WorldWideScience

Sample records for factor-referenced cognitive tests

  1. Improving clinical cognitive testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Seth A.; Barrett, A.M.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Chatterjee, Anjan; Coslett, H. Branch; D'Esposito, Mark; Finney, Glen R.; Gitelman, Darren R.; Hart, John J.; Lerner, Alan J.; Meador, Kimford J.; Pietras, Alison C.; Voeller, Kytja S.; Kaufer, Daniel I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the evidence basis of single-domain cognitive tests frequently used by behavioral neurologists in an effort to improve the quality of clinical cognitive assessment. Methods: Behavioral Neurology Section members of the American Academy of Neurology were surveyed about how they conduct clinical cognitive testing, with a particular focus on the Neurobehavioral Status Exam (NBSE). In contrast to general screening cognitive tests, an NBSE consists of tests of individual cognitive domains (e.g., memory or language) that provide a more comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Workgroups for each of 5 cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, language, and spatial cognition) conducted evidence-based reviews of frequently used tests. Reviews focused on suitability for office-based clinical practice, including test administration time, accessibility of normative data, disease populations studied, and availability in the public domain. Results: Demographic and clinical practice data were obtained from 200 respondents who reported using a wide range of cognitive tests. Based on survey data and ancillary information, between 5 and 15 tests in each cognitive domain were reviewed. Within each domain, several tests are highlighted as being well-suited for an NBSE. Conclusions: We identified frequently used single-domain cognitive tests that are suitable for an NBSE to help make informed choices about clinical cognitive assessment. Some frequently used tests have limited normative data or have not been well-studied in common neurologic disorders. Utilizing standardized cognitive tests, particularly those with normative data based on the individual's age and educational level, can enhance the rigor and utility of clinical cognitive assessment. PMID:26163433

  2. Cognitive skills, student achievement tests, and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amy S; Kraft, Matthew A; West, Martin R; Leonard, Julia A; Bish, Crystal E; Martin, Rebecca E; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gabrieli, Christopher F O; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive skills predict academic performance, so schools that improve academic performance might also improve cognitive skills. To investigate the impact schools have on both academic performance and cognitive skills, we related standardized achievement-test scores to measures of cognitive skills in a large sample (N = 1,367) of eighth-grade students attending traditional, exam, and charter public schools. Test scores and gains in test scores over time correlated with measures of cognitive skills. Despite wide variation in test scores across schools, differences in cognitive skills across schools were negligible after we controlled for fourth-grade test scores. Random offers of enrollment to oversubscribed charter schools resulted in positive impacts of such school attendance on math achievement but had no impact on cognitive skills. These findings suggest that schools that improve standardized achievement-test scores do so primarily through channels other than improving cognitive skills.

  3. Testing Person Fit in Cognitive Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Douglas, Jeffrey A.; Henson, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    In cognitive diagnosis, the test-taking behavior of some examinees may be idiosyncratic so that their test scores may not reflect their true cognitive abilities as much as that of more typical examinees. Statistical tests are developed to recognize the following: (a) nonmasters of the required attributes who correctly answer the item (spuriously…

  4. Does Test Anxiety Induce Measurement Bias in Cognitive Ability Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Bonaccio, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Although test anxiety is typically negatively related to performance on cognitive ability tests, little research has systematically investigated whether differences in test anxiety result in measurement bias on cognitive ability tests. The current paper uses a structural equation modeling technique to explicitly test for measurement bias due to…

  5. Using Cognitive Screening Tests in Audiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Anderson, Melinda C; Arehart, Kathryn H; Souza, Pamela E

    2016-12-01

    The population of the United States is aging. Those older adults are living longer than ever and have an increased desire for social participation. As a result, audiologists are likely to see an increased demand for service by older clients whose communication difficulty is caused by a combination of hearing loss and cognitive impairment. For these individuals, early detection of mild cognitive impairment is critical for providing timely medical intervention and social support. This tutorial provides information about cognition of older adults, mild cognitive impairment, and cognitive screening tests, with the purpose of assisting audiologists in identifying and appropriately referring potential cases of cognitive impairment. Topics addressed also include how to administer cognitive screening tests on individuals with hearing loss, how to use test results in audiology practice, and the potential of using cognitive screening tests for evaluating the benefit of clinical interventions. As health care professionals who serve the aging population, audiologists are likely to encounter cases of undiagnosed cognitive impairment. In order to provide timely referral for medical assistance as well as an optimized individual outcome of audiologic interventions, audiologists should be trained to recognize an abnormality in older clients' cognitive status.

  6. Cognitive Style Assessment: One Test or Several?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Norval C.

    The purpose of this study was to improve the reliability of the Sigel Cognitive Style Test. Post hoc analysis of ninety test protocols had indicated that the original thirty-five card test could be shortened to improve the test's reliability. This analysis also showed that males were responding to certain cards differently from females.…

  7. Distributed Cognition: Cognizing, Autonomy and the Turing Test

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan; Dror, Itiel

    2006-01-01

    Some of the papers in this special issue [of Pragmatics & Cognition, on Cognitive Technology and Distributed Cognition] distribute cognition between what is going on inside individual cognizers’ heads and their outside worlds; others distribute cognition among different individual cognizers. Turing’s criterion for cognition was individual, autonomous input/output capacity. It is not clear that distributed cognition could pass the Turing Test.

  8. Confidence and Cognitive Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar; Lee, Jihyun

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the nature of confidence in relation to abilities, personality, and metacognition. Confidence scores were collected during the administration of Reading and Listening sections of the Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT) to 824 native speakers of English. Those confidence scores were correlated…

  9. Confidence and Cognitive Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar; Lee, Jihyun

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the nature of confidence in relation to abilities, personality, and metacognition. Confidence scores were collected during the administration of Reading and Listening sections of the Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT) to 824 native speakers of English. Those confidence scores were correlated…

  10. Cognitive test performance and background music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerton, T; Moore, S; Norman, D

    1997-12-01

    This study examined the effects of background music on test performance. In a repeated-measures design 30 undergraduates completed two cognitive tests, one in silence and the other with background music. Analysis suggested that music facilitated cognitive performance compared with the control condition of no music: more questions were completed and more answers were correct. There was no difference in heart rate under the two conditions. The improved performance under the music condition might be directly related to the type of music used.

  11. Cognitive nonlinear radar test-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Abigail S.; Wikner, David A.; Martone, Anthony; McNamara, David

    2013-05-01

    Providing situational awareness to the warfighter requires radar, communications, and other electronic systems that operate in increasingly cluttered and dynamic electromagnetic environments. There is a growing need for cognitive RF systems that are capable of monitoring, adapting to, and learning from their environments in order to maintain their effectiveness and functionality. Additionally, radar systems are needed that are capable of adapting to an increased number of targets of interest. Cognitive nonlinear radar may offer critical solutions to these growing problems. This work focuses on ongoing efforts at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) to develop a cognitive nonlinear radar test-bed. ARL is working toward developing a test-bed that uses spectrum sensing to monitor the RF environment and dynamically change the transmit waveforms to achieve detection of nonlinear targets with high confidence. This work presents the architecture of the test-bed system along with a discussion of its current capabilities and limitations. A brief outlook is presented for the project along with a discussion of a future cognitive nonlinear radar test-bed.

  12. Practical application of brief cognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olazarán, J; Hoyos-Alonso, M C; del Ser, T; Garrido Barral, A; Conde-Sala, J L; Bermejo-Pareja, F; López-Pousa, S; Pérez-Martínez, D; Villarejo-Galende, A; Cacho, J; Navarro, E; Oliveros-Cid, A; Peña-Casanova, J; Carnero-Pardo, C

    2016-04-01

    Brief cognitive tests (BCT) may help detect cognitive impairment (CI) in the clinical setting. Several BCT have been developed and/or validated in our country, but we lack specific recommendations for use. Review of studies on the diagnostic accuracy of BCT for CI, using studies conducted in Spain with BCT which take less than 20 min. We provide recommendations of use based on expert consensus and established on the basis of BCT characteristics and study results. The Fototest, the Memory Impairment Screen (MIS) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) are the preferred options in primary care; other BCT (Clock Drawing Test [CDT], test of verbal fluency [TVF]) may also be administered in cases of negative results with persistent suspected CI or concern (stepwise approach). In the specialised care setting, a systematic assessment of the different cognitive domains should be conducted using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the MMSE, the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment, the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination, or by means of a stepwise or combined approach involving more simple tests (CDT, TVF, Fototest, MIS, Memory Alteration Test, Eurotest). Associating an informant questionnaire (IQ) with the BCT is superior to the BCT alone for the detection of CI. The choice of instruments will depend on the patient's characteristics, the clinician's experience, and available time. The BCT and IQ must reinforce - but never substitute - clinical judgment, patient-doctor communication, and inter-professional dialogue. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive emotion regulation fails the stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raio, Candace M; Orederu, Temidayo A; Palazzolo, Laura; Shurick, Ashley A; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-09-10

    Cognitive emotion regulation has been widely shown in the laboratory to be an effective way to alter the nature of emotional responses. Despite its success in experimental contexts, however, we often fail to use these strategies in everyday life where stress is pervasive. The successful execution of cognitive regulation relies on intact executive functioning and engagement of the prefrontal cortex, both of which are rapidly impaired by the deleterious effects of stress. Because it is specifically under stressful conditions that we may benefit most from such deliberate forms of emotion regulation, we tested the efficacy of cognitive regulation after stress exposure. Participants first underwent fear-conditioning, where they learned that one stimulus (CS+) predicted an aversive outcome but another predicted a neutral outcome (CS-). Cognitive regulation training directly followed where participants were taught to regulate fear responses to the aversive stimulus. The next day, participants underwent an acute stress induction or a control task before repeating the fear-conditioning task using these newly acquired regulation skills. Skin conductance served as an index of fear arousal, and salivary α-amylase and cortisol concentrations were assayed as neuroendocrine markers of stress response. Although groups showed no differences in fear arousal during initial fear learning, nonstressed participants demonstrated robust fear reduction following regulation training, whereas stressed participants showed no such reduction. Our results suggest that stress markedly impairs the cognitive regulation of emotion and highlights critical limitations of this technique to control affective responses under stress.

  14. [Mokken scaling of the Cognitive Screening Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2009-10-01

    The Cognitive Screening Test (CST) is a twenty-item orientation questionnaire in Dutch, that is commonly used to evaluate cognitive impairment. This study applied Mokken Scale Analysis, a non-parametric set of techniques derived from item response theory (IRT), to CST-data of 466 consecutive participants in psychogeriatric day care. The full item set and the standard short version of fourteen items both met the assumptions of the monotone homogeneity model, with scalability coefficient H = 0.39, which is considered weak. In order to select items that would fulfil the assumption of invariant item ordering or the double monotonicity model, the subjects were randomly partitioned into a training set (50% of the sample) and a test set (the remaining half). By means of an automated item selection eleven items were found to measure one latent trait, with H = 0.67 and item H coefficients larger than 0.51. Cross-validation of the item analysis in the remaining half of the subjects gave comparable values (H = 0.66; item H coefficients larger than 0.56). The selected items involve year, place of residence, birth date, the monarch's and prime minister's names, and their predecessors. Applying optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) it was found that the full set of twenty CST items performed best in distinguishing two predefined groups of patients of lower or higher cognitive ability, as established by an independent criterion derived from the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test. The chance corrected predictive value or prognostic utility was 47.5% for the full item set, 45.2% for the fourteen items of the standard short version of the CST, and 46.1% for the homogeneous, unidimensional set of selected eleven items. The results of the item analysis support the application of the CST in cognitive assessment, and revealed a more reliable 'short' version of the CST than the standard short version (CST14).

  15. Heritability in Cognitive Performance: Evidence Using Computer-Based Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervey, Aaron S.; Greenfield, Kathryn; Gualtieri, C. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence of genetic influence on cognition. The effect is seen in general cognitive ability, as well as in specific cognitive domains. A conventional assessment approach using face-to-face paper and pencil testing is difficult for large-scale studies. Computerized neurocognitive testing is a suitable alternative. A total of…

  16. Apathy and Cognitive Test Performance in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Reese Kakos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychiatric comorbidity is common in patients with cardiovascular disease, with the literature indicating that this population may be at risk for apathy. The current study examined the prevalence of apathy in patients with cardiovascular disease and its relation to aspects of cognitive function. Methods. 123 participants from an outpatient cardiology clinic completed a brief neuropsychological battery, a cardiac stress test, and demographic information, medical history, and depression symptomatology self-report measures. Participants also completed the Apathy Evaluation Scale to quantify apathy. Results. These subjects reported limited levels of apathy and depression. Increased depressive symptomatology, history of heart attack, and metabolic equivalents were significantly correlated with apathy (P<0.05. Partial correlations adjusting for these factors revealed significant correlations between behavioral apathy and a measure of executive function and the other apathy subscale with a measure of attention. Conclusion. Findings revealed that apathy was not prevalent in this sample though associated with medical variables. Apathy was largely unrelated to cognitive function. This pattern may be a result of the mild levels of cardiovascular disease and cognitive dysfunction in the current sample. Future studies in samples with severe cardiovascular disease or neuropsychological impairment may provide insight into these associations.

  17. Cognitive bias test as a tool for accessing fish welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wojtas

    2015-12-01

    Difference in behaviour during the cognitive bias test suggests that fish cognitive bias can be affected by living conditions. Therefore this type of test should be taken to consideration as a tool in further fish welfare studies. It can be especially useful in studies concerning influence of living conditions that cannot be examined in direct way for example by preference test.

  18. Cognitive interviews to test and refine questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alexandra A

    2011-01-01

    Survey data are compromised when respondents do not interpret questions in the way researchers expect. Cognitive interviews are used to detect problems respondents have in understanding survey instructions and items, and in formulating answers. This paper describes methods for conducting cognitive interviews and describes the processes and lessons learned with an illustrative case study. The case study used cognitive interviews to elicit respondents' understanding and perceptions of the format, instructions, items, and responses that make up the Diabetes Symptom Self-Care Inventory (DSSCI), a questionnaire designed to measure Mexican Americans' symptoms of type 2 diabetes and their symptom management strategies. Responses to cognitive interviews formed the basis for revisions in the format, instructions, items, and translation of the DSSCI. All those who develop and revise surveys are urged to incorporate cognitive interviews into their instrumentation methods so that they may produce more reliable and valid measurements.

  19. Explicit versus Implicit Social Cognition Testing in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents…

  20. Explicit versus Implicit Social Cognition Testing in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents…

  1. Cognitive mechanisms of mindfulness: A test of current models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbel, Ben; Mahar, Doug

    2015-12-15

    Existing models of mindfulness describe the self-regulation of attention as primary, leading to enhanced decentering and ability to access and override automatic cognitive processes. This study compared 23 experienced and 21 non-meditators on tests of mindfulness, attention, decentering, and ability to override automatic cognitive processes to test the cognitive mechanisms proposed to underlie mindfulness practice. Experienced meditators had significantly higher mindfulness and decentering than non-meditators. No significant difference between groups was found on measures of attention or ability to override automatic processes. These findings support the prediction that mindfulness leads to enhanced decentering, but do not support the cognitive mechanisms proposed to underlie such enhancement. Since mindfulness practice primarily involves internally directed attention, it may be the case that cognitive tests requiring externally directed attention and timed responses do not accurately assess mindfulness-induced cognitive changes. Implications for the models of mindfulness and future research are discussed.

  2. Explicit versus implicit social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 carefully matched typically developing controls completed the Dewey Story Test. 'Explicit' (multiple-choice answering format) and 'implicit' (free interview) measures of social cognition were obtained. Autism spectrum disorder participants did not differ from controls regarding explicit social cognition performance. However, the autism spectrum disorder group performed more poorly than controls on implicit social cognition performance in terms of spontaneous perspective taking and social awareness. Findings suggest that social cognition alterations in autism spectrum disorder are primarily implicit in nature and that an apparent absence of social cognition difficulties on certain tests using rather explicit testing formats does not necessarily mean social cognition typicality in autism spectrum disorder.

  3. [Comparison of Work Ability Index and cognitive function tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideki; Kumashiro, Masaharu; Kusanoi, Kayo; Shazuki, Shuichiro; Fuji, Atsunaru; Eto, Risa

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aging with regard to scores for certain cognitive function tests and WAI (Work Ability Index), and to examine the relationship between cognitive function test scores and work ability as measured by WAI. The subjects were 139 male employees of a factory producing steel plate, and their average age was 48.1 yr (SD 16.4). The WAI and cognitive function tests were conducted and valid scores were obtained from 134 subjects as to WAI, and from 88 subjects as to cognitive function tests. The subjects were divided into two groups: young workers (under 45 yr) and middle-aged to elderly workers (45 yr and over). The WAI scores of the two groups were compared, but no significant differences were observed. Nevertheless, for two WAI items, WAI-2 and WAI-7, the scores of the middle-aged to elderly worker group were significantly higher than those of the young worker group. In contrast, the scores for WAI-3 of the middle-aged to elderly group were significantly lower than those of the young worker group. The cognitive function test scores for the two groups were also compared. The scores for Working Memory test, Tracking test, and Sentence-to-sentence Comparison test of the middle-aged to elderly worker group were significantly lower than those of the younger group. Moreover, for the middle-aged to elderly worker group, the average WAI-3 scores for those with good cognitive function test results and those with poor cognitive function test results were compared, but there were no significant differences. This result shows that deterioration of physical function caused by aging is not related to deterioration of cognitive function caused by aging in the subjects of this study. The reason for this may be that the subjects are blue-collar workers, and thus cognitive functions are less important for their work.

  4. Explicit versus implicit social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 carefully matched typically developing controls completed the Dewey Story Test. ‘Explicit’ (multiple-choice ans...

  5. Convergent validity of group tests of cognitive development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanich, Greg P.; Unruh, Roy D.; Perry, Bruce; Phillips, Gary

    This study was designed to investigate the convergent validity of individual clinical task interviews as presented by Piaget and Inhelder paired with three widely used group tests of cognitive development. These tests are designed to assess the acquisition of cognitive abilities. The three group test raw scores paired with summed raw scores on four concrete-formal task interviews yielded the following Pearson product-moment correlations: Reasoning Test (Ankney and Joyce), 0.43; Logical Reasoning Test (Burney), 0.61; Classroom Test of Formal Operations (Lawson), 0.37. The raw data was then ranked into cognitive level groups and presented on contingency tables. The following contingency coefficients were determined: Logical Reasoning Test, 0.52; Logical Reasoning Test (adjusted), 0.61; Classroom Test of Formal Operations, 0.50. This study reflects that the Reasoning Test tends to indicate lower cognitive levels of subjects when paired with summed scores on the clinical task interviews, whereas the Logical Reasoning Test and the Classroom Test of Formal Operations tend to indicate higher cognitive levels of subjects when paired with summed scores on the clinical task interviews. In each case the correlations do not appear to be sufficiently strong to warrant selection or categorization of an individual student based on his/her test performance.

  6. Test Review: Beal, A. L. (2011). "Insight Test of Cognitive Abilities." Markham, Ontario, Canadian Test Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colp, S. Mitchell; Nordstokke, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Published by the Canadian Test Centre (CTC), "Insight" represents a group-administered test of cognitive functioning that has been built entirely upon the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theoretical framework. "Insight" is intended to be administered by educators and screen entire classrooms for students who present learning…

  7. Detecting Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Deaf People: The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Joanna; Denmark, Tanya; Marshall, Jane; Mummery, Cath; Woll, Bencie

    2015-11-01

    To provide accurate diagnostic screening of deaf people who use signed communication, cognitive tests must be devised in signed languages with normative deaf samples. This article describes the development of the first screening test for the detection of cognitive impairment and dementia in deaf signers. The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test uses standardized video administration to screen cognition using signed, rather than spoken or written, instructions and a large norm-referenced sample of 226 deaf older people. Percentiles are provided for clinical comparison. The tests showed good reliability, content validity, and correlation with age, intellectual ability, and education. Clinical discrimination was shown between the normative sample and 14 deaf patients with dementia. This innovative testing approach transforms the ability to detect dementia in deaf people, avoids the difficulties of using an interpreter, and enables culturally and linguistically sensitive assessment of deaf signers, with international potential for adaptation into other signed languages.

  8. Farm animals's cognition and the tests used on its evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Priscila Bueno Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognition is a set of activities and processes whereby an animal acquires information and develops knowledge. The most common cognitive processes are: memory, categorization , attention, reasoning and language.  This present research was aimed to study the cognitive ability of livestock based on results of cognitive tests described in the literature, as well to expose the various types of tests applied to make such an assessment, in the periods from 1969 until nowadays. Through this bibliographic study, It was discussed issues related to cognition , sentience and animal consciousness, through preference tests, learning, recognition and memorization applied to domestic animals. In general they show a cognitive ability to evaluate the environment for themselves, based on their preferences and motivations. Cognitive tests have shown the high ability of some species to memorize their handlers's faces, and recognize who is aversively dealing with. Furthermore, it was possible to prove that some producing species are sentient and their choices able to imply physical sensations that can affect your mental state. Thus, it is important to point out measures to help improve the well-being of the animals.

  9. Status of computerized cognitive testing in aging: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Katherine; Howieson, Diane; Webbe, Frank; Seelye, Adriana; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2008-11-01

    Early detection of cognitive decline in the elderly has become of heightened importance in parallel with the recent advances in therapeutics. Computerized assessment might be uniquely suited to early detection of changes in cognition in the elderly. We present here a systematic review of the status of computer-based cognitive testing, focusing on detection of cognitive decline in the aging population. All studies purporting to assess or detect age-related changes in cognition or early dementia/mild cognitive impairment by means of computerized testing were included. Each test battery was rated on availability of normative data, level of evidence for test validity and reliability, comprehensiveness, and usability. All published studies relevant to a particular computerized test were read by a minimum of two reviewers, who completed rating forms containing the above mentioned criteria. Of the 18 test batteries identified from the initial search, 11 were appropriate to cognitive testing in the elderly and were subjected to systematic review. Of those 11, five were either developed specifically for application with the elderly or have been used extensively with that population. Even within the computerized testing genre, great variability existed in manner of administration, ranging from fully examiner-administered to fully self-administered. All tests had at least minimal reliability and validity data, commonly reported in peer-reviewed articles. However, level of rigor of validity testing varied widely. All test batteries exhibited some of the strengths of computerized cognitive testing: standardization of administration and stimulus presentation, accurate measures of response latencies, automated comparison in real time with an individual's prior performance as well as with age-related norms, and efficiencies of staffing and cost. Some, such as the Mild Cognitive Impairment Screen, adapted complicated scoring algorithms to enhance the information gathered from

  10. Interrelationships Among Five Cognitive Style Tests, Student Characteristics, and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patricia; And Others

    Using college freshmen enrolled in a learning analysis course, the relationship between five tests of cognitive style was investigated: (1) Group Embedded Figures Test; (2) Grasha-Riechmann Student Learning Style Questionnaire; (3) Adult Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale; (4) Mehrabian Stimulus Screening Test; and (5) Kolb Learning Style…

  11. The validity of cognitive testing in screening for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, P; Cohen-Mansfield, J; Billig, N

    1998-02-01

    The concept of "cognitive impairment," as an indicator of dementia, defined in 1980 as a loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning, is the model which has been adopted for a condition, which has recently been reclassified from an "organic" to a "cognitive disorder." Data derived from the assessment of a sample of older people demonstrated the extreme sensitivity of a widely employed cognitive assessment instrument to all levels of educational experience, and educational correlates, notably level of physical disability, were identified as other independent predictors of test performance. The analyses raise questions with regard to the reinterpretation of "lack of education," from a confounding factor in prevalence estimates of cognitive impairment to a "risk factor" for dementia, and support those who have questioned the validity of the one-dimensional "cognitive paradigm," and the trend to diagnosis based upon objective assessment with standardized instruments.

  12. Feasibility and validity of mobile cognitive testing in the investigation of age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Pierre; Husky, Mathilde; Allard, Michèle; Amieva, Hélène; Pérès, Karine; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Dartigues, Jean-François; Swendsen, Joel

    2016-08-19

    Mobile cognitive testing may be used to help characterize subtle deficits at the earliest stages of cognitive decline. Despite growing interest in this approach, comprehensive information concerning its feasibility and validity has been lacking in elderly samples. Over a one-week period, this study applied mobile cognitive tests of semantic memory, episodic memory and executive functioning in a cohort of 114 elderly non-demented community residents. While the study acceptance rate was moderate (66%), the majority of recruited individuals met minimal compliance thresholds and responded to an average of 82% of the repeated daily assessments. Missing data did not increase over the course of the study, but practice effects were observed for several test scores. However, even when controlling for practice effects, traditional neuropsychological tests were significantly associated with mobile cognitive test scores. In particular, the Isaacs Set Test was associated with mobile assessments of semantic memory (γ = 0.084, t = 5.598, p mobile assessments of episodic memory (γ = 0.069, t = 3.156, p mobile assessments of executive functioning (γ = 0.168, t = 4.562, p Mobile cognitive testing in the elderly may provide complementary and potentially more sensitive data relative to traditional neuropsychological assessment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. EEG INTERFACE MODULE FOR COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT THROUGH NEUROPHYSIOLOGIC TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Lal Verma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive signal processing is one of the important interdisciplinary field came from areas of life sciences, psychology, psychiatry, engi-neering, mathematics, physics, statistics and many other fields of research. Neurophysiologic tests are utilized to assess and treat brain injury, dementia, neurological conditions, and useful to investigate psychological and psychiatric disorders. This paper presents an ongoing research work on development of EEG interface device based on the principles of cognitive assessments and instrumentation. The method proposed engineering and science of cogni-tive signal processing in case of brain computer in-terface based neurophysiologic tests. The future scope of this study is to build a low cost EEG device for various clinical and pre-clinical applications with specific emphasis to measure the effect of cognitive action on human brain.

  14. On Test-taking Strategies in Reading Test from Cognitive and Metacognitive Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欧

    2008-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a complex process wherein readers actively participate the activities of cognition, metatcognition and decoding information. In reading test, cognitive and metacognitive stategies always occur at the same time. Based on theories about learning strategies, this paper discusses test-taking strategies from a theoretical level.

  15. Discriminating cognitive screening and cognitive testing from neuropsychological assessment: implications for professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Cady K; Johnson-Greene, Doug; Pliskin, Neil; Boake, Corwin

    2017-04-01

    To provide clarification on the distinction between cognitive screening, cognitive testing, and neuropsychological assessment and highlight practical implications. Non-systematic brief clinical review. There is a present lack of explicit distinction between the various levels of measurement of cognitive functioning with regard to goals, indications for use, levels of complexity, and outcome. There is also a lack of guidance regarding the identification of who should be responsible for the administration and interpretation at each level. There is a growing awareness of the importance of cognitive health and disability, and of the importance of measurement of cognitive functions across the lifespan. For example, cognitive screening has been mandated by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, and language contained within new psychiatric diagnostic criteria and healthcare regulatory changes reflect increased consideration of the importance of measurement of cognition. Changes such as these necessitate greater clarity on this important issue as it bears implications for professional practice, which ranges from education and training competencies, practice standards, and the way that neuropsychologists clarify and advocate for the value of specialty referrals for comprehensive assessment in a competitive and ever-changing healthcare market.

  16. Online cognition: factors facilitating reliable online neuropsychological test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Heleen E M; Vermeulen, Ivar E; Murre, Jaap M J; Schagen, Sanne B

    2017-01-01

    Online neuropsychological test batteries could allow for large-scale cognitive data collection in clinical studies. However, the few online neuropsychological test batteries that are currently available often still require supervision or lack proper psychometric evaluation. In this paper, we have outlined prerequisites for proper development and use of online neuropsychological tests, with the focus on reliable measurement of cognitive function in an unmonitored setting. First, we identified several technical, contextual, and psychological factors that should be taken into account in order to facilitate reliable test results of online tests in the unmonitored setting. Second, we outlined a methodology of quality assurance needed in order to obtain reliable cognitive data in the long run. Based on factors that distinguish the online unmonitored test setting from the traditional face-to-face setting, we provide a set of basic requirements and suggestions for optimal development and use of unmonitored online neuropsychological tests, including suggestions on acquiring reliability, validity, and norm scores. When properly addressing factors that could hamper reliable test results during development and use, online neuropsychological tests could aid large-scale data collection for clinical studies in the future. Investment in both proper development of online neuropsychological test platforms and the performance of accompanying psychometric studies is currently required.

  17. Test Anxiety: Cognitive Interference or Inadequate Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    anxiety interferes with students’ recall of prior learning on examinations. This so called interference model has recently been challenged by an...instructions, sometimes called ego involving instructions, suggesting that performance on the research task is related to students’ ability or school...New York: Irvington Press. Culler, R. E., & Holahan , C. (1980). Test taking and academic performance: The effects of study-related behaviors

  18. Addenbrooke's cognitive examination test for brief cognitive assessment of adolescents suffering from migraine with aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusic, Igor; Pavlovski, Vera; Savkovic, Zorica; Vucinic, Dragana; Filipovic, Branislav; Jancic, Jasna

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of the Addenbrooke's cognitive examination test (ACE-R) in the evaluation of cognitive status in migraineurs interictally. A total of 44 adolescent patients and 44 healthy controls, matched by age and gender, have undergone ACE-R testing. Migraineurs were additionally questioned about migraine aura features and presence of higher cortical dysfunctions (HCD) during an aura. According to the questionnaire results, patients were subsequently divided into HCD and Non-HCD group. ACE-R scores of migraine patients were significantly lower than in healthy controls (93.68 ± 3.64 vs 96.91 ± 2.49; t = 4.852, p aura. Also, our study has revealed that the ACE-R test is an easily administered test for brief assessment of cognitive status in migraineurs. Future perspectives could be further evaluation of ACE-R test in larger sample size and the impact of migraine with aura on cognitive function in adolescents.

  19. The Effects of Testing on Meta-Cognitive Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, Kim; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Dirkx, K. J. H., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 27 August). The Effects of Testing on Meta-Cognitive Awareness. In B. Klein (Chair), Effective Learning Strategies and their Usage in Self-Regulated Training Programs and Computer-Based Learning Environments. Symposium conducted at the meeting o

  20. Cognitive testing in non-demented Turkish immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T. Rune; Vogel, Asmus M.; Gade, Anders

    2012-01-01

    of non-demented community-dwelling Turkish immigrants was recruited from the greater Copenhagen area. All participants completed a structured interview regarding demographic, physical and mental health status, as well as measures of depression and acculturation, and cognitive testing with the RUDAS...

  1. Designing multiple-choice test items at higher cognitive levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Whei Ming; Osisek, Paul J; Montgomery, Cynthia; Pellar, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    In the midst of a nursing faculty shortage, many academic institutions hire clinicians who are not formally prepared for an academic role. These novice faculty face an immediate need to develop teaching skills. One area in particular is test construction. To address this need, the authors describe how faculty from one course designed multiple-choice test items at higher cognitive levels and simultaneously achieved congruence with critical-thinking learning objectives defined by the course.

  2. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig with ......, and would benefit from further validation. This review presents the cognitive tasks that have been developed for pigs, their validation, and their current use....... with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group...

  3. Standards for thyroid laboratory testing, and cognitive functions after menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Bojar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The aim of the study is to analyze the relationship between normative and non-normative thyroid tests (TSH, TT4, TT3, FT3, FT4, anti-TPO, anti-Tg, AB-TSHR and the level of cognitive functions in postmenopausal women. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 383 women from south-eastern Poland, aged 50-65 years. The cognitive functions were evaluated using a diagnostic instrument – Central Nervous System – Vital Signs (CNS-VS. Blood was collected for determination of the following parameters: TSH, TT4, TT3, FT3, FT4, anti-TPO, anti-Tg, AB-TSHR. Results: There were significant differences in NCI, executive functions, psychomotor speed, reaction time, complex attention and cognitive flexibility, depending on the normative and non-normative level of TSH. Women whose level of FT3 was at the lower limit of the normal range obtained poorer results in psychomotor speed, while subjects with levels of FT4 below the standard achieved significantly lower scores for this function. The relationship between NCI and cognitive functions, and the normative and non-normative anti-TPO results, showed significant differences in verbal memory, visual memory, processing speed and reaction time. The level of AB-TSHR reported as normal or above the norm significantly differentiated from the results of NCI, processing speed, executive functions, psychomotor speed, complex attention and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions : Concentrations of laboratory parameters assessing the thyroid function located within the upper limits of the normal range showed a different relationship with the cognitive performance than concentrations located within the lower limits of the standard.

  4. Cognitive screening for dementia and mild cognitive impairment in assisted living: comparison of 3 tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, Daniel I; Williams, Christianna S; Braaten, Alyssa J; Gill, Karminder; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Sloane, Philip D

    2008-10-01

    Compare diagnostic characteristics of brief cognitive screening tests in residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) residents. Cross-sectional study involving a comprehensive clinical examination to ascertain a consensus diagnosis of probable dementia, no significant cognitive impairment, or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), including both amnestic and non-amnestic subtypes. Fourteen RC/AL facilities in North Carolina. Participants were 146 RC/AL residents, aged 65 years or older, who did not have diagnosed cognitive impairment. Diagnostic characteristics of the Mini-Cog, the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), and a new 50-point test based on expanding selected MMSE items (MMX). Overall, 55/146 (38%) participants were diagnosed with probable dementia, and 76 (52%) met criteria for MCI (most non-amnestic). Both the Mini-Cog and the MMSE showed high sensitivity and negative predictive value for dementia, but had relatively low sensitivity and negative predictive value for MCI. The Mini-Cog had low specificity and was less accurate as a dementia screen than either the MMSE or MMX. Reliability and validity data for the MMX were satisfactory, and it performed better as a screening test for MCI than either the MMSE or Mini-Cog. Although the MMSE and Mini-Cog are both sensitive to dementia, modest specificity and positive predictive value may limit their utility as screening tools. Preliminary MMX data suggest it improves screening for MCI compared to the Mini-Cog or MMSE, while providing a similar level of screening for dementia. Further work is needed to identify suitable instruments for cognitive screening across the range of MCI and dementia.

  5. Everyday cognitive functioning in cardiac patients: relationships between self-report, report of a significant other and cognitive test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Peter C; Smith, Geoff; Ernest, Christine S; Murphy, Barbara M; Worcester, Marian U C; Higgins, Rosemary O; Le Grande, Michael R; Goble, Alan J; Andrewes, David; Tatoulis, James

    2010-01-01

    Candidates for cardiac bypass surgery often experience cognitive decline. Such decline is likely to affect their everyday cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiac patients' ratings of their everyday cognitive functioning against significant others' ratings and selected neuropsychological tests. Sixty-nine patients completed a battery of standardised cognitive tests. Patients and significant others also completed the Everyday Function Questionnaire independently of each other. Patient and significant other ratings of patients' everyday cognitive difficulties were found to be similar. Despite the similarities in ratings of difficulties, some everyday cognitive tasks were attributed to different processes. Patients' and significant others' ratings were most closely associated with the neuropsychological test of visual memory. Tests of the patients' verbal memory and fluency were only related to significant others' ratings. Test scores of attention and planning were largely unrelated to ratings by either patients or their significant others.

  6. Deciphering CAPTCHAs: What a Turing Test Reveals about Human Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Hannagan; Maria Ktori; Myriam Chanceaux; Jonathan Grainger

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Turning Turing's logic on its head, we used widespread letter-based Turing Tests found on the internet CAPTCHAs) to shed light on human cognition. We examined the basis of the human ability to solve CAPTCHAs, where machines fail. We asked whether this is due to our use of slow-acting inferential processes that would not be available to machines, or whether fastacting automatic orthographic processing in humans has superior robustness to shape variations. A masked primi...

  7. The Group Embedded Figures Test: a measure of cognitive style or cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, M R; Calsyn, D A; Fauria, T

    1980-10-01

    The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) purports to be a measure of field articulation. The extent to which the GEFT measures apsects of personality and cognitive impairment was explored. Eighty-one male alcoholics, mean age of 42.9, receiving treatment for alcoholism at the Seattle VA Medical Center were administered the GEFT, Shipley Hartford Institute of Living Scale, the Trail Making Test (TMT), and the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (CAQ). Multiple regression analysis indicates that Part B of the TMT and the residual abstraction score from the Shipley share 32% of the common variance with GEFT. The CAQ second-order factors of depression and independence also contributed significantly to the regression equation accounting for an additional 10% of the common variance. The results suggest the GEFT may be more a measure of cognitive impairment than personality. Alternative explanations are explored.

  8. Validation of an Academic Listening Test: Effects of "Breakdown" Tests and Test Takers' Cognitive Awareness of Listening Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Youngshin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the breakdown effect of a listening comprehension test, whether test takers are affected in comprehending lectures by impediments, and collected test takers' cognitive awareness on test tasks which contain listening breakdown factors how they perceived these impediments. In this context of the study, a "Breakdown" is a test…

  9. Analysis of Test Takers' Metacognitive and Cognitive Strategy Use and EFL Reading Test Performance: A Multi-Sample SEM Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limei; Goh, Christine C. M.; Kunnan, Antony John

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between test takers' metacognitive and cognitive strategy use through a questionnaire and their test performance on an English as a Foreign Language reading test. A total of 593 Chinese college test takers responded to a 38-item metacognitive and cognitive strategy questionnaire and a 50-item reading test.…

  10. Does the cognitive reflection test measure cognitive reflection? A mathematical modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campitelli, Guillermo; Gerrans, Paul

    2014-04-01

    We used a mathematical modeling approach, based on a sample of 2,019 participants, to better understand what the cognitive reflection test (CRT; Frederick In Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 25-42, 2005) measures. This test, which is typically completed in less than 10 min, contains three problems and aims to measure the ability or disposition to resist reporting the response that first comes to mind. However, since the test contains three mathematically based problems, it is possible that the test only measures mathematical abilities, and not cognitive reflection. We found that the models that included an inhibition parameter (i.e., the probability of inhibiting an intuitive response), as well as a mathematical parameter (i.e., the probability of using an adequate mathematical procedure), fitted the data better than a model that only included a mathematical parameter. We also found that the inhibition parameter in males is best explained by both rational thinking ability and the disposition toward actively open-minded thinking, whereas in females this parameter was better explained by rational thinking only. With these findings, this study contributes to the understanding of the processes involved in solving the CRT, and will be particularly useful for researchers who are considering using this test in their research.

  11. Rasch modeling of accuracy and confidence measures from cognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Insu; Lee, Jihyun; Stankov, Lazar; Wilson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The use of IRT models has not been rigorously applied in studies of the relationship between test-takers' confidence and accuracy. This study applied the Rasch measurement models to investigate the relationship between test-takers' confidence and accuracy on English proficiency tests, proposing potentially useful measures of under or overconfidence. The Rasch approach provided the scaffolding to formulate indices that can assess the discrepancy between confidence and accuracy at the item or total test level, as well as at particular ability levels locally. In addition, a "disattenuated" measure of association between accuracy and confidence, which takes measurement error into account, was obtained through a multidimensional Rasch modeling of the two constructs where the latent variance-covariance structure is directly estimated from the data. The results indicate that the participants tend to show overconfidence bias in their own cognitive abilities.

  12. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group of farm animal welfare researchers, but it has only recently received interest in the wider neuroscience community. Several behavioral tasks have successfully been adapted to the pig, and valuable results have been produced. However, most tasks have only been established at a single research facility, and would benefit from further validation. This review presents the cognitive tasks that have been developed for pigs, their validation, and their current use.

  13. The Newell Test for a theory of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John R; Lebiere, Christian

    2003-10-01

    Newell (1980; 1990) proposed that cognitive theories be developed in an effort to satisfy multiple criteria and to avoid theoretical myopia. He provided two overlapping lists of 13 criteria that the human cognitive architecture would have to satisfy in order to be functional. We have distilled these into 12 criteria: flexible behavior, real-time performance, adaptive behavior, vast knowledge base, dynamic behavior, knowledge integration, natural language, learning, development, evolution, and brain realization. There would be greater theoretical progress if we evaluated theories by a broad set of criteria such as these and attended to the weaknesses such evaluations revealed. To illustrate how theories can be evaluated we apply these criteria to both classical connectionism (McClelland & Rumelhart 1986; Rumelhart & McClelland 1986b) and the ACT-R theory (Anderson & Lebiere 1998). The strengths of classical connectionism on this test derive from its intense effort in addressing empirical phenomena in such domains as language and cognitive development. Its weaknesses derive from its failure to acknowledge a symbolic level to thought. In contrast, ACT-R includes both symbolic and sub-symbolic components. The strengths of the ACT-R theory derive from its tight integration of the symbolic component with the sub-symbolic component. Its weaknesses largely derive from its failure, as yet, to adequately engage in intensive analyses of issues related to certain criteria on Newell's list.

  14. Evaluating the relationship between education level and cognitive impairment with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancar Demir, Esra; Özcan, Tuba

    2015-09-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined as 'a cognitive decline greater than that expected for an individual's age and education level but that does not interfere notably with activities of daily life'. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a screening test for MCI. We investigated the performance of the Turkish version of the MoCA in detecting MCI among elderly persons in a rural area, the majority of whom have a low level of education. We evaluated 50 consecutive men referred from an outpatient clinic. Educational level was divided into three categories: group 1, less than primary (5 years). We evaluated the effect of education on MoCA scores and compared subjects' test performance among the different categories of education level. A total of 50 male patients with MCI (mean age: 70.74 ± 7.87) met the inclusion criteria. There were no differences in the total scores based on education or in the subscores for visuospatial/executive function, naming, attention, abstraction and delayed recall. Language was the only domain that showed significant differences between the groups. In post-hoc analysis, differences were found between groups 1 and 3 and between groups 1 and 2. Group 1 had significantly lower scores for language. The repeat subscore for language was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2. In fluency, there were significant differences between groups 2 and 3 and between group 1 and 3. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze the applicability of the Turkish version of MoCA in populations with little education. Our results emphasize the need to adapt the language sections of this test, so it can be easily used in populations with low education levels. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  15. Test anxiety and the validity of cognitive tests: A confirmatory factor analysis perspective and some empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Zand Scholten, A.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of cognitive ability tests is often interpreted solely as a function of the cognitive abilities that these tests are supposed to measure, but other factors may be at play. The effects of test anxiety on the criterion related validity (CRV) of tests was the topic of a recent study by Ree

  16. Test Anxiety and the Validity of Cognitive Tests: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Perspective and Some Empirical Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Scholten, Annemarie Zand

    2010-01-01

    The validity of cognitive ability tests is often interpreted solely as a function of the cognitive abilities that these tests are supposed to measure, but other factors may be at play. The effects of test anxiety on the criterion related validity (CRV) of tests was the topic of a recent study by Reeve, Heggestad, and Lievens (2009) (Reeve, C. L.,…

  17. Predictors of cognitive test patterns in autism families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folstein, S E; Santangelo, S L; Gilman, S E; Piven, J; Landa, R; Lainhart, J; Hein, J; Wzorek, M

    1999-10-01

    In a case-control study of cognitive performance, tests of intelligence, reading, spelling, and pragmatic language were administered to the parents and siblings of 90 community-ascertained probands with autism (AU group) and to the parents and siblings of 40 similarly ascertained probands with trisomy 21 Down syndrome (DS group). The two samples were comparable for age and parents' education; both groups were well-educated and had above-average intelligence. AU parents scored slightly but significantly lower on the WAIS-R Full Scale and Performance IQ, on two subtests (Picture Arrangement and Picture Completion), and on the Word Attack Test (reading nonsense words) from the Woodcock-Johnson battery. There were no differences between AU and DS siblings. As in earlier studies, AU parents, more often than DS parents, reported a history of early language-related cognitive difficulties; we were not able to replicate this in siblings. AU parents who reported such difficulties scored significantly lower on Verbal IQ, spelling, and the nonsense reading test. AU parents without a history of early language-related cognitive difficulties often had a Verbal IQ that exceeded Performance IQ by more than one standard deviation. AU siblings with early language-related difficulties had similar findings: lower Verbal IQ, poorer spelling, and poorer reading scores, compared to AU siblings without such a history. Parents with a positive history also scored worse on a measure of pragmatic language,the Pragmatic Rating Scale, but not on measures of social-related components of the broader autism phenotype. We propose that cognitive differences in a subset of autism family members are manifestations of the language-related component of the broader autism phenotype, and separate from the social-related component. This is consistent with the hypothesis that there are several genes that may interact to cause autism which segregate independently and have distinguishable manifestations in

  18. The Utility of Brief Cognitive Tests for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, YanHong; Kua, Zhong Jie; Khoo, Eric Yin Hao; Koo, Edward H; Merchant, Reshma A

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk for mild cognitive impairment and dementia in both middle-aged and older individuals. Brief cognitive tests can potentially serve as a reliable and cost effective approach to detect for cognitive decrements in clinical practice. This systematic review examined the utility of brief cognitive tests in studies with patients with T2DM. This systematic review was conducted according to guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. "PubMed," "PsychINFO," "ScienceDirect," and "ProQuest" electronic databases were searched to identify articles published from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2015. The search yielded 22 studies, with only 8 using brief tests as a cognitive screening tool, whereas the majority using these tests as a measure of global cognitive functions. In regard to cognitive screening studies, most had failed to fulfil the standard reporting of diagnostic test accuracy criteria such as Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy for dementia and cognitive impairment. Moreover, few studies reported discriminant indices such as sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of brief cognitive tests in detecting cognitive impairment in patients with T2DM. Among studies which used brief cognitive tests as a measure of global cognitive function, patients with diabetes tended to perform worse than patients without diabetes. Processing speed appeared to be particularly impaired among patients with diabetes, therefore, measures of processing speed such as the Digit Symbol Substitution Test may add value to brief cognitive tests such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment supplemented by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test indicate initial promise in screening for cognitive impairment in T2DM. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  19. The Memory Alteration Test Discriminates between Cognitively Healthy Status, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Nuñez del Prado, Liza; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa; Cortijo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS). Methods The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC). Results M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7) in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3) in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1) in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999). A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000). Conclusions The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS. PMID:25298775

  20. Cognitive set influences on Witkin's Rod-and-Frame Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinking, R H

    1977-04-01

    Witkin's field-dependence theory is embroiled in conflict as research shows its primary assessment method, the Rod-and-frame Test, is influenced by situational events. This study explored the impact of an additional situational variable, locus of problem-solving data search, a cognitive set modified from Rotter's (1966) work. Two experimental groups of hospitalized alcoholics received standard Witkin instructions plus instructions emphasizing either an internal or external search for problem-solving cues. A control group received only Witkin's instructions. Aanlysis of variance showed the special instructions affected rod-and-frame scores in the predicted directions. The results were interpreted as indicating a need for a multi-factor approach to analyzing the complex relationships of the Rod-and-frame Test.

  1. A virtual shopping test for realistic assessment of cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okahashi, Sayaka; Seki, Keiko; Nagano, Akinori; Luo, Zhiwei; Kojima, Maki; Futaki, Toshiko

    2013-06-18

    Cognitive dysfunction caused by brain injury often prevents a patient from achieving a healthy and high quality of life. By now, each cognitive function is assessed precisely by neuropsychological tests. However, it is also important to provide an overall assessment of the patients' ability in their everyday life. We have developed a Virtual Shopping Test (VST) using virtual reality technology. The objective of this study was to clarify 1) the significance of VST by comparing VST with other conventional tests, 2) the applicability of VST to brain-damaged patients, and 3) the performance of VST in relation to age differences. The participants included 10 patients with brain damage, 10 age-matched healthy subjects for controls, 10 old healthy subjects, and 10 young healthy subjects. VST and neuropsychological tests/questionnaires about attention, memory and executive function were conducted on the patients, while VST and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were conducted on the controls and healthy subjects. Within the VST, the participants were asked to buy four items in the virtual shopping mall quickly in a rational way. The score for evaluation included the number of items bought correctly, the number of times to refer to hints, the number of movements between shops, and the total time spent to complete the shopping. Some variables on VST correlated with the scores of conventional assessment about attention and everyday memory. The mean number of times referring to hints and the mean number of movements were significantly larger for the patients with brain damage, and the mean total time was significantly longer for the patients than for the controls. In addition, the mean total time was significantly longer for the old than for the young. The results suggest that VST is able to evaluate the ability of attention and everyday memory in patients with brain damage. The time of VST is increased by age.

  2. A virtual shopping test for realistic assessment of cognitive function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive dysfunction caused by brain injury often prevents a patient from achieving a healthy and high quality of life. By now, each cognitive function is assessed precisely by neuropsychological tests. However, it is also important to provide an overall assessment of the patients’ ability in their everyday life. We have developed a Virtual Shopping Test (VST) using virtual reality technology. The objective of this study was to clarify 1) the significance of VST by comparing VST with other conventional tests, 2) the applicability of VST to brain-damaged patients, and 3) the performance of VST in relation to age differences. Methods The participants included 10 patients with brain damage, 10 age-matched healthy subjects for controls, 10 old healthy subjects, and 10 young healthy subjects. VST and neuropsychological tests/questionnaires about attention, memory and executive function were conducted on the patients, while VST and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were conducted on the controls and healthy subjects. Within the VST, the participants were asked to buy four items in the virtual shopping mall quickly in a rational way. The score for evaluation included the number of items bought correctly, the number of times to refer to hints, the number of movements between shops, and the total time spent to complete the shopping. Results Some variables on VST correlated with the scores of conventional assessment about attention and everyday memory. The mean number of times referring to hints and the mean number of movements were significantly larger for the patients with brain damage, and the mean total time was significantly longer for the patients than for the controls. In addition, the mean total time was significantly longer for the old than for the young. Conclusions The results suggest that VST is able to evaluate the ability of attention and everyday memory in patients with brain damage. The time of VST is increased by age. PMID:23777412

  3. Factorial Structure of Cognitive Activity Using a Neuropsychological Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A general neuropsychological test battery was assembled and individually given to a 98-subject sample, aged 11–12 years old. The battery included some basic and common tests routinely used in the evaluation of language, memory, spatial abilities, concept formation, and praxic abilities. Twenty-five different scores were calculated. A factor analysis with varimax rotation disclosed nine different factors, accounting for about 70% of the variance. Factor I was measured by a Sequential Verbal Memory test and Verbal Fluency subtests (“verbal factor”. Factor II was measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale Visual Memory subtests (immediate and delayed reproduction, and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (copy and immediate reproduction (“non-verbal memory and constructional factor”. Factor III was measured by the WMS Logical Memory subtests (immediate and delayed; “verbal memory factor”. Factor IV was associated with fine movements (tapping subtests, right and left hand; “fine movements factor”. Factor V was specially measured by the Information subtest of the WMS and the Boston Naming Test (“verbal knowledge”. Factor VI represented a “praxic ability factor” (ideomotor praxis tests. Delayed Associative Learning subtest measured Factor VII; and Digits measured Factor VIII. Factor IX was a “mental control factor” (Mental Control subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale. The implications of these results to theories relating to the structure of cognitive activity are discussed.

  4. A cognitive-behavioral group treatment for test-anxious adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESSEL, Ineke; MERSCH, PPA

    1994-01-01

    Test anxiety is referring to distress experienced in formal test-taking and social-evaluative situations. Worrisome cognitions appear to be a key factor in test anxiety, and cognitive interference plays a major role in impairing academic performance in test-anxious persons. In the present study the

  5. A cognitive-behavioral group treatment for test-anxious adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESSEL, Ineke; MERSCH, PPA

    1994-01-01

    Test anxiety is referring to distress experienced in formal test-taking and social-evaluative situations. Worrisome cognitions appear to be a key factor in test anxiety, and cognitive interference plays a major role in impairing academic performance in test-anxious persons. In the present study the

  6. The Cognitive Processing of Candidates during Reading Tests: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The research described in this article investigates test takers' cognitive processing while completing onscreen IELTS (International English Language Testing System) reading test items. The research aims, among other things, to contribute to our ability to evaluate the cognitive validity of reading test items (Glaser, 1991; Field, in press). The…

  7. The Cognitive Processing of Candidates during Reading Tests: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The research described in this article investigates test takers' cognitive processing while completing onscreen IELTS (International English Language Testing System) reading test items. The research aims, among other things, to contribute to our ability to evaluate the cognitive validity of reading test items (Glaser, 1991; Field, in press). The…

  8. Test-retest reliability and task order effects of emotional cognitive tests in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas; Pounder, Zoe; Preston, Sally; Hanson, Andy; Gallagher, Peter; Harmer, Catherine J; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish

    2016-11-01

    Little is known of the retest reliability of emotional cognitive tasks or the impact of using different tasks employing similar emotional stimuli within a battery. We investigated this in healthy subjects. We found improved overall performance in an emotional attentional blink task (EABT) with repeat testing at one hour and one week compared to baseline, but the impact of an emotional stimulus on performance was unchanged. Similarly, performance on a facial expression recognition task (FERT) was better one week after a baseline test, though the relative effect of specific emotions was unaltered. There was no effect of repeat testing on an emotional word categorising, recall and recognition task. We found no difference in performance in the FERT and EABT irrespective of task order. We concluded that it is possible to use emotional cognitive tasks in longitudinal studies and combine tasks using emotional facial stimuli in a single battery.

  9. Improving clinical cognitive testing: report of the AAN Behavioral Neurology Section Workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffner, Kirk R; Gale, Seth A; Barrett, A M; Boeve, Bradley F; Chatterjee, Anjan; Coslett, H Branch; D'Esposito, Mark; Finney, Glen R; Gitelman, Darren R; Hart, John J; Lerner, Alan J; Meador, Kimford J; Pietras, Alison C; Voeller, Kytja S; Kaufer, Daniel I

    2015-09-08

    To evaluate the evidence basis of single-domain cognitive tests frequently used by behavioral neurologists in an effort to improve the quality of clinical cognitive assessment. Behavioral Neurology Section members of the American Academy of Neurology were surveyed about how they conduct clinical cognitive testing, with a particular focus on the Neurobehavioral Status Exam (NBSE). In contrast to general screening cognitive tests, an NBSE consists of tests of individual cognitive domains (e.g., memory or language) that provide a more comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Workgroups for each of 5 cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, language, and spatial cognition) conducted evidence-based reviews of frequently used tests. Reviews focused on suitability for office-based clinical practice, including test administration time, accessibility of normative data, disease populations studied, and availability in the public domain. Demographic and clinical practice data were obtained from 200 respondents who reported using a wide range of cognitive tests. Based on survey data and ancillary information, between 5 and 15 tests in each cognitive domain were reviewed. Within each domain, several tests are highlighted as being well-suited for an NBSE. We identified frequently used single-domain cognitive tests that are suitable for an NBSE to help make informed choices about clinical cognitive assessment. Some frequently used tests have limited normative data or have not been well-studied in common neurologic disorders. Utilizing standardized cognitive tests, particularly those with normative data based on the individual's age and educational level, can enhance the rigor and utility of clinical cognitive assessment. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Deciphering CAPTCHAs: what a Turing test reveals about human cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hannagan

    Full Text Available Turning Turing's logic on its head, we used widespread letter-based Turing Tests found on the internet (CAPTCHAs to shed light on human cognition. We examined the basis of the human ability to solve CAPTCHAs, where machines fail. We asked whether this is due to our use of slow-acting inferential processes that would not be available to machines, or whether fast-acting automatic orthographic processing in humans has superior robustness to shape variations. A masked priming lexical decision experiment revealed efficient processing of CAPTCHA words in conditions that rule out the use of slow inferential processing. This shows that the human superiority in solving CAPTCHAs builds on a high degree of invariance to location and continuous transforms, which is achieved during the very early stages of visual word recognition in skilled readers.

  11. Deciphering CAPTCHAs: what a Turing test reveals about human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannagan, Thomas; Ktori, Maria; Chanceaux, Myriam; Grainger, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Turning Turing's logic on its head, we used widespread letter-based Turing Tests found on the internet (CAPTCHAs) to shed light on human cognition. We examined the basis of the human ability to solve CAPTCHAs, where machines fail. We asked whether this is due to our use of slow-acting inferential processes that would not be available to machines, or whether fast-acting automatic orthographic processing in humans has superior robustness to shape variations. A masked priming lexical decision experiment revealed efficient processing of CAPTCHA words in conditions that rule out the use of slow inferential processing. This shows that the human superiority in solving CAPTCHAs builds on a high degree of invariance to location and continuous transforms, which is achieved during the very early stages of visual word recognition in skilled readers.

  12. Testing cognition in the wild: factors affecting performance and individual consistency in two measures of avian cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rachael C

    2017-01-01

    Developing cognitive tasks to reliably quantify individual differences in cognitive ability is critical to advance our understanding of the fitness consequences of cognition in the wild. Several factors may influence individual performance in a cognitive task, with some being unrelated to the cognitive ability that is the target of the test. It is therefore essential to assess how extraneous factors may affect task performance, particularly for those tasks that are frequently used to quantify individual differences in cognitive ability. The current study therefore measured the performance of wild North Island robins in two tasks commonly used to measure individual differences in avian cognition: a novel motor task and a detour reaching task. The robins' performance in the motor task was affected by prior experience; individuals that had previously participated in a similar task that required a different motor action pattern outperformed naïve subjects. By contrast, detour reaching performance was influenced by an individual's body condition, suggesting that energetic state may affect inhibitory control in robins. Designing tasks that limit the influence of past experience and developing means of standardising motivation across animals tested in the wild remain key challenges to improving current measurements of cognitive ability in birds.

  13. Does the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) Distinguish Between Cognitive Domains in Healthy Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenehan, Megan E; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Summers, Jeffery J; Vickers, James C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a semiautomated computer interface for assessing cognitive function. We examined whether CANTAB tests measured specific cognitive functions, using established neuropsychological tests as a reference point. A sample of 500 healthy older (M = 60.28 years, SD = 6.75) participants in the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project completed battery of CANTAB subtests and standard paper-based neuropsychological tests. Confirmatory factor analysis identified four factors: processing speed, verbal ability, episodic memory, and working memory. However, CANTAB tests did not consistently load onto the cognitive domain factors derived from traditional measures of the same function. These results indicate that five of the six CANTAB subtests examined did not load onto single cognitive functions. These CANTAB tests may lack the sensitivity to measure discrete cognitive functions in healthy populations or may measure other cognitive domains not included in the traditional neuropsychological battery.

  14. Confirming the Factor Structure of the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale: Comparing the Utility of Three Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Jerrell C.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2014-01-01

    This study validated the factor structure of a popular assessment of learner's cognitive test anxiety. Following recent findings in a study with Argentinean students' use of the Spanish version of the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale (CTAS), this study tested the factor structure using data from 742 students who completed the original English version…

  15. Definition and application of neuropsychological test battery to evaluate postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentin, Lívia Stocco Sanches; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Aguiar Junior, Wagner de; Rios, Ruth Pinto Camarão; Stahlberg, Mariane Galzerano; Menezes, Iolanda Valois Galvão de; Osternack-Pinto, Kátia; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the adequacy of the neuropsychological test battery proposed by the International Study of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction to evaluate this disorder in Brazilian elderly...

  16. Cognitive Development and the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing: A Case for Separate Norms in Preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Erin; Fazio, Vanessa C; Sandel, Natalie; Schatz, Philip; Henry, Luke C

    2016-01-01

    With youth sports participation and concern about sports-related concussions both on the rise, it is important to properly measure cognitive function to ensure the clinical utility of baseline testing. Computerized testing batteries are often employed as baseline and postinjury measures of cognitive function, with the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) being the most used of all the current testing platforms. The current study compared 10- to 12-year-old children across the composite scores yielded by the ImPACT and provided normative data on each of the subtests used to calculate the composite scores. Normative data are separated by gender for athletes aged 10 to 12 years old, as this is the current age bracket used by the ImPACT. These norms may be helpful in the interpretation of the ImPACT clinical report and further delineation of areas of neurocognitive dysfunction.

  17. Determining the Association between Language and Cognitive Tests in Poststroke Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie J. Wall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIndividuals with aphasia are often excluded from studies exploring poststroke cognition because so many of the standard cognitive assessments rely on language ability. Our primary objective was to examine the association between performance on cognitive tests and performance on comprehension and naming tests in poststroke aphasia. Second, we aimed to determine the association between language performance and a real-life measure of cognition (Kettle Test. Third, we explored the feasibility of administering cognitive tests in aphasia.MethodsThirty-six participants with poststroke aphasia and 32 controls were assessed on a battery of pen-and-paper cognitive tests recommended in stroke. Auditory comprehension was measured using the Comprehensive Aphasia Test and naming was measured using the Boston Naming Test. Twenty-two community dwelling participants with aphasia and controls were also asked to complete the Kettle Test. Multiple linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between language performance and performance on the cognitive tests. Feasibility was determined by quantifying missing data.ResultsThe cognitive tests with the highest variance accounted for by auditory comprehension and naming were animal fluency (R2 = 0.67, R2 = 0.78 and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (recognition discrimination index (R2 = 0.65, R2 = 0.78. All cognitive tests were significantly associated with auditory comprehension and naming, except for the Star Cancellation Test and the Kettle Test. Thirty-three percent of participants with aphasia were unable to complete all the cognitive tests.ConclusionLanguage and non-linguistic cognitive processes are often interrelated. Most pen-and-paper cognitive tests were significantly associated with both auditory comprehension and naming, even in tests that do not require a verbal response. Language performance was not significantly associated with a real-life cognitive performance measure. Task

  18. Race-related cognitive test bias in the active study: a mimic model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken Morgan, Adrienne T; Marsiske, Michael; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Jones, Richard N; Whitfield, Keith E; Johnson, Kathy E; Cresci, Mary K

    2010-10-01

    The present study investigated evidence for race-related test bias in cognitive measures used in the baseline assessment of the ACTIVE clinical trial. Test bias against African Americans has been documented in both cognitive aging and early life span studies. Despite significant mean performance differences, Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) models suggested most differences were at the construct level. There was little evidence that specific measures put either group at particular advantage or disadvantage and little evidence of cognitive test bias in this sample. Small group differences in education, cognitive status, and health suggest positive selection may have attenuated possible biases.

  19. Development of Online Cognitive and Algorithm Tests as Assessment Tools in Introductory Computer Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avancena, Aimee Theresa; Nishihara, Akinori; Vergara, John Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the online cognitive and algorithm tests, which were developed in order to determine if certain cognitive factors and fundamental algorithms correlate with the performance of students in their introductory computer science course. The tests were implemented among Management Information Systems majors from the Philippines and…

  20. Do Cognitive Distortions Mediate the Test Anxiety-Examination Performance Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David William; Connors, Liz; Symes, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to follow up exploratory research suggesting that the inverse relationship between test anxiety and examination performance was mediated by cognitive distortions such as catastrophising. Self-report data for measures of test anxiety and cognitive distortions were collected from students in their final year of compulsory…

  1. When does anxiety help or hinder cognitive test performance? The role of working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Matthew; Stevenson, Jim; Hadwin, Julie A; Norgate, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Cognitive interference theories (e.g. attentional control theory, processing efficiency theory) suggest that high levels of trait anxiety predict adverse effects on the performance of cognitive tasks, particularly those that make high demands on cognitive resources. We tested an interaction hypothesis to determine whether a combination of high anxiety and low working memory capacity (WMC) would predict variance in demanding cognitive test scores. Ninety six adolescents (12- to 14-years-old) participated in the study, which measured self-report levels of trait anxiety, working memory, and cognitive test performance. As hypothesized, we found that the anxiety-WMC interaction explained a significant amount of variance in cognitive test performance (ΔR(2) .07, p anxiety was unrelated to cognitive test performance for those adolescents with average WMC scores (β = .13, p > .10). In contrast, trait anxiety was negatively related to test performance in adolescents with low WMC (β = -.35, p test performance in those with high WMC (β = .49, p anxiety and cognitive test performance and may be a determinant factor in explaining some discrepancies found in the literature. Further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms involved.

  2. Stress and Psychological Health: Testing the Mediating Role of Cognitive Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A Rui; Faria, Susana; Lopes, Heitor

    2016-06-21

    This study tested the mediating role of primary (e.g., threat and challenge perceptions) and secondary (e.g., coping potential and control perception) cognitive appraisal in the relationship between occupational stress and psychological health. This mediation was tested using a cross-sectional study based on self-reported measures. The total sample consisted of 2,302 nurses, 1,895 females (82.3%) and 407 males (17.7%), who completed an evaluation protocol with measures of occupational stress, cognitive appraisal, and psychological health. To test the mediating role of cognitive appraisal in the relationship between cognitive appraisal and psychological health, we used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results confirmed that primary and secondary cognitive appraisals partially mediated the relationship between occupational stress and psychological health; however, the direct effects of stress on psychological health cannot be ignored. The findings indicated that cognitive appraisal is an important underlying mechanism in explaining adaptation at work.

  3. The effects of gamelike features and test location on cognitive test performance and participant enjoyment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Andy; Woods, Andy T.; Lawrence, Natalia S.; Munafò, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Computerised cognitive assessments are a vital tool in the behavioural sciences, but participants often view them as effortful and unengaging. One potential solution is to add gamelike elements to these tasks in order to make them more intrinsically enjoyable, and some researchers have posited that a more engaging task might produce higher quality data. This assumption, however, remains largely untested. We investigated the effects of gamelike features and test location on the data and enjoyment ratings from a simple cognitive task. We tested three gamified variants of the Go-No-Go task, delivered both in the laboratory and online. In the first version of the task participants were rewarded with points for performing optimally. The second version of the task was framed as a cowboy shootout. The third version was a standard Go-No-Go task, used as a control condition. We compared reaction time, accuracy and subjective measures of enjoyment and engagement between task variants and study location. We found points to be a highly suitable game mechanic for gamified cognitive testing because they did not disrupt the validity of the data collected but increased participant enjoyment. However, we found no evidence that gamelike features could increase engagement to the point where participant performance improved. We also found that while participants enjoyed the cowboy themed task, the difficulty of categorising the gamelike stimuli adversely affected participant performance, increasing No-Go error rates by 28% compared to the non-game control. Responses collected online vs. in the laboratory had slightly longer reaction times but were otherwise very similar, supporting other findings that online crowdsourcing is an acceptable method of data collection for this type of research. PMID:27441120

  4. The effects of gamelike features and test location on cognitive test performance and participant enjoyment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Lumsden

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Computerised cognitive assessments are a vital tool in the behavioural sciences, but participants often view them as effortful and unengaging. One potential solution is to add gamelike elements to these tasks in order to make them more intrinsically enjoyable, and some researchers have posited that a more engaging task might produce higher quality data. This assumption, however, remains largely untested. We investigated the effects of gamelike features and test location on the data and enjoyment ratings from a simple cognitive task. We tested three gamified variants of the Go-No-Go task, delivered both in the laboratory and online. In the first version of the task participants were rewarded with points for performing optimally. The second version of the task was framed as a cowboy shootout. The third version was a standard Go-No-Go task, used as a control condition. We compared reaction time, accuracy and subjective measures of enjoyment and engagement between task variants and study location. We found points to be a highly suitable game mechanic for gamified cognitive testing because they did not disrupt the validity of the data collected but increased participant enjoyment. However, we found no evidence that gamelike features could increase engagement to the point where participant performance improved. We also found that while participants enjoyed the cowboy themed task, the difficulty of categorising the gamelike stimuli adversely affected participant performance, increasing No-Go error rates by 28% compared to the non-game control. Responses collected online vs. in the laboratory had slightly longer reaction times but were otherwise very similar, supporting other findings that online crowdsourcing is an acceptable method of data collection for this type of research.

  5. Comparison of Test Your Memory and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Measures in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Henderson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. MoCA is widely used in Parkinson’s disease (PD to assess cognition. The Test Your Memory (TYM test is a cognitive screening tool that is self-administered. Objectives. We sought to determine (a the optimal value of TYM to discriminate between PD patients with and without cognitive deficits on MoCA testing, (b equivalent MoCA and TYM scores, and (c interrater reliability in TYM testing. Methods. We assessed the discriminant ability of TYM and the equivalence between TYM and MoCA scores and measured the interrater reliability between three raters. Results. Of the 135 subjects that completed both tests, 55% had cognitive impairment according to MoCA. A MoCA score of 25 was equivalent to a TYM score of 43-44. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve for TYM to differentiate between PD-normal and PD-cognitive impairment was 0.82 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.89. The optimal cutoff to distinguish PD-cognitive impairment from PD-normal was ≤45 (sensitivity 90.5%, specificity 59% thereby correctly classifying 76.3% of patients with PD-cognitive impairment. Interrater agreement was high (0.97 and TYM was completed in under 7 minutes (interquartile range 5.33 to 8.52 minutes. Conclusions. The TYM test is a useful and less resource intensive screening test for cognitive deficits in PD.

  6. Comparison of Test Your Memory and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Measures in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Howard; Gaunt, Daisy M.; Whone, Alan L.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Lyell, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Background. MoCA is widely used in Parkinson's disease (PD) to assess cognition. The Test Your Memory (TYM) test is a cognitive screening tool that is self-administered. Objectives. We sought to determine (a) the optimal value of TYM to discriminate between PD patients with and without cognitive deficits on MoCA testing, (b) equivalent MoCA and TYM scores, and (c) interrater reliability in TYM testing. Methods. We assessed the discriminant ability of TYM and the equivalence between TYM and MoCA scores and measured the interrater reliability between three raters. Results. Of the 135 subjects that completed both tests, 55% had cognitive impairment according to MoCA. A MoCA score of 25 was equivalent to a TYM score of 43-44. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for TYM to differentiate between PD-normal and PD-cognitive impairment was 0.82 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.89). The optimal cutoff to distinguish PD-cognitive impairment from PD-normal was ≤45 (sensitivity 90.5%, specificity 59%) thereby correctly classifying 76.3% of patients with PD-cognitive impairment. Interrater agreement was high (0.97) and TYM was completed in under 7 minutes (interquartile range 5.33 to 8.52 minutes). Conclusions. The TYM test is a useful and less resource intensive screening test for cognitive deficits in PD. PMID:27478678

  7. Solving Verbal Analogies: Some Cognitive Components of Intelligence Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitely, Susan E.

    1976-01-01

    The results indicate that although relational concepts influence the cognitive aptitudes which are reflected in analogy item performance, success in solving analogies does not depend on individual differences in some major aspects of processing relationships. (Author/DEP)

  8. Assessing Social-Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia With the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test

    OpenAIRE

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Pogue-Geile, Michael F.; Newhill, Christina E.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Matcheri S Keshavan

    2008-01-01

    The emotion management subscale of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) has recently been recommended by the National Institute of Mental Health Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia committee as the sole measure of social cognition for trials of cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia, yet the psychometric properties of this subscale and the larger instrument in schizophrenia patients have not been thoroughly examined. This research ...

  9. Methodological factors in determining risk of dementia after TIA and stroke: (III) Applicability of cognitive tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendlebury, Sarah T; Klaus, Stephen P; Thomson, Ross J; Mehta, Ziyah; Wharton, Rose M; Rothwell, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cognitive assessment is recommended after stroke but there are few data on the applicability of short cognitive tests to the full spectrum of patients. We therefore determined the rates, causes and associates of untestability in a population-based study of all TIA and stroke. Methods Patients with TIA or stroke prospectively recruited (2002-2007) into the Oxford Vascular Study had ≥1 short cognitive test (mini-mental-state examination (MMSE), telephone interview of cognitive status (TICSM), Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA), and abbreviated mental test score (AMTS)) at baseline and on follow-up to 5 years. Results Among 1097 consecutive assessed survivors (mean age/sd 74.8/12.1 years, 378 TIA), numbers testable with a short cognitive test at baseline, 1, 6, 12 and 60 months were 835/1097 (76%), 778/947 (82%), 756/857 (88%), 692/792 (87%) and 472/567 (83%) 88% (331/378) of assessed TIA patients were testable at baseline compared to only 46% (133/290) of major stroke (panarthria/hemiparesis=84 (32%), drowsiness=58 (22%) and acute confusion=11 (4%)) whereas sensory deficits caused relatively more problems with testing at later time points (24/63 (38%) at 5 years). Conclusions Substantial numbers of patients with TIA and stroke are untestable with short cognitive tests. Future studies should report data on untestable patients and those with problems with testing in whom the likelihood of dementia is high. PMID:26463688

  10. Cognitive Evaluation of Cochlear Implanted Adults Using CODEX and MoCA Screening Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambert-Dahan, Emmanuèle; Routier, Shirley; Marot, Lucie; Bouccara, Didier; Sterkers, Olivier; Ferrary, Evelyne; Mosnier, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between hearing loss and cognitive function has already been established. The objective of our study was to determine whether the two short cognitive tests, COgnitive Disorders EXamination (CODEX) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), could be used in daily clinical practice to detect cognitive impairment, and its changes after cochlear implantation. Eighteen patients with severe to profound postlingual progressive hearing loss (mean age ± SEM: 64 ± 3.5 yr; range, 23-83 yr) were tested before, and 12 months after cochlear implantation, with adapted visual presentation of CODEX and MoCA tests. Auditory performance was tested under best-aided conditions in quiet and noise. Twelve months after cochlear implantation, hearing performance had clearly improved (paired t tests, p CODEX and MoCA are rapid tests that could be considered to be relevant cognitive performance screening tests. They could be used in daily clinical practice to improve the multidisciplinary sensory-cognitive monitoring of the elderly population.

  11. High-throughput cognitive assessment using BrainTest.org: examining cognitive control in a family cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabb, Fred W; Hellemann, Gerhard; Lau, Deanna; Vanderlan, Jessica R; Cohen, Heather J; Bilder, Robert M; McCracken, James T

    2013-09-01

    Introduction Understanding the relationship between brain and complex latent behavioral constructs like cognitive control will require an inordinate amount of data. Internet-based methods can rapidly and efficiently refine behavioral measures in very large samples that are needed for genetics and behavioral research. Cognitive control is a multifactorial latent construct that is considered to be an endophenotype in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While previous studies have demonstrated high correlations between Web- and lab-based scores, skepticism remains for its broad implementation. Methods Here, we promote a different approach by characterizing a completely Web-recruited and tested community family sample on measures of cognitive control. We examine the prevalence of attention deficit symptoms in an online community sample of adolescents, demonstrate familial correlations in cognitive control measures, and use construct validation techniques to validate our high-throughput assessment approach. Results A total of 1214 participants performed Web-based tests of cognitive control with over 200 parent-child pairs analyzed as part of the primary study aims. The data show a wide range of "subclinical" symptomatology in a web community sample of adolescents that supports a dimensional view of attention and also provide preliminary narrow-sense heritability estimates for commonly used working memory and response inhibition tests. Conclusions Finally, we show strong face and construct validity for these measures of cognitive control that generally exceeds the evidence required of new lab-based measures. We discuss these results and how broad implementation of this platform may allow us to uncover important brain-behavior relationships quickly and efficiently.

  12. Short-term practice effects and variability in cognitive testing in a healthy elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, L.; Rasmussen, L.S.; Siersma, V.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline in the elderly is a subject of intense focus. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding definition of significant decline in connection with repeated testing and the interpretation of cognitive tests results must take into account the practice effect and variab...... was evaluated on 7 neuropsychological measures and reference values of clinically important changes were calculated according to z-scores above 1.96. RESULTS: Test scores improved significantly (p...

  13. Testing the validity of wireless EEG for cognitive research with auditory and visual paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan; Kratschmer, Alexandra Regina; Pedersen, Michael Nygaard

    and smaller cognitive components. To test the feasibility of these headsets for cognitive research, we compared performance of the Emotiv Epoc wireless headset (EM) with Brain Products ActiCAP (BP) active electrodes on two well-studied components: the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) and the visual face...

  14. On the impact of cognitive factor in PSO - Testing on selected functions from CEC 15 benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhacek, Michal; Senkerik, Roman; Viktorin, Adam

    2017-07-01

    In this study we investigate the effect of the cognitive factor setting on the performance of the PSO algorithm. The cognitive factor is one of the few control parameters of the original PSO algorithm that has direct effect on the trajectories of the particles. The IEEE CEC 2015 benchmark set is used to test the performance.

  15. A Prospective Test of Cognitive Vulnerability Models of Depression with Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric; Burton, Emily; Fudell, Molly; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to provide a more rigorous prospective test of two cognitive vulnerability models of depression with longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results supported the cognitive vulnerability model in that stressors predicted future increases in depressive symptoms and onset of clinically significant major depression for…

  16. Longitudinal Test of a Social Cognitive Model of Academic and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singley, Daniel B.; Lent, Robert W.; Sheu, Hung-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested a social cognitive model of academic and overall life satisfaction in a sample of 769 university students. The predictors, drawn from Lent's unifying perspective on well-being and psychosocial adjustment, included social cognitive (academic self-efficacy, goal progress, social support) and personality (trait positive affect)…

  17. Testing for Cognitive Function in Animals in a Regulatory Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superior cognitive functions have allowed the human species to dominate a world of incredible biological diversity. Threats to these essential capacities cannot be ignored, and a strategy is needed to evaluate the hazard posed by exposure to chemical and other agents. Because peo...

  18. Correlation between Allen cognitive level test and CANTAB in patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talieh Sheikh Fendereski

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder and characterized by impairments in a wide range of cognitive domains. Allen Cognitive Level Screen has been used extensively by occupational therapists as a quick screening tool to derive a view of cognitive function in people with psychiatric disabilities. Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB is a computerized neuropsychological assessment battery which is commonly used to assess an executive functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between two measures of executive function used by different disciplines (Allen cognitive level test and CANTAB when assessing persons with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the relation between Allen cognitive level test`s outcome and subtests of CANTAB (SWM, SSP & IED( were investigated in 30 patients with chronic schizophrenia (Mean age= 39 , man=80%,woman=20%. Allen cognitive level test was used to measure cognitive level and Spatial Span (SSP to measure working memory capacity, Spatial Working Memory (SWM to evaluate working memory and its strategy of usage and Intra/Extra dimensional Set Shift (IED to assess attentional set shifting. All the data was analyzed by SPSS-16.Results: No Significant correlation was found between cognition levels of Allen test and SWM subtest (rS= -0/046; P=0/811, SSP (rS=0/009; P= -0/024 and IED (rS= -0/074; P=0/699.Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that although patients with schizophrenia might have problems in cognitive component, they may show less problem in performing goal directed activities. In addition, the approaches of evaluation based on which the tests have been planned should be considered for investigating the correlation between two tests. It seems that the results of a top-down approach may be different from those of a bottom-up approach.

  19. The Interaction between Cognitive Test-Taking Strategies, Reading Ability, and Reading Comprehension Test Performance of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafournia, Narjes; Afghari, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    The study scrutinized the probable interaction between using cognitive test-taking strategies, reading proficiency, and reading comprehension test performance of Iranian postgraduate students, who studied English as a foreign language. The study also probed the extent to which the participants' test performance was related to the use of certain…

  20. Effects of Test Media on Different EFL Test-Takers in Writing Scores and in the Cognitive Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    The effects of computer and paper test media on EFL test-takers with different computer familiarity in writing scores and in the cognitive writing process have been comprehensively explored from the learners' aspect as well as on the basis of related theories and practice. The results indicate significant differences in test scores among the…

  1. Preliminary test of effects of cognitive ability, experience, and teaching methods on Verbal Analogy Test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D; Willson-Quayle, A; Pasnak, R

    2000-06-01

    The methods from which one can choose when preparing for the GRE Verbal Analogies include books, software, audiotapes, and formal classroom instruction. What teaching method will work best for a given individual? To begin the search for an answer, Gray's test of reasoning ability was given to 28 undergraduates who also answered a questionnaire detailing their experience with analogies. They were randomly assigned to teaching conditions ranging from self-directed workbook study to intensive interactive assistance. No teaching method was superior overall, but interactions showed that (1) students who scored worst on the pretest improved the most, (2) those higher in cognitive functioning and experience performed better after intensive interactive assistance, and (3) those lower in both cognitive functioning and experience did significantly better with self-paced workbooks. This preliminary work suggests that it may be profitable to assess the prior experience and reasoning of potential students and adopt the methods for teaching formal operational thought found empirically to be most suitable.

  2. Assessing cognitive-linguistic abilities in South African adults living with HIV: the Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupawose, Anniah; Broom, Yvonne

    2010-06-01

    HIV can cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the central nervous system. This results in cognitive deficits in the majority of patients. The assessment of these deficits and management of these patients poses challenges for healthcare workers in South Africa. This study investigates the effectiveness of the Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test (CLQT) in identifying the cognitive and linguistic abilities of adults with HIV or AIDS. Sixteen participants were recruited from an outpatient clinic in Johannesburg. The CLQT was utilised to assess the cognitive/linguistic abilities of the participants. The overall scores revealed that 87.5% of the participants presented with some form of cognitive deficit, 81% exhibited deficits in memory and executive functioning, 75% showed deficits in attention and visual perception, and 50% exhibited language deficits. Thus, this instrument may be usefully employed with patients who exhibit neurological disorders, including those caused by HIV infection. We conclude that the CLQT can be used as an alternative to more expensive, elaborate and time-consuming neuropsychometric evaluations to identify deficits in memory, attention and executive functions as experienced by adults with HIV or AIDS in South Africa.

  3. Quick screening of cognitive function in Indian multiple sclerosis patients using Montreal cognitive assessment test-short version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshpreet Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive impairments in multiple sclerosis (MS are now well recognized worldwide, but unfortunately this domain has been less explored in India due to many undermining factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive impairments in Indian MS patients with visual or upper limb motor problems with the help of short version of Montreal cognitive assessment test (MoCA. Subjects and Methods: Thirty MS patients and 50 matched controls were recruited for the 12 points MoCA task. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis was performed to determine optimal sensitivity and specificity of the 12 points MoCA in differentiating cognitively impaired patients and controls. Results: The mean 12 points MoCA scores of the controls and MS patients were 11.56 ± 0.67 and 8.06 ± 1.99, respectively. In our study, the optimal cut-off value for 12 points MoCA to be able to differentiate patients with cognitive impairments from controls is 10/12. Accordingly, 73.3% patients fell below the cut off value. Both the groups did not have significant statistical differences with regard to age and educational years. Conclusion: The 12 points, short version of MoCA, is a useful brief screening tool for quick and early detection of mild cognitive impairments in subjects with MS. It can be administered to patients having visual and motor problems. It is of potential use by primary care physicians, nurses, and other allied health professionals who need a quick screening test. No formal training for administration is required. Financial and time constraints should not limit the use of the proposed instrument.

  4. Analysis of Cognitive Structure Using the Linear Logistic Test Model and Quadratic Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Diaz, Maria

    1993-01-01

    The cognitive structure of an algebra test was defined and validated using the linear logistic test model (LLTM) and quadratic assignment (QA). A 29-item test was administered to 235 ninth graders. Results suggest the benefits of applying both LLTM and QA to test construction and analysis. (SLD)

  5. Reliability and validity of the NeuroCognitive Performance Test, a web-based neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Glenn E; Simone, Christa M; Ng, Nicole F; Hardy, Joseph L

    2015-01-01

    The NeuroCognitive Performance Test (NCPT) is a brief, repeatable, web-based cognitive assessment platform that measures performance across several cognitive domains. The NCPT platform is modular and includes 18 subtests that can be arranged into customized batteries. Here we present normative data from a sample of 130,140 healthy volunteers for an NCPT battery consisting of 8 subtests. Participants took the NCPT remotely and without supervision. Factor structure and effects of age, education, and gender were evaluated with this normative dataset. Test-retest reliability was evaluated in a subset of participants who took the battery again an average of 78.8 days later. The eight NCPT subtests group into 4 putative cognitive domains, have adequate to good test-retest reliability, and are sensitive to expected age- and education-related cognitive effects. Concurrent validity to standard neuropsychological tests was demonstrated in 73 healthy volunteers. In an exploratory analysis the NCPT battery could differentiate those who self-reported Mild Cognitive Impairment or Alzheimer's disease from matched healthy controls. Overall these results demonstrate the reliability and validity of the NCPT battery as a measure of cognitive performance and support the feasibility of web-based, unsupervised testing, with potential utility in clinical and research settings.

  6. Qualitative analysis of the Clock Drawing Test by educational level and cognitive profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Teixeira Fabricio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of a qualitative scale for the Clock Drawing Test (CDT may add information about the pattern of errors committed. Objective: To translate and adapt the Modified Qualitative Error Analysis of Rouleau into Brazilian Portuguese and to examine the pattern of errors according to educational level and cognitive profile. Method: 180 adults (47-82 years completed the CDT. Participants were stratified into age and educational levels and separated between those with and without changes in cognitive screening tests (Mini-Mental State Examination, Verbal Fluency. Results: No significant differences were found in CDT scores among age groups. Among participants without cognitive impairment, those with lower education often presented graphic difficulties, conceptual deficits and spatial deficits. Participants with cognitive deficits, demonstrated more frequently conceptual and spatial errors. Conclusion: The qualitative analysis of the CDT may contribute to the identification of cognitive changes. Education level has to be taken into consideration during the analysis.

  7. Sleep deprivation selectively disrupts top-down adaptation to cognitive conflict in the Stroop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Wim; Deliens, Gaetane; Hoffmann, Sophie; Notebaert, Wim; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to exert detrimental effects on various cognitive domains, including attention, vigilance and working memory. Seemingly at odds with these findings, prior studies repeatedly failed to evidence an impact of prior sleep deprivation on cognitive interference in the Stroop test, a hallmark paradigm in the study of cognitive control abilities. The present study investigated further the effect of sleep deprivation on cognitive control using an adapted version of the Stroop test that allows to segregate top-down (attentional reconfiguration on incongruent items) and bottom-up (facilitated processing after repetitions in responses and/or features of stimuli) components of performance. Participants underwent a regular night of sleep or a night of total sleep deprivation before cognitive testing. Results disclosed that sleep deprivation selectively impairs top-down adaptation mechanisms: cognitive control no longer increased upon detection of response conflict at the preceding trial. In parallel, bottom-up abilities were found unaffected by sleep deprivation: beneficial effects of stimulus and response repetitions persisted. Changes in vigilance states due to sleep deprivation selectively impact on cognitive control in the Stroop test by affecting top-down, but not bottom-up, mechanisms that guide adaptive behaviours. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Test anxiety in relation to measures of cognitive and intellectual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Carlton S; Curiel, Rosie E

    2011-08-01

    The potential impact of test anxiety on cognitive testing was examined in a sample of 300 predominantly male veteran referrals who were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Exclusionary criteria included failure on effort testing (n= 14). Level of test anxiety was significantly related to performance on the WAIS-III Working Memory Index (r = -.343, p Test anxiety was not related to a global index of neuropsychological performance on the HRNES-R (Average Impairment Scale). Level of education had a collinear relationship with test anxiety in predicting cognitive test performance. Regression analyses revealed a more prominent role for education, indicating the possibility that test anxiety may be a reaction to, more than a cause of, deficient working memory performance. These results suggest that clinicians who use these particular tests should be reluctant to attribute poor test performance to anxiety that occurs during the testing process.

  9. Testing the Validity of a Cognitive Behavioral Model for Gambling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raylu, Namrata; Oei, Tian Po S; Loo, Jasmine M Y; Tsai, Jung-Shun

    2016-06-01

    Currently, cognitive behavioral therapies appear to be one of the most studied treatments for gambling problems and studies show it is effective in treating gambling problems. However, cognitive behavior models have not been widely tested using statistical means. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the validity of the pathways postulated in the cognitive behavioral theory of gambling behavior using structural equation modeling (AMOS 20). Several questionnaires assessing a range of gambling specific variables (e.g., gambling urges, cognitions and behaviors) and gambling correlates (e.g., psychological states, and coping styles) were distributed to 969 participants from the community. Results showed that negative psychological states (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress) only directly predicted gambling behavior, whereas gambling urges predicted gambling behavior directly as well as indirectly via gambling cognitions. Avoidance coping predicted gambling behavior only indirectly via gambling cognitions. Negative psychological states were significantly related to gambling cognitions as well as avoidance coping. In addition, significant gender differences were also found. The results provided confirmation for the validity of the pathways postulated in the cognitive behavioral theory of gambling behavior. It also highlighted the importance of gender differences in conceptualizing gambling behavior.

  10. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of neuropsychological tests in differentiating Alzheimer's disease from mild cognitive impairment: can the montreal cognitive assessment be better than the cambridge cognitive examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, José Eduardo; Cecato, Juliana Francisca; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José Maria

    2014-05-01

    Considering the lack of studies on measures that increase the diagnostic distinction between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and on the role of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) in this, our study aims to compare the utility of the CAMCOG, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in helping to differentiate AD from MCI in elderly people with >4 years of schooling. A total of 136 elderly subjects - 39 normal controls as well as 52 AD patients and 45 MCI patients treated at the Institute of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Porto Alegre, Brazil - were assessed using the MMSE, CAMCOG, clock drawing test (CDT), verbal fluency test (VF), Geriatric Depression Scale and Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire. The results obtained by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the MoCA is a better screening test for differentiating elderly subjects with AD from those with MCI than the CAMCOG and MMSE as well as other tests such as the CDT and VF. The MoCA, more than the CAMCOG and the other tests, was shown to be able to differentiate AD from MCI, although, as Roalf et al. [Alzheimers Dement 2013;9:529-537] pointed out, further studies might lead to measures that will improve this differentiation.

  11. Testing and Measurement Potentials of Microcomputers for Cognitive Style Research and Individualized Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroway, Robert L.

    Microcomputer versions of three commonly used cognitive style measurement instruments are described and demonstrated: the Leveling-Sharpening House Test (LSHT) (Santostefano, 1964); Lowenfeld's Successive Impressions Test I (SIT-I) (1945); and the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (Witkin, Oltman, Ruskin, and Karp, 1971). At present, many…

  12. Dynamic testing : Assessing cognitive potential of children with culturally diverse backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, C.E.; Heiser, W.J.; Resing, W.C.M.

    Dynamic testing may be useful in assessing cognitive potential in disadvantaged populations such as ethnic minorities. Majority and minority culture children's performance on a dynamic test of figural matrices was examined using a pretest-training-posttest design. Dynamically tested children were

  13. Testing and Measurement Potentials of Microcomputers for Cognitive Style Research and Individualized Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroway, Robert L.

    Microcomputer versions of three commonly used cognitive style measurement instruments are described and demonstrated: the Leveling-Sharpening House Test (LSHT) (Santostefano, 1964); Lowenfeld's Successive Impressions Test I (SIT-I) (1945); and the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (Witkin, Oltman, Ruskin, and Karp, 1971). At present, many…

  14. Construction of Tests in the Cognitive and Psychomotor Domains for Skin and Scuba Diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jean

    The fundamental purposes of this study were to develop mastery tests in the cognitive and psychomotor domains for skin and scuba diving and to establish validity and reliability for the tests. A table of specifications was developed for each domain, and a pilot study refined the initial test batteries into their final form. In the main study,…

  15. Test Takers' Performance Appraisals, Appraisal Calibration, and Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakiti, Aek

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores the nature and relationships among test takers' performance appraisals, appraisal calibration, and reported cognitive and metacognitive strategy use in a language test situation. Performance appraisals are executive processes of strategic competence for judging test performance (e.g., evaluating the correctness or…

  16. Clinical usefulness of the clock drawing test applying rasch analysis in predicting of cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Doo Han; Lee, Jae Shin

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the clinical usefulness of the clock drawing test applying Rasch analysis for predicting the level of cognitive impairment. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 187 stroke patients with cognitive impairment were enrolled in this study. The 187 patients were evaluated by the clock drawing test developed through Rasch analysis along with the mini-mental state examination of cognitive evaluation tool. An analysis of the variance was performed to examine the significance of the mini-mental state examination and the clock drawing test according to the general characteristics of the subjects. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the cutoff point for cognitive impairment and to calculate the sensitivity and specificity values. [Results] The results of comparison of the clock drawing test with the mini-mental state showed significant differences in according to gender, age, education, and affected side. A total CDT of 10.5, which was selected as the cutoff point to identify cognitive impairement, showed a sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, positive predictive, and negative predicive values of 86.4%, 91.5%, 0.8, 95%, and 88.2%. [Conclusion] The clock drawing test is believed to be useful in assessments and interventions based on its excellent ability to identify cognitive disorders.

  17. Integrating cognitive and motivational factors in depression: initial tests of a goal-orientation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykman, B M

    1998-01-01

    Attempts to predict depression from a strictly cognitive perspective have met with limited success. A goal-orientation model is proposed that integrates motivational and cognitive factors in attempting to explain and predict depression. The model proposes that people differ in their goal orientation, with some people being more validation seeking (VS) and others being more growth seeking (GS). The model predicts that compared with GS persons, VS persons will show greater anxiety in anticipation of a stressful event and greater self-esteem loss, task disengagement, and depression after a negative event. A goal-orientation measure was developed (Study 1), and the predictive validity of the model was tested (Studies 2-5). Findings suggest that the explanatory and predictive power of the cognitive theories can be enhanced, and the arsenal of the cognitive therapist enlarged, by integrating motivational and cognitive approaches to depression.

  18. ROLE OF YOGA ON CARDIC AUTONOMIC FUNCTION TESTS AND COGNITION IN TYPE 2 DIABETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajani, Santhakumari Nagothu; Indla, Yogananda Reddy; Archana, R; Rajesh, P

    2015-01-01

    According to International Diabetic Federation, type 2 diabetic population is on the rise globally and cognitive decline is one of the complications seen in type 2 diabetes. The present study is aimed at exploring the role of regular practice of yoga on cognition in type 2 diabetes and also to study the relation between the cognition and functional status of autonomic nervous system by considering the Cardiac Autonomic (CAN) function tests. Ten type 2 diabetic subjects of both the sex, aged between 35-55 years, who practiced yoga for a period of six months at Yogi Vemana Yoga Research Institute were recruited as test group. Age and sex matched ten type 2 diabetic subjects were recruited as control group; both the group subjects are on oral hypoglycemic agents. Glycosylated hemoglobin concentration was estimated with Bio-Rad instrument, cognition was assessed with Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised battery and Cardiac autonomic function tests were also conducted. Unpaired student t test was performed and pfunctions are affected in both the groups. Regular practice of yoga in combination with oral hypoglycemic agents has a positive effect on cognition in type 2 diabetes.

  19. An Exploration Based Cognitive Bias Test for Mice: Effects of Handling Method and Stereotypic Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janja Novak

    Full Text Available Behavioural tests to assess affective states are widely used in human research and have recently been extended to animals. These tests assume that affective state influences cognitive processing, and that animals in a negative affective state interpret ambiguous information as expecting a negative outcome (displaying a negative cognitive bias. Most of these tests however, require long discrimination training. The aim of the study was to validate an exploration based cognitive bias test, using two different handling methods, as previous studies have shown that standard tail handling of mice increases physiological and behavioural measures of anxiety compared to cupped handling. Therefore, we hypothesised that tail handled mice would display a negative cognitive bias. We handled 28 female CD-1 mice for 16 weeks using either tail handling or cupped handling. The mice were then trained in an eight arm radial maze, where two adjacent arms predicted a positive outcome (darkness and food, while the two opposite arms predicted a negative outcome (no food, white noise and light. After six days of training, the mice were also given access to the four previously unavailable intermediate ambiguous arms of the radial maze and tested for cognitive bias. We were unable to validate this test, as mice from both handling groups displayed a similar pattern of exploration. Furthermore, we examined whether maze exploration is affected by the expression of stereotypic behaviour in the home cage. Mice with higher levels of stereotypic behaviour spent more time in positive arms and avoided ambiguous arms, displaying a negative cognitive bias. While this test needs further validation, our results indicate that it may allow the assessment of affective state in mice with minimal training-a major confound in current cognitive bias paradigms.

  20. Cognitive Fatigue Influences Students’ Performance on Standardized Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Gino, Francesca; Piovesan, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We identify one potential source of bias that influences children’s performance on standardized tests and that is predictable based on psychological theory: the time at which students take the test. Using test data for all children attending Danish public schools between school years 2009....../10 and 2012/13, we find that, for every hour later in the day, test scores decrease by 0.9% of an SD. In addition, a 20- to 30-minute break improves average test scores. Time of day affects students’ test performance because, over the course of a regular day, students’ mental resources get taxed. Thus......, as the day wears on, students become increasingly fatigued and consequently more likely to underperform on a standardized test....

  1. The status of computerized cognitive testing in aging: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Katherine; Howieson, Diane; Webbe, Frank; Seelye, Adriana; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Background Early detection of cognitive decline in the elderly has become of heightened importance in parallel with the recent advances in therapeutics. Computerized assessment may be uniquely suited to early detection of changes in cognition in the elderly. We present here a systematic review of the status of computer-based cognitive testing focusing on detection of cognitive decline in the aging population. Methods All studies purporting to assess or detect age-related changes in cognition or early dementia/mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by means of computerized testing were included. Each test battery was rated on availability of normative data, level of evidence for test validity and reliability, comprehensiveness, and usability. All published studies relevant to a particular computerized test were read by a minimum of two reviewers, who completed rating forms containing the above-mentioned criteria. Results Of the 18 test batteries identified from the initial search, eleven were appropriate to cognitive testing in the elderly and were subjected to systematic review. Of those 11, five were either developed specifically for application with the elderly or have been used extensively with that population. Even within the computerized testing genre, great variability existed in manner of administration, ranging from fully examiner administered to fully self-administered. All tests had at least minimal reliability and validity data, commonly reported in peer-reviewed articles. However, level of rigor of validity testing varied widely. Conclusion All test batteries exhibited some of the strengths of computerized cognitive testing: standardization of administration and stimulus presentation, accurate measures of response latencies, automated comparison in real-time with an individual’s prior performance as well as with age-related norms, and efficiencies of staffing and cost. Some, such as the MCIS, adapted complicated scoring algorithms to enhance the information

  2. Timed Up and Go test, atrophy of medial temporal areas and cognitive functions in community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Yujiro; Ikenaga, Masahiro; Yamada, Yosuke; Morimura, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Noriko; Ouma, Shinji; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Yamada, Tatsuo; Kimura, Misaka; Kiyonaga, Akira; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to ascertain if performance on the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is associated with indicators of brain volume and cognitive functions among community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment. Participants were 80 community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89years (44 men, 36 women), including 20 with mild cognitive impairment. Participants completed the TUG and a battery of cognitive assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Logical Memory I and II (LM-I, LM-II) subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised; and the Trail Making Test A and B (TMT-A, TMT-B). Bilateral, right- and left-side medial temporal area atrophy as well as whole gray and white matter indices were determined with the Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease. We divided participants into three groups based on TUG performance: "better" (≤6.9s); "normal" (7-10s); and "poor" (≥10.1s). Worse TMT-A and TMT-B performance showed significant independent associations with worse TUG performance (P<0.05, P<0.01 for trend, respectively). After adjusting for covariates, severe atrophy of bilateral, right-, and left-side medial temporal areas were significantly independently associated with worse TUG performance (P<0.05 for trend). However, no significant associations were found between MMSE, LM-I, LM-II, whole gray and white matter indices, and TUG performance. Worse TUG performance is related to poor performance on TMT-A and TMT-B, and is independently associated with severe medial temporal area atrophy in community-dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive Dissonance and Affect: An Initial Test of a Connectionist Account

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Jordens; Frank Van Overwalle

    2005-01-01

    In their connectionist model of cognitive dissonance, Van Overwalle & Jordens (2002) put forward the hypothesis that positive affect increases behaviour-induced attitudes, while negative affect decreases attitudes. In this article, this hypothesised role of affect was tested for two well-known paradigms in the cognitive dissonance literature: free choice and induced compliance. For the free-choice paradigm, we replicated the findings in the difficult-high choice condition of Shultz, Lévei...

  4. Assessments of cognitive abilities in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease with a touch screen test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chuljung; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-03-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience both motor output deficits and cognitive disabilities. Various PD rodent models have been developed to investigate the genetic and brain circuit-related causes of PD and have contributed to the basic and clinical research and to therapeutic strategies for this disease. Most studies using PD rodent models have focused on the motor output deficits, rather than cognitive disabilities due to the lack of appropriate testing tools that do not require significant motor abilities. In this study, we assessed the cognitive disabilities of PD model mice using a touch screen test that required only little motor ability. We found that the PD model mice, which had motor deficits caused by unilateral striatal dopaminergic degeneration, successfully underwent operant conditioning with a touch screen test. Additionally, we found that the PD model mice demonstrated impaired location discrimination, but intact attention and reversal learning in the cognitive tests. Therefore, the touch screen test is useful for assessing hidden cognitive disabilities in disease model animals with decreased motor function.

  5. Differences in the Cognitive Processes of Academically Successful and Unsuccessful Test-Anxious Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Monroe A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Extended research on cognitive factors that may differentially underlie test anxiety and academic performance by assessing differences in (a) information-processing strategies used to encode course-work information, (b) degree of belief in one's negative self-statements, (c) Type A behavior, (d) test-taking skills, and (e) unrealistic expectations…

  6. Cognitive Diagnostic Models for Tests with Multiple-Choice and Constructed-Response Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Bor-Chen; Chen, Chun-Hua; Yang, Chih-Wei; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, teachers evaluate students' abilities via their total test scores. Recently, cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs) have begun to provide information about the presence or absence of students' skills or misconceptions. Nevertheless, CDMs are typically applied to tests with multiple-choice (MC) items, which provide less diagnostic…

  7. Validation of symptom validity tests using a "child-model" of adult cognitive impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, A.; Spaan, P.E.J.; Schmand, B.

    2010-01-01

    Validation studies of symptom validity tests (SVTs) in children are uncommon. However, since children’s cognitive abilities are not yet fully developed, their performance may provide additional support for the validity of these measures in adult populations. Four SVTs, the Test of Memory Malingering

  8. Measuring Cognitive Load in Test Items: Static Graphics versus Animated Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindar, M.; Kabakçi Yurdakul, I.; Inan Dönmez, F.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of multimedia learning studies focus on the use of graphics in learning process but very few of them examine the role of graphics in testing students' knowledge. This study investigates the use of static graphics versus animated graphics in a computer-based English achievement test from a cognitive load theory perspective. Three…

  9. Intelligence and Creativity in Problem Solving: The Importance of Test Features in Cognition Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsveld, Saskia; Lachmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of three features of psychometric tests for cognition research: construct definition, problem space, and knowledge domain. Definition of constructs, e.g., intelligence or creativity, forms the theoretical basis for test construction. Problem space, being well or ill-defined, is determined by the cognitive abilities considered to belong to the constructs, e.g., convergent thinking to intelligence, divergent thinking to creativity. Knowledge domain and the possibilities it offers cognition are reflected in test results. We argue that (a) comparing results of tests with different problem spaces is more informative when cognition operates in both tests on an identical knowledge domain, and (b) intertwining of abilities related to both constructs can only be expected in tests developed to instigate such a process. Test features should guarantee that abilities can contribute to self-generated and goal-directed processes bringing forth solutions that are both new and applicable. We propose and discuss a test example that was developed to address these issues.

  10. Intelligence and Creativity in Problem Solving: The Importance of Test Features in Cognition Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsveld, Saskia; Lachmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of three features of psychometric tests for cognition research: construct definition, problem space, and knowledge domain. Definition of constructs, e.g., intelligence or creativity, forms the theoretical basis for test construction. Problem space, being well or ill-defined, is determined by the cognitive abilities considered to belong to the constructs, e.g., convergent thinking to intelligence, divergent thinking to creativity. Knowledge domain and the possibilities it offers cognition are reflected in test results. We argue that (a) comparing results of tests with different problem spaces is more informative when cognition operates in both tests on an identical knowledge domain, and (b) intertwining of abilities related to both constructs can only be expected in tests developed to instigate such a process. Test features should guarantee that abilities can contribute to self-generated and goal-directed processes bringing forth solutions that are both new and applicable. We propose and discuss a test example that was developed to address these issues. PMID:28220098

  11. Use of computerized tests to assess the cognitive impact of interventions in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Sanches de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT With the aging of the population, the possibility of the occurrence of cognitive decline rises. A number of types of intervention seek to attenuate or reverse this impairment. The use of computerized tests helps quantify the effects of interventions on cognitive function in the elderly. The objective of the present review was to analyze studies that have utilized computerized cognitive tests to determine the effects of interventions in the elderly population, describing the batteries and tests employed, the populations studied and reports by authors on the limitations or benefits of employing these tests in older adults. The review was performed on the PubMed database using the descriptors: cognitive computerized test and elderly. We retrieved 530 studies and, following analysis of their abstracts, selected 32 relevant to the subject. The studies utilized 19 different types of computerized tests and batteries to assess the interventions, which were predominantly drug trials. There were no reports on limitations in the use of the computerized tests, suggesting this type of intervention had good applicability, sensitivity, and little or no practice effects in this population.

  12. Improving the accuracy and precision of cognitive testing in mild dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hans; Appels, Bregje; van der Flier, Wiesje M; van Campen, Jos; Klein, Martin; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Schmand, Ben; van Gool, Willem A; Scheltens, Philip; Lindeboom, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The CAMCOG, ADAS-cog, and MMSE, designed to grade global cognitive ability in dementia have inadequate precision and accuracy in distinguishing mild dementia from normal ageing. Adding neuropsychological tests to their scale might improve precision and accuracy in mild dementia. We, therefore, pooled neuropsychological test-batteries from two memory clinics (ns = 135 and 186) with CAMCOG data from a population study and 2 memory clinics (n = 829) and ADAS-cog data from 3 randomized controlled trials (n = 713) to estimate a common dimension of global cognitive ability using Rasch analysis. Item difficulties and individuals' global cognitive ability levels were estimated. Difficulties of 57 items (of 64) could be validly estimated. Neuropsychological tests were more difficult than the CAMCOG, ADAS-cog, and MMSE items. Most neuropsychological tests had difficulties in the ability range of normal ageing to mild dementia. Higher than average ability levels were more precisely measured when neuropsychological tests were added to the MMSE than when these were measured with the MMSE alone. Diagnostic accuracy in mild dementia was consistently better after adding neuropsychological tests to the MMSE. We conclude that extending dementia specific instruments with neuropsychological tests improves measurement precision and accuracy of cognitive impairment in mild dementia.

  13. [Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test: normalization and standardization for Spanish population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, N; Del Pino, R; Ibarretxe-Bilbao, N; Schretlen, D J; Pena, J

    2016-12-01

    Introduccion. La evaluacion cognitiva de Montreal (MoCA) es un test de cribado breve que evalua el estado cognitivo general, y resulta un recurso alternativo, muy util, al tradicional test minimental. Objetivo. Normalizar y estandarizar el test MoCA, teniendo en cuenta las caracteristicas sociodemograficas de la poblacion española (datos INE, 2012). Sujetos y metodos. El estudio se enmarca dentro del proyecto Normacog, en el que se evaluo a 700 participantes (18-86 años). Se analizaron el efecto de la edad, el nivel educativo y el sexo sobre el rendimiento del test MoCA, y se crearon los percentiles, las puntuaciones escalares para nueve rangos de edad y la puntuacion escalar normalizada ajustada por edad y nivel educativo. Resultados. Los resultados mostraron un efecto significativo de la edad, el nivel educativo y el sexo sobre el rendimiento cognitivo en el test MoCA. Sin embargo, el sexo solo presento un efecto significativo sobre dos dominios cognitivos: atencion y recuerdo diferido. La edad, la educacion y el sexo explicaron entre el 1% y el 32,3% de la varianza en las variables analizadas del test. Los participantes mas mayores con menor nivel de educacion formal obtuvieron peor rendimiento cognitivo. Se obtuvieron los percentiles y las puntuaciones escalares para cada rango de edad y la puntuacion escalar normalizada individual. Conclusion. Se presentan los datos normativos del test MoCA adecuados a las caracteristicas sociodemograficas de la sociedad española y los puntos de corte propuestos para discriminar entre rendimiento cognitivo normal y deterioro cognitivo leve segun los diferentes rangos de edad.

  14. Montreal Cognitive Assessment for screening mild cognitive impairment: variations in test performance and scores by education in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tze Pin; Feng, Lei; Lim, Wee Shiong; Chong, Mei Sian; Lee, Tih Shih; Yap, Keng Bee; Tsoi, Tung; Liew, Tau Ming; Gao, Qi; Collinson, Simon; Kandiah, Nagaendran; Yap, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was developed as a screening instrument for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated the MoCA's test performance by educational groups among older Singaporean Chinese adults. The MoCA and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were evaluated in two independent studies (clinic-based sample and community-based sample) of MCI and normal cognition (NC) controls, using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses: area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity (Sn), and specificity (Sp). The MoCA modestly discriminated MCI from NC in both study samples (AUC = 0.63 and 0.65): Sn = 0.64 and Sp = 0.36 at a cut-off of 28/29 in the clinic-based sample, and Sn = 0.65 and Sp = 0.55 at a cut-off of 22/23 in the community-based sample. The MoCA's test performance was least satisfactory in the highest (>6 years) education group: AUC = 0.50 (p = 0.98), Sn = 0.54, and Sp = 0.51 at a cut-off of 27/28. Overall, the MoCA's test performance was not better than that of the MMSE. In multivariate analyses controlling for age and gender, MCI diagnosis was associated with a education was associated with a 3- to 5-point decrement (η(2) = 0.115 and η(2) = 0.162, respectively). The MoCA's ability to discriminate MCI from NC was modest in this Chinese population, because it was far more sensitive to the effect of education than MCI diagnosis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Cognitive impairment predicts worse short-term response to spinal tap test in normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsegger, Thomas; Topakian, Raffi

    2017-08-15

    In patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), the spinal tap test (STT) is commonly used to predict ventriculoperitoneal shunt responsiveness. Clinical improvement following STT usually is measured by testing gait function. In our study, we investigated the impact of cognitive impairment on gait improvement after STT. 22 patients with the clinical and radiological diagnosis of iNPH underwent gait analyses (mobile measuring system Medilogic) before and 2-4h after STT in self-paced gait velocity over 7m. Prior to STT, cognition was evaluated by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). MMSESTT vs. after STT were analyzed with ANOVA with repeated measures. 1. Baseline gait parameters did not differ between the two groups: patients with iNPH and normal cognition (n=11) and patients with iNPH-CI (n=11). 2. Following STT, there was significant improvement of gait parameters in patients without cognitive impairment, while patients with iNPH-CI did not benefit from STT. Subjects with iNPH have a higher probability of lack of gait improvement 2-4h following STT, if cognitive impairment is present. Further studies are needed to elucidate the associations of cognitive impairment and quantitative gait parameters measured early and at later time points after STT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A test of the cognitive content specificity hypothesis in depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberton, Anna; Oei, Tian P S

    2008-03-01

    The present study tested the cognitive content specificity hypothesis (CCSH) to assess whether anxiety and depression can be differentiated on the basis of cognitive disturbance. One hundred and thirty five depressed participants were administered the Beck depression inventory (BDI), the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI), the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ) and the anxious self-statements questionnaire (ASSQ). It was hypothesised that depressive cognitions would be specifically related to, and predictive of, depressive (but not anxiety) symptoms in a depressed sample. Conversely, it was predicted that anxiety cognitions would be specifically related to, and predictive of, anxiety (but not depressive) symptoms in a depressed sample. Results revealed that the ATQ was the sole predictor of the BDI and similarly, the ASSQ was the sole predictor of the BAI. These findings support the CCSH in depression and provide an integrative framework for a greater understanding of the relationship between anxiety and depression.

  17. Effects of Reducing the Cognitive Load of Mathematics Test Items on Student Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Gillmor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores a new item-writing framework for improving the validity of math assessment items. The authors transfer insights from Cognitive Load Theory (CLT, traditionally used in instructional design, to educational measurement. Fifteen, multiple-choice math assessment items were modified using research-based strategies for reducing extraneous cognitive load. An experimental design with 222 middle-school students tested the effects of the reduced cognitive load items on student performance and anxiety. Significant findings confirm the main research hypothesis that reducing the cognitive load of math assessment items improves student performance. Three load-reducing item modifications are identified as particularly effective for reducing item difficulty: signalling important information, aesthetic item organization, and removing extraneous content. Load reduction was not shown to impact student anxiety. Implications for classroom assessment and future research are discussed.

  18. Cognitive test performance among nondemented elderly African Americans and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, J J; Jacobs, D M; Sano, M; Bell, K; Merchant, C A; Small, S A; Stern, Y

    1998-05-01

    We examined the neuropsychological test performance of a randomly selected community sample of English-speaking non-Hispanic African American and white elders in northern Manhattan. All participants were diagnosed as nondemented by a neurologist, whose assessment was made independent of neuropsychological test scores. African American elders obtained significantly lower scores on measures of verbal and nonverbal learning and memory, abstract reasoning, language, and visuospatial skill than whites. After using a stratified random sampling technique to match groups on years of education, many of the discrepancies became nonsignificant; however, significant ethnic group differences on measures of figure memory, verbal abstraction, category fluency, and visuospatial skill remained. Discrepancies in test performance of education-matched African Americans and whites could not be accounted for by occupational attainment or history of medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes. These findings emphasize the importance of using culturally appropriate norms when evaluating ethnically diverse elderly for dementia.

  19. Test Your Memory is sensitive to cognitive change but lacks prospective validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero-Arias, J; Turrión-Rojo, M Á

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prospective validity of Test Your Memory (TYM) and its sensitivity to change in cognitive state. This longitudinal prospective study followed 71 patients with subjective cognitive symptoms and 48 with mild cognitive impairment for a mean time period of 35.2 ± 15 months. Subjects did not have dementia or depression at the beginning of follow-up and each participant was given the TYM at least two times. A psychometric threshold was established to determine presence of a cognitive deficit (z-score ≤ 1.5 on at least one cognitive domain) and the Disability Assessment for Dementia scale was used to ensure full functional ability. The criterion for deterioration was a change in the stage on the Global Deterioration Scale. Sixty-one patients remained cognitively stable and 58 worsened. There were no differences between them with respect to sex, educational attainment, the initial stage on the GDS, or the score on the first TYM. Subjects who worsened were older than those who did not. The TYM increased an average of 0.04 points per month in patients who remained stable or improved (95% CI, -0.01 to 0.08) and decreased an average of 0.14 points per month in those whose condition worsened (95% CI, -0.19 to -0.09). Subjects with mild cognitive impairment who worsened displayed a sharper loss of TYM points than did subjects with subjective cognitive symptoms. While the TYM lacks prospective validity, it is sensitive to changes in cognitive state. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Overview of Test and Evaluation Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Overview of Test and Evaluation Materials Kevin...00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): A...14. ABSTRACT The IARPA (Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity) program ICArUS (Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for

  1. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 2 Test and Evaluation Development Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 2 Test and Evaluation Development Guide Craig...response data ................................................................ 15 4 Overview 1 The Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience ...Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS) Program aimed to build computational cognitive- neuroscience models to explain, predict, and emulate

  2. Cognitive Laboratory Experiences : On Pre-testing Computerised Questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijkers, G.J.M.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the literature on questionnaire design and survey methodology, pre-testing is mentioned as a way to evaluate questionnaires (i.e. investigate whether they work as intended) and control for measurement errors (i.e. assess data quality). As the American Statistical Association puts it (ASA, 1999, p

  3. Screening Utility of the King-Devick Test in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetta, Kristin M; Chapman, Kimberly R; Essis, Maritza D; Alosco, Michael L; Gillard, Danielle; Steinberg, Eric; Dixon, Diane; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine E; Kowall, Neil W; Tripodis, Yorghos; Balcer, Laura J; Stern, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    The King-Devick (K-D) test is a 1 to 2 minute, rapid number naming test, often used to assist with detection of concussion, but also has clinical utility in other neurological conditions (eg, Parkinson disease). The K-D involves saccadic eye and other eye movements, and abnormalities thereof may be an early indicator of Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated cognitive impairment. No study has tested the utility of the K-D in AD and we sought to do so. The sample included 206 [135 controls, 39 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 32 AD dementia] consecutive subjects from the Boston University Alzheimer's Disease Center registry undergoing their initial annual evaluation between March 2013 and July 2015. The K-D was administered during this period. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves generated from logistic regression models revealed the K-D test distinguished controls from subjects with cognitive impairment (MCI and AD dementia) [area under the curve (AUC)=0.72], MCI (AUC=0.71) and AD dementia (AUC=0.74). K-D time scores between 48 and 52 seconds were associated with high sensitivity (>90.0%) and negative predictive values (>85.0%) for each diagnostic group. The K-D correlated strongly with validated attention, processing speed, and visual scanning tests. The K-D test may be a rapid and simple effective screening tool to detect cognitive impairment associated with AD.

  4. The EDSS integration with the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis and orientation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccà, Francesco; Costabile, Teresa; Carotenuto, Antonio; Lanzillo, Roberta; Moccia, Marcello; Pane, Chiara; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Barbarulo, Anna Maria; Casertano, Sara; Rossi, Fabiana; Signoriello, Elisabetta; Lus, Giacomo; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo

    2017-08-01

    Despite cognitive tests have been validated in multiple sclerosis (MS), a neuropsychological evaluation is not implemented in the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scoring. We used the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) and orientation tests (OTs) to measure the cerebral functional system (CFS) score and to evaluate its impact on the EDSS. We compared EDSS calculated as usual (Native-EDSS) and after the use of the BICAMS and OT (NPS-EDSS). We tested 604 MS patients with BICAMS, OTs, and EDSS. In all, 384 patients (63.6%) had at least one altered test at the BICAMS. Older age, lower education, higher Native-EDSS, and male gender were independently associated with at least one impaired BICAMS test. Native-EDSS was different from NPS-EDSS (-0.112; p EDSS ⩽ 4.0, the proportion of miscalculated EDSS was 25%. The use of brief neuropsychological tests leads to a more accurate CFS assessment in two-thirds of MS patients, and a more accurate EDSS calculation in 25% of patients with a score ⩽4.0. This may help clinicians to better recognize cognitive impairment in everyday clinical practice, especially in the case of isolated cognitive worsening.

  5. Quantitative cognitive-test characterization of reconnectable implantable fiber-optic neurointerfaces for optogenetic neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, I V; Ivashkina, O I; Pochechuev, M S; Roshchina, M A; Toropova, K A; Fedotov, A B; Anokhin, K V; Zheltikov, A M

    2017-02-23

    Cognitive tests on representative groups of freely behaving transgenic mice are shown to enable a quantitative characterization of reconnectable implantable fiber-optic neurointerfaces for optogenetic neurostimulation. A systematic analysis of such tests provides a robust quantitative measure for the cognitive effects induced by fiber-optic neurostimulation, validating the performance of fiber-optic neurointerfaces for long-term optogenetic brain stimulations and showing no statistically significant artifacts in the behavior of transgenic mice due to interface implantation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Testing for Equivalence: A Methodology for Computational Cognitive Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Terrence; West, Robert

    2010-12-01

    The equivalence test (Stewart and West, 2007; Stewart, 2007) is a statistical measure for evaluating the similarity between a model and the system being modelled. It is designed to avoid over-fitting and to generate an easily interpretable summary of the quality of a model. We apply the equivalence test to two tasks: Repeated Binary Choice (Erev et al., 2010) and Dynamic Stocks and Flows (Gonzalez and Dutt, 2007). In the first case, we find a broad range of statistically equivalent models (and win a prediction competition) while identifying particular aspects of the task that are not yet adequately captured. In the second case, we re-evaluate results from the Dynamic Stocks and Flows challenge, demonstrating how our method emphasizes the breadth of coverage of a model and how it can be used for comparing different models. We argue that the explanatory power of models hinges on numerical similarity to empirical data over a broad set of measures.

  7. Patients with bipolar disorder show impaired performance on complex tests of social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusi, Andrée M; Macqueen, Glenda M; McKinnon, Margaret C

    2012-12-30

    The literature concerning social cognitive performance in people with bipolar disorder (BD) reveals a mixed pattern of findings. We compared performance between patients with BD and matched controls on two social cognitive tasks that involved: (i) the decoding of mental states from pictures of eyes (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and (ii) a video-based test that requires participants to discriminate social cues to make interpersonal judgments (Interpersonal Perception Task-15; IPT-15). We also sought to evaluate the association between symptom severity, social functioning, and social cognitive ability in patients with BD. Relative to controls, patients with BD were impaired at discriminating mental states from pictures of eyes and in making complex social judgments. Impaired responding on the IPT-15 was also associated with reduced psychosocial functioning. These results provide evidence of impaired performance on complex tests of social cognition in patients with BD. Impairments in social cognition may be associated with well-documented declines in the frequency of social interactions and development of interpersonal relationships found in this patient population.

  8. Development of the Thai version of Mini-Cog, a brief cognitive screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongsakul, Supaporn; Lambert, Rod; Clark, Allan; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Cross, Jane

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive impairment, such as dementia, has emerged as the leading public health problem among the elderly. Therefore, early detection of the disorder and providing appropriate healthcare and management is important, particularly, for the patients with comorbid diabetes who require long-term treatment strategies. In Thailand, because of a large number of elderly patients with diabetes, and time constraints in primary care settings, a short and effective cognitive screening test is required. The Mini-Cog is a short and valid cognitive screening test that was specifically designed for use in primary care settings. The present study translated the English language version into a Thai language version, and then measured the interrater reliability and concurrent validity. The processes of cross-language translation were carried out to develop a Thai language version of the Mini-Cog. A total of 21 Thai older adults with type 2 diabetes with a mean aged of 69 ± 7 years were recruited into a study investigating the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the Mini-Cog Thai version in one primary care center in Thailand. The Mini-Cog Thai version showed a good interrater reliability (K = 0.80, P cognitive function in primary care settings in Thailand. It is recommended that it could be used as a new cognitive screening test for the aging population in the Thai community. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Preliminary study of Internet addiction and cognitive function in adolescents based on IQ tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Park, E-Jin; Choi, Jeewook; Chai, Sukhi; Lee, Ji-Han; Lee, Chul; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2011-12-30

    The potential relationship between Internet addiction and certain cognitive function problems has been suggested by several studies. However, few or no studies have examined the differences in cognitive functioning between persons addicted to the Internet and persons not addicted using a standard neuropsychological test. This study screened 253 middle school students and 389 high school students for Internet addiction and compared 59 Internet-addicted students with 43 non-addicted students using an IQ test. The Internet-addicted group had comprehension sub-item scores that were significantly lower than those of the non-addicted group. As the comprehension item reflects ethical judgement and reality testing, there may be a relationship between Internet addiction and weak social intelligence. Earlier onset of Internet addiction and longer addiction duration were associated with lower participant performance in areas related to attention. As this study is a cross-sectional study, it is not clear whether the persons who display weak cognitive functioning are susceptible to Internet addiction or if Internet addiction causes cognitive problems. However, as brain development remains active during adolescence, the possibility that Internet addiction adversely affects the cognitive functioning of adolescents cannot be ruled out.

  10. Old world monkeys compare to apes in the primate cognition test battery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Schmitt

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of intelligence rests on comparative analyses of brain sizes as well as the assessment of cognitive skills of different species in relation to potential selective pressures such as environmental conditions and social organization. Because of the strong interest in human cognition, much previous work has focused on the comparison of the cognitive skills of human toddlers to those of our closest living relatives, i.e. apes. Such analyses revealed that apes and children have relatively similar competencies in the physical domain, while human children excel in the socio-cognitive domain; in particular in terms of attention sharing, cooperation, and mental state attribution. To develop a full understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of primate intelligence, however, comparative data for monkeys are needed. We tested 18 Old World monkeys (long-tailed macaques and olive baboons in the so-called Primate Cognition Test Battery (PCTB (Herrmann et al. 2007, Science. Surprisingly, our tests revealed largely comparable results between Old World monkeys and the Great apes. Single comparisons showed that chimpanzees performed only better than the macaques in experiments on spatial understanding and tool use, but in none of the socio-cognitive tasks. These results question the clear-cut relationship between cognitive performance and brain size and--prima facie--support the view of an accelerated evolution of social intelligence in humans. One limitation, however, is that the initial experiments were devised to tap into human specific skills in the first place, thus potentially underestimating both true nonhuman primate competencies as well as species differences.

  11. Response to an abnormal ovarian cancer-screening test result: test of the social cognitive processing and cognitive social health information processing models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrykowski, Michael A; Pavlik, Edward J

    2011-04-01

    All cancer screening tests produce a proportion of abnormal results requiring follow up. Consequently, the cancer-screening setting is a natural laboratory for examining psychological and behavioural response to a threatening health-related event. This study tested hypotheses derived from the social cognitive processing and cognitive-social health information processing models in trying to understand response to an abnormal ovarian cancer (OC) screening test result. Women (n = 278) receiving an abnormal screening test result a mean of 7 weeks earlier were assessed prior to a repeat screening test intended to clarify their previous abnormal result. Measures of disposition (optimism, informational coping style), social environment (social support and constraint), emotional processing, distress, and benefit finding were obtained. Regression analyses indicated greater distress was associated with greater social constraint and emotional processing and a monitoring coping style in women with a family history of OC. Distress was unrelated to social support. Greater benefit finding was associated with both greater social constraint and support and greater distress. The primacy of social constraint in accounting for both benefit finding and distress was noteworthy and warrants further research on the role of social constraint in adaptation to stressful events.

  12. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  13. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  14. A Cognitive Approach to the Compilation of Test Materials for the Evaluation of Translator's Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Berg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Cognitive Approach to the Compilation of Test Materials for the Evaluation of Translator's Skills This paper discusses the importance of a cognitive approach to the evaluation of translator’s skills. The authors set forth their recommendations for the compilation of test materials for the evaluation of translators’ cognitive ability.   Kognitywne podejście do kompilowania tekstów służących ocenie umiejętności tłumacza Artykuł porusza wagę kognitywnego podejścia do ewaluacji umiejętności tłumacza. Autorzy przedstawiają swoje zalecenia co do kompilowania materiałów testowych do ewaluacji kognitywnych zdolności tłumacza.

  15. Augmented Reality Cubes for Cognitive Gaming: Preliminary Usability and Game Experience Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Boletsis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Early detection is important in dementia care; however, cognitive impairment is still under-recognised and under-diagnosed. Cognitive screening and training are two important preventative treatments, which can lead to early detection of cognitive decline. In this work, the “Cognitive Augmented Reality Cubes” (CogARC system is presented, i.e. a serious game for cognitive training and screening, utilising an interaction technique based on Augmented Reality and the manipulation of tangible, physical objects (cubes. The game is a collection of cognitive mini-games of preventative nature and is, primarily, targeting elderly players (≥60 years old. A preliminary testing was conducted focusing on the game experience that CogARC offers (utilising the In-Game Experience Questionnaire, the usability of the system (using the System Usability Scale, and the specific user observations and remarks, as documented by open, semi-structured interviews.  Overall, CogARC demonstrated satisfying positive responses, however, the negative reactions indicated that there are specific problems with aspects of the interaction technique and a number of mini-games. The open interview shed more light on the specific issues of each mini-game and further interpretation of user interactions. The current study managed to provide interesting insights into the game design elements, integration of Augmented Reality, tangible interaction of the system, and on how elderly players perceive and use those interaction components. 

  16. Robot services for elderly with cognitive impairment: testing usability of graphical user interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, C; Pino, M; Legouverneur, G; Vidal, J-S; Bidaud, P; Rigaud, A-S

    2013-01-01

    Socially assistive robotics for elderly care is a growing field. However, although robotics has the potential to support elderly in daily tasks by offering specific services, the development of usable interfaces is still a challenge. Since several factors such as age or disease-related changes in perceptual or cognitive abilities and familiarity with computer technologies influence technology use they must be considered when designing interfaces for these users. This paper presents findings from usability testing of two different services provided by a social assistive robot intended for elderly with cognitive impairment: a grocery shopping list and an agenda application. The main goal of this study is to identify the usability problems of the robot interface for target end-users as well as to isolate the human factors that affect the use of the technology by elderly. Socio-demographic characteristics and computer experience were examined as factors that could have an influence on task performance. A group of 11 elderly persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment and a group of 11 cognitively healthy elderly individuals took part in this study. Performance measures (task completion time and number of errors) were collected. Cognitive profile, age and computer experience were found to impact task performance. Participants with cognitive impairment achieved the tasks committing more errors than cognitively healthy elderly. Instead younger participants and those with previous computer experience were faster at completing the tasks confirming previous findings in the literature. The overall results suggested that interfaces and contents of the services assessed were usable by older adults with cognitive impairment. However, some usability problems were identified and should be addressed to better meet the needs and capacities of target end-users.

  17. [Breastfeeding and cognitive development; interference evaluation by "5 digits test"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Iribar Ibabe, M Concepción; Peinado Herreros, José María; Miranda León, M Teresa; Campoy Folgoso, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    Introducción y objetivo: Numerosos estudios han intentado demostrar que la duración de la lactancia materna se relaciona con un mejor desarrollo cognitivo en la edad escolar. En el presente estudio se evalúa el potencial efecto beneficioso a largo plazo de la alimentación con leche materna durante los primeros meses de vida, no sólo sobre el desarrollo cognitivo, sino también como posible prevención del déficit de atención e hiperactividad. Esta valoración resulta de especial interés en la sociedad actual en la que se han incrementado de forma muy notable los déficits de atención en la infancia, unidos o no a trastornos de hiperactividad. Material y Métodos: Un total de 103 niños, escolarizados en primer curso de Educación Primaria, 6 años de edad, (47 niños y 56 niñas), fueron reclutados en diferentes colegios de la provincia de Granada de áreas urbanas, semiurbanas y rurales. Se analizó la velocidad de procesamiento cognitivo y la capacidad de enfocar la atención y reorientarla tras un suceso de distracción, mediante el test de los cinco dígitos (5-DGT), variante del test de interferencia de Stroop. Resultados: Los datos demuestran una correlación lineal entre una mayor duración de la lactancia materna y mejores resultados en todas las pruebas del test. Resultan altamente significativas (P ≤0,001) las comparaciones para las pruebas de lectura y alternancia, entre aquellos niños que fueron alimentados con leche materna durante 6 meses frente a los que sólo recibieron esta alimentación durante su primer mes de vida. Conclusión: El estudio valida la hipótesis inicial, demostrando una mayor velocidad de resolución y una menor interferencia en el grupo de niños alimentados con pecho al menos durante los 6 primeros meses. Los datos obtenidos deberían refrendarse en un posterior estudio, con una mayor muestra, ya que resulta de suma importancia reforzar el consejo de lactancia materna durante al menos los 6 primeros meses de vida

  18. Paranormal psychic believers and skeptics: a large-scale test of the cognitive differences hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stephen J; Gallo, David A

    2016-02-01

    Belief in paranormal psychic phenomena is widespread in the United States, with over a third of the population believing in extrasensory perception (ESP). Why do some people believe, while others are skeptical? According to the cognitive differences hypothesis, individual differences in the way people process information about the world can contribute to the creation of psychic beliefs, such as differences in memory accuracy (e.g., selectively remembering a fortune teller's correct predictions) or analytical thinking (e.g., relying on intuition rather than scrutinizing evidence). While this hypothesis is prevalent in the literature, few have attempted to empirically test it. Here, we provided the most comprehensive test of the cognitive differences hypothesis to date. In 3 studies, we used online screening to recruit groups of strong believers and strong skeptics, matched on key demographics (age, sex, and years of education). These groups were then tested in laboratory and online settings using multiple cognitive tasks and other measures. Our cognitive testing showed that there were no consistent group differences on tasks of episodic memory distortion, autobiographical memory distortion, or working memory capacity, but skeptics consistently outperformed believers on several tasks tapping analytical or logical thinking as well as vocabulary. These findings demonstrate cognitive similarities and differences between these groups and suggest that differences in analytical thinking and conceptual knowledge might contribute to the development of psychic beliefs. We also found that psychic belief was associated with greater life satisfaction, demonstrating benefits associated with psychic beliefs and highlighting the role of both cognitive and noncognitive factors in understanding these individual differences.

  19. Effect of literacy level on cognitive and language tests in Korean illiterate older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JungWan; Yoon, Ji Hye; Kim, Soo Ryon; Kim, HyangHee

    2014-10-01

    Illiterate individuals represent a significant proportion of the world's population. Acquisition of reading and writing skills influences the functional status of the brain, and consequently alters the performance on cognitive and language tests. Thus, it is important to identify the degree of the impact of levels of both illiteracy and education as potential confounders on test performance in people with neurological communication disorders. A total of 203 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older were recruited for the present study. Participants were classified into four groups based on the literacy level; pure illiterate (n=29), semi-illiterate (n=67), literate (n=75) and high-level literate (n=32). The participants completed the Mini-Mental State Examination, Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test (animal), verb naming, and sentence comprehension tests. The pure illiterate group showed the lowest performance on all five tests. Regression analysis showed that literacy level was the variable that best predicted the performance on cognitive and language tests. These findings suggest that literacy in performance on cognitive and language tests is an important factor in neuropsychological evaluations for older adults. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. TEST: a tropic, embodied, and situated theory of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myachykov, Andriy; Scheepers, Christoph; Fischer, Martin H; Kessler, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    TEST is a novel taxonomy of knowledge representations based on three distinct hierarchically organized representational features: Tropism, Embodiment, and Situatedness. Tropic representational features reflect constraints of the physical world on the agent's ability to form, reactivate, and enrich embodied (i.e., resulting from the agent's bodily constraints) conceptual representations embedded in situated contexts. The proposed hierarchy entails that representations can, in principle, have tropic features without necessarily having situated and/or embodied features. On the other hand, representations that are situated and/or embodied are likely to be simultaneously tropic. Hence, although we propose tropism as the most general term, the hierarchical relationship between embodiment and situatedness is more on a par, such that the dominance of one component over the other relies on the distinction between offline storage versus online generation as well as on representation-specific properties.

  1. Assessing social-cognitive deficits in schizophrenia with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M; Greeno, Catherine G; Pogue-Geile, Michael F; Newhill, Christina E; Hogarty, Gerard E; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2010-03-01

    The emotion management subscale of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) has recently been recommended by the National Institute of Mental Health Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia committee as the sole measure of social cognition for trials of cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia, yet the psychometric properties of this subscale and the larger instrument in schizophrenia patients have not been thoroughly examined. This research presents a psychometric investigation of the MSCEIT in a sample of 64 early course outpatients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or schizophreniform disorder. Results demonstrated that the MSCEIT possesses adequate internal consistency reliability among its branch and total scales and that patients' branch and overall test performance was significantly below normative levels. Estimates of discriminant and concurrent validity indicated that the MSCEIT diverged from measures of neurocognitive functioning and psychopathology, but was only modestly related with objective measures of functional outcome. Convergent validity estimates suggested that, contrary to expectations, the MSCEIT did not correlate with a behavioral measure of social cognition. Finally, exploratory factor analyses suggested the possibility of a shift in the latent structure of emotional intelligence in schizophrenia, compared with studies with healthy individuals. These findings support the use of the MSCEIT as a reliable and potentially valid method of assessing the emotional components of social cognition in schizophrenia, but also point to a need for additional measurement development efforts to assess broader social-cognitive domains that may exhibit stronger relations with functional outcome. Further investigation is warranted to examine the instrument's latent factor structure and convergence with other measures of social cognition.

  2. Theory of Mind in aging: Comparing cognitive and affective components in the faux pas test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottiroli, Sara; Cavallini, Elena; Ceccato, Irene; Vecchi, Tomaso; Lecce, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is a complex human ability that allows people to make inferences on others' mental states such as beliefs, emotions and desires. Previous studies on ToM in normal aging have provided heterogeneous findings. In the present study we examined whether a mixed calculation of different aspects of ToM may have contributed to these conflicting results. We had two aims. First, we explored the age-related changes in the performance of cognitive vs. affective ToM. Second, we investigated the extent to which the effect of aging on cognitive vs. affective ToM is mediated by age-related differences in executive functions. To address these issues three age groups (young, young-old, and old-old adults) were compared on cognitive and affective ToM using the faux pas test. In addition, participants were tested using a battery of executive function tasks tapping on inhibition, working memory updating, and word fluency. The analyses indicated that young adults outperform both young-old and old-old adults on cognitive ToM but not on affective ToM. Correlations showed that, whereas cognitive ToM was significantly associated with age, working memory updating, and inhibition, affective ToM was not. Finally, analyses revealed that individual differences in working memory updating (but not inhibition) mediated the effect of age on cognitive ToM. Our findings support the view of selective age-related differences on cognitive, but not affective, ToM in normal aging. The distinction between the two ToM components is further supported by a dissociable pattern of correlations with executive functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Confidence and Cognitive Test Performance. Research Report. ETS RR-07-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar; Lee, Jihyun

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of confidence in relation to cognitive abilities, personality traits, and metacognition. Confidence was measured as it was expressed in answers to each test item during the administration of reading and listening sections of the TOEFL® iBT. The confidence scores were correlated with the accuracy scores from the TOEFL…

  4. Cognitive Levels of Questions Used by Iranian EFL Teachers in Advanced Reading Comprehension Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsand, Narjess

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive levels of questions used by Iranian EFL teachers in advanced reading comprehension tests. Twenty teachers participated in this study and generated 215 questions which were then categorized according to Bloom's taxonomy. This taxonomy consists of six major categories which starts from the simplest behavior to the…

  5. Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

  6. The Role of Social Factors in Shaping Students' Test Emotions: A Mediation Analysis of Cognitive Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buric, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between test emotions and their proximal and distal antecedents in the math domain as proposed by the control-value theory of achievement emotions, using structural equation modeling. More specifically, it investigates the mediating role of cognitive appraisals of control and value in the…

  7. Cognitive Learning Strategy as a Partial Effect on Major Field Test in Business Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was developed to determine if cognitive learning strategies improved standardized university business exam results. Previous studies revealed that factors such as prior ability, age, gender, and culture predicted a student's Major Field Test in Business (MFTB) score better than course content. The experiment control consisted of…

  8. Motor and cognitive testing of bone marrow transplant patients after chemoradiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parth, P.; Dunlap, W. P.; Kennedy, R. S.; Ordy, J. M.; Lane, N. E.

    1989-01-01

    Assessment of cognitive and motor performance of bone marrow transplant patients prior to, during, and following intensive toxic chemoradiotherapy may provide an important adjunct to measures of physiological and medical status. The present study is an attempt to assess whether, as side-effects, these aggressive treatments result in cognitive performance deficits, and if so, whether such changes recover posttreatment. Measurement of cognitive ability in this situation presents special problems not encountered with one-time tests intended for healthy adults. Such tests must be sensitive to changes within a single individual, which emphasizes the crucial importance of high reliability, stability across repeated-measures, and resistance to confounding factors such as motivation and fatigue. The present research makes use of a microbased portable test battery developed to have reliable and sensitive tests which were adapted to study the special requirements of transplant patients who may suffer cognitive deficits as a result of treatment. The results showed slight but significant changes in neuropsychological capacity when compared to baseline levels and controls, particularly near the beginning of treatment. The sensitivity of the battery in detecting such subtle temporary changes is discussed in terms of past research showing effects of other stressors, such as stimulated high altitude and ingestion of alcohol, on these measures.

  9. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  10. Automated Test Assembly for Cognitive Diagnosis Models Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Matthew; Kim, Wonsuk; Roussos, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    Much recent psychometric literature has focused on cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs), a promising class of instruments used to measure the strengths and weaknesses of examinees. This article introduces a genetic algorithm to perform automated test assembly alongside CDMs. The algorithm is flexible in that it can be applied whether the goal is to…

  11. A Placebo-Controlled Test of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Insomnia in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybarczyk, Bruce; Stepanski, Edward; Fogg, Louis; Lopez, Martita; Barry, Paulette; Davis, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia in older adults with osteoarthritis, coronary artery disease, or pulmonary disease. Ninety-two participants (mean age = 69 years) were randomly assigned to classroom CBT or stress management and wellness (SMW) training, which served as a placebo condition. Compared with SMW,…

  12. EMOTICOM: A neuropsychological test battery to evaluate emotion, motivation, impulsivity and social cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Rachel Bland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In mental health practice, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are aimed at improving neuropsychological symptoms, including cognitive and emotional impairments. However, at present there is no established neuropsychological test battery that comprehensively covers multiple affective domains relevant in a range of disorders. Our objective was to generate a standardised test battery, comprised of existing, adapted and novel tasks, to assess four core domains of affective cognition (emotion processing, motivation, impulsivity and social cognition in order to facilitate and enhance treatment development and evaluation in a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders. The battery was administered to two hundred participants aged 18-50 years (50% female, 42 of whom were retested in order to assess reliability. An exploratory factor analysis identified eleven factors with eigenvalues greater than 1, which accounted for over 70% of the variance. Tasks showed moderate to excellent test-retest reliability and were not strongly correlated with demographic factors such as age or IQ. The EMOTICOM test battery is therefore a promising tool for the assessment of affective cognitive function in a range of contexts.

  13. Two Tests of the Social Cognitive Model of Well-Being in Portuguese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Taveira, Maria do Ceu; Lobo, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    A social cognitive model of well-being (Lent & Brown, 2006, 2008) was tested in two studies (one cross-sectional, one longitudinal) with Portuguese college students. Participants in Study 1 (N = 366) completed measures of academic self-efficacy, environmental support, goal progress, academic satisfaction and stress, trait positive affect, and…

  14. Predicting the Job and Life Satisfaction of Italian Teachers: Test of a Social Cognitive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore; Ginevra, Maria C.; Duffy, Ryan D.; Brown, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a social cognitive model of work and life satisfaction (Lent & Brown, 2006, 2008) in a sample of 235 Italian school teachers. The model offered good overall fit to the data, though not all individual path coefficients were significant. Three of five predictors (favorable work conditions, efficacy-relevant supports, and…

  15. Longitudinal Test of the Social Cognitive Model of Choice in Engineering Students at Historically Black Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Sheu, Hung-Bin; Gloster, Clay S.; Wilkins, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    We tested the social cognitive model of choice (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) using a longitudinal design. Participants were 116 students taking beginning engineering courses at two historically Black universities. They completed measures of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, goals, and environmental supports and barriers near the end…

  16. 77 FR 55217 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Cognitive Testing of Instrumentation and Materials...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Respondents: Youth (ages 12-17) and Adults (ages 18+). The annual reporting burden for the screening of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... participating in screening for PATH study cognitive testing is estimated at: $6,632; and the annualized cost to...

  17. Automated Test Assembly for Cognitive Diagnosis Models Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Matthew; Kim, Wonsuk; Roussos, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    Much recent psychometric literature has focused on cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs), a promising class of instruments used to measure the strengths and weaknesses of examinees. This article introduces a genetic algorithm to perform automated test assembly alongside CDMs. The algorithm is flexible in that it can be applied whether the goal is to…

  18. Cognitive Ability and Personality Variables as Predictors of School Grades and Test Scores in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Fries, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The predictive power of cognitive ability and self-control strength for self-reported grades and an achievement test were studied. It was expected that the variables use of time structure, academic procrastination, and motivational interference during learning further aid in predicting students' achievement because they are operative in situations…

  19. Age Differences in Perseveration: Cognitive and Neuroanatomical Mediators of Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Denise; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Aging effects on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) are fairly well established but the mechanisms of the decline are not clearly understood. In this study, we examined the cognitive and neural mechanisms mediating age-related increases in perseveration on the WCST. MRI-based volumetry and measures of selected executive functions in…

  20. "'Sink or Swim': Buoyancy and Coping in the Cognitive Test Anxiety--Academic Performance Relationship"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Daly, Anthony L.; Chamberlain, Suzanne; Sadreddini, Shireen

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between students' self-report levels of cognitive test anxiety (worry), academic buoyancy (withstanding and successfully responding to routine school challenges and setbacks), coping processes and their achieved grades in high-stakes national examinations at the end of compulsory schooling. The sample comprised…

  1. Comparability of developmental cognitive assessments between standard and computer testing methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandell, D.J.; Sackett, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial questions have been raised about the validity of using computer-based testing to assess cognitive development with young children. However, little work has been done to assess the comparability of performance elicited using computerized methods with performance garnered using standard

  2. Two Tests of the Social Cognitive Model of Well-Being in Portuguese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Taveira, Maria do Ceu; Lobo, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    A social cognitive model of well-being (Lent & Brown, 2006, 2008) was tested in two studies (one cross-sectional, one longitudinal) with Portuguese college students. Participants in Study 1 (N = 366) completed measures of academic self-efficacy, environmental support, goal progress, academic satisfaction and stress, trait positive affect, and…

  3. Surprise, Memory, and Retrospective Judgment Making: Testing Cognitive Reconstruction Theories of the Hindsight Bias Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.

    2009-01-01

    Hindsight bias has been shown to be a pervasive and potentially harmful decision-making bias. A review of 4 competing cognitive reconstruction theories of hindsight bias revealed conflicting predictions about the role and effect of expectation or surprise in retrospective judgment formation. Two experiments tested these predictions examining the…

  4. A Placebo-Controlled Test of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Insomnia in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybarczyk, Bruce; Stepanski, Edward; Fogg, Louis; Lopez, Martita; Barry, Paulette; Davis, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia in older adults with osteoarthritis, coronary artery disease, or pulmonary disease. Ninety-two participants (mean age = 69 years) were randomly assigned to classroom CBT or stress management and wellness (SMW) training, which served as a placebo condition. Compared with SMW,…

  5. Comparability of developmental cognitive assessments between standard and computer testing methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandell, D.J.; Sackett, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial questions have been raised about the validity of using computer-based testing to assess cognitive development with young children. However, little work has been done to assess the comparability of performance elicited using computerized methods with performance garnered using standard te

  6. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  7. Development of a cognitive function test using virtual reality technology: examination in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiromi; Nagano, Akinori; Seki, Keiko; Okahashi, Sayaka; Kojima, Maki; Luo, Zhiwei

    2017-07-13

    We developed a virtual reality test to assess the cognitive function of Japanese people in near-daily-life environment, namely, a virtual shopping test (VST). In this test, participants were asked to execute shopping tasks using touch panel operations in a "virtual shopping mall." We examined differences in VST performances among healthy participants of different ages and correlations between VST and screening tests, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Everyday Memory Checklist (EMC). We included 285 healthy participants between 20 and 86 years of age in seven age groups. Therefore, each VST index tended to decrease with advancing age; differences among age groups were significant. Most VST indices had a significantly negative correlation with MMSE and significantly positive correlation with EMC. VST may be useful for assessing general cognitive decline; effects of age must be considered for proper interpretation of the VST scores.

  8. Testing the self-efficacy-performance linkage of social-cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A W; Rainer, R K; Hochwarter, W A; Thompson, K R

    1997-02-01

    Past empirical research examining the relationship of self-efficacy perceptions and performance has had several limitations. Most studies were performed in the laboratory with tasks not directly related to individual work performance. As a consequence, many findings are not generalizable to individual work performance. This study tested the self-efficacy-performance model found in Bandura's social-cognitive theory in a work setting, with a sample of 776 American university employees, and with discriminant function analyses. Respondents indicated that performance with computers significantly predicted perceptions of high and low self-efficacy. Results provide additional support for social-cognitive theory as outlined by Bandura.

  9. Motivational and Cognitive Test-Taking Strategies and Their Influence on Test Performance in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yun; Hong, Eunsook; Mason, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    A structural equation model of relationships among testing-related motivation variables (test value, effort, self-efficacy, and test anxiety), test-taking strategies (test tactics and metacognitive strategies), gender, and math test performance were examined with a sample of 10th graders (N = 438; 182 males and 256 females). In general, motivation…

  10. Level and change in cognitive test scores predict risk of first stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, Triveni; Avendaño, Mauricio; Glymour, M Maria

    2009-03-01

    To determine whether cognitive test scores and cognitive decline predict incidence of first diagnosed stroke. Stroke-free Health and Retirement Study participants were followed on average 7.6 years for self- or proxy-reported first stroke (1,483 events). Predictors included baseline performance on a modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (Mental Status) and Word Recall test and decline between baseline and second assessment in either measure. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models for the whole sample and stratified according to five major cardiovascular risk factors. National cohort study of noninstitutionalized adults with a mean baseline age of 64+/-9.9. Health and Retirement Study participants (n=19,699) aged 50 and older. Word Recall (HR for 1 standard deviation difference=0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.86-0.97)) and Mental Status (HR=0.89, 95% CI=0.84-0.95) predicted incident stroke. Mental Status predicted stroke risk in those with (HR=0.93, 95%=0.87-0.99) and without (HR=0.81, 95% CI=0.72-.91) one or more vascular risk factors. Word Recall declines predicted a 16% elevation in subsequent stroke risk (95% CI=1.01-1.34). Declines in Mental Status predicted a 37% elevation in stroke risk (95% CI=1.11-1.70). Cognitive test scores predict future stroke risk, independent of other major vascular risk factors.

  11. Interparental conflict, children's social cognitions, and child aggression: a test of a mediational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, N E; Lindahl, K M; Malik, N M

    2001-06-01

    Although correlations between interparental conflict and child maladjustment are well-established, the processes connecting these 2 phenomena are less understood. The present study tested whether an aggressogenic cognitive style mediates the relationship between interparental conflict and child aggression. A multiethnic sample of 115 families with a child between the ages of 7 and 13 years participated. Questionnaires were used to assess parents' and children's perceptions of interparental conflict, children's social problem-solving strategies and beliefs about aggression, and parent and teacher reports of child aggression. Support was found for the mediating effect of aggressogenic cognitions on children's school aggression but not on children's aggression at home. Implications for understanding the associations among interparental conflict, children's social cognitions, and child aggression in different environmental contexts are discussed.

  12. A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from subjective memory complainers (SMC. Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB. We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR, and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF. A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC, the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29; LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3; LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14; delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9. The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

  13. A COGNITIVE APPROACH TO CORPORATE GOVERNANCE: A VISUALIZATION TEST OF MENTAL MODELS WITH THE COGNITIVE MAPPING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garoui NASSREDDINE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to determine the mental models of actors in the fi rm with respect to the cognitive approach of corporate governance. The paper takes a corporate governance perspective, discusses mental models and uses the cognitive map to view the diagrams showing the ways of thinking and the conceptualization of the cognitive approach. In addition, it employs a cognitive mapping technique. Returning to the systematic exploration of grids for each actor, it concludes that there is a balance of concepts expressing their cognitive orientation.

  14. Is the matching familiar figures test a measure of cognitive style? A warning for users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Cámara, P; Solís-Cámara, P

    1987-02-01

    A probabilistic model of reflection-impulsivity as measured by the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) is presented and tested on 77 fourth graders. In testing the model two groups emerged, a random response group (n = 22) and a cognitive response group (n = 55), who use the evaluation process. Correlations among latencies, total errors, initial errors, school-scores, and IQs were compared for our total sample and the two groups. The correlation of MFFT latencies and errors disappeared for the random-response group and new correlations with errors appeared while the cognitive response group kept a statistically significant correlation of latencies with errors and no other error correlation was shown. This last group was classified by Kagan's median-split procedure showing that most reflective subjects kept their classification. Preliminary results suggest a reinterpretation of reflection-impulsivity literature, especially as related to the impulsive style.

  15. CANTAB object recognition and language tests to detect aging cognitive decline: an exploratory comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Fernanda Cabral; de Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; de Macedo, Liliane Dias e Dias; Tomás, Alessandra Mendonça; Picanço-Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley; Bento-Torres, João; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of the limits between normal and pathological aging is essential to start preventive actions. The aim of this paper is to compare the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and language tests to distinguish subtle differences in cognitive performances in two different age groups, namely young adults and elderly cognitively normal subjects. We selected 29 young adults (29.9±1.06 years) and 31 older adults (74.1±1.15 years) matched by educational level (years of schooling). All subjects underwent a general assessment and a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Mini Mental State Examination, visuospatial learning, and memory tasks from CANTAB and language tests. Cluster and discriminant analysis were applied to all neuropsychological test results to distinguish possible subgroups inside each age group. Significant differences in the performance of aged and young adults were detected in both language and visuospatial memory tests. Intragroup cluster and discriminant analysis revealed that CANTAB, as compared to language tests, was able to detect subtle but significant differences between the subjects. Based on these findings, we concluded that, as compared to language tests, large-scale application of automated visuospatial tests to assess learning and memory might increase our ability to discern the limits between normal and pathological aging.

  16. Adaptation and validation into Portuguese language of the six-item cognitive impairment test (6CIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apóstolo, João Luís Alves; Paiva, Diana Dos Santos; Silva, Rosa Carla Gomes da; Santos, Eduardo José Ferreira Dos; Schultz, Timothy John

    2017-07-25

    The six-item cognitive impairment test (6CIT) is a brief cognitive screening tool that can be administered to older people in 2-3 min. To adapt the 6CIT for the European Portuguese and determine its psychometric properties based on a sample recruited from several contexts (nursing homes; universities for older people; day centres; primary health care units). The original 6CIT was translated into Portuguese and the draft Portuguese version (6CIT-P) was back-translated and piloted. The accuracy of the 6CIT-P was assessed by comparison with the Portuguese Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A convenience sample of 550 older people from various geographical locations in the north and centre of the country was used. The test-retest reliability coefficient was high (r = 0.95). The 6CIT-P also showed good internal consistency (α = 0.88) and corrected item-total correlations ranged between 0.32 and 0.90. Total 6CIT-P and MMSE scores were strongly correlated. The proposed 6CIT-P threshold for cognitive impairment is ≥10 in the Portuguese population, which gives sensitivity of 82.78% and specificity of 84.84%. The accuracy of 6CIT-P, as measured by area under the ROC curve, was 0.91. The 6CIT-P has high reliability and validity and is accurate when used to screen for cognitive impairment.

  17. Examination of daytime sleepiness and cognitive performance testing in patients with primary insomnia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    Full Text Available While individuals with insomnia consistently complain of cognitive impairment, previous studies on the effect of insomnia on objective measures of cognitive function have obtained ambiguous results. The relationship between daytime sleepiness and cognitive manifestations in insomnia patients is not clear.Thirty-six primary insomnia patients (PIPs and 26 good sleep controls (GSCs with age and gender matched manner were included in the study. Participants underwent an overnight polysomnography followed by a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT and an examination of the attention network test (ANT. ANT reflected three attentional networks including alerting, orienting and executive control. According to whether accompanied with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, the insomnia group were subdivided into PIPs with EDS (n = 12, score on MSLT<10 min and PIPs without EDS (n = 24, score on MSLT≥10 min.PIPs only performed worse on executive control function than GSCs in ANT. PIPs with EDS had longer overall reaction time (RT related to PIPs without EDS. Further analyses with Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between the overall RT and MSLT latency in insomniacs (r = -0.444, p<0.01, whereas no such correlation was found in controls.Results suggest that PIPs do show executive control function deficits compared with GSCs. Daytime sleepiness in terms of MSLT latency was associated with poor cognitive manifestations in patients with insomnia.

  18. Relationships of Cognitive Components of Test Anxiety to Test Performance: Implications for Assessment and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Monroe A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Assessed the degree to which components of test-taking strategies, covert self-statements, and subjective anxiety during an exam provide increments in prediction of test performance of undergraduates (N=72). Results showed that only test-taking strategies provided a significant increment to multiple-choice and essay test performance but not math…

  19. Validation of the Turkish Version of the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale–Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sati Bozkurt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study explored the psychometric properties of the newly designed Turkish version of the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale–Revised (CTAR. Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed an unidimensional structure consistent with the conceptualized nature of cognitive test anxiety and previous examinations of the English version of the CTAR. Examination of the factor loadings revealed two items that were weakly related to the test anxiety construct and as such were prime candidates for removal. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to compare model fit for the 25- and 23-item version of the measure. Results indicated that the 23-item version of the measure provided a better fit to the data which support the removal of the problematic items in the Turkish version of the CTAR. Additional analyses demonstrated the internal consistency, test–retest reliability, concurrent validity, and gender equivalence for responses offered on the Turkish version of the measure. Results of the analysis revealed a 23-item Turkish version of the T-CTAR is a valid and reliable measure of cognitive test anxiety for use among Turkish students.

  20. Neuropsychological Test Performance in Cognitively Normal Spanish-speaking Nonagenarians with Little Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Schmeidler, James; Raventos, Henriette; Valerio, Daniel; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Carrión-Baralt, José R; Mora-Villalobos, Lara; Bolaños, Patricia; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M

    2016-06-01

    To find associations of age, sex, and education with neuropsychological test performance in cognitively normal Spanish-speaking Costa Rican nonagenarians with little education; to provide norms; and to compare their performance with similar Puerto Ricans. For 95 Costa Ricans (90-102 years old, 0-6 years of education), multiple regression assessed associations with demographics of performance on six neuropsychological tests. Analyses of covariance compared them with 23 Puerto Ricans (90-99 years old). Younger age and being female-but not education-were associated with better performance on some neuropsychological tests, in particular episodic memory. The Puerto Ricans performed better on learning and memory tasks. In cognitively intact Spanish-speaking nonagenarians with little or no education, education did not affect test performance. Additional studies of the effect of education on cognitive performance are warranted in other samples with extremely low education or old age. National differences in performance highlight the importance of group-specific norms.

  1. Learning Classification Models of Cognitive Conditions from Subtle Behaviors in the Digital Clock Drawing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souillard-Mandar, William; Davis, Randall; Rudin, Cynthia; Au, Rhoda; Libon, David J.; Swenson, Rodney; Price, Catherine C.; Lamar, Melissa; Penney, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    The Clock Drawing Test – a simple pencil and paper test – has been used for more than 50 years as a screening tool to differentiate normal individuals from those with cognitive impairment, and has proven useful in helping to diagnose cognitive dysfunction associated with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other dementias and conditions. We have been administering the test using a digitizing ballpoint pen that reports its position with considerable spatial and temporal precision, making available far more detailed data about the subject’s performance. Using pen stroke data from these drawings categorized by our software, we designed and computed a large collection of features, then explored the tradeoffs in performance and interpretability in classifiers built using a number of different subsets of these features and a variety of different machine learning techniques. We used traditional machine learning methods to build prediction models that achieve high accuracy. We operationalized widely used manual scoring systems so that we could use them as benchmarks for our models. We worked with clinicians to define guidelines for model interpretability, and constructed sparse linear models and rule lists designed to be as easy to use as scoring systems currently used by clinicians, but more accurate. While our models will require additional testing for validation, they offer the possibility of substantial improvement in detecting cognitive impairment earlier than currently possible, a development with considerable potential impact in practice. PMID:27057085

  2. Field test of the Cognitive Interview: enhancing the recollection of actual victims and witnesses of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R P; Geiselman, R E; Amador, M

    1989-10-01

    The Cognitive Interview was tested in the field to enhance the recollection of actual victims and witnesses of crime. The technique is based on laboratory-tested principles of memory retrieval, knowledge representation, and communication. Seven experienced detectives from the Metro-Dade Police Department were trained to use the technique and were compared with 9 untrained detectives. Before and after training, all detectives tape-recorded interviews with victims and witnesses of crime. The trained detectives elicited 47% more information after than before training, and 63% more information than did the untrained detectives. Overall collaboration rates (94%) were extremely high and were equivalent for pre- and posttrained interviews. Because the Cognitive Interview reliably enhances memory and is easily learned and administered, it should be useful for a variety of investigative interviews.

  3. On the reliability, validity, and cognitive structure of the Thurstone Word Fluency Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M J; Stanczak, D E

    2000-04-01

    The Thurstone Word Fluency Test (TWFT) is a widely used neuropsychological instrument. However, data regarding its psychometric properties are lacking. The results of the present study suggest that the TWFT possesses excellent test-retest and inter-rater reliability, in addition to good construct validity. However, its criterion validity is limited by its lack of specificity and sensitivity. The present study also suggests that the TWFT is a complex cognitive task, and that successful TWFT performance depends upon a constellation of cognitive abilities, including attention/concentration, psychomotor speed, and memory. Finally, the relationship between verbal IQ and TWFT letter association value was examined. While the TWFT appears to be useful in detecting the presence of cerebral dysfunction, it is of less value in localizing such dysfunction. It is argued that the TWFT should not be used as a neuropsychological screening instrument, but rather, is best used within the context of a thorough neuropsychological examination.

  4. The single category implicit association test as a measure of implicit social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Andrew; Steinman, Ross B

    2006-07-01

    The Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) is a modification of the Implicit Association Test that measures the strength of evaluative associations with a single attitude object. Across 3 different attitude domains--soda brand preferences, self-esteem, and racial attitudes--the authors found evidence that the SC-IAT is internally consistent and makes unique contributions in the ability to understand implicit social cognition. In a 4th study, the authors investigated the susceptibility of the SC-IAT to faking or self-presentational concerns. Once participants with high error rates were removed, no significant self-presentation effect was observed. These results provide initial evidence for the reliability and validity of the SC-IAT as an individual difference measure of implicit social cognition.

  5. Using cognitive interviewing for test items to assess physical function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Helene M; Watson, Kyle; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Haley, Stephen M; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Montpetit, Kathleen; Gorton, George E; Mulcahey, M J; Tucker, Carole A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the content, format, and comprehension of test items and responses developed for use in a computer adaptive test (CAT) of physical function for children with cerebral palsy (CP). After training in cognitive interviewing techniques, investigators defined item intent and developed questions for each item. Parents of children with CP (n = 27) participated in interviews probing item meaning, item wording, and response choice adequacy and appropriateness. Qualitative analysis identified 3 themes: item clarity; relevance, context, and attribution; and problems with wording or tone. Parents reported the importance of delineating task components, assistance amount, and environmental context. Cognitive interviewing provided valuable information about the validity of new items and insight to improve relevance and context. We believe that the development of CATs in pediatric rehabilitation may ultimately reduce the impact of the issues identified.

  6. Do the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery episodic memory measures discriminate amnestic mild cognitive impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Pereiro, Arturo X; Facal, David; Reboredo, Alba; Lojo-Seoane, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    Although visual recognition memory and visuospatial paired associates learning has been shown to be impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), the sensitivity and specificity of the visual memory tests used to identify aMCI are not well defined. The current study attempted to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of three visual episodic memory tests (Pattern Recognition Memory [PRM], Delayed Matching to Sample [DMS], and Paired Associated Learning [PAL]) from the CANTAB, in differentiating aMCI patients from control healthy participants. Seventy seven aMCI patients and 85 cognitive normal controls aged over 50 years performed the PRM, DMS, and PAL tests. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to study the relationships between aMCI and visual memory measures. The three Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery measures significantly predicted aMCI. The optimal predictive model combined the total percent correct responses for PRM and DMS with the PAL total errors (six shapes adjusted), with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 83%, and achieved predictive accuracy of 80%. Visual episodic memory tasks such as those involved in the PRM, DMS, and PAL tests (included in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) may sensitively discriminate aMCI patients from normal controls. These tests may be useful for correct diagnosis of aMCI. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Testing listening effort for speech comprehension using the individuals’ cognitive spare capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rönnberg

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Most hearing aid fittings today are almost solely based on the patient’s audiogram. Although the loss of gain in the cochlea is important, for a more optimal fitting, more individual parameters of the patient’s cochlear loss together with the patient's cognitive abilities to process the auditory signal are required (Stenfelt & Rönnberg, 2009; Edwards, 2007. Moreover, the evaluation of the fitting is often based on a speech in noise task and the aim is to improve the individual patient’s signal to noise ratio (SNR thresholds. As a consequence, hearing aid fitting may be seen as a process aimed to improve the patient’s SNR threshold rather than to improve communication ability. However, subsequent to a hearing aid fitting, there can be great differences in SNR improvement between patients that have identical hearing impairment in terms of threshold data (the audiogram. The reasons are certainly complex but one contributing factor may be the individual differences in cognitive capacity and associated listening effort. Another way to think about amplified hearing is to ease a subject’s listening effort (Sarampalis, et al., 2009. When the speech signal is degraded by noise or by a hearing impairment, more high-order cognitive or top-down processes are required to perceive and understand the signal, and listening is therefore more effortful. It is assumed that a hearing aid would ease the listening effort for a hearing impaired person. However, it is not clear how to measure the listening effort. We here present a test that will tap into the different cognitive aspects of listening effort, the Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST. The AIST is a dual task hearing in noise test, that combines auditory and memory processing and is well suited as a clinical test for listening effort.

  8. Neuropsychological Testing and Machine Learning Distinguish Alzheimer’s Disease from Other Causes for Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Hildebrandt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With promising results in recent treatment trials for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, it becomes increasingly important to distinguish AD at early stages from other causes for cognitive impairment. However, existing diagnostic methods are either invasive (lumbar punctures, PET or inaccurate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. This study investigates the potential of neuropsychological testing (NPT to specifically identify those patients with possible AD among a sample of 158 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI or dementia for various causes. Patients were divided into an early stage and a late stage group according to their Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE score and labeled as AD or non-AD patients based on a post-mortem validated threshold of the ratio between total tau and beta amyloid in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; Total tau/Aβ(1–42 ratio, TB ratio. All patients completed the established Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease—Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB test battery and two additional newly-developed neuropsychological tests (recollection and verbal comprehension that aimed at carving out specific Alzheimer-typical deficits. Based on these test results, an underlying AD (pathologically increased TB ratio was predicted with a machine learning algorithm. To this end, the algorithm was trained in each case on all patients except the one to predict (leave-one-out validation. In the total group, 82% of the patients could be correctly identified as AD or non-AD. In the early group with small general cognitive impairment, classification accuracy was increased to 89%. NPT thus seems to be capable of discriminating between AD patients and patients with cognitive impairment due to other neurodegenerative or vascular causes with a high accuracy, and may be used for screening in clinical routine and drug studies, especially in the early course of this disease.

  9. Neuropsychological Testing and Machine Learning Distinguish Alzheimer's Disease from Other Causes for Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Pavel; Stuke, Hannes; Kastrup, Andreas; Stuke, Heiner; Hildebrandt, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    With promising results in recent treatment trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD), it becomes increasingly important to distinguish AD at early stages from other causes for cognitive impairment. However, existing diagnostic methods are either invasive (lumbar punctures, PET) or inaccurate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This study investigates the potential of neuropsychological testing (NPT) to specifically identify those patients with possible AD among a sample of 158 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or dementia for various causes. Patients were divided into an early stage and a late stage group according to their Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and labeled as AD or non-AD patients based on a post-mortem validated threshold of the ratio between total tau and beta amyloid in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; Total tau/Aβ(1-42) ratio, TB ratio). All patients completed the established Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease-Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) test battery and two additional newly-developed neuropsychological tests (recollection and verbal comprehension) that aimed at carving out specific Alzheimer-typical deficits. Based on these test results, an underlying AD (pathologically increased TB ratio) was predicted with a machine learning algorithm. To this end, the algorithm was trained in each case on all patients except the one to predict (leave-one-out validation). In the total group, 82% of the patients could be correctly identified as AD or non-AD. In the early group with small general cognitive impairment, classification accuracy was increased to 89%. NPT thus seems to be capable of discriminating between AD patients and patients with cognitive impairment due to other neurodegenerative or vascular causes with a high accuracy, and may be used for screening in clinical routine and drug studies, especially in the early course of this disease.

  10. NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery (NIHTB-CB): The NIHTB Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The NIH Toolbox (NIHTB) Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test was developed to assess processing speed within the NIHTB for the Assessment of Neurological Behavior and Function Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). This study highlights validation data collected in adults ages 18–85 on this measure and reports descriptive data, test–retest reliability, construct validity, and preliminary work creating a composite index of processing speed. Results indicated good test–retest reliability. There was ...

  11. [Evaluation of peruvian money test in screening of cognitive impairment among older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscanoa, Teodoro J; Cieza, Edwin; Parodi, José F; Paredes, Napoleón

    2016-03-01

    Objectives To evaluate the Peruvian adaptation of the money test (Eurotest) for identifying cognitive impairment among >60-year-old adults. Materials and methods This is a phase I study of diagnostic test, with a convenience sampling and calculation of the test´s sensitivity and specificity, based on a pretest prevalence of 50%. The criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) were used for the operational definition of patients with cognitive impairment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify the optimal cut-off value. Results The study evaluated 42 cases and 42 controls; there was no significant difference between age (77.88 ± 6.01 years vs. 6.49 76.14 ± years) and years of education (13.69 ± 3.70 years vs. 8.17 ± 4.71 years). The Peruvian version of the Eurotest has a sensitivity of 90.5% and specificity of 83.3% with cut-off value of 24. Conclusions The Peruvian adapted version of the Eurotest, called prueba de la moneda peruana could be useful in screening for cognitive impairment among older adults.

  12. Clustering and switching during a semantic verbal fluency test contribute to differential diagnosis of cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qianhua Zhao; Qihao Guo; Zhen Hong

    2013-01-01

    The verbal fluency test (VFT) can be dissociated into "clustering" (generating words within subcategories)and "switching" (shifting between clusters),which may be valuable in differential diagnosis.In the current study,we investigated the validity of VFT in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD,n=65),vascular dementia (VaD,n =65),mild cognitive impairment (MCI,n =92),and vascular cognitive impairment without dementia (VCIND,n =76) relative to cognitively normal senior controls (NC,n =374).We found that in the NC group,the total correct score was significantly correlated with age and education; males generated more subcategories; cluster size increased with education,and subcategory and switching decreased with age.A significantly progressive advantage was observed in VFT scores in the sequence NC > MCINCIND > ADNaD,and this significantly discriminated dementia patients from the other groups.AD patients performed better in all four VFT scores than VaD patients.Subcategory and switching scores significantly distinguished AD from VaD patients (AD > VaD; mean difference,0.50 for subcategory,P <0.05; 0.71 for switching,P <0.05).MCI patients scored higher than VCIND patients,but the difference did not reach statistical significance.These results suggest that semantic VFT is useful for the detection of MCI and VCIND,and in the differential diagnosis of cognitive impairment.

  13. Neuropsychological test selection for cognitive impairment classification: A machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakley, Alyssa; Williams, Jennifer A; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Cook, Diane J

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the amount of testing required to accurately detect cognitive impairment is clinically relevant. The aim of this research was to determine the fewest number of clinical measures required to accurately classify participants as healthy older adult, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or dementia using a suite of classification techniques. Two variable selection machine learning models (i.e., naive Bayes, decision tree), a logistic regression, and two participant datasets (i.e., clinical diagnosis; Clinical Dementia Rating, CDR) were explored. Participants classified using clinical diagnosis criteria included 52 individuals with dementia, 97 with MCI, and 161 cognitively healthy older adults. Participants classified using CDR included 154 individuals with CDR = 0, 93 individuals with CDR = 0.5, and 25 individuals with CDR = 1.0+. A total of 27 demographic, psychological, and neuropsychological variables were available for variable selection. No significant difference was observed between naive Bayes, decision tree, and logistic regression models for classification of both clinical diagnosis and CDR datasets. Participant classification (70.0-99.1%), geometric mean (60.9-98.1%), sensitivity (44.2-100%), and specificity (52.7-100%) were generally satisfactory. Unsurprisingly, the MCI/CDR = 0.5 participant group was the most challenging to classify. Through variable selection only 2-9 variables were required for classification and varied between datasets in a clinically meaningful way. The current study results reveal that machine learning techniques can accurately classify cognitive impairment and reduce the number of measures required for diagnosis.

  14. An investigation of cognitive test performance across conditions of silence, background noise and music as a function of neuroticism.

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, J.; McClelland, A; Furnham, A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of trait neuroticism on cognitive performance under distraction. Seventy participants were given a personality test and then undertook a number of different cognitive tasks in silence, in the presence of popular music and in background noise. It was predicted that performance on a general intelligence test, a test of abstract reasoning, and a mental arithmetic task would be adversely affected by background sounds. It was predicted that neuroticism would...

  15. An investigation of cognitive test performance across conditions of silence, background noise and music as a function of neuroticism

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, James; McClelland, Alastair; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of trait neuroticism on cognitive performance under distraction. Seventy participants were given a personality test and then undertook a number of different cognitive tasks in silence, in the presence of popular music and in background noise. It was predicted that performance on a general intelligence test, a test of abstract reasoning, and a mental arithmetic task would be adversely affected by background sounds. It was predicted that neuroticism would...

  16. Adopted cognitive tests for gerbils: validation by studying ageing and ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wappler, Edina A; Szilágyi, Géza; Gál, Anikó; Skopál, Judit; Nyakas, Csaba; Nagy, Zoltán; Felszeghy, Klára

    2009-04-20

    Transient occlusion of common carotid arteries in gerbils is a simple and widely used model for assessing histological and functional consequences of transient forebrain ischemia and neuroprotective action of pharmaceuticals. In the present study we aimed to introduce additional behavioural tests as novel object recognition and food-motivated hole-board learning in order to measure attention and learning capacity in gerbils. For validating these cognitive tests the effects of ageing (4, 9 and 18 months) and those of transient forebrain ischemia induced by bilateral carotid occlusion at 9 months of age were investigated. Neuronal cell death was estimated in the hippocampus using TUNEL and caspase-3 double fluorescence labelling and confocal microscopy. Ageing within the selected range although influenced ambulatory activity, did not considerably change attention and memory functions of gerbils. As a result of transient ischemia a selective neuronal damage in CA1 and CA2 regions of the hippocampus has been observed and tested 4 days after the insult. Ischemic gerbils became hyperactive, but showed decreased attention and impaired spatial memory functions as compared to sham-operated controls. According to our results the novel object recognition paradigm and the hole-board spatial learning test could reliably be added to the battery of conventional behavioural tests applied previously in this species. The novel tests can be performed within a wide interval of adult age and provide useful additional methods for assessing ischemia-induced cognitive impairment in gerbils.

  17. Exploring the reliability and acceptability of cognitive tests for Indigenous Australians: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, Kylie M; Gray, Allison O; McCarthy, Annette R; Delima, Jennifer F; Bowden, Stephen C

    2017-08-02

    Reliable cognitive assessment for Indigenous Australians is difficult given that mainstream tests typically rely on Western concepts, content and values. A test's psychometric properties should therefore be assessed prior to use in other cultures. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the reliability and acceptability of four cognitive tests for Australian Aboriginal people. Participants were 40 male and 44 female (N = 84) Aboriginal patients from Alice Springs Hospital. Four tests were assessed for reliability and acceptability - Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Screen (RUDAS) (n = 19), PEBL Corsi Blocks (Corsi) (n = 19), Story Memory Recall Test (SMRT) (n = 17) and a CogState battery (n = 18). Participants performed one to three of the tests with repeated assessment to determine test-retest reliability. Qualitative interviews were conducted and analysed based on an adapted phenomenological approach to explore test acceptability. An Indigenous Reference Group gave advice and guidance. Intra-class correlations (ICC) for test retest reliability ranged from r = 0.58 (CogState One Back accuracy) to 0.86 (RUDAS). Themes emerged relating to general impressions, impacts on understanding and performance, appropriateness, task preferences and suggested improvements. RUDAS, CogState Identification task, and SMRT showed the highest reliabilities. Overall the tests were viewed as a positive challenge and an opportunity to learn about the brain despite provoking some anxiety in the patients. Caveats for test acceptability included issues related to language, impacts of convalescence and cultural relevance.

  18. [Associations between cognitive performance in a dementia screening test (SKT) and an intelligence test (WAIS IV) : Which deficits in cognitive performance in old age indicate a possible pathological deterioration process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Laura; Daseking, Monika; Petermann, Franz; Stemmler, Mark

    2017-06-09

    Which deficits in cognitive performance indicate the onset of a pathological deterioration process in older persons? Based on an established dementia screening test in elderly adults, a differentiation can be made between healthy cognitive performance and the onset of pathological deficits in performance (in the sense of mild cognitive impairment). The aim of the study was to investigate whether cognitive decline assessed with a dementia screening instrument is reflected in an intelligence test for adults. The dementia screening measured disorders in memory and attention, the intelligence testing battery measured information processing, working memory, perceptual reasoning, logical thinking and verbal comprehension. A total of 253 cognitively healthy, self-dependent and non-dementia persons (129 women and 124 men), aged between 60 and 91 years (M = 71.98 years; SD = ±7.13) were tested with the complete Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS-IV) and the short performance test (SKT), based on the new normalization from 2015. The SKT enables an assessment of the degree of cognitive deterioration based on coloring codes of traffic lights. Green indicates normal aging, yellow mild cognitive impairment and red stands for abnormal cognitive aging. There were significant correlations between the total SKT score as a measure of total cognitive impairment and the indices of the WAIS-IV, such as information processing, working memory and perceptual reasoning. No significant covariation was found for verbal comprehension. The results suggest that in old age cognitive deterioration starts with reduced speed of information processing and impairment in the working memory log before deficits in memory are present. This finding was reflected in significant mean differences between the subjects in the category green versus yellow in the indices information processing and working memory. Under these aspects there were medium effect strengths (d = 0.60) and the second largest

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Therapy for Test Anxiety: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lily A.; Forman, Evan M.; Herbert, James D.; Hoffman, Kimberly L.; Yuen, Erica K.; Goetter, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Many university students suffer from test anxiety that is severe enough to impair performance. Given mixed efficacy results of previous cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) trials and a theoretically driven rationale, an acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) approach was compared to traditional CBT (i.e., Beckian cognitive therapy; CT) for the…

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Therapy for Test Anxiety: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lily A.; Forman, Evan M.; Herbert, James D.; Hoffman, Kimberly L.; Yuen, Erica K.; Goetter, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Many university students suffer from test anxiety that is severe enough to impair performance. Given mixed efficacy results of previous cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) trials and a theoretically driven rationale, an acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) approach was compared to traditional CBT (i.e., Beckian cognitive therapy; CT) for the…

  1. Testing Expert-Based versus Student-Based Cognitive Models for a Grade 3 Diagnostic Mathematics Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roduta Roberts, Mary; Alves, Cecilia B.; Chu, Man-Wai; Thompson, Margaret; Bahry, Louise M.; Gotzmann, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of three cognitive models, one developed by content experts and two generated from student verbal reports for explaining examinee performance on a grade 3 diagnostic mathematics test. For this study, the items were developed to directly measure the attributes in the cognitive model. The…

  2. High-School Students' Need for Cognition, Self-Control Capacity, and School Achievement: Testing a Mediation Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrams, Alex; Dickhauser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In the present article, we examine the hypothesis that high-school students' motivation to engage in cognitive endeavors (i.e., their need for cognition; NFC) is positively related to their dispositional self-control capacity. Furthermore, we test the prediction that the relation between NFC and school achievement is mediated by self-control…

  3. Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation, Cognitive Engagement, and Achievement: A Test of Dweck's Model with Returning to School Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupeyrat, Caroline; Marine, Claudette

    2005-01-01

    This study tested and extended Dweck's social-cognitive theory of motivation with adults who deliberately chose to face the challenge of returning to school. We examined the relationships among beliefs (implicit theories) on the nature of intelligence, goal orientation, cognitive engagement in learning, and achievement using path analyses.…

  4. Clinical Utility of Short Social Cognitive Tests in Early Differentiation of Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia from Alzheimer’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Christian; Stokholm, Jette; Gade, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Traditional cognitive tests used in clinical practice may not be sensitive enough for the early differentiation of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from Alzheimer's disease (AD). A growing body of literature has shown that deficits in various aspects of social cognition can...

  5. Stress and psychological health: testing the mediating role of cognitive appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, A. Rui; Faria, Susana; Lopes, Heitor

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the mediating role of primary (e.g., threat and challenge perceptions) and secondary (e.g., coping potential and control perception) cognitive appraisal in the relationship between occupational stress and psychological health. This mediation was tested using a cross-sectional study based on self-reported measures. The total sample consisted of 2,302 nurses, 1,895 females (82.3%) and 407 males (17.7%), who completed an evaluation protocol with measures of occupational stress,...

  6. Cognitive decision strategies adopted by consumers in reminder difference tests: Influence of the authenticity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, M; Shepherd, D; Lee, H-S; van Hout, D; Hautus, M J

    2017-07-01

    Discrimination tests are used in food companies to quantify small differences between products. Within the diversity of methods available, some are quicker to conduct, whereas others are more sensitive or statistically powerful. One class of methods includes the reminder tasks in which the reference product is given before tasting the actual test stimuli. During the task, such a 'reminder' can be compared directly to each test stimulus, or alternatively, only serve to prime the memory of the judge without being taken into account in decision-making. Previous research with trained judges provided evidence for the latter process while research with untrained consumers has provided some evidence for the former process. Two studies were conducted with untrained consumers using the A Not-AR and 2-AFCR reminder tasks. Objectives were to determine the decision strategies used in, and the relative sensitivity of the tasks. In addition, the use of an "authenticity test" was explored to see if this has a positive effect on test performance. In the first study, mayonnaise and ice tea with small stimulus differences (d'decision strategy used, though the use of an authenticity test increased the sensitivity for these small differences, as it improved the performance of 6 out of 8 tests. In the second study, ice teas with larger stimulus differences (at two levels) were tested using the A Not-AR and 2-AFCR tasks, in comparison to the same-different task. The results showed that consumers use the less optimal strategies and that the authenticity test decreases performance, which is contradictory to the results of the first study. It seems that for very small stimulus differences the authenticity test can improve performance, but with larger differences the authenticity test decreases performance; it seems to confuse the judges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A first approach to a neuropsychological screening tool using eye-tracking for bedside cognitive testing based on the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jürgen; Krimly, Amon; Bauer, Lisa; Schulenburg, Sarah; Böhm, Sarah; Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Uttner, Ingo; Gorges, Martin; Kassubek, Jan; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Abrahams, Sharon; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2017-08-01

    Reliable assessment of cognitive functions is a challenging task in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients unable to speak and write. We therefore present an eye-tracking based neuropsychological screening tool based on the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS), a standard screening tool for cognitive deficits in ALS. In total, 46 ALS patients and 50 healthy controls matched for age, gender and education were tested with an oculomotor based and a standard paper-and-pencil version of the ECAS. Significant correlation between both versions was observed for ALS patients and healthy controls in the ECAS total score and in all of its ALS-specific domains (all r > 0.3; all p eye-tracking version of the ECAS reliably distinguished between ALS patients and healthy controls in the ECAS total score (p eye-tracking based ECAS version is a promising approach for assessing cognitive deficits in ALS patients who are unable to speak or write.

  8. Measurement of mental attention: Assessing a cognitive component underlying performance on standardized intelligence tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Howard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread use of standardized IQ tests to measure human intelligence, problems with such measures have led some to suggest that better indices may derive from measurement of cognitive processes underlying performance on IQ tests (e.g., working memory capacity. However, measures from both approaches may exhibit performance biases in favour of majority groups, due to the influence of prior learning and experience. Mental attentional (M- capacity is proposed to be a causal factor underlying developmental growth in working memory. Measures of M-capacity index important cognitive variance underlying performance on standardized intelligence tests. These measures appear to be reasonably culture-fair and invariant across content domains. The current study tested theoretical predictions regarding the content-invariance of M-measures and the development of M-capacity for groups of children differing in performance on standardized IQ tests. Ninety-one participants differentiated on the basis of academic stream (intellectually gifted vs. mainstream and age (grade 4 vs. grade 8 received measures of M-capacity in the verbal and visuo-spatial domains. Children identified as gifted scored about one stage higher on both measures. Results suggest that measures of M-capacity may be useful adjuncts to standardized intelligence measures.

  9. Cognitive factors associated with the willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chunrong; Yang Liu; Kong Jinwang

    2014-01-01

    Background The spread of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the worldwide trend is not contained effectively.The pregnant women infected HIV seriously in the high HIV epidemic areas in China.The transmission of HIV to child may be cut off if HIV positive mother was found early by HIV testing.Pregnant women mandatorily received the HIV counseling and testing services.Most of them did not know the knowledge about HIV prevention and were not willing to receive HIV testing actively.Willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women was investigated,which can help to promote them to take up HIV testing actively.This study assessed the prevalence of the willingness for HIV testing and cognitive factors associated with it.Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to 500 pregnant women via face-to-face interviews with anonymous structured questionnaire guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM).Results The prevalence of the willingness for HIV testing was 58.60%.Perceived higher susceptibility to HIV (multivariateadjusted odds ratio (ORm)=2.02,95% confidence interval (CI):1.40-5.06),more knowledge for HIV (ORm=1.92,95% CI:1.11-3.87) and perceived less social stigma (ORm=0.80,95% CI:0.34-0.91) were associated with higher willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women.Conclusion To prevent HIV mother to children transmission,it is necessary to enhance knowledge for HIV,change cognitive factors and increase willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women.

  10. Derived Trail Making Test indices: demographics and cognitive background variables across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidi, Foteini; Kararizou, Evangelia; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Anagnostouli, Maria; Zalonis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    We examined the contribution of demographics and cognitive background variables (processing speed, visuospatial skill, working memory, and interference control) on derived Trail Making Test (TMT) scores in a large sample of Greek healthy participants. We included 775 participants and administered the TMT (TMT-A and TMT-B) and the Wechsler Intelligence Adult Scale (WAIS). Direct (TMT-A & TMT-B time-to-completion) and derived [difference TMT-(B - A) & ratio TMT-(B/A)] scores were calculated. Demographics (age, age(2), education, and gender) and WAIS Full Intelligence Quotient significantly predicted the direct TMT-A (R(2) = 0.426) and TMT-B (R(2) = 0.593) scores and to a lesser extent, the derived TMT-(B - A) (R(2) = 0.343) and TMT-(B/A) (R(2) = 0.088) scores. In a subsample of 537 healthy participants who also completed the Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test (SNST), demographics (age and education), WAIS Digit Symbol, Block Design, Arithmetic, and SNST accounted for 44.8% and 59.7% of the variance on TMT-A and TMT-B, and 32.5% and 9.6% of the variance on TMT-(B - A) and TMT-(B/A), respectively. We found minimal influence of Block Design and Arithmetic on TMT-(B - A) and an absence of significant influence of any cognitive variable on TMT-(B/A) score. Concluding, derived TMT scores are suggested as indices to detect impairment in cognitive flexibility across the adult life span, since they minimize the effect of demographics and other cognitive background variables.

  11. Computerized Cognitive Testing in the Management of Youth Sports-Related Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Anthony P; Broshek, Donna K

    2016-01-01

    Computerized neurocognitive testing has become a growing practice across medical populations, but particularly within sports medicine and the management of sports-related concussion. Although traditional neuropsychological measures are solely administered and interpreted by neuropsychologists, computerized cognitive tests are marketed to and utilized by a wide range of professionals involved in the management of sports-related concussions, many of whom lack specialized psychometric training. Although the benefits of computerized testing allow for many youth athletes to be evaluated quickly, professionals implementing their use should be aware of the potential pitfalls and the high potential for misuse. After briefly reviewing the recommended guidelines set forth by the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology, we review the benefits/limitations of computerized testing in the management of sports-related concussion and the basic psychometric properties of some of the more widely used computerized measures. Lastly, we discuss the practical application of these devices.

  12. Automated tests for diagnosing and monitoring cognitive impairment: a diagnostic accuracy review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Rabeea'h W; Bates, Vickie; Dundar, Yenal; Hounsome, Juliet; Richardson, Marty; Krishan, Ashma; Dickson, Rumona; Boland, Angela; Kotas, Eleanor; Fisher, Joanne; Sikdar, Sudip; Robinson, Louise

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cognitive impairment is a growing public health concern, and is one of the most distinctive characteristics of all dementias. The timely recognition of dementia syndromes can be beneficial, as some causes of dementia are treatable and are fully or partially reversible. Several automated cognitive assessment tools for assessing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia are now available. Proponents of these tests cite as benefits the tests' repeatability and robustness and the saving of clinicians' time. However, the use of these tools to diagnose and/or monitor progressive cognitive impairment or response to treatment has not yet been evaluated. OBJECTIVES The aim of this review was to determine whether or not automated computerised tests could accurately identify patients with progressive cognitive impairment in MCI and dementia and, if so, to investigate their role in monitoring disease progression and/or response to treatment. DATA SOURCES Five electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science and PsycINFO), plus ProQuest, were searched from 2005 to August 2015. The bibliographies of retrieved citations were also examined. Trial and research registers were searched for ongoing studies and reviews. A second search was run to identify individual test costs and acquisition costs for the various tools identified in the review. REVIEW METHODS Two reviewers independently screened all titles and abstracts to identify potentially relevant studies for inclusion in the review. Full-text copies were assessed independently by two reviewers. Data were extracted and assessed for risk of bias by one reviewer and independently checked for accuracy by a second. The results of the data extraction and quality assessment for each study are presented in structured tables and as a narrative summary. RESULTS The electronic searching of databases, including ProQuest, resulted in 13,542 unique citations. The titles and abstracts of these

  13. Automated tests for diagnosing and monitoring cognitive impairment: a diagnostic accuracy review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Rabeea'h W; Bates, Vickie; Dundar, Yenal; Hounsome, Juliet; Richardson, Marty; Krishan, Ashma; Dickson, Rumona; Boland, Angela; Kotas, Eleanor; Fisher, Joanne; Sikdar, Sudip; Robinson, Louise

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive impairment is a growing public health concern, and is one of the most distinctive characteristics of all dementias. The timely recognition of dementia syndromes can be beneficial, as some causes of dementia are treatable and are fully or partially reversible. Several automated cognitive assessment tools for assessing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia are now available. Proponents of these tests cite as benefits the tests' repeatability and robustness and the saving of clinicians' time. However, the use of these tools to diagnose and/or monitor progressive cognitive impairment or response to treatment has not yet been evaluated. The aim of this review was to determine whether or not automated computerised tests could accurately identify patients with progressive cognitive impairment in MCI and dementia and, if so, to investigate their role in monitoring disease progression and/or response to treatment. Five electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science and PsycINFO), plus ProQuest, were searched from 2005 to August 2015. The bibliographies of retrieved citations were also examined. Trial and research registers were searched for ongoing studies and reviews. A second search was run to identify individual test costs and acquisition costs for the various tools identified in the review. Two reviewers independently screened all titles and abstracts to identify potentially relevant studies for inclusion in the review. Full-text copies were assessed independently by two reviewers. Data were extracted and assessed for risk of bias by one reviewer and independently checked for accuracy by a second. The results of the data extraction and quality assessment for each study are presented in structured tables and as a narrative summary. The electronic searching of databases, including ProQuest, resulted in 13,542 unique citations. The titles and abstracts of these were screened and 399 articles were shortlisted for full

  14. Leveraging the test effect to improve maintenance of the gains achieved through cognitive rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Rhonda B; Sullivan, Kelli L; Snider, Sarah F; Luta, George; Jones, Kevin T

    2017-02-01

    An important aspect of the rehabilitation of cognitive and linguistic function subsequent to brain injury is the maintenance of learning beyond the time of initial treatment. Such maintenance is often not satisfactorily achieved. Additional practice, or overtraining, may play a key role in long-term maintenance. In particular, the literature on learning in cognitively intact persons has suggested that it is testing, and not studying, that contributes to maintenance of learning. The present study investigates the hypothesis that continuing to test relearned words in persons with anomia will lead to significantly greater maintenance compared with continuing to study relearned words. The current study combines overtraining with the variable of test versus study in examining the effects of overtesting and overstudying on maintenance of word finding in 3 persons with aphasia. First, treatment successfully reestablished the connections between known items and their names. Once the connections were reestablished (i.e., items could be named successfully), each item was placed into 1 of 4 overtraining conditions: test and study, only test, only study, or no longer test or study. Maintenance was probed at 1 month and 4 months following the end of overtraining. The results are consistent with an advantage of testing compared with studying. All 3 participants showed significantly greater maintenance for words that were overtested than for words that were overstudied. This testing benefit persisted at 1 month and 4 months after completion of the treatment. In fact, there was no clear evidence for any benefit of overstudying. The present study demonstrates that overtesting, but not overstudying, leads to lasting maintenance of language rehabilitation gains in patients with anomia. The implications for the design of other treatment protocols are immense. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Family-based clusters of cognitive test performance in familial schizophrenia

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    Partonen Timo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive traits derived from neuropsychological test data are considered to be potential endophenotypes of schizophrenia. Previously, these traits have been found to form a valid basis for clustering samples of schizophrenia patients into homogeneous subgroups. We set out to identify such clusters, but apart from previous studies, we included both schizophrenia patients and family members into the cluster analysis. The aim of the study was to detect family clusters with similar cognitive test performance. Methods Test scores from 54 randomly selected families comprising at least two siblings with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and at least two unaffected family members were included in a complete-linkage cluster analysis with interactive data visualization. Results A well-performing, an impaired, and an intermediate family cluster emerged from the analysis. While the neuropsychological test scores differed significantly between the clusters, only minor differences were observed in the clinical variables. Conclusions The visually aided clustering algorithm was successful in identifying family clusters comprising both schizophrenia patients and their relatives. The present classification method may serve as a basis for selecting phenotypically more homogeneous groups of families in subsequent genetic analyses.

  16. Detection of cognitive impairment and dementia using the animal fluency test: the DECIDE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaldt, Rolf; Dalziel, William; Massoud, Fadi; Tanguay, André; Ward, Rick; Thabane, Lehana; Melnyk, Peter; Landry, Pierre-Alexandre; Lescrauwaet, Benedicte

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the performance of a one-minute screening test measured against a validated 10-minute screening test for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in detecting CI in patients aged > or = 65 years with two or more vascular risk factors (VRF). Patients (n=1523) aged 65 years or older without documented CI symptoms or dementia with two or more VRF participated in this study set in Canadian primary care practice. Baseline data was collected, followed by the 1-minute animal fluency (AF) test and the 10-minute Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Physicians (n=122) completed case reports during patient interviews and reported their diagnostic impression. AF test sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in predicting a positive MoCA was assessed. Study sample mean age was 79.7 years, 55% were female, 97.6% were Caucasian and 75% had accuracy in predicting a positive MoCA of 67 percent each. Physicians diagnostic impression of MCI was reported for 37% of patients, and of dementia for 6%. In an elderly population with at least two VRF, using AF can be useful in detecting previously unknown symptoms of CI or dementia. Screening for CI in this high risk population is warranted to assist physician recognition of early CI. The short AF administration time favours its incorporation into clinical practice.

  17. Prevalence of delirium among patients at a cancer ward: Clinical risk factors and prediction by bedside cognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandahl, Mia Gall; Nielsen, Svend Erik; Koerner, Ejnar Alex; Schultz, Helga Holm; Arnfred, Sidse Marie

    2016-08-01

    Background Delirium is a frequent psychiatric complication to cancer, but rarely recognized by oncologists. Aims 1. To estimate the prevalence of delirium among inpatients admitted at an oncological cancer ward 2. To investigate whether simple clinical factors predict delirium 3. To examine the value of cognitive testing in the assessment of delirium. Methods On five different days, we interviewed and assessed patients admitted to a Danish cancer ward. The World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases Version 10, WHO ICD-10 Diagnostic System and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) were used for diagnostic categorization. Clinical information was gathered from medical records and all patients were tested with Mini Cognitive Test, The Clock Drawing Test, and the Digit Span Test. Results 81 cancer patients were assessed and 33% were diagnosed with delirium. All delirious participants were CAM positive. Poor performance on the cognitive tests was associated with delirium. Medical records describing CNS metastases, benzodiazepine or morphine treatment were associated with delirium. Conclusions Delirium is prevalent among cancer inpatients. The Mini Cognitive Test, The Clock Drawing Test, and the Digit Span Test can be used as screening tools for delirium among inpatients with cancer, but even in synergy, they lack specificity. Combining cognitive testing and attention to nurses' records might improve detection, yet further studies are needed to create a more detailed patient profile for the detection of delirium.

  18. High-throughput cognitive assessment using BrainTest.org: examining cognitive control in a family cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Sabb, Fred W.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Lau, Deanna; Vanderlan, Jessica R; Cohen, Heather J; Bilder, Robert M.; McCracken, James T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the relationship between brain and complex latent behavioral constructs like cognitive control will require an inordinate amount of data. Internet-based methods can rapidly and efficiently refine behavioral measures in very large samples that are needed for genetics and behavioral research. Cognitive control is a multifactorial latent construct that is considered to be an endophenotype in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention deficit/hyperactivity...

  19. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood Is Associated with Cognitive Test Profiles in the Geriatric Population but Not with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ivanchak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of ADHD in the aging population and its relationship to late-life cognitive decline has not been studied previously. To address this gap in our understanding, the Wender-Utah ADHD Rating scale (WURS was administered to 310 geriatric subjects with cognitive status ranging from normal cognition to mild cognitive impairment to overt dementia. The frequency of WURS-positive ADHD in this sample was 4.4%. WURS scores were not related to cognitive diagnoses, but did show nonlinear associations with tasks requiring sustained attention. The frequency of ADHD appears stable across generations and does not appear to be associated with MCI or dementia diagnoses. The association of attentional processing deficits and WURS scores in geriatric subjects could suggest that such traits remain stable throughout life. Caution should be considered when interpreting cognitive test profiles in the aging population that exhibit signs and symptoms of ADHD, as attentional deficits may not necessarily imply the existence of an underlying neurodegenerative disease state.

  20. NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery (NIHTB-CB): the NIHTB Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlozzi, Noelle E; Tulsky, David S; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Weintraub, Sandra; Conway, Kevin; Gershon, Richard C

    2014-07-01

    The NIH Toolbox (NIHTB) Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test was developed to assess processing speed within the NIHTB for the Assessment of Neurological Behavior and Function Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). This study highlights validation data collected in adults ages 18-85 on this measure and reports descriptive data, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and preliminary work creating a composite index of processing speed. Results indicated good test-retest reliability. There was also evidence for both convergent and discriminant validity; the Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test demonstrated moderate significant correlations with other processing speed tests (i.e., WAIS-IV Coding, Symbol Search and Processing Speed Index), small significant correlations with measures of working memory (i.e., WAIS-IV Letter-Number Sequencing and PASAT), and non-significant correlations with a test of vocabulary comprehension (i.e., PPVT-IV). Finally, analyses comparing and combining scores on the NIHTB Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test with other measures of simple reaction time from the NIHTB-CB indicated that a Processing Speed Composite score performed better than any test examined in isolation. The NIHTB Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test exhibits several strengths: it is appropriate for use across the lifespan (ages, 3-85 years), it is short and easy to administer, and it has high construct validity.

  1. Performance on naturalistic virtual reality tasks depends on global cognitive functioning as assessed via traditional neurocognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jorge; Gamito, Pedro; Alghazzawi, Daniyal M; Fardoun, Habib M; Rosa, Pedro J; Sousa, Tatiana; Picareli, Luís Felipe; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo

    2017-08-14

    This investigation sought to understand whether performance in naturalistic virtual reality tasks for cognitive assessment relates to the cognitive domains that are supposed to be measured. The Shoe Closet Test (SCT) was developed based on a simple visual search task involving attention skills, in which participants have to match each pair of shoes with the colors of the compartments in a virtual shoe closet. The interaction within the virtual environment was made using the Microsoft Kinect. The measures consisted of concurrent paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests for global cognitive functioning, executive functions, attention, psychomotor ability, and the outcomes of the SCT. The results showed that the SCT correlated with global cognitive performance as measured with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The SCT explained one third of the total variance of this test and revealed good sensitivity and specificity in discriminating scores below one standard deviation in this screening tool. These findings suggest that performance of such functional tasks involves a broad range of cognitive processes that are associated with global cognitive functioning and that may be difficult to isolate through paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests.

  2. Sex Differences in Fluid Reasoning: Manifest and Latent Estimates from the Cognitive Abilities Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni M. Lakin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The size and nature of sex differences in cognitive ability continues to be a source of controversy. Conflicting findings result from the selection of measures, samples, and methods used to estimate sex differences. Existing sex differences work on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT has analyzed manifest variables, leaving open questions about sex differences in latent narrow cognitive abilities and the underlying broad ability of fluid reasoning (Gf. This study attempted to address these questions. A confirmatory bifactor model was used to estimate Gf and three residual narrow ability factors (verbal, quantitative, and figural. We found that latent mean differences were larger than manifest estimates for all three narrow abilities. However, mean differences in Gf were trivial, consistent with previous research. In estimating group variances, the Gf factor showed substantially greater male variability (around 20% greater. The narrow abilities varied: verbal reasoning showed small variability differences while quantitative and figural showed substantial differences in variance (up to 60% greater. These results add precision and nuance to the study of the variability and masking hypothesis.

  3. Executive cognitive tests for the evaluation of patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Silva Tavares Sobreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD is characterized by changes in movement, which are later followed by cognitive, behavioral and psychological changes. The objective of the present study was to correlate different tests used to examine executive functions in PD patients followed at a specialized outpatient clinic. Methods: Thirty-five patients with idiopathic PD aged 63.0 years on average and with mean schooling of 5.5±4.2 years, were examined using the following tests: Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS, Scales for Outcomes of Parkinson's Disease-Cognition (SCOPA-COG, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB, Digit Span - Inverse Order (IO (a subtest of the WAIS III and Verbal Fluency Test (category animals. Results: Significant correlations were detected between FAB and MDRS Conceptualization (0.814, MDRS Initiation/Perseveration (I/P and SCOPA-COG Executive Function (0.643, FAB and MDRS I/P (0.601, FAB and Verbal Fluency (0.602, MDRS I/P and MDRS Conceptualization (0.558, Verbal Fluency and MDRS I/P (0.529, MDRS Attention and SCOPA-COG Executive Function (0.495, MDRS Conceptualization and SCOPA-COG Executive Function (0.520, FAB and Digit Span (OI (0.503, Verbal Fluency and MDRS Conceptualization (0.501, and WCST perseverative errors and FAB (-0.379, WCST perseverative errors and MDRS Conceptualization (0.445, WCST perseverative errors and MDRS I/P (-0.407 and WCST categories completed and MDRS Conceptualization (0.382. Discussion: The results demonstrated strong correlations between most of the tests applied, but no associations were detected between the WCST and the other tests, a fact that may be explained by the heterogeneity of scores obtained in the tests by the patients evaluated. A difficulty of the present study was the lack of a control groups for the establishment of adequate standards for this population.

  4. Competency-based classification of COMLEX-USA cognitive examination test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenau, Erik; Pugliano, Gina; Roberts, William

    2011-06-01

    The Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA (COMLEX-USA) currently assesses osteopathic medical knowledge via a series of 3 progressive cognitive examinations and 1 clinical skills assessment. In 2009, the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners created the Fundamental Osteopathic Medical Competencies (FOMC) document to outline the essential competencies required for the practice of osteopathic medicine. To measure the distribution and extent to which cognitive examination items of the current series of COMLEX-USA assess knowledge of each of the medical competencies included in the FOMC document. Eight graduate medical education panelists with expertise in competency-based assessment reviewed 1046 multiple-choice examination items extracted from the 3 COMLEX-USA cognitive examinations (Level 1, Level 2-Cognitive Evaluation, and Level 3) used during the 2008-2009 testing cycle. The 8 panelists individually judged each item to classify it as 1 of the 6 fundamental osteopathic medical competencies described in the FOMC document. Panelists made 8368 judgments. The majority of the sample examination items were classified as either patient care (3343 [40%]) or medical knowledge (4236 [51%]). Panelists also reported these 2 competencies as being the easiest to define, teach, and assess. The frequency of medical knowledge examination items decreased throughout the COMLEX-USA series (69%, 43%, 40%); conversely, items classified as interpersonal and communication skills, systems-based practice, practice-based learning and improvement, and professionalism increased throughout the 3-examination series. Results indicate that knowledge of each of the 6 competencies is being assessed to some extent with the current COMLEX-USA format. These findings provide direction for the enhancement of existing examinations and development of new assessment tools.

  5. Neuropsychological Test Selection for Cognitive Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer A.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Cook, Diane J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reducing the amount of testing required to accurately detect cognitive impairment is clinically relevant. The aim of this research was to determine the fewest number of clinical measures required to accurately classify participants as healthy older adult, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia using a suite of classification techniques. Methods Two variable selection machine learning models (i.e., naive Bayes, decision tree), a logistic regression, and two participant datasets (i.e., clinical diagnosis, clinical dementia rating; CDR) were explored. Participants classified using clinical diagnosis criteria included 52 individuals with dementia, 97 with MCI, and 161 cognitively healthy older adults. Participants classified using CDR included 154 individuals CDR = 0, 93 individuals with CDR = 0.5, and 25 individuals with CDR = 1.0+. Twenty-seven demographic, psychological, and neuropsychological variables were available for variable selection. Results No significant difference was observed between naive Bayes, decision tree, and logistic regression models for classification of both clinical diagnosis and CDR datasets. Participant classification (70.0 – 99.1%), geometric mean (60.9 – 98.1%), sensitivity (44.2 – 100%), and specificity (52.7 – 100%) were generally satisfactory. Unsurprisingly, the MCI/CDR = 0.5 participant group was the most challenging to classify. Through variable selection only 2 – 9 variables were required for classification and varied between datasets in a clinically meaningful way. Conclusions The current study results reveal that machine learning techniques can accurately classifying cognitive impairment and reduce the number of measures required for diagnosis. PMID:26332171

  6. Influence of Social Cognitive and Gender Variables on Technological Academic Interest among Spanish High-School Students: Testing Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carmen; Inda, Mercedes; Fernández, Carmen Mª

    2016-01-01

    This study tested social cognitive career theory (SCCT) in the technological domain with 2,359 high-school students in Asturias (Spain). Path analyses were run to determine the influence of gender on the SCCT model and to explain the influence of personal (emotional state, gender-role attitudes), contextual (perceived social supports and…

  7. A cognitive-perceptual analysis of projective tests used with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, J A

    2001-10-01

    There are both general and specific problems with projective tests--the production, comprehension, and interpretation of two-dimensional visual representations. At the general level, there is a need to integrate findings from the neuro- and cognitive sciences, cognitive, perceptual, and affective development, and the understanding and interpretation of pictorial material based on the accumulated research base in the arts. At the specific level, much of the research base on projective tests is poor or outdated; evidence for clinical utility is mixed or negative; and the tests possess poor reliability and validity while the putative underlying psychological process of projection" has not been subject to rigorous empirical examination--the term remains vague and elusive. While earlier critiques and reviews have focused on problems in validity and reliability, their has been a lack of attention to the development of children's pictorial abilities as pertain to projective techniques. Although many of the principles delineated here also apply to adolescents and adults, an important challenge for clinicians is to develop and employ better methods in the "projective" assessment of children.

  8. Reliability of Cognitive Tests of ELSA-Brasil, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health

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    Juliana Alves Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cognitive function evaluation entails the use of neuropsychological tests, applied exclusively or in sequence. The results of these tests may be influenced by factors related to the environment, the interviewer or the interviewee. Objectives: We examined the test-retest reliability of some tests of the Brazilian version from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease. Methods: The ELSA-Brasil is a multicentre study of civil servants (35-74 years of age from public institutions across six Brazilian States. The same tests were applied, in different order of appearance, by the same trained and certified interviewer, with an approximate 20-day interval, to 160 adults (51% men, mean age 52 years. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC was used to assess the reliability of the measures; and a dispersion graph was used to examine the patterns of agreement between them. Results: We observed higher retest scores in all tests as well as a shorter test completion time for the Trail Making Test B. ICC values for each test were as following: Word List Learning Test (0.56, Word Recall (0.50, Word Recognition (0.35, Phonemic Verbal Fluency Test (VFT, 0.61, Semantic VFT (0.53 and Trail B (0.91. The Bland-Altman plot showed better correlation of executive function (VFT and Trail B than of memory tests. Conclusions: Better performance in retest may reflect a learning effect, and suggest that retest should be repeated using alternate forms or after longer periods. In this sample of adults with high schooling level, reliability was only moderate for memory tests whereas the measurement of executive function proved more reliable.

  9. Minority Performance on the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test, Second Edition, versus the Cognitive Abilities Test, Form 6: One Gifted Program's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessman, Jacob A.; Gambrell, James L.; Stebbins, Molly S.

    2013-01-01

    The Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test, Second Edition (NNAT2), is used widely to screen students for possible inclusion in talent development programs. The NNAT2 claims to provide a more culturally neutral evaluation of general ability than tests such as Form 6 of the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT6), which has Verbal and Quantitative batteries in…

  10. Comparison between the story recall test and the word-list learning test in Korean patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Min Jae; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Sangyun

    2012-01-01

    Among verbal memory tests, two that are commonly used to measure the ability of verbal memory function in cognitive impairment are story recall tests and word-list learning tests. However, research is limited regarding which test might be more sensitive in discriminating between normal cognitive aging and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the Korean population. The purpose of the current study was to compare the word-list learning test (Seoul Verbal Learning Test; SVLT) and the story recall test (Korean Story Recall Test; KSRT) to determine which test is more sensitive in discriminating between individuals with normal cognitive aging and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage of AD in Korea. A total of 53 healthy adults, 127 patients with MCI, and 72 patients with early stage of AD participated in this study. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the curve (AUC) were evaluated to compare these two tests. The results showed that the AUC of the SVLT was significantly larger than the AUC of the KSRT in all three groups (healthy adults vs. MCI and early stage of AD; healthy adults vs. MCI; healthy adults vs. early stage of AD). However, in comparison of patients with MCI and early stage of AD, the AUC of SVLT and the AUC of KSRT were not significant. The word-list learning test is a more useful tool for examining verbal memory function for older adults in Korea than the story recall test.

  11. Diagnostic Value of Time-Constrained Naming Test in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yun Kyung; Kim, Eosu; Kim, Yong Bum; Kim, Yong Wook; Nam, Chung Mo; Cho, Seung-Hun; Kim, HyangHee

    2017-09-05

    Naming difficulties have recently garnered more interest in elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We anticipate that naming tests with the consideration of response time can provide more informative and distinct neuropsychological profiles of individuals with MCI. Naming tests were administered to 76 elderly individuals with MCI and 149 healthy elderly (HE). We analyzed the impact of MCI on naming performance and occurrence of "delayed" response. We also validated the predictive power of naming tests with a time-constrained scoring system. MCI participants performed poorer on the noun naming test than HE participants (p = 0.014). MCI was significantly associated with the occurrence of "delayed" response on the noun (odds ratio [OR] = 3.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.78-7.17) and verb naming tests (OR = 4.66; 95% CI = 2.07-10.46). The time-constrained naming scores were significantly better able to distinguish the MCI from the HE group than the conventional spontaneous naming score on both the noun (p < 0.001) and verb (p = 0.002) naming tests. Our findings broaden the knowledge related to the naming ability in individuals with MCI, with respect to the response time. We also confirmed the validity of the naming tests by applying the "delayed" responses as supplementary assessments in the diagnosis of MCI. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Qualidades psicométricas de um conjunto de 45 testes cognitivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto relata a análise das qualidades psicométricas de um conjunto de 45 testes cognitivos, avaliando a função dos mesmos como marcadores de fatores cognitivos. Os testes foram traduzidos e adaptados a partir de uma seleção entre os testes do Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests do Educational Testing Service. Eles foram aplicados a uma amostra de 160 estudantes do terceiro ano de uma escola brasileira de ensino médio da rede federal de ensino. Foram empregados a análise fatorial exploratória, o método dos eixos principais e a análise paralela por permutação, com critérios rigorosos para a identificação de testes marcadores. Seis tipos de escalas foram identificados: escalas muito boas, escalas adequadas, escalas quase adequadas, escalas fracas, escalas com uma discrepância e escalas inadequadas. Alguns testes e escalas analisados apresentaram características de marcadores. Por outro lado, todos os testes e escalas podem ser considerados adequados, diante dos critérios psicométricos usuais.

  13. CANTAB object recognition and language tests to detect aging cognitive decline: an exploratory comparative study

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    Cabral Soares F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda Cabral Soares,1 Thaís Cristina Galdino de Oliveira,1 Liliane Dias e Dias de Macedo,1 Alessandra Mendonça Tomás,1 Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço-Diniz,2 João Bento-Torres,1,3 Natáli Valim Oliver Bento-Torres,1,3 Cristovam Wanderley Picanço-Diniz1 1Universidade Federal do Pará, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Hospital Universitário João de Barros Barreto, Laboratório de Investigações em Neurodegeneração e Infecção Belém, Pará, Brazil; 2Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, Núcleo Universitário de Oriximiná, Oriximiná, Pará, Brazil; 3Faculdade de Fisioterapia e Terapia Ocupacional, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará, BrazilObjective: The recognition of the limits between normal and pathological aging is essential to start preventive actions. The aim of this paper is to compare the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB and language tests to distinguish subtle differences in cognitive performances in two different age groups, namely young adults and elderly cognitively normal subjects.Method: We selected 29 young adults (29.9±1.06 years and 31 older adults (74.1±1.15 years matched by educational level (years of schooling. All subjects underwent a general assessment and a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Mini Mental State Examination, visuospatial learning, and memory tasks from CANTAB and language tests. Cluster and discriminant analysis were applied to all neuropsychological test results to distinguish possible subgroups inside each age group.Results: Significant differences in the performance of aged and young adults were detected in both language and visuospatial memory tests. Intragroup cluster and discriminant analysis revealed that CANTAB, as compared to language tests, was able to detect subtle but significant differences between the subjects.Conclusion: Based on these findings, we concluded that, as compared to language tests, large-scale application

  14. Virtual daily living test to screen for mild cognitive impairment using kinematic movement analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyoungwon; Kim, Jae-Kwan; Oh, Dong Hoon; Ryu, Hokyoung; Choi, Hojin

    2017-01-01

    Questionnaires or computer-based tests for assessing activities of daily living are well-known approaches to screen for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, questionnaires are subjective and computerized tests only collect simple performance data with conventional input devices such as a mouse and keyboard. This study explored the validity and discriminative power of a virtual daily living test as a new diagnostic approach to assess MCI. Twenty-two healthy controls and 20 patients with MCI were recruited. The virtual daily living test presents two complex daily living tasks in an immersive virtual reality environment. The tasks were conducted based on subject body movements and detailed behavioral data (i.e., kinematic measures) were collected. Performance in both the proposed virtual daily living test and conventional neuropsychological tests for patients with MCI was compared to healthy controls. Kinematic measures considered in this study, such as body movement trajectory, time to completion, and speed, classified patients with MCI from healthy controls, F(8, 33) = 5.648, p classification of patients with MCI compared to the healthy control group, Wilks' Lambda = 0.451, p < 0.001.

  15. The Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Postcancer Fatigue on Perceived Cognitive Disabilities and Neuropsychological Test Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedendorp, Martine M.; Knoop, Hans; Gielissen, Marieke F. M.; Verhagen, Constans A. H. H. V. M.; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    2014-01-01

    Context. After successful cancer treatment, a substantial number of survivors continue to experience fatigue and related concentration and memory problems. Severe fatigue after cancer treatment can be treated effectively with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), but it is unclear whether CBT has an e

  16. Cognitive Impairment Is Reflected by an Increased Difference between Real and Imagined Timed Up and Go Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdiger, Stefanie; Stuckenschneider, Tim; Vogt, Tobias; Abeln, Vera; Lawlor, Brian; Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Schneider, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests using an imaginary version of the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) for a first assessment of cognitive impairment. By using the time difference between a real (TUGr) and an imagined (TUGi) TUG task, the objective of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive impairment on motor imagery ability. Fifty-two participants (mean age 69.3 ± 4.0 years) with mild cognitive impairment or subjective cognitive impairment were included in this study. The time difference between the TUGr and the TUGi was used as the main outcome. The Trail Making Test part B (TMT B), the ratio between TMT A and TMT B, and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) battery were the main independent variables. The difference between TUGr and TUGi performance time and the TMT B performance time increased with decreasing cognitive function (p time and TMT B/A ratio. There were significant correlations between TUG time differences and the MoCA score (r = -0.489, p < 0.01), the TMT B (r = 0.364, p < 0.01), and the TMT B/A ratio (r = 0.377, p < 0.01). The combination of TUGr and TUGi may have added value in assessing cognitive impairment, which is a possible pre-stage of dementia. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Immobility behavior during the forced swim test correlates with BNDF levels in the frontal cortex, but not with cognitive impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsoi, Milene; Antonio, Camila Boque; Viana, Alice Fialho; Nardin, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto; Rates, Stela Maris Kuze

    2015-03-01

    The forced swim test (FST) is widely used to evaluate the antidepressant-like activity of compounds and is sensitive to stimuli that cause depression-like behaviors in rodents. The immobility behavior observed during the test has been considered to represent behavioral despair. In addition, some studies suggest that the FST impairs rats' performance on cognitive tests, but these findings have rarely been explored. Thus, we investigated the effects of the FST on behavioral tests related to neuropsychiatric diseases that involve different cognitive components: novel object recognition (NOR), the object location test (OLT) and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the frontal cortex and hippocampus were evaluated. The rats were forced to swim twice (15-min session followed by a 5-min session 24h later) and underwent cognitive tests 24h after the last swimming exposure. The FST impaired the rats' performance on the OLT and reduced the PPI and acoustic startle responses, whereas the NOR was not affected. The cognitive impairments were not correlated with an immobility behavior profile, but a significant negative correlation between the frontal BDNF levels and immobility behavior was identified. These findings suggest a protective role of BDNF against behavioral despair and demonstrate a deleterious effect of the FST on spatial memory and pre-attentive processes, which point to the FST as a tool to induce cognitive impairments analogous to those observed in depression and in other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  18. The relationship of speech intelligibility with hearing sensitivity, cognition, and perceived hearing difficulties varies for different speech perception tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje eHeinrich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Listeners vary in their ability to understand speech in noisy environments. Hearing sensitivity, as measured by pure-tone audiometry, can only partly explain these results, and cognition has emerged as another key concept. Although cognition relates to speech perception, the exact nature of the relationship remains to be fully understood. This study investigates how different aspects of cognition, particularly working memory and attention, relate to speech intelligibility for various tests.Perceptual accuracy of speech perception represents just one aspect of functioning in a listening environment. Activity and participation limits imposed by hearing loss, in addition to the demands of a listening environment, are also important and may be better captured by self-report questionnaires. Understanding how speech perception relates to self-reported aspects of listening forms the second focus of the study.Forty-four listeners aged between 50-74 years with mild SNHL were tested on speech perception tests differing in complexity from low (phoneme discrimination in quiet, to medium (digit triplet perception in speech-shaped noise to high (sentence perception in modulated noise; cognitive tests of attention, memory, and nonverbal IQ; and self-report questionnaires of general health-related and hearing-specific quality of life.Hearing sensitivity and cognition related to intelligibility differently depending on the speech test: neither was important for phoneme discrimination, hearing sensitivity alone was important for digit triplet perception, and hearing and cognition together played a role in sentence perception. Self-reported aspects of auditory functioning were correlated with speech intelligibility to different degrees, with digit triplets in noise showing the richest pattern. The results suggest that intelligibility tests can vary in their auditory and cognitive demands and their sensitivity to the challenges that auditory environments pose on

  19. Cognitive capacity: no association with recovery of sensibility by Semmes Weinstein test score after peripheral nerve injury of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boender, Z J; Ultee, J; Hovius, S E R

    2010-02-01

    In the recovery process of sensibility after repair of a peripheral nerve injury of the forearm, not only age but also surgical repair techniques are of importance. If regenerating axons are misdirected, reorganisation or other adaptic processes are needed at the level of the somatosensory brain cortex. These processes are thought to be dependent on the patient's cognitive capacity. We conducted a prospective multicentre study to assess the association between cognitive capacity and recovery of sensibility after peripheral nerve damage of the forearm. Patients with a traumatic peripheral nerve lesion of the forearm and consecutive surgical repair were included. After 12 months, the patients were assessed with respect to recovery of sensibility (Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments) and cognitive capacity, with four tests assessing different aspects of cognitive functioning. Twenty-eight patients (25 male, three female; median age: 28.5 years; range: 15-79 years) with median and/or ulnar nerve injury of the forearm were included in the study. Younger age showed a positive association with sensory recovery (beta =-0.845, 95% CI: -1.456 to -0.233; p=0.01). No association was found between the cognitive-capacity tests used and sensory recovery. The present prospective study did not reveal any association between recovery of sensibility measured by Semmes-Weinstein test score and cognitive capacity. Further studies should be performed to confirm these results.

  20. When Breathing Interferes with Cognition: Experimental Inspiratory Loading Alters Timed Up-and-Go Test in Normal Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierat, Marie-Cécile; Demiri, Suela; Dupuis-Lozeron, Elise; Allali, Gilles; Morélot-Panzini, Capucine; Similowski, Thomas; Adler, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Human breathing stems from automatic brainstem neural processes. It can also be operated by cortico-subcortical networks, especially when breathing becomes uncomfortable because of external or internal inspiratory loads. How the "irruption of breathing into consciousness" interacts with cognition remains unclear, but a case report in a patient with defective automatic breathing (Ondine's curse syndrome) has shown that there was a cognitive cost of breathing when the respiratory cortical networks were engaged. In a pilot study of putative breathing-cognition interactions, the present study relied on a randomized design to test the hypothesis that experimentally loaded breathing in 28 young healthy subjects would have a negative impact on cognition as tested by "timed up-and-go" test (TUG) and its imagery version (iTUG). Progressive inspiratory threshold loading resulted in slower TUG and iTUG performance. Participants consistently imagined themselves faster than they actually were. However, progressive inspiratory loading slowed iTUG more than TUG, a finding that is unexpected with regard to the known effects of dual tasking on TUG and iTUG (slower TUG but stable iTUG). Insofar as the cortical networks engaged in response to inspiratory loading are also activated during complex locomotor tasks requiring cognitive inputs, we infer that competition for cortical resources may account for the breathing-cognition interference that is evidenced here.

  1. Avionic technology testing by using a cognitive neurometric index: A study with professional helicopter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghini, Gianluca; Aricò, Pietro; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Salinari, Serenella; Colosimo, Alfredo; Bonelli, Stefano; Napoletano, Linda; Ferreira, Ana; Babiloni, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the possibility to evaluate the impact of different avionic technologies on the mental workload of helicopter's pilots by measuring their brain activity with the EEG during a series of simulated missions carried out at AgustaWestland facilities in Yeovil (UK). The tested avionic technologies were: i) Head-Up Display (HUD); ii) Head-Mounted Display (HMD); iii) Full Conformal symbology (FC); iv) Flight Guidance (FG) symbology; v) Synthetic Vision System (SVS); and vi) Radar Obstacles (RO) detection system. It has been already demonstrated that in cognitive tasks, when the cerebral workload increases the EEG power spectral density (PSD) in theta band over frontal areas increases, and the EEG PSD in alpha band decreases over parietal areas. A mental workload index (MWL) has been here defined as the ratio between the frontal theta and parietal alpha EEG PSD values. Such index has been used for testing and comparing the different avionic technologies. Results suggested that the HUD provided a significant (ptechnologies. In addition, the simultaneous use of FC and FG technologies (FC+FG) produced a significant decrement of the workload (ptechnology provided on Head Down Display (HDD) with the simultaneous use of FC+FG and the RO seemed to produce a lower cerebral workload when compared with the use of only the FC. Interestingly, the workload estimation by means of subjective measures, provided by pilots through a NASA-TLX questionnaire, did not provide any significant differences among the different flight scenarios. These results suggested that the proposed MWL cognitive neurometrics could be used as a reliable measure of the user's mental workload, being a valid indicator for the comparison and the test of different avionic technologies.

  2. Item and associative memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: performance on standardized memory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Angela K; Murphy, Kelly J; Anderson, Nicole D; Hayman-Abello, Brent A; Craik, Fergus I M; Moscovitch, Morris

    2008-01-01

    The earliest neuroanatomical changes in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) involve the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, structures implicated in the integration and learning of associative information. The authors hypothesized that individuals with aMCI would have impairments in associative memory above and beyond the known impairments in item memory. A group of 29 individuals with aMCI and 30 matched control participants were administered standardized tests of object-location recall and symbol-symbol recall, from which both item and associative recall scores were derived. As expected, item recall was impaired in the aMCI group relative to controls. Associative recall in the aMCI group was even more impaired than was item recall. The best group discriminators were measures of associative recall, with which the sensitivity and specificity for detecting aMCI were 76% and 90% for symbol-symbol recall and were 86% and 97% for object-location recall. Associative recall may be particularly sensitive to early cognitive change in aMCI, because this ability relies heavily on the medial temporal lobe structures that are affected earliest in aMCI. Incorporating measures of associative recall into clinical evaluations of individuals with memory change may be useful for detecting aMCI.

  3. Cognitive Dissonance and Affect: An Initial Test of a Connectionist Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Jordens

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In their connectionist model of cognitive dissonance, Van Overwalle & Jordens (2002 put forward the hypothesis that positive affect increases behaviour-induced attitudes, while negative affect decreases attitudes. In this article, this hypothesised role of affect was tested for two well-known paradigms in the cognitive dissonance literature: free choice and induced compliance. For the free-choice paradigm, we replicated the findings in the difficult-high choice condition of Shultz, Léveillé, and Lepper (1999 and additionally induced negative mood. As predicted, negative mood resulted in a more negative attitude compared to no mood induction. For the induced compliance paradigm, we replicated the Linder, Cooper, and Jones (1967 dissonance and reinforcement findings and additionally induced opposite mood in the nochoice (reinforcement conditions. Specifically, we induced positive mood in the low reward condition and negative mood in the high reward condition. Again as predicted, positive mood increased the attitude and negative mood decreased the attitude, resulting in an elimination of the reinforcement effect.

  4. Tracing the footsteps of Sherlock Holmes: cognitive representations of hypothesis testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wallendael, L R; Hastie, R

    1990-05-01

    A well-documented phenomenon in opinion-revision literature is subjects' failure to revise probability estimates for an exhaustive set of mutually exclusive hypotheses in a complementary manner. However, prior research has not addressed the question of whether such behavior simply represents a misunderstanding of mathematical rules, or whether it is a consequence of a cognitive representation of hypotheses that is at odds with the Bayesian notion of a set relationship. Two alternatives to the Bayesian representation, a belief system (Shafer, 1976) and a system of independent hypotheses, were proposed, and three experiments were conducted to examine cognitive representations of hypothesis sets in the testing of multiple competing hypotheses. Subjects were given brief murder mysteries to solve and allowed to request various types of information about the suspects; after having received each new piece of information, subjects rated each suspect's probability of being the murderer. Presence and timing of suspect eliminations were varied in the first two experiments; the final experiment involved the varying of percentages of clues that referred to more than one suspect (for example, all of the female suspects). The noncomplementarity of opinion revisions remained a strong phenomenon in all conditions. Information-search data refuted the idea that subjects represented hypotheses as a Bayesian set; further study of the independent hypotheses theory and Shaferian belief functions as descriptive models is encouraged.

  5. Magnitude and variability of effect sizes for the associations between chronic pain and cognitive test performances: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbone, Michél; Parkinson, William; Rehman, Yasir; Jiang, Shucui; Bhandari, Mohit; Kumbhare, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives and Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to estimate the size and variability of the association between chronic pain (CP) and poorer cognitive test performances as a function of individual tests, pain sub-types, and study sources on 22 studies having (1) a control group, (2) reported means and standard deviations (SDs) and (3) tests studied at least 3 times. Results: CP patients performed significantly poorer with small to moderate effects (d = −.31 to −.57) on Digit Span Backward; STROOP Word; Color and Color-Word; Digit Symbol; Trail Making A and B; Rey Auditory Learning Immediate and Delayed Recall and Recognition. For these 10 measures, single effects (no interaction) were supported (I2 = 0%–8%) and Random and Fixed models yielded similar results. No group differences were found for Corsi Blocks Forward or Wisconsin Cart Sorting Test Categories Achieved, or Perseveration. Effects for the Rey Complex Figure Immediate and Delayed Recall were significant, but effect size was inconclusive, given moderate to high heterogeneity and lack of consistency between Random and Fixed models. For the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, there was a homogeneous (I2 = 0%) and significantly lower performance in fibromyalgia (d = −.47), but no effect in diagnostically undifferentiated pain samples, and wide variability across studies of whiplash (d = −.15 to −1.04, I2 = 60%). Conclusion: The magnitude and consistency of the CP – cognition effect depended on the test, pain subgroup and study source. Summary points Among tests showing a chronic pain (CP) – cognition effect, the magnitude of this association was consistently small to moderate across tests. Effect size estimation was inconclusive for Digit Span Forwards, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and the Rey Complex Figure Test. Variance was too heterogeneous for testing cognitive domain specificity of the CP – cognition effect. PMID:27583141

  6. The Draw-A-Person Test: an indicator of children's cognitive and socioemotional adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Laak, J; de Goede, M; Aleva, A; van Rijswijk, P

    2005-03-01

    The authors examined aspects of reliability and validity of the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Person Test (DAP; D. B. Harris, 1963). The participants were 115 seven- to nine-year-old students attending regular or special education schools. Three judges, with a modest degree of training similar to that found among practicing clinicians, rated the students' human figure drawings on developmental and personality variables. The authors found that counting details and determining developmental level in the DAP test could be carried out reliably by judges with limited experience. However, the reliability of judgments of children's social and emotional development and personality was insufficient. Older students and students attending regular schools received significantly higher scores than did younger students or students attending special education schools. The authors found that the success of the DAP test as an indicator of cognitive level, socioemotional development, and personality is limited when global judgments are used. The authors concluded that more specific, reliable, valid, and useful scoring systems are needed for the DAP test.

  7. Adjustment of cognitive scores with a co-normed estimate of premorbid intelligence: implementation using mindstreams computerized testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doniger, Glen M; Simon, Ely S; Schweiger, Avraham

    2008-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessment is critically dependent upon comparison to a standard normative database. While generally appropriate for individuals of near-average intelligence, high-intelligence individuals may be erroneously scored as unimpaired and low-intelligence individuals as impaired on cognitive measures. The current paper describes an approach for minimizing such misclassifications that is standardized and practical for clinical use. A computerized test of nonverbal reasoning co-normed with cognitive measures is used for automatic adjustment of normalized cognitive scores. This premorbid estimate showed good construct validity, and adjustment raised cognitive scores for low-intelligence individuals, and lowered cognitive scores for high-intelligence individuals similarly across demographic (age, education, computer experience) and clinical (cognitively healthy, mild cognitive impairment, dementia) subgroups. Adjustment was typically up to three normalized units for scores on the premorbid estimate of +/-1 SD and 6 normalized units for scores of +/-2 SD. The present approach shows promise as a practical solution for assessment of high- and low-intelligence individuals.

  8. Brain Metabolism Correlates of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarra, Paolo; Ghetti, Caterina; Ruffini, Livia; Spallazzi, Marco; Spotti, Annamaria; Barocco, Federica; Guzzo, Caterina; Marchi, Massimo; Gardini, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) measures immediate and delayed episodic memory and cueing sensitivity and is suitable to detect prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aimed at investigating the segregation effect of FCSRT scores on brain metabolism of memory-related structures, usually affected by AD pathology, in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage. A cohort of forty-eight MCI patients underwent FCSRT and 18F-FDG-PET. Multiple regression analysis showed that Immediate Free Recall correlated with brain metabolism in the bilateral anterior cingulate and delayed free recall with the left anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus, whereas semantic cueing sensitivity with the left posterior cingulate. FCSRT in MCI is associated with neuro-functional activity of specific regions of memory-related structures connected to hippocampal formation, such as the cingulate cortex, usually damaged in AD.

  9. Gender Differences in Performance Predictions: Evidence from the Cognitive Reflection Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ring

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies performance predictions in the 7-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT and whether they differ by gender. After participants completed the CRT, they predicted their own (i, the other participants’ (ii, men’s (iii, and women’s (iv number of correct answers. In keeping with existing literature, men scored higher on the CRT than women and both men and women were too optimistic about their own performance. When we compare gender-specific predictions, we observe that men think they perform significantly better than other men and do so significantly more than women. The equality between women’s predictions about their own performance and their female peers cannot be rejected. Our findings contribute to the growing literature on the underpinnings of behavior in economics and in psychology by uncovering gender differences in confidence about one’s ability relative to same and opposite sex peers.

  10. An investigation of cognitive test performance across conditions of silence, background noise and music as a function of neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, James; McClelland, Alastair; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of trait neuroticism on cognitive performance under distraction. Seventy participants were given a personality test and then undertook a number of different cognitive tasks in silence, in the presence of popular music and in background noise. It was predicted that performance on a general intelligence test, a test of abstract reasoning, and a mental arithmetic task would be adversely affected by background sounds. It was predicted that neuroticism would be negatively correlated with performance on the mental arithmetic task but only when the individuals were working in the presence of background sound. Stable vs. unstable participant's performance on a mental arithmetic task during noise was significantly higher as predicted. The results provided partial support for the hypotheses and are discussed with respect to previous findings in the literature on personality (particularly introversion-extraversion) and distraction on cognitive task performance. Limitations are noted.

  11. Examining age-related shared variance between face cognition, vision, and self-reported physical health: a test of the common cause hypothesis for social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olderbak, Sally; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The shared decline in cognitive abilities, sensory functions (e.g., vision and hearing), and physical health with increasing age is well documented with some research attributing this shared age-related decline to a single common cause (e.g., aging brain). We evaluate the extent to which the common cause hypothesis predicts associations between vision and physical health with social cognition abilities specifically face perception and face memory. Based on a sample of 443 adults (17-88 years old), we test a series of structural equation models, including Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models, and estimate the extent to which vision and self-reported physical health are related to face perception and face memory through a common factor, before and after controlling for their fluid cognitive component and the linear effects of age. Results suggest significant shared variance amongst these constructs, with a common factor explaining some, but not all, of the shared age-related variance. Also, we found that the relations of face perception, but not face memory, with vision and physical health could be completely explained by fluid cognition. Overall, results suggest that a single common cause explains most, but not all age-related shared variance with domain specific aging mechanisms evident.

  12. Examining Age-Related Shared Variance Between Face Cognition, Vision, and Self-Reported Physical Health: A Test of the Common Cause Hypothesis for Social Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally eOlderbak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The shared decline in cognitive abilities, sensory functions (e.g., vision and hearing, and physical health with increasing age is well documented with some research attributing this shared age-related decline to a single common cause (e.g., aging brain. We evaluate the extent to which the common cause hypothesis predicts associations between vision and physical health with social cognition abilities, specifically face perception and face memory. Based on a sample of 443 adults (17 to 88 years old, we test a series of structural equation models, including Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause (MIMIC models, and estimate the extent to which vision and self-reported physical health are related to face perception and face memory through a common factor, before and after controlling for their fluid cognitive component and the linear effects of age. Results suggest significant shared variance amongst these constructs, with a common factor explaining some, but not all, of the shared age-related variance. Also, we found that the relations of face perception, but not face memory, with vision and physical health could be completely explained by fluid cognition. Overall, results suggest that a single common cause explains most, but not all age-related shared variance with domain specific aging mechanisms evident.

  13. Explaining dietary intake in adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. A test of Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Morgan, Philip J; Dewar, Deborah; Costigan, Sarah; Collins, Clare E

    2012-04-01

    Much of the research on the determinants of dietary behavior has been guided by Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), yet few studies have tested the utility of its proposed structural paths. The aim of this paper was to test the capacity of SCT to explain dietary behaviors in a sample of 357 adolescent girls (13.2±0.5 years) from 12 secondary schools located in low-income communities in New South Wales, Australia. Participants completed validated SCT scales assessing nutrition-related self-efficacy, intention, behavioral strategies, family support, situation, outcome expectations, and outcome expectancies. Participants completed a validated food frequency questionnaire, from which, the percentage of total kilojoules from core-foods, non-core foods and saturated fat were calculated. The theoretical models were tested using structural equation modeling in AMOS. The models explained 48-51% and 13-19% of the variance in intention and dietary behavior, respectively. The models provided an adequate fit to the data, and self-efficacy was positively associated with healthy eating and inversely associated with unhealthy eating. However, the pathway from intention to behavior was not statistically significant in any of the models. While this study has demonstrated the utility of SCT constructs to explain behavior in adolescents girls, the proposed structural pathways were not supported. Further study of the role that implementation intentions play in explaining adolescent girls' dietary behaviors is required.

  14. Cognitive Testing in People at Increased Risk of Dementia Using a Smartphone App: The iVitality Proof-of-Principle Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijsman, Liselotte Willemijn; Cachucho, Ricardo; Hoevenaar-Blom, Marieke Peternella; Mooijaart, Simon Pieter; Richard, Edo

    2017-01-01

    Background Smartphone-assisted technologies potentially provide the opportunity for large-scale, long-term, repeated monitoring of cognitive functioning at home. Objective The aim of this proof-of-principle study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of performing cognitive tests in people at increased risk of dementia using smartphone-based technology during a 6 months follow-up period. Methods We used the smartphone-based app iVitality to evaluate five cognitive tests based on conventional neuropsychological tests (Memory-Word, Trail Making, Stroop, Reaction Time, and Letter-N-Back) in healthy adults. Feasibility was tested by studying adherence of all participants to perform smartphone-based cognitive tests. Validity was studied by assessing the correlation between conventional neuropsychological tests and smartphone-based cognitive tests and by studying the effect of repeated testing. Results We included 151 participants (mean age in years=57.3, standard deviation=5.3). Mean adherence to assigned smartphone tests during 6 months was 60% (SD 24.7). There was moderate correlation between the firstly made smartphone-based test and the conventional test for the Stroop test and the Trail Making test with Spearman ρ=.3-.5 (Psmartphone-assisted cognitive testing is feasible with reasonable adherence and moderate relative validity for the Stroop and the Trail Making tests compared with conventional neuropsychological tests. Smartphone-based cognitive testing seems promising for large-scale data-collection in population studies. PMID:28546139

  15. Cognitive Testing in People at Increased Risk of Dementia Using a Smartphone App: The iVitality Proof-of-Principle Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongstra, Susan; Wijsman, Liselotte Willemijn; Cachucho, Ricardo; Hoevenaar-Blom, Marieke Peternella; Mooijaart, Simon Pieter; Richard, Edo

    2017-05-25

    Smartphone-assisted technologies potentially provide the opportunity for large-scale, long-term, repeated monitoring of cognitive functioning at home. The aim of this proof-of-principle study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of performing cognitive tests in people at increased risk of dementia using smartphone-based technology during a 6 months follow-up period. We used the smartphone-based app iVitality to evaluate five cognitive tests based on conventional neuropsychological tests (Memory-Word, Trail Making, Stroop, Reaction Time, and Letter-N-Back) in healthy adults. Feasibility was tested by studying adherence of all participants to perform smartphone-based cognitive tests. Validity was studied by assessing the correlation between conventional neuropsychological tests and smartphone-based cognitive tests and by studying the effect of repeated testing. We included 151 participants (mean age in years=57.3, standard deviation=5.3). Mean adherence to assigned smartphone tests during 6 months was 60% (SD 24.7). There was moderate correlation between the firstly made smartphone-based test and the conventional test for the Stroop test and the Trail Making test with Spearman ρ=.3-.5 (Psmartphone-assisted cognitive testing is feasible with reasonable adherence and moderate relative validity for the Stroop and the Trail Making tests compared with conventional neuropsychological tests. Smartphone-based cognitive testing seems promising for large-scale data-collection in population studies.

  16. Brain glucose metabolism and neuropsychological test in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹秋云; 江开达; 张明园; 刘永昌; 肖世富; 左传涛; 黄红芳

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the features of regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc) in patients with mild cognitive impairment(MCI) by positron emission-tomography and its relationship with neuropsychological test.Methods Positron emission tomography, mini-mental state examination and Wechsler memory scale were applied in 10 patients with MCI and 10 healthy volunteers as the control group.Results Scores of mini-mental state examination and Wechsler memory scale in MCI patients were lower than those in the control group (P<0.01). rCMRglc of the left orbital gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus and right putamen was lower in the MCI group than in the control group (P<0.05). Correlation analysis in the MCI group indicated that rCMRglc of many brain regions such as the orbital gyrus, putamen, left hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, left amygdaloid body, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, and medial occipitotemporal gyrus in MCI patients, were correlated negatively with age; while the rCMRglc of many parts of the brain such as the left putamen, temporal lobe, anterior cingulate gyrus, left insular lobe, amygdaloid body, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and medial occipitotemporal gyrus were correlated positively with mini-mental state examination; and rCMRglc of the left putamen, temporal lobe, left insular lobe, precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus were correlated positively with Wechsler memory scale. The right putamen, the right inferior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus, and left postcentral gyrus were correlated positively with the length of education. However, only rCMRglc of the left amygdaloid body were correlated positively with gender. Conclusion The rCMRglc was lower in the orbital gyrus and putamen of MCI patients. Their rCMRglc were correlated with their cognitive impairment severity, age, length of education and sex.

  17. Effects of age and cognition on a cross-cultural paediatric adaptation of the Sniffin' Sticks Identification Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Orrico Donnabella Bastos

    Full Text Available To study the effects of age and cognition on the performance of children aged 3 to 18 years on a culturally adapted version of the 16 item smell identification test from Sniffin' Sticks (SS16.A series of pilots were conducted on 29 children aged 3 to 18 years old and 23 adults to produce an adapted version of the SS16 suitable for Brazilian children (SS16-Child. A final version was applied to 51 children alongside a picture identification test (PIT-SS16-Child to access cognitive abilities involved in the smell identification task. In addition 20 adults performed the same tasks as a comparison group.The final adapted SS16-Child was applied to 51 children with a mean age of 9.9 years (range 3-18 years, SD=4.25 years, of which 68.3% were girls. There was an independent effect of age (p<0.05 and PIT-SS16-Child (p<0.001 on the performance on the SS16-Child, and older children reached the ceiling for scoring in the cognitive and olfactory test. Pre-school children had difficulties identifying items of the test.A cross-culturally adapted version of the SS16 can be used to test olfaction in children but interpretation of the results must take age and cognitive abilities into consideration.

  18. The differential item functioning and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test for five language groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Schaap

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: For a number of years, eliminating a language component in testing by using nonverbal cognitive tests has been proposed as a possible solution to the effect of groups’ languages (mother tongues or first languages on test performance. This is particularly relevant in South Africa with its 11 official languages.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the differential item functioning (DIF and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test (the PiB/SpEEx Observance test [401] for five South African language groups.Motivation for study: Cultural and language group sensitive tests can lead to unfair discrimination and is a contentious workplace issue in South Africa today. Misconceptions about psychometric testing in industry can cause tests to lose credibility if industries do not use a scientifically sound test-by-test evaluation approach.Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a quasi-experimental design and factor analytic and logistic regression techniques to meet the research aims. The study used a convenience sample drawn from industry and an educational institution.Main findings: The main findings of the study show structural equivalence of the test at a holistic level and nonsignificant DIF effect sizes for most of the comparisons that the researcher made.Practical/managerial implications: This research shows that the PIB/SpEEx Observance Test (401 is not completely language insensitive. One should see it rather as a language-reduced test when people from different language groups need testing.Contribution/value-add: The findings provide supporting evidence that nonverbal cognitive tests are plausible alternatives to verbal tests when one compares people from different language groups.

  19. Test Review: Schrank, F. A., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2014). Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R.; Niileksela, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    "The Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities" (WJ IV COG) is an individually administered measure of psychometric intellectual abilities designed for ages 2 to 90+. The measure was published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt-Riverside in 2014. Frederick Shrank, Kevin McGrew, and Nancy Mather are the authors. Richard Woodcock, the…

  20. English Language Proficiency and Test Performance: An Evaluation of Bilingual Students with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Ortiz, Samuel O.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Chaplin, William F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the findings of an exploratory empirical study that investigated the relationship between English Language Proficiency (ELP) on performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities-Third Edition (WJ III) when administered in English to bilingual students of varying levels of ELP. Sixty-one second-grade…

  1. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  2. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  3. Measuring cognitive factors in speech comprehension: the value of using the text reception threshold test as a visual equivalent of the SRT test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, S.E.; Zekveld, A.A.; Houtgast, T.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to comprehend speech in noise is influenced by bottom-up auditory and top-down cognitive capacities. Separate examination of these capacities is relevant for various purposes. Speech-Reception-Threshold (SRT) tests measure an individual's ability to comprehend speech. This paper addresse

  4. The Effect of Two Different Cognitive Tests on Gait Parameters during Dual Tasks in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paper aims to evaluate the influence of two different demanding cognitive tasks on gait parameters using BTS SMART system analysis. Patients and Methods. The study comprised 53 postmenopausal women aged 64.5 ± 6.7 years (range: 47–79. For every subject, gait analysis using a BTS SMART system was performed in a dual-task study design under three conditions: (I while walking only (single task, (II walking while performing a simultaneous simple cognitive task (SCT (dual task, and (III walking while performing a simultaneous complex cognitive task (CCT (dual task. Time-space parameters of gait pertaining to the length of a single support phase, double support phase, gait speed, step length, step width, and leg swing speed were analyzed. Results. Performance of cognitive tests during gait resulted in a statistically significant prolongation of the left (by 7% and right (by 7% foot gait cycle, shortening of the length of steps made with the right extremity (by 4%, reduction of speed of swings made with the left (by 11% and right (by 8% extremity, and reduction in gait speed (by 6%. Conclusions. Performance of cognitive tests during gait changes its individual pattern in relation to the level of the difficulty of the task.

  5. Financial Strain and Regional Unemployment as Barriers to Job Search Self-Efficacy: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahling, Jason J.; Melloy, Robert; Thompson, Mindi N.

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) emphasizes the potential impact of contextual barriers on vocational self-efficacy, interests, and goals. However, most tests of SCCT to date have focused exclusively on person-level, perceptual barriers rather than objective, macroeconomic barriers that may influence large groups of people. In this study, we…

  6. An Investigation into the Use of Cognitive Ability Tests in the Identification of Gifted Students in Design and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twissell, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether MidYIS and YELLIS cognitive ability tests (CATs) are appropriate methods for the identification of giftedness in Design and Technology. A key rationale for the study was whether CATs and able to identify those students with the aptitudes considered of importance to identifying giftedness in Design and Technology and…

  7. A Concurrent Validity Study between the Application of Cognitive Functions Scale and the Leiter-Revised International Performance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatik, Tuvia

    There has been recent interest in Dynamic Assessment in the psychoeducational assessment of preschool children. This study investigated the concurrent validity between the Application of Cognitive Functions Scale (ACFS) (C. Lidz and R. Jepsen, 1999), a Dynamic Assessment, and the Leiter-Revised International Performance Test (Leiter-R) (G. Roid…

  8. Oral Communication in the Framework of Cognitive Fluency: Developing and Testing Spoken Russian within the TORFL System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Olga; Nesterova, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Language testing and second language acquisition research are both concerned with proficiency in the second language; given this shared interest, the rapprochement between these two domains may prove revealing and productive not only in terms of teaching practices, but also in taking a wide view of language, ranging across cognition, society and…

  9. Differential Item Functioning Assessment in Cognitive Diagnostic Modeling: Application of the Wald Test to Investigate DIF in the DINA Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Likun; de la Torre, Jimmy; Nandakumar, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing examinees' responses using cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs) has the advantage of providing diagnostic information. To ensure the validity of the results from these models, differential item functioning (DIF) in CDMs needs to be investigated. In this article, the Wald test is proposed to examine DIF in the context of CDMs. This study…

  10. Does Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Youth Anxiety Outperform Usual Care in Community Clinics? An Initial Effectiveness Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Weisz, John R.; Chu, Brian C.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Gordis, Elana B.; Connor-Smith, Jennifer K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Most tests of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth anxiety disorders have shown beneficial effects, but these have been efficacy trials with recruited youths treated by researcher-employed therapists. One previous (nonrandomized) trial in community clinics found that CBT did not outperform usual care (UC). The present study used…

  11. Financial Strain and Regional Unemployment as Barriers to Job Search Self-Efficacy: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahling, Jason J.; Melloy, Robert; Thompson, Mindi N.

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) emphasizes the potential impact of contextual barriers on vocational self-efficacy, interests, and goals. However, most tests of SCCT to date have focused exclusively on person-level, perceptual barriers rather than objective, macroeconomic barriers that may influence large groups of people. In this study, we…

  12. Testing Social-Cognitive Theory to Explain Physical Activity Change in Adolescent Girls from Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Deborah L.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Morgan, Philip J.; Okely, Anthony D.; Costigan, Sarah A.; Lubans, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesized structural paths in Bandura's social-cognitive theory (SCT) model on adolescent girls' physical activity following a 12-month physical activity and dietary intervention to prevent obesity. Method: We conducted a 12-month follow-up study of 235 adolescent girls ("M[subscript…

  13. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  14. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  15. Addressing criticisms of existing predictive bias research: cognitive ability test scores still overpredict African Americans' job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Christopher M; Zhao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Predictive bias studies have generally suggested that cognitive ability test scores overpredict job performance of African Americans, meaning these tests are not predictively biased against African Americans. However, at least 2 issues call into question existing over-/underprediction evidence: (a) a bias identified by Aguinis, Culpepper, and Pierce (2010) in the intercept test typically used to assess over-/underprediction and (b) a focus on the level of observed validity instead of operational validity. The present study developed and utilized a method of assessing over-/underprediction that draws on the math of subgroup regression intercept differences, does not rely on the biased intercept test, allows for analysis at the level of operational validity, and can use meta-analytic estimates as input values. Therefore, existing meta-analytic estimates of key parameters, corrected for relevant statistical artifacts, were used to determine whether African American job performance remains overpredicted at the level of operational validity. African American job performance was typically overpredicted by cognitive ability tests across levels of job complexity and across conditions wherein African American and White regression slopes did and did not differ. Because the present study does not rely on the biased intercept test and because appropriate statistical artifact corrections were carried out, the present study's results are not affected by the 2 issues mentioned above. The present study represents strong evidence that cognitive ability tests generally overpredict job performance of African Americans.

  16. [Memory, fluency, and orientation: a five-minute screening test for cognitive decline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Derio, C; Guerrero Bonnet, S; Troncoso Ponce, M; Araneda Yañez, A; Slachevsky Chonchol, A; Behrens Pellegrino, M I

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) will double in the next 20 years, making early detection a key priority. Validation of a 5-minute CI screening test. Adults aged 60 and older were recruited from memory clinics and the community at large in the Santiago, Chile metropolitan area. Based on clinical examination they were categorised as No CI (NCI), Mild CI (MCI) and dementia sufferers (DS). We measured the validity of a new test, MEFO, evaluating memory (5 points), phonetic verbal fluency (2 points) and orientation (6 points) by comparing its results with those from the MMSE. We evaluated 214 subjects, comprising 49 with dementia, 47 with MCI, and 118 with no CI. The MEFO differentiated between all 3 groups whereas the MMSE did not discriminate between the MCI and NCI groups. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the MEFO distinguishing NCI subjects from dementia sufferers was 0.97; for NCI vs CI (dementia+MCI), 0.89; and for NCI vs MCI, 0.80. On the MMSE these values were 0.95, 0.84, and 0.73, respectively. A cut-off score of 6/7 on the MEFO identified dementia sufferers with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 96%. A cut-off score of 8/9 distinguished CI from NCI subjects with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 75%. The MEFO is a valid and reliable test for discriminating between dementia and CI sufferers and subjects with no CI. Its validity is similar to that the MMSE under these conditions, but it is more effective for identifying subjects with MCI and its administration time is shorter. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Ecological assessment of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease using the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolló-Gasol, S; Piñol-Ripoll, G; Cejudo-Bolivar, J C; Llorente-Vizcaino, A; Peraita-Adrados, H

    2014-01-01

    The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) is a short, ecologically-valid memory test battery that can provide data about a subject's memory function in daily life. We used RBMT to examine daily memory function in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer disease (AD), and in healthy controls. We also evaluated differences between the memory profiles of subjects whose MCI remained stable after 1 year and those with conversion to AD. Sample of 91 subjects older than 60 years: 30 controls, 27 MCI subjects and 34 AD patients. Subjects were assessed using MMSE and RBMT. The 40 men and 51 women in the sample had a mean age of 74.29±6.71 and 5.87±2.93 years of education. For the total profile and screening RBMT scores (P<.001) and total MMSE scores (P<.05), control subjects scored significantly higher than those with MCI, who in turn scored higher than AD patients. In all subtests, the control group (P<.001) and MCI group (P<.05) were distinguishable from the AD group. Prospective, retrospective, and orientation subtests found differences between the MCI and control groups (P<.05). MCI subjects who progressed to AD scored lower at baseline on the total RBMT and MMSE, and on name recall, belongings, story-immediate recall, route-delayed recall, orientation (P<.05), face recognition, story-delayed recall, and messages-delayed recall sections (P<.01). RBMT is an ecologically-valid episodic memory test that can be used to differentiate between controls, MCI subjects, and AD subjects. It can also be used to detect patients with MCI who will experience progression to AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Development and Testing of a Smartphone-Based Cognitive/Neuropsychological Evaluation System for Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Reshmi; Mendelson, John; Clavier, Odile; Baggott, Mathew J; Coyle, Jeremy; Galloway, Gantt P

    2016-01-01

    In methamphetamine (MA) users, drug-induced neurocognitive deficits may help to determine treatment, monitor adherence, and predict relapse. To measure these relationships, we developed an iPhone app (Neurophone) to compare lab and field performance of N-Back, Stop Signal, and Stroop tasks that are sensitive to MA-induced deficits. Twenty healthy controls and 16 MA-dependent participants performed the tasks in-lab using a validated computerized platform and the Neurophone before taking the latter home and performing the tasks twice daily for two weeks. N-Back task: there were no clear differences in performance between computer-based vs. phone-based in-lab tests and phone-based in-lab vs. phone-based in-field tests. Stop-Signal task: difference in parameters prevented comparison of computer-based and phone-based versions. There was significant difference in phone performance between field and lab. Stroop task: response time measured by the speech recognition engine lacked precision to yield quantifiable results. There was no learning effect over time. On an average, each participant completed 84.3% of the in-field NBack tasks and 90.4% of the in-field Stop Signal tasks (MA-dependent participants: 74.8% and 84.3%; healthy controls: 91.4% and 95.0%, respectively). Participants rated Neurophone easy to use. Cognitive tasks performed in-field using Neurophone have the potential to yield results comparable to those obtained in a laboratory setting. Tasks need to be modified for use as the app's voice recognition system is not yet adequate for timed tests.

  19. Math-Fact Retrieval as the Cognitive Mechanism Underlying Gender Differences in Math Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer; Tronsky; Chan; Jackson; Marchant

    1999-07-01

    Males from select populations receive better scores on standardized math achievement tests than females. The research reported in this article evaluates the hypothesis that the reason for these differences is that males are faster at retrieving basic math facts. Studies 1-3 demonstrate that math-fact retrieval predicts performance on math achievement tests with students in grades 5-8 and in college. Studies 4-6 show that males and females in grades 2-8 and in college have different patterns of math-fact retrieval performance and that males at the high positive end of the retrieval distribution are faster than comparable females. Study 5 also demonstrates that math-fact retrieval varies in three populations (Anglo-American, Chinese-American, Hong Kong Chinese) and that speed of retrieval improves with practice. Studies 7-9 tested the hypothesis that males are faster than females on retrieval tasks in general. Study 7 showed that there were no gender differences on simple retrieval tasks, and Studies 8 and 9 showed that females were slightly faster than males on verbal-processing tasks. The General Discussion indicates that the math-fact retrieval hypothesis is consistent with previous research. It also relates the math-fact retrieval hypothesis to theories of cognitive performance and introduces the practice and engagement hypothesis. This hypothesis explains the origin of gender differences in math and reading and relates those differences to the existing literature on gender differences in academic performance. The article concludes with a description of needed future research and a discussion of the educational implications of the math-fact retrieval hypothesis. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  20. An Automated, Experimenter-Free Method for the Standardised, Operant Cognitive Testing of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalan, Marion; Munawar, Humaira; Fuchs, Anna; Winter, York

    2017-01-01

    Animal models of human pathology are essential for biomedical research. However, a recurring issue in the use of animal models is the poor reproducibility of behavioural and physiological findings within and between laboratories. The most critical factor influencing this issue remains the experimenter themselves. One solution is the use of procedures devoid of human intervention. We present a novel approach to experimenter-free testing cognitive abilities in rats, by combining undisturbed group housing with automated, standardized and individual operant testing. This experimenter-free system consisted of an automated-operant system (Bussey-Saksida rat touch screen) connected to a home cage containing group living rats via an automated animal sorter (PhenoSys). The automated animal sorter, which is based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology, functioned as a mechanical replacement of the experimenter. Rats learnt to regularly and individually enter the operant chamber and remained there for the duration of the experimental session only. Self-motivated rats acquired the complex touch screen task of trial-unique non-matching to location (TUNL) in half the time reported for animals that were manually placed into the operant chamber. Rat performance was similar between the two groups within our laboratory, and comparable to previously published results obtained elsewhere. This reproducibility, both within and between laboratories, confirms the validity of this approach. In addition, automation reduced daily experimental time by 80%, eliminated animal handling, and reduced equipment cost. This automated, experimenter-free setup is a promising tool of great potential for testing a large variety of functions with full automation in future studies. PMID:28060883

  1. Dynamic testing of learning potential in adults with cognitive impairments: A systematic review of methodology and predictive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, Hileen; Bovend'Eerdt, Thamar J H; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Nijboer, Tanja C W; van Heugten, Caroline M

    2016-09-01

    Dynamic testing includes procedures that examine the effects of brief training on test performance where pre- to post-training change reflects patients' learning potential. The objective of this systematic review was to provide clinicians and researchers insight into the concept and methodology of dynamic testing and to explore its predictive validity in adult patients with cognitive impairments. The following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, PsychINFO, and Embase/Medline. Of 1141 potentially relevant articles, 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. The mean methodological quality score was 4.6 of 8. Eleven different dynamic tests were used. The majority of studies used dynamic versions of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The training mostly consisted of a combination of performance feedback, reinforcement, expanded instruction, or strategy training. Learning potential was quantified using numerical (post-test score, difference score, gain score, regression residuals) and categorical (groups) indices. In five of six longitudinal studies, learning potential significantly predicted rehabilitation outcome. Three of four studies supported the added value of dynamic testing over conventional testing in predicting rehabilitation outcome. This review provides preliminary support that dynamic tests can provide a valuable addition to conventional tests to assess patients' abilities. Although promising, there was a large variability in methods used for dynamic testing and, therefore, it remains unclear which dynamic testing methods are most appropriate for patients with cognitive impairments. More research is warranted to further evaluate and refine dynamic testing methodology and to further elucidate its predictive validity concerning rehabilitation outcomes relative to other cognitive and functional status indices.

  2. Pigs as animal model for low-birth-weight babies. Developing cognitive tests and examining neuroprotection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, E.T.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the cognitive performance of piglets with low birth weight (LBW) caused by intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR), and the effects of a possible therapy to prevent IUGR-related brain damage and associated cognitive impairments were studied. To achieve these goals, several conditions

  3. Test of a Social Cognitive Model of Work Satisfaction in Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Lent, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Lent and Brown [Lent, R. W., & Brown, S. D. (2006). "Integrating person and situation perspectives on work satisfaction: A social-cognitive view." "Journal of Vocational Behavior,69", 236-247] recently proposed an integrative model of work satisfaction linked to social cognitive career theory. The model posits that work satisfaction is predicted…

  4. How Does Exercise Benefit Performance on Cognitive Tests in Primary-School Pupils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna; Thomson, Jenny; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Aim: We have previously demonstrated improved cognitive performance after a classroom-based exercise regime. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of this effect in a more socio-economically diverse sample and also investigated whether cognitive benefits of exercise were moderated by body mass index (BMI) or symptoms of…

  5. A Test of a Cognitive Diathesis-Stress Generation Pathway in Early Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kercher, Amy; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates a pathway for depressive risk that integrates cognitive diathesis-stress and stress-generation theories, following Hankin and Abramson's (2001, "Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31"(4), 491-504) elaborated cognitive-diathesis transactional stress model. In this model, young adolescents with initial…

  6. Using a Word Association Test for the Assessment of High School Students' Cognitive Structures on Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Aysegul; Eilks, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding students' cognitive structures in a specific knowledge domain helps to determine the ''what, how and why'' features of such knowledge, so that we can take these structures into consideration in teaching. The purpose of the present study was to identify students' cognitive structures about solution and dissolution concepts. The study…

  7. Development of cognitive processing and judgments of knowledge in medical students : Analysis of progress test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Kerdijk, Wouter; Jaarsma, A. D. (Debbie) C.; Tio, Rene A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Beside acquiring knowledge, medical students should also develop the ability to apply and reflect on it, requiring higher-order cognitive processing. Ideally, students should have reached higher-order cognitive processing when they enter the clinical program. Whether this is the case, is

  8. Evaluating the Wald Test for Item-Level Comparison of Saturated and Reduced Models in Cognitive Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Lee, Young-Sun

    2013-01-01

    This article used the Wald test to evaluate the item-level fit of a saturated cognitive diagnosis model (CDM) relative to the fits of the reduced models it subsumes. A simulation study was carried out to examine the Type I error and power of the Wald test in the context of the G-DINA model. Results show that when the sample size is small and a…

  9. Evaluating the Wald Test for Item-Level Comparison of Saturated and Reduced Models in Cognitive Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Lee, Young-Sun

    2013-01-01

    This article used the Wald test to evaluate the item-level fit of a saturated cognitive diagnosis model (CDM) relative to the fits of the reduced models it subsumes. A simulation study was carried out to examine the Type I error and power of the Wald test in the context of the G-DINA model. Results show that when the sample size is small and a…

  10. Sociolinguistic reflection on neuropsychological assessment: an insight into selected culturally adapted battery of Lebanese Arabic cognitive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Mrad, Fadi; Tarabey, Lubna; Zamrini, Edward; Pasquier, Florence; Chelune, Gordon; Fadel, Patricia; Hayek, Maryse

    2015-10-01

    Neuropsychological tests (NPTs) are highly dependent on education, culture differences as well as age and sex. It is therefore essential to take these factors into consideration when translating NPTs to be used in screening for cognitive impairment. Translations into Arabic must respect the principles of linguistic relativity and cultural specificity of the population under study. The objective is to assess feasibility and outcome of translating neuropsychological tests to Arabic. A team of Lebanese professionals selected a battery of screening NPTs. These tests were translated into Arabic and independently back translated by a team of sociolinguists and cultural specialists. The translations were adapted to suit the Lebanese culture. The final NPT translated versions were reached by consensus of an expert panel and tested on a group of independently living community-dwelling elderly. Translated items had to be modified when: (1) terms could not be translated using one word as required by the test; (2) Concepts were foreign to the culture; (3) Translated words carried multiple meanings; (4) Words were rarely used in Lebanon; (5) Sentences did not have an equivalent; and (6) Words had letters pronounced differently by subgroups in Lebanon. Despite all measures to maintain cultural sensitivity in translations, non-linguistic challenges remained. A battery of cognitive screening tests were translated into Arabic and adapted for the Lebanese population. These adaptations allow for a better assessment of cognitive abilities since they reflect the thought patterns of the population. The challenge is to establish local normative data.

  11. Statins enhance cognitive performance in object location test in albino Swiss mice: involvement of beta-adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandresen-Filho, Samuel; França, Lucas Moreira; Alcantara-Junior, José; Nogueira, Lucas Caixeta; de Brito, Thiago Marques; Lopes, Lousã; Junior, Fernando Mesquita; Vanzeler, Maria Luzinete; Bertoldo, Daniela Bohn; Dias, Paula Gomes; Colla, André R S; Hoeller, Alexandre; Duzzioni, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; de Lima, Thereza C M; Tasca, Carla Inês; Viola, Giordano Gubert

    2015-05-01

    Statins are inhibitors of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, thereby inhibiting cell synthesis of cholesterol and isoprenoids. Moreover, several studies have been evaluating pleiotropic effects of statins, mainly because they present neuroprotective effects in various pathological conditions. However, knowledge about behavioral effects of statins per se is relatively scarce. Considering these facts, we aimed to analyze behavioral responses of atorvastatin or simvastatin-treated mice in the open field test, elevated plus maze and object location test. Atorvastatin treatment for 7 consecutive days at 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg (v.o.) or simvastatin 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg enhanced cognitive performance in object location test when compared to control group (saline-treated mice). Simvastatin effects on mice performance in the object location test was abolished by post-training infusion of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Atorvastatin and simvastatin did not change the behavioral response in open field and elevated plus-maze (EPM) tests in any of the used doses. These data demonstrate the positive effects of both statins in cognitive processes in mice, without any alteration in locomotor parameters in the open field test or anxiolytic-like behavior in EPM. In conclusion, we demonstrate that atorvastatin and simvastatin per se improve the cognitive performance in a rodent model of spatial memory and this effect is related to beta-adrenergic receptors modulation.

  12. Individual differences in brain structure and resting brain function underlie cognitive styles: evidence from the Embedded Figures Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xin; Wang, Kangcheng; Li, Wenfu; Yang, Wenjing; Wei, Dongtao; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive styles can be characterized as individual differences in the way people perceive, think, solve problems, learn, and relate to others. Field dependence/independence (FDI) is an important and widely studied dimension of cognitive styles. Although functional imaging studies have investigated the brain activation of FDI cognitive styles, the combined structural and functional correlates with individual differences in a large sample have never been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the neural correlates of individual differences in FDI cognitive styles by analyzing the correlations between Embedded Figures Test (EFT) score and structural neuroimaging data [regional gray matter volume (rGMV) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM)]/functional neuroimaging data [resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)] throughout the whole brain. Results showed that the increased rGMV in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was associated with the EFT score, which might be the structural basis of effective local processing. Additionally, a significant positive correlation between ALFF and EFT score was found in the fronto-parietal network, including the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We speculated that the left IPL might be associated with superior feature identification, and mPFC might be related to cognitive inhibition of global processing bias. These results suggested that the underlying neuroanatomical and functional bases were linked to the individual differences in FDI cognitive styles and emphasized the important contribution of superior local processing ability and cognitive inhibition to field-independent style.

  13. Individual differences in brain structure and resting brain function underlie cognitive styles: evidence from the Embedded Figures Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Hao

    Full Text Available Cognitive styles can be characterized as individual differences in the way people perceive, think, solve problems, learn, and relate to others. Field dependence/independence (FDI is an important and widely studied dimension of cognitive styles. Although functional imaging studies have investigated the brain activation of FDI cognitive styles, the combined structural and functional correlates with individual differences in a large sample have never been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the neural correlates of individual differences in FDI cognitive styles by analyzing the correlations between Embedded Figures Test (EFT score and structural neuroimaging data [regional gray matter volume (rGMV was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM]/functional neuroimaging data [resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF] throughout the whole brain. Results showed that the increased rGMV in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL was associated with the EFT score, which might be the structural basis of effective local processing. Additionally, a significant positive correlation between ALFF and EFT score was found in the fronto-parietal network, including the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. We speculated that the left IPL might be associated with superior feature identification, and mPFC might be related to cognitive inhibition of global processing bias. These results suggested that the underlying neuroanatomical and functional bases were linked to the individual differences in FDI cognitive styles and emphasized the important contribution of superior local processing ability and cognitive inhibition to field-independent style.

  14. Stress and coping in HIV-positive former plasma/blood donors in China: a test of cognitive appraisal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Wang, Jianping; Lin, Xiuyun; Wu, Hao; Poppen, Paul J

    2010-04-01

    Throughout the 1990s, many villagers in rural China were infected with HIV through commercial plasma/blood donation. These former plasma/blood donors (FPDs) experienced many HIV-related stressors. This study tested a cognitive appraisal model of stress and coping in a sample of HIV-positive adult FPDs. Participants (N = 207) from multiple villages completed a battery of questionnaires assessing HIV-related stress, HIV symptoms, cognitive appraisal, coping behaviors, and psychological distress. Participants reported high levels of HIV-related stress, depression, and anxiety. In a structural equation model, greater HIV-related stress, HIV symptoms, and threat appraisal were directly associated with psychological distress. HIV-related stress was also indirectly associated with psychological distress through threat appraisal. In a second model, coping was found to mediate the relationship between challenge appraisal and psychological distress. Results support the utility of cognitive appraisal theory. Stress management interventions targeting HIV-positive FPDs in China are indicated.

  15. Ecological, psychological, and cognitive components of reading difficulties: testing the component model of reading in fourth graders across 38 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lin, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The authors tested the component model of reading (CMR) among 186,725 fourth grade students from 38 countries (45 regions) on five continents by analyzing the 2006 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study data using measures of ecological (country, family, school, teacher), psychological, and cognitive components. More than 91% of the differences in student difficulty occurred at the country (61%) and classroom (30%) levels (ecological), with less than 9% at the student level (cognitive and psychological). All three components were negatively associated with reading difficulties: cognitive (student's early literacy skills), ecological (family characteristics [socioeconomic status, number of books at home, and attitudes about reading], school characteristics [school climate and resources]), and psychological (students' attitudes about reading, reading self-concept, and being a girl). These results extend the CMR by demonstrating the importance of multiple levels of factors for reading deficits across diverse cultures.

  16. Comparison of Short and Long Versions of the Prudhoe Cognitive Function Test and the K-BIT in Participants with Intellectual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, Stephen P.; Wigham, Ann; Cicchetti, Domenic; Margallo-Lana, Marisa; Moore, P. Brian; Reid, Barbara E.

    2010-01-01

    The Prudhoe Cognitive Function Test (PCFT) directly measures the cognitive abilities of people with intellectual impairment. This study examined the relationship between this instrument and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) and two shorter versions of the same scale. High correlations between the verbal and performance sections of the…

  17. Case report: Is verbal cognitive performance in bilingual neuropsychiatric patients test-language dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Mabel; Kratochvilova, Zuzana; Kuniss, Renata; Vorackova, Veronika; Dorazilova, Aneta; Fajnerova, Iveta

    2015-12-01

    Bilingualism (BL) is increasing around the world. Although BL has been shown to have a broad impact-both positive and negative-on language and cognitive functioning, cognitive models and standards are mainly based on monolinguals. If we take cognitive performance of monolinguals as a standard, then the performance of bilinguals might not be accurately estimated. The assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of both the diagnostic process and further treatment in neurological and neuropsychiatric patients. In order to identify the presence or absence of cognitive deficit in bilingual patients, it will be important to determine the positive and/or negative impact of BL properties on measured cognitive performance. However, research of the impact of BL on cognitive performance in neuropsychiatric patients is limited. This article aims to compare the influence of the language (dominant-L1, second-L2) used for assessment of verbal cognitive performance in two cases of bilingual neuropsychiatric patients (English/Czech). Despite the fact that the two cases have different diagnoses, similarities in working memory and verbal learning profiles for L1 and L2 were present in both patients. We expected L1 to have higher performance in all measures when compared with L2. This assumption was partially confirmed. As expected, verbal working memory performance was better when assessed in L1. In contrast, verbal learning showed the same or better performance in L2 when compared with L1. Verbal fluency and immediate recall results were comparable in both languages. In conclusion, the language of administration partially influenced verbal performance of bilingual patients. Whether the language itself influenced low performance in a given language or it was a result of a deficit requires further research. According to our results, we suggest that an assessment in both languages needs to be a component of reasonable cognitive assessment of bilingual patients.

  18. Combining situated Cognitive Engineering with a novel testing method in a case study comparing two infusion pump interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittker, R; Schmettow, M; Verhoeven, F; Schraagen, J M C

    2016-07-01

    We validated the usability of a new infusion pump interface designed with a situated Cognitive Engineering approach by comparing it to a reference interface using a novel testing method employing repeated measurements and process measures, in addition to traditional outcome measures. The sample consisted of 25 nurses who performed eight critical tasks three times. Performance measures consisted of number and type of errors, deviations from a pre-established normative path solution, task completion times, number of keystrokes, mental effort and preferences in use. Results showed that interaction with the new interface resulted in 18% fewer errors, 90% fewer normative path deviations, 42% lower task completion times, 40% fewer keystrokes, 39% lower mental effort and 76% more subjective preferences in use. These outcomes suggest that within the scope of this case study, combining the situated Cognitive Engineering approach with a novel testing method addresses various shortcomings of earlier testing methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Validity study of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test in the identification of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-bo SHI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To identify the sensitivity and specificity of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test (ACFT differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD from normal controls.  Methods A total of 121 MCI patients, 104 AD patients and 104 healthy controls, who were matched in sex, age and education level, were enrolled in this study. They performed Animal Category Verbal Fluency Test (AFT, City Category Verbal Fluency Test (CFT and ACFT. A series of standard neuropsychological tests were also administered to reflect episodic memory, verbal ability, working memory, executive function and processing speed. The validity and related influencing factors of ACFT was evaluated.  Results Compared with control group, the ACFT correct number in MCI and AD groups reduced significantly (P = 0.000, 0.000. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve revealed the sensitivity and specificity of ACFT in discriminating MCI (P = 0.012, 0.030 and AD (P = 0.004, 0.003 from normal controls were higher than those of AFT and CFT. There was no correlation of correct number in ACFT with age and education (P > 0.05, for all. The correlations of ACFT with Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT, Digital Symbol Substitution Test (DSST, Shape Trail Test (STT and Digit Span Test (DS, all of which reflected attention and executive function, were significantly closer than those of AFT and CFT (P < 0.05, for all. Conclusions ACFT is more efficient in early cognitive impairment identification than the other traditional category verbal fluency tests. It is a new variant form of category verbal fluency test that could assess cognitive function and could be broadly applied in clinical practice. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.010

  20. Detecting cognitive impairment after concussion: sensitivity of change from baseline and normative data methods using the CogSport/Axon cognitive test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louey, Andrea G; Cromer, Jason A; Schembri, Adrian J; Darby, David G; Maruff, Paul; Makdissi, Michael; Mccrory, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Concussion-related cognitive impairments are typically evaluated with repeated neuropsychological assessments where post-injury performances are compared with pre-injury baseline data (baseline method). Many cases of concussions, however, are evaluated in the absence of baseline data by comparing post-injury performances with normative data (normative method). This study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of these two methods using the CogSport/Axon test battery. Normative data and reliable change indices were computed from a non-injured athlete sample (n = 235). Test-retest data from non-injured (n = 260) and recently concussed (n = 29) athlete samples were then used to compare the two methods. The baseline method was found to be more sensitive than the normative method, and both methods had high specificity and overall correct classification rates. This suggests that while the normative method identifies most cases of recent concussions, the baseline method remains a more precise approach to assessing concussion-related cognitive impairments.

  1. Stakeholder approach, Stakeholders mental model: A visualization test with cognitive mapping technique

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    Garoui Nassreddine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to determine the mental models of actors in the firm with respect to the stakeholder approach of corporate governance. The use of the cognitive map to view these diagrams to show the ways of thinking and conceptualization of the stakeholder approach. The paper takes a corporate governance perspective, discusses stakeholder model. It takes also a cognitive mapping technique.

  2. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Overlapping Infinity Loops, Wire Cube, and Clock Drawing Tests for Cognitive Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

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    Thammanard Charernboon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the overlapping infinity loops, wire cube, and clock drawing tests (CDT in the detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia. Method. The participants were 60 normal controls (NC, 35 patients with MCI, and 47 patients with mild dementia. Results. The results illustrate that infinity loops, cube, or CDT were not able to discriminate between NC and MCI groups. In dementia detection, the CDT had the highest diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 76.6% and specificity 87.4% followed by infinity loops (sensitivity 63.8% and specificity 91.6% and cube (sensitivity 93.6% and specificity 46.3%. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that the three drawing tests are sensitive detectors of dementia but not MCI.

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Overlapping Infinity Loops, Wire Cube, and Clock Drawing Tests for Cognitive Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charernboon, Thammanard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the overlapping infinity loops, wire cube, and clock drawing tests (CDT) in the detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Method. The participants were 60 normal controls (NC), 35 patients with MCI, and 47 patients with mild dementia. Results. The results illustrate that infinity loops, cube, or CDT were not able to discriminate between NC and MCI groups. In dementia detection, the CDT had the highest diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 76.6% and specificity 87.4%) followed by infinity loops (sensitivity 63.8% and specificity 91.6%) and cube (sensitivity 93.6% and specificity 46.3%). Conclusion. This study demonstrates that the three drawing tests are sensitive detectors of dementia but not MCI.

  4. A new test battery to assess aphasic disturbances and associated cognitive dysfunctions -- German normative data on the aphasia check list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbe, Elke; Reinhold, Nadine; Brand, Matthias; Markowitsch, Hans J; Kessler, Josef

    2005-10-01

    Aphasia, defined as an acquired impairment of linguistic abilities, can be accompanied by a diversity of neuropsychological dysfunction. Accordingly, the necessity to include cognitive testing in the diagnosis of aphasia is increasingly recognized. Here we present the Aphasia Check List (ACL), a new test battery for the assessment of aphasic and associated cognitive disorders. The language part of the battery provides a differentiated profile of important linguistic abilities. In addition, the ACL includes nonverbal screening tests for three neuropsychological domains: memory, attention, and reasoning. Dysfunctions in these domains have been observed in aphasic patients and can have an impact on language function. The ACL is applicable to patients with language disturbances of different etiologies, different stages of disease, and to patients with mild to severe aphasia. As the entire test duration is only about 30 minutes, the ACL is also economically valuable. It thus presents an adequate starting point in aphasia diagnosis for a wide range of patients. Here we describe the construction of the ACL, and the normative study of its original German version with 154 aphasic patients and 106 healthy comparison subjects. The ACL cognition part revealed additional neuropsychological dysfunction in the aphasia group. We present the patterns of these dysfunctions and their correlations with language deficits.

  5. Validação do teste Need For Cognition: um estudo em contabilidade comportamental

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    Raimundo Nonato Lima Filho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo validar a escala Need For Cognition (NFC em estudos em Contabilidade comportamental. Ademais, buscou-se medir possíveis correlações entre o nível de necessidade de cognição e a existência de vieses cognitivos em decisões contábeis e financeiras. Para efetivar o processo de validação completo, foram realizadas duas validações - critério e construto. A análise foi feita mediante a apreciação de uma amostra formada por 128 estudantes de pós-graduação. A técnica estatística utilizada para validação desse teste foi a análise fatorial, por possuir a capacidade de determinar o grau de influência de determinada variável na explicação de um fator, e, para o tratamento dos dados, foi utilizada a regressão logística por possibilitar a explicação de valores em função de valores conhecidos ou de variáveis independentes. Os resultados da validade de construto apontaram a legitimidade do NFC como escala unidimensional, excluindo-se três outputs de sua escala original; já os resultados da validade de critério confirmaram o impacto do nível de cognição na maximização da ocorrência de heurísticas em decisões gerenciais.

  6. Effect of Caffeine on Attention and Alertness Measured in a Home-Setting, Using Web-Based Cognition Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasman, Wilrike J; Boessen, Ruud; Donner, Yoni; Clabbers, Nard; Boorsma, André

    2017-09-07

    There is an increasing interest among nutritional researchers to perform lifestyle and nutritional intervention studies in a home setting instead of testing subjects in a clinical unit. The term used in other disciplines is 'ecological validity' stressing a realistic situation. This becomes more and more feasible because devices and self-tests that enable such studies are more commonly available. Here, we present such a study in which we reproduced the effect of caffeine on attention and alertness in an at-home setting. The study was aimed to reproduce the effect of caffeine on attention and alertness using a Web-based study environment of subjects, at home, performing different Web-based cognition tests. The study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Subjects were provided with coffee sachets (2 with and 2 without caffeine). They were also provided with a written instruction of the test days. Healthy volunteers consumed a cup of coffee after an overnight fast. Each intervention was repeated once. Before and 1 hour after coffee consumption subjects performed Web-based cognitive performance tests at home, which measured alertness and attention, established by 3 computerized tests provided by QuantifiedMind. Each test was performed for 5 minutes. Web-based recruitment was fast and efficient. Within 2 weeks, 102 subjects applied, of whom 70 were eligible. Of the 66 subjects who started the study, 53 completed all 4 test sessions (80%), indicating that they were able to perform the do it yourself tests, at home, correctly. The Go-No Go cognition test performed at home showed the same significant improvement in reaction time with caffeine as found in controlled studies in a metabolic ward (P=.02). For coding and N-back the second block was performed approximately 10% faster. No effect was seen on correctness. The study showed that the effects of caffeine consumption on a cognition test in an at-home setting revealed similar

  7. Using implicit association tests in age-heterogeneous samples: The importance of cognitive abilities and quad model processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Egloff, Boris; Riediger, Michaela

    2017-08-01

    Implicit association tests (IATs) are increasingly used to indirectly assess people's traits, attitudes, or other characteristics. In addition to measuring traits or attitudes, IAT scores also reflect differences in cognitive abilities because scores are based on reaction times (RTs) and errors. As cognitive abilities change with age, questions arise concerning the usage and interpretation of IATs for people of different age. To address these questions, the current study examined how cognitive abilities and cognitive processes (i.e., quad model parameters) contribute to IAT results in a large age-heterogeneous sample. Participants (N = 549; 51% female) in an age-stratified sample (range = 12-88 years) completed different IATs and 2 tasks to assess cognitive processing speed and verbal ability. From the IAT data, D2-scores were computed based on RTs, and quad process parameters (activation of associations, overcoming bias, detection, guessing) were estimated from individual error rates. Substantial IAT scores and quad processes except guessing varied with age. Quad processes AC and D predicted D2-scores of the content-specific IAT. Importantly, the effects of cognitive abilities and quad processes on IAT scores were not significantly moderated by participants' age. These findings suggest that IATs seem suitable for age-heterogeneous studies from adolescence to old age when IATs are constructed and analyzed appropriately, for example with D-scores and process parameters. We offer further insight into how D-scoring controls for method effects in IATs and what IAT scores capture in addition to implicit representations of characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. A test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS: Normative data and psychometric properties

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    Giorgio eArcara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in patients with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2 and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total. Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts’ evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient’s cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The

  9. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined

  10. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined

  11. Cognitive performance of Gottingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin in serum. However, higher levels of triglycerides were observed for minipigs fed the diets with high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose compared to minipigs fed a standard minipig diet. This might explain the observed impairments in spatial cognition. These findings suggest that high dietary intake of both fat and sugar may impair spatial cognition which could be relevant for mental functioning in humans.

  12. A direct test of the influence of nicotine response expectancies on the subjective and cognitive effects of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Juliano, Laura M

    2012-08-01

    Regardless of actual nicotine content, expectations about the nicotine content of a cigarette influence the rewarding subjective effects of smoking, and may even affect cognitive performance. These effects are theorized to be mediated by beliefs about effects of cigarette smoking, or response expectancies. However, few studies have directly manipulated response expectancies. Understanding the effects of such manipulations could improve effectiveness of nicotine-dependence treatments and medications. Using a 2 × 2 between-subjects factorial design, cigarette smokers (N = 80) smoked either a nicotine or a placebo (denicotinized) cigarette crossed with instructions that the cigarette would either enhance or impair cognitive and motor performance. As predicted, participants in the "told enhance" condition reported significantly greater beliefs that nicotine had beneficial effects on performance than those in the "told impair" condition. Compared to those "told impair," those "told enhance" reported more psychological reward, enjoyable physical sensations, and craving reduction from the cigarette, as well as greater motivation to perform well on a cognitive task. Relative to placebo cigarettes, nicotine cigarettes produced greater reports of satisfaction, craving reduction, and dizziness. Smoking a nicotine cigarette produced better performance on the Rapid Visual Information Processing Task, a test of sustained attention; but the expectancy manipulation had no effect. These data suggest that response expectancies can be experimentally manipulated and can influence perceived rewarding effects of cigarette smoking, but do not appear to affect cognitive performance. These findings add to our understanding of the benefits and limitations of expectancy manipulations, both experimentally and as a treatment technique.

  13. Testing a mobile digital cognitive support system for high functioning adolescents with ASD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyori, Miklos; Aagaard, Morten; Kanizsai-Nagy, Ildiko

    HANDS Project is aimed at developing a cognitive support system for high functioning (HF) adolescents with ASD, running on smartphones and PDAs, complemented by a webbased management system. It is designed to teach/facilitate adaptive social behaviours and daily living skills, and is based...... on a detailed understanding of the cognitiveprofile of ASD, and on evidence‐based intervention techniques. Development of the system was based on recurrent interactions of expert groups from persuasive design, child psychiatry,cognitive psychology, (special) education, software development, and intended users...

  14. Age-correction of test scores reduces the validity of mild cognitive impairment in predicting progression to dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hessler

    Full Text Available A phase of mild cognitive impairment (MCI precedes most forms of neurodegenerative dementia. Many definitions of MCI recommend the use of test norms to diagnose cognitive impairment. It is, however, unclear whether the use of norms actually improves the detection of individuals at risk of dementia. Therefore, the effects of age- and education-norms on the validity of test scores in predicting progression to dementia were investigated.Baseline cognitive test scores (Syndrome Short Test of dementia-free participants aged ≥65 were used to predict progression to dementia within three years. Participants were comprehensively examined one, two, and three years after baseline. Test scores were calculated with correction for (1 age and education, (2 education only, (3 age only and (4 without correction. Predictive validity was estimated with Cox proportional hazard regressions. Areas under the curve (AUCs were calculated for the one-, two-, and three-year intervals.82 (15.3% of initially 537 participants, developed dementia. Model coefficients, hazard ratios, and AUCs of all scores were significant (p<0.001. Predictive validity was the lowest with age-corrected scores (-2 log likelihood  = 840.90, model fit χ2 (1  = 144.27, HR  = 1.33, AUCs between 0.73 and 0.87 and the highest with education-corrected scores (-2 log likelihood  = 815.80, model fit χ2 (1  = 171.16, HR  = 1.34, AUCs between 0.85 and 0.88.The predictive validity of test scores is markedly reduced by age-correction. Therefore, definitions of MCI should not recommend the use of age-norms in order to improve the detection of individuals at risk of dementia.

  15. Eye-tracking controlled cognitive function tests in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a controlled proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jürgen; Gorges, Martin; Horn, Hannah T; Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Uttner, Ingo; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2015-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) primarily affects motor and speech abilities. In addition, cognitive functions are impaired in a subset of patients. There is a need to establish an eye movement-based method of neuropsychological assessment suitable for severely physically impaired patients with ALS. Forty-eight ALS patients and thirty-two healthy controls matched for age, sex and education performed a hand and speech motor-free version of the Raven's coloured progressive matrices (CPM) and the D2-test which had been especially adapted for eye-tracking control. Data were compared to a classical motor-dependent paper-pencil version. The association of parameters of the eye-tracking and the paper-pencil version of the tests and the differences between and within groups were studied. Subjects presented similar results in the eye-tracking and the corresponding paper-pencil versions of the CPM and D2-test: a correlation between performance accuracy for the CPM was observed for ALS patients (p < 0.001) and controls (p < 0.001) and in the D2-test for controls (p = 0.048), whereas this correlation did not reach statistical significance for ALS patients (p = 0.096). ALS patients performed worse in the CPM than controls in the eye-tracking (p = 0.053) and the paper-pencil version (p = 0.042). Most importantly, eye-tracking versions of the CPM (p < 0.001) and the D2-test (p = 0.024) reliably distinguished between more and less cognitively impaired patients. Eye-tracking-based neuropsychological testing is a promising approach for assessing cognitive deficits in patients who are unable to speak or write such as patients with severe ALS.

  16. Cognitive Testing in People at Increased Risk of Dementia Using a Smartphone App: The iVitality Proof-of-Principle Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongstra, S.; Wijsman, L.W.; Cachucho, R.; Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.; Mooijaart, S.P.; Richard, E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smartphone-assisted technologies potentially provide the opportunity for large-scale, long-term, repeated monitoring of cognitive functioning at home. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this proof-of-principle study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of performing cognitive tests in people

  17. Intake of flavonoid-rich wine, tea, and chocolate by elderly men and women is associated with better cognitive test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurk, Eha; Refsum, Helga; Drevon, Christian A; Tell, Grethe S; Nygaard, Harald A; Engedal, Knut; Smith, A David

    2009-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we examined the relation between intake of 3 common foodstuffs that contain flavonoids (chocolate, wine, and tea) and cognitive performance. 2031 participants (70-74 y, 55% women) recruited from the population-based Hordaland Health Study in Norway underwent cognitive testing. A cognitive test battery included the Kendrick Object Learning Test, Trail Making Test, part A (TMT-A), modified versions of the Digit Symbol Test, Block Design, Mini-Mental State Examination, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Poor cognitive performance was defined as a score in the highest decile for the TMT-A and in the lowest decile for all other tests. A self-reported FFQ was used to assess habitual food intake. Participants who consumed chocolate, wine, or tea had significantly better mean test scores and lower prevalence of poor cognitive performance than those who did not. Participants who consumed all 3 studied items had the best test scores and the lowest risks for poor test performance. The associations between intake of these foodstuffs and cognition were dose dependent, with maximum effect at intakes of approximately 10 g/d for chocolate and approximately 75-100 mL/d for wine, but approximately linear for tea. Most cognitive functions tested were influenced by intake of these 3 foodstuffs. The effect was most pronounced for wine and modestly weaker for chocolate intake. Thus, in the elderly, a diet high in some flavonoid-rich foods is associated with better performance in several cognitive abilities in a dose-dependent manner.

  18. Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practices Cognitive Dissonance in High Stakes Test-Influenced Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Patricia L.; Wubbena, Zane C.

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, the authors qualitatively investigate, through the theoretical perspective of cognitive dissonance, the relationship between teacher beliefs and their associated teacher practices at two public elementary schools with diverse student populations. They argue that while teachers may hold theoretical beliefs about culturally…

  19. Loneliness in the daily lives of young adults: Testing a socio-cognitive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roekel, G.H. van; Ha, P.T.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Verhagen, M.

    2016-01-01

    A socio-cognitive model of loneliness states that lonely people are characterized by two characteristics, hypersensitivity to social threat and hyposensitivity to social reward. However, these characteristics have not yet been examined in the daily lives of young adults. Therefore, the main aim of t

  20. Loneliness in the Daily Lives of Young Adults : Testing a Socio-cognitive Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

    2016-01-01

    A socio-cognitive model of loneliness states that lonely people are characterized by two characteristics, hypersensitivity to social threat and hyposensitivity to social reward. However, these characteristics have not yet been examined in the daily lives of young adults. Therefore, the main aim of t

  1. Cognitive Learning Styles as Reflected in the Test Makeup of English Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Al-Quran

    2007-01-01

    The cognitive learning style is an indispensable variable in the composite of the teaching-learning process. Pedagogically, it can be useful if instructors explore what type of learners they are in addition to the mode of learning preference their students depict. This can bridge the gap between training and evaluating procedures. The study…

  2. Cancer Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Testing a Biobehavioral/Cognitive Behavior Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Brittany M.; Yang, Hae-Chung; Strunk, Daniel R.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this Phase II trial, we evaluated a novel psychological treatment for depressed patients coping with the stresses of cancer. Effectiveness of a combined biobehavioral intervention (BBI) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was studied. Method: Participants were 36 cancer survivors (mean age = 49 years; 88% Caucasian; 92% female)…

  3. Testing whether reduced cognitive performance in burnout can be reversed by a motivational intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A. van; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Becker, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that the motivation to spend effort is decreased in burnout patients, resulting in reduced cognitive performance. A question that remains is whether this decreased motivation can be reversed by motivational interventions. We investigated this by examining the effect of a

  4. Social Cognitive Model of College Satisfaction: A Test of Measurement and Path Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldt, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined a model that integrates social-cognitive and trait-personality constructs to examine two domains of college satisfaction. Direct and indirect effects were observed for conscientiousness, perception of institutional resources, self-efficacy, and goal progress. Paths differed for personal and institutional satisfaction. Most…

  5. Testing Students under Cognitive Capitalism: Knowledge Production of Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…

  6. Chinese Beliefs in Luck are Linked to Gambling Problems via Strengthened Cognitive Biases: A Mediation Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Matthew S M; Rogers, Robert D

    2017-04-22

    Problematic patterns of gambling and their harms are known to have culturally specific expressions. For ethnic Chinese people, patterns of superstitious belief in this community appear to be linked to the elevated rates of gambling-related harms; however, little is known about the mediating psychological mechanisms. To address this issue, we surveyed 333 Chinese gamblers residing internationally and used a mediation analysis to explore how gambling-related cognitive biases, gambling frequency and variety of gambling forms ('scope') mediate the association between beliefs in luck and gambling problems. We found that cognitive biases and scope were significant mediators of this link but that the former is a stronger mediator than the latter. The mediating erroneous beliefs were not specific to any particular type of cognitive bias. These results suggest that Chinese beliefs in luck are expressed as gambling cognitive biases that increase the likelihood of gambling problems, and that biases that promote gambling (and its harms) are best understood within their socio-cultural context.

  7. Manipulation of Cognitive Load Variables and Impact on Auscultation Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruth; Grierson, Lawrence; Norman, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Health profession educators have identified auscultation skill as a learning need for health professional students. This article explores the application of cognitive load theory (CLT) to designing cardiac and respiratory auscultation skill instruction for senior-level undergraduate nursing students. Three experiments assessed student auscultation…

  8. Exploring Dynamical Assessments of Affect, Behavior, and Cognition and Math State Test Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Pedro, Maria Ofelia Z.; Snow, Erica L.; Baker, Ryan S.; McNamara, Danielle S.; Heffernan, Neil T.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that fine-grained aspects of student performance and interaction within educational software are predictive of long-term learning. Machine learning models have been used to provide assessments of affect, behavior, and cognition based on analyses of system log data, estimating the probability of a student's particular…

  9. Exposure to Music and Cognitive Performance: Tests of Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki; Hunter, Patrick G.; Tamoto, Sachiko

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on two experiments of exposure to music and cognitive performance. In Experiment 1, Canadian undergraduates performed better on an IQ subtest (Symbol Search) after listening to an up-tempo piece of music composed by Mozart in comparison to a slow piece by Albinoni. The effect was evident, however, only when the two pieces also…

  10. Community Violence Exposure and Aggression among Urban Adolescents: Testing a Cognitive Mediator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Susan D.; Felix, Erika D.; Halpert, Jane A.; Petropoulos, Lara A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Past research has shown that exposure to violence leads to aggressive behavior, but few community-based studies have examined theoretical models illustrating the mediating social cognitive processes that explain this relation with youth exposed to high rates of violence. This study examines the impact of community violence on behavior through…

  11. Testing Cognitive and Emotion-Focused Models of Worry in Black and White Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Sarah J; Bakhti, Rinad; Stevens, Kimberly T; Curewitz, Alana

    2015-01-01

    Several models have been proposed to conceptualize worry. Broadly, the models can be classified as cognitive (including the Avoidance Model, the Intolerance of Uncertainty Model, and the Metacognitive Model) and emotion-focused (including Emotion Dysregulation and Acceptance-Based models). Although these models have received strong empirical investigation in primarily non-Hispanic White samples, no known study has examined the applicability to racial and ethnic minority groups. The current study compared the proportion of variance explained by cognitive and emotion-focused models of worry in White and Black samples. Results indicated that cognitive and emotion-focused models significantly predicted worry in both Black and White samples. However, the overall amount of variance in worry explained by the models was less for Black samples. Specifically, controlling for gender, the cognitive models explained 53% of the variance in worry in the White sample compared with 19% in the Black sample. Similarly, the emotion-focused models explained 34% of the variance in worry in the White sample but only 13% in the Black sample. These findings suggest that well-established conceptual frameworks for worry failed to explain the bulk of the variance in worry in Black samples, leaving much unknown. Additional research is needed to identify key variables that may further explain worry in ethnic minority samples.

  12. A Test of Cognitive Dissonance Theory to Explain Parents' Reactions to Youths' Alcohol Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Terese; Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that parents reduce control and support in response to youths' drinking. Why they react this way, however, is still unknown. From cognitive dissonance theory, we derived hypotheses about parents' reactions. We used a longitudinal, school-based sample of 494 youths (13 and 14 years, 56% boys) and their parents. General Linear…

  13. High compliance to computerized tests for assessment of postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, W.F.; van Harten, A.E.; Scheeren, Thomas; Absalom, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Background and Goal of Study: After cardiac surgery many patients experience postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), usually comprising impaired concentration, attention, working memory and executive function. These sometimes subtle defects are usually assessed by neuropsychological examination,

  14. Exposure to Music and Cognitive Performance: Tests of Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki; Hunter, Patrick G.; Tamoto, Sachiko

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on two experiments of exposure to music and cognitive performance. In Experiment 1, Canadian undergraduates performed better on an IQ subtest (Symbol Search) after listening to an up-tempo piece of music composed by Mozart in comparison to a slow piece by Albinoni. The effect was evident, however, only when the two pieces also…

  15. Loneliness in the daily lives of young adults : Testing a socio-cognitive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roekel, E.; Ha, Thao; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

    2016-01-01

    A socio-cognitive model of loneliness states that lonely people are characterized by two characteristics, hypersensitivity to social threat and hyposensitivity to social reward. However, these characteristics have not yet been examined in the daily lives of young adults. Therefore, the main aim of t

  16. No evidence for bilingual cognitive advantages: A test of four hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bastian, Claudia C; Souza, Alessandra S; Gade, Miriam

    2016-02-01

    The question whether being bilingual yields cognitive benefits is highly controversial with prior studies providing inconsistent results. Failures to replicate the bilingual advantage have been attributed to methodological factors such as comparing dichotomous groups and measuring cognitive abilities separately with single tasks. Therefore, the authors evaluated the 4 most prominent hypotheses of bilingual advantages for inhibitory control, conflict monitoring, shifting, and general cognitive performance by assessing bilingualism on 3 continuous dimensions (age of acquisition, proficiency, and usage) in a sample of 118 young adults and relating it to 9 cognitive abilities each measured by multiple tasks. Linear mixed-effects models accounting for multiple sources of variance simultaneously and controlling for parents' education as an index of socioeconomic status revealed no evidence for any of the 4 hypotheses. Hence, the authors' results suggest that bilingual benefits are not as broad and as robust as has been previously claimed. Instead, earlier effects were possibly due to task-specific effects in selective and often small samples.

  17. Testing Social Cognitive Interest and Choice Hypotheses across Holland Types in Italian High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steven D.; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore

    2003-01-01

    Italian high school students (n=796) completed measures related to Social Cognitive Career Theory and Holland's personality types. Findings supported hypotheses that self-efficacy and outcome expectations predict interests. Whether the mediation effect of interests was full or partial varied across types. Social supports/barriers related to career…

  18. Testing Students under Cognitive Capitalism: Knowledge Production of Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…

  19. Testing Social Cognitive Theory as a Theoretical Framework to Predict Smoking Relapse among Daily Smoking Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zundert, R.M.P. van; Nijhof, L.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Predictors of adolescent smoking relapse are largely unknown, since studies either focus on relapse among adults, or address (long-term) smoking cessation but not relapse. In the present study, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) was used as a theoretical framework to examine the first and second lapses,

  20. The use of cognitive cues for anticipatory strategies in a dynamic postural control task - validation of a novel approach to dual-task testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Grarup, Bo; Bangshaab, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dual-task testing is relevant in the assessment of postural control. A combination of a primary (motor) and a secondary (distracting cognitive) tasks is most often used. It remains a challenge however, to standardize and monitor the cognitive task. In this study a new dual......-task testing approach with a facilitating, rather than distracting, cognitive component was evaluated. Methods: Thirty-one community-dwelling elderly and fifteen young people were tested with respect to their ability to use anticipatory postural control strategies. The motor task consisted of twenty...... two sessions. Conclusion: The dual-task test was sensitive enough to discriminate between elderly and young people. It revealed that the elderly did not utilize cognitive cues for their anticipatory postural control strategies as well as the young were able to. The test procedure was feasible...

  1. Assessment of individual cognitive changes after deep brain stimulation surgery in Parkinson's disease using the Neuropsychological Test Battery Vienna short version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foki, Thomas; Hitzl, Daniela; Pirker, Walter; Novak, Klaus; Pusswald, Gisela; Auff, Eduard; Lehrner, Johann

    2017-02-07

    Long-term therapy of Parkinson's disease with L‑DOPA is associated with a high risk of developing motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can improve these motor complications. Although the positive effect on motor symptoms has been proven, postoperative cognitive decline has been documented. To tackle the impact of DBS on cognition, 18 DBS patients were compared to 25 best medically treated Parkinson's patients, 24 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 12 healthy controls using the Neuropsychological Test Battery Vienna short version (NTBV-short) for cognitive outcome 12 months after the first examination. Reliable change index methodology was used. Roughly 10% of DBS patients showed cognitive decline mainly affecting the domains attention and executive functioning (phonemic fluency). Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms that lead to improvement or deterioration of cognitive functions in individual cases.

  2. Cognitive performance of Göttingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Klein, Anders Bue; Ettrup, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate....../sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired...... by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin...

  3. The effect of failure on cognitive and psychological symptom validity tests in litigants with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demakis, George J; Gervais, Roger O; Rohling, Martin L

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the influence of performance on cognitive and psychological symptom validity tests on neuropsychological and psychological test performance in claimants evaluated in a medico-legal context (N = 301) with symptoms of PTSD. A second purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the severity of PTSD symptoms on cognitive test performance after excluding patients who failed to put forth adequate best effort and who exaggerated psychiatric symptoms. Patients were administered a battery of neuropsychological measures that were aggregated into a composite measure, the Cognitive-Test Battery Mean (C-TBM). Patients were also administered a battery of psychological tests that were aggregated into another composite measure, the Psychological-Test Battery Mean (P-TBM). We found that failure on cognitive symptom validity tests was associated with significantly poorer neuropsychological functioning, but there was not a significant effect on psychological symptoms. Conversely, failure on psychological symptom validity tests was associated with higher levels of psychopathology, but there was not a significant effect on cognitive ability. Finally, once patients were screened for adequate effort and genuine symptom reporting, the severity of PTSD symptoms did not appear to influence cognitive ability. This is the first study that assessed both types of symptom validity testing in PTSD claimants, which is important given that previous literature has demonstrated cognitive impairment in PTSD and that individuals with PTSD tend to claim cognitive impairment. Implications of these findings are discussed with regard to the existing literature and the relationship between these two types of symptom validity tests.

  4. DWI and complex brain network analysis predicts vascular cognitive impairment in spontaneous hypertensive rats undergoing executive function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gil, Xavier; Amat-Roldan, Iván; Tudela, Raúl; Castañé, Anna; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Planas, Anna M.; Farr, Tracy D.; Soria, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers of vascular cognitive impairment is urgent for its early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to detect and monitor changes in brain structure and connectivity, and to correlate them with the decline in executive function. We examined the feasibility of early diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to predict cognitive impairment before onset in an animal model of chronic hypertension: Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Cognitive performance was tested in an operant conditioning paradigm that evaluated learning, memory, and behavioral flexibility skills. Behavioral tests were coupled with longitudinal diffusion weighted imaging acquired with 126 diffusion gradient directions and 0.3 mm3 isometric resolution at 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, and 40 weeks after birth. Diffusion weighted imaging was analyzed in two different ways, by regional characterization of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices, and by assessing changes in structural brain network organization based on Q-Ball tractography. Already at the first evaluated times, DTI scalar maps revealed significant differences in many regions, suggesting loss of integrity in white and gray matter of spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared to normotensive control rats. In addition, graph theory analysis of the structural brain network demonstrated a significant decrease of hierarchical modularity, global and local efficacy, with predictive value as shown by regional three-fold cross validation study. Moreover, these decreases were significantly correlated with the behavioral performance deficits observed at subsequent time points, suggesting that the diffusion weighted imaging and connectivity studies can unravel neuroimaging alterations even overt signs of cognitive impairment become apparent. PMID:25100993

  5. DWI and complex brain network analysis predicts vascular cognitive impairment in spontaneous hypertensive rats undergoing executive function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eLópez-Gil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of biomarkers of vascular cognitive impairment is urgent for its early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to detect and monitor changes in brain structure and connectivity, and to correlate them with the decline in executive function. We examined the feasibility of early diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging to predict cognitive impairment before onset in an animal model of chronic hypertension: Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Cognitive performance was tested in an operant conditioning paradigm that evaluated learning, memory and behavioral flexibility skills. Behavioral tests were coupled with longitudinal diffusion weighted imaging acquired with 126 diffusion gradient directions and 0.3 mm3 isometric resolution at 10, 14, 18, 22, 26 and 40 weeks after birth. Diffusion weighted imaging was analyzed in 2 different ways, by regional characterization of diffusion tensor imaging indices, and by assessing changes in structural brain network organization based on Q-Ball tractography. Already at the first evaluated times, diffusion tensor imaging scalar maps revealed significant differences in many regions, suggesting loss of integrity in white and grey matter of spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared to normotensive control rats. In addition, graph theory analysis of the structural brain network demonstrated a significant decrease of hierarchical modularity, global and local efficacy, with predictive value as shown by regional 3-fold cross validation study. Moreover, these decreases were significantly correlated with the behavioral performance deficits observed at subsequent time points, suggesting that the diffusion weighted imaging and connectivity studies can unravel neuroimaging alterations even overt signs of cognitive impairment become apparent.

  6. The RAPID-II Neuropsychological Test battery for subjects aged 20 to 49 years: Norms and cognitive profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetruy, M; Mauny, F; Lavaux, M; Meyer, A; Sylvestre, G; Puyraveau, M; Berger, E; Magnin, E; Vandel, P; Galmiche, J; Chopard, G

    2017-06-30

    Cognitive evaluation of young subjects is now widely carried out for non-traumatic diseases such as multiple sclerosis, HIV, or sleep disorders. This evaluation requires normative data based on healthy adult samples. However, most clinicians use a set of tests that were normed in an isolated manner from different samples using different cutoff criteria. Thus, the score of an individual may be considered either normal or impaired according to the norms used. It is well established that healthy adults obtained low-test scores when a battery of tests is administered. Thus, the knowledge of low base rates is required so as to minimize false diagnosis of cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was twofold (1) to provide normative data for RAPID-II battery in healthy adults, and (2) estimate the proportion of healthy adults having low scores across this battery. Norms for the 44 test scores of the RAPID-II test battery were developed using the overall sample of 335 individuals based on three categories of age (20 to 29, 30 to 39, and 40 to 49 years) and two educational levels: Baccalaureate or higher educational degree (high educational level), lower than baccalaureate (low educational level). The 5th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles were calculated from the six age and education subsamples and used to define norms. The frequency of low scores on the RAPID-II battery was calculated by simultaneously examining the performance of 33 primary scores. A low score was defined as less than or equal to the 5th percentile drawn from the six age and education normative subsamples. In addition, the percentages of low scores were also determined when all possible combinations of two-test scores across the RAPID-II were considered in the overall normative sample. Our data showed that 59.4% subjects of the normative sample obtained at least one or more low score. With more than 9 test scores, this percentage was equal to 0% in the normative sample. Among all combinations of two-test

  7. The effects of monitoring and ability to achieve cognitive structure on the psychological distress during HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Eileen; O'Brien, William H

    2009-10-01

    Many people undergoing HIV testing experience substantial psychological distress. The psychological distress associated with testing may be influenced by monitoring. Monitoring refers to a strategy wherein a person tends to seek out information concerning threatening events. Furthermore, the ability to achieve cognitive structure (AACS) may influence the relationship between monitoring and psychological distress. The present study examined individuals who were undergoing HIV testing. Specifically, the researchers examined the association among monitoring and AACS on psychological distress during HIV testing. Results indicated that there was no interaction between monitoring and AACS on psychological distress. It was found that AACS was related to participants' level of psychological distress. However, the level of monitoring was not related to participants' psychological distress. Limitations of the study, clinical implications and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

  8. Differential validity for cognitive ability tests in employment and educational settings: not much more than range restriction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Philip L; Le, Huy; Oh, In-Sue; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Buster, Maury A; Robbins, Steve B; Campion, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The concept of differential validity suggests that cognitive ability tests are associated with varying levels of validity across ethnic groups, such that validity is lower in certain ethnic subgroups than in others. A recent meta-analysis has revived the viability of this concept. Unfortunately, data were not available in this meta-analysis to correct for range restriction within ethnic groups. We reviewed the differential validity literature and conducted 4 studies. In Study 1, we empirically demonstrated that using a cognitive ability test with a common cutoff decreases variance in test scores of Black subgroup samples more than in White samples. In Study 2, we developed a simulation that examined the effects of range restriction on estimates of differential validity. Results demonstrated that different levels of range restriction for subgroups can explain the apparent observed differential validity results in employment and educational settings (but not military settings) when no differential validity exists in the population. In Study 3, we conducted a simulation in which we examined how one corrects for range restriction affects the accuracy of these corrections. Results suggest that the correction approach using a common range restriction ratio for various subgroups may create or perpetuate the illusion of differential validity and that corrections are most accurate when done within each subgroup. Finally, in Study 4, we conducted a simulation in which we assumed differential validity in the population. We found that range restriction artificially increased the size of observed differential validity estimates when the validity of cognitive ability tests was assumed to be higher among Whites. Overall, we suggest that the concept of differential validity may be largely artifactual and current data are not definitive enough to suggest such effects exist.

  9. Are we there yet? Exploring the impact of translating cognitive tests for dementia using mobile technology in an ageing population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eRuggeri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines implications of the expanded use of mobile platforms in testing cognitive function, and generates evidence on the impact utilizing mobile platforms for dementia screen. The Saint Louis University Mental State examination (SLUMS was ported onto a computerized mobile application named the Cambridge University Pen to Digital Equivalence assessment (CUPDE. CUPDE was piloted and compared to the traditional pen and paper version, with a common comparator test for both groups. Sixty healthy participants (aged 50 to 79 completed both measurements. Differences were tested between overall outcomes, individual items, and relationship with the comparator. Significant differences in the overall scores between the two testing versions as well as within individual items were observed. Even when groups were matched by cognitive function and age, scores on SLUMS original version (M = 19.75, SD = 3 were significantly higher than those on CUPDE (M = 15.88, SD = 3.5, t (15 = 3.02, p < .01. Mobile platforms require the development of new normative standards, even when items can be directly translated. Furthermore, these must fit ageing populations with significant variance in familiarity with mobile technology. Greater understanding of the interplay and related mechanisms between auditory and visual systems, which are not well understood yet in the context of mobile technologies, is mandatory.

  10. Are We There Yet? Exploring the Impact of Translating Cognitive Tests for Dementia Using Mobile Technology in an Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Kai; Maguire, Áine; Andrews, Jack L; Martin, Eric; Menon, Shantanu

    2016-01-01

    This study examines implications of the expanded use of mobile platforms in testing cognitive function, and generates evidence on the impact utilizing mobile platforms for dementia screen. The Saint Louis University Mental State examination (SLUMS) was ported onto a computerized mobile application named the Cambridge University Pen to Digital Equivalence assessment (CUPDE). CUPDE was piloted and compared to the traditional pen and paper version, with a common comparator test for both groups. Sixty healthy participants (aged 50-79) completed both measurements. Differences were tested between overall outcomes, individual items, and relationship with the comparator. Significant differences in the overall scores between the two testing versions as well as within individual items were observed. Even when groups were matched by cognitive function and age, scores on SLUMS original version (M = 19.75, SD = 3) were significantly higher than those on CUPDE (M = 15.88, SD = 3.5), t (15) = 3.02, p Mobile platforms require the development of new normative standards, even when items can be directly translated. Furthermore, these must fit aging populations with significant variance in familiarity with mobile technology. Greater understanding of the interplay and related mechanisms between auditory and visual systems, which are not well understood yet in the context of mobile technologies, is mandatory.

  11. Stress, Cognitive Appraisal and Psychological Health: Testing Instruments for Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A Rui; Teixeira, Pedro M

    2016-04-01

    The job of health professionals, including nurses, is considered inherently stressful, and thus, it is important to improve and develop specific measures that are sensitive to the demands that health professionals face. This study analysed the psychometric properties of three instruments that focus on the professional experiences of nurses in aspects related to occupational stress, cognitive appraisal and mental health issues. The evaluation protocol included the Stress Questionnaire for Health Professionals (SQHP), the Cognitive Appraisal Scale (CAS) and the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). Validity and reliability issues were considered with statistical analysis (i.e., confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity and composite reliability) that revealed adequate values for all of the instruments, namely a six-factor structure for the SQHP, a five-factor structure for the CAS and a two-factor structure for the GHQ-12. In conclusion, this study proposes three consistent instruments that may be useful for analysing nurses' adaptation to work contexts.

  12. Prediction of job search intentions and behaviors: Testing the social cognitive model of career self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Robert H; Lent, Robert W; Penn, Lee T

    2016-10-01

    We present 2 studies testing the recently developed social-cognitive model of career self-management (Lent & Brown, 2013) in the context of the job search process. In the first study, a sample of 243 unemployed job seekers completed measures of job search self-efficacy, outcome expectations, social support, search intentions, conscientiousness, and perceived control (or volition) over the outcomes of the job search. The latter variable was added to the social-cognitive model to examine the possibility, derived from the psychology of working perspective, that perceived volition might moderate the relation of self-efficacy to job search intentions. The second study included 240 graduating college seniors and focused on the utility of the social-cognitive, personality, and perceived outcome control variables in predicting active engagement in the job search process. Path analyses indicated that the model generally fit the data well in both studies. In Study 1, self-efficacy and outcome expectations mediated the relations of the other predictors to job search intentions. In Study 2, job search intentions produced the primary direct path to subsequent job search behaviors; conscientiousness, support, and outcome control related to job search behavior indirectly through self-efficacy and its linkage to intentions. Outcome control moderated self-efficacy/intention relations only in Study 2, and the pattern of moderation was contrary to expectations. Implications for further inquiry and practice with job seekers are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Over-the-Air Testing of Cognitive Radio Nodes in a Virtual Electromagnetic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Sharma

    2013-01-01

    a multiuser scenario. Although MIMO-OTA testing addresses many limitations of single antenna-conducted test systems, more dimensions and parameters to be addressed in the new scenarios imply further increase in cost and complexity. Closed-loop OTA test setups for CR evaluation are discussed along with an overview of other test scenarios.

  14. Are Cognitive "g" and Academic Achievement "g" One and the Same "g"? An Exploration on the Woodcock-Johnson and Kaufman Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Liu, Xin; Kaufman, Alan S.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the degree to which the conventional notion of g associated with IQ tests and general cognitive ability tests ("COG-g") relate to the general ability that underlies tests of reading, math, and writing achievement ("ACH-g"). Two large, nationally representative data sets and two independent individually-administered set of test…

  15. Are Cognitive "g" and Academic Achievement "g" One and the Same "g"? An Exploration on the Woodcock-Johnson and Kaufman Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Liu, Xin; Kaufman, Alan S.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the degree to which the conventional notion of g associated with IQ tests and general cognitive ability tests ("COG-g") relate to the general ability that underlies tests of reading, math, and writing achievement ("ACH-g"). Two large, nationally representative data sets and two independent individually-administered…

  16. Are Cognitive "g" and Academic Achievement "g" One and the Same "g"? An Exploration on the Woodcock-Johnson and Kaufman Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Liu, Xin; Kaufman, Alan S.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the degree to which the conventional notion of g associated with IQ tests and general cognitive ability tests ("COG-g") relate to the general ability that underlies tests of reading, math, and writing achievement ("ACH-g"). Two large, nationally representative data sets and two independent individually-administered…

  17. Inefficient cognitive control in adult ADHD: evidence from trial-by-trial Stroop test and cued task switching performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuser Isabella

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contemporary neuropsychological models of ADHD implicate impaired cognitive control as contributing to disorder characteristic behavioral deficiencies and excesses; albeit to varying degrees. While the traditional view of ADHD postulates a core deficiency in cognitive control processes, alternative dual-process models emphasize the dynamic interplay of bottom-up driven factors such as activation, arousal, alerting, motivation, reward and temporal processing with top-down cognitive control. However, neuropsychological models of ADHD are child-based and have yet to undergo extensive empirical scrutiny with respect to their application to individuals with persistent symptoms in adulthood. Furthermore, few studies of adult ADHD samples have investigated two central cognitive control processes: interference control and task-set coordination. The current study employed experimental chronometric Stroop and task switching paradigms to investigate the efficiency of processes involved in interference control and task-set coordination in ADHD adults. Methods 22 adults diagnosed with persistent ADHD (17 males and 22 matched healthy control subjects performed a manual trial-by-trial Stroop color-word test and a blocked explicitly cued task switching paradigm. Performance differences between neutral and incongruent trials of the Stroop task measured interference control. Task switching paradigm manipulations allowed for measurement of transient task-set updating, sustained task-set maintenance, preparatory mechanisms and interference control. Control analyses tested for the specificity of group × condition interactions. Results Abnormal processing of task-irrelevant stimulus features was evident in ADHD group performance on both tasks. ADHD group interference effects on the task switching paradigm were found to be dependent on the time allotted to prepare for an upcoming task. Group differences in sustained task-set maintenance and

  18. A Test of Social Cognitive Theory to Explain Men's Physical Activity During a Gender-Tailored Weight Loss Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Myles D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-11-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading contributor to the burden of disease in men. Social-cognitive theories may improve physical activity (PA) interventions by identifying which variables to target to maximize intervention impact. This study tested the utility of Bandura's social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain men's PA during a 3-month weight loss program. Participants were 204 overweight/obese men (M [SD] age = 46.6 [11.3] years; body mass index = 33.1 [3.5] kg/m(2)). A longitudinal, latent variable structural equation model tested the associations between SCT constructs (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectations, intention, and social support) and self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and examined the total PA variance explained by SCT. After controlling for Time 1 cognitions and behavior, the model fit the data well (χ(2) = 73.9, degrees of freedom = 39, p < .001; normed χ(2) = 1.9; comparative fit index = 0.96; standardized root mean residual = 0.059) and explained 65% of the variance in MVPA at Time 2. At Time 2, self-efficacy demonstrated the largest direct and total effects on MVPA (βdirect = .45, p < .001; βtotal = .67, p = .002). A small-to-medium effect was observed from intention to MVPA, but not from outcome expectations or social support. This study provides some evidence supporting the tenets of SCT when examining PA behavior in overweight and obese men. Future PA and weight loss interventions for men may benefit by targeting self-efficacy and intention, but the utility of targeting social support and outcome expectations requires further examination.

  19. Hope for the best or prepare for the worst? Towards a spatial cognitive bias test for mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloke, Vanessa; Schreiber, Rebecca S; Bodden, Carina; Möllers, Julian; Ruhmann, Hanna; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert; Lewejohann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive bias, the altered information processing resulting from the background emotional state of an individual, has been suggested as a promising new indicator of animal emotion. Comparable to anxious or depressed humans, animals in a putatively negative emotional state are more likely to judge an ambiguous stimulus as if it predicts a negative event, than those in positive states. The present study aimed to establish a cognitive bias test for mice based on a spatial judgment task and to apply it in a pilot study to serotonin transporter (5-HTT) knockout mice, a well-established mouse model for the study of anxiety- and depression-related behavior. In a first step, we validated that our setup can assess different expectations about the outcome of an ambiguous stimulus: mice having learned to expect something positive within a maze differed significantly in their behavior towards an unfamiliar location than animals having learned to expect something negative. In a second step, the use of spatial location as a discriminatory stimulus was confirmed by showing that mice interpret an ambiguous stimulus depending on its spatial location, with a position exactly midway between a positive and a negative reference point provoking the highest level of ambiguity. Finally, the anxiety- and depression-like phenotype of the 5-HTT knockout mouse model manifested--comparable to human conditions--in a trend for a negatively distorted interpretation of ambiguous information, albeit this effect was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the present cognitive bias test provides a useful basis to study the emotional state in mice, which may not only increase the translational value of animal models in the study of human affective disorders, but which is also a central objective of animal welfare research.

  20. Determinants of common mental disorder, alcohol use disorder and cognitive morbidity among people coming for HIV testing in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayston, Rosie; Patel, Vikram; Abas, Melanie; Korgaonkar, Priya; Paranjape, Ramesh; Rodrigues, Savio; Prince, Martin

    2015-03-01

    To investigate associations between background characteristics (psychosocial adversity, risk behaviours/perception of risk and HIV-related knowledge, perceptions and beliefs) and psychological and cognitive morbidity among people coming for testing for HIV/AIDS in Goa, India. Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data (plus HIV status) from a prospective cohort study. Participants were recruited at the time of coming for HIV testing. Consistent with associations found among general population samples, among our sample of 1934 participants, we found that indicators of psychosocial adversity were associated with CMD (common mental disorder - major depression, generalised anxiety and panic disorder) among people coming for testing for HIV. Similarly, perpetration of intimate partner violence was associated with AUD (alcohol use disorder). Two STI symptoms were associated with CMD, and sex with a non-primary partner was associated with AUD. Suboptimal knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention was associated with low cognitive test scores. In contrast with other studies, we found no evidence of any association between stigma and CMD. There was no evidence of modification of associations by HIV status. Among people coming for testing for HIV/AIDS in Goa, India, we found that CMD occurred in the context of social and economic stressors (violence, symptoms of STI, poor education and food insecurity) and AUD was associated with violence and risky sexual behaviour. Further research is necessary to understand the role of gender, stigma and social norms in determining the relationship between sexual and mental health. Understanding associations between these background characteristics and psychological morbidity may help inform the design of appropriate early interventions for depression among people newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Distinguishing between autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by using behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and neuropsychological test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Naomi; Ishitobi, Makoto; Arai, Sumiyoshi; Kawamura, Kaori; Asano, Mizuki; Inohara, Keisuke; Narimoto, Tadamasa; Wada, Yuji; Hiratani, Michio; Kosaka, Hirotaka

    2014-12-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share many common symptoms, including attention deficit, behavioral problems, and difficulties with social skills. The aim of this study was to distinguish between ASD and ADHD by identifying the characteristic features of both the disorders, by using multidimensional assessments, including screening behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and comprehensive neurological battery. After screening for comorbid disorders, we carefully selected age-, sex-, IQ-, and socio-economic status-matched children with typical development (TD). In the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, a lower score was observed for the ASD group than for the TD group in Picture concept, which is a subscale of perceptual reasoning. A lower score was shown by the ADHD group than by the TD group in the spatial working memory test in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB(®)). Although ASD and ADHD have many similar symptoms, they can be differentiated by focusing on the behavioral and cognitive characteristics of executive function.

  2. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant in Cognitively Impaired Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Braverman

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19-90 years displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54, 57.14% central atrophy (N=88, and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69. A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740 was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115. Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787. In the centrum semiovale (CS, reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622. Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002. Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064. Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165. Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087. In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740; high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417; and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166. Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294: the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  3. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant) in Cognitively Impaired Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Eric R.; Blum, Kenneth; Hussman, Karl L.; Han, David; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Marin, Gabriela; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.; Smayda, Richard; Gold, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19–90 years) displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54), 57.14% central atrophy (N=88), and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69). A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III) scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740) was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115). Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787). In the centrum semiovale (CS), reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622). Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002). Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064). Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165). Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087). In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740); high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417); and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166). Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294): the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  4. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant) in Cognitively Impaired Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Eric R; Blum, Kenneth; Hussman, Karl L; Han, David; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Marin, Gabriela; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Smayda, Richard; Gold, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19-90 years) displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54), 57.14% central atrophy (N=88), and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69). A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III) scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740) was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115). Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787). In the centrum semiovale (CS), reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622). Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002). Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064). Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165). Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087). In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740); high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417); and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166). Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294): the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  5. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Cognitive Assessment of Prefrontal Executive Functions: A Critical Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhus, Erika; Barcelo, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    For over four decades the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) has been one of the most distinctive tests of prefrontal function. Clinical research and recent brain imaging have brought into question the validity and specificity of this test as a marker of frontal dysfunction. Clinical studies with neurological patients have confirmed that, in its…

  6. Measuring Mindreading: A Review of Behavioral Approaches to Testing Cognitive and Affective Mental State Attribution in Neurologically Typical Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rose; Felisberti, Fatima M.

    2017-01-01

    Mindreading refers to the ability to attribute mental states, including thoughts, intentions and emotions, to oneself and others, and is essential for navigating the social world. Empirical mindreading research has predominantly featured children, groups with autism spectrum disorder and clinical samples, and many standard tasks suffer ceiling effects with neurologically typical (NT) adults. We first outline a case for studying mindreading in NT adults and proceed to review tests of emotion perception, cognitive and affective mentalizing, and multidimensional tasks combining these facets. We focus on selected examples of core experimental paradigms including emotion recognition tests, social vignettes, narrative fiction (prose and film) and participative interaction (in real and virtual worlds), highlighting challenges for studies with NT adult cohorts. We conclude that naturalistic, multidimensional approaches may be productively applied alongside traditional tasks to facilitate a more nuanced picture of mindreading in adulthood, and to ensure construct validity whilst remaining sensitive to variation at the upper echelons of the ability. PMID:28174552

  7. Measuring Mindreading: A Review of Behavioral Approaches to Testing Cognitive and Affective Mental State Attribution in Neurologically Typical Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rose; Felisberti, Fatima M

    2017-01-01

    Mindreading refers to the ability to attribute mental states, including thoughts, intentions and emotions, to oneself and others, and is essential for navigating the social world. Empirical mindreading research has predominantly featured children, groups with autism spectrum disorder and clinical samples, and many standard tasks suffer ceiling effects with neurologically typical (NT) adults. We first outline a case for studying mindreading in NT adults and proceed to review tests of emotion perception, cognitive and affective mentalizing, and multidimensional tasks combining these facets. We focus on selected examples of core experimental paradigms including emotion recognition tests, social vignettes, narrative fiction (prose and film) and participative interaction (in real and virtual worlds), highlighting challenges for studies with NT adult cohorts. We conclude that naturalistic, multidimensional approaches may be productively applied alongside traditional tasks to facilitate a more nuanced picture of mindreading in adulthood, and to ensure construct validity whilst remaining sensitive to variation at the upper echelons of the ability.

  8. A novel useful tool of computerized touch panel-type screening test for evaluating cognitive function of chronic ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Kentaro; Kono, Syoichiro; Deguchi, Shoko; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Kurata, Tomoko; Ikeda, Yoshio; Abe, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive and affective impairments are important non-motor features of ischemic stroke (IS) related to white-matter hyperintensity, including periventricular hyperintensity (PVH). To confirm the usefulness of a novel computerized touch panel-type screening test, we investigated cognitive and affective functioning among 142 IS patients and 105 age-and gender-matched normal control subjects. Assessment using the mini-mental state examination, Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, and frontal assessment battery revealed reduced cognitive function in IS patients, with the most severe reduction exhibited by cardiogenic embolism patients, followed by lacunar infarction patients, and atherothrombotic infarction patients. Our novel touch panel screening test revealed a similar pattern of results. In addition, PVH grading, classified using Fazekas' magnetic resonance imaging method, was also correlated with cognitive decline and touch panel screening test performance. In contrast, affective function, assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, vitality index, and apathy scale, was not significantly decreased in IS, and did not correlate with touch panel screening test results or PVH, although the number of microbleeds was correlated with apathy scale results. The present findings revealed that IS and PVH grading were significantly correlated with decline in general cognitive status (mini-mental state examination and Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised) and frontal lobe function (frontal assessment battery). Performance on all touch panel screening tests was correlated with IS and PVH grading, but was largely independent of depression or apathy. Touch panel screening tests were easily understood and performed by almost all patients with mild cognitive and motor dysfunction, due to visually clear images and simple methods not involving detailed manual-handling tasks such as writing. Touch panel screening tests may provide a useful tool for the early screening of cognitive

  9. Using UV photography to reduce use of tanning booths: a test of cognitive mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Lane, David J; Mahler, Heike I M; Kulik, James A

    2005-07-01

    Two laboratory studies were conducted in which a new type of intervention was used to reduce ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure from tanning booth use among college students (Time 1 Ns=70 and 134). The intervention uses UV photography to highlight the damage to facial skin caused by previous UV exposure. When the authors controlled for baseline measures of booth use, students in both studies who viewed their UV photographs reported less booth use at a follow-up session 3-4 weeks later than did students not shown a copy of their photograph. Also, in both studies, the decline in use was significantly mediated by a Tanning Cognition Index composed of variables suggested by the prototype-willingness (prototype) model of health risk: tanning attitudes, tanner prototypes, and willingness to engage in risky UV exposure.

  10. Capturing and testing perceptual-cognitive expertise: a comparison of stationary and movement response methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, André; Williams, A Mark; Ford, Paul R

    2014-03-01

    Numerous methods have been used to study expertise and performance. In the present article, we compare the cognitive thought processes of skilled soccer players when responding to film-based simulations of defensive situations involving two different experimental conditions. Participants either remained stationary in a seated position (n = 10) or were allowed to move (n = 10) in response to life-size film sequences of 11 versus 11 open-play soccer situations viewed from a player's perspective. Response accuracy and retrospective verbal reports of thinking were collected across the two task conditions. In the movement-based response group, participants generated a greater number of verbal report statements, including a higher proportion of evaluation, prediction, and action planning statements, than did participants in the stationary group. Findings suggest that the processing strategies employed during performance differ depending on the nature of the response required of participants. Implications for behavioral methods and experimental design are discussed.

  11. A New App for At-Home Cognitive Training: Description and Pilot Testing on Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchino, Andrea; Pedullà, Ludovico; Bonzano, Laura; Vassallo, Claudio; Battaglia, Mario Alberto; Mancardi, Gianluigi; Bove, Marco; Brichetto, Giampaolo

    2015-08-31

    Cognitive impairment is common in people with neurological diseases and severely affects their social and professional life. It has been shown that intensive and personalized cognitive rehabilitation (CR), based on working memory exercises, leads to improved cognitive status of healthy and cognitive-impaired subjects. New technologies would help to promote accessible, at-home, and self-managed CR interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe the design of Cognitive Training Kit (COGNI-TRAcK), an app for mobile devices, to self-administer an at-home, intensive, and personalized CR intervention based on working memory exercises, and test its disposability-to-use (usability, motivation to use, compliance to treatment) on cognitive-impaired patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). COGNI-TRAcK includes user-friendly interfaces for personal data input and management and for CR intervention configurations. Inner routines automatically implement adaptive working load algorithms and allow data processing and analysis. A dedicated team developed COGNI-TRAcK with C# programming language, by using the platform Xamarin Studio 4.0.10 for Android (API level 15 and following). Three exercises based on working memory are now available. To assess the disposability-to-use of the system, patients with MS were selected as likely users due to the young age of disease onset. Cognitive-impaired patients with MS (N=16) with a mean age of 49.06 years (SD 9.10) and a mean score of 3.75 (SD 1.92) on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) were submitted to an 8-week at-home intervention administered by the app. The intervention consisted of 5 daily scheduled 30-minute sessions per week. Disposability-to-use of COGNI-TRAcK was investigated by means of a questionnaire administered to patients at the end of the training. The adherence to the treatment was 84% (33.4/40). Of the patients with MS, 94% (15/16) understood the instructions given, 100% (16/16) felt independent to use COGNI

  12. A test of cognitive mediation in a 12-month physical activity workplace intervention: does it explain behaviour change in women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering Michael A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity (PA have been mixed. Further, studies are seldom designed in a manner that facilitates the understanding of how or why a treatment is effective or ineffective and PA intervention designs should be guided by a heavier reliance upon behavioral theory. The use of a mediating variable framework offers a systematic methodological approach to testing the role of theory, and could also identify the effectiveness of specific intervention components. The primary purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role that cognitive constructs may have played in regards to the positive effect that a workplace behavioral intervention had on leisure-time PA for women. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the cross-sectional relationships of these cognitive constructs with PA behavior. Methods The Physical Activity Workplace Study was a randomized controlled trial which compared the effects of stage-matched and standard print materials upon self-reported leisure-time PA, within a workplace sample at 6 and 12-months. In this secondary analysis we examined the mediation effects of 14 psychosocial constructs across 3 major social-cognitive theories which were operationalized for the intervention materials and measured at baseline, 6 and 12-months. We examined change in PA and change in the psychological constructs employing a mediation strategy proposed by Baron and Kenny for: (1 the first 6-months (i.e., initial change, (2 the second 6-months (i.e., delayed change, and (3 the entire 12-months (overall change of the study on 323 women (n = 213 control/standard materials group; n = 110 stage-matched materials group. Results Of the 14 constructs and 42 tests (including initial, delayed and overall change two positive results were identified (i.e., overall change in pros, initial change in experiential powerful intervention approaches processes, with very

  13. Validation of the Spanish-language version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test in adults older than 60 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, C; Araneda, A; Behrens, M I

    2017-03-30

    Few studies have validated the Spanish-language version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-S) test in Latin American populations. To evaluate the psychometric properties and discriminant validity of the MoCA-S in elderly patients in Santiago de Chile. 172 individuals were grouped according to their clinical diagnosis based on the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale as follows: amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; n±24), non-amnestic MCI (naMCI; n±24), mild dementia (n±20), and cognitively normal (n±104). Participants were evaluated with both the MoCA-S and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to determine the discriminant validity of the MoCA-S. Mean age and years of schooling were 73±6 and 11±4 years, respectively, with no significant intergroup differences. The MoCA-S displayed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α: 0.772), high inter-rater reliability (Spearman correlation coefficient: 0.846; P<.01), and high intra-rater reliability (test-retest reliability coefficient: 0.922; P<.001). The MoCA-S was found to be an effective and valid test for detecting aMCI (AUC±0.903) and mild dementia (AUC±0.957); its effectiveness for detecting naMCI was lower (AUC±0.629). The optimal cut-off points for aMCI and mild dementia were<21 and<20, respectively, with sensitivity and specificity rates of 75% and 82% for aMCI and 90% and 86% for mild dementia. The level of education had a great impact on scores: as a result, 2 points were added for patients with less than 8 years of schooling and one point for patients with 8-12 years of schooling (MoCA-S1-2). The MoCA-S1-2 showed significantly greater discriminant validity than the MMSE for differentiating aMCI from dementia. The MoCA-S1-2 is a short, easy-to-use, and useful test for diagnosing aMCI and mild dementia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Testing the validity of conflict drift-diffusion models for use in estimating cognitive processes: A parameter-recovery study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Corey N; Servant, Mathieu; Logan, Gordon D

    2017-03-29

    Researchers and clinicians are interested in estimating individual differences in the ability to process conflicting information. Conflict processing is typically assessed by comparing behavioral measures like RTs or error rates from conflict tasks. However, these measures are hard to interpret because they can be influenced by additional processes like response caution or bias. This limitation can be circumvented by employing cognitive models to decompose behavioral data into components of underlying decision processes, providing better specificity for investigating individual differences. A new class of drift-diffusion models has been developed for conflict tasks, presenting a potential tool to improve analysis of individual differences in conflict processing. However, measures from these models have not been validated for use in experiments with limited data collection. The present study assessed the validity of these models with a parameter-recovery study to determine whether and under what circumstances the models provide valid measures of cognitive processing. Three models were tested: the dual-stage two-phase model (Hübner, Steinhauser, & Lehle, Psychological Review, 117(3), 759-784, 2010), the shrinking spotlight model (White, Ratcliff, & Starns, Cognitive Psychology, 63(4), 210-238, 2011), and the diffusion model for conflict tasks (Ulrich, Schröter, Leuthold, & Birngruber, Cogntive Psychology, 78, 148-174, 2015). The validity of the model parameters was assessed using different methods of fitting the data and different numbers of trials. The results show that each model has limitations in recovering valid parameters, but they can be mitigated by adding constraints to the model. Practical recommendations are provided for when and how each model can be used to analyze data and provide measures of processing in conflict tasks.

  15. The peabody picture vocabulary test as a pre-screening tool for global cognitive functioning in childhood brain tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellino, Sharon M; Tooze, Janet A; Flowers, Lynn; Parsons, Susan K

    2011-09-01

    Minimal acceptable global intelligence is often a determinant for entry into studies utilizing children's self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQL) or symptoms' appraisal. However, most measures of cognitive functioning are lengthy and require a trained psychologist for administration. We used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (third edition; PPVT-III) to assess adequacy of verbal comprehension and language flexibility before entry into a pilot pharmacologic intervention trial in pediatric BT survivors who were >1 year from treatment, and received >23.4 gray as part of therapy. Participation included the ability to complete self-reported measures of HRQL. Among thirteen BT survivors who were screened, twelve proceeded to the full intervention trial and then underwent a detailed baseline neurocognitive assessment including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), administered by a neuropsychologist. Correlation of PPVT-III with WASI was 0.90 for full scale IQ (P < 0.0001), 0.89 for verbal IQ (P = 0.0001) and 0.75 for performance IQ (P = 0.0004) The PPVT-III is easy to administer by trained clinical staff and is a reliable clinic-based screening tool for research studies. While it is not designed to replace in depth neuropsychological evaluation of potential areas of cognitive dysfunction, it provides an estimation of minimal global cognitive functioning for entry into studies that rely on self-report in childhood BT survivors and other cancer survivors who have received central nervous system-directed therapy.

  16. Distinguishing Depressive Pseudodementia from Alzheimer Disease: A Comparative Study of Hippocampal Volumetry and Cognitive Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevki Sahin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Depressive pseudodementia (DPD is a condition which may develop secondary to depression. The aim of this study was to contribute to the differential diagnosis between Alzheimer disease (AD and DPD by comparing the neurocognitive tests and hippocampal volume. Materials and Methods: Patients who met criteria of AD/DPD were enrolled in the study. All patients were assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS, clock-drawing test, Stroop test, Benton Facial Recognition Test (BFRT, Boston Naming Test, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS. Hippocampal volume was measured by importing the coronal T1-weighted magnetic resonance images to the Vitrea 2 workstation. Results: A significant difference was found between the AD and DPD groups on the WMS test, clock-drawing test, Stroop test, Boston Naming Test, MMSE, GDS, and left hippocampal volume. A significant correlation between BFRT and bilateral hippocampal volumes was found in the AD group. No correlation was found among parameters in DPD patients. Conclusions: Our results suggest that evaluation of facial recognition and left hippocampal volume may provide more reliable evidence for distinguishing DPD from AD. Further investigations combined with functional imaging techniques including more patients are needed.

  17. Validation of the Argentine version of the Memory Binding Test (MBT for Early Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Roman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: "Forgetfulness" is frequent in normal aging and characteristic of the early stages of dementia syndromes. The episodic memory test is central for detecting amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The Memory Binding Test (MBT is a simple, easy and brief memory test to detect the early stage of episodic memory impairment. Objective: To validate the Argentine version of the MBT in a Latin American population and to estimate the diagnostic accuracy as a tool for early detection of MCI. Methods: 88 subjects (46 healthy controls and 42 patients with amnestic MCI matched for age and educational level were evaluated by an extensive neuropsychological battery and the memory binding test. Results: A significantly better performance was detected in the control group; all MBT scales were predictive of MCI diagnosis (p<.01. The MBT showed high sensitivity (69% and high specificity (88%, with a PPV of 93% and a NPV of 55% for associative paired recall. A statistically significant difference (c2=14,164, p<.001 was obtained when comparing the area under the curve (AUC of the MBT (0.88 and the MMSE (0.70. Conclusion: The Argentine version of the MBT correlated significantly with the MMSE and the memory battery and is a useful tool in the detection of MCI. The operating characteristics of the MBT are well suited, surpassing other tests commonly used for detecting MCI.

  18. MouseMove: an open source program for semi-automated analysis of movement and cognitive testing in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andre L; Ju, Lining; Ah Kim, Hyun; Zhang, Shenpeng R; Lee, Jessica A A; Sturgeon, Sharelle A; Sobey, Christopher G; Jackson, Shaun P; Schoenwaelder, Simone M

    2015-11-04

    The Open Field (OF) test is one of the most commonly used assays for assessing exploratory behaviour and generalised locomotor activity in rodents. Nevertheless, the vast majority of researchers still rely upon costly commercial systems for recording and analysing OF test results. Consequently, our aim was to design a freely available program for analysing the OF test and to provide an accompanying protocol that was minimally invasive, rapid, unbiased, without the need for specialised equipment or training. Similar to commercial systems, we show that our software-called MouseMove-accurately quantifies numerous parameters of movement including travel distance, speed, turning and curvature. To assess its utility, we used MouseMove to quantify unilateral locomotor deficits in mice following the filament-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion model of acute ischemic stroke. MouseMove can also monitor movement within defined regions-of-interest and is therefore suitable for analysing the Novel Object Recognition test and other field-related cognitive tests. To the best of our knowledge, MouseMove is the first open source software capable of providing qualitative and quantitative information on mouse locomotion in a semi-automated and high-throughput fashion, and hence MouseMove represents a sound alternative to commercial movement analysis systems.

  19. 教育认知诊断测验与认知模型一致性的评估%Evaluating the Consistency of Test Items Relative to the Cognitive Model for Educational Cognitive Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁树良; 毛萌萌; 汪文义; 罗芬; CUI Ying

    2012-01-01

    构建正确的认知模型是成功进行认知诊断的关键之一,如果认知诊断测验不能完整准确地代表这个认知模型,这个测验的效度就存在问题.属性及其层级可以表示一个认知模型.在认知模型正确基础上,给出了一个计量公式以衡量认知诊断测验能够多大程度上代表认知模型;对于不止包含一个知识状态的等价类及其形成原因进行了分析,对Cui等人的属性层级相合性指标(HCI)提出修改建议,以更好地探查数据与专家给出的认知模型的一致性.%Attributes and their hierarchy may present a cognitive model. Building a cognitive model is one of key steps for cognitive diagnosis as it is directly related to the validity and usefulness of test results. It is very important to detect whether the test specification coincides with the cognitive model before administering the test. In this paper, an explicit index is given to measure the extent to which the cognitive model is represented by the test items of the diagnostic test. We call this index as the theoretical construct validity (TCV). In terms of TCV, the test reported by Tatsuoka and her colleagues (1988) is reanalyzed, and the TCV of the test is only 9/24. That is, 24 knowledge states are obtained from the theoretic cognitive model but the test specification could distinguish only 9 knowledge states. Cui and her colleagues established a person fit index named hierarchy consistency index (HCI) to detect the fitness of an examinee's observed response pattern (ORP) to an expected response pattern (ERP). HCI is not defined well when an examinee mastered one attribute only and there is only one item measuring the same attribute in the test, and the examinee responses correctly to the item. The original HCI could not compute for the number of comparisons being zero, hence the denominator being zero. In addition, the HCI includes the slipping only. Combining the slipping and guessing in the response to

  20. Simultaneously testing parenting and social cognitions in children at-risk for aggressive behavior problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltz, S.E.M.J.; Londen, M. van; Dekoviç, M.; Prinzie, P.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Lochman, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study we examined a model in which parenting, child social information processing and self-perception are simultaneously tested as risk factors associated with aggression. Sex and ethnicity were tested as moderators of associations. The sample consisted of 206 4th grade child

  1. Dynamic Testing : Measuring Inductive Reasoning in Children With Developmental Disabilities and Mild Cognitive Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, C.E.; Resing, W.C.M.; Bosma, T.

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the use of dynamic testing based on a graduated prompts techniques training in a clinical educational setting. We examined the question of whether it would be possible to administer a four session dynamic test to a specific group of children with complex

  2. Modular Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Youth Anxiety Disorders: A Partial Effectiveness Test in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Angela Wai Mon

    2010-01-01

    The current study used a programmatic dissemination model as a guiding framework for testing an evidence-supported treatment (EST) for child anxiety disorders in the school setting. The main goal of the project was to conduct the first of a planned series of partial-effectiveness tests (group-design randomized controlled trials) evaluating the…

  3. The Touchscreen Cognitive Testing Method for Rodents: How to Get the Best out of Your Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Timothy J.; Padain, Tina L.; Skillings, Elizabeth A.; Winters, Boyer D.; Morton, A. Jennifer; Saksida, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    The touchscreen testing method for rodents is a computer-automated behavioral testing method that allows computer graphic stimuli to be presented to rodents and the rodents to respond to the computer screen via a nose-poke directly to the stimulus. The advantages of this method are numerous; however, a systematic study of the parameters that…

  4. Development and Testing of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Resource for Children's Dental Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, J; Rodd, H; Morgan, A; Williams, C; Gupta, E; Kirby, J; Creswell, C; Newton, T; Stevens, K; Baker, S; Prasad, S; Marshman, Z

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for dental anxiety; however, access to therapy is limited. The current study aimed to develop a self-help CBT resource for reducing dental anxiety in children, and to assess the feasibility of conducting a trial to evaluate the treatment efficacy and cost-effectiveness of such an intervention. A mixed methods design was employed. Within phase 1, a qualitative "person-based" approach informed the development of the self-help CBT resource. This also employed guidelines for the development and evaluation of complex interventions. Within phase 2, children, aged between 9 and 16 y, who had elevated self-reported dental anxiety and were attending a community dental service or dental hospital, were invited to use the CBT resource. Children completed questionnaires, which assessed their dental anxiety and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) prior to and following their use of the resource. Recruitment and completion rates were recorded. Acceptability of the CBT resource was explored using interviews and focus groups with children, parents/carers and dental professionals. For this analysis, the authors adhered to the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool criteria. There were 24 families and 25 dental professionals participating in the development and qualitative evaluation of the CBT resource for children with dental anxiety. A total of 56 children agreed to trial the CBT resource (66% response rate) and 48 of these children completed the study (86% completion rate). There was a significant reduction in dental anxiety (mean score difference = 7.7, t = 7.9, df = 45, P < 0.001, Cohen's d ES = 1.2) and an increase in HRQoL following the use of the CBT resource (mean score difference = -0.03, t = 2.14, df = 46, P < 0.05, Cohen's d ES = 0.3). The self-help approach had high levels of acceptability to stakeholders. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the effectiveness and acceptability of the resource in

  5. Diagnostic differentiation of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease using a hippocampus-dependent test of spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Kuven; Minati, Ludovico; Contarino, Valeria; Prioni, Sara; Wood, Ruth; Cooper, Rebecca; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Chan, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    The hippocampus is one of the earliest brain regions affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and tests of hippocampal function have the potential to detect AD in its earliest stages. Given that the hippocampus is critically involved in allocentric spatial memory, this study applied a short test of spatial memory, the 4 Mountains Test (4MT), to determine whether test performance can differentiate mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients with and without CSF biomarker evidence of underlying AD and whether the test can distinguish patients with MCI and mild AD dementia when applied in different cultural settings. Healthy controls (HC), patients with MCI, and mild AD dementia were recruited from study sites in UK and Italy. Study numbers were: HC (UK 20, Italy 10), MCI (UK 21, Italy 14), and AD (UK 11, Italy 9). Nineteen UK MCI patients were grouped into CSF biomarker-positive (MCI+, n = 10) and biomarker-negative (MCI-, n = 9) subgroups. Behavioral data were correlated with hippocampal volume and cortical thickness of the precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus. Spatial memory was impaired in both UK and Italy MCI and AD patients. Test performance additionally differentiated between MCI+ and MCI- subgroups (P = 0.001). A 4MT score of ≤8/15 was associated with 100% sensitivity and 90% specificity for detection of early AD (MCI+ and mild AD dementia) in the UK population, and with 100% sensitivity and 50% specificity for detection of MCI and AD in the Italy sample. 4MT performance correlated with hippocampal volume in the UK population and cortical thickness of the precuneus in both study populations. In conclusion, performance on a hippocampus-sensitive test of spatial memory differentiates MCI due to AD with high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The observation that similar diagnostic sensitivity was obtained in two separate study populations, allied to the scalability and usability of the test in community memory clinics, supports future application of the 4MT

  6. Postoperative changes in visual evoked potentials and cognitive function tests following sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iohom, G

    2012-02-03

    We tested the hypothesis that minor disturbance of the visual pathway persists following general anaesthesia even when clinical discharge criteria are met. To test this, we measured visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 13 ASA I or II patients who did not receive any pre-anaesthetic medication and underwent sevoflurane anaesthesia. VEPs were recorded on four occasions, before anaesthesia and at 30, 60, and 90 min after emergence from anaesthesia. Patients completed visual analogue scales (VAS) for sedation and anxiety, a Trieger Dot Test (TDT) and a Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) immediately before each VEP recording. These results were compared using Student\\'s t-test. P<0.05 was considered significant. VEP latency was prolonged (P<0.001) and amplitude diminished (P<0.05) at 30, 60, and 90 min after emergence from anaesthesia, when VAS scores for sedation and anxiety, TDT, and DSST had returned to pre-anaesthetic levels.

  7. Evaluating the Effect of Cognitive Dysfunction on Mental Imagery in Patients with Stroke Using Temporal Congruence and the Imagined 'Timed Up and Go' Test (iTUG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Maxime; Bonnyaud, Céline; Fery, Yves-André; Bussel, Bernard; Roche, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) capacity may be altered following stroke. MI is evaluated by measuring temporal congruence between the timed performance of an imagined and an executed task. Temporal congruence between imagined and physical gait-related activities has not been evaluated following stroke. Moreover, the effect of cognitive dysfunction on temporal congruence is not known. To assess temporal congruence between the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and the imagined TUG (iTUG) tests in patients with stroke and to investigate the role played by cognitive dysfunctions in changes in temporal congruence. TUG and iTUG performance were recorded and compared in twenty patients with chronic stroke and 20 controls. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA), the Frontal Assessment Battery at Bedside (FAB) and the Bells Test. The temporal congruence of the patients with stroke was significantly altered compared to the controls, indicating a loss of MI capacity (respectively 45.11 ±35.11 vs 24.36 ±17.91, p = 0.02). Furthermore, iTUG test results were positively correlated with pathological scores on the Bells Test (r = 0.085, p = 0.013), likely suggesting that impairment of attention was a contributing factor. These results highlight the importance of evaluating potential attention disorder in patients with stroke to optimise the use of MI for rehabilitation and recovery. However further study is needed to determine how MI should be used in the case of cognitive dysfunction.

  8. How do we assign ourselves social status? A cross-cultural test of the cognitive averaging principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Matthew A

    2015-07-01

    Subjective social status (SSS), or one's perceived social standing, is linked robustly to mental and physical health and is thought to be determined in part by a cognitive average of one's past, present and expected socioeconomic status. However, this averaging principle awaits a formal test. Further, cultures differ with regard to how they perceive and discount time. In this study, I draw upon cross-sectional data from the United States and Japan (2005 MIDUS non-Hispanic whites and 2008 MIDJA), which measured subjective status in terms of one's perceived standing within a personally defined community. I compare equal and unequal cognitive averaging models for their goodness of fit relative to a traditional present-based model. Socioeconomic status is assessed broadly, in terms of past, present and expected overall work and financial situations. In the United States, averaging models do not fit the data consistently better than a present-based model of SSS. However, in Japan, averaging models do fit SSS consistently better. These fit conclusions are robust to controlling for negative affect.

  9. Utility of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test and the Developmental Profile II in Identifying Preschool Children with Cognitive, Language, and Motor Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Michael L.

    1982-01-01

    Scores of 84 referred preschoolers on the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test and the Developmental Profile II were compared with subsequent standardized tests of cognitive, motor, and language ability. Results suggested that both instruments are imperfect yet useful tools. (Author/CL)

  10. Capacity of the Catalan and Spanish Versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Distinguish between Healthy Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ruiz, Isabel; Aguilar-Alonso, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the capacity of the Catalan and Spanish versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to distinguish between normal and pathological aging. Both versions of the test were administered to 45 bilingual subjects: 15 healthy aging subjects, 15 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 15 patients with Alzheimer's disease. To…

  11. Capacity of the Catalan and Spanish Versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Distinguish between Healthy Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ruiz, Isabel; Aguilar-Alonso, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the capacity of the Catalan and Spanish versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to distinguish between normal and pathological aging. Both versions of the test were administered to 45 bilingual subjects: 15 healthy aging subjects, 15 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 15 patients with Alzheimer's disease. To…

  12. Affective and cognitive attitudes, uncertainty avoidance and intention to obtain genetic testing: an extension of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Katharina; Nordin, Karin; Brun, Wibecke; Berglund, Gunilla; Kvale, Gerd

    2011-09-01

    To ensure successful implementation of genetic screening and counselling according to patients best interests, the attitudes and motives of the public are important to consider. The aim of this study was to apply a theoretical framework in order to investigate which individual and disease characteristics might facilitate the uptake of genetic testing. A questionnaire using an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour was developed to assess the predictive value of affective and cognitive expected outcomes, subjective norms, perceived control and uncertainty avoidance on the intention to undergo genetic testing. In addition to these individual characteristics, the predictive power of two disease characteristics was investigated by systematically varying the diseases fatality and penetrance (i.e. the probability of getting ill in case one is a mutation carrier). This resulted in four versions of the questionnaire which was mailed to a random sample of 2400 Norwegians. Results showed genetic test interest to be quite high, and to vary depending on the characteristics of the disease, with participants preferring tests for highly penetrant diseases. The most important individual predictor was uncertainty avoidance.

  13. The use of multiple sources of social information in contest behavior: testing the social cognitive abilities of a cichlid fish

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi eHotta; Tomohiro eTakeyama; Dik eHeg; Satoshi eAwata; Lyndon Alexander Jordan; Masanori eKohda

    2015-01-01

    Theory suggests that living in large social groups with dynamic social interactions often favours the evolution of enhanced cognitive abilities. Studies of how animals assess their own contest ability commonly focus on a single cognitive task, and little is known about the diversity or co-occurrence of cognitive abilities in social species. We examined how a highly social cichlid fish Julidochromis transcriptus uses four major cognitive abilities in contest situations; direct experience, winn...

  14. Can a tablet-based cancellation test identify cognitive impairment in older adults?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ya-Huei Wu; Jean-Sébastien Vidal; Jocelyne de Rotrou; Sietske A M Sikkes; Anne-Sophie Rigaud; Matthieu Plichart

    2017-01-01

    .... We have developed a tablet-based cancellation test (e-CT), previously shown as a reliable measure of executive functions and free of effect of familiarity with computer-based devices in healthy older adults...

  15. Guppies Show Behavioural but Not Cognitive Sex Differences in a Novel Object Recognition Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Dadda, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition (NOR) test is a widely-used paradigm to study learning and memory in rodents. NOR performance is typically measured as the preference to interact with a novel object over a familiar object based on spontaneous exploratory behaviour. In rats and mice, females usually have greater NOR ability than males. The NOR test is now available for a large number of species, including fish, but sex differences have not been properly tested outside of rodents. We compared male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a NOR test to study whether sex differences exist also for fish. We focused on sex differences in both performance and behaviour of guppies during the test. In our experiment, adult guppies expressed a preference for the novel object as most rodents and other species do. When we looked at sex differences, we found the two sexes showed a similar preference for the novel object over the familiar object, suggesting that male and female guppies have similar NOR performances. Analysis of behaviour revealed that males were more inclined to swim in the proximity of the two objects than females. Further, males explored the novel object at the beginning of the experiment while females did so afterwards. These two behavioural differences are possibly due to sex differences in exploration. Even though NOR performance is not different between male and female guppies, the behavioural sex differences we found could affect the results of the experiments and should be carefully considered when assessing fish memory with the NOR test. PMID:27305102

  16. Test Review: Naglieri, J. A., Das, J. P., & Goldstein, S. (2014). Cognitive Assessment System-Second Edition (2nd Ed.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive Assessment System-Second Edition (CAS2) is an individually administered measure of cognitive ability designed for children and adolescents ages 5 through 18 years. The measure, authored by Jack A. Naglieri, J. P. Das, and Sam Goldstein, was published by Pro-Ed in 2014 and is the first revision of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS;…

  17. Examining the career development of Mexican American middle school students: A test of social cognitive career theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rachel Leah

    This study tested portions of Lent, Brown, and Hackett's (1994) Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) in the domain of mathematics and science with a sample of Mexican American middle school students. Results supported a modified path model. This study's findings supported several SCCT propositions regarding the positive relationships among background contextual affordances, learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, and goals. However, findings suggested that the influence of person inputs (i.e., gender and generational status) and some background contextual affordances (i.e., acculturation level) on learning experiences may be not be direct; instead, an indirect effect via a relationship with other background contextual affordances (i.e., perceived social support and social class) was found. Furthermore, results supported direct effects of gender on self-efficacy and learning experiences on goal intentions---two relationships not posited in SCCT. Implications for future research and counseling with Mexican American adolescents are discussed.

  18. Financial strain and regional unemployment as barriers to job search self-efficacy: a test of social cognitive career theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahling, Jason J; Melloy, Robert; Thompson, Mindi N

    2013-04-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) emphasizes the potential impact of contextual barriers on vocational self-efficacy, interests, and goals. However, most tests of SCCT to date have focused exclusively on person-level, perceptual barriers rather than objective, macroeconomic barriers that may influence large groups of people. In this study, we examine how the effects of personal experiences with financial strain among a sample of adults who are unemployed are qualified by regional unemployment rates. Results indicated that financial strain has a direct, negative relation with job search self-efficacy, and indirect, negative relations with job search outcome expectations and search goals. These direct and indirect relations are moderated by unemployment rates and are only significant for participants residing in U.S. counties with high unemployment. These findings highlight the importance of taking into account broader contextual influences when studying vocational outcomes and demonstrate the applicability of incorporating macroeconomic barriers and supports into SCCT in future research.

  19. A cage-based training, cognitive testing and enrichment system optimized for rhesus macaques in neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calapai, A; Berger, M; Niessing, M; Heisig, K; Brockhausen, R; Treue, S; Gail, A

    2017-02-01

    In neurophysiological studies with awake non-human primates (NHP), it is typically necessary to train the animals over a prolonged period of time on a behavioral paradigm before the actual data collection takes place. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are the most widely used primate animal models in system neuroscience. Inspired by existing joystick- or touch-screen-based systems designed for a variety of monkey species, we built and successfully employed a stand-alone cage-based training and testing system for rhesus monkeys (eXperimental Behavioral Intrument, XBI). The XBI is mobile and easy to handle by both experts and non-experts; animals can work with only minimal physical restraints, yet the ergonomic design successfully encourages stereotypical postures with a consistent positioning of the head relative to the screen. The XBI allows computer-controlled training of the monkeys with a large variety of behavioral tasks and reward protocols typically used in systems and cognitive neuroscience research.

  20. Explaining differences in episodic memory performance among older African Americans and Whites: the roles of factors related to cognitive reserve and test bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyffe, Denise C; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Barnes, Lisa L; Manly, Jennifer J; Bennett, David A; Crane, Paul K

    2011-07-01

    Older African Americans tend to perform poorly in comparison with older Whites on episodic memory tests. Observed group differences may reflect some combination of biological differences, measurement bias, and other confounding factors that differ across groups. Cognitive reserve refers to the hypothesis that factors, such as years of education, cognitive activity, and socioeconomic status, promote brain resilience in the face of pathological threats to brain integrity in late life. Educational quality, measured by reading test performance, has been postulated as an important aspect of cognitive reserve. Previous studies have not concurrently evaluated test bias and other explanations for observed differences between older African Americans and Whites. We combined data from two studies to address this question. We analyzed data from 273 African American and 720 White older adults. We assessed DIF using an item response theory/ordinal logistic regression approach. DIF and factors associated with cognitive reserve did not explain the relationship between race, and age- and sex-adjusted episodic memory test performance. However, reading level did explain this relationship. The results reinforce the importance of considering education quality, as measured by reading level, when assessing cognition among diverse older adults.

  1. Expertise in cognitive psychology: testing the hypothesis of long-term working memory in a study of soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postal, Virginie

    2004-10-01

    This experiment compared several theories of expertise and exceptional performances in cognitive psychology. One current conception assumes that experts in a specific domain have developed a long-term working memory, which accounts for the difference in memory performance between experts and novices. The principal characteristics of this memory are the speed with which processes of storage and retrieval function and the existence of retrieval structures that allow a temporary activation of the knowledge store in long-term memory. Other authors such as Vicente and Wang argue this notion does not account for memory performance that is not intrinsic to the domain of expertise. We attempt to clarify the two viewpoints and to focus on this debate by testing the hypothesis of long-term working memory using soccer as the domain of expertise and by comparing the cognitive performance of participants who have different expertise (novices, supporters, players, and coaches). 35 male participants were administered a new version of the Reading Span test to assess their long-term working memory according to two conditions. In the first condition (structured condition), the last word of each sentence was related to the soccer domain, and these words were related to each other in such a manner that they represented a part of the game. In the second condition (unstructured condition), the last word of each sentence was related to soccer but these words did not represent part of the game. Analysis showed that the sentence span increased as a function of expertise for the structured condition but not for the unstructured condition. The results were interpreted in the framework of the constraint attunement hypothesis proposed by Vicente in 1992 and the long-term working memory hypothesis proposed by Ericsson and Kintsch in 1995.

  2. Semantic memory for actions as assessed by the Kissing and Dancing Test: Education and age effects in cognitively healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Roque Baradel

    Full Text Available Action semantics is a relevant part of cognitive-linguistic assessment and the "Kissing and Dancing Test" (KDT has been used extensively for this purpose, evidencing clinical distinctions among brain-damaged patients. To enhance its use, reference values are necessary, especially for populations with heterogeneous educational levels and socioeconomic backgrounds.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of schooling and age on the KDT in cognitively unimpaired individualMETHODS: The KDT was applied to seventy-four healthy subjects. Sociodemographic factors were investigated through correlational and between-group analyses. Reference values according to age and schooling were provided.RESULTSKDT performance correlated significantly with schooling (r=0.757, p<0.01, age (r=-0.496, p<0.01 and socioeconomic status (r=0.418 p<0.01 but these variables were intercorrelated. Correlation with schooling and age remained signifi when controlling for age and socioeconomic status (r=0.530, p<0.01, and for schooling (-0.305,<0.01, respectively. When controlling for schooling, correlation between socioeconomic status and KDT was not significant (p=0.164. Between-group analyses revealed no age effects. Significant differences were found in performance according to educational level. Scores below 39/52 and below 47/52 (percentile 25 for individuals with 8 or less years of schooling and for individuals with 9 or more years of schooling, respectively, seem suggestive of an impairment in Action Semantics Processing and shall be further investigatedCONCLUSION KDT performance was influenced both by age and schooling, indicating the need to consider these demographic features as covariates when analyzing performance on the test and to adjust cut-off scores according to these demographic characteristics in clinical practice.

  3. Assessment of cognition using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests on a group of Brazilian patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the cognition of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB-N. METHOD: BRB-N was translated and adapted for control subjects. Subsequently, it was applied to a group of patients with relapsing-remitting (RR MS. RESULTS: The assessment on the healthy controls (n=47 showed that the correlation between tests on the same cognitive domain was high and that there was a five-factor solution that explained 90% of the total variance. Except for the Word List Generation subset of tests, the performance of patients with RRMS (n=39 was worse than that of the healthy controls. CONCLUSION: BRB-N is a relatively simple method to assess cognition of patients with MS in the daily clinic. It does not take long to apply and does not require special skills or equipment.

  4. Simultaneous assessment of cognitive and affective functions in multiple system atrophy and cortical cerebellar atrophy in relation to computerized touch-panel screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yuko; Ikeda, Yoshio; Deguchi, Kentaro; Kurata, Tomoko; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Sato, Kota; Kono, Syoichiro; Yunoki, Taijun; Omote, Yoshio; Yamashita, Toru; Abe, Koji

    2015-04-15

    Cognitive impairment and affective dysfunction of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and cortical cerebellar atrophy (CCA) have not been simultaneously examined comparing standard test batteries and a sensitive tool to detect subtle cognitive decline in patients. In the present study, we simultaneously examined cognitive and affective ability in MSA with predominant cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C, n=25), MSA with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P, n=8), and CCA (n=14) patients using computerized touch panel screening tests. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Hasegawa dementia scale-revised (HDS-R), frontal assessment battery (FAB), and Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) scores were significantly lower in MSA-C patients than in age-and gender-matched normal controls. One MSA-C patient showed a decrease in the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of the frontal lobe. MSA-P patients showed no such cognitive decline. Only FAB and MoCA scores were significantly lower in the CCA patients. MSA and CCA patients also showed a mild to moderate depressive state. Touch-panel screening tests demonstrated a significant decline of beating devils game in all three disease groups including MSA-P patients, and a significant extension of the flipping cards game only in MSA-C patients. The present study demonstrated different cognitive and affective functions among MSA-C, MSA-P, and CCA patients, and a sensitive screening method for cognitive assessment using touch-panel tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Testing a mobile digital cognitive support system for high functioning adolescents with ASD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyori, Miklos; Aagaard, Morten; Kanizsai-Nagy, Ildiko

    . This paper focuses on the structure and core functions of the system and the methodology and findings of psychological efficiency testing of its first prototype. Methods Testing Prototype I involved qualitative and quantitative methods of 3 disciplines: persuasive software design, educational research......‐qualitative basis, uncovering atypical visual scanning strategies in ASD subjects. ETA proved to be a useful tool for measuring individual improvements in specific foci of intervention, and showed the HANDS‐supported intervention effective.Prototype I of the HANDS support system, though some clear shortcomings were...... efficiency of interventions. These conclusions identify clear tasks for the coming Prototype II of the system and its testing, and, generally, for future digital support systems for individuals with ASD. Conclusions...

  6. Guppies Show Behavioural but Not Cognitive Sex Differences in a Novel Object Recognition Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato

    Full Text Available The novel object recognition (NOR test is a widely-used paradigm to study learning and memory in rodents. NOR performance is typically measured as the preference to interact with a novel object over a familiar object based on spontaneous exploratory behaviour. In rats and mice, females usually have greater NOR ability than males. The NOR test is now available for a large number of species, including fish, but sex differences have not been properly tested outside of rodents. We compared male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata in a NOR test to study whether sex differences exist also for fish. We focused on sex differences in both performance and behaviour of guppies during the test. In our experiment, adult guppies expressed a preference for the novel object as most rodents and other species do. When we looked at sex differences, we found the two sexes showed a similar preference for the novel object over the familiar object, suggesting that male and female guppies have similar NOR performances. Analysis of behaviour revealed that males were more inclined to swim in the proximity of the two objects than females. Further, males explored the novel object at the beginning of the experiment while females did so afterwards. These two behavioural differences are possibly due to sex differences in exploration. Even though NOR performance is not different between male and female guppies, the behavioural sex differences we found could affect the results of the experiments and should be carefully considered when assessing fish memory with the NOR test.

  7. Neuropsychological test performance of Hawai'i high school athletes: updated Hawai'i immediate post-concussion assessment and cognitive testing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T; Siu, Andrea M

    2014-07-01

    The present study reviewed the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) baseline test scores of 247 high school athletes ages 13 to 18 from a private school in Hawai'i. The aim of the research was to update a prior exploratory investigation conducted in 2008 that compared the test scores of Hawai'i public high school athletes with the normative data provided by the ImPACT publishers. The results of this study provide assurance that the present ImPACT scores of the Hawai'i high school athletes are similar to the general ImPACT norms. The present study is a rare effort to compare the ImPACT scores of high school athletes from an ethnically diverse region with the ImPACT norms. The findings offer further support for the use of the ImPACT norms when evaluating high school athletes from Hawai'i. Future research in various regions of the United States and with other sociocultural backgrounds is encouraged.

  8. Neurocognitive enhancement in older adults: comparison of three cognitive training tasks to test a hypothesis of training transfer in brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenziok, Maren; Parasuraman, Raja; Clarke, Ellen; Cisler, Dean S; Thompson, James C; Greenwood, Pamela M

    2014-01-15

    The ultimate goal of cognitive enhancement as an intervention for age-related cognitive decline is transfer to everyday cognitive functioning. Development of training methods that transfer broadly to untrained cognitive tasks (far transfer) requires understanding of the neural bases of training and far transfer effects. We used cognitive training to test the hypothesis that far transfer is associated with altered attentional control demands mediated by the dorsal attention network and trained sensory cortex. In an exploratory study, we randomly assigned 42 healthy older adults to six weeks of training on Brain Fitness (BF-auditory perception), Space Fortress (SF-visuomotor/working memory), or Rise of Nations (RON-strategic reasoning). Before and after training, cognitive performance, diffusion-derived white matter integrity, and functional connectivity of the superior parietal cortex (SPC) were assessed. We found the strongest effects from BF training, which transferred to everyday problem solving and reasoning and selectively changed integrity of occipito-temporal white matter associated with improvement on untrained everyday problem solving. These results show that cognitive gain from auditory perception training depends on heightened white matter integrity in the ventral attention network. In BF and SF (which also transferred positively), a decrease in functional connectivity between SPC and inferior temporal lobe (ITL) was observed compared to RON-which did not transfer to untrained cognitive function. These findings highlight the importance for cognitive training of top-down control of sensory processing by the dorsal attention network. Altered brain connectivity - observed in the two training tasks that showed far transfer effects - may be a marker for training success. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between mild cognitive impairment and trajectory-based spatial parameters during timed up and go test using a laser range sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Shu; Yorozu, Ayanori; Adachi, Daiki; Takahashi, Masaki; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2017-08-08

    The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test may be a useful tool to detect not only mobility impairment but also possible cognitive impairment. In this cross-sectional study, we used the TUG test to investigate the associations between trajectory-based spatial parameters measured by laser range sensor (LRS) and cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults. The participants were 63 community-dwelling older adults (mean age, 73.0 ± 6.3 years). The trajectory-based spatial parameters during the TUG test were measured using an LRS. In each forward and backward phase, we calculated the minimum distance from the marker, the maximum distance from the x-axis (center line), the length of the trajectories, and the area of region surrounded by the trajectory of the center of gravity and the x-axis (center line). We measured mild cognitive impairment using the Mini-Mental State Examination score (26/27 was the cut-off score for defining mild cognitive impairment). Compared with participants with normal cognitive function, those with mild cognitive impairment exhibited the following trajectory-based spatial parameters: short minimum distance from the marker (p = 0.044), narrow area of center of gravity in the forward phase (p = 0.012), and a large forward/whole phase ratio of the area of the center of gravity (p = 0.026) during the TUG test. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, a short minimum distance from the marker (odds ratio [OR]: 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69-0.98), narrow area of the center of gravity in the forward phase (OR: 0.01, 95% CI: 0.00-0.36), and large forward/whole phase ratio of the area of the center of gravity (OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.88-0.99) were independently associated with mild cognitive impairment. In conclusion, our results indicate that some of the trajectory-based spatial parameters measured by LRS during the TUG test were independently associated with cognitive impairment in older adults. In particular, older adults with

  10. Testing the Self-Efficacy-Performance Linkage of Social-Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allison W.; Rainer, R. Kelly, Jr.; Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Thompson, Kenneth R.

    1997-01-01

    Briefly reviews Albert Bandura's Self-Efficacy Performance Model (ability to perform a task is influenced by an individual's belief in their capability). Tests this model with a sample of 776 university employees and computer-related knowledge and skills. Results supported Bandura's thesis. Includes statistical tables and a discussion of related…

  11. Cross-Cultural Validity of the TIMSS-1999 Mathematics Test: Verification of a Cognitive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hsin; Gorin, Joanna S.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.

    2008-01-01

    As with any test administered across linguistically and culturally diverse groups, evidence suggesting the equivalence of score meaning across countries is needed for valid comparisons. The current study examines the cross-cultural equivalence of score interpretations from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)-1999 from…

  12. Weight-Based Classification of Raters and Rater Cognition in an EFL Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongwen

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to classify raters according to their weighting patterns and explore systematic differences between rater types in the rating process. In the context of an EFL speaking test, 126 raters were classified into three types--form-oriented, balanced, and content-oriented--through cluster analyses of their weighting patterns…

  13. Moral Schemas and Tacit Judgement or How the Defining Issues Test Is Supported by Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Darcia; Bock, Tonia

    2002-01-01

    Discusses three core moral judgement ideas: (1) modern schema theory, (2) automatic decision-making frequency, and (3) implicit processes as the default mode of human information processing. Compares the Defining Issues Test (measures the beginnings of moral judgement) and the Lawrence Kohlberg Moral Judgement Interview (measures the highest level…

  14. The Social Cognitive Model of Job Satisfaction among Teachers: Testing and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Masood A.; Mohaidat, Jihad; Ferrandino, Vincent; El Mourad, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    The study empirically tests an integrative model of work satisfaction (0280, 0140, 0300 and 0255) in a sample of 5,022 teachers in Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The study provided more support for the Lent and Brown (2006) model. Results revealed that this model was a strong fit for the data and accounted for 82% of the variance in work…

  15. The verbal fluency index: Dutch normative data for cognitive testing in ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeldman, E.; Jaeger, B.; Raaphorst, J.; Seelen, M.; Veldink, J.; Berg, L. van den; Visser, M de; Schmand, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Executive dysfunction occurs in 30-50% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and is most frequently assessed with the verbal fluency test. The verbal fluency index (VFI) has been developed to correct for slowness of speech in ALS, and reflects the average thinking time

  16. The verbal fluency index: Dutch normative data for cognitive testing in ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeldman, E.; Jaeger, B.; Raaphorst, J.; Seelen, M.; Veldink, J.; van den Berg, L.; de Visser, M.; Schmand, B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Executive dysfunction occurs in 30-50% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and is most frequently assessed with the verbal fluency test. The verbal fluency index (VFI) has been developed to correct for slowness of speech in ALS, and reflects the average thinking time per word.

  17. Testing Cognitive Behavior With Emphasis on Analytical Propensity of Service Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    various stimuli.’ "Brief Visuospatial Memory Test- Revised" "memory" - Recall, Recognition, Visual Memory Total Recall, Learning, Delayed...True Negatives, Recognition False Negatives. Designed to ’investigate visuospatial constructional ability and visual memory.’ "Leiter...Learning, Short Memory, Total), Visuospatial /Constructional (Figure Copy, Line Orientation, Total), Language (Picture Naming, Semantic Fluency, Total

  18. The Social Cognitive Model of Job Satisfaction among Teachers: Testing and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Masood A.; Mohaidat, Jihad; Ferrandino, Vincent; El Mourad, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    The study empirically tests an integrative model of work satisfaction (0280, 0140, 0300 and 0255) in a sample of 5,022 teachers in Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The study provided more support for the Lent and Brown (2006) model. Results revealed that this model was a strong fit for the data and accounted for 82% of the variance in work…

  19. Validation of the Danish Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination as a screening test in a memory clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Vogel, Asmus; Johannsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    of this study was to evaluate the Danish version of ACE as a screening test for early dementia in an outpatient memory clinic. Further, we wanted to investigate the ability of the ACE to discriminate patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD) from patients with depression. METHOD: 78 patients with mild AD...

  20. Ego depletion in color priming research: self-control strength moderates the detrimental effect of red on cognitive test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris; Furley, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Colors have been found to affect psychological functioning. Empirical evidence suggests that, in test situations, brief perceptions of the color red or even the word "red" printed in black ink prime implicit anxious responses and consequently impair cognitive performance. However, we propose that this red effect depends on people's momentary capacity to exert control over their prepotent responses (i.e., self-control). In three experiments (Ns = 66, 78, and 130), first participants' self-control strength was manipulated. Participants were then primed with the color or word red versus gray prior to completing an arithmetic test or an intelligence test. As expected, self-control strength moderated the red effect. While red had a detrimental effect on performance of participants with depleted self-control strength (ego depletion), it did not affect performance of participants with intact self-control strength. We discuss implications of the present findings within the current debate on the robustness of priming results. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  1. Pre-test of questions on health-related resource use and expenditure, using behaviour coding and cognitive interviewing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyak Nadja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Validated instruments collecting data on health-related resource use are lacking, but required, for example, to investigate predictors of healthcare use or for health economic evaluation. The objective of the study was to develop, test and refine a questionnaire collecting data on health-related resource use and expenditure in patients with diabetes. Methods The questionnaire was tested in 43 patients with diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2 in Germany. Response behaviour suggestive of problems with questions (item non-response, request for clarification, comments, inadequate answer, “don’t know” was systematically registered. Cognitive interviews focusing on information retrieval and comprehension problems were carried out. Results Many participants had difficulties answering questions pertaining to frequency of visits to the general practitioner (26%, time spent receiving healthcare services (39%, regular medication currently taken (35% and out of pocket expenditure on medication (42%. These difficulties seem to result mainly from poor memory. A number of comprehension problems were established and relevant questions were revised accordingly. Conclusion The questionnaire on health-related resource use and expenditure for use in diabetes research in Germany was developed and refined after careful testing. Ideally, the questionnaire should be externally validated for different modes of administration and recall periods within a variety of populations.

  2. Determining the cognitive structures of science teacher candidates on “evolution” through word association test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu ÖNEL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study tried to determine the conceptual comprehension of science teacher candidates on evolution. As part of this target, the Word Association Test was applied. This study was conducted with the participation of 146 teacher candidates studying in the Department of Science Education. Of the 146 teacher candidates, 89 mostly wrote the words; “evolution” (f=43, “Darwin” (f=36, and “ape” (f=10 as primary concepts in the word association test. This result illustrated that when the word “evolution” was pronounced, 61% of teacher candidates firstly remembered these three words as primary concepts. This study has demonstrated once more that there are misunderstandings and missing data on the evolutionary theory despite the past 156 years from the emergence of this theory.

  3. Cognitive Neuropsychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, studies in cognitive neuropsychology have reported single cases or small groups of patients with seemingly selective impairments of specific cognitive processes or modules. Many studies, particularly older ones, have used simple and coarse tasks to show that patients are disproport......Traditionally, studies in cognitive neuropsychology have reported single cases or small groups of patients with seemingly selective impairments of specific cognitive processes or modules. Many studies, particularly older ones, have used simple and coarse tasks to show that patients...... for cognitive neuropsychology are opened up. The questions addressed in this symposium is whether the questions posed by cognitive neuropsychology are still relevant, and whether new methods can spark a new interest in the field, or if the time has passed when the observation of single and double dissociations...... in patients’ test performance can inform theories of (normal) cognitive function. In four talks, this symposium will present and discuss methods for investigating impairment patterns in neuropsychological patients: 1) a talk on basic assumptions and statistical methods in single case methodology; 2) a talk...

  4. Testing cognitive performance of socially housed monkeys: possibilities and limitations of the study of social influences on age-related cognitive decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toxopeus, Ido Bart

    2004-01-01

    In both humans and monkeys not all individuals show the same rate of age-related cognitive decline. One important factor to influence the rate of decline is extended exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids, which play a central role in the response to stress. Furthermore, studies with humans

  5. A novel dual task balance test with cognitive cues for the postural control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Grarup, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim. There may be significant attention requirements for the postural control, depending on the postural task, the age and the balance abilities of the individual. The use of a dual task approach is therefore believed to be relevant in the assessment of balance. In this context...... in impaired performance in one or both tasks. The results indicate that the proposed test procedure in a standardized way reveal that the elderly require increased conscious attention to maintain postural control during reaching and stepping tasks....

  6. VRP09 Objective Methods to Test Visual Dysfunction in the Presence of Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    505.  doi:   10.1097/ ICU .0b013e328359045e.  Review.  PubMed  PMID:  23047167.   Tasks  2  and  3.  In  normal  eyes,  as...function,  leading  to   rehabilitation  and   treatment  when  appropriate.     The  availability  of  the  objective  tests

  7. Objective Methods to Test Visual Dysfunction in the Presence of Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    electrodes  for  the  scalp  are  shown  to  the   upper  right,  that  can  penetrate  around   hair   follicles  for...the eye and 3) purposeful eye movements to track targets that are resolved. Major Findings: Three major objective tests of vision were successfully...separately for retina or optic nerve damage, 2) eye movement based analysis of target acquisition, fixation, and eccentric viewing as a means of

  8. A mobile, high-throughput semi-automated system for testing cognition in large non-primate animal models of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Sebastian D; Perentos, Nicholas; Morton, A Jennifer

    2016-05-30

    For reasons of cost and ethical concerns, models of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington disease (HD) are currently being developed in farm animals, as an alternative to non-human primates. Developing reliable methods of testing cognitive function is essential to determining the usefulness of such models. Nevertheless, cognitive testing of farm animal species presents a unique set of challenges. The primary aims of this study were to develop and validate a mobile operant system suitable for high throughput cognitive testing of sheep. We designed a semi-automated testing system with the capability of presenting stimuli (visual, auditory) and reward at six spatial locations. Fourteen normal sheep were used to validate the system using a two-choice visual discrimination task. Four stages of training devised to acclimatise animals to the system are also presented. All sheep progressed rapidly through the training stages, over eight sessions. All sheep learned the 2CVDT and performed at least one reversal stage. The mean number of trials the sheep took to reach criterion in the first acquisition learning was 13.9±1.5 and for the reversal learning was 19.1±1.8. This is the first mobile semi-automated operant system developed for testing cognitive function in sheep. We have designed and validated an automated operant behavioural testing system suitable for high throughput cognitive testing in sheep and other medium-sized quadrupeds, such as pigs and dogs. Sheep performance in the two-choice visual discrimination task was very similar to that reported for non-human primates and strongly supports the use of farm animals as pre-clinical models for the study of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An Introduction to Cognitive Musicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haumann, Niels Trusbak

    2015-01-01

    This historical-scientific introduction to Cognitive Musicology introduces the 150 years of research and discoveries in the psychology of music that partly presuppose the more recent discipline of Cognitive Musicology. Atomistic, Gestalt, functionalist, testing, behaviorist, cognitive, and neuros......This historical-scientific introduction to Cognitive Musicology introduces the 150 years of research and discoveries in the psychology of music that partly presuppose the more recent discipline of Cognitive Musicology. Atomistic, Gestalt, functionalist, testing, behaviorist, cognitive...

  10. Development and pilot-testing of a cognitive behavioral coping skills group intervention for patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Evon, Ph.D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial interventions for patients with chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV infection are needed to attenuate the impact of extrahepatic symptoms, comorbid conditions, and treatment side effects on HCV health outcomes. We adapted empirically-supported interventions for similar patient populations to develop a Cognitive Behavioral Coping Skills group intervention for HCV patients (CBCS-HCV undergoing treatment. The objectives of this paper are to describe the research activities associated with CBCS-HCV development and pilot testing, including: (1 formative work leading to intervention development; (2 preliminary study protocol; and (3 pilot feasibility testing of the intervention and study design. Formative work included a literature review, qualitative interviews, and adaption, development, and review of study materials. A preliminary study protocol is described. We evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT of the CBCS-HCV with 12 study participants in Wave 1 testing to examine: (a feasibility of intervention delivery; (b patient acceptability; (c recruitment, enrollment, retention; (d feasibility of conducting a RCT; (d therapist protocol fidelity; and (e feasibility of data collection. Numerous lessons were learned. We found very high rates of data collection, participant attendance, engagement, retention and acceptability, and therapist protocol fidelity. We conclude that many aspects of the CBCS-HCV intervention and study protocol were highly feasible. The greatest challenge during this Wave 1 pilot study was efficiency of participant enrollment due to changes in standard of care treatment. These findings informed two additional waves of pilot testing to examine effect sizes and potential improvements in clinical outcomes, with results forthcoming.

  11. The factors forming investor’s failure: Is financial literacy a matter? Viewing test by cognitive mapping technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amari Mouna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to apply cognitive map-related techniques to extract causal knowledge from a specific problem domain. This paper proposes to draw an average cognitive map in order to identify the failure factors of the Tunisian small investors. Our paper extends traditional and behavioral finance and previous research by proposing a new approach to building an average cognitive map for the explanation of small investors’ failure in the stock market.

  12. Exploring the Evolved Concept of Newcomer: Experimental Tests of a Cognitive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Delton

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Enduring human coalitions face the adaptive problem of integrating new members. Although newcomers can provide benefits (e.g., additional labor, newcomers can also create costs (e.g., by free riding. Due to the unique adaptive problems they pose, we hypothesize that the mind contains an evolved concept of newcomer. We test the design of this concept experimentally and show that the activation of the newcomer concept elicits a variety of anti-free rider responses (e.g., a decrease in trust with adaptively-targeted exceptions (e.g., a minimal increase in exclusion sentiment. These results support the hypothesis that the mind contains specialized concepts for understanding, creating, and sustaining intergenerational coalitions.

  13. A Test of Stimulus-Response Versus a Power-Oriented Cognitive Theory of Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Richard E; Tedeschi, James T

    1978-10-01

    A basic postulate of reinforcement theories of attraction is that association of reward with a neutral stimulus person induces liking. The strongest support for this association principle is a study by Griffitt and Guay in which Ss' liking for an evaluator and a third party observer was directly related to the positive or negative nature of the evaluations. An alternative interpretation of these results is that actors like persons who perceive them as competent, because such esteem serves as a power base for future influence. A test of the competing hypotheses was carried out in a 2 × 2 factorial design in which Ss (N = 60 male undergraduates) received positive or negative evaluations in the presence of a third party who either did or did not observe the evaluations. The results clearly supported a power resource theory of attraction.

  14. Cognitive Assessment of OCD Patients: NeuroVR vs Neuropsychological Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Paglia, Filippo; La Cascia, Caterina; Rizzo, Rosalinda; Cangialosi, Flavia; Sanna, Margherita; Riva, Giuseppe; La Barbera, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Neuro-Virtual Reality as tool for the neuropsychological assessment in OCD patients. We used the neuropsychological battery and a virtual version of the Multiple Errand Test (V-MET), developed using the NeuroVR software, in order to evaluate the executive functions, the ability to plan ahead on complex problem solving tasks in daily life in 30 obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and 30 healthy controls. The results showed the presence of difficulties of OCD patients: lower levels of divided attention and higher levels of errors; higher mean rank of inefficiencies, interpretation failures and rule breaks and longer time of execution of the whole task. By contrast, controls have higher level of efficiency and better performance. In addition, a significant correlation was found between the V-MET and the neuropsychological battery which confirms and supports the ecological validity of neurocognitive assessment through NeuroVirtual Reality.

  15. Emotionality as a moderator of cognitive style on the Matching Familiar Figures Test in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, W B

    1988-01-01

    This study examined whether an emotional temperament moderated scores on the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) in adults. It was predicted that people who were high in fear would score in the impulsive and reflective quadrants of the MFFT, and those who were low in fear would score in the other two quadrants of the MFFT. Eighty-five college students completed the EASI Temperament Survey and later the MFFT. The results supported the prediction. Relative to others, subjects who scored in the impulsive and reflective quadrants of the MFFT also scored significantly higher on the Fear subscale of the EASI Temperament Survey. Implications for the role of fear in interpreting scores on the MFFT were drawn.

  16. Temporal cognition in children with autistic spectrum disorders: tests of diachronic thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jill; Pons, Francisco; Lind, Sophie; Williams, David

    2007-09-01

    Impaired diachronic thinking-(the propensity and capacity to think about events spreading across time)-was demonstrated in a 2-Phase study in which children with autism were compared with age and ability matched controls. Identical tests of diachronic thinking were administered in both phases of the study, but to different participant groups, with the same results. The marked impairments shown are therefore robust. Various non-temporal explanations of the findings were eliminated by the results of control tasks in Phase 2. Diachronic thinking did not correlate with verbal or non-verbal ability, age, or mentalising ability, consistent with other evidence of the specificity of diachronic thinking ability. Possible causes of impaired diachronic thinking in autism are discussed.

  17. Memory Alteration Test to Detect Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer’s Dementia in Population with Low Educational Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Custodio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Short tests to early detection of the cognitive impairment are necessary in primary care setting, particularly in populations with low educational level. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Memory Alteration Test (M@T to discriminate controls, patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI and patients with early Alzheimer’s Dementia (AD in a sample of individuals with low level of education.Methods: Cross-sectional study to assess the performance of the M@T (study test, compared to the neuropsychological evaluation (gold standard test scores in 247 elderly subjects with low education level from Lima-Peru. The cognitive evaluation included three sequential stages: (1 screening (to detect cases with cognitive impairment; (2 nosological diagnosis (to determinate specific disease; and (3 classification (to differentiate disease subtypes. The subjects with negative results for all stages were considered as cognitively normal (controls. The test performance was assessed by means of area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. We calculated validity measures (sensitivity, specificity and correctly classified percentage, the internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity (Pearson’s ratio coefficient between the M@T and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR scores.Results: The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.79 and Pearson’s ratio coefficient was 0.79 (p < 0.01. The AUC of M@T to discriminate between early AD and aMCI was 99.60% (sensitivity = 100.00%, specificity = 97.53% and correctly classified = 98.41% and to discriminate between aMCI and controls was 99.56% (sensitivity = 99.17%, specificity = 91.11%, and correctly classified = 96.99%.Conclusions: The M@T is a short test with a good performance to discriminate controls, aMCI and early AD in individuals with low level of education from urban settings.

  18. Memory Alteration Test to Detect Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer’s Dementia in Population with Low Educational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Montesinos, Rosa; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Cuenca-Alfaro, José; Valeriano-Lorenzo, Lucía

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: Short tests to early detection of the cognitive impairment are necessary in primary care setting, particularly in populations with low educational level. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate controls, patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) and patients with early Alzheimer’s Dementia (AD) in a sample of individuals with low level of education. Methods: Cross-sectional study to assess the performance of the M@T (study test), compared to the neuropsychological evaluation (gold standard test) scores in 247 elderly subjects with low education level from Lima-Peru. The cognitive evaluation included three sequential stages: (1) screening (to detect cases with cognitive impairment); (2) nosological diagnosis (to determinate specific disease); and (3) classification (to differentiate disease subtypes). The subjects with negative results for all stages were considered as cognitively normal (controls). The test performance was assessed by means of area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. We calculated validity measures (sensitivity, specificity and correctly classified percentage), the internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient), and concurrent validity (Pearson’s ratio coefficient between the M@T and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scores). Results: The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.79 and Pearson’s ratio coefficient was 0.79 (p < 0.01). The AUC of M@T to discriminate between early AD and aMCI was 99.60% (sensitivity = 100.00%, specificity = 97.53% and correctly classified = 98.41%) and to discriminate between aMCI and controls was 99.56% (sensitivity = 99.17%, specificity = 91.11%, and correctly classified = 96.99%). Conclusions: The M@T is a short test with a good performance to discriminate controls, aMCI and early AD in individuals with low level of education from urban settings. PMID:28878665

  19. The Role of Test Hope and Hopelessness in Self-Regulated Learning: Relations between Volitional Strategies, Cognitive Appraisals and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buric, Irena; Soric, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships amongst students' test emotions of hope and hopelessness, their antecedents of cognitive control and value appraisals and volitional strategies during learning, as well as their effects on academic achievement in the domain of mathematics, using the control-value theoretical framework. Sample…

  20. Effects of Cognitive Complexity and Emotional Upset on Processing Supportive Messages: Two Tests of a Dual-Process Theory of Supportive Communication Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Graham D.; Burleson, Brant R.; Holmstrom, Amanda J.; McCullough, Jennifer D.; Rack, Jessica J.; Hanasono, Lisa K.; Rosier, Jennifer G.

    2011-01-01

    We report tests of hypotheses derived from a theory of supportive communication outcomes that maintains the effects of supportive messages are moderated by factors influencing the motivation and ability to process these messages. Participants in two studies completed a measure of cognitive complexity, which provided an assessment of processing…

  1. Cognitive modulation of psychophysical, respiratory and autonomic responses to cold pressor test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarcangelo, Enrica L; Paoletti, Giulia; Chiavacci, Iacopo; Palombo, Carlo; Carli, Giancarlo; Varanini, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In healthy subjects with high hypnotisability (highs) under hypnosis, subjectively effective suggestions for analgesia abolish the increases in blood pressure associated with cold pressor test (cpt) by reducing the peripheral vascular resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the suggestions of analgesia on the responses to cpt in healthy highs (n = 22) and in low hypnotisable participants (lows, n = 22) out of hypnosis. Cpt was administered without (CPT) and with suggestions for analgesia (CPT+AN). Psychophysical (pain intensity, pain threshold, cpt duration (time of immersion) and pain tolerance, defined as the difference between cpt duration and pain threshold), respiratory (amplitude and frequency) and autonomic variables (tonic skin conductance, mean RR interval (RR = 1/heart rate), blood pressure, skin blood flow) were studied. The suggestions for analgesia increased cpt duration and RR in both groups, but decreased pain intensity and enhanced pain threshold only in highs; in both groups they did not modulate systolic blood pressure, tonic skin conductance and skin blood flow; thus, increased parasympathetic activity appears responsible for the heart rate reduction induced by suggestions in both groups. In conclusion, our findings show that suggestions modulate pain experience differentially in highs and lows, and are partially effective also in lows. We hypothesize that the mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of suggestions in healthy lows may be involved also in their efficacy in chronic pain patients with low hypnotisability.

  2. Cognitive modulation of psychophysical, respiratory and autonomic responses to cold pressor test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica L Santarcangelo

    Full Text Available In healthy subjects with high hypnotisability (highs under hypnosis, subjectively effective suggestions for analgesia abolish the increases in blood pressure associated with cold pressor test (cpt by reducing the peripheral vascular resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the suggestions of analgesia on the responses to cpt in healthy highs (n = 22 and in low hypnotisable participants (lows, n = 22 out of hypnosis. Cpt was administered without (CPT and with suggestions for analgesia (CPT+AN. Psychophysical (pain intensity, pain threshold, cpt duration (time of immersion and pain tolerance, defined as the difference between cpt duration and pain threshold, respiratory (amplitude and frequency and autonomic variables (tonic skin conductance, mean RR interval (RR = 1/heart rate, blood pressure, skin blood flow were studied. The suggestions for analgesia increased cpt duration and RR in both groups, but decreased pain intensity and enhanced pain threshold only in highs; in both groups they did not modulate systolic blood pressure, tonic skin conductance and skin blood flow; thus, increased parasympathetic activity appears responsible for the heart rate reduction induced by suggestions in both groups. In conclusion, our findings show that suggestions modulate pain experience differentially in highs and lows, and are partially effective also in lows. We hypothesize that the mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of suggestions in healthy lows may be involved also in their efficacy in chronic pain patients with low hypnotisability.

  3. A randomized controlled trial to test the effect of multispecies probiotics on cognitive reactivity to sad mood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, L.; Sellaro, R.; van Hemert, S.; Bosch, J.A.; Colzato, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent insights into the role of the human microbiota in cognitive and affective functioning have led to the hypothesis that probiotic supplementation may act as an adjuvant strategy to ameliorate or prevent depression. Objective: Heightened cognitive reactivity to normal, transient chan

  4. Cognitive impairment in ALS patients and validation of the Spanish version of the ALS-CBS test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turon-Sans, Janina; Gascon-Bayarri, Jordi; Reñé, Ramon; Rico, Imma; Gámez, Cristina; Paipa, Andres; Povedano, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to develop and validate the Spanish version of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Cognitive Behavioural Screen (ALS-CBS) and investigate behavioural/cognitive impairment in our ALS patients. We enrolled 50 patients with definite or probable ALS, evaluated by the Motor Neuron Disease Unit (using El Escorial criteria) and Dementia Unit, and assessed with the Spanish ALS-CBS. The patients' cognitive/behavioural status was classified according to current criteria. Patients were classified into each diagnostic category: ALS-no impairment, 36%; ALS-mild cognitive impairment, 34%; ALS-mild behavioural impairment, 6%; ALS-mild cognitive/behavioural impairment, 12%; ALS-frontotemporal dementia, 12%. Cognitive impairment was more common in bulbar (90.9%) than spinal (48.7%) forms (p CBS was validated. Performance to differentiate normal vs. impaired individuals was: 1) cognition (cut-off 15; AUC, 84.7%): sensitivity 86.2%, specificity 62%, positive predictive value 75.8%, negative predictive value 76.5%; 2) behaviour (cut-off 36; AUC, 83.3%): sensitivity 93.3%, specificity 74.3%, positive predictive value 61%, negative predictive value 96.3%. Performance to differentiate between patients with and without dementia: 1) cognition (cut-off 8; AUC, 87.3%): sensitivity 83.3%, specificity 75%, positive predictive value 31.3%, negative predictive value 97.1%; 2) behaviour (cut-off 35; AUC, 80.9%): sensitivity 83.3%, specificity 69%, positive predictive value 25%, negative predictive value 96.7%. In conclusion, cognitive impairment is common in ALS patients, particularly in bulbar forms. The Spanish version of the ALS-CBS is useful for screening cognitive/behavioural impairment in this population.

  5. Spatial decisions and cognitive strategies of monkeys and humans based on abstract spatial stimuli in rotation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekovarova, Tereza; Nedvidek, Jan; Klement, Daniel; Bures, Jan

    2009-09-08

    We showed previously that macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) could orient in real space using abstract visual stimuli presented on a computer screen. They made correct choices according to both spatial stimuli (designed as an abstract representation of a real space) and nonspatial stimuli (pictures lacking any inner configuration information). However, we suggested that there were differences in processing spatial and nonspatial stimuli. In the present experiment we show that monkeys could also use as a cue abstract spatial stimuli rotated with respect to the real response space. We studied the ability of monkeys to decode abstract spatial information provided in one spatial frame (computer screen) and to perform spatial choices in another spatial frame (touch panel separated from the screen). We analyzed how the monkeys were affected by the type of training, whether they perceived the stimuli as "spatial" or "nonspatial," and which cues they used to decode them. We compared humans to monkeys in a similar test to find out which cognitive strategy they used and whether they perceive spatial stimuli in the same way. We demonstrated that there were two possible strategies to solve the task, simple "fitting" ignoring rotations and "remapping," when the stimulus was represented as an "abstract space" per se.

  6. Mouse testing methods in psychoneuroimmunology: an overview of how to measure sickness, depressive/anxietal, cognitive, and physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Jason M; Blevins, Neil A; Baynard, Tracy; Freund, Gregory G

    2012-01-01

    The field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) aims to uncover the processes and consequences of nervous, immune, and endocrine system relationships. Behavior is a consequence of such interactions and manifests from a complex interweave of factors including immune-to-neural and neural-to-immune communication. Often the signaling molecules involved during a particular episode of neuroimmune activation are not known but behavioral response provides evidence that bioactives such as neurotransmitters and cytokines are perturbed. Immunobehavioral phenotyping is a first-line approach when examining the neuroimmune system and its reaction to immune stimulation or suppression. Behavioral response is significantly more sensitive than direct measurement of a single specific bioactive and can quickly and efficiently rule in or out relevance of a particular immune challenge or therapeutic to neuroimmunity. Classically, immunobehavioral research was focused on sickness symptoms related to bacterial infection but neuroimmune activation is now a recognized complication of diseases and disorders ranging from cancer to diabesity. Immunobehaviors include lethargy, loss of appetite, and disinterest in social activity and the surrounding environment. In addition, neuroimmune activation can precipitate feelings of depression and anxiety while negatively impacting cognitive function and physical activity. Provided is a detailed overview of behavioral tests frequently used to examine neuroimmune activation in mice with a special emphasis on preexperimental conditions that can confound or prevent successful immunobehavioral experimentation.

  7. The diagnostic value of controlled oral word association test-FAS and category fluency in single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Small, Brent J; Raj, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that decreases in both letter fluency and category fluency may be present in addition to memory impairment in single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, the clinical utility of these fluency measures is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine what, if any, diagnostic value letter and category fluency provide in differentiating single-domain aMCI from normal cognition. Data from 66 individuals [33 cognitively normal (CN) and 33 aMCI] between the ages of 66 and 87 years participating in the Florida Alzheimer's Disease Research Center were compared on the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT)-FAS and Category Fluency test, both in terms of raw and scaled scores. Participants were matched on age, education and sex. Two-tailed independent sample t-tests found statistically significant differences between the CN and aMCI groups for both raw and scaled scores of COWAT-FAS and Category Fluency (p Fluency did not significantly improve diagnostic accuracy when combined with the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised delayed recall. Although decreased COWAT-FAS and Category Fluency performance may be present in single-domain aMCI, these tests do not improve the ability of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised delayed recall to differentiate aMCI from CN individuals. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Comparison of two commonly used clinical cognitive screening tests to diagnose mild cognitive impairment in heart failure with the golden standard European Consortium Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram; Mah, Darren; Dyck, Jason R B; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Ezekowitz, Justin

    2017-02-01

    This study on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in heart failure (HF) compares the utility of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) for diagnosing MCI in a HF population when compared to the golden standard European Consortium Criteria (ECC). Participants were recruited from the Alberta HEART study at the Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute in Edmonton and St. Mary's hospital in Camrose. This study enrolled 53 community adults aged>50years: 33 HF and 20 controls. Participants were assessed using both the MMSE and MoCA for MCI. MCI was diagnosed using the golden standard, European Consortium Criteria. Sensitivity and specificity analysis, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios and kappa statistic were calculated. The mean age was 72.8years (SD 8.4), 60.4% were females and 34% had underlying ischemic heart disease. Overall, two thirds of patients (22/33, 66%) with HF had MCI. In comparison to European Consortium Criteria, the sensitivity and specificity of MoCA were 82% and 91% in identifying individuals with MCI, and MMSE were 9% and 91%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for MoCA were 95% and 71%, and for MMSE were 67% and 33%, respectively. Kappa statistics showed good agreement between MoCA and consortium criteria (kappa=0.68) and a low agreement between MMSE and consortium criteria (kappa=0.07). Cognitive dysfunction is common in patients with HF. Overall, the MoCA seems to be a better screening tool than MMSE for MCI in HF patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns in suicidal ideation: A test of the Depression-Distress Amplification Model in clinical outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norr, Aaron M; Allan, Nicholas P; Macatee, Richard J; Capron, Daniel W; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-04-30

    Suicide constitutes a significant public health burden as global suicide rates continue to increase. Thus, it is crucial to identify malleable suicide risk factors to develop prevention protocols. Anxiety sensitivity, or a fear of anxiety-related sensations, is a potential malleable risk factor for the development of suicidal ideation. The Depression-Distress Amplification Model (DDAM) posits that the anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns (ASCC) subfactor interacts with depressive symptoms to amplify the effects of depression and lead to suicidal ideation. The current study tested the DDAM across the two most widely-replicated factors of depressive symptoms (cognitive and affective/somatic) in comparison to a risk factor mediation model where ASCC are related to suicidal ideation via depressive symptoms. Participants included 295 clinical outpatients from a community clinic. The interaction between ASCC and depressive symptoms in the prediction of suicidal ideation was not significant for either cognitive or affective/somatic symptoms of depression. However, results revealed a significant indirect effect of ASCC through cognitive symptoms of depression in the prediction of suicidal ideation. These cross sectional findings are not consistent with the DDAM. Rather, the relationship may be better conceptualized with a model in which ASCC is related to suicidal ideation via cognitive symptoms of depression.

  10. How Do Executive Functions Fit with the Cattell-Horn-Carroll Model? Some Evidence from a Joint Factor Analysis of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; Hamilton, Gloria; Parra, Gilbert R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among executive functions and cognitive abilities through a joint exploratory factor analysis and joint confirmatory factor analysis of 25 test scores from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Participants were 100 children and adolescents…

  11. Tests of Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    structure in sex 42 and ethnic groups. Personality and Individual Differences , 19, 149-155. Cascio, W. F. (1991). Appliedpsychology in personnel management...Carretta, T. R. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Not much more than g and personality. Personality and Individual Differences , 37, 1059-1068. Society

  12. Application of the Trail Making Test in the assessment of cognitive flexibility in patients with speech disorders after ischaemic cerebral stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rajtar-Zembaty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to evaluate the level of cognitive flexibility in patients with speech disorders after ischaemic cerebral stroke. The study was conducted in a group of 43 patients (18 women and 25 men who had experienced cerebral ischaemic stroke. The patients under study were divided into groups based on the type of speech disorders, i.e.: aphasia, lack of speech disorders and dysarthria. A Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and a Clock Drawing Test (CDT were applied for the general evaluation of the efficiency of cognitive functions. Cognitive flexibility – a component of executive functions, was evaluated with the use of a Trail Making Test (TMT. The results obtained prove that patients with aphasia show the lowest level of cognitive flexibility. Disorders of executive functions can be related to the dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex which has been damaged as a result of ischaemic cerebral stroke. Presumably, there are common functional neuroanatomical circuits for both language skills and components of executive functions. In the case of damage to the structures that are of key importance for both skills, language and executive dysfunctions can therefore occur in parallel. The presence of executive dysfunctions in patients with aphasia can additionally impede the functioning of the patient, and also negatively influence the process of rehabilitation the aim of which is to improve the efficiency of communication.

  13. The concise cognitive test for dementia screening: Reliability and effects of demographic variables as compared to the mini mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Srikanth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE is widely used for dementia screening but has several shortcomings such as prominent ceiling effects, inadequate sensitivity to mild cognitive impairment, and uneven sampling of the major cognitive domains. Aims: In this study, we pilot a new dementia screening test - the Concise Cognitive Test (CONCOG - designed to overcome the above short comings and describe the reliability measures and age, education, and gender effects. The CONCOG has a total score of 30, and has subtests for orientation, naming, registration, free recall and recognition of four words, semantic verbal fluency and copying. Patients and Methods: Participants were screened to exclude those with any neurological or psychiatric disease, simultaneously administered the CONCOG, and a Hybrid Mini Mental State Examination (HMMSE adapted from Folstein′s MMSE and Ganguli′s Hindi Mental State Examination. Results: The study sample had 204 subjects over the age of 60 years with a mean of 73 years and education level of 8 (4.5 years. Internal consistency for the CONCOG (Cronbach′s alpha was 0.74, inter-rater reliability (Kendall′s tau-b was 0.9, and the one-month test-retest reliability (Kendall′s tau-b was 0.7. Age and education level, but not gender, significantly influenced performance on both scales. Although the influence of age on the two scales was to a similar degree, the HMMSE was more affected by education than the CONCOG. Of 204 subjects, only 12 (5.7% subjects obtained the maximum score on the CONCOG compared with 30 (14.1% subjects on the HMMSE. The CONCOG took less than 10 minutes to complete in this sample. Age and education stratified norms are presented for the CONCOG. Conclusions: The CONCOG is a reliable cognitive screening measure. It has negligible ceiling effects, is less influenced by education compared with the HMMSE, and offers subscale scores for the major cognitive domains.

  14. Development and initial testing of functional task exercise on older adults with cognitive impairment at risk of Alzheimer's disease--FcTSim programme--a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Lawla L F; Barnett, Fiona; Yau, Matthew K; Gray, Marion A

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the development of a new functional task-based exercise programme and initially test its feasibility as well as effectiveness for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study used a single-group repeated-measures design. A total of 11 patients (mean age 71.8 years) were recruited to participate in a structured functional task exercise programme for 10 weeks. All outcome measures were undertaken at baseline, post-intervention and post-3-month follow-up using the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE), Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), Chinese Version Verbal Learning Test (CVVLT), Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (Lawton IADL) and Problems in Everyday Living test (PEDL). Data were analysed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance. Cohen's d effect size was used to assess the practical significant effects. The participants showed significant improvement in NCSE composite score, VFT, CVVLT total free recall, CVVLT 10-minute delayed free recall, Lawton IADL and PEDL. Results of this study demonstrate that the newly designed functional task exercise programme, which uses simulated tasks, is feasible and beneficial to cognitive functions and functional status of older persons with MCI. The findings of the current study further reinforce occupational therapy practitioners' understanding that "occupation" is a "means" and an "end". Further study with a larger population is needed to draw more definitive conclusions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Undergraduates' intentions to take a second language proficiency test: a comparison of predictions from the theory of planned behavior and social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bih-Jiau; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-06-01

    English competency has become essential for obtaining a better job or succeeding in higher education in Taiwan. Thus, passing the General English Proficiency Test is important for college students in Taiwan. The current study applied Ajzen's theory of planned behavior and the notions of outcome expectancy and self-efficacy from Bandura's social cognitive theory to investigate college students' intentions to take the General English Proficiency Test. The formal sample consisted of 425 undergraduates (217 women, 208 men; M age = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.3). The theory of planned behavior showed greater predictive ability (R2 = 33%) of intention than the social cognitive theory (R2 = 7%) in regression analysis and made a unique contribution to prediction of actual test-taking behavior one year later in logistic regression. Within-model analyses indicated that subjective norm in theory of planned behavior and outcome expectancy in social cognitive theory are crucial factors in predicting intention. Implications for enhancing undergraduates' intentions to take the English proficiency test are discussed.

  16. DIFFERENTIAL COGNITIVE ABILITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACCOBY, ELEANOR E.; RAU, LUCY

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF PATTERNS OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES AND PERSONALITY TRAITS WERE INVESTIGATED IN THIS STUDY OF 6 GROUPS OF CHILDREN (120) IN GRADE 5. SCORES ON THE PRIMARY MENTAL ABILITIES TEST, IOWA ACHIEVEMENT TEST, AND CALIFORNIA TEST OF MENTAL MATURITY WERE USED AS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES. (JK)

  17. Testing the hypothesis on cognitive evolution of modern humans' learning ability: current status of past-climatic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kawahata, Hodaka; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Oguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human evolution is important and debating topic for many years. Since 2010, we have involved in a general joint project entitled "Replacement of Neanderthal by Modern Humans: Testing Evolutional Models of Learning", which based on a theoretical prediction that the cognitive ability related to individual and social learning divide fates of ancient humans in very unstable Late Pleistocene climate. This model predicts that the human populations which experienced a series of environmental changes would have higher rate of individual learners, while detailed reconstructions of global climate change have reported fluent and drastic change based on ice cores and stalagmites. However, we want to understand the difference between anatomically modern human which survived and the other archaic extinct humans including European Neanderthals and Asian Denisovans. For this purpose the global synchronized change is not useful for understanding but the regional difference in the amplitude and impact of climate change is the information required. Hence, we invited a geophysicist busing Global Circulation Model to reconstruct the climatic distribution and temporal change in a continental scale. At the same time, some geochemists and geographers construct a database of local climate changes recorded in different proxies. At last, archaeologists and anthropologists tried to interpret the emergence and disappearance of human species in Europe and Asia on the reconstructed past climate maps using some tools, such as Eco-cultural niche model. Our project will show the regional difference in climate change and related archaeological events and its impact on the evolution of learning ability of modern humans.

  18. Is the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test better suited than the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) detection among people aged over 60? Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielska, Natalia; Sokołowski, Remigiusz; Mazur, Ewelina; Podhorecka, Marta; Polak-Szabela, Anna; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia

    2016-10-31

    Screening tests play a crucial role in dementia diagnostics, thus they should be very sensitive for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) assessment. Nowadays, the MiniMental State Examination (MMSE) is the most commonly used scale in cognitive function evaluation, albeit it is claimed to be imprecise for MCI detection. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), was created as an alternative method for MMSE. Aim. MoCA vs. MMSE credibility assessment in detecting MCI, while taking into consideration the sensitivity and specificity by cut-off points. A systematic literature search was carried out by the authors using EBSCO host Web, Wiley Online Library, Springer Link, Science Direct and Medline databases. The following medical subject headings were used in the search: mild cognitive impairment, mini-mental state examination, Montreal cognitive assessment, diagnostics value. Papers which met inclusion and exclusion criteria were chosen to be included in this review. At the end, for the evaluation of MoCA 20, and MMSE 13 studies were qualified. Research credibility was established by computing weighted arithmetic mean, where weight is defined as population for which the result of sensitivity and specificity for the cut-off point was achieved. The cut-offs are shown as ROC curve and accuracy of diagnosis for MoCA and MMSE was calculated as the area under the curve (AUC). ROC curve analysis for MoCA demonstrated that MCI best detection can be achieved with a cut-off point of 24/25 (n = 9350, the sensitivity of 80.48% and specificity of 81.19%). AUC was 0.846 (95% CI 0.823-0.868). For MMSE, it turned out that more important cut-off was of 27/28 (n = 882, 66.34% sensitivity and specificity of 72.94%). AUC was 0.736 (95% CI 0.718-0.767). MoCA test better meets the criteria for screening tests for the detection of MCI among patients over 60 years of age than MMSE.

  19. Differences in cortical and pituitary activity in response to hypoglycaemia and cognitive testing in healthy men with different basal activity of the renin-angiotensin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie-Olsen, Lise G; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Kjaer, Troels W

    2010-01-01

    in cerebral activity during hypoglycaemia and cognitive testing in two groups of healthy men with different basal RAS activity. METHODS: Ten healthy men with high RAS activity and 10 with low activity underwent six oxygen-15-labelled water positron emission tomography scans: twice during normoglycaemia, twice...... during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and twice during post-hypoglycaemia. During the scans, the subjects performed a computer-based reaction time test. RESULTS: Occipital areas were consistently more activated in the low RAS group than in the high RAS group throughout all three conditions. During......INTRODUCTION: High renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity has been associated with a high risk of severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes and with cognitive deterioration during experimental hypoglycaemia in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to describe possible differences...

  20. Transitions in cognitive test scores over 5 and 10 years in elderly people: Evidence for a model of age-related deficit accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockwood Kenneth

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On average, health worsens with age, but many people have periods of improvement. A stochastic model provides an excellent description of how such changes occur. Given that cognition also changes with age, we wondered whether the same model might also describe the accumulation of errors in cognitive test scores in community-dwelling older adults. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 8954 older people (aged 65+ at baseline from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging were followed for 10 years. Cognitive status was defined by the number of errors on the 100-point Modified Min-Mental State Examination. The error count was chosen to parallel the deficit count in the general model of aging, which is based on deficit accumulation. As with the deficit count, a Markov chain transition model was employed, with 4 parameters. Results On average, the chance of making errors increased linearly with the number of errors present at each time interval. Changes in cognitive states were described with high accuracy (R2 = 0.96 by a modified Poisson distribution, using four parameters: the background chance of accumulating additional errors, the chance of incurring more or fewer errors, given the existing number, and the corresponding background and incremental chances of dying. Conclusion The change in the number of errors in a cognitive test corresponded to a general model that also summarizes age-related changes in deficits. The model accounts for both improvement and deterioration and appears to represent a clinically relevant means of quantifying how various aspects of health status change with age.

  1. Genetic correlates of brain aging on MRI and cognitive test measures: a genome-wide association and linkage analysis in the Framingham study

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cognitive tests can identify heritable endophenotypes associated with an increased risk of developing stroke, dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conducted a genome-wide association (GWA) and linkage analysis exploring the genetic basis of these endophenotypes in a community-based sample. Methods A total of 705 stroke- and dementia-free Framingham participants (age 62 +9 yrs, 50% male) who underwent volumetric brain MRI and ...

  2. Testing the Mediating Effects of Obsessive Beliefs in Internet-Based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hedman, Erik; Hesser, Hugo; Enander, Jesper; Kaldo, Viktor; Andersson, Gerhard; Lindefors, Nils; Rück, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been tested in randomized trials, there are few trials that have tested the specific mechanisms of cognitive interventions, i.e. how they achieve their effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mediating effects of a short cognitive intervention in the treatment of OCD and used data from a recently conducted randomized controlled trial where 101 participants were allocated to either Internet-based CBT (ICBT) or to a control condition. Obsessive beliefs were measured at pre-treatment, at the time they had received the cognitive intervention, and also at post-treatment. Weekly OCD symptoms were measured throughout the 10 weeks of treatment. We hypothesized that (1) the ICBT group would have greater reductions in obsessive beliefs (controlling for change in OCD symptoms) after completing the cognitive intervention, and that (2) this reduction would, in turn, predict greater OCD symptom reduction throughout the rest of the treatment period. Contrary to our expectations, the longitudinal mediation analysis indicated that (1) being randomized to ICBT actually increased the degree of obsessive beliefs after receiving the cognitive intervention at weeks 1-3, and (2) increase in obsessive beliefs predicted better outcome later in treatment. However, when repeating the analysis using cross-sectional data at post-treatment, the results were in line with the initial hypotheses. Results were replicated when the control condition received ICBT. We conclude that, although obsessive beliefs were significantly reduced at post-treatment for the ICBT group, early increase rather than decrease in obsessive beliefs predicted favourable outcome. This study investigated the impact of cognitive interventions on obsessive beliefs for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Results showed that a sudden increase in obsessive beliefs is not an indicator of worse treatment response. On the contrary

  3. Do children and adolescent ice hockey players with and without a history of concussion differ in robotic testing of sensory, motor and cognitive function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C Elaine; Emery, Carolyn; Scott, Stephen H; Meeuwisse, Willem; Palacios-Derflingher, Luz; Dukelow, Sean P

    2016-10-12

    KINARM end point robotic testing on a range of tasks evaluating sensory, motor and cognitive function in children/adolescents with no neurologic impairment has been shown to be reliable. The objective of this study was to determine whether differences in baseline performance on multiple robotic tasks could be identified between pediatric/adolescent ice hockey players (age range 10-14) with and without a history of concussion. Three hundred and eighty-five pediatric/adolescent ice hockey players (ages 10-14) completed robotic testing (94 with and 292 without a history of concussion). Five robotic tasks characterized sensorimotor and/or cognitive performance with assessment of reaching, position sense, bimanual motor function, visuospatial skills, attention and decision-making. Seventy-six performance parameters are reported across all tasks. There were no significant differences in performance demonstrated between children with a history of concussion [median number of days since last concussion: 480 (range 8-3330)] and those without across all five tasks. Performance by the children with no history of concussion was used to identify parameter reference ranges that spanned 95 % of the group. All 76 parameter means from the concussion group fell within the normative reference ranges. There are no differences in sensorimotor and/or cognitive performance across multiple parameters using KINARM end point robotic testing in children/adolescents with or without a history of concussion.

  4. Social cognitive determinants of HIV voluntary counselling and testing uptake among married individuals in Dar es Salaam Tanzania: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtenga, Sally M; Exavery, Amon; Kakoko, Deodatus; Geubbels, Eveline

    2015-03-04

    Cumulative evidence indicates increasing HIV infection among married individuals. Voluntary Counselling and Testing for HIV (HCT) is known to be an effective intervention to induce safer sex behaviour and access to early treatment, care and support among married individuals, which are important for HIV prevention. In this context, knowledge of factors associated with HCT uptake among married individuals is critical in promoting the use of the services. This study therefore intended to identify the social cognitive factors associated with acceptance of HCT among married individuals. In a cross-sectional analytical study face to face questionnaires were administered among 200 randomly selected married individuals in Kinondoni district, Dar es Salaam Tanzania. The questionnaire included self-reported HCT, socio-demographic variables and social cognitive variables (attitude, subjective norms, perceived control and perceived risk). Logistic regression was used to identify the independent association of social cognitive predictors of HCT among married individuals. Nearly half (42%) of the respondents had never had HCT. Of the social cognitive constructs, the strongest predictor of HCT uptake was attitude (OR per additional score point = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10) followed by perceived behavioural control (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06). Subjective norm and perceived risk were not associated with HCT uptake. Public health interventions targeting married individuals should be designed to enhance their positive attitude towards HCT and empower them to overcome barriers to the use of the services.

  5. Impact of Genetic Testing and Family Health History Based Risk Counseling on Behavior Change and Cognitive Precursors for Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, R Ryanne; Myers, Rachel A; Hauser, Elizabeth R; Vorderstrasse, Allison; Cho, Alex; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Orlando, Lori A

    2017-02-01

    Family health history (FHH) in the context of risk assessment has been shown to positively impact risk perception and behavior change. The added value of genetic risk testing is less certain. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) FHH and genetic risk counseling on behavior and its cognitive precursors. Subjects were non-diabetic patients randomized to counseling that included FHH +/- T2D genetic testing. Measurements included weight, BMI, fasting glucose at baseline and 12 months and behavioral and cognitive precursor (T2D risk perception and control over disease development) surveys at baseline, 3, and 12 months. 391 subjects enrolled of which 312 completed the study. Behavioral and clinical outcomes did not differ across FHH or genetic risk but cognitive precursors did. Higher FHH risk was associated with a stronger perceived T2D risk (pKendall < 0.001) and with a perception of "serious" risk (pKendall < 0.001). Genetic risk did not influence risk perception, but was correlated with an increase in perception of "serious" risk for moderate (pKendall = 0.04) and average FHH risk subjects (pKendall = 0.01), though not for the high FHH risk group. Perceived control over T2D risk was high and not affected by FHH or genetic risk. FHH appears to have a strong impact on cognitive precursors of behavior change, suggesting it could be leveraged to enhance risk counseling, particularly when lifestyle change is desirable. Genetic risk was able to alter perceptions about the seriousness of T2D risk in those with moderate and average FHH risk, suggesting that FHH could be used to selectively identify individuals who may benefit from genetic risk testing.

  6. Case-finding for cognitive impairment among people with Type 2 diabetes in primary care using the Test Your Memory and Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination questionnaires : The Cog-ID study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekkoek, P. S.; Janssen, J.; Kooistra, M.; Biesbroek, J. M.; Groeneveld, O.; van den Berg, E.; Kappelle, L. J.; Biessels, G. J.; Rutten, G. E H M

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate two cognitive tests for case-finding for cognitive impairment in older patients with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: Of 1243 invited patients with Type 2 diabetes, aged ≥70 years, 228 participated in a prospective cohort study. Exclusion criteria were: diagnosis of dementia; previous inve

  7. Five-year retrospective changes in hippocampal atrophy and cognitive screening test performances in very mild Alzheimer's disease: the Tajiri Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Meguro, K.; Shimada, M.; Ishizaki, J.; Yamadori, A. [Division of Neuropsychology, Department of Disability Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Sekita, Y. [Tohoku University Graduate School of Economics, Sendai (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is important for normal cognitive function, especially for memory, and is the region with the earliest and most extensive pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the atrophic changes of the hippocampus over a 5-year period and its relation to cognitive screening test performances in normal elderly subjects, those with very mild AD, and patients with AD. Fifty-seven elderly subjects without a moderate or greater degree of cerebrovascular disease as shown by MRI were randomly selected from the town of Tajiri. Thirty-three subjects with a clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 0 (normal), 18 CDR-0.5 (very mild AD) subjects, and six CDR-1 and 2 (AD) subjects underwent MRI and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) twice during the period. Retrospective changes in the hippocampal width and the MMSE scores were evaluated. There were significant CDR group effects for the changes in the mean bilateral hippocampal widths and the MMSE scores. Normal subjects did not show cognitive decline, although there was a slight tendency for hippocampal atrophy. A significant and meaningful Spearman's correlation was noted between left hippocampal atrophy and the MMSE scores over the 5-year period for the CDR-0.5 group. These CDR-0.5 subjects met the MCI (mild cognitive impairment) criteria as proposed by the consensus paper. Findings suggested that normal elderly subjects maintain a high level of cognitive functions for at least 5 years, although hippocampal atrophy might occur. Atrophic change of the left hippocampus might be a good marker of the very early stage of AD. (orig.)

  8. Predicting Occupational Interests and Choice Aspirations in Portuguese High School Students: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Paixao, Maria Paula; da Silva, Jose Tomas; Leitao, Ligia Mexia

    2010-01-01

    The predictive utility of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) interest and choice models was examined in a sample of 600 Portuguese high school students. Participants completed measures of occupational self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, social supports and barriers, and choice consideration across the six Holland (1997) RIASEC…

  9. Predicting Occupational Interests and Choice Aspirations in Portuguese High School Students: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Paixao, Maria Paula; da Silva, Jose Tomas; Leitao, Ligia Mexia

    2010-01-01

    The predictive utility of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) interest and choice models was examined in a sample of 600 Portuguese high school students. Participants completed measures of occupational self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, social supports and barriers, and choice consideration across the six Holland (1997) RIASEC…

  10. Exploring Ways to Provide Diagnostic Feedback with an ESL Placement Test: Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment of L2 Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah-Young

    2015-01-01

    Previous research in cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) of L2 reading ability has been frequently conducted using large-scale English proficiency exams (e.g., TOEFL, MELAB). Using CDA, it is possible to analyze individual learners' strengths and weaknesses in multiple attributes (i.e., knowledge, skill, strategy) measured at the item level.…

  11. Improvement of cognitive test performance in patients undergoing primary CABG and other CPB-assisted cardiac procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Goor, Jm; Saxby, Bk; Tijssen, Jg; Wesnes, Ka; de Mol, Ba; Nieuwland, R

    2008-09-01

    Cardiac surgical procedures assisted by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) impair cognitive functions. Several studies, however, showed that cognitive functions were unaffected in patients undergoing either primary coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or more complex surgery assisted by CPB. Therefore, we conducted a straightforward study to compare patient groups who differed significantly in terms of risk factors such as prolonged CPB times. Consecutive patients (n = 54) were included, undergoing either non-primary CABG, e.g. valve and/or CABG, (n = 30) or primary CABG (n = 24), assisted by CPB. Cognitive function was determined pre-operatively on the day of hospital admission, and post-operatively after one and six months using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment battery. Data from the fourteen individual task variables were summarized in four composite scores: Power of Attention (PoA), Continuity of Attention (CoA), Quality of Episodic Memory (QoEM), and Speed of Memory (SoM). In the non-primary CABG patients, both CoA and QoEM improved after 1 month (p = 0.001 and p = 0.016, respectively), whereas, after 6 months, CoA (p = 0.002), QoEM (p = 0.002) and SoM (p CPB in both non-primary CABG and in primary CABG patients.

  12. Cognitive Motivations for Drug Use among Adolescents: Longitudinal Tests of Gender Differences and Predictors of Change in Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined cognitive motivations for alcohol and cannabis use among adolescents. Identified four factors for drug use. Boys were more motivated to use alcohol and cannabis for Social Cohesion and cannabis for Enhancing Positive Affect and Creativity than girls. Older, more than younger, adolescents used drugs to Reduce Negative Affect. All…

  13. A Test of Attention Control Theory in Public Speaking: Cognitive Load Influences the Relationship between State Anxiety and Verbal Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul E.; Finn, Amber N.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between public-speaking state anxiety (PSA) and verbal communication performance when delivering a speech. In Study 1, participants delivered an extemporaneous five-minute classroom speech behind a lectern, and in Study 2, to increase cognitive load, participants delivered an extemporaneous five-minute…

  14. Mexican American Middle School Students' Goal Intentions in Mathematics and Science: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rachel L.; Flores, Lisa Y.; Worthington, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether sociocontextual and sociocognitive variables explained the math/science goals of 409 Mexican American youth using a modified version of R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, and G. Hackett's (1994) social cognitive career theory. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that the hypothesized model explained a significant…

  15. The Draw-a-Person test as a valid measure of children's cognitive development / Estudo de validade do DFH como medida de desenvolvimento cognitivo infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Ruschel Bandeira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Draw-a-Person Test (DAP is widely used to assess cognitive development, although, the recognition of the validity of this instrument is not complete. In Brazil, the Wechsler system of evaluation of DAP has already been approved by the Federal Psychology Board. However, considering the need to periodically re-evaluate an instrument, this study attempted to test both convergent and concurrent validity of the DAP - Cognitive System according to Wechsler. Thus, Raven's Progressive Matrices, a nationally and internationally validated instrument, was used to analyze convergent validity and a school performance scale was used to analyze concurrent validity. Ninety children from 6 to 12 years old (M=8,99 and SD=1,79, 37 girls and 53 boys, from public schools (kindergarten to 6th grade, who did not engage in psychological treatment and did not have learning disabilities participated in this study. Results showed moderate positive correlations among the three instruments, confirming that DAP scored via Wechsler' system is a valid measure of cognitive development. Suggestions are made in the sense of including DAP in assessment batteries or using it as a brief assessment.

  16. Is Cognitive Style Bipolar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, David H.

    This study assessed the bipolarity of cognitive style for 970 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, a vocational guidance service. The 462 male and 508 female examinees were aged 14 to 65 years, with a median age of 24 years. Three cognitive style tests were investigated: (1) the Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test (KMFFT); (2) the…

  17. Translation, cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the Leganés cognitive test in a low educated elderly Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vescia Vieira de Alencar Caldas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To validate the Leganés cognitive test (LCT for cognitive screening in low educated elderly Brazilians. METHODS: The study sample was composed of 59 elderly residents from the city of Santa Cruz, in Brazil, with low schooling levels. Reliability was analyzed with a two-day interval between assessments, and concurrent validity was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. RESULTS: According to the LCT, the prevalence of dementia was 11.8%. The scale items showed a moderate to strong correlation between domains (p<0.01, and inter-rater reliability exhibited ICC=0.81, 95%CI=0.72-0.88. The factor analysis resulted in two factors: memory and orientation. Interscale agreement was considered poor (k=-0.02, supporting the hypothesis of an educational impact on final MMSE scores. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that LCT has acceptable levels of reliability for use in low-educated Brazilian elderly.

  18. Combining functional scales and cognitive tests in screening for mild cognitive impairment at a university-based memory clinic in Brazil Combinação de escalas funcionais e testes cognitivos para rastreio de comprometimento cognitivo leve em ambulatório universitário de memória no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Dutra de Abreu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Mini-Mental State Examination combined to the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly for the identification of mild cognitive impairment. METHOD: 191 elderly subjects were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, and their informants were assessed with the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their cognitive state (controls: n = 67, mild cognitive impairment: n = 65 and dementia: n = 59, which was ascertained by clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. The diagnostic accuracy of each test in the discrimination of diagnostic groups (mild cognitive impairment vs. controls, mild cognitive impairment vs. dementia and dementia vs. controls was examined with the aid of ROC curves. We additionally verified if the combination of both tests would increase diagnostic accuracy for mild cognitive impairment and control identification. RESULTS: The combination of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly scores did not increase the Mini-Mental State Examination diagnostic accuracy in the identification of patients with mild cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The present data do not warrant the combination of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly as a sufficient diagnostic tool in the diagnostic screening for mild cognitive impairment.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a acurácia diagnóstica do Mini-Exame do Estado Mental combinado ao Questionário do Informante sobre Declínio Cognitivo na identificação de casos de comprometimento cognitivo leve. MÉTODO: 191 indivíduos idosos foram avaliados com o Mini-Exame do Estado Mental e seus informantes com o Questionário do Informante sobre Declínio Cognitivo. Os indivíduos foram divididos em três grupos de acordo com o estado cognitivo

  19. Realizing the cognitive potential of children 5-7 with a mathematics focus: post-test and long-term effects of a 2-year intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayer, Michael; Adhami, Mundher

    2010-09-01

    In the context of the British Government's policy directed on improving standards in schools, this paper presents research on the effects of a programme intended to promote the cognitive development of children in the first 2 years of primary school (Y1 & 2, aged 5-7 years). The programme is based on earlier work dealing with classroom-based interventions with older children at both primary and secondary levels of schooling. The hypothesis tested is that it is possible to increase the cognitive ability of children by assisting teachers towards that aim in the context of mathematics. A corollary hypothesis is that such an increase would result in an increase in long-term school achievement. The participants were 8 teachers in one local education authority (LEA) and 10 teachers in another. Data were analysed on 275 children present at Year 1 pre-test in 2002 and at long-term Key Stage 2 post-test in 2008. Two intervention methods were employed: a Y1 set of interactive activities designed around Piagetian concrete operational schemata, and mathematics lessons in both Y1 and Y2 designed from a theory-base derived from both Piaget and Vygotsky. At post-test in 2004, the mean effect sizes for cognitive development of the children - assessed by the Piagetian test Spatial Relations - were 0.71 SD in one LEA and 0.60 SD in the other. Five classes achieved a median increase of 1.3 SD. The mean gains over pre-test in 2002 for all children in Key Stage 1 English in 2004 were 0.51 SD, and at Key Stage 2 English in 2008 - the long-term effect - were 0.36 SD, an improvement of 14 percentile points. The main hypothesis was supported by the data on cognitive development. The corollary hypothesis is supported by the gains in English. The implications of this study are that relative intelligence can be increased and is not fixed, and that children can be led into collaborating with each other to the benefit of their own thinking, and that there does exist a theory-based methodology

  20. Development and pilot testing a social cognitive theory-based intervention to prevent childhood obesity among elementary students in rural Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavera, Megan; Sharma, Manoj; Murnan, Judy

    The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot test a social cognitive theory-based intervention for children to prevent childhood obesity. Focus groups were conducted with 5th grade students and their parents on the behaviors of physical activity, watching television, and eating habits, specifically fruit and vegetable intake and water consumption. Results from the focus groups were used to develop a 12-week program which was pilot tested in 5th grade physical education classes. The 12-week intervention was conducted with 122 students at a rural elementary school in Kentucky. Significant findings from the intervention were the increase in expectations for drinking water (p=0.049), increase in expectations for watching television (p=0.002), and increase in the number of glasses of water consumed (p=0.022) from pre-test to post-test. Recommendations have been offered for future obesity reduction programs that can be implemented in the elementary schools.