unit by a factorial design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, M.; Santarelli, M. G. L.; Leone, P.

    Gas Turbine Technologies (GTT) and Politecnico di Torino, both located in Torino (Italy), have been involved in the design and installation of a SOFC laboratory in order to analyse the operation, in cogenerative configuration, of the CHP 100 kW e SOFC Field Unit, built by Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC), which is at present (May 2005) starting its operation and which will supply electric and thermal power to the GTT factory. In order to take the better advantage from the analysis of the on-site operation, and especially to correctly design the scheduled experimental tests on the system, we developed a mathematical model and run a simulated experimental campaign, applying a rigorous statistical approach to the analysis of the results. The aim of this work is the computer experimental analysis, through a statistical methodology (2 k factorial experiments), of the CHP 100 performance. First, the mathematical model has been calibrated with the results acquired during the first CHP100 demonstration at EDB/ELSAM in Westerwoort. After, the simulated tests have been performed in the form of computer experimental session, and the measurement uncertainties have been simulated with perturbation imposed to the model independent variables. The statistical methodology used for the computer experimental analysis is the factorial design (Yates' Technique): using the ANOVA technique the effect of the main independent variables (air utilization factor U ox, fuel utilization factor U F, internal fuel and air preheating and anodic recycling flow rate) has been investigated in a rigorous manner. Analysis accounts for the effects of parameters on stack electric power, thermal recovered power, single cell voltage, cell operative temperature, consumed fuel flow and steam to carbon ratio. Each main effect and interaction effect of parameters is shown with particular attention on generated electric power and stack heat recovered.

  18. Automation in the factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatvany, J

    1984-05-01

    There are now about 100000 computers in the manufacturing plants of the world, but the thirty-year old dream of the computer-controlled factory is only now beginning to materialize. With the advent of advanced microprocessor technology of distributed systems based on local area networking and of supervisory and diagnostic systems utilizing artificial intelligence techniques, computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) has today become a realistic aim. 6 references.

  19. Study on uranium loss during 'Iron-Gypsum Cake' precipitation from acid leach liquor of Jaduguda ore using factorially designed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Amrita; Yadav, Manoj; Chatterjee, Ankur; Singh, A.K.; Hubli, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Acid leaching process for uranium recovery from ore often generates considerable amounts of impurities into the solution. It is a challenge to separate the non-valuable impurities as manageable and stable waste products for final disposal, without losing the valuable constituents. The main impurities that come with the leach liquor are iron and sulfate. Their removal is essential for meeting the iron requirement in leaching circuit and also for making the effluent suitable for recycle. Factorial design analysis was applied to study of process variables for precipitation of iron and sulphate from leach liquor with composition using CaO as precipitation reagent

  20. Men's Preferences for Physical Activity Interventions: An Exploratory Study Using a Factorial Survey Design Created With R Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Sheryl L; Gamble, Abigail; Hallam, Jeffrey S

    2018-03-01

    Effective exercise interventions are needed to improve quality of life and decrease the impact of chronic disease. Researchers suggest males have been underrepresented in exercise intervention studies, resulting in less understanding of their exercise practices. Findings from preference survey methods suggest reasonable association between preference and behavior. The purpose of the research described in this article was to use factorial survey, a preference method, to identify the characteristics of exercise interventions most likely to appeal to male participants, so preferences might be incorporated into future intervention research. The research was guided by the framework of Bandura's social cognitive theory, such that variations in individual, environmental, and behavioral factors were incorporated into vignettes. Participants included 53 adult male nonadministrative staff and contract employees at a public university in the Southeastern United States, who each scored 8 vignettes resulting in 423 observations. Multilevel models were used to assess the influence of the factors. Participants scored vignettes that included exercising with a single partner, playing basketball, and exercising in the evening higher than vignettes with other options. Qualitative analysis of an open response item identified additional alternatives in group size, participant desire for coaching support, and interest in programs that incorporate a range of activity alternatives. Findings from this research were consistent with elements of social cognitive theory as applied to health promotion. Factorial surveys potentially provide a resource effective means of identifying participants' preferences for use when planning interventions. The addition of a single qualitative item helped clarify and expand findings from statistical analysis.

  1. Development and Validation of HPLC-DAD and UHPLC-DAD Methods for the Simultaneous Determination of Guanylhydrazone Derivatives Employing a Factorial Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo de Brito, Wanessa; Gomes Dantas, Monique; Andrade Nogueira, Fernando Henrique; Ferreira da Silva-Júnior, Edeildo; Xavier de Araújo-Júnior, João; Aquino, Thiago Mendonça de; Adélia Nogueira Ribeiro, Êurica; da Silva Solon, Lilian Grace; Soares Aragão, Cícero Flávio; Barreto Gomes, Ana Paula

    2017-08-30

    Guanylhydrazones are molecules with great pharmacological potential in various therapeutic areas, including antitumoral activity. Factorial design is an excellent tool in the optimization of a chromatographic method, because it is possible quickly change factors such as temperature, mobile phase composition, mobile phase pH, column length, among others to establish the optimal conditions of analysis. The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a HPLC and UHPLC methods for the simultaneous determination of guanylhydrazones with anticancer activity employing experimental design. Precise, exact, linear and robust HPLC and UHPLC methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of the guanylhydrazones LQM10, LQM14, and LQM17. The UHPLC method was more economic, with a four times less solvent consumption, and 20 times less injection volume, what allowed better column performance. Comparing the empirical approach employed in the HPLC method development to the DoE approach employed in the UHPLC method development, we can conclude that the factorial design made the method development faster, more practical and rational. This resulted in methods that can be employed in the analysis, evaluation and quality control of these new synthetic guanylhydrazones.

  2. A factory concept for processing and manufacturing with lunar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driggers, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual design for an orbital factory sized to process 1.5 million metric tons per year of raw lunar fines into 0.3 million metric tons of manufacturing materials is presented. A conservative approach involving application of present earth-based technology leads to a design devoid of new inventions. Earth based counterparts to the factory machinery were used to generate subsystem masses and lumped parameters for volume and mass estimates. The results are considered to be conservative since technologies more advanced than those assumed are presently available in many areas. Some attributes of potential space processing technologies applied to material refinement and component manufacture are discussed.

  3. Using ProModel as a simulation tools to assist plant layout design and planning: Case study plastic packaging factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochamarn Tearwattanarattikal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the application of a Simulation Model to assist decision making on expanding capacity and plant layout design and planning. The plant layout design concept is performed first to create the physical layouts then the simulation model used to test the capability of plant to meet various demand forecast scena. The study employed ProModel package as a tool, using the model to compare the performances in term of % utilization, characteristics of WIP and ability to meet due date. The verification and validation stages were perform before running the scenarios. The model runs daily production and then the capacity constraint resources defined by % utilization. The expanding capacity policy can be extra shift-working hours or increasing the number of machines. After expanding capacity solutions are found, the physical layout is selected based on the criterion of space available for WIP and easy flow of material.

  4. The effects of outsourcing on occupational health and safety: a comparative study of factory-based workers and outworkers in the Australian clothing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, C; Quinlan, M

    1999-01-01

    Outsourcing has become increasingly widespread throughout industrialized societies over the past 20 years. Accompanying this has been a renewed growth in home-based work, sometimes using new technologies (telework) but also entailing a re-emergence of old forms, such as clothing outwork, used extensively 100 years ago. A growing body of research indicates that changes to work organization associated with outsourcing adversely affect occupational health and safety (OHS), both for outsourced workers and for those working alongside them. This study assessed the OHS implications of the shift to home-based workers in the Australian clothing industry by systematically comparing the OHS experiences of 100 factory-based workers and 100 outworkers. The level of self-reported injury was over three times higher among outworkers than factory-based workers undertaking similar tasks. The most significant factor explaining this difference was the payment system. All outworkers were paid solely by the piece, whereas factory workers were paid either under a time plus production bonus system or solely on a time basis. While the incidence of injury was far higher among outworkers, factory-based workers paid under an incentive system reported more injuries than those paid solely on a time basis. Increasing injury was correlated with piecework payment systems.

  5. Optimization and influence of parameter affecting the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate: using full factorial design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Thulasirajan; Purushothaman, Revathi

    2017-07-01

    There are several parameters that influence the properties of geopolymer concrete, which contains recycled concrete aggregate as the coarse aggregate. In the present study, the vital parameters affecting the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate are analyzedby varying four parameters with two levels using full factorial design in statistical software Minitab® 17. The objective of the present work is to gain an idea on the optimization, main parameter effects, their interactions and the predicted response of the model generated using factorial design. The parameters such as molarity of sodium hydroxide (8M and 12M), curing time (6hrs and 24 hrs), curing temperature (60°C and 90°C) and percentage of recycled concrete aggregate (0% and 100%) are considered. The results show that the curing time, molarity of sodium hydroxide and curing temperature were the orderly significant parameters and the percentage of Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) was statistically insignificant in the production of geopolymer concrete. Thus, it may be noticeable that the RCA content had negligible effect on the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete. The expected responses from the generated model showed a satisfactory and rational agreement to the experimental data with the R2 value of 97.70%. Thus, geopolymer concrete comprising recycled concrete aggregate can solve the major social and environmental concerns such as the depletion of the naturally available aggregate sources and disposal of construction and demolition waste into the landfill.

  6. Usage of a statistical method of designing factorial experiments in the mechanical activation of a complex CuPbZn sulphide concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BalហPeter

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical activation belongs to innovative procedures which intensify technological processes by creating new surfaces and making a defective structure of solid phase. Mechanical impact on the solid phase is a suitable procedure to ensure the mobility of its structure elements and to accumulate the mechanical energy that is later used in the processes of leaching.The aim of this study was to realize the mechanical activation of a complex CuPbZn sulphide concentrate (Slovak deposit in an attritor by using of statistical methods for the design of factorial experiments and to determine the conditions for preparing the optimum mechanically activated sample of studied concentrate.The following parameters of the attritor were studied as variables:the weight of sample/steel balls (degree of mill filling, the number of revolutions of the milling shaft and the time of mechanical activation. Interpretation of the chosen variables inducing the mechanical activation of the complex CuPbZn concentrate was also carried out by using statistical methods of factorial design experiments. The presented linear model (23 factorial experiment does not support directly the optimum search, therefore this model was extended to the nonlinear model by the utilization of second order ortogonal polynom. This nonlinear model does not describe adequately the process of new surface formation by the mechanical activation of the studied concentrate. It would be necessary to extend the presented nonlinear model to the nonlinear model of the third order or choose another model. In regard to the economy with the aspect of minimal energy input consumption, the sample with the value of 524 kWht-1 and with the maximum value of specific surface area 8.59 m2g-1 (as a response of the factorial experiment was chosen as the optimum mechanically activated sample of the studied concentrate. The optimum mechanically activated sample of the complex CuPbZn sulphide concentrate was prepared

  7. FMIT: an accelerator-based neutron factory for fusion materials qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, R.J.; Hagan, J.W.; Trego, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility will provide a unique testing environment for irradiation of structural and special-purpose materials in support of fusion-power systems. The neutron source will be produced by a deuteron-lithium stripping reaction to generate high-energy neutrons to ensure materials damage characteristic of the deuterium-tritium power system. The facility, its testing role, the status, and major aspects of its design and supporting system development are described. Emphasis is given to programmatic elements and features incorporated in the accelerator and other systems to assure that the FMIT runs as a highly reliable fusion materials testing installation

  8. Power Terminal Communication Access Network Monitoring System Scheme Based on Design Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shengchao; Wu, Desheng; Zhu, Jiang

    2018-01-01

    In order to realize patterns design for terminal communication monitoring system, this paper introduces manager-workers, tasks-workers design patterns, based on common design patterns such as factory method, chain of responsibility, facade. Using these patterns, the communication monitoring system which combines module-groups like networking communication, business data processing and the peripheral support has been designed successfully. Using these patterns makes this system have great flexibility and scalability and improves the degree of systematic pattern design structure.

  9. Reliability based structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A

  10. The beam-beam limit in asymmetric colliders: Optimization of the B-factory parameter base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a general theory of the beam-beam limit in symmetric and asymmetric lepton ring colliders. It shows how the beam-beam limit in these accelerators affects the maximum attainable luminosity and presents a specific algorithm for parameter base optimization. It is shown that the special problems inherent in asymmetric colliders derive not from the asymmetry, but from the fact that the two beams must be in different rings. Computer simulation experiments are used to demonstrate the various phenomena discussed in the theory

  11. Polymeric nanoparticles loaded with the 3,5,3´-triiodothyroacetic acid (Triac, a thyroid hormone: factorial design, characterization, and release kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dos Santos KC

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Karen C dos Santos,1 Maria Fatima GF da Silva,1 Edenir R Pereira-Filho,1 Joao B Fernandes,1 Igor Polikarpov,2 Moacir R Forim11Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, 2Physics Institute of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, BrazilAbstract: This present investigation deals with the development and optimization of polymeric nanoparticle systems loaded with 3,5,3´-triiodothyroacetic acid (Triac. A 211–6 fractional factorial design and another 22 factorial design were used to study the contrasts on particle size distribution, morphology, surface charge, drug content, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro drug release profiles. The independent variables were the concentration of Triac, type and quantity of both polymer and oil, quantity of Span™ 60 and Tween® 80, volume of solvent and water, and velocity of both magnetic stirring and the transfer of the organic phase into the aqueous solution. The results of optimized formulations showed a narrow size distribution with a polydispersity index lower than 0.200. The particle sizes were on average 159.6 nm and 285.6 nm for nanospheres and nanocapsules, respectively. The zeta potential was higher than 20 mV (in module and the entrapment efficiency was nearly 100%. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed, validated, and efficiently applied to Triac quantification in colloidal suspension. The main independent variables were the type and quantity of the polymer and oil. In vitro drug release profile depicted several features to sustain Triac release. Different formulations showed various release rates indicating an interaction between Triac and other formulation compounds such as polymer and/or oil quantity. Two different models were identified (biexponential and monoexponential that allowed the control of both the release rate and Triac concentration. Thus, the prepared nanoparticles described here may be of clinical importance

  12. Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy and its implementation at accelerator based low energy positron factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.; Koeymen, A.R.; Mehl, D.; Lee, K.H.; Yang Gimo; Jensen, K.

    1991-01-01

    Positron annihilation induced auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) makes use of a beam of low energy positrons to excite Auger transitions by annihilating core electrons. The large secondary electron background usually present in Auger spectra can be eliminated by setting the positron beam energy well below the Auger electron energy. This allows true Auger lineshapes to be obtained. Further, because the positron is localized just outside the surface before it annihilates, PAES is extremely sensitive to the topmost atomic layer. Recent PAES results obtained at the University of Texas at Arlington will be presented. In addition, the use of high resolution energy analyzers with multichannel particle detection schemes to prevent problems due to the high data rates associated with accelerator based positron beams will be discussed. (orig.)

  13. Neutrino Factory: status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, K.

    2011-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the Standard Model. The study of sub-leading effects in neutrino oscillations has begun with the race to measure θ 13 consensus is emerging within the international community that a novel neutrino source is required to allow sensitive searches for leptonic CP violation to be carried out and the neutrino mass-hierarchy to be determined. The Neutrino Factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to out-perform the other proposed facilities. The physics case for the Neutrino Factory will be reviewed and the baseline design of the facility being developed by the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration will be described.

  14. Steps towards the Neutrino Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, K.

    2012-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the Standard Model. The study of sub-leading effects in neutrino oscillations has begun with the race to measure θ 13 . A consensus is emerging within the international community that a novel neutrino source is required to allow sensitive searches for leptonic CP violation to be carried out and the neutrino mass-hierarchy to be determined. The Neutrino Factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to out-perform the other proposed facilities. The physics case for the Neutrino Factory will be reviewed and the baseline design of the facility being developed by the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration will be described.

  15. Application of factorial designs and Doehlert matrix in optimization of experimental variables associated with the preconcentration and determination of vanadium and copper in seawater by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Sergio L.C.; Queiroz, Adriana S.; Fernandes, Marcelo S.; Santos, Hilda C. dos

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper a procedure for preconcentration and determination of vanadium and copper in seawater using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) is proposed, which is based on solid-phase extraction of vanadium (IV), vanadium (V) and copper (II) ions as 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) complexes by active carbon. The optimization process was carried out using two-level full factorials and Doehlert matrix designs. Four variables (PAN mass, pH, active carbon mass and shaking time) were regarded as factors in the optimization. Results of the two-level full factorial design 2 4 with 16 runs for vanadium extraction, based on the variance analysis (ANOVA), demonstrated that the factors pH and active carbon mass, besides the interaction (pHxactive carbon mass), are statistically significant. For copper, the ANOVA revealed that the factors PAN mass, pH and active carbon mass and the interactions (PAN massxpH) and (pHxactive carbon mass) are statistically significant. Doehlert designs were applied in order to determine the optimum conditions for extraction. The procedure proposed allowed the determination of vanadium and copper with detection limits (3σ/S) of 73 and 94 ng l -1 , respectively. The precision, calculated as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), was 1.22 and 1.37% for 12.50 μg l -1 of vanadium and copper, respectively. The preconcentration factor was 80. The recovery achieved for determination of vanadium and copper in the presence of several cations demonstrated that this procedure improved the selectivity required for seawater analysis. The procedure was applied to the determination of vanadium and copper in seawater samples collected in Salvador City, Brazil. Results showed good agreement with other data reported in the literature

  16. Study of castor oil polyurethane - poly(methyl methacrylate semi-interpenetrating polymer network (SIPN reaction parameters using a 2³ factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Oliveira Vieira da Cunha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work was employed a 2³ factorial experiment design to evaluate the castor oil polyurethane-poly(methyl methacrylate semi-IPN synthesis. The reaction parameters used as independent variables were NCO/OH molar ratio, polyurethane polymerization time and methyl methacrylate (MMA content. The semi-IPNs were cured over 28 h using two thermal treatments. The polymers were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis and swelling profiles in n-hexane. The glass transition temperature (Tg and the swelling were more affect by the NCO/OH molar ratio variation. The semi-IPNs showed Tg from - 27 to - 6 °C and the swelling range was from 3 to 22%, according to the crosslink density. The IPN mechanical properties were dependent on the cure temperature and MMA content in it. Lower elastic modulus values were observed in IPNs cured at room temperature.

  17. Wear Analysis of a Ti-5Al-3V-2.5Fe Alloy Using a Factorial Design Approach and Fractal Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. El-Morsy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of the full factorial experimental design technique to confirm the significance of the factors affecting the wear behavior of a recycled Ti-5Al-3V-2.5Fe alloy with a minimum number of experiments. The fractal theory has been used to describe the worn surface state and to investigate the relationship between the fractal dimensions and the surface morphology. The experiments of the sliding wear have been performed under stresses in the range of 1-5 MPa and within sliding velocities range of 0.2–2.0 m/s. Morphology of the worn surfaces investigations has been undertaken using a scanning electron microscope. From the analysis of variance and the nonlinear regression model, the results show that the applied stress has a higher contribution to the wear rate than the sliding velocity.

  18. Design based entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller; Wikström, Anders; Tollestrup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Designers are often recognized as natural entrepreneurs, due to their creative skills and competences in the idea-generation and product development processes. A number of studies shows that creative professionals are more likely to become self-employed. In general though, there are not many stud...

  19. Polymeric nanoparticles loaded with the 3,5,3'-triiodothyroacetic acid (Triac), a thyroid hormone: factorial design, characterization, and release kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Karen C; da Silva, Maria Fatima Gf; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R; Fernandes, Joao B; Polikarpov, Igor; Forim, Moacir R

    2012-01-01

    This present investigation deals with the development and optimization of polymeric nanoparticle systems loaded with 3,5,3'-triiodothyroacetic acid (Triac). A 2(11-6) fractional factorial design and another 2(2) factorial design were used to study the contrasts on particle size distribution, morphology, surface charge, drug content, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro drug release profiles. The independent variables were the concentration of Triac, type and quantity of both polymer and oil, quantity of Span™ 60 and Tween® 80, volume of solvent and water, and velocity of both magnetic stirring and the transfer of the organic phase into the aqueous solution. The results of optimized formulations showed a narrow size distribution with a polydispersity index lower than 0.200. The particle sizes were on average 159.6 nm and 285.6 nm for nanospheres and nanocapsules, respectively. The zeta potential was higher than 20 mV (in module) and the entrapment efficiency was nearly 100%. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed, validated, and efficiently applied to Triac quantification in colloidal suspension. The main independent variables were the type and quantity of the polymer and oil. In vitro drug release profile depicted several features to sustain Triac release. Different formulations showed various release rates indicating an interaction between Triac and other formulation compounds such as polymer and/or oil quantity. Two different models were identified (biexponential and monoexponential) that allowed the control of both the release rate and Triac concentration. Thus, the prepared nanoparticles described here may be of clinical importance in delivering Triac for thyroid treatment.

  20. Quadrados latinos obtidos por meio de técnicas de confundimento em ensaios fatoriais Latin squares obtained by confounding techiniques in factorial designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Stolf Nogueira

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Os esquemas em quadrado latino tem se mostrado muito úteis na experimentação agronômica e zootécnica. O modo de obtenção dos quadrados latinos em geral segue regras algébricas de construção a partir de operações básicas sobre o conjunto de números inteiros positivos, mais especificamente, sobre as classes de resto módulo (m. Da mesma forma, considerando um ensaio instalado em esquema fatorial, ao se usar a técnica do confundimento, formam-se tantos quadrados latinos ortogonais quantos forem os níveis de tratamento. Tais esquemas conduzem a repetições ortogonais de quadrados latinos. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é abordar a aplicação desta técnica de modo a facilitar o planejamento. É apresentado um exemplo de um ensaio fatorial 3 x 3 x 3 sem repetições.Latin square designs have been very useful in agriculture and animal sciences. They are, in general, obtained following algebrical rules from basic operations for positive integers and the m-modular number system. In this way, from an experiment installed in a factorial scheme, it is possible to obtain as many latin squares as the levels of treatments, through the use of a confounding technique. These schemes lead to orthogonal replications of latin squares. The aim of this work was to evaluate this technique in order to facilitate plannings. An example of a 3 x 3 x 3 factorial design without replications is presented.

  1. Influence of the Formulation Parameters on the Particle Size and Encapsulation Efficiency of Resveratrol in PLA and PLA-PEG Blend Nanoparticles: A Factorial Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Gabriela da Rocha; Dalmolin, Luciana Facco; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2015-12-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles are colloidal systems that promote protection and modification of physicochemical characteristics of a drug and that also ensure controlled and extended drug release. This paper reports a 2(3) factorial design study to optimize poly(lactide) (PLA) and poly(lactide)-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG) blend nanoparticles containing resveratrol (RVT) for prolonged release. The independent variables analyzed were solvent composition, surfactant concentration and ratio of aqueous to organic phase (two levels each factor). Mean particle size and RVT encapsulation efficiency were set as the dependent variables. The selected optimized parameters were set as organic phase comprised of a mixture of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, 1% of surfactant polyvinyl alcohol and a 3:1 ratio of aqueous to organic phase, for both PLA and PLA-PEG blend nanoparticles. This formulation originated nanoparticles with size of 228 ± 10 nm and 185 ± 70 nm and RVT encapsulation efficiency of 82 ± 10% and 76 ± 7% for PLA and PLA-PEG blend nanoparticles, respectively. The in vitro release study showed a biphasic pattern with prolonged RVT release and PEG did not influence the RVT release. The in vitro release data were in favor of Higuchi-diffusion kinetics for both nanoformulations and the Kossmeyer-Peppas coefficient indicated that anomalous transport was the main release mechanism of RVT. PLA and PLA-PEG blend nanoparticles produced with single emulsion-solvent evaporation technology were found to be a promising approach for the incorporation of RVT and promoted its controlled release. The factorial design is a tool of great value in choosing formulations with optimized parameters.

  2. Cryogenic Hydrogen Fuel for Controlled Inertial Confinement Fusion (Cryogenic Target Factory Concept Based on FST-Layering Method)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, I. V.; Koresheva, E. R.; Koshelev, I. E.; Krokhin, O. N.; Nikitenko, A. I.; Osipov, I. E.

    2017-12-01

    A central element of a power plant based on inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a target with cryogenic hydrogen fuel that should be delivered to the center of a reactor chamber with a high accuracy and repetition rate. Therefore, a cryogenic target factory (CTF) is an integral part of any ICF reactor. A promising way to solve this problem consists in the FST layering method developed at the Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI). This method (rapid fuel layering inside moving free-standing targets) is unique, having no analogs in the world. The further development of FST-layering technologies is implemented in the scope of the LPI program for the creation of a modular CTF and commercialization of the obtained results. In this report, we discuss our concept of CTF (CTF-LPI) that exhibits the following distinctive features: using a FST-layering technology for the elaboration of an in-line production of cryogenic targets, using an effect of quantum levitation of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) in magnetic field for noncontacting manipulation, transport, and positioning of the free-standing cryogenic targets, as well as in using a Fourier holography technique for an on-line characterization and tracking of the targets flying into the reactor chamber. The results of original experimental and theoretical investigations performed at LPI indicate that the existing and developing target fabrication capabilities and technologies can be applied to ICF target production. The unique scientific, engineering, and technological base developed in Russia at LPI allows one to make a CTFLPI prototype for mass production of targets and delivery thereof at the required velocity into the ICF reactor chamber.

  3. Activity-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2006-01-01

      In many types of activities communicative and material activities are so intertwined that the one cannot be understood without taking the other into account. This is true of maritime and hospital work that are used as examples in the paper. The spatial context of the activity is also important:...... and automatic machinery can replace one another in an activity. It also gives an example of how to use the framework for design....

  4. Perceived control and intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation for oral self-care: a full factorial experimental test of theory-based persuasive messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Liam; Gellert, Paul; Knittle, Keegan; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2015-04-01

    Correlational evidence suggests that perceived control (PC) and intrinsic motivation (IM), key constructs in social cognitive and self-determination theories, may interact to reinforce behavior change. This proof-of-principle study examines the independent and synergistic effects of interventions to increase PC and IM upon dental flossing frequency. University students (n = 185) were randomized in a 2 × 2 full factorial design to receive two computer-based interventions: one to either increase or decrease PC and another to increase either IM or extrinsic motivation. These constructs were measured immediately post-intervention; flossing behavior was measured 1 week later. The interventions to increase PC and PC/IM had main and interaction effects on flossing, respectively. The PC/IM interaction effect was mediated by increases in PC and IM. Combining interventions to increase PC and IM seems to be a promising avenue of research, which has implications for both theory and intervention development.

  5. Planned e+e- factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duff, J.

    1993-09-01

    Various Beauty and Tau-Charm factories and projects are reviewed. Different machines (TRISTAN II, PEP II, CESR-B, the Dubna project and the European project) are compared and their design and parameters are described. (K.A.) 34 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. RDE-based assessment of a factory bi-fuel CNG/gasoline light-duty vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rašić, Davor; Rodman Oprešnik, Samuel; Seljak, Tine; Vihar, Rok; Baškovič, Urban Žvar; Wechtersbach, Tomaž; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2017-10-01

    On-road exhaust emissions of a Euro 5 factory bi-fuel CNG/gasoline light-duty vehicle equipped with the TWC were assessed considering the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) guidelines. The vehicle was equipped with a Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) that enabled the measurement of THC, CO, NOx, CO2, and CH4. With respect to the characteristics of the vehicle, the appropriate Worldwide Harmonized Light-Duty Vehicle Test Cycles (WLTC) were selected and based on the requirements of the RDE legislation a suitable route was conceived. In addition to the moderate RDE-based route, an extended RDE-based route was also determined. The vehicle was driven along each defined route twice, once with each individual fuel option and with a fully warm vehicle. RDE routes feature a multitude of new driving patterns that are significantly different to those encountered in the NEDC. However, as these driving patterns can greatly influence the cumulative emissions an insight in to local time trace phenomena is crucial to understand, reason and to possibly reduce the cumulative emissions. Original contributions of this paper comprise analyses of the RDE-LDV local time resolved driving emissions phenomena of a CNG-powered vehicle that are benchmarked against the ones measured under the use of gasoline in the same vehicle and under similar operating conditions to reason emission trends through driving patterns and powertrain parameters and exposing the strong cold-start independent interference of CO and N2O infrared absorption bands in the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer. The paper provides experimental evidence on this interference, which significantly influences on the readings of CO emissions. The paper further provides hypotheses why CO and N2O interference is more pronounced when using CNG in LDVs and supports these hypotheses by PEMS tests. The study reveals that the vehicle's NOx real-world emission values of both conceived RDE-based routes when using both fuels are

  7. Factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers - A new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thukral, Ashwani K

    2014-01-01

    Presently, factorials of real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, except for zero and negative integers are interpolated using the Euler's gamma function. In the present paper, the concept of factorials has been generalised as applicable to real and imaginary numbers, and multifactorials. New functions based on Euler's factorial function have been proposed for the factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers. As per the present concept, the factorials of real negative numbers, are complex numbers. The factorials of real negative integers have their imaginary part equal to zero, thus are real numbers. Similarly, the factorials of imaginary numbers are complex numbers. The moduli of the complex factorials of real negative numbers, and imaginary numbers are equal to their respective real positive number factorials. Fractional factorials and multifactorials have been defined in a new perspective. The proposed concept has also been extended to Euler's gamma function for real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, and beta function.

  8. Using ProModel as a simulation tools to assist plant layout design and planning: Case study plastic packaging factory

    OpenAIRE

    Pochamarn Tearwattanarattikal; Suwadee Namphacharoen; Chonthicha Chamrasporn

    2008-01-01

    This study is about the application of a Simulation Model to assist decision making on expanding capacity and plant layout design and planning. The plant layout design concept is performed first to create the physical layouts then the simulation model used to test the capability of plant to meet various demand forecast scena. The study employed ProModel package as a tool, using the model to compare the performances in term of % utilization, characteristics of WIP and ability to meet due date....

  9. Web Based Customized Design

    OpenAIRE

    Moi, Morten Benestad

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies the methods needed to create a web based application to remotely customize a CAD model. This includes customizing a CAD model by using a graphical user interface to be able to remotely control the inputs to- and outputs from the model in NX, and to get the result sent back to the user. Using CAD systems such as NX requires intensive training, is often a slow process and gives a lot of room for errors. An intuitive, simple user interface will eliminate the need for CAD trai...

  10. Effect of health education based on BASNEF pattern on use of personal protective respiratory equipment in Ahvaz carbon block factory workers, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Solhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available   Background and aims: Respiratory diseases due to work with 50 million annually incidence included one third of all occupational diseases and it is one of the main causes of absenteeism from work in workers. Some occupational diseases can be prevented with personal protective equipment. BASNEF model is one of the effective health education and safety training models for workers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of educational intervention based on BASNEF pattern on increasing the use of personal protective respiratory equipment among carbon black factory workers , where many air pollutants such as carbon block exists. Methods: In this study the intervention curriculum based on BASNEF pattern administrated on 100 (experimental and control Ahvaz carbon block factory workers. Data were collected by questionnaires. The data were analyzed by Independent T, χ square and Pearson correlation co- efficient using SPSS version16.   Results : After the intervention, the mean scores of knowledge, attitude, intention, and enabling factors showed significant increase in experimental group in comparison of control group (p<0.00001. In addition, the mean score of subjective norms in experimental and control groups showed no significant differences. Conclusion: The educational program based on BASNEF pattern was effective in improving the use of respiratory personal protective equipment in Ahvaz carbon block factory workers 

  11. Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration R and D Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (MC) comprises some 140 scientists and engineers located at U.S. National Laboratories and Universities, and at a number of non-U.S. research institutions. In the past year, the MC R and D program has shifted its focus mainly toward the design issues related to the development of a Neutrino Factory based on a muon storage ring. In this paper the status of the various R and D activities is described, and future plans are outlined

  12. Cell Factory Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-01-01

    focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies......-review provides general strategy guides for the broad range of applications of rational engineering of cell factories....

  13. RELOCATION OF HOME APPLIANCES FACTORY BY USING SYSTEMATICAL LAYOUT PLANNING (SLP COMBINED WITH FLOW ANALYSIS AND ASSEMBLY PROCESS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Adji Baskoro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Every manufacturing company must have experiencing building a layout. Fred.E Meyers has stated that only death and taxes are certain, there exist a third certainty-a plant layout will change, thus many methods to generate layout are established and each has its own purposes and benefits. This research focused on the design of manufacturing facilities supported by in-depth analysis of Assembly process design with a high stresses on the Systematical Layout Planning ( SLP and Flow Analysis method to facilitate an outcome of layout accordingly to the system needs. This is a real case study conducts with an objective of generating a recommendation layout for Home Appliances Company specifically for television plant

  14. Factorial-based response-surface modeling with confidence intervals for optimizing thermal-optical transmission analysis of atmospheric black carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conny, J.M.; Norris, G.A.; Gould, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal-optical transmission (TOT) analysis measures black carbon (BC) in atmospheric aerosol on a fibrous filter. The method pyrolyzes organic carbon (OC) and employs laser light absorption to distinguish BC from the pyrolyzed OC; however, the instrument does not necessarily separate the two physically. In addition, a comprehensive temperature protocol for the analysis based on the Beer-Lambert Law remains elusive. Here, empirical response-surface modeling was used to show how the temperature protocol in TOT analysis can be modified to distinguish pyrolyzed OC from BC based on the Beer-Lambert Law. We determined the apparent specific absorption cross sections for pyrolyzed OC (σ Char ) and BC (σ BC ), which accounted for individual absorption enhancement effects within the filter. Response-surface models of these cross sections were derived from a three-factor central-composite factorial experimental design: temperature and duration of the high-temperature step in the helium phase, and the heating increase in the helium-oxygen phase. The response surface for σ BC , which varied with instrument conditions, revealed a ridge indicating the correct conditions for OC pyrolysis in helium. The intersection of the σ BC and σ Char surfaces indicated the conditions where the cross sections were equivalent, satisfying an important assumption upon which the method relies. 95% confidence interval surfaces defined a confidence region for a range of pyrolysis conditions. Analyses of wintertime samples from Seattle, WA revealed a temperature between 830 deg. C and 850 deg. C as most suitable for the helium high-temperature step lasting 150 s. However, a temperature as low as 750 deg. C could not be rejected statistically

  15. THE USE OF A FACTORIAL DESIGN TO EVALUATE THE PHYSICAL STABILITY OF TABLETS PREPARED BY DIRECT COMPRESSION .2. SELECTION OF EXCIPIENTS SUITABLE FOR USE UNDER TROPICAL STORAGE-CONDITIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOS, CE; BOLHUIS, GK; LERK, CF; DEBOER, JH; DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    1991-01-01

    A factorial design has been used to study the influence of disintegrant concentration, storage temperature and relative humidity upon storage on the physical stability of tablets prepared by direct compression. Tablets prepared from a binary mixture of a filler-binder and a disintegrant were stored

  16. Managing the Microbial Ecology of a Cyanobacteria-Based Photosynthetic Factory Direct!, Final Report for EE0006100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittmann, Bruce [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Krajmalnik‐Brown, Rosa [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Zevin, Alexander [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Nguyen, Binh [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Patel, Megha [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2015-02-28

    The grandest challenge facing human society today is providing large amounts of energy and industrial chemicals that are renewable and carbon-neutral. An outstanding opportunity lies in employing photosynthetic microorganisms, which have the potential to generate energy and chemical feedstock from sunlight and CO2 at rates 10 to 100 times greater than plants. Major challenges for solar-powered production using photosynthetic microorganisms are associated with the harvesting and downstream processing of biomass to yield the usable energy or material feedstock e.g. The technical challenges and costs of downstream processing could be avoided if, powered by solar energy, the photosynthetic microorganisms were to convert CO2 directly to the desired product, which they release for direct harvesting. This approach creates a true photosynthetic factory, our goal for Photosynthetic Factory Direct! Our team is able to genetically modify the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 so that it produces and excretes a range of renewable energy and chemical products directly from CO2 and sunlight. Essential to realizing the potential of the photosynthetic factory is an engineered Advanced Photobioreactor (APBR) for reliable synthesis and harvest of the products.

  17. SRF for neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padamsee, H.

    2003-01-01

    The Neutrino Factory calls for nearly 500 meters of 200 MHz SRF cavities to provide 7.5 GV. Such a facility is more demanding than the largest SRF installation to date, i.e., LEP-II, where 500 m of niobium-coated copper cavities provided more than 3 GV of acceleration. Based on the high real estate gradient desired to minimize muon loss, superconducting cavities are selected to provide active gradients of 15 - 17 MV/m, and a real estate gradient of 7.5 MV/m. At such high gradients, the peak RF power demand for copper cavities would become prohibitively expensive. By virtue of low losses, SC cavities can be filled slowly (rise time 3 ms) reducing the peak power demand to roughly half MW per cell. (author)

  18. Positron Factory project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Sohei; Sunaga, Hiromi; Kaneko, Hirohisa; Kawasuso, Atsuo; Masuno, Shin-ichi; Takizawa, Haruki; Yotsumoto, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    We have started drafting a construction program for the Positron Factory, in which linac-based intense monoenergetic positron beams are planned to be applied for materials science, biotechnology and basic physics and chemistry. A technical survey study confirmed the feasibility of manufacturing a dedicated electron linac of 100 kW class with a beam energy of 100 MeV, which will produce a world-highest monoenergetic positron beam of more than 10{sup 10}/sec in intensity. A self-driven rotating converter (electrons to positrons and photons) suitable for the high power electron beam was devised and successfully tested. The practicability of simultaneous extraction of multi-channel monoenergetic positron beams with multiple moderator assemblies, which had been originated on the basis of a Monte Carlo simulation, was demonstrated by an experiment using an electron linac. An efficient moderator structure, which is composed of honeycomb-like assembled moderator foils and reflectors, is also proposed. (author)

  19. Design of Photovoltaic System with Electric network shot installed at small factories for the production of construction materials at Maisi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parúas Cuza, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    The project was developed in the Mini-industry of local production of materials of the construction belonging to the community of Tip of Maisi, County Guantanamo, with the objective of allowing the energy self-sufficiency in a sustainable way starting from the installation from a Photovoltaic System of Injection to Net, as catalyst of these productions, contributing to the development of the renewable sources of form energy decentralized for the local development, and the conservation from the environment when diminishing the emissions of polluting gases. Leaving of the solar resource of this area, the photovoltaic system was designed so that the capacity of the system to settle the consumption outline maintained by the mini-industry (45 kWh / day), avoiding the unnecessary deliveries to the electric external net, and in that way to shorten the period of recovery of this technology. (author)

  20. Optimization of the formulation for preparing Lactobacillus casei loaded whey protein-Ca-alginate microparticles using full-factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilkov, Katarina; Petreska Ivanovska, Tanja; Petrushevska Tozi, Lidija; Petkovska, Rumenka; Hadjieva, Jasmina; Popovski, Emil; Stafilov, Trajce; Grozdanov, Anita; Mladenovska, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    This article presents specific approach for microencapsulation of Lactobacillus casei using emulsion method followed by additional coating with whey protein. Experimental design was employed using polynomial regression model at 2nd level with three independent variables, concentrations of alginate, whey protein and CaCl2. Physicochemical, biopharmaceutical and biological properties were investigated. In 11 series generated, negatively charged microparticles were obtained, with size 6.99-9.88 µm, Ca-content 0.29-0.47 mg per 10 mg microparticles, and viability of the probiotic 9.30-10.87 log10CFU/g. The viability after 24 hours in simulated gastrointestinal conditions was between 3.60 and 8.32 log10CFU/g. Optimal formulation of the microparticles that ensures survival of the probiotic and achieves controlled delivery was determined: 2.5% (w/w) alginate, 3% (w/w) CaCl2 and 3% (w/w) whey protein. The advantageous properties of the L. casei-loaded microparticles make them suitable for incorporation in functional food and/or pharmaceutical products.

  1. Evaluation and simultaneous optimization of bio-hydrogen production using 3 2 factorial design and the desirability function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuetos, M. J.; Gómez, X.; Escapa, A.; Morán, A.

    Various mixtures incorporating a simulated organic fraction of municipal solid wastes and blood from a poultry slaughterhouse were used as substrate in a dark fermentation process for the production of hydrogen. The individual and interactive effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), solid content in the feed (%TS) and proportion of residues (%Blood) on bio-hydrogen production were studied in this work. A central composite design and response surface methodology were employed to determine the optimum conditions for the hydrogen production process. Experimental results were approximated to a second-order model with the principal effects of the three factors considered being statistically significant (P < 0.05). The production of hydrogen obtained from the experimental point at conditions close to best operability was 0.97 L Lr -1 day -1. Moreover, a desirability function was employed in order to optimize the process when a second, methanogenic, phase is coupled with it. In this last case, the optimum conditions lead to a reduction in the production of hydrogen when the optimization process involves the maximization of intermediary products.

  2. PCs in the factory

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication.PCs have become as essential to the factory environment as they are to the office environment. This in-depth report examines how specially adapted PCs and peripherals are being established in Factory Process Control and Reporting. The report covers: * Hardware and Software* Typical Applications* Implementation Issues* Case Studies and Real Applications

  3. Box-Behnken factorial design to obtain a phenolic-rich extract from the aerial parts of Chelidonium majus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Clara; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Valentão, Patrícia; Sampaio, Maria; Lima, Júlio; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-12-01

    A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was developed to study the influence of four parameters (X1: % methanol; X2: extraction time; X3: extraction temperature; X4: solid/solvent ratio) on two responses, namely extraction yield and phenolics content of the aerial parts of Chelidonium majus L. The model presented a good fit to the experimental results for the extraction yield, being significantly influenced by X1 and X4. On the other hand a parameter reduction was necessary to run the model for phenolics content, showing that only X1 and X2 had great influence on the response. Two best extraction conditions were defined: X1=76.8% MeOH, X2=150.0 min, X3=60.0°C and X4=1:100 and X1=69.2%, X2=150 min, X3=42.5°C and X4=1:100. Moreover, the HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) analysis conducted with the center point sample revealed the presence of 15 alkaloids and 15 phenolic compounds, from which the 9 flavonoids and 3 hydroxycinnamic acids are described for the first time. Only phenolic compounds were quantified by a validated HPLC-DAD method, the pair quercetin-3-O-rutinoside+quercetin-3-O-glucoside dominating all the 29 extracts. This study is of great importance for future works that seek to apply the phenolic profile to the quality control of C. majus samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of full factorial design to study the tribological properties of AA6061-B4C and AA6061-B4C-MoS2 composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monikandan V. V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study statistically analyzes the tribological properties of AA6061-10 wt. % B4C mono composite and AA6061-10 wt.% B4C-7.5 wt. % MoS2 hybrid composite. The tribological behavior of the composites was studied at atmospheric conditions using a pin-on-disk tribo-tester. The tribological experiments were conducted as per the full factorial design (FFD experimental scheme. The ANOVA analysis of the wear rate revealed that the three factors, A (MoS2 particles addition, B (applied load, and D (sliding distance presented the physical and statistical significance on the wear rate. The ANOVA analysis of the friction coefficient revealed that the factors B (applied load and C (sliding speed and interaction AB (interaction of MoS2 particles addition and applied load presented the physical and statistical significance on the friction coefficient. It is observed from the main effects plots of the wear rate and friction coefficient that the increase in the levels of factors B (applied load and D (sliding distance increased the wear rate and friction coefficient. However, the wear rate and friction coefficient decreased with the increase in the level of factor A (MoS2 particles addition.

  5. Development of innovative oil-core self-organized nanovesicles prepared with chitosan and lecithin using a 2(3) full-factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Sandra Elisa; de Andrade, Cristiane; Sansone, Pedro Ernesto da Silva; Guterres, Silvia; Dalla Costa, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop innovative nanosystems with isopropyl myristate as the oil core of self-assembly nanovesicles constituted of chitosan and lecithin using a 2(3) factorial design. The factors analyzed were chitosan (X1, levels 4 and 8  mg/ml), oil (X2, levels 10 and 20  mg/ml) and lecithin (X3, levels 4 and 8 mg/ml). The responses evaluated were diameter, zeta potential, pH, viscosity, and backscattering analysis. The bioavailability was evaluated after oral administration of clozapine free and nanoencapsulated in rats. The diameter ranged from 0.348 to 1.5 µm for F2 (X1, 4; X2, 10; X3, 8 mg/ml) and F7 (X1, 8; X2, 20; X3, 4  mg/ml), respectively. Laser diffractometry analysis revealed only one diameter population for all batches. Zeta potential was positive, being influenced by X1 and X2/X3 association. Viscosity values were dependent on the X1 and X2 concentrations used. A structure proposed for the nanosystem consists of chitosan forming the hydrophilic shell layer that protects the core comprised of lecithin and the hydrophobic groups of oil. The AUC0-∞ was almost 3 times higher with the clozapine nanoencapsuted in relation to free drug. It was developed a new nanosystem which is able of improving the absorption of drugs.

  6. Production of highly efficient activated carbons from industrial wastes for the removal of pharmaceuticals from water-A full factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaria, Guilaine; Silva, Carla Patrícia; Oliveira, João A B P; Santos, Sérgio M; Gil, María Victoria; Otero, Marta; Calisto, Vânia; Esteves, Valdemar I

    2018-02-26

    The wide occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments urges the development of cost-effective solutions for their removal from water. In a circular economy context, primary paper mill sludge (PS) was used to produce activated carbon (AC) aiming the adsorptive removal of these contaminants. The use of low-cost precursors for the preparation of ACs capable of competing with commercial ACs continues to be a challenge. A full factorial design of four factors (pyrolysis temperature, residence time, precursor/activating agent ratio, and type of activating agent) at two levels was applied to the production of AC using PS as precursor. The responses analysed were the yield of production, percentage of adsorption for three pharmaceuticals (sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, and paroxetine), specific surface area (S BET ), and total organic carbon (TOC). Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate influencing factors in the responses and to determine the most favourable production conditions. Four ACs presented very good responses, namely on the adsorption of the pharmaceuticals under study (average adsorption percentage around 78%, which is above that of commercial AC), and S BET between 1389 and 1627 m 2  g -1 . A desirability analysis pointed out 800 °C for 60 min and a precursor/KOH ratio of 1:1 (w/w) as the optimal production conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The TRIUMF KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1991-05-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of particle and nuclear physics experiments. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million preconstruction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various components to be built and evaluated -fast-cycling dipole and quadrupole magnets, a dual-frequency magnet power supply, ceramic beam pipes with internal RF shields, an RF cavity (using perpendicular bias), an extraction kicker, and RF beam chopper, and production targets. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed and the cost estimates and schedule updated. The total cost of $708 million (Canadian) will be shared equally between Canada, British Columbia (already approved) and international contributors. The federal decision is expected shortly. (Author) 29 refs., 5 figs

  8. The TRIUMF KAON Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1990-11-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of experiments in particle and nuclear physics. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million preconstruction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various accelerator components to be built and evaluated. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed. Payment of one-third of the total cost of $708 million (Canadian) has been approved by the government of British Columbia; a further third is expected from international sources, on the basis of inter-governmental consultations. A decision on the final third is expected from the government of Canada before the end of 1990. (Author) (15 refs., 7 figs.)

  9. A kaon factory for TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measday, D.F.

    1988-11-01

    The design study for the TRIUMF Kaon Factory has recently been funded. A short discussion of the scientific motivation is given first, followed by a brief description of the 30 GeV synchrotron which is being proposed. There will be five rings altogether using the present TRIUMF 500 MeV cyclotron as an injector. If the project is funded in 1990 the accelerators would be completed in 1995 or so, and the experimental programme would start a year later

  10. Evaluation of Reaction Parameters of the Phenol Steam Reforming over Ni/Co on ZrO2 Using the Full Factorial Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Nabgan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Full factorial experimental design with 32 runs was used to investigate the significant and interaction variable of the reaction parameters on phenol steam reforming toward hydrogen production. Effects of selected factors on the phenol conversion (Y1 and hydrogen yield (Y2 were evaluated. These factors were as follows: (A temperature (500 and 800 °C; (B feed flow rate (0.16–0.46 mL/min; (C catalyst weight (0.1–0.3 g; (D Ni-Co ratio (0–1; and (E phenol concentration in the feed (2–10 wt %. Ni and Co over ZrO2 support for catalytic performance of phenol steam reforming (SRP was prepared by the impregnation method. The result indicated that all the main independent variables had significant influence on the dependent variable of Y1 and Y2 with a range of 2.7%–96.8% and 21.4%–72.4%, respectively. Additionally, some interaction variables like AE, BE, CE, and DE have also influenced the Y1 and Y2 responses. This design showed that the best initial conditions that produced maximum Y1 and Y2 responses were at 800 °C, 0.16 mL/min feed flow rate, 0.3 g of catalyst, 0 ratio of Ni-Co (Co/ZrO2, and 10 wt % of phenol in the feed, where the phenol conversion was predicted to be 94.98% and the hydrogen yield was predicted to be 67.4%. Within the limits the variables were examined, a regression model which well-fitted the experimental data was proposed. The regression model were reduced to simplify and to get the significant regression coefficient with p-value less than 0.05.

  11. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural design. Finally...

  12. Attentional performance in children and adolescents with tic disorder and co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: new insights from a 2 × 2 factorial design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimel, Ellen; Wanderer, Sina; Rothenberger, Aribert; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Roessner, Veit

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of both tic disorder (TD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on attentional functions. N=96 children and adolescents participated in the study, including n=21 subjects with TD, n=23 subjects with ADHD, n=25 subjects with TD+ADHD, and n=27 controls. Attentional performance was tested based on four computerized attention tasks (sustained attention, divided attention, go/nogo and set shifting). The effect of TD as well as ADHD on attentional performance was tested using a 2 × 2 factorial approach. A diagnosis of TD had no negative impact on attentional functions but was associated with improved performance in the set shifting task. By contrast, regardless of a diagnosis of TD, subjects with ADHD were found to perform worse in the sustained attention, divided attention and go/nogo task. No interaction effect between the factors TD and ADHD was revealed for any of the attention measures. Our results add to findings from other areas of research, showing that in subjects with TD and ADHD, ADHD psychopathology is often the main source of impairment, whereas a diagnosis of TD has little or no impact on neuropsychological performance in most cases and even seems to be associated with adaptive mechanisms.

  13. Towards energy transparent factories

    CERN Document Server

    Posselt, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    This monograph provides a methodological approach for establishing demand-oriented levels of energy transparency of factories. The author presents a systematic indication of energy drivers and cost factors, taking into account the interdependencies between facility and production domains. Particular attention is given to energy flow metering and monitoring. Readers will also be provided with an in-depth description of a planning tool which allows for systematically deriving suitable metering points in complex factory environments. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of factory planning, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  14. Increasing the quantity and quality of searching for current best evidence to answer clinical questions: protocol and intervention design of the MacPLUS FS Factorial Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoritsas, Thomas; Iserman, Emma; Hobson, Nicholas; Cohen, Natasha; Cohen, Adam; Roshanov, Pavel S; Perez, Miguel; Cotoi, Chris; Parrish, Rick; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Iorio, Alfonso; Haynes, R Brian

    2014-09-20

    Finding current best evidence for clinical decisions remains challenging. With 3,000 new studies published every day, no single evidence-based resource provides all answers or is sufficiently updated. McMaster Premium LiteratUre Service--Federated Search (MacPLUS FS) addresses this issue by looking in multiple high quality resources simultaneously and displaying results in a one-page pyramid with the most clinically useful at the top. Yet, additional logistical and educational barriers need to be addressed to enhance point-of-care evidence retrieval. This trial seeks to test three innovative interventions, among clinicians registered to MacPLUS FS, to increase the quantity and quality of searching for current best evidence to answer clinical questions. In a user-centered approach, we designed three interventions embedded in MacPLUS FS: (A) a web-based Clinical Question Recorder; (B) an Evidence Retrieval Coach composed of eight short educational videos; (C) an Audit, Feedback and Gamification approach to evidence retrieval, based on the allocation of 'badges' and 'reputation scores.' We will conduct a randomized factorial controlled trial among all the 904 eligible medical doctors currently registered to MacPLUS FS at the hospitals affiliated with McMaster University, Canada. Postgraduate trainees (n=429) and clinical faculty/staff (n=475) will be randomized to each of the three following interventions in a factorial design (AxBxC). Utilization will be continuously recorded through clinicians’ accounts that track logins and usage, down to the level of individual keystrokes. The primary outcome is the rate of searches per month per user during the six months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes, measured through the validated Impact Assessment Method questionnaire, include: utility of answers found (meeting clinicians’ information needs), use (application in practice), and perceived usefulness on patient outcomes. Built on effective models for the point

  15. Present status of positron factory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, S.; Sunaga, H.; Kaneko, H.; Tachibana, H.; Yotsumoto, K.; Okamoto, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI, has been promoting design studies for the 'Positron Factory', in which linac-based intense monoenergetic positron beams are planned to be applied to advanced materials characterization and new fields of basic research. A tentative goal of the beam intensity is 10 10 s -1 , which is assumed to be realized with an electron linac of 100 kW class with a beam energy around 100 to 150 MeV. We performed a technical survey on the dedicated linac. It confirmed technical feasibility of manufacturing the state-of-the-art machine. We have been carrying out a design study of the target. A new concept of the target design is proposed, which is expected to supply intense slow positron beams simultaneously for multiple beam channels, on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  16. Effect of Recruitment Methods on Response Rate in a Web-Based Study for Primary Care Physicians: Factorial Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Ryuhei; Shinohara, Kiyomi; Aoki, Takuya; Tsujimoto, Yasushi; Suganuma, Aya M; Furukawa, Toshi A

    2018-02-08

    Low participation rates are one of the most serious disadvantages of Web-based studies. It is necessary to develop effective strategies to improve participation rates to obtain sufficient data. The objective of this trial was to investigate the effect of emphasizing the incentive in the subject line of the invitation email and the day of the week of sending the invitation email on the participation rate in a Web-based trial. We conducted a 2×2 factorial design randomized controlled trial. We contacted 2000 primary care physicians from members of the Japan Primary Care Association in January 2017 and randomly allocated them to 1 of 4 combinations of 2 subject lines (presence or absence of an emphasis on a lottery for an Amazon gift card worth 3000 yen or approximately US $30) and 2 delivery days (sending the invitation email on Tuesday or Friday). The primary outcome was the response rate defined as the number of participants answering the first page of the questionnaire divided by the number of invitation emails delivered. All outcomes were collected between January 17, 2017, and February 8, 2017. We analyzed data from 1943 out of 2000 participants after excluding those whose email addresses were invalid. The overall response rate was 6.3% (123/1943). There was no significant difference in the response rates between the 2 groups regarding incentive in the subject line: the risk ratio was 1.12 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.58) and the risk difference was 0.7% (95% CI -1.5% to 2.9%). Similarly, there was no significant difference in the response rates between the 2 groups regarding sending the email on Tuesday or Friday: the risk ratio was 0.98 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.38) and the risk difference was -0.1% (95% CI -2.3% to 2.1%). Neither emphasizing the incentive in the subject line of the invitation email nor varying the day of the week the invitation email was sent led to a meaningful increase in response rates in a Web-based trial with primary care physicians. University Hospital

  17. Reusing Design Knowledge Based on Design Cases and Knowledge Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Haobai; Shen, Jiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    Design knowledge was reused for innovative design work to support designers with product design knowledge and help designers who lack rich experiences to improve their design capacity and efficiency. First, based on the ontological model of product design knowledge constructed by taxonomy, implicit and explicit knowledge was extracted from some…

  18. Planned Positron Factory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Sohei

    1990-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI, has started, drafting a construction plan for the 'Positron Factory', in which intense energy-controllable monoenergetic positron beams are produced from pair-production reactions caused by high-energy electrons from a linac. The JAERI organized a planning committee to provide a basic picture for the Positron Factory. This article presents an overview of the interactions of positrons, intense positron sources and the research program and facilities planned for the project. The interactions of positrons and intense positron sources are discussed focusing on major characteristics of positrons in different energy ranges. The research program for the Positron Factory is then outlined, focusing on advanced positron annihilation techniques, positron spectroscopy (diffraction, scattering, channeling, microscopy), basic positron physics (exotic particle science), and positron beam technology. Discussion is also made of facilities required for the Positron Factory. (N.K.)

  19. Virtual Factory Testbed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Factory Testbed (VFT) is comprised of three physical facilities linked by a standalone network (VFNet). The three facilities are the Smart and Wireless...

  20. TRIUMF kaon factory plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackmore, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    A progress report on the TRIUMF Kaon Factory Feasibility Study is presented. The requirements placed on the machine parameters and experimental facilities by the potentially interesting experiments are discussed

  1. TRIUMF kaon factory plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackmore, E.W.

    1982-11-01

    A progress report on the TRIUMF Kaon Factory Feasibility Study is presented. The requirements placed on the machine parameters and experimental facilities by the potentially interesting experiments are discussed

  2. The Virtual Factory Teaching System (VFTS): Project Review and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, E. J.; Boyd, E. F., III; Dessouky, M. M.

    This paper presents a review of the Virtual Factory Teaching (VFTS) project, a Web-based, multimedia collaborative learning network. The system allows students, working alone or in teams, to build factories, forecast demand for products, plan production, establish release rules for new work into the factory, and set scheduling rules for…

  3. The nearby supernova factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood-Vasey, W.M.; Aldering, G.; Lee, B.C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Siegrist, J.; Wang, L.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Copin, Y.; Smadja, G.; Gangler, E.; Castera, A.; Adam, G.; Bacon, R.; Lemonnier, J.-P.; Pecontal, A.; Pecontal, E.; Kessler, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an ambitious project to find and study in detail approximately 300 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at redshifts 0.03 < z < 0.08. This program will provide an exceptional data set of well-studied SNe in the nearby smooth Hubble flow that can be used as calibration for the current and future programs designed to use SNe to measure the cosmological parameters. The first key ingredient for this program is a reliable supply of Hubble-flow SNe systematically discovered in unprecedented numbers using the same techniques as those used in distant SNe searches. In 2002, 35 SNe were found using our test-bed pipeline for automated SN search and discovery. The pipeline uses images from the asteroid search conducted by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking group at JPL. Improvements in our subtraction techniques and analysis have allowed us to increase our effective SN discovery rate to ∼12 SNe/month in 2003

  4. Factorial design analysis on the solubility of total mercury in reduction process = Análise do processo experimental na solubilidade do mercúrio total em processo redutivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Dalla Costa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The dental wastewater can contribute to the total daily mercury load on the environment. Factorial design of experiments is useful to analyze factors that influence this solubility. The aim of the present study was to design experiments to examine the effects ofoperational variables, humic acid, temperature, pH and contact time that may affect the solubility of total mercury as dental amalgam residue in reduction process. Based on the factorial design of experiments, the humic acid concentration was the most significant factor in this process, followed by other factors. The parameters affecting the solubility of total mercury showed that when the [HA], T and CT increases and pH decreases there is an important increase of total mercury concentration in process. For the tested conditions, thehigh total mercury concentration was obtained using the humic acid concentration = 1.0 g L-1, temperature = 35oC, pH = 4.0 and contact time = 10 days.O esgoto odontológico pode contribuir na carga total de mercúrio noambiente. O estudo do planejamento experimental é útil para analisar os fatores que influenciam nesta solubilidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um planejamento experimental para analisar os efeitos das variáveis operacionais, ácido húmico, temperatura,pH e tempo de contato, que podem afetar a solubilidade do mercúrio total como amálgama odontológico em um processo de redução. Baseado no planejamento experimental, a concentração de ácido húmico foi o fator mais significativo no processo, seguido dos demais fatores. Os parâmetros que afetam a solubilidade do mercúrio total mostram que quando a [AH], T e TC aumentam e o pH diminui há um aumento significativo na concentração de mercúrio total no processo. A maior concentração de mercúrio total foi obtido nas condições de concentração de ácido húmico = 1,0 g L-1, temperatura = 35oC, pH = 4,0 e tempo de contato = 10 dias.

  5. Super B Factories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B factory; CP violation; B meson; supersymmetry. PACS Nos 11.30.Hv; 11.30.Pb; 12.15.Hh; 12.15.Mm; 13.20.He; 13.20.Fc;. 13.35.Dx; 14.65.Fy. 1. Introduction. The two asymmetric B factories, PEP-II and KEK-B, and their companion detec- tors, BABAR and Belle, have produced a wealth of flavor physics results, subjecting.

  6. Displacement Based Seismic Design Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.F.; Hofmayer, C.; Park, Y.J.

    1999-01-01

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration

  7. Novel non-ionic surfactant proniosomes for transdermal delivery of lacidipine: optimization using 2(3) factorial design and in vivo evaluation in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sara M; Abdelmalak, Nevine S; El-Gazayerly, Omaima N; Abdelaziz, Nabaweya

    2016-06-01

    Proniosomes offer a versatile vesicle drug delivery concept with potential for delivery of drugs via transdermal route. To develop proniosomal gel using cremophor RH 40 as non-ionic surfactant containing the antihypertensive drug lacidipine for transdermal delivery so as to avoid its extensive first pass metabolism and to improve its permeation through the skin. Proniosomes containing 1% lacidipine were prepared by the coacervation phase separation method, characterized, and optimized using a 2(3) full factorial design to define the optimum conditions to produce proniosomes with high entrapment efficiency, minimal vesicle size, and high-percentage release efficiency. The amount of cholesterol (X1), the amount of soya lecithin (X2), and the amount of cremophor RH 40 (X3) were selected as three independent variables. The system F4 was found to fulfill the maximum requisite of an optimum system because it had minimum vesicle size, maximum EE, maximum release efficiency, and maximum desirability. The optimized system (F4) was then converted to proniosomal gel using carbopol 940 (1% w/w). In vitro permeation through excised rabbit skin study revealed higher flux (6.48 ± 0.45) for lacidipine from the optimized proniosomal gel when compared with the corresponding emulgel (3.04 ± 0.13) mg/cm(2)/h. The optimized formulation was evaluated for its bioavailability compared with commercial product. Statistical analysis revealed significant increase in AUC (0 - α) 464.17 ± 113.15 ng h/ml compared with 209.02 ± 47.35 ng h/ml for commercial tablet. Skin irritancy and histopathological investigation of rat skin revealed its safety. Cremophor RH 40 proniosomal gel could be considered as very promising nanocarriers for transdermal delivery of lacidipine.

  8. Analysis of the effects of five factors relevant to in vitro chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells using factorial design and high throughput mRNA-profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Rune B; Østrup, Esben; Zhang, Xiaolan; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S; Brinchmann, Jan E

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro process of chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering has been shown to require three-dimensional culture along with the addition of differentiation factors to the culture medium. In general, this leads to a phenotype lacking some of the cardinal features of native articular chondrocytes and their extracellular matrix. The factors used vary, but regularly include members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and dexamethasone, sometimes in conjunction with fibroblast growth factor 2 and insulin-like growth factor 1, however the use of soluble factors to induce chondrogenesis has largely been studied on a single factor basis. In the present study we combined a factorial quality-by-design experiment with high-throughput mRNA profiling of a customized chondrogenesis related gene set as a tool to study in vitro chondrogenesis of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in alginate. 48 different conditions of transforming growth factor β 1, 2 and 3, bone morphogenetic protein 2, 4 and 6, dexamethasone, insulin-like growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor 2 and cell seeding density were included in the experiment. The analysis revealed that the best of the tested differentiation cocktails included transforming growth factor β 1 and dexamethasone. Dexamethasone acted in synergy with transforming growth factor β 1 by increasing many chondrogenic markers while directly downregulating expression of the pro-osteogenic gene osteocalcin. However, all factors beneficial to the expression of desirable hyaline cartilage markers also induced undesirable molecules, indicating that perfect chondrogenic differentiation is not achievable with the current differentiation protocols.

  9. A novel homocystine-agarose adsorbent for separation and preconcentration of nickel in table salt and baking soda using factorial design optimization of the experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Payman; Rahmani, Zohreh

    2006-02-28

    Homocystine was for the first time, chemically linked to a highly cross-linked agarose support (Novarose) to be employed as a chelating adsorbent for preconcentration and AAS determination of nickel in table salt and baking soda. Nickel is quantitatively adsorbed on a small column packed with 0.25ml of the adsorbent, in a pH range of 5.5-6.5 and simply eluted with 5ml of a 1moll(-1) hydrochloric acid solution. A factorial design was used for optimization of the effects of five different variables on the recovery of nickel. The results indicated that the factors of flow rate and column length, and the interactions between pH and sample volume are significant. In the optimized conditions, the column could tolerate salt concentrations up to 0.5moll(-1) and sample volumes beyond 500ml. Matrix ions of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), with a concentration of 200mgl(-1), and potentially interfering ions of Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Mn(2+), with a concentration of 10mgl(-1), did not have significant effect on the analyte's signal. Preconcentration factors up to 100 and a detection limit of 0.49mugl(-1), corresponding to an enrichment volume of 500ml, were obtained for the determination of the analyte by flame AAS. Application of the method to the determination of natural and spiked nickel in table salt and baking soda solutions resulted in quantitative recoveries. Direct ETAAS determination of nickel in the same samples was not possible because of a high background observed.

  10. Validated high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC method for simultaneous determination of nadifloxacin, mometasone furoate, and miconazole nitrate cream using fractional factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana G. Patel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of nadifloxacin, mometasone furoate, and miconazole nitrate was developed and validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. High-performance thin-layer chromatographic separation was performed on aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 and methanol:ethyl acetate:toluene: acetonitrile:3M ammonium formate in water (1:2.5:6.0:0.3:0.2, % v/v as optimized mobile phase at detection wavelength of 224 nm. The retardation factor (Rf values for nadifloxacin, mometasone furoate, and miconazole nitrate were 0.23, 0.70, and 0.59, respectively. Percent recoveries in terms of accuracy for the marketed formulation were found to be 98.35–99.76%, 99.36–99.65%, and 99.16–100.25% for nadifloxacin, mometasone furoate, and miconazole nitrate, respectively. The pooled percent relative standard deviation for repeatability and intermediate precision studies was found to be < 2% for three target analytes. The effect of four independent variables, methanol content in total mobile phase, wavelength, chamber saturation time, and solvent front, was evaluated by fractional factorial design for robustness testing. Amongst all four factors, volume of methanol in mobile phase appeared to have a possibly significant effect on retention factor of miconazole nitrate compared with the other two drugs nadifloxacin and mometasone furoate, and therefore it was important to be carefully controlled. In summary, a novel, simple, accurate, reproducible, and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method was developed, which would be of use in quality control of these cream formulations.

  11. Optimization and Evaluation of Gastroretentive Ranitidine HCl Microspheres by Using Factorial Design with Improved Bioavailability and Mucosal Integrity in Ulcer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Abeer; Zaki, Nashwah

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to develop and optimize the drug entrapment efficiency and bioadhesion properties of mucoadhesive chitosan microspheres containing ranitidine HCl prepared by an ionotropic gelation method as a gastroretentive delivery system; thus, we improved their protective and therapeutic gastric effects in an ulcer model. A 3 × 2 2 full factorial design was adopted to study the effect of three different factors, i.e., the type of polymer at three levels (chitosan, chitosan/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, and chitosan/methylcellulose), the type of solvent at two levels (acetic acid and lactic acid), and the type of chitosan at two levels (low molecular weight (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW)). The studied responses were particle size, swelling index, drug entrapment efficiency, bioadhesion (as determined by wash-off and rinsing tests), and T 80% of drug release. Studies of the in vivo mucoadhesion and in vivo protective and healing effects of the optimized formula against gastric ulcers were carried out using albino rats (with induced gastric ulceration) and were compared to the effects of free ranitidine powder. A pharmacokinetic study in rabbits showed a significant, 2.1-fold increase in theAUC 0-24 of the ranitidine microspheres compared to free ranitidine after oral administration. The optimized formula showed higher drug entrapment efficiency and mucoadhesion properties and had more protective and healing effects on induced gastric ulcers in rats than ranitidine powder. In conclusion, the prolonged gastrointestinal residence time and the stability of the mucoadhesive microspheres of ranitidine as well as the synergistic healing effect of chitosan could contribute to increasing the potential of its anti-gastric ulcer activity.

  12. Analysis of the Effects of Five Factors Relevant to In Vitro Chondrogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using Factorial Design and High Throughput mRNA-Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Rune B.; Østrup, Esben; Zhang, Xiaolan; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.; Brinchmann, Jan E.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro process of chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering has been shown to require three-dimensional culture along with the addition of differentiation factors to the culture medium. In general, this leads to a phenotype lacking some of the cardinal features of native articular chondrocytes and their extracellular matrix. The factors used vary, but regularly include members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and dexamethasone, sometimes in conjunction with fibroblast growth factor 2 and insulin-like growth factor 1, however the use of soluble factors to induce chondrogenesis has largely been studied on a single factor basis. In the present study we combined a factorial quality-by-design experiment with high-throughput mRNA profiling of a customized chondrogenesis related gene set as a tool to study in vitro chondrogenesis of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in alginate. 48 different conditions of transforming growth factor β 1, 2 and 3, bone morphogenetic protein 2, 4 and 6, dexamethasone, insulin-like growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor 2 and cell seeding density were included in the experiment. The analysis revealed that the best of the tested differentiation cocktails included transforming growth factor β 1 and dexamethasone. Dexamethasone acted in synergy with transforming growth factor β 1 by increasing many chondrogenic markers while directly downregulating expression of the pro-osteogenic gene osteocalcin. However, all factors beneficial to the expression of desirable hyaline cartilage markers also induced undesirable molecules, indicating that perfect chondrogenic differentiation is not achievable with the current differentiation protocols. PMID:24816923

  13. Analysis of the effects of five factors relevant to in vitro chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells using factorial design and high throughput mRNA-profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune B Jakobsen

    Full Text Available The in vitro process of chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering has been shown to require three-dimensional culture along with the addition of differentiation factors to the culture medium. In general, this leads to a phenotype lacking some of the cardinal features of native articular chondrocytes and their extracellular matrix. The factors used vary, but regularly include members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and dexamethasone, sometimes in conjunction with fibroblast growth factor 2 and insulin-like growth factor 1, however the use of soluble factors to induce chondrogenesis has largely been studied on a single factor basis. In the present study we combined a factorial quality-by-design experiment with high-throughput mRNA profiling of a customized chondrogenesis related gene set as a tool to study in vitro chondrogenesis of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in alginate. 48 different conditions of transforming growth factor β 1, 2 and 3, bone morphogenetic protein 2, 4 and 6, dexamethasone, insulin-like growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor 2 and cell seeding density were included in the experiment. The analysis revealed that the best of the tested differentiation cocktails included transforming growth factor β 1 and dexamethasone. Dexamethasone acted in synergy with transforming growth factor β 1 by increasing many chondrogenic markers while directly downregulating expression of the pro-osteogenic gene osteocalcin. However, all factors beneficial to the expression of desirable hyaline cartilage markers also induced undesirable molecules, indicating that perfect chondrogenic differentiation is not achievable with the current differentiation protocols.

  14. Determination of protein and amino acid requirements of lactating sows using a population-based factorial approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anja Varmløse; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation techniques. BW, back fat thickness of the sow, litter size (LS), average litter gain (LG), dietary energy density and feed intake were inputs to the model. The model was tested using results from the literature, and the values were all within ±1 s.d. of the estimated requirements...... recommendations for lactating sows using a stochastic modeling approach that integrates population variation and uncertainty of key parameters into establishing nutritional recommendations for lactating sows. The requirement for individual sows was calculated using a factorial approach by adding the requirement...... for maintenance and milk. The energy balance of the sows was either negative or zero depending on feed intake being a limiting factor. Some parameters in the model were sow-specific and others were population-specific, depending on state of knowledge. Each simulation was for 1000 sows repeated 100 times using...

  15. Watershed-based survey designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detenbeck, N.E.; Cincotta, D.; Denver, J.M.; Greenlee, S.K.; Olsen, A.R.; Pitchford, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Watershed-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Section 303(d), and development of empirical relationships between causes or sources of impairment and biological responses. Creation of GIS databases for hydrography, hydrologically corrected digital elevation models, and hydrologic derivatives such as watershed boundaries and upstream–downstream topology of subcatchments would provide a consistent seamless nationwide framework for these designs. The elements of a watershed-based sample framework can be represented either as a continuous infinite set defined by points along a linear stream network, or as a discrete set of watershed polygons. Watershed-based designs can be developed with existing probabilistic survey methods, including the use of unequal probability weighting, stratification, and two-stage frames for sampling. Case studies for monitoring of Atlantic Coastal Plain streams, West Virginia wadeable streams, and coastal Oregon streams illustrate three different approaches for selecting sites for watershed-based survey designs.

  16. Muon Acceleration: Neutrino Factory and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, Alex [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2018-03-01

    We summarize the current state of a concept for muon acceleration aimed at a future Neutrino Factory and extendable to Higgs Factory. The main thrust of these studies was to reduce the overall cost while maintaining performance by exploring the interplay between the complexity of the cooling systems and the acceptance of the accelerator complex. To ensure adequate survival for the short-lived muons, acceleration must occur at high average gradient. The need for large transverse and longitudinal acceptances drives the design of the acceleration system to an initially low RF frequency, e.g., 325 MHz, which is then increased to 650 MHz as the transverse size shrinks with increasing energy. High-gradient normal conducting RF cavities at these frequencies require extremely high peak-power RF sources. Hence superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are chosen. We consider an SRF-efficient design based on a multi-pass (4.5) ?dogbone? RLA, extendable to multi-pass FFAG-like arcs.

  17. Magnets for TRIUMF's KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, A.J.; Reeve, P.A.

    1991-05-01

    The KAON Factory will require over 2000 magnets to transport protons from the existing 500 Mev cyclotron through three storage rings and two synchrotrons and deliver them to the experimental area at 30 Gev. The magnet requirements are summarized and the results of measurements on prototypes for the 50 hz Booster magnets are compared with design values. This paper will address three topics: the results of prototype work, some of the more difficult design aspects of other magnets and the tolerances required to achieve production magnets uniform to ± 2 parts in 10 4 . (Author) 10 refs., 3 figs., tab

  18. SatisFactory Final System Evaluation Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sunlight SA

    2018-01-01

    The present document is a deliverable of the SatisFactory project, funded by the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Research and Innovation (DG RTD), under its Horizon 2020 Research and innovation programme (H2020). The main objective of this deliverable is to report on the SatisFactory Final System Evaluation, with regards to the industrial pilots at COMAU and SUNLIGHT. The evaluation of SatisFactory platform is based on the implementation of the business scenarios where each tool...

  19. Tau-charm factory..

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-10-15

    In addition to hearing the latest experimental and theoretical developments at the 17th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions in Beijing, delegates were brought up-to-date on the substantial progress towards the realization of a Tau-Charm Factory in the Chinese capital. Opening the Symposium, Zhou Guangzhao, President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, expressed a commitment of the Chinese government to basic research and its interest in the continuing development high energy physics in China. Following the very successful construction and operation of Beijing's Electron-Positron Collider, BEPC, the Chinese government has provided 5M yuan ($US 600,000) for a feasibility study by the end of 1996 for a Tau-Charm Factory at Beijing's Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP). Professor Zhou expressed his belief that, once approved, such a factory would greatly enhance high energy physics in China. He warmly welcomed international collaboration both in the construction of the accelerator and in the experimental programme. His comments were reinforced in the following welcome speech by IHEP Director Zheng Zhipeng. Conference delegates had the opportunity to inspect the BEPC injector and collider, built almost entirely by Chinese industry. The International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) met during the Symposium, with Tau- Charm Factory business on the agenda. In his subsequent report, ICFA Chairman John Peoples said that a Tau-Charm Factory provides a unique experimental environment for the precision studies of tau, charm and light quark-gluon spectroscopy, and that some issues in these fields are not satisfactorily addressed solely by B Factories or fixed-target experiments. The committee expressed a strong interest in seeing a Tau-Charm Factory built and noted the serious interest, especially in China, and looks forward to operation and exploitation by the international physics community. In their Beijing summary talks, both Sam Ting and T

  20. Tau-charm factory..

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In addition to hearing the latest experimental and theoretical developments at the 17th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions in Beijing, delegates were brought up-to-date on the substantial progress towards the realization of a Tau-Charm Factory in the Chinese capital. Opening the Symposium, Zhou Guangzhao, President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, expressed a commitment of the Chinese government to basic research and its interest in the continuing development high energy physics in China. Following the very successful construction and operation of Beijing's Electron-Positron Collider, BEPC, the Chinese government has provided 5M yuan ($US 600,000) for a feasibility study by the end of 1996 for a Tau-Charm Factory at Beijing's Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP). Professor Zhou expressed his belief that, once approved, such a factory would greatly enhance high energy physics in China. He warmly welcomed international collaboration both in the construction of the accelerator and in the experimental programme. His comments were reinforced in the following welcome speech by IHEP Director Zheng Zhipeng. Conference delegates had the opportunity to inspect the BEPC injector and collider, built almost entirely by Chinese industry. The International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) met during the Symposium, with Tau- Charm Factory business on the agenda. In his subsequent report, ICFA Chairman John Peoples said that a Tau-Charm Factory provides a unique experimental environment for the precision studies of tau, charm and light quark-gluon spectroscopy, and that some issues in these fields are not satisfactorily addressed solely by B Factories or fixed-target experiments. The committee expressed a strong interest in seeing a Tau-Charm Factory built and noted the serious interest, especially in China, and looks forward to operation and exploitation by the international physics community. In their Beijing summary talks, both Sam Ting

  1. Sample size requirements for separating out the effects of combination treatments: Randomised controlled trials of combination therapy vs. standard treatment compared to factorial designs for patients with tuberculous meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrar Jeremy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In certain diseases clinical experts may judge that the intervention with the best prospects is the addition of two treatments to the standard of care. This can either be tested with a simple randomized trial of combination versus standard treatment or with a 2 × 2 factorial design. Methods We compared the two approaches using the design of a new trial in tuberculous meningitis as an example. In that trial the combination of 2 drugs added to standard treatment is assumed to reduce the hazard of death by 30% and the sample size of the combination trial to achieve 80% power is 750 patients. We calculated the power of corresponding factorial designs with one- to sixteen-fold the sample size of the combination trial depending on the contribution of each individual drug to the combination treatment effect and the strength of an interaction between the two. Results In the absence of an interaction, an eight-fold increase in sample size for the factorial design as compared to the combination trial is required to get 80% power to jointly detect effects of both drugs if the contribution of the less potent treatment to the total effect is at least 35%. An eight-fold sample size increase also provides a power of 76% to detect a qualitative interaction at the one-sided 10% significance level if the individual effects of both drugs are equal. Factorial designs with a lower sample size have a high chance to be underpowered, to show significance of only one drug even if both are equally effective, and to miss important interactions. Conclusions Pragmatic combination trials of multiple interventions versus standard therapy are valuable in diseases with a limited patient pool if all interventions test the same treatment concept, it is considered likely that either both or none of the individual interventions are effective, and only moderate drug interactions are suspected. An adequately powered 2 × 2 factorial design to detect effects of

  2. Sample size requirements for separating out the effects of combination treatments: randomised controlled trials of combination therapy vs. standard treatment compared to factorial designs for patients with tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbers, Marcel; Heemskerk, Dorothee; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Yen, Nguyen Thi Bich; Caws, Maxine; Farrar, Jeremy; Day, Jeremy

    2011-02-02

    In certain diseases clinical experts may judge that the intervention with the best prospects is the addition of two treatments to the standard of care. This can either be tested with a simple randomized trial of combination versus standard treatment or with a 2 x 2 factorial design. We compared the two approaches using the design of a new trial in tuberculous meningitis as an example. In that trial the combination of 2 drugs added to standard treatment is assumed to reduce the hazard of death by 30% and the sample size of the combination trial to achieve 80% power is 750 patients. We calculated the power of corresponding factorial designs with one- to sixteen-fold the sample size of the combination trial depending on the contribution of each individual drug to the combination treatment effect and the strength of an interaction between the two. In the absence of an interaction, an eight-fold increase in sample size for the factorial design as compared to the combination trial is required to get 80% power to jointly detect effects of both drugs if the contribution of the less potent treatment to the total effect is at least 35%. An eight-fold sample size increase also provides a power of 76% to detect a qualitative interaction at the one-sided 10% significance level if the individual effects of both drugs are equal. Factorial designs with a lower sample size have a high chance to be underpowered, to show significance of only one drug even if both are equally effective, and to miss important interactions. Pragmatic combination trials of multiple interventions versus standard therapy are valuable in diseases with a limited patient pool if all interventions test the same treatment concept, it is considered likely that either both or none of the individual interventions are effective, and only moderate drug interactions are suspected. An adequately powered 2 x 2 factorial design to detect effects of individual drugs would require at least 8-fold the sample size of the

  3. Pilot factory - a Condor-based system for scalable Pilot Job generation in the Panda WMS framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Po-Hsiang; Potekhin, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    The Panda Workload Management System is designed around the concept of the Pilot Job - a 'smart wrapper' for the payload executable that can probe the environment on the remote worker node before pulling down the payload from the server and executing it. Such design allows for improved logging and monitoring capabilities as well as flexibility in Workload Management. In the Grid environment (such as the Open Science Grid), Panda Pilot Jobs are submitted to remote sites via mechanisms that ultimately rely on Condor-G. As our experience has shown, in cases where a large number of Panda jobs are simultaneously routed to a particular remote site, the increased load on the head node of the cluster, which is caused by the Pilot Job submission, may lead to overall lack of scalability. We have developed a Condor-inspired solution to this problem, which is using the schedd-based glidein, whose mission is to redirect pilots to the native batch system. Once a glidein schedd is installed and running, it can be utilized exactly the same way as local schedds and therefore, from the user's perspective, Pilots thus submitted are quite similar to jobs submitted to the local Condor pool.

  4. Colorful Microbial Cell Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pia Damm

    Yeast cell factories are powerful tools used for the production of high-value natural compounds otherwise not easily available. Many bioactive and industrially important plant secondary metabolites can be produced in yeast by engineering their biosynthetic pathways into yeast cells, as these both...... anthocyanins. Yeast cell factories present a platform to circumvent the problem of low yields of interesting molecular structures in plant tissues, as hand-picking of desired enzyme activities allows for specific biosynthesis of the precise pigment of interest, as well as choosing more stable structures...... for heterologous biosynthesis is possible. In cell factories, great improvements in yields can be achieved through molecular engineering of flux from endogenous yeast precursors, e.g. by elimination of by-product formation, and by genetic optimization of pathway components, such as fine-tuning of expression levels...

  5. The Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays we live in a world, which a decade ago would only be described in the science fiction literature. More and more things become smart and both scientists and engineers strive for developing not only new and innovative devices, but also homes, factories, or even cities. Despite of continuous...... development, many of those concepts are still being just a vision of the future, which still needs a lot of effort to become true. This paper reviews the usage of adjective smart in respect to technology and with a special emphasis on the smart factory concept placement among contemporary studies. Due...... to a lack of a consensus of common understanding of this term, a unified definition is proposed. The conceptualization will not only refer to various smart factory visions reported in the literature, but also link the crucial characteristics of this emerging manufacturing concept to usual manufacturing...

  6. Tolfenamic acid degradation by direct photolysis and the UV-ABC/H2O2 process: factorial design, kinetics, identification of intermediates, and toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo da Silva, Lucas; Pereira Cavalcante, Rodrigo; Fabbro Cunha, Rebeca; Gozzi, Fábio; Falcao Dantas, Renato; de Oliveira, Silvio Cesar; Machulek, Amilcar

    2016-12-15

    This study employed direct UV-ABC photolysis and the UV-ABC/H 2 O 2 process to investigate the degradation of tolfenamic acid (TA), a common anti-inflammatory drug used in both human and veterinary medicine. A 2 3 factorial design with added center point was used to evaluate the effect of three independent variables-namely, H 2 O 2 concentration ([H 2 O 2 ]), TA concentration ([TA]), and experiment time (time)-on TA degradation and H 2 O 2 photolysis during UV-ABC/H 2 O 2 treatment using a high-pressure mercury vapor lamp (photon flux of 2.6307 × 10 4 J s -1 ) as the UV irradiation source. The responses yielded similar values, revealing a linear behavior, with correlation coefficients R = 0.9968 and R adj = 0.9921 for TA degradation and R = 0.9828 and R adj = 0.9570 for H 2 O 2 photolysis. The most efficient combination of variables was [H 2 O 2 ] = 255 mg L -1 and [TA] = 25 mg L -1 , resulting in 100% TA degradation and 98.87% H 2 O 2 photolysis by 90 min of treatment. Additionally, the second-order kinetic constant of the reaction between TA and HO ● was determined using a competitive kinetic model, employing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) as the reference compound. The kinetic constant was 1.9 × 10 10 M -1 s -1 in alkaline medium. TA degradation by direct photolysis generated quinone imines as by-products, responsible for the formation of a dark red "internal filter" that increased the value of acute toxicity to Artemia salina. The UV-ABC/H 2 O 2 process did not promote formation of quinone imines by 90 min of treatment and therefore did not increase acute toxicity values. Several by-products generated during TA degradation were identified and possible degradation pathways for the UV-ABC and UV-ABC/H 2 O 2 processes were proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Kinetics of improved 1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucohydrolase biosynthesis from a newly isolated Aspergillus oryzae IIB-6 and parameter significance analysis by 2-factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Bilqees; Ali, Sikander

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen different mould cultures viz. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Arthroderma, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Chochliobolus were isolated from the soil samples of Qatar by serial dilution method. The preliminary screening of isolates was done by selecting initial colonies showing relatively bigger zones of starch hydrolysis on nutrient agar plates. The isolates were then subjected to secondary screening by submerged fermentation (SmF). The 1,4-α-D-glucan glucohydrolase (GGH) activity ranged from 1.906-12.675 U/ml/min. The product yield was analysed in dependence of mycelial morphology, biomass level and protein content. The isolate Aspergillus oryzae llB-6 which gave maximum enzyme production was incubated in M3 medium containing 20 g/l starch, 10 g/l lactose, 8.5 g/l yeast extract, 6 g/l corn steep liquor (CSL), 1.2 g/l MgSO4.7H2O, 1.3 g/l NH4Cl, 0.6 g/l CaCl2.2H2O, pH 5 at 30±2°C and 200 rpm. On the basis of kinetic variables, notably Qp (0.058±0.01(a) U/g/h), Yp/s (0.308±0.03(ab) U/g) and qp (0.210±0.032(abc) U/g fungal biomass/h), A. oryzae IIB-6 was found to be a hyper producer of GGH (LSD 0.0345) compared to A. kawachii IIB-2. A noticeable enhancement in enzyme activity of over 30% was observed (13.917±1.01 U/ml/min) when the process parameters viz. cultural conditions (pH 5, incubation period 72 h) and nutritional requirements (6 g/l CSL, 9.5 g/l yeast extract, 10 g/l starch, 20 g/l lactose) were further optimized using a 2-factorial Plackett-Burman design. The model terms were found to be highly significant (HS, p≤0.05), indicating the potential utility of the culture (dof~3).

  8. Risk based seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2) What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the safe-shutdown-earthquake (SSE) ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented. (orig.)

  9. Software factory techniques applied to Process Control at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Dutour, MD

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) requires constant monitoring and control of quantities of parameters to guarantee operational conditions. For this purpose, a methodology called UNICOS (UNIfied Industrial COntrols Systems) has been implemented to standardize the design of process control applications. To further accelerate the development of these applications, we migrated our existing UNICOS tooling suite toward a software factory in charge of assembling project, domain and technical information seamlessly into deployable PLC (Programmable logic Controller) – SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems. This software factory delivers consistently high quality by reducing human error and repetitive tasks, and adapts to user specifications in a cost-efficient way. Hence, this production tool is designed to encapsulate and hide the PLC and SCADA target platforms, enabling the experts to focus on the business model rather than specific syntaxes and grammars. Based on industry standard software...

  10. Software factory techniques applied to process control at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Dutour, Mathias D

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) requires constant monitoring and control of quantities of parameters to guarantee operational conditions. For this purpose, a methodology called UNICOS (UNIfied Industrial COntrols Systems) has been implemented to standardize the design of process control applications. To further accelerate the development of these applications, we migrated our existing UNICOS tooling suite toward a software factory in charge of assembling project, domain and technical information seamlessly into deployable PLC (Programmable logic Controller) - SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems. This software factory delivers consistently high quality by reducing human error and repetitive tasks, and adapts to user specifications in a cost-efficient way. Hence, this production tool is designed to encapsulate and hide the PLC and SCADA target platforms, enabling the experts to focus on the business model rather than specific syntaxes and grammars. Based on industry standard software, ...

  11. Energy usage in Beet Suger Factories. Sockerfabrikens energianvaendning; En systemstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltborg, G

    1990-02-01

    A computer program has been developed in order to simulate the energy consumption of beet sugar factories, for various plant configurations. The program is divided into five block units: Extraction and Juice purification, Juice concentration, Crystallization, Drying and finally the Power House. Each block consists of different modules, for example, a heat exchanger, an evaporator, a turbine and a dryer. The purpose of this project was to simulate some different system configurations of a sugar factory, whereby both new and previously used process technologies were utilized. The following parts of the process have been particularly emphasized: Power House - gas turbine, waste heat boiler. Drying - low-temperature dryer, steam dryer. Evaporation - vapour recompression. Crystallization - vapour recompression, continuous system. The different plant configurations have been compared to a reference factory, which is designed according to current technology used in a modern and well balanced Swedish factory. The comparisons are based upon the total power consumption as well as the total annual energy costs. Eleven different plant configurations were studied. The maximum power reduction is 36%, relative to the reference factory. The dissertation also contains an experimental study of a low-temperature drying process. The drying characteristics of pressed beet pulp were studied in a specially designed rotary dryer pilot plant. A number of parameters were varied i.e. the solid moisture content, air velocity, temperature and rotational speed. The results are given in terms of an apparent volumetric heat-transfer coefficient, determined from measured data. A mathematical model was established to determine the residence time of the material in the rotary dryer at different air velocities. (45 refs.).

  12. Fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyfant, Eric; Cross, Jason B; Paris, Kevin; Tsao, Désirée H H

    2011-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD), which is comprised of both fragment screening and the use of fragment hits to design leads, began more than 15 years ago and has been steadily gaining in popularity and utility. Its origin lies on the fact that the coverage of chemical space and the binding efficiency of hits are directly related to the size of the compounds screened. Nevertheless, FBDD still faces challenges, among them developing fragment screening libraries that ensure optimal coverage of chemical space, physical properties and chemical tractability. Fragment screening also requires sensitive assays, often biophysical in nature, to detect weak binders. In this chapter we will introduce the technologies used to address these challenges and outline the experimental advantages that make FBDD one of the most popular new hit-to-lead process.

  13. Review of research in feature based design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, O.W.; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1993-01-01

    Research in feature-based design is reviewed. Feature-based design is regarded as a key factor towards CAD/CAPP integration from a process planning point of view. From a design point of view, feature-based design offers possibilities for supporting the design process better than current CAD systems

  14. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel M. [IIT, Chicago

    2015-05-29

    Muon colliders and neutrino factories are attractive options for future facilities aimed at achieving the highest lepton-antilepton collision energies and precision measurements of Higgs boson and neutrino mixing matrix parameters. The facility performance and cost depend on how well a beam of muons can be cooled. Recent progress in muon cooling design studies and prototype tests nourishes the hope that such facilities could be built starting in the coming decade. The status of the key technologies and their various demonstration experiments is summarized. Prospects "post-P5" are also discussed.

  15. NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH INITIATIVE (NERI) PROGRAM GRANT NUMBER DE-FG03-00SF22168 TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT (Aug 15, 2002 to Nov. 15, 2002) - DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fred R. Mynatt; Andy Kadak; Marc Berte; Larry Miller; Lawrence Townsend; Martin Williamson; Rupy Sawhney; Jacob Fife

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop and evaluate nuclear power plant designs and layout concepts to maximize the benefits of compact modular Generation IV reactor concepts including factory fabrication and packaging for optimal transportation and siting. This report covers the ninth quarter of the project. The three reactor concept teams have completed initial plant concept development, evaluation and layout. A significant design effort has proceeded with substantial change and evolution from original ideas. The concepts have been reviewed by the industry participants and improvements have been implemented. The third phase, industrial engineering simulation of reactor fabrication has begun

  16. The Clone Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  17. Four-legged factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, R.I.; Van der Walt, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Insight into how ruminants utilise plant material, converting what is essentially waste into food, wool and draught power for Man is being sought by Animal Scientists using isotopic tracer techniques. Answers to cost-effectice biological conversion lie in the complex interactions of the rumen's microbial fermentation factory and the host animal's diet and metabolism

  18. Virtual Learning Factory on VR-Supported Factory Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Weidig , Christian; Menck , Nicole; Winkes , Pascal ,; Aurich , Jan ,

    2014-01-01

    Part 13: Virtual Reality and Simulation; International audience; Learning Factories are becoming popular as tangible measures to teach engineering methods while making use of them in an industrial-like environment. Their core component is usually a factory demonstrator, users are physically working with. For factory planning such approaches can hardly be adapted, due to long lasting realization phases.To overcome this obstacle a virtual learning factory has been developed whose core component...

  19. Promoting contraceptive use among unmarried female migrants in one factory in Shanghai: a pilot workplace intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xu; Smith, Helen; Huang, Wenyuan; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Ying; Garner, Paul

    2007-05-31

    In urban China, more single women are becoming pregnant and resorting to induced abortion, despite the wide availability of temporary methods of contraception. We developed and piloted a workplace-based intervention to promote contraceptive use in unmarried female migrants working in privately owned factories. Quasi-experimental design. In consultation with clients, we developed a workplace based intervention to promote contraception use in unmarried female migrants in a privately owned factory. We then implemented this in one factory, using a controlled before-and-after design. The intervention included lectures, bespoke information leaflets, and support to the factory doctors in providing a contraceptive service. 598 women participated: most were under 25, migrants to the city, with high school education. Twenty percent were lost when staff were made redundant, and implementation was logistically complicated. All women attended the initial lecture, and just over half the second lecture. Most reported reading the educational material provided (73%), but very few women reported using the free family planning services offered at the factory clinic (5%) or the Family Planning Institute (3%). At baseline, 90% (N = 539) stated that contraceptives were required if having sex before marriage; of those reporting sex in the last three months, the majority reporting using contraceptives (78%, 62/79) but condom use was low (44%, 35/79). Qualitative data showed that the reading material seemed to be popular and young women expressed a need for more specific reproductive health information, particularly on HIV/AIDS. Women wanted services with some privacy and anonymity, and views on the factory service were mixed. Implementing a complex intervention with a hard to reach population through a factory in China, using a quasi-experimental design, is not easy. Further research should focus on the specific needs and service preferences of this population and these should be

  20. Promoting contraceptive use among unmarried female migrants in one factory in Shanghai: a pilot workplace intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In urban China, more single women are becoming pregnant and resorting to induced abortion, despite the wide availability of temporary methods of contraception. We developed and piloted a workplace-based intervention to promote contraceptive use in unmarried female migrants working in privately owned factories. Methods Quasi-experimental design. In consultation with clients, we developed a workplace based intervention to promote contraception use in unmarried female migrants in a privately owned factory. We then implemented this in one factory, using a controlled before-and-after design. The intervention included lectures, bespoke information leaflets, and support to the factory doctors in providing a contraceptive service. Results 598 women participated: most were under 25, migrants to the city, with high school education. Twenty percent were lost when staff were made redundant, and implementation was logistically complicated. All women attended the initial lecture, and just over half the second lecture. Most reported reading the educational material provided (73%, but very few women reported using the free family planning services offered at the factory clinic (5% or the Family Planning Institute (3%. At baseline, 90% (N = 539 stated that contraceptives were required if having sex before marriage; of those reporting sex in the last three months, the majority reporting using contraceptives (78%, 62/79 but condom use was low (44%, 35/79. Qualitative data showed that the reading material seemed to be popular and young women expressed a need for more specific reproductive health information, particularly on HIV/AIDS. Women wanted services with some privacy and anonymity, and views on the factory service were mixed. Conclusion Implementing a complex intervention with a hard to reach population through a factory in China, using a quasi-experimental design, is not easy. Further research should focus on the specific needs and

  1. Targeting population heterogeneity for optimal cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heins, Anna-Lena; Carlqvist, Magnus; Helmark, S.

    the heterogeneity level of the population. To further investigate these phenomena and gain a deeper understanding of population heterogeneity, Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth reporter strains based on the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) were constructed which enabled us to perform single cell level...... analysis, and thereby created the possibility to map population heterogeneity. A factorial design with pH, glucose concentration and oxygen level was performed in batch cultivations using the growth reporter strains to evaluate the effect of those environmental factors on heterogeneity level and amount......To achieve an efficient production process, it is essential to optimize both the strain and the cultivation conditions. Traditionally, a microbial population has been considered homogeneous in optimization studies of fermentation processes. However, research has shown that a typical microbial...

  2. INDOOR THERMAL CONDITION OF FACTORY BUILDING IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Abdullah Al Sayem Khan; Mohd. Hamdan Ahmad; Tareef Hayat Khan

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country and has a lot of factories for different products for local use and also export to abroad. Garments industries are one of the top most items of exported items. A huge number of populations are working in garments industries. But these factories are not well designed in sense of the thermal environment. Workers experiences sickness related to indoor environment. The productions of these factories are affected due to employees’ health condition. The research i...

  3. Review of kaon factory proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear physics issues and particle physics issues for a kaon factory are discussed. Kaon factory accelerator proposals are then considered. Secondary beam considerations are covered and hardware development for a kaon factory is discussed. The prospects for construction are presented. 9 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Superconducting cavities for beauty factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, H.

    1992-01-01

    The possibilities and merits of superconducting accelerating cavities for Beauty-factories are considered. There exist already large sc systems of size and frequency comparable to the ones needed for Beauty-factories. Their status and operation experience is discussed. A comparison of normal conducting and superconducting systems is done for two typical Beauty-factory rings

  5. Hazardous factories: Nigerian evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, Olajide

    2005-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen an increasing governmental and corporate concern for the environment worldwide. For governments, information about the environmental performance of the industrial sector is required to inform macro-level decisions about environmental targets such as those required to meet UN directives. However, in many African, Asian, and Latin American countries, researching and reporting company environmental performance is limited. This article serves as a contribution to filling the gap by presenting evidence of physical and chemical risk in Nigerian factories. One hundred and three factories with a total of 5,021 workers were studied. One hundred and twenty physical and chemical hazards were identified and the result shows a high number of workers exposed to such hazards. The study also reveals that workers' awareness level of chemical hazards was high. Yet the danger was perceived in behavioral terms, especially by manufacturing firms, which tend to see environmental investment in an increasingly global economy as detrimental to profitability.

  6. Engineering the smart factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert; Vera, Daniel; Ahmad, Bilal

    2016-10-01

    The fourth industrial revolution promises to create what has been called the smart factory. The vision is that within such modular structured smart factories, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralised decisions. This paper provides a view of this initiative from an automation systems perspective. In this context it considers how future automation systems might be effectively configured and supported through their lifecycles and how integration, application modelling, visualisation and reuse of such systems might be best achieved. The paper briefly describes limitations in current engineering methods, and new emerging approaches including the cyber physical systems (CPS) engineering tools being developed by the automation systems group (ASG) at Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, UK.

  7. SLAC B Factory computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1992-02-01

    As part of the research and development program in preparation for a possible B Factory at SLAC, a group has been studying various aspects of HEP computing. In particular, the group is investigating the use of UNIX for all computing, from data acquisition, through analysis, and word processing. A summary of some of the results of this study will be given, along with some personal opinions on these topics

  8. Assessment of Performance-based Requirements for Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2005-01-01

    and for a detailed assessment of the requirements. The design requirements to be used for a factory producing elements for industrial housing for unknown costumers are discussed, and a fully developed fire is recommended as a common requirement for domestic houses, hotels, offices, schools and hospitals. In addition...

  9. Team Based Engineering Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective was encompassed in the research question driving the inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…

  10. Multivariate optimization of process parameters in the synthesis of calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH for defluoridation using 3(3) factorial, central composite and Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Partha S; Gupta, Ashok K; Sulaiman, Ayoob

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology was applied for the first time in the optimization of the preparation of layered double hydroxide (LDH) for defluoridation. The influence of three vital process parameters (viz. pH, molar ratio and calcination temperature) in the synthesis of the adsorbent 'Calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH' was thoroughly examined to maximize its fluoride scavenging potential. The process parameters were optimized using the 3(3) factorial, face centered central composite and Box-Behnken designs and a comparative assessment of the methods was conducted. The maximum fluoride removal efficiency was achieved at a calcination temperature of approximately 500ºC; however, the efficiency decreased with increasing pH and molar ratio. The outcome of the comparative assessment clearly delineates the case specific nature of the models. A better predictability over the entire experimental domain was obtained with the 3(3) factorial method, whereas the Box-Behnken design was found to be the most efficient model with lesser number of experimental runs. The desirability function technique was performed for optimizing the response, wherein face centered central composite design exhibited a maximum desirability. The calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH, synthesized under the optimum conditions, demonstrated the removal efficiencies of 95% and 99% for the doses of 3 g L(-1) and 5 g L(-1), respectively.

  11. The Factory of the Future, Group Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Lionel T.

    2016-01-01

    3D Printing, The factory of the future, Lieu du Design (centre for Design), Paris This exhibition dedicated entirely to 3D printing technology was billed as “the first in France wholly devoted to exploring the interdisciplinary and multifaceted topic of 3D printing technology and its undeniable influence on everything from industry, to economics, to creative and social issues, demonstrated to the public through achievements in the fields of 3D design, 3D printed architecture, 3D printed fa...

  12. BERKELEY/STANFORD: B factory plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    For the past several years, accelerator physicists at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) have been involved in the design of an Asymmetric B Factory to be sited in the tunnel of the PEP electron-positron collider at SLAC

  13. KEKB B-Factory, the luminosity frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, Katsunobu

    2009-01-01

    The experiment at the KEKB B-Factory, as well as PEP-II, brought the final blow on the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics for the Kobayashi-Maskawa theory. A few key issues will be described on the design and performance of KEKB to make the world's highest luminosity possible. (author)

  14. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  15. Particle physics prospects for the KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryman, D.

    1989-05-01

    The Kaon Factory at TRIUMF will produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos and other particles with a hundred-fold increase in intensity over existing machines in the 30 GeV region. This will make possible new high precision experiments designed to test current ideas as well as high sensitivity measurements which could potentially reveal new effects. A sample of particle physics experiments involving rare kaon decays, CP and T violation studies, neutrino properties and reactions and light quark spectroscopy which might take advantage of the new opportunities presented by the Kaon Factory is discussed

  16. Review of U.S. Neutrino Factory Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    We summarize the status of the two U.S. feasibility studies carried out by the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC) along with recent improvements to Neutrino Factory design developed during the American Physical Society (APS) Neutrino Physics Study. Suggested accelerator topics for the International Scoping Study (ISS) are also indicated

  17. Decision-Based Design Integrating Consumer Preferences into Engineering Design

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei; Wassenaar, Henk Jan

    2013-01-01

    Building upon the fundamental principles of decision theory, Decision-Based Design: Integrating Consumer Preferences into Engineering Design presents an analytical approach to enterprise-driven Decision-Based Design (DBD) as a rigorous framework for decision making in engineering design.  Once the related fundamentals of decision theory, economic analysis, and econometrics modelling are established, the remaining chapters describe the entire process, the associated analytical techniques, and the design case studies for integrating consumer preference modeling into the enterprise-driven DBD framework. Methods for identifying key attributes, optimal design of human appraisal experiments, data collection, data analysis, and demand model estimation are presented and illustrated using engineering design case studies. The scope of the chapters also provides: •A rigorous framework of integrating the interests from both producer and consumers in engineering design, •Analytical techniques of consumer choice model...

  18. TRIUMF: Kaon factory physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The second TRIUMF Kaon Factory Physics Workshop was held on 10-14 August, 1981. About a hundred physicists participated in the meeting, which consisted of fifteen invited talks and four afternoon workshop sessions, and proved to be a stimulating and productive event. The discussions centred on identifying the most important physics that could be studied with a machine providing an increase in intensity of two orders of magnitude in primary proton beam over present accelerators in the energy range 8 to 20 GeV, and on establishing some preliminary guidelines on the desirable properties of secondary beams at such a machine

  19. KEK: B factory plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    To boost the study of B mesons (carrying the heavy b quark), the Japanese KEK Laboratory is looking to construct a B-meson 'factory'. B-mesons have revealed unexpected and important quark physics. Well-known examples are the long lifetime of the B-mesons, indicating a large gap between the third and second quark generation (compared to that between the second and the first), and relatively large mixing of the neutral B-meson and its antiparticle, now interpreted as being due to a heavy sixth ('top') quark

  20. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S.; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively.

  1. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S.; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively. PMID:27271840

  2. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-06-07

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively.

  3. Reflections on Design-Based Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Design-Based Research is an intervention method that researches educational design (products or processes) in real-life settings with the dual purpose of generating theories about the domain and develop the design iteratively. This paper is an integrative review with a personal ethnographic...... narrative that draws on Design-Based Research literature, and identifies and discusses elements from Interaction Design and Action Research that the Design-Based Research approach could apply, situating the research in online educational projects, where participants are distributed in time and space...

  4. The EB factory project. I. A fast, neural-net-based, general purpose light curve classifier optimized for eclipsing binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paegert, Martin; Stassun, Keivan G.; Burger, Dan M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new neural-net-based light curve classifier and provide it with documentation as a ready-to-use tool for the community. While optimized for identification and classification of eclipsing binary stars, the classifier is general purpose, and has been developed for speed in the context of upcoming massive surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. A challenge for classifiers in the context of neural-net training and massive data sets is to minimize the number of parameters required to describe each light curve. We show that a simple and fast geometric representation that encodes the overall light curve shape, together with a chi-square parameter to capture higher-order morphology information results in efficient yet robust light curve classification, especially for eclipsing binaries. Testing the classifier on the ASAS light curve database, we achieve a retrieval rate of 98% and a false-positive rate of 2% for eclipsing binaries. We achieve similarly high retrieval rates for most other periodic variable-star classes, including RR Lyrae, Mira, and delta Scuti. However, the classifier currently has difficulty discriminating between different sub-classes of eclipsing binaries, and suffers a relatively low (∼60%) retrieval rate for multi-mode delta Cepheid stars. We find that it is imperative to train the classifier's neural network with exemplars that include the full range of light curve quality to which the classifier will be expected to perform; the classifier performs well on noisy light curves only when trained with noisy exemplars. The classifier source code, ancillary programs, a trained neural net, and a guide for use, are provided.

  5. Deciding WQO for factorial languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis; Lozin, Vadim V.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    A language is factorial if it is closed under taking factors (i.e. contiguous subwords). Every factorial language can be described by an antidictionary, i.e. a minimal set of forbidden factors. We show that the problem of deciding whether a factorial language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  6. Deciding WQO for factorial languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis

    2013-04-05

    A language is factorial if it is closed under taking factors (i.e. contiguous subwords). Every factorial language can be described by an antidictionary, i.e. a minimal set of forbidden factors. We show that the problem of deciding whether a factorial language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. Cell factories for a sustainable world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindtler, Jens William

    2016-01-01

    The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability (CFB) is a university research center under the Technical University of Denmark within the field of design, engineering and construction of superior cell factories for the production of biopharmaceuticals, anti-infective compounds, industrial......-spectrum inhibitors against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacterial pathogens using co-Adaptive Laboratory Evolution, 3. Design and engineering of E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for biobased production of various classes of chemicals. CFB has 230 employees....

  8. Mixture design procedure for flexible base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This document provides information on mixture design requirements for a flexible base course. Sections : design requirements, job mix formula, contractor's responsibility, and engineer's responsibility. Tables : material requirements; requirements fo...

  9. KEK: B factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    After more than three years of intensive evaluation, the Japanese government has approved the conversion of the TRISTAN electronpositron collider at the national KEK Laboratory to a two-ring asymmetric B-meson factory. The project will take about five years to complete. Initial construction will proceed while TRISTAN experiments continue datataking, expected to continue until summer 1995. When it becomes operational in 1998, the new facility (TRISTAN II) will be capable of producing more than ten million B meson pairs each year. Detailed studies of their decay properties are expected to reveal answers to the long-standing puzzle of the violation of CP symmetry - combined left-right reversal and particle-antiparticle substitution

  10. Photon Factory activity report, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Photon Factory made great strides in 1987. The low emittance operation of the PF ring was achieved in March, and resulted favorably in the increase of brilliance from 2 to 20 times for all the beam lines with high beam stability. At the same time, the installation of inserted devices was under way for all available straight sections of the ring. A 54-pole wiggler-undulator has been commissioned at BL-16. The devices to be inserted in the near future are a multipole wiggler for BL-13, an undulator for BL-19, and an undulator for circular polarized radiation at BL-28. The construction of beam lines continued, and four new beam lines, BL-6, BL-9, BL-16 and BL-17, are now in operation, BL-13 and BL-19 are under construction, and BL-3, BL-5, BL-18, BL-20 and BL-28 are in the design stage. Since its inauguration with four beam lines in 1982, the Photon Factory has grown rapidly, and approaches the goal of operating the PF ring with positrons in full use of its 24 beam ports and the straight sections for inserted devices. The total operation time was limited to 3,000 hours by the budget for fiscal year 1987, and about 80 % of the operation hours were devoted to the experiments of users. The nearly perfect operation of the 400 m long linac has continued in 1987, and has supplied both electrons and positrons to the TRISTAN collision experiment. The light source of a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring was normally operated. (Kako, I.)

  11. Electropolishing of Re-melted SLM Stainless Steel 316L Parts Using Deep Eutectic Solvents: 3 × 3 Full Factorial Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrbaey, K.; Wimpenny, D. I.; Al-Barzinjy, A. A.; Moroz, A.

    2016-07-01

    This three-level three-factor full factorial study describes the effects of electropolishing using deep eutectic solvents on the surface roughness of re-melted 316L stainless steel samples produced by the selective laser melting (SLM) powder bed fusion additive manufacturing method. An improvement in the surface finish of re-melted stainless steel 316L parts was achieved by optimizing the processing parameters for a relatively environmentally friendly (`green') electropolishing process using a Choline Chloride ionic electrolyte. The results show that further improvement of the response value-average surface roughness ( Ra) can be obtained by electropolishing after re-melting to yield a 75% improvement compared to the as-built Ra. The best Ra value was less than 0.5 μm, obtained with a potential of 4 V, maintained for 30 min at 40 °C. Electropolishing has been shown to be effective at removing the residual oxide film formed during the re-melting process. The material dissolution during the process is not homogenous and is directed preferentially toward the iron and nickel, leaving the surface rich in chromium with potentially enhanced properties. The re-melted and polished surface of the samples gave an approximately 20% improvement in fatigue life at low stresses (approximately 570 MPa). The results of the study demonstrate that a combination of re-melting and electropolishing provides a flexible method for surface texture improvement which is capable of delivering a significant improvement in surface finish while holding the dimensional accuracy of parts within an acceptable range.

  12. Evidence-based playground design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refshauge, Anne Dahl; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Lamm, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    , best practice, and the theories of Affordances and Behaviour Settings. A post-occupancy evaluation was carried out through a questionnaire survey and observation studies, which revealed that a majority of the potential evidence-based affordances were actualised, and that the application of the theories...

  13. Proceedings of the 2-nd workshop on JINR tau-charm factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V.S.; Perel'shtejn, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    Application of tau-charm factory for investigation of hadronic decay and charged leptonic weak interaction is considered. JINR tau-charm-factory design and magnetic and vacuum systems of the booster ring are described. New types of silicon microstrip detector sand BGO-counters developed for tau-charm-factory are proposed

  14. Challenges to Designing Game-Based Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2014-01-01

    The four categories labelled game-design, didactic design, organisational design and business design each constitute a set of challenges, each requiring a particular set of competencies. The key conclusion of the paper is that even though the learning game design constitutes the core of establish......The four categories labelled game-design, didactic design, organisational design and business design each constitute a set of challenges, each requiring a particular set of competencies. The key conclusion of the paper is that even though the learning game design constitutes the core...... of establishing game based business (GBB), the subsequent stages of development call for other kinds of competencies in order to become a viable GBB....

  15. ERGONOMIC DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON AN ACTUAL CHAINSAW DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaljun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: To develop high quality products, a designer has to consider various influential factors, one of which is ergonomics. And to fashion a specific product for the user, a designer needs expert knowledge of the user’s requirements. However, expert knowledge can also be accessed through an intelligent advisory system for ergonomic design support. The effectiveness of such an expert system depends mainly on the quality of the knowledge base and on the appropriateness of the system's inference engine. Data for the system’s knowledge base can be collected in different ways. One approach is to study relevant projects to collect appropriate ergonomic solutions; another is to recognise bottlenecks in ergonomic design. This paper presents a case study of the design of an actual chainsaw – with emphasis on ergonomic design solutions – that can be transformed into ergonomic design recommendations. At the end of the paper, an application of one of the derived recommendations within the knowledge base of the intelligent advisory system is presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: By die ontwerp van gehaltegoedere moet aandag gegee word aan verskeie faktore soos die Ergonomie. Die produkontwerper moet deeglike kennis dra van die verbruikersbehoeftes. Daarbenewens moet hy liefs ook gebruik maak van ’n intelligente sisteem vir ontwerphulp. Die navorsing is toegespits op datasteun vir ’n kettingsaagontwerp en toon hoe die intelligente sisteem betekenisvolle ondersteuning verleen.

  16. Preparation of one-step NiO/Ni-CGO composites using factorial design; Efeitos do processamento e do teor de formador de poros na microestrutura de cermets Ni-CGO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, A.J.M. de; Sousa, A R.O. de; Camposa, L.F.A.; Macedo, D.A. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Loureiro, F. J.A.; Fagg, D.P., E-mail: allanjp1993@hotmail.com [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-07-01

    This work deals with the synthesis, processing and characterization of NiO/Ni- CGO composite materials as potential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. The particulate materials were obtained by a one-step synthesis method and characterized by thermal analysis (prior to calcination) and X-ray diffraction (calcined powder). The ceramic processing of samples containing from 30 to 70 wt.% NiO was carried out by factorial design. Besides the NiO content controlled during the chemical synthesis, the impacts of the pore-former content (citric acid, used in proportions of 0, 7.5 and 15 wt.%) and the sintering temperature (1300, 1350 and 1400 °C) were also investigated. The open porosity of NiO-CGO composites and reduced Ni-CGO cermets was modeled as a function of factors (NiO content, citric acid content and sintering temperature) and interaction of factors. (author)

  17. Case-based Agile Fixture Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to realize the agility of the fixture design, such asreconfigurability, rescalability and reusability, fixture structure is function unit-based decomposed from a fire-new point of view. Which makes it easy for agile fixture to be reconfigured and modified. Thereby, the base of case-based agile fixture design system info is established.Whole case-based agile fixture design model is presented. In which, three modules are added relative to the other models, including case matching of fixture planning module, conflict arbitration module and agile fixture case modify module. The three modules could solve the previous problem that the experience and result are difficult to be reused in the process of design.Two key techniques in the process of the agile fixture design, the evaluation of case similarity, and restriction-based conflict arbitration, are listed. And some methods are presented to evaluate the similarity and clear up the conflict.

  18. The KAON Factory at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1992-08-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of particle and nuclear physics experiments. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million preconstruction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various components to be built and evaluated -fast-cycling dipole and quadrupole magnets, a dual-frequency magnet power supply, ceramic beam pipes with internal rf shields, and rf cavity (using perpendicular bias), an extraction kicker, and rf beam chopper, and production targets. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed and the cost estimates and schedule updated. The total cost of $708 million (Canadian) will be shared equally between Canada, British Columbia and international contributors: the first two-thirds of this sum have already been approved and negotiations for the remainder are under way. 25 refs., 7 figs

  19. The KAON factory at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1992-07-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of particle and nuclear physics experiments. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million pre-construction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various components to be built and evaluated: fast-cycling dipole and quadrupole magnets, a dual frequency magnet power supply, ceramic beam pipes with internal rf shields, an rf cavity (using perpendicular bias), an extraction kicker, an rf beam chopper, and production targets. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed and the cost estimates and schedule updated. The total cost of $708 million (Canadian) will be shared equally between Canada, British Columbia and international contributors; the first two-thirds of this sum have already been approved and negotiations for the remainder are under way. 26 refs., 6 figs

  20. The eldercare factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Noel; Sharkey, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advances in service robotics together with dramatic shifts in population demographics have led to the notion that technology may be the answer to our eldercare problems. Robots are being developed for feeding, washing, lifting, carrying and mobilising the elderly as well as monitoring their health. They are also being proposed as a substitute for companionship. While these technologies could accrue major benefits for society and empower the elderly, we must balance their use with the ethical costs. These include a potential reduction in human contact, increased feeling of objectification and loss of control, loss of privacy and personal freedom as well as deception and infantilisation. With appropriate guidelines in place before the introduction of robots en masse into the care system, robots could improve the lives of the elderly, reducing their dependence and creating more opportunities for social interaction. Without forethought, the elderly may find themselves in a barren world of machines, a world of automated care: a factory for the elderly. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Rogers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  2. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, C T; Prior, G; Gilardoni, S; Neuffer, D; Snopok, P; Alekou, A; Pasternak, J

    2013-01-01

    In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  3. Plant aging and design bases documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.

    1985-01-01

    As interest in plant aging and lifetime extension continues to grow, the need to identify and capture the original design bases for the plant becomes more urgent. Decisions on lifetime extension and availability must be based on a rational understanding of design input, assumptions, and objectives. As operating plant time accumulates, the history of the early design begins to fade. The longer the utility waits, the harder it will be to re-establish the original design bases. Therefore, the time to develop this foundation is now. This paper demonstrates the impact that collecting and maintaining the original design bases of the plant can have on a utility's lifetime extension program. This impact becomes apparent when considering the technical, regulatory and financial aspects of lifetime extension. It is not good enough to know that the design information is buried somewhere in the corporate archives, and that given enough time, it could be retrieved. To be useful to the lifetime extension program, plant design information must be concise, readily available (i.e., retrievable), and easy to use. These objectives can only be met through a systematic program for collecting and presenting plant design documentation. To get the maximum benefit from a lifetime extension program, usable design bases documentation should be available as early in the plant life as possible. It will help identify areas that require monitoring today so that data is available to make rational decisions in the future

  4. In-Factory Learning - Qualification For The Factory Of The Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quint, Fabian; Mura, Katharina; Gorecky, Dominic

    2015-07-01

    The Industry 4.0 vision anticipates that internet technologies will find their way into future factories replacing traditional components by dynamic and intelligent cyber-physical systems (CPS) that combine the physical objects with their digital representation. Reducing the gap between the real and digital world makes the factory environment more flexible, more adaptive, but also more complex for the human workers. Future workers require interdisciplinary competencies from engineering, information technology, and computer science in order to understand and manage the diverse interrelations between physical objects and their digital counterpart. This paper proposes a mixed-reality based learning environment, which combines physical objects and visualisation of digital content via Augmented Reality. It uses reality-based interaction in order to make the dynamic interrelations between real and digital factory visible and tangible. We argue that our learning system does not work as a stand-alone solution, but should fit into existing academic and advanced training curricula.

  5. PLS-based quantitative structure-activity relationship for substituted benzamides of clebopride type. Application of experimental design in drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norinder, U; Högberg, T

    1992-04-01

    The advantageous approach of using an experimentally designed training set as the basis for establishing a quantitative structure-activity relationship with good predictive capability is described. The training set was selected from a fractional factorial design scheme based on a principal component description of physico-chemical parameters of aromatic substituents. The derived model successfully predicts the activities of additional substituted benzamides of 6-methoxy-N-(4-piperidyl)salicylamide type. The major influence on activity of the 3-substituent is demonstrated.

  6. Rationale for reduced tornado design bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, P.D.; Ho, H.W.; Hartung, J.A.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper provides a rationale for relaxing the present NRC tornado design requirements, which are based on a design basis tornado (DBT) whose frequency of exceedance is 10 -7 per year. It is proposed that a reduced DBT frequency of 10 -5 to 10 -6 per year is acceptable. This change in the tornado design bases for LMFBRs (and possibly all types of nuclear plants) is justified based on (1) existing NRC regulations and guidelines, (2) probabilistic arguments, (3) consistency with NRC trial safety goals, and (4) cost-benefit analysis

  7. Norm based design of fault detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The design of fault detectors for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems is considered in this paper from a norm based point of view. An analysis of norm based threshold selection is given based on different formulations of FDI problems. Both the nominal FDI problem as well...

  8. Building a web service technology-based factory IT-landscape using WebObjects: Poster at WWDC 2006, August 7-11, 2006, San Francisco, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, M.; Dreiss, P.; Muckenhirn, R.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The IT architecture that is operated in many semiconductor factories today has been growing over the years. As the requirements for tracking, data acquisition, production control, etc. became more demanding, more and more applications were added. Thereby, the complexity of the IT landscape increased significantly, especially due to the large number of more or less documented dependencies between several applications. Maintenance and management of these environments becomes more a...

  9. Capturing the design bases on Palo Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, A.C.; Prawlocki, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past several years, the nuclear power industry has been directing considerable attention to plant configuration control. Utilities have been put in difficult situations due to changes made in plants without full original design basis knowledge. Once a plant is constructed, there is often insufficient information from the reactor designer or the architect/engineer to properly support operations, especially changes to the plant. In many cases utilities do not know the design bases for their units. As a result of these concerns, many utilities have been searching for ways to define the appropriate design bases for their plant. This paper discusses steps taken by Palo Verde to produce a design bases document and how it is being used to support the operation of the three nuclear units

  10. Designers' Cognitive Thinking Based on Evolutionary Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Shutao; Jianning Su; Chibing Hu; Peng Wang

    2013-01-01

    The research on cognitive thinking is important to construct the efficient intelligent design systems. But it is difficult to describe the model of cognitive thinking with reasonable mathematical theory. Based on the analysis of design strategy and innovative thinking, we investigated the design cognitive thinking model that included the external guide thinking of "width priority - depth priority" and the internal dominated thinking of "divergent thinking - convergent thinking", built a reaso...

  11. Design and qualification of HPD based designs for safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mukesh Kr.; Chavan, Madhavi A.; Sawhney, Pratibha A.; Mohanty, Ashutos; John, Ajith K.; Ganesh, G.

    2014-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and Complex Programmable Logic Devices (CPLD) are increasingly being used in C and I system of NPPs. The function of such an integrated circuit is not defined by the supplier of the physical component or micro-electronic technology but by the C and I designer. The hardware subsystems implemented in these devices typically use Hardware Description Language (HDL) like VHDL or Verilog to describe the functionality at the design entry level. These circuits are commonly known as 'HDL-Programmed Devices', (HPD). RCnD has developed a set of hardware boards to be used in next generation C and I systems. The boards have been designed based on present day technology and components. The intelligence of these boards has been implemented in HPDs (FPGA/CPLD) using VHDL. Since these boards are used in the safety and safety related systems, they have undergone a rigorous V and V process and qualification tests. This paper discusses the design attributes and qualification of these HPD based designs for nuclear class safety systems. (author)

  12. Design Criteria Based on Aesthetic Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl

    2009-01-01

    Aesthetic criteria for designs are often debated in a very subjective manner which makes it difficult to reach consensus. In order to have a more rational and transparent process, in particular in industrial design, we propose a procedure based on Baumgarten's aesthetic considerations and Thommesen......'s dividing of a form into form elements. The procedure has been tested in student projects....

  13. Overview of Performance Based Practical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.13023/KTC.RR.2018.03 State transportation agencies (STAs) have increasingly turned to practical design and performance based practical design(PBPD) to inform project development and implementation and to reduce project cos...

  14. Experiences in Preserving Design Bases & Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshy, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: • To build repository of information on design and development in a retrievable manner to: • Establish licensing/design bases of the plant; • Identify the known vulnerabilities and how they are to be addressed; • Prevent undoing the lessons learned; • Facilitate advancement without repeating the undesirable incidents of the past

  15. Multimedia-Based Chip Design Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalkaya, Tamer; Golze, Ulrich

    This paper focuses on multimedia computer-based training programs on chip design. Their development must be fast and economical, in order to be affordable by technical university institutions. The self-produced teaching program Illusion, which demonstrates a monitor controller as an example of a small but complete chip design, was implemented to…

  16. Performance-based Pareto optimal design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sariyildiz, I.S.; Bittermann, M.S.; Ciftcioglu, O.

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach for performance-based design is presented, where Pareto optimality is pursued. Design requirements may contain linguistic information, which is difficult to bring into computation or make consistent their impartial estimations from case to case. Fuzzy logic and soft computing are

  17. SLS Model Based Design: A Navigation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, T. Emerson; Anzalone, Evan; Park, Thomas; Geohagan, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    The SLS Program has implemented a Model-based Design (MBD) and Model-based Requirements approach for managing component design information and system requirements. This approach differs from previous large-scale design efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center where design documentation alone conveyed information required for vehicle design and analysis and where extensive requirements sets were used to scope and constrain the design. The SLS Navigation Team is responsible for the Program-controlled Design Math Models (DMMs) which describe and represent the performance of the Inertial Navigation System (INS) and the Rate Gyro Assemblies (RGAs) used by Guidance, Navigation, and Controls (GN&C). The SLS Navigation Team is also responsible for navigation algorithms. The navigation algorithms are delivered for implementation on the flight hardware as a DMM. For the SLS Block 1B design, the additional GPS Receiver hardware model is managed as a DMM at the vehicle design level. This paper describes the models, and discusses the processes and methods used to engineer, design, and coordinate engineering trades and performance assessments using SLS practices as applied to the GN&C system, with a particular focus on the navigation components.

  18. Photon factory activity report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This issue is the annual report of the Photon Factory, National laboratory of High Energy Physics. First, the outline of the Photon Factory is presented. Injector linac, light source, beamlines and instrumentation, the Tristan synchrotron radiation facility at the accumulation ring, and the Tristan super light facility are described in detail. The facility is open to researchers. The user's reports are collected as well. (J.P.N.) (435 refs.)

  19. Atomic Energy (factories) rules: 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    These rules are made by the Central Government under the Factories Act, 1948 and extend to all factories engaged in carrying out the purposes of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962. The rules cover the requirements of inspecting staff, health aspects, personnel safety, personnel welfare, working hours, employment of young persons, special provisions in case of dangerous manufacturing processes or operations, supplemental rules for administrative aspects and special powers of competent authority. (M.G.B.)

  20. Photon factory activity report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This issue is the annual report of the Photon Factory, National Laboratory of High Energy Physics. First the outline of the Photon Factory is presented. Injector linac, light source, beamlines and instrumentation, synchrotron radiation facility at the Tristan accumulation ring, and the Tristan super light facility are described in detail. The facility is open to researchers. The user's reports are collected as well. (J.P.N.)

  1. A tau-charm-factory at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.; Repond, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we explore the possibility of building a tau-charm-factory at the Argonne National Laboratory. A tau-charm-factory is an e + e - collider with a center-of-mass energy between 3.0 GeV and 5.0 GeV and a luminosity of at least 1 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . Once operational, the facility will produce large samples of τ pairs, charm mesons, and charmonium with either negligible or well understood backgrounds. This will lead to high precision measurements in the second generation quark and the third generation lepton sectors that cannot be done at other facilities. Basic physical properties and processes, such as the tau neutrino mass, rare tau decays, charm decay constants, rare charm meson decays, neutral D 0 -- meson mixing, and many more will be studied with unique precision. An initial design of the collider including the injector system is described. The design shows that a luminosity of at least 1 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 can be achieved over the entire center-of-mass energy range of the factory

  2. Physics at e+e- factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.; MacFarlane, D.B.

    1991-02-01

    Feasible designs are well advanced for high-luminosity e + e - storage rings which produce B 0 bar B 0 pairs either at rest or, in what appears to be a more promising option, boosted in the detector frame. Facilities which could provide samples of 30--100 fb -1 per year on the Υ(4S) will be proposed in early 1991. Here we examine the principal physics goal of such B Factories, namely CP violation in the b system. Methods in a variety of channels, estimated event samples, and detector requirements are all considered. We conclude that the physics argument for an e + e - B Factory is well documented, and compelling. 50 refs., 22 figs., 10 tabs

  3. Confirmatory factorial analysis of TEOSQp / Análise factorial confirmatória do TEOSQp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder M. Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research assessed the reliability, factorial validity and measurement invariance (by gender of the Portuguese version of TEOSQ –Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Fonseca & Biddle, 2001. Data were collected from 1010 physical education students with a mean age of 15.42 ( SD=1.91. Factorial and invariance measurements were tested via confirmatory factorial analysis. Results supported internal consistency for the two proposed subscales (task and ego. Based on modification indices and theoretical justification the TEOSQ p was reduced to 12 items with better goodness-of-fit indices for the oblique model. The results of gender invariance did not provide full empirical support to the multi-group equivalence assumption, being suggested that TEOSQ p does not measure in the same way goal orientations for boys (orthogonal model and girls (oblique model. In light of these results, conceptual, empirical and practical issues were discussed.

  4. Model-Based Requirements Management in Gear Systems Design Based On Graph-Based Design Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Holder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, a wide-spread consensus concerning the enormous importance of an in-depth clarification of the specifications of a product has been observed. A weak clarification of specifications is repeatedly listed as a main cause for the failure of product development projects. Requirements, which can be defined as the purpose, goals, constraints, and criteria associated with a product development project, play a central role in the clarification of specifications. The collection of activities which ensure that requirements are identified, documented, maintained, communicated, and traced throughout the life cycle of a system, product, or service can be referred to as “requirements engineering”. These activities can be supported by a collection and combination of strategies, methods, and tools which are appropriate for the clarification of specifications. Numerous publications describe the strategy and the components of requirements management. Furthermore, recent research investigates its industrial application. Simultaneously, promising developments of graph-based design languages for a holistic digital representation of the product life cycle are presented. Current developments realize graph-based languages by the diagrams of the Unified Modelling Language (UML, and allow the automatic generation and evaluation of multiple product variants. The research presented in this paper seeks to present a method in order to combine the advantages of a conscious requirements management process and graph-based design languages. Consequently, the main objective of this paper is the investigation of a model-based integration of requirements in a product development process by means of graph-based design languages. The research method is based on an in-depth analysis of an exemplary industrial product development, a gear system for so-called “Electrical Multiple Units” (EMU. Important requirements were abstracted from a gear system

  5. SLS Navigation Model-Based Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, T. Emerson; Anzalone, Evan; Geohagan, Kevin; Bernard, Bill; Park, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The SLS Program chose to implement a Model-based Design and Model-based Requirements approach for managing component design information and system requirements. This approach differs from previous large-scale design efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center where design documentation alone conveyed information required for vehicle design and analysis and where extensive requirements sets were used to scope and constrain the design. The SLS Navigation Team has been responsible for the Program-controlled Design Math Models (DMMs) which describe and represent the performance of the Inertial Navigation System (INS) and the Rate Gyro Assemblies (RGAs) used by Guidance, Navigation, and Controls (GN&C). The SLS Navigation Team is also responsible for the navigation algorithms. The navigation algorithms are delivered for implementation on the flight hardware as a DMM. For the SLS Block 1-B design, the additional GPS Receiver hardware is managed as a DMM at the vehicle design level. This paper provides a discussion of the processes and methods used to engineer, design, and coordinate engineering trades and performance assessments using SLS practices as applied to the GN&C system, with a particular focus on the Navigation components. These include composing system requirements, requirements verification, model development, model verification and validation, and modeling and analysis approaches. The Model-based Design and Requirements approach does not reduce the effort associated with the design process versus previous processes used at Marshall Space Flight Center. Instead, the approach takes advantage of overlap between the requirements development and management process, and the design and analysis process by efficiently combining the control (i.e. the requirement) and the design mechanisms. The design mechanism is the representation of the component behavior and performance in design and analysis tools. The focus in the early design process shifts from the development and

  6. Reliability based Design of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional design practice for coastal structures is deterministic in nature and is based on the concept of a design load which should not exceed the resistance (carrying capacity) of the structure. The design load is usually defined on a probabilistic basis as a characteristic value of the load......, for example the expectation (mean) value of the 100-year return period event. However, this selection is often made without consideration of the involved uncertainties. In most cases the resistance is defined in terms of the load that causes a certain design impact or damage to the structure...

  7. Specific features of design and electric circuit of the pulse modulator of the amplification channel of second-section linear accelerator for a meson factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyukov, L.V.; Fedorov, A.F.; Terekhov, V.F.

    1977-01-01

    The circuit and design of a modulator at pulse power of 15 MW and average power of 300 kW, intended for supplying a klystron generator, are described. The modulator is designed for operating in a lengthy mode. The capacitance storage-former is made in the form of three parallel sections of artificial shaping lines in order to lower the specific loads on the elements of the shaping line and thyristors. The thyristor spark gaps are made in the form of a unified water-cooled assembly composed of 12 series TD-320 thyristors. An assessment of the modulator reliability has shown that the average time-to-fault is 800 hr. Modulator tests confirm that the choice of the circuit solution is correct. The modulator total efficiency equals to approximately 0.9

  8. Web-based Core Design System Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, So Young; Kim, Hyung Jin; Yang, Sung Tae; Hong, Sun Kwan

    2011-01-01

    The selection of a loading pattern is one of core design processes in the operation of a nuclear power plant. A potential new loading pattern is identified by selecting fuels that to not exceed the major limiting factors of the design and that satisfy the core design conditions for employing fuel data from the existing loading pattern of the current operating cycle. The selection of a loading pattern is also related to the cycle plan of an operating nuclear power plant and must meet safety and economic requirements. In selecting an appropriate loading pattern, all aspects, such as input creation, code runs and result processes are processed as text forms manually by a designer, all of which may be subject to human error, such as syntax or running errors. Time-consuming results analysis and decision-making processes are the most significant inefficiencies to avoid. A web-based nuclear plant core design system was developed here to remedy the shortcomings of an existing core design system. The proposed system adopts the general methodology of OPR1000 (Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plants) and Westinghouse-type plants. Additionally, it offers a GUI (Graphic User Interface)-based core design environment with a user-friendly interface for operators. It reduces human errors related to design model creation, computation, final reload core model selection, final output confirmation, and result data validation and verification. Most significantly, it reduces the core design time by more than 75% compared to its predecessor

  9. Bodystorming for Movement-Based Interaction Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Márquez Segura

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available After a decade of movement-based interaction in human–computer interaction, designing for the moving body still remains a challenge. Research in this field requires methods to help access, articulate, and harness embodied experiences in ways that can inform the design process. To address this challenge, this article appropriates bodystorming, an embodied ideation method for movement-based interaction design. The proposed method allows for early consideration of the physical, collocated, and social aspects of a designed activity as illustrated with two explorative workshops in different application domains: interactive body games and interactive performances. Using a qualitative methods approach, we used video material from the workshops, feedback from participants, and our own experience as participants and facilitators to outline important characteristics of the bodystorming method in the domain of movement-based interaction. The proposed method is compared with previous ones and application implications are discussed.

  10. Competency Based Assessment in Fashion Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russanti, Irma; Nurlaela, Lutfiyah; Basuki, Ismet; Munoto

    2018-04-01

    Professional certification is a form of stipulation on certain competency standards provided by one professional organization to the performance of a person through assessment. For that an assessment needs to be standardized so that there exists a general standardized scale to measure competence. In the professional certification of fashion design department, an instrument of competency based assessment is essential to be developed. The purpose of this review is to know the application of competency based assessment in the field of fashion design. The literature reviews were found by journal searching with keywords competency based assessment and fashion design in Google scholar, of which was gotten over 20 journals from 2006 to 2016. Afterwards, the search of the free-downloaded e-books in libgen was conducted under competency based assessment and fashion design, which is then found some related references. The obtained literatures were used to review the definition, approach, and implementation of competency based assessment in the field of fashion design. Results show that it is important to develop an assessment sheet in the field of fashion design covering garment, apparel and embroidery sectors by patterning the criteria of performers along with the qualifications.

  11. Research-based design & design-based research: Affordances, limitations and synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Research-based design is an orientation to educational development that is explicitly informed by existing research as well as formative evaluation. Design-based research is a genre of inquiry in which the design of innovative solutions to problems in educational practice provides the context for

  12. Caracterização de hidrogéis condutores constituídos por PAAm e PEDOT/PSS por meio de planejamento fatorial Characterization of conducting hydrogels made with PAAm and PEDOT/PSS using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauze A. Aouada

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, hidrogéis condutores do tipo semi-IPN constituídos por poliacrilamida (PAAm e polímero intrinsecamente condutor poli(3,4-etileno dioxitiofeno/poli(estireno-sulfonato (PEDOT/PSS foram sintetizados e suas propriedades hidrofílicas, mecânicas, condutoras e ópticas foram caracterizadas por meio de planejamento fatorial completo 2³ com ponto central. Para isso, utilizaram-se três fatores: concentrações de acrilamida (AAm e N,N’-metileno-bis-acrilamida (MBAAm, e quantidade de PEDOT/PSS, em três níveis, sendo um deles o ponto central. O planejamento foi construído para avaliar os efeitos desses fatores (efeitos principais e efeitos de interação entre os fatores nas seguintes propriedades dos hidrogéis estudados (respostas: grau de intumescimento, tensão máxima de compressão, condutância iônica e intensidade relativa de luz transmitida através dos hidrogéis estudados. Os resultados demonstraram que a estabilidade mecânica dos hidrogéis semi-IPN é preservada e a presença de PEDOT/PSS aumenta o entrelaçamento na matriz de PAAm. Observou-se também que as propriedades ópticas são fortemente influenciadas com a presença de PEDOT/PSS. Dessa forma, torna-se possível obter hidrogéis com hidrofilicidade, estabilidade mecânica e transparência controladas, o que é importante para a aplicação desses materiais, principalmente como dispositivos ópticos.Conductive semi-IPN hydrogels made with polyacrylamide (PAAm and the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene/poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT/PSS were synthesized and the hydrophilicity, mechanical, ionic conductivity and optical properties were characterized through the 2³ factorial design. The experiments concerning the factorial design were randomly performed. The inputs were acrylamide (AAm, N,N’-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBAAm and PEDOT/PSS contents, each fixed in three levels, one being the central point. The outputs were the swelling degree

  13. Design for game based learning platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Meyer, Bente

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the challenges related to the design of game based learning platforms for formal learning contexts that are inspired by the pupil's leisure time related use of web 2.0. The paper is based on the project Serious Games on a Global Market Place (2007-2011) founded by the Danish...... of web 2.0 and integrates theories of learning, didactics, games, play, communication, multimodality and different pedagogical approaches. In relation to the introduced model the teacher role is discussed.......This paper focuses on the challenges related to the design of game based learning platforms for formal learning contexts that are inspired by the pupil's leisure time related use of web 2.0. The paper is based on the project Serious Games on a Global Market Place (2007-2011) founded by the Danish...... Council for Strategic Research, in which an online game-based platform for English as a foreign language in primary school is studied. The paper presents a model for designing for game based learning platforms. This design is based on cultural and ethnographic based research on children's leisure time use...

  14. The tau-charm factory: Experimental perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.; Schindler, R.H.

    1991-09-01

    This report discusses the Tau-Charm Factory Concept; D and D S Physics at the Tau-Charm Factory; τ and ν τ Physics at the Tau-Charm Factory; and Charmonium, Gluonium and Light Quark Spectroscopy at the Tau-Charm Factory

  15. Application of fractional factorial design to levan production by Zymomonas mobilis Aplicação do planejamento fatorial fracionário para a produção de levana por Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Melo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Levan is a non-toxic, biologically active, extra cellular polysaccharide composed solely by fructose units. Optimization of levan production by Zymomonas mobilis strain ZAG-12 employing a 2(4-1 fractional factorial design was performed to analyze the influence of the temperature (20, 25 e 30ºC agitation (50, 75 e 100 rpm, and the initial concentrations of both sucrose (150, 200 e 250 g.L-1 and yeast extract (2.0, 3.5 e 5.0g.L-1 on final levan concentration. Aerobic fermentation was performed batchwise in 500mL Pyrex flasks for 72 hours. Biomass, ethanol, levan and sucrose were determined at beginning and also at end of the fermentations. The experiments showed that the final levan concentration depended on initial sucrose concentration, temperature and agitation velocity and that the initial concentration of yeast extract did not influence levan production. However, when the production of ethanol and biomass were considered, it became evident that yeast extract was a significant variable. The best conditions for levan production occurred at 100 rpm agitation, 20ºC and 250g.L-1 of initial sucrose resulting in 14.67g.L-1 of levan.Levana é um polissacarídeo extracelular, biologicamente ativo, não tóxico, contendo em sua estrutura apenas frutose. A maximização da produção de levana, por via fermentativa, pela linhagem de Zymomonas mobilis ZAG-12, foi estudada utilizando-se um planejamento fatorial de dois níveis 2(4-1, variando-se as concentrações iniciais de sacarose (150, 200 e 250 g.L-1 , extrato de levedura (2.0, 3.5 e 5.0 g.L-1, temperatura (20, 25 e 30ºC e agitação (50, 75 e 100 rpm. As fermentações foram desenvolvidas por processos descontínuos em frascos Pyrex roscados, de 500 mL, contendo 300 mL de meio a base de sacarose, por 72 horas. No início e ao final do processo, foram dosados: biomassa, etanol, levana e sacarose como açúcares redutores totais. A análise dos dados mostra que o aumento da produção de levana

  16. Implementing a Generative Urban Design Model : Grammar-based design patterns for urban design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirao, J.N.; Mendes, G.; Duarte, J.; Stouffs, R.M.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows the first results of a prototype implementation of a generative urban design tool. This implementation will form part of a design support tool for a GIS based platform defined to formulate, generate and evaluate urban designs. These three goals, formulation, generation and

  17. Factorial design of essential oil extraction from Fagraea fragrans Roxb. flowers and evaluation of its biological activities for perfumery and cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingngam, B; Brantner, A H

    2015-06-01

    To optimize the extraction yields of essential oil from Fagraea fragrans Roxb. flowers in hydro-distillation using a central composite design (CCD) and to evaluate its biological activities for perfumery and cosmetic applications. Central composite design was applied to study the influences of operational parameters [water to flower weight (X(1)) and distillation time (X(2))] on the yields of essential oil (Y). Chemical compositions of the essential oil extracted from the optimized condition were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activities of the essential oil were determined against ABTS(•+) and DPPH(•) radicals, and the cytotoxic effects were assessed on human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells by the use of the MTT assay. Also, the aromatic properties of the essential oil were evaluated by five healthy trained volunteers. The best conditions to obtain the maximum essential oil yield were 7.5 mL g(-1) (X(1)) and 215 min (X(2)). The experimental yield of the essential oil (0.35 ± 0.02% v/w) was close to the value predicted by a mathematical model (0.35 ± 0.01% v/w). 3-Octadecyne, Z,Z,Z-7,10,13-hexadecatrienal, E-nerolidol, pentadecanal and linalool were the major constituents of the essential oil. The essential oil showed moderate antioxidant capacities with no toxic effects on HEK293 cells at 1-250 μg mL(-1). Also, the essential oil exhibited a very strong aroma and was classified to be top- to middle-notes. The results offer the effectively operational conditions in the extraction of essential oil from F. fragrans using hydro-distillation. The essential oil could be used as a natural fragrance, having antioxidant activity with slight cytotoxicity, for perfumery and cosmetic applications. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. Aggregation Operator Based Fuzzy Pattern Classifier Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mönks, Uwe; Larsen, Henrik Legind; Lohweg, Volker

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel modular fuzzy pattern classifier design framework for intelligent automation systems, developed on the base of the established Modified Fuzzy Pattern Classifier (MFPC) and allows designing novel classifier models which are hardware-efficiently implementable....... The performances of novel classifiers using substitutes of MFPC's geometric mean aggregator are benchmarked in the scope of an image processing application against the MFPC to reveal classification improvement potentials for obtaining higher classification rates....

  19. Visualizing Practices in Project-based Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Jennifer; Tryggestad, Kjell; Comi, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Project-based design involves a variety of visual representations, which are evolved to make decisions and accomplish project objectives. Yet, such mediated and distributed ways of working are difficult to capture through ethnographies that examine situated design. A novel approach is developed t...... representations enabled participants in project-based design to develop and share understanding. The complexity of projects and their distributed and mediated nature makes this approach timely and important in addressing new research questions and practical challenges.......Project-based design involves a variety of visual representations, which are evolved to make decisions and accomplish project objectives. Yet, such mediated and distributed ways of working are difficult to capture through ethnographies that examine situated design. A novel approach is developed...... of situated design. This allows the researcher to be nimble, tracing connections across complex engineering projects; reconstructing practices through their visual representations; and observing their effects. Second, it articulates how, in these empirical cases, interaction with a cascade of visual...

  20. Computer vision based room interior design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nasir; Hussain, Saddam; Ahmad, Kashif; Conci, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a new application of computer vision. To the best of the author's knowledge, it is the first attempt to incorporate computer vision techniques into room interior designing. The computer vision based interior designing is achieved in two steps: object identification and color assignment. The image segmentation approach is used for the identification of the objects in the room and different color schemes are used for color assignment to these objects. The proposed approach is applied to simple as well as complex images from online sources. The proposed approach not only accelerated the process of interior designing but also made it very efficient by giving multiple alternatives.

  1. Data base systems in electronic design engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.

    1980-01-01

    The concepts of an integrated design data base system (DBMS) as it might apply to an electronic design company are discussed. Data elements of documentation, project specifications, project tracking, firmware, software, electronic and mechanical design can be integrated and managed through a single DBMS. Combining the attributes of a DBMS data handler with specialized systems and functional data can provide users with maximum flexibility, reduced redundancy, and increased overall systems performance. Although some system overhead is lost due to redundancy in transitory data, it is believed the combination of the two data types is advisable rather than trying to do all data handling through a single DBMS.

  2. L-Asparaginase from Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29: optimization of process variables using factorial designs and molecular characterization of L-asparaginase gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Balakrishnan; Anburajan, Lawrance; Sathish, Thadikamala; Vijaya Raghavan, Rangamaran; Dharani, Gopal; Valsalan Vinithkumar, Nambali; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-07-01

    Marine actinobacteria are known to be a rich source for novel metabolites with diverse biological activities. In this study, a potential extracellular L-asparaginase was characterised from the Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29. Box-Behnken based optimization was used to determine the culture medium components to enhance the L-asparaginase production. pH, starch, yeast extract and L-asparagine has a direct correlation for enzyme production with a maximum yield of 56.78 IU mL-1. A verification experiment was performed to validate the experiment and more than 99% validity was established. L-Asparaginase biosynthesis gene (ansA) from Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli M15 and the enzyme production was increased threefold (123 IU mL-1) over the native strain. The ansA gene sequences reported in this study encloses several base substitutions with that of reported sequences in GenBank, resulting in altered amino acid sequences of the translated protein.

  3. Complete factorial design to adjust pH and sugar concentrations in the inoculum phase of Ralstonia solanacearum to optimize P(3HB production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Laste Macagnan

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB is a biodegradable plastic biopolymer that accumulates as lipophilic inclusions in the cytoplasm of some microorganisms. The biotechnological process by which P(3HB is synthesized occurs in two phases. The first phase involves cell growth in a complex culture medium, while the second phase involves polymer accumulation in the presence of excess carbon sources. As such, the efficiency of the second phase depends on the first phase. The aim of this study was to evaluate culture media with different concentrations of sucrose and glucose and different pH values in the inoculum phase of Ralstonia solanacearum RS with the intention of identifying methods by which the biomass yield could be increased, subsequently enhancing the yield of P(3HB. The culture medium was formulated according to the experimental planning type of central composite rotational design 22. The independent variables were pH and sugar concentration (sucrose and glucose, and the dependent variables were OD600nm, dry cell weight (DCW, and P(3HB yield. The highest cell growth, estimated by the OD600nm (20.6 and DCW (5.35 values, was obtained when sucrose was used in the culture medium at a concentration above 35 g.L-1 in combination with an acidic pH. High polymer (45% accumulation was also achieved under these conditions. Using glucose, the best results for OD600nm (12.5 and DCW (2.74 were also obtained at acidic pH but with a sugar concentration at the minimum values evaluated. Due to the significant accumulation of polymer in the cells that were still in the growth phase, the accumulating microorganism P(3HB Ralstonia solanacearum RS can be classified as having type II metabolism in relation to the polymer accumulation phase, which is different from other Ralstonia spp. studied until this time.

  4. Justifying Design Decisions with Theory-based Design Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Schermann, Michael;Gehlert, Andreas;Pohl, Klaus;Krcmar, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Although the role of theories in design research is recognized, we show that little attention has been paid on how to use theories when designing new artifacts. We introduce design principles as a new methodological approach to address this problem. Design principles extend the notion of design rationales that document how a design decision emerged. We extend the concept of design rationales by using theoretical hypotheses to support or object to design decisions. At the example of developing...

  5. Properties of bioadhesive ketoprofen liquid suppositories: preparation, determination of gelation temperature, viscosity studies and evaluation of mechanical properties using texture analyzer by 4 × 4 factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgüney, Işık; Kardhiqi, Anita

    2014-12-01

    Development and evaluation of thermosensitive and bioadhesive liquid suppositories containing ketoprofen (KP). This study was conducted to develope thermosensitive and bioadhesive liquid suppositories containing KP using poloxamer and different bioadhesive polymers and to investigate their gelation temperature, viscosity and mechanical properties. Bioadhesive liquid suppositories were prepared by the cold method using poloxamer 407 (P 407), Poloxamer 188 (P 188) and various amounts of different bioadhesive polymers. Their gelation temperatures, viscosity values and mechanical properties were determined using texture analyzer by 4 × 4 factorial design. It was seen that in presence of KP, gelation temperature of formulation P 407/P 188 (4/20%) significantly decreased from 64 to 37.1 °C. It is to be noted that addition of increasing concentrations of bioadhesive polymers lowered gelation temperature and its decrease was highest with addition of Carbopol 934 P (C). Results of texture profile analysis (TPA) showed that formulations containing C have significantly higher hardness and adhesiveness values than other bioadhesive formulations. According to TPA, gel structure of liquid suppository formulation F5, containing P 407/P 188/KP/C (4/20/2.5/0.8%), exhibited the greatest hardness, compressibilty, adhesiveness and besides greatest viscosity. According to mechanical properties and viscosity values, it was concluded that F5 could be a promising formulation.

  6. Engineering the Polyketide Cell Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Louise

    sufficient titers. To improve the production of polyketides biological engineering principles have been applied for the development and engineering of microbial polyketide cell factories. The two biological hosts used for heterologous polyketide production were Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces...... phosphopantetheinylase (PPTase). This versatile vector system can easily be used for expression of other polyketides of interest as well as extended to express whole gene clusters. After achieving proof of principle in terms of expression, the polyketide cell factory must be optimized. The optimization can be achieved...... characterization in bioreactors revealed that the yields of 6-MSA on biomass increased albeit not significantly. As a result of this it may be argued that there is still more work to be done in terms of model building in A. nidulans. Utilizing another well-established cell factory S. cerevisiae the capabilities...

  7. Photon Factory activity report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Photon Factory is a national synchrotron radiation research facility affiliated with the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics located in Tsukuba Science City. The Photon Factory consists of a 2.5 GeV electron/positron linear accelerator, a 2.5 GeV electron/positron storage ring, beam lines and experimental stations. All the facilities for synchrotron radiation research are open to scientists. A part of the accumulation ring of the TRISTAN main ring has been used as a synchrotron radiation source in the energy range from 5.8 to 6.5 GeV. The Photon Factory is composed of three divisions of Injector Linac, Light Source and Instrumentation. The researches of each divisions are reviewed, and the users' short reports are collected. The list of published papers with author index is also included in the publication. (K.I.) 233 refs

  8. Math for the digital factory

    CERN Document Server

    Hömberg, Dietmar; Landry, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    This volume provides a unique collection of mathematical tools and industrial case studies in digital manufacturing. It addresses various topics, ranging from models of single production technologies, production lines, logistics and workflows to models and optimization strategies for energy consumption in production. The digital factory represents a network of digital models and simulation and 3D visualization methods for the holistic planning, realization, control and ongoing improvement of all factory processes related to a specific product. In the past ten years, all industrialized countries have launched initiatives to realize this vision, sometimes also referred to as Industry 4.0 (in Europe) or Smart Manufacturing (in the United States). Its main goals are • reconfigurable, adaptive and evolving factories capable of small-scale production • high-performance production, combining flexibility, productivity, precision and zero defects • energy and resource efficiency in manufacturing None of these...

  9. Survivor shielding. Part A. Nagasaki factory worker shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Robert T.; Barnes, John M.; Azmy, Yousry Y.; Kerr, George D.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Cullings, Harry M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent investigations based on conventional chromosome aberration data by the RERF suggest that the DS86 doses received by many Nagasaki factory workers may have been overestimated by as much as 40% relative to those for other survivors in Japanese-type houses and other shielding configurations (Kodama et al. 2001). Since the factory workers represent about 25% of the Nagasaki survivors with DS86 doses in excess of 0.5 Gy (50 rad), systematic errors in their dose estimates can have a major impact on the risk coefficients from RERF studies. The factory worker doses may have been overestimated for a number of reasons. The calculation techniques, including the factory building modeling, weapon source spectra and cross-section data used in the DS86 shielding calculations were not detailed enough to replicate actual conditions. The models used did not take into account local shielding provided by machinery, tools, and the internal structure in the buildings. In addition, changes in the disposition of shielding following collapse of the building by the blast wave were not considered. The location of large factory complexes may be uncertain, causing large numbers of factory survivors, correctly located relative to each other, to be uniformly too close to the hypocenter. Any or all of these reasons are sufficient to result in an overestimate of the factory worker doses. During the DS02 studies, factory worker doses have been reassessed by more carefully modeling the factory buildings, incorporating improved radiation transport methods and cross-section data and using the most recent bomb leakage spectra (Chapter 2). Two-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations were carried out initially to estimate the effects of workbenches and tools on worker doses to determine if the inclusion of these components would, in fact, reduce the dose by amounts consistent with the RERF observations (Kodama et al. 2001). (author)

  10. Data base pertinent to earthquake design basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Mitigation of earthquake risk from impending strong earthquakes is possible provided the hazard can be assessed, and translated into appropriate design inputs. This requires defining the seismic risk problem, isolating the risk factors and quantifying risk in terms of physical parameters, which are suitable for application in design. Like all other geological phenomena, past earthquakes hold the key to the understanding of future ones. Quantificatio n of seismic risk at a site calls for investigating the earthquake aspects of the site region and building a data base. The scope of such investigations is il lustrated in Figure 1 and 2. A more detailed definition of the earthquake problem in engineering design is given elsewhere (Sharma, 1987). The present document discusses the earthquake data base, which is required to support a seismic risk evaluation programme in the context of the existing state of the art. (author). 8 tables, 10 figs., 54 refs

  11. Neutrinos: from the Workshop to the Factory

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over the next 5 years much work will be done to reach a theoretical and practical description of a neutrino factory. How could this project turn out to be an interesting future option for CERN? Neutrino beams travelling from CERN to the Canary Islands? And to the Svalbard archipelago in Norway? Or even to the Pyhaesalmi Mine in Finland? Why neutrinos? And why so far? The answers provide one of CERN's next challenging options: the construction of a high-energy muon storage ring to provide neutrino beams. This project, nicknamed 'neutrino factory', now figures in CERN's middle term plan as a recognized and supported research and development project. International collaborations, with other European laboratories and also with America and Japan, are now being set up. Long baseline locations for neutrino oscillations studies at a CERN based neutrino factory. Early in its history, LEP established that there exist just three kinds of light neutrinos, those associated with the electron, muon, and tau leptons. For a...

  12. Circular Higgs Factories & Possible Long-Term Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    In 2012 two LHC experiments have discovered a new particle with a mass around 125 GeV, which appears to be the scalar Higgs boson of the Standard Model. To further examine this remarkable particle it could be produced in large numbers for precision studies by an e+e− collider operating near the ZH threshold at beam energies of 120 GeV, or, in the s-channel by a gamma-gamma collider with primary electron beam energies of 80 GeV, or by a high-energy electron-proton collider. In this talk I will discuss tentative design parameters, novel concepts and accelerator-physics challenges (1) for a high-luminosity lepton-hadron collider, bringing into collision a 60-GeV electron beam from an energy-recovery electron linac with one of the LHC hadron beams – LHeC –, (2) for a gamma-gamma Higgs-factory collider based on the reconfigured recirculating SC electron linac – SAPPHiRE – and (3) for a circular e+e− Higgs-factory collider in a new tunnel with a circumference of 80-100 km – TLEP. I will also discuss f...

  13. Tau/Charm Factory Accelerator Report

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. BiaginiINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; R. BoniINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; M. BoscoloINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; A. ChiarucciINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; R. CiminoINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; A. ClozzaINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; A. DragoINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; S. GuiducciINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; C. LigiINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; G. MazzitelliINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; R. RicciINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; C. SanelliINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; M. SerioINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; A. StellaINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; S. TomassiniINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy

    2014-01-01

    The present Report concerns the current status of the Italian Tau/Charm accelerator project and in particular discusses the issues related to the lattice design, to the accelerators systems and to the associated conventional facilities. The project aims at realizing a variable energy Flavor Factory between 1 and 4.6 GeV in the center of mass, and succeeds to the SuperB project from which it inherits most of the solutions proposed in this document. The work comes from a cooperation involving t...

  14. Facilitating Transition to Team Based Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollestrup, Christian

    2014-01-01

    profession, but at the same time it becomes very difficult to identify where and how the design is created since form-giving now becomes a group effort. So as a way to ease the transition from highly framed and facilitated high school learning context to university self-driven learning context a small...... given to two set of students; one set that received the survival kit in 2011 and 2012 and one set that did not. The questionnaire inquires the students’ attitude towards 4 aspects: 1.General level of preparedness for team and problem based project work 2.Level of information of expectations from...... supervisors and programme 3.Reflection of the role in a team, problem based project work 4.The level of information of special expectations from the Industrial Design program towards team and problem based project work. Results indicates that Class receiving the “Survival Kit” improved in the calibration...

  15. INDOOR THERMAL CONDITION OF FACTORY BUILDING IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Abdullah Al Sayem Khan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a developing country and has a lot of factories for different products for local use and also export to abroad. Garments industries are one of the top most items of exported items. A huge number of populations are working in garments industries. But these factories are not well designed in sense of the thermal environment. Workers experiences sickness related to indoor environment. The productions of these factories are affected due to employees’ health condition. The research is done in two different methods. One is empirical data collection using thermal data loggers and the other is questionnaire survey on the spots for three factory buildings. The field study was conducted in four different months of the same year during winter and summer period. Expected findings of this research are that the indoor environment is not comfortable for works at day time during summer season. This research will help the factory workers in providing a comfortable thermal environment and also help the employers or factory owners to increase their production margin.

  16. Design of LTCC Based Fractal Antenna

    KAUST Repository

    AdbulGhaffar, Farhan

    2010-09-01

    The thesis presents a Sierpinski Carpet fractal antenna array designed at 24 GHz for automotive radar applications. Miniaturized, high performance and low cost antennas are required for this application. To meet these specifications a fractal array has been designed for the first time on Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) based substrate. LTCC provides a suitable platform for the development of these antennas due to its properties of vertical stack up and embedded passives. The complete antenna concept involves integration of this fractal antenna array with a Fresnel lens antenna providing a total gain of 15dB which is appropriate for medium range radar applications. The thesis also presents a comparison between the designed fractal antenna and a conventional patch antenna outlining the advantages of fractal antenna over the later one. The fractal antenna has a bandwidth of 1.8 GHz which is 7.5% of the centre frequency (24GHz) as compared to 1.9% of the conventional patch antenna. Furthermore the fractal design exhibits a size reduction of 53% as compared to the patch antenna. In the end a sensitivity analysis is carried out for the fractal antenna design depicting the robustness of the proposed design against the typical LTCC fabrication tolerances.

  17. Neutrino factory plans at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Riche, J A

    2001-01-01

    The considerable interest raised by the discovery of neutrino oscillations and recent progress in studies of muon colliders has triggered interest in considering a neutrino factory at CERN. This paper explains the reference scenario, indicates the other possible choices and mentions the R&D that are foreseen.

  18. Factorial representations of path groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Hoegh-Krohn, R.; Testard, D.; Vershik, A.

    1983-11-01

    We give the reduction of the energy representation of the group of mappings from I = [ 0,1 ], S 1 , IRsub(+) or IR into a compact semi simple Lie group G. For G = SU(2) we prove the factoriality of the representation, which is of type III in the case I = IR

  19. A Review of "Infinity Factory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    Following a discussion of the historical background of the TV series "Infinity Factory," the goals of the television project are listed. A general description of the television series, an evaluation of the entertainment value, and an evaluation of children's attitude change are briefly presented. The program's presentation of mathematics…

  20. Design Strategies for Aptamer-Based Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kun; Liang, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Nandi

    2010-01-01

    Aptamers have been widely used as recognition elements for biosensor construction, especially in the detection of proteins or small molecule targets, and regarded as promising alternatives for antibodies in bioassay areas. In this review, we present an overview of reported design strategies for the fabrication of biosensors and classify them into four basic modes: target-induced structure switching mode, sandwich or sandwich-like mode, target-induced dissociation/displacement mode and competitive replacement mode. In view of the unprecedented advantages brought about by aptamers and smart design strategies, aptamer-based biosensors are expected to be one of the most promising devices in bioassay related applications. PMID:22399891

  1. Interactive Reliability-Based Optimal Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Siemaszko, A.

    1994-01-01

    Interactive design/optimization of large, complex structural systems is considered. The objective function is assumed to model the expected costs. The constraints are reliability-based and/or related to deterministic code requirements. Solution of this optimization problem is divided in four main...... tasks, namely finite element analyses, sensitivity analyses, reliability analyses and application of an optimization algorithm. In the paper it is shown how these four tasks can be linked effectively and how existing information on design variables, Lagrange multipliers and the Hessian matrix can...

  2. Overview of the nearby supernova factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldering, Greg; Adam, Gilles; Antilogus, Pierre; Astier, Pierre; Bacon, Roland; Bongard, S.; Bonnaud, C.; Copin, Yannick; Hardin, D.; Howell, D. Andy; Lemmonnier, Jean-Pierre; Levy, J.-M.; Loken, S.; Nugent, Peter; Pain, Reynald; Pecontal, Arlette; Pecontal, Emmanuel; Perlmutter, Saul; Quimby, Robert; Schahmaneche, Kyan; Smadja, Gerard; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael

    2002-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an international experiment designed to lay the foundation for the next generation of cosmology experiments (such as CFHTLS, wP, SNAP and LSST) which will measure the expansion history of the Universe using Type Ia supernovae. The SNfactory will discover and obtain frequent lightcurve spectrophotometry covering 3200-10000 (angstrom) for roughly 300 Type Ia supernovae at the loW--redshift end of the smooth Hubble flow. The quantity, quality, breadth of galactic environments, and homogeneous nature of the SNfactory dataset will make it the premier source of calibration for the Type Ia supernova width-brightness relation and the intrinsic supernova colors used for K-correction and correction for extinction by host-galaxy dust. This dataset will also allow an extensive investigation of additional parameters which possibly influence the quality of Type Ia supernovae as cosmological probes. The SNfactory search capabilities and folloW--up instrumentation include wide-field CCD imagers on two 1.2-m telescopes (via collaboration with the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking team at JPL and the QUEST team at Yale), and a two-channel integral-field-unit optical spectrograph/imager being fabricated for the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. In addition to ground-based folloW--up, UV spectra for a subsample of these supernovae will be obtained with HST. The pipeline to obtain, transfer via wireless and standard internet, and automatically process the search images is in operation. Software and hardware development is now underway to enable the execution of folloW--up spectroscopy of supernova candidates at the Hawaii 2.2-m telescope via automated remote control of the telescope and the IFU spectrograph/imager

  3. Particle identification at an asymmetric B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, P.; Eigen, G.; Hitlin, D.; Oddone, P.; Ratcliff, B.; Roe, N.; Va'vra, J.; Ypsilantis, T.

    1991-09-01

    Particle identification systems are an important component of any detector at a high-luminosity, asymmetric B Factory. In particular, excellent hadron identification is required to probe CP violation in B 0 decays to CP eigenstates. The particle identification systems discussed below also provide help in separating leptons from hadrons at low momenta. We begin this chapter with a discussion of the physics motivation for providing particle identification, the inherent limitations due to interactions and decays in flight, and the requirements for hermiticity and angular coverage. A special feature of an asymmetric B Factory is the resulting asymmetry in the momentum distribution as a function of polar angle; this will also be quantified and discussed. In the next section the three primary candidates, time-of-flight (TOF), energy loss (dE/dx), and Cerenkov counters, both ring-imaging and threshold, will be briefly described and evaluated. Following this, one of the candidates, a long-drift Cerenkov ring-imaging device, is described in detail to provide a reference design. Design considerations for a fast RICH are then described. A detailed discussion of aerogel threshold counter designs and associated R ampersand D conclude the chapter. 56 refs., 64 figs., 13 tabs

  4. Factorial design, processing, characterization and microstructure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-02

    Feb 2, 2018 ... the effect of four factors on flexural strength of the composite. Total sixteen ... posite products over CVI and LSI due to its high production rate and less ... (vii) developing linear expression for flexural strength as a function of the ...

  5. Value-based management of design reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Juan Antonio; Cohn, David L.; Belluomini, Wendy; Montoye, Robert K.

    2003-06-01

    Effective design reuse in electronic products has the potential to provide very large cost savings, substantial time-to-market reduction, and extra sources of revenue. Unfortunately, critical reuse opportunities are often missed because, although they provide clear value to the corporation, they may not benefit the business performance of an internal organization. It is therefore crucial to provide tools to help reuse partners participate in a reuse transaction when the transaction provides value to the corporation as a whole. Value-based Reuse Management (VRM) addresses this challenge by (a) ensuring that all parties can quickly assess the business performance impact of a reuse opportunity, and (b) encouraging high-value reuse opportunities by supplying value-based rewards to potential parties. In this paper we introduce the Value-Based Reuse Management approach and we describe key results on electronic designs that demonstrate its advantages. Our results indicate that Value-Based Reuse Management has the potential to significantly increase the success probability of high-value electronic design reuse.

  6. Designing Dexter-based cooperative hypermedia systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Sloth, Lennard

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses issues for the design of a Dexter-based cooperative hypermedia architecture and a specific system, DeVise Hypermedia (DHM), developed from this architecture. The Dexter Hypertext Reference Model [Hala90] was used as basis for designing the architecture. The Dexter model...... provides a general and solid foundation for designing a general hypermedia architecture. It introduces central concepts and proposes a layering of the architecture. However, to handle cooperative work aspects, such as sharing material and cooperative authoring, we have to go beyond the Dexter model...... concepts. To deal with such aspects we have extended our implementation of the Dexter concepts with support for long-term transactions, locking and event notification as called for by Halasz [Hala88]. The result is a platform independent architecture for developing cooperative hypermedia systems...

  7. An introduction to data base design

    CERN Document Server

    Salzberg, Betty Joan

    1986-01-01

    An Introduction to Data Base Design provides an understanding of how data base management systems (DBMS) work to be able to use any available commercial DBMS intelligently. This book presents the principle of independence of physical and local organization.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of normal form theory. This text then describes the three types of DBMS. Other chapters consider the difficulties in processing queries where the names of the files are not mentioned. This book discusses as well how to group data hierarchically, how to use a preorder tree trave

  8. Higher order mode damping in Kaon factory RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enegren, T.; Poirier, R.; Griffin, J.; Walling, L.; Thiessen, H.A.; Smythe, W.R.

    1989-05-01

    Proposed designs for Kaon factory accelerators require that the rf cavities support beam currents on the order of several amperes. The beam current has Fourier components at all multiples of the rf frequency. Empty rf buckets produce additional components at all multiples of the revolution frequency. If a Fourier component of the beam coincides with the resonant frequency of a higher order mode of the cavity, which is inevitable if the cavity has a large frequency swing, significant excitation of this mode can occur. The induced voltage may then excite coupled bunch mode instabilities. Effective means are required to damp higher order modes without significantly affecting the fundamental mode. A mode damping scheme based on coupled transmission lines has been investigated and is report

  9. FACTORIAL CORRESPONDENCES ANALYSIS – A TOOL IN TOURISM MOTIVATION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Danut I. JUGANARU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing the distribution of tourist flows in 2014, from 25 European countries, on three main categories of trip purposes, and assumes that there are differences or similarities between the tourists’ countries of residence and their trip purposes. "Purpose'' is a multidimensional concept used in marketing research, most often for understanding consumer behavior, and for identifying market segments or customer target groups, reunited in terms of similar characteristics. Being aware that the decision of choice/ purchase is based on purposes, their knowledge proves useful in designing strategies to increase the satisfaction level provided to the customer. The statistical method used in this paper is the factorial correspondences analysis. In our opinion, the identification, by this method, of the existence of differences or similarities between the tourists’ countries of residence and their trip purposes can represent a useful step in studying the tourism market and the choice/ reformulation of strategies.

  10. PRALIMAP: study protocol for a high school-based, factorial cluster randomised interventional trial of three overweight and obesity prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrinier Nelly

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increase in overweight and obesity prevalence in adolescents in the last decade, effective prevention strategies for these conditions in adolescents are urgently needed. The PRALIMAP (Promotion de l'ALImentation et de l'Activité Physique trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness for these conditions of 3 health promotion strategies -- educational, screening and environmental -- applied singly or in combination in high schools over a 2-year intervention period. Methods PRALIMAP is a stratified 2 × 2 × 2 factorial cluster randomised controlled trial including 24 state high schools in Lorraine, northeastern France, in 2 waves: 8 schools in 2006 (wave 1 and 16 in 2007 (wave 2. Students entering the selected high schools in the 4 academic years from 2006 to 2009 are eligible for data collection. Interventional strategies are organized over 2 academic years. The follow-up consists of 3 visits: at the entry of grade 10 (T0, grade 11 (T1 and grade 12 (T2. At T0, 5,458 (85.7% adolescents participated. The educational strategy consists of nutritional lessons, working groups and a final party. The screening strategy consists in detecting overweight/obesity and eating disorders in adolescents and proposing, if necessary, an adapted care management program of 7 group educational sessions. The environmental strategy consists in improving dietary and physical activity offerings in high schools and facilities, especially catering. The main outcomes are body size evolution over time, nutritional behaviour and knowledge, health and quality of life. An evaluation process documents how each intervention strategy is implemented in the schools and estimates the dose of the intervention, allowing for a per protocol analysis after the main intention-to-treat analysis. Discussion PRALIMAP aims at improving the prevention and management of overweight and obesity in adolescents by translating current evidence into public health practice

  11. The effect of physician and patient education when combined with vardenafil treatment in Canadian males with erectile dysfunction: an open-label, factorial-designed, cluster-randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Gerald; Carrier, Serge; Alarie, Pierre; Pommerville, Peter; Casey, Richard; Harris, Stewart; Ward, Richard

    2008-03-01

    Studies evaluating the effect of education on treatment success with phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor therapy in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) are limited. Additional education of the primary care physician (PCP) and the patient are thought to optimize the treatment of ED. To assess the impact of education of the PCP or of the patient in the treatment of ED with vardenafil relative to usual care. In this 12-week, open-label, multicenter, factorial-designed, cluster-randomized Canadian study, 1,029 patients with ED were enrolled into four different education groups: usual care, patient education, PCP education, and both PCP and patient education. All groups started on vardenafil 10 mg, with the option to titrate at weeks 4 and 8. The primary efficacy measure was the difference at week 4 last observation carried forward (LOCF) in the overall improvement in erectile function (EF) as measured by the Global Assessment Question (GAQ), while on background vardenafil, between those receiving education vs. those who did not. Other secondary assessments included responses to diary questions regarding penetration (sexual encounter profile, SEP2) and erection maintenance (SEP3), and to questionnaires regarding treatment satisfaction (Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction [EDITS]). A total of 956 patients were included in the intent-to-treat population. Mean baseline International Index of Erectile Function-EF domain score was 13. GAQ response rates at week 4 LOCF were high (>80%) for all groups, regardless of the education given. Mean per patient SEP2 and SEP3 rates at week 12 LOCF were 86-89% and 79-83%, respectively. In an exploratory analysis, a positive relationship between GAQ responses and EDITS scores was observed (P satisfaction regardless of the education given. The benefits of education for PCP and patients in Canada were possibly masked by a ceiling effect in this study population.

  12. Use of fractional factorial design for optimization of digestion procedures followed by multi-element determination of essential and non-essential elements in nuts using ICP-OES technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Awad A; Zachariadis, George A; Anthemidis, Aristidis N; Stratis, John A

    2007-01-15

    Two digestion procedures have been tested on nut samples for application in the determination of essential (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn) and non-essential (Al, Ba, Cd, Pb) elements by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). These included wet digestions with HNO(3)/H(2)SO(4) and HNO(3)/H(2)SO(4)/H(2)O(2). The later one is recommended for better analytes recoveries (relative errortime, pre-digestion time, temperature of the hot plate and sample weight) were used for optimization of sample digestion procedures. For this purpose Plackett-Burman fractional factorial design, which involve eight experiments was adopted. The factors HNO(3) and H(2)O(2) volume, and the digestion time were found to be the most important parameters. The instrumental conditions were also optimized (using peanut matrix rather than aqueous standard solutions) considering radio-frequency (rf) incident power, nebulizer argon gas flow rate and sample uptake flow rate. The analytical performance, such as limits of detection (LOD<0.74mugg(-1)), precision of the overall procedures (relative standard deviation between 2.0 and 8.2%) and accuracy (relative errors between 0.4 and 11%) were assessed statistically to evaluate the developed analytical procedures. The good agreement between measured and certified values for all analytes (relative error <11%) with respect to IAEA-331 (spinach leaves) and IAEA-359 (cabbage) indicates that the developed analytical method is well suited for further studies on the fate of major elements in nuts and possibly similar matrices.

  13. Photon Factory Activity Report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Photon Factory Activity Report no.12 deals with our activities in the period from October 1993 through September 1994. We operate two light sources at the Photon Factory; the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring, which is a dedicated light source, and the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring, which is parasitically used as a light source. We keep more than seventy experimental stations at two facilities, and accept experiments primarily according to approval by the Program Advisory Committee. The number of proposals to the Photon Factory has been still growing. Three-hundred eighty two proposals were approved by the PAC in FY1994, which is an increase by thirteen percent compared to the previous year. Remarkable was growth in biology proposals, particularly proposals in protein crystallography. In FY 1994, we accepted approximately 20,000 man-days as general users, and almost ten percent of them were from abroad. We always open the facility to users, not only domestic but also international. Recently we have been concentrating our effort to upgrading of the light sources and reconstruction of the experimental stations to keep the Photon Factory an attractive research facility in the forthcoming years. We have already started a program of reducing the emittance of the 2.5-GeV storage ring, which now operates with an emittance of 110 nm-rad, to 27 nm-rad by modifying the lattice, with the goal of operation at the reduced emittance in the fall of 1997. We also have conceived of a conversion of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring to a dedicated light source of high energies. The on-going TRISTAN project will terminate by the end of 1995, and the TRISTAN Main Ring will be converted to a new B-Factory. At this moment, the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring will be disused as the injector to the Main Ring, and conversion of the AR to a dedicated light source becomes possible. (J.P.N.)

  14. Photon Factory Activity Report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Photon Factory Activity Report no.12 deals with our activities in the period from October 1993 through September 1994. We operate two light sources at the Photon Factory; the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring, which is a dedicated light source, and the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring, which is parasitically used as a light source. We keep more than seventy experimental stations at two facilities, and accept experiments primarily according to approval by the Program Advisory Committee. The number of proposals to the Photon Factory has been still growing. Three-hundred eighty two proposals were approved by the PAC in FY1994, which is an increase by thirteen percent compared to the previous year. Remarkable was growth in biology proposals, particularly proposals in protein crystallography. In FY 1994, we accepted approximately 20,000 man-days as general users, and almost ten percent of them were from abroad. We always open the facility to users, not only domestic but also international. Recently we have been concentrating our effort to upgrading of the light sources and reconstruction of the experimental stations to keep the Photon Factory an attractive research facility in the forthcoming years. We have already started a program of reducing the emittance of the 2.5-GeV storage ring, which now operates with an emittance of 110 nm-rad, to 27 nm-rad by modifying the lattice, with the goal of operation at the reduced emittance in the fall of 1997. We also have conceived of a conversion of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring to a dedicated light source of high energies. The on-going TRISTAN project will terminate by the end of 1995, and the TRISTAN Main Ring will be converted to a new B-Factory. At this moment, the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring will be disused as the injector to the Main Ring, and conversion of the AR to a dedicated light source becomes possible. (J.P.N.)

  15. Photon Factory Activity Report, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Photon Factory Activity Report no.12 deals with our activities in the period from October 1993 through September 1994. We operate two light sources at the Photon Factory; the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring, which is a dedicated light source, and the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring, which is parasitically used as a light source. We keep more than seventy experimental stations at two facilities, and accept experiments primarily according to approval by the Program Advisory Committee. The number of proposals to the Photon Factory has been still growing. Three-hundred eighty two proposals were approved by the PAC in FY1994, which is an increase by thirteen percent compared to the previous year. Remarkable was growth in biology proposals, particularly proposals in protein crystallography. In FY 1994, we accepted approximately 20,000 man-days as general users, and almost ten percent of them were from abroad. We always open the facility to users, not only domestic but also international. Recently we have been concentrating our effort to upgrading of the light sources and reconstruction of the experimental stations to keep the Photon Factory an attractive research facility in the forthcoming years. We have already started a program of reducing the emittance of the 2.5-GeV storage ring, which now operates with an emittance of 110 nm-rad, to 27 nm-rad by modifying the lattice, with the goal of operation at the reduced emittance in the fall of 1997. We also have conceived of a conversion of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring to a dedicated light source of high energies. The on-going TRISTAN project will terminate by the end of 1995, and the TRISTAN Main Ring will be converted to a new B-Factory. At this moment, the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring will be disused as the injector to the Main Ring, and conversion of the AR to a dedicated light source becomes possible. (J.P.N.)

  16. Computer Based Training Authors' and Designers' training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric GODET

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This communication, through couple of studies driven since 10 years, tries to show how important is the training of authors in Computer Based Training (CBT. We submit here an approach to prepare designers mastering Interactive Multimedia modules in this domain. Which institutions are really dedicating their efforts in training authors and designers in this area of CBTs? Television devices and broadcast organisations offered since year 60s' a first support for Distance Learning. New media, New Information and Communication Technologies (NICT allowed several public and private organisations to start Distance Learning projects. As usual some of them met their training objectives, other of them failed. Did their really failed? Currently, nobody has the right answer. Today, we do not have enough efficient tools allowing us to evaluate trainees' acquisition in a short term view. Training evaluation needs more than 10 to 20 years of elapsed time to bring reliable measures. Nevertheless, given the high investments already done in this area, we cannot wait until the final results of the pedagogical evaluation. A lot of analyses showed relevant issues which can be used as directions for CBTs authors and designers training. Warning - Our studies and the derived conclusions are mainly based on projects driven in the field. We additionally bring our several years experience in the training of movie film authors in the design of interactive multimedia products. Some of our examples are extracting from vocational training projects where we were involved in all development phases from the analysis of needs to the evaluation of the acquisition within the trainee's / employee job's. Obviously, we cannot bring and exhaustive approach in this domain where a lot of parameters are involved as frame for the CBT interactive multimedia modules authors' and designers' training.

  17. PLD based design with VHDL RTL design, synthesis and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Taraate, Vaibbhav

    2017-01-01

    This book covers basic fundamentals of logic design and advanced RTL design concepts using VHDL. The book is organized to describe both simple and complex RTL design scenarios using VHDL. It gives practical information on the issues in ASIC prototyping using FPGAs, design challenges and how to overcome practical issues and concerns. It describes how to write an efficient RTL code using VHDL and how to improve the design performance. The design guidelines by using VHDL are also explained with the practical examples in this book. The book also covers the ALTERA and XILINX FPGA architecture and the design flow for the PLDs. The contents of this book will be useful to students, researchers, and professionals working in hardware design and optimization. The book can also be used as a text for graduate and professional development courses.

  18. Developing a national food defense guideline based on a vulnerability assessment of intentional food contamination in Japanese food factories using the CARVER+Shock vulnerability assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagawa, Yoshiyuki; Akahane, Manabu; Hasegawa, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Onitake, Kazuo; Takaya, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2014-12-01

    The awareness of food terrorism has increased following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York City, United States, and many measures and policies dealing with this issue have been established worldwide. Suspected deliberate food-poisoning crimes have occurred in Japan, although they are not regarded as acts of food terrorism. One area of concern is that the small- to medium-sized companies that dominate Japan's food industry are extremely vulnerable to deliberate food poisoning. We conducted a literature research on food defense measures undertaken by the World Health Organization and in the United States and Europe. Using the Carver+Shock vulnerability assessment tool, eight food factories and related facilities in Japan were evaluated and we found the level of awareness of food defense to be low and the measures inappropriate. On the basis of this evaluation, we developed a set of guidelines that Japanese food companies can use to help develop their food defense strategies and to serve as a reference in considering specific measures.

  19. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    Building manned lunar base is one of the core aims of human lunar exploration project, which is also an important way to carry out the exploitation and utilization of lunar in situ resources. The most important part of manned lunar base is the design and construction of living habitation and many factors should be considered including science objective and site selection. Through investigating and research, the scientific goals of manned lunar base should be status and characteristics ascertainment of lunar available in situ resources, then developing necessary scientific experiments and utilization of lunar in situ resources by using special environment conditions of lunar surface. The site selection strategy of manned lunar base should rely on scientific goals according to special lunar surface environment and engineering capacity constraints, meanwhile, consulting the landing sites of foreign unmanned and manned lunar exploration, and choosing different typical regions of lunar surface and analyzing the landform and physiognomy, reachability, thermal environment, sunlight condition, micro meteoroids protection and utilization of in situ resources, after these steps, a logical lunar living habitation site should be confirmed. This paper brings out and compares three kinds of configurations with fabricating processes of manned lunar base, including rigid module, flexible and construction module manned lunar base. 1.The rigid habitation module is usually made by metal materials. The design and fabrication may consult the experience of space station, hence with mature technique. Because this configuration cannot be folded or deployed, which not only afford limit working and living room for astronauts, but also needs repetitious cargo transit between earth and moon for lunar base extending. 2. The flexible module habitation can be folded in fairing while launching. When deploying on moon, the configuration can be inflatable or mechanically-deployed, which means under

  20. Recent developments at the TRIUMF meson factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1976-10-01

    The TRIUMF meson factory, which is based on a 6-sector isochronous cyclotron accelerating H - ions to 520 MeV, has been operating since December 1974. Two proton beams are extracted simultaneously to feed the two experimental areas. Characteristics of the beams and beam lines are given. Work is also proceeding on (i) additional beam lines, (ii) a 180 kW beam dump and thermal neutron source, (iii) a medium resolution proton spectrometer, and (iv) adding third harmonic flat-topping to the RF to permit separation of the internal orbits and reduction of the energy spread of the extracted beam to 0.1 MeV. (author)